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Sample records for reported greater intention

  1. WORK OVERLOAD AND TURNOVER INTENTION OF JUNIOR AUDITORS IN GREATER JAKARTA, INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andika Pradana

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to analyze how work overload influences turnover intentions of newly hired junior auditors in public accounting offices. Job satisfaction, work related stress and work life conflicts are used as mediating variables between work overload and turnover intention. This study employed 141 auditors from several accounting firms operating in the Greater Jakarta region. The sample was selected using purposive sampling. Three mediation hypotheses were tested using Structural Equation Modeling (SEM. The results show that work overload has a significant effect on increas- ing turnover intention through both job satisfaction and work related stress. In comparison, work overload does not influence turnover intention through work life balance. This may be due to the nature of the respondents, in which a majority of the newly hired accountants employed in this study are unmarried.

  2. Conservatives report, but liberals display, greater happiness.

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    Wojcik, Sean P; Hovasapian, Arpine; Graham, Jesse; Motyl, Matt; Ditto, Peter H

    2015-03-13

    Research suggesting that political conservatives are happier than political liberals has relied exclusively on self-report measures of subjective well-being. We show that this finding is fully mediated by conservatives' self-enhancing style of self-report (study 1; N = 1433) and then describe three studies drawing from "big data" sources to assess liberal-conservative differences in happiness-related behavior (studies 2 to 4; N = 4936). Relative to conservatives, liberals more frequently used positive emotional language in their speech and smiled more intensely and genuinely in photographs. Our results were consistent across large samples of online survey takers, U.S. politicians, Twitter users, and LinkedIn users. Our findings illustrate the nuanced relationship between political ideology, self-enhancement, and happiness and illuminate the contradictory ways that happiness differences can manifest across behavior and self-reports.

  3. Promoting greater Federal energy productivity [Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hopkins, Mark; Dudich, Luther

    2003-03-05

    This document is a close-out report describing the work done under this DOE grant to improve Federal Energy Productivity. Over the four years covered in this document, the Alliance To Save Energy conducted liaison with the private sector through our Federal Energy Productivity Task Force. In this time, the Alliance held several successful workshops on the uses of metering in Federal facilities and other meetings. We also conducted significant research on energy efficiency, financing, facilitated studies of potential energy savings in energy intensive agencies, and undertook other tasks outlined in this report.

  4. University Students' Intentions to Report Cyberbullying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wozencroft, Kelly; Campbell, Marilyn; Orel, Alexandria; Kimpton, Melanie; Leong, Eliza

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about the prevalence of cyberbullying among university students and less about whether they utilise anti-bullying policies. However, failure to report cyberbullying incidents to authorities would lessen the efficacy of these policies. This study investigated the prevalence of cyberbullying among university students and their…

  5. Do self- reported intentions predict clinicians' behaviour: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dickinson Heather O

    2006-11-01

    intention was of a similar magnitude to that found in the literature relating to non-health professionals. This was more consistently the case for studies in which intention-behaviour correspondence was good and behaviour was self-reported. Though firm conclusions are limited by a smaller literature, our findings are consistent with that of the non-health professional literature. This review, viewed in the context of the larger populations of studies, provides encouragement for the contention that there is a predictable relationship between the intentions of a health professional and their subsequent behaviour. However, there remain significant methodological challenges.

  6. Concussion reporting intention: a valuable metric for predicting reporting behavior and evaluating concussion education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroshus, Emily; Baugh, Christine M; Daneshvar, Daniel H; Nowinski, Christopher J; Cantu, Robert C

    2015-05-01

    This study aimed to evaluate whether preseason concussion knowledge and reporting intention predicted in-season concussion reporting behavior. Prospective cohort study. Collegiate athletic facility of each participating team. National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I men's ice hockey players in 1 conference of competition (n = 116). Intention to report symptoms of a "minor" concussion and concussion knowledge were assessed at preseason. Postseason recall of non-report of postimpact symptoms. Preseason concussion knowledge was not significantly associated with in-season reporting behavior. Intention to report concussion symptoms was significantly related to in-season reporting behavior. There was a significant interaction between the number of different symptoms experienced and both preseason reporting intention and in-season reporting behavior. Evaluations of concussion education programs tend to measure concussion knowledge. The present findings suggest that reporting intention may be more strongly predictive of reporting behavior than concussion knowledge and should be included in evaluations of concussion effectiveness. New concussion education initiatives should consider targeting psychosocial constructs that increase reporting intention. Sports medicine clinicians who are involved in evaluating concussion education programs should measure constructs other than just concussion knowledge. Intention, to report symptoms or to continue play while experiencing symptoms of a concussion, seems to be an important and feasible construct to include as part of proximal evaluations of education effectiveness.

  7. Women and postfertilization effects of birth control: consistency of beliefs, intentions and reported use

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    Kim Han S

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study assesses the consistency of responses among women regarding their beliefs about the mechanisms of actions of birth control methods, beliefs about when human life begins, the intention to use or not use birth control methods that they believe may act after fertilization or implantation, and their reported use of specific methods. Methods A questionnaire was administered in family practice and obstetrics and gynecology clinics in Salt Lake City, Utah, and Tulsa, Oklahoma. Participants included women ages 18–50 presenting for any reason and women under age 18 presenting for family planning or pregnancy care. Analyses were based on key questions addressing beliefs about whether specific birth control methods may act after fertilization, beliefs about when human life begins, intention to use a method that may act after fertilization, and reported use of specific methods. The questionnaire contained no information about the mechanism of action of any method of birth control. Responses were considered inconsistent if actual use contradicted intentions, if one intention contradicted another, or if intentions contradicted beliefs. Results Of all respondents, 38% gave consistent responses about intention to not use or to stop use of any birth control method that acted after fertilization, while 4% gave inconsistent responses. The corresponding percentages for birth control methods that work after implantation were 64% consistent and 2% inconsistent. Of all respondents, 34% reported they believed that life begins at fertilization and would not use any birth control method that acts after fertilization (a consistent response, while 3% reported they believed that life begins at fertilization but would use a birth control method that acts after fertilization (inconsistent. For specific methods of birth control, less than 1% of women gave inconsistent responses. A majority of women (68% or greater responded accurately about the

  8. The assessment of selected factors influencing intent to get pregnant in the Greater Poland Region

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    Małgorzata Wojciechowska

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available introduction and objective. Nowadays, people decide to have a baby by first analysing their financial situation. Tradition is no longer a factor which determines the decision whether or not to have a baby. A prognosis of the Polish Central Statistical Office (GUS shows that the population of Poland will fall from 38 to 36 million by 2035. The aim of this study is to assess the procreation behaviour of women in Greater Poland Region. materials and methods. For the research purpose, 3,120 women of reproductive age were examined by using an author designed questionnaire and a synthetic Family Financial Standard Index. results: 74.6% of the respondents lived in an urban area, 25.4% of women come from a rural area. 49% of examined women did not want to have a bigger family, 45% would like to have another child. Analysis of the reasons why women did not want to have another baby revealed that predominance of the financial factor – 67%, living conditions – 18.4% and health– 13.2%. Only 11.9% of the women declared their high financial status, 4.8% of families received family allowance from the government; 88.4% of the examined families did not receive any social benefits. Bad housing situation was declared by 5% of the respondents, 26.7% of the interviewees lived with family members, i.e. parents or grandparents. Analysis of the data concerning religious bonds showed that 67.6% of women declared their indifference to religion. conclusions. The economic factor was an important reason limiting procreation. The bad situation on the real estate market combined with an insufficient range of social welfare led to a decrease in the birth-rate in the Greater Poland region. The impact of religion on family planning was less important. The influence of the analysed socio-economic factors on family planning was similar in rural and urban areas.

  9. Arthroscopic Tuberoplasty for a Malunited Greater Tuberosity Fracture: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killen, Maire-Clare; Charalambous, Charalambos P

    2015-01-01

    Superior migration and malunion of a fractured greater tuberosity can lead to mechanical subacromial impingement with resultant ongoing pain and limitation of abduction. We describe such a case successfully treated with arthroscopic excision of the protruding portion of the greater tuberosity, with marked improvement in pain and range of movement. The greater tuberosity was exposed by elevating the supraspinatus tendon, which was reattached at the end of the procedure. This case, along with outcomes of similar techniques previously reported in literature suggest that arthroscopic excision of a superiorly malunited greater tuberosity is associated with good symptomatic outcome and preservation of rotator cuff function.

  10. Why do Greater one-horned rhinoceroses (Rhinoceros unicornis) die? - An evaluation of necropsy reports

    OpenAIRE

    Wyss, F; Wenker, C; Robert, N.; Clauss, Marcus; von Houwald, F

    2012-01-01

    Many case reports about different diseases in greater one-horned rhinoceroses (Rhinoceros unicornis) have been published, but an overview of the prevalence of diseases and an evaluation of causes of death is lacking. Necropsy reports of 106 greater one-horned rhinoceroses from 38 zoos worldwide were evaluated. Half of them were from adult animals, a third from perinatal deaths/stillbirths and the rest from juveniles and sub adults. Cardiac problems (cardiomyopathy, myocarditis, heart infarct)...

  11. The effects of survey mode and asking about future intentions on self-reports of colorectal cancer screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beebe, Timothy J; Jenkins, Sarah M; Anderson, Kari J; Davern, Michael E; Rockwood, Todd H

    2008-04-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) screening rates are often ascertained via self-reports but can be subject to overreporting bias. Asking about intention to get screened before asking about past screening may minimize overreporting of cancer screening. In a statewide survey conducted from July through October of 2005, we embedded an experiment that tested the effect of question ordering (asking about future intention to get screened before or after asking about past screening; "future first" and "future second," respectively), crossed with survey mode (mail versus telephone), on CRC screening rates. Weighted analysis focused on 752 respondents who were ages 50 years or older. We found (a) that asking about future intentions to get screened before asking about past screening (future first) statistically significantly lowers reports of past CRC screening [70.9% future second versus 58.0% future first; odds ratio (OR), 1.83; 95% confidence interval (95% CI), 1.08-3.13]; (b) that there was no main effect of survey mode; and (c) that the effect of the ordering of the future intentions item varies by survey mode. In the mailed survey, the odds of reporting past CRC screening were almost thrice greater in the future second condition compared with the future first condition (72.4% versus 49.0%, respectively; OR, 2.74; 95% CI, 1.22-6.17). In the telephone condition, the odds of reporting were only 28% higher in the future second (69.5%) condition than in the future first condition (63.9%; OR, 1.28; 95% CI, 0.64-2.57). The results suggest that asking about future intentions to get screened before the actual behavior elicits lower, and arguably more truthful reports of CRC screening but mainly in mailed surveys.

  12. 76 FR 81481 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Notice of Intent to Renew Collection, Large Trader Reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION Agency Information Collection Activities: Notice of Intent to Renew Collection, Large Trader Reports AGENCY: Commodity Futures Trading Commission. ACTION: Notice SUMMARY: The Commodity...

  13. Just blowing smoke? Social desirability and reporting of intentions to quit smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persoskie, Alexander; Nelson, Wendy L

    2013-12-01

    Do cigarette smokers really want to quit smoking or do they simply say they do in order to placate others and avoid criticism? In surveys of smokers, stated quit intentions and reports of quit attempts may be biased by social desirability concerns. This makes it difficult to interpret large-scale state and national surveys of smoking behavior that collect data through telephone and face-to-face interviews, methods that tend to evoke high levels of socially desirable responding. The 2007 Health Information National Trends Survey used a dual-frame design to query smokers' quit intentions and past quit attempts in 1 of 2 ways: A self-administered mail survey (low pressure for socially desirable responding; n = 563), or an interviewer-administered telephone survey (high pressure for socially desirable responding; n = 499). Estimates derived from the 2 formats were compared to test for social desirability effects. In both survey modes, approximately two thirds of smokers reported seriously considering quitting in the next 6 months (mail: 64.9%; telephone: 68.9%), and approximately half reported making a quit attempt in the past year (mail: 54.9%; telephone: 52.3%). Neither difference approached significance in logistic regressions controlling for demographics (ps > .24). It appears that a large proportion of smokers in the United States aspire to live smoke-free lives and are not simply responding in a socially desirable manner to deflect criticism in an antismoking social climate. Future research should (1) replicate this study with greater statistical power, (2) examine the possible effects of survey context (e.g., health survey vs. smoking pleasure survey), and (3) explore survey mode effects in specific subpopulations.

  14. Metastasis of greater wing of sphenoid bone in bronchogenic carcinoma: a unusual case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Prashant K; Mital, Mukta; Dwivedi, Amit; Gupta, Kumkum

    2011-01-01

    Orbital metastasis in systemic cancer is known to occur and occurs in up to 7% of all systemic cancers. Orbital features typically present after the diagnosis of the primary tumor. In about 20% of cases, there is no known primary cancer at the time of presentation with orbital metastatic disease. Here we report a case of a 60-year-old male smoker, in whom proptosis, due to metastasis in greater wing of left sphenoid bone secondary to bronchogenic carcinoma, was the initial symptom. We could not find in literature metastasis to greater wing of sphenoid bone due to small cell carcinoma of lung.

  15. Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor arising from the greater omentum: Case report

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    Tokunaga Masakazu

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNSTs are rare soft tissue tumors that arise from a peripheral nerve or exhibit nerve sheath differentiation. Most of these tumors arise on the trunk, extremities, or head and neck regions; they are very rarely located in the abdominal cavity. The patient was a 71-year-old man who was referred to our hospital for a mass and pain in the right lower abdomen. Abdominal computed tomography revealed a large (9 × 9 cm, well-circumscribed, lobulated, heterogeneously enhanced mass in the pelvis. Exploratory laparotomy revealed a large mass in the greater omentum, and the tumor was completely excised. Histopathological analysis revealed that the tumor was composed of spindle cells with high mitotic activity. On staining the tumor, positive results were obtained for S-100 but negative results were obtained for c-kit, cluster of differentiation (CD34, α-smooth muscle actin, and desmin. These findings strongly supported a diagnosis of MPNST primarily arising from the greater omentum. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of an MPNST arising from the greater omentum. In this report, we have described the case of a patient with an MPNST arising from the greater omentum and have discussed the clinical characteristics and management of MPNSTs.

  16. Variations in band reporting rate and implications for kill rate in Greater Snow Geese

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    Guillaume Souchay

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available We assessed spatial and temporal variation in reporting probability of banded Greater Snow Geese (Chen caerulescens atlantica shot by hunters in eastern North America and evaluated potential residual biases in kill rate estimation. Adult Greater Snow Geese were marked with reward (value: US$10, $20, $30, $50, and $100 and standard bands ($0, control in the Canadian Arctic from 2003 to 2005. We used a spatially explicit multinomial model based on 200 direct recoveries from 4256 banded geese to estimate reporting rate and harvest rate. We found that reporting rate for standard bands varied over time whereas harvest rate was higher in Canada than in the U.S. The reporting probability increased from 0.40 ± 0.11 in the first year of the study to 0.82 ± 0.14 and 0.84 ± 0.13 the second and third years, respectively. Overall, these reporting rates are higher than two previous estimates for this population, which leads to lower estimates of kill rate. However, the large annual differences in reporting rates found in this study lead to uncertainty in the estimation of kill rate. We suggest that the increase in reporting rate in the last two year of the study may be due to the dissemination of information among hunters regarding the presence of reward bands on birds, resulting in increased reporting rate for all bands. This raises issues about the need to adequately inform the public in such large-scale studies to avoid undesirable temporal trends over the course of the study.

  17. Hepatitis from Greater celandine (Chelidonium majus L.): review of literature and report of a new case.

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    Moro, Paola A; Cassetti, Federica; Giugliano, Gianni; Falce, Maria T; Mazzanti, Gabriela; Menniti-Ippolito, Francesca; Raschetti, Roberto; Santuccio, Carmela

    2009-07-15

    Folk medicine is a rich source of useful therapeutic tools. Nevertheless, use of medicinal plants can have unwanted, negative effects. By means of the description of an adverse reaction to a herbal remedy, we highlight the need for better efficacy-toxicity studies on these products. To report a case of possible Chelidonium majus L. (Greater celandine)-induced hepatitis and evaluate the past published cases. We outlined the main features of hepatitis associated with use of Chelidonium majus by providing a review of cases reported and analysing in detail a new one. Several cases of acute hepatitis related to Greater celandine consumption were found in the literature. The assessment for causality using Naranjo probability scale showed a probable relationship between the liver injury and the consumption of Chelidonium majus in the case we described. Our case, along with the other ones reported in the literature, increases the concern about the safety of oral use of Chelidonium majus. Plants used in traditional medicine are not necessarily harmless. Customers and prescribers should be aware of this, especially when a herbal drug is used with therapeutic purposes in absence of reliable studies of clinical efficacy and benefit-risk assessment.

  18. Paradoxical intention and recursive anxiety.

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    Ascher, L M; Schotte, D E

    1999-06-01

    The present study was designed to investigate a possible relationship between "recursive anxiety" and paradoxical intention. Groups of subjects were chosen from among individuals with public speaking concerns. and for whom fear of fear or recursive anxiety clearly represented an important element, or was completely absent from the clinical profile. These subjects were offered a standard in vivo treatment program for public speaking phobia with inclusion or exclusion of paradoxical intention. A 2 x 2 factorial design was employed. Those whose public speaking anxiety was complicated by recursive anxiety experienced greater improvement when paradoxical intention was included in the treatment program than when it was not employed. In contrast, individuals reporting simple public speaking phobia demonstrated greater success with a treatment program in which paradoxical intention was absent. Wegner's hypothesis of "ironic" cognitive processing was used to explain the proposed relationship between paradoxical intention and fear of fear.

  19. Childhood osteosarcoma of greater wing of sphenoid: case report and review of literature.

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    Meel, Rachna; Thulkar, Sanjay; Sharma, Mehar Chand; Jagadesan, Pandjatcharan; Mohanti, Bidhu Kalyan; Sharma, Suresh Chandra; Bakhshi, Sameer

    2012-03-01

    Primary osteosarcoma of skull base is extremely rare. We present a case of primary osteosarcoma arising in greater wing of sphenoid in a child. Our patient had an incomplete excision after which he received adjuvant chemotherapy and radiotherapy. There was good response to adjuvant chemoradiotherapy and the patient is disease free at a follow-up of 18 months. Treatment of skull base osteosarcomas is difficult, as complete excision is often not possible. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of sphenoid wing osteosarcoma in childhood to be reported in literature.

  20. Contextual Effects on Kindergarten Teachers' Intention to Report Child Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Jui-Ying; Wu, Yow-Wu B.; Fetzer, Susan; Chang, Hsin-Yi

    2012-01-01

    Child abuse is underreported for children with socioeconomic inequalities. The impact of geographic location combined with sociocultural characteristics on teachers' reports of child abuse remains unclear. A national survey of 572 kindergarten teachers from 79 schools in Taiwan used hierarchical linear modeling to investigate the contribution of…

  1. Contextual Effects on Kindergarten Teachers' Intention to Report Child Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Jui-Ying; Wu, Yow-Wu B.; Fetzer, Susan; Chang, Hsin-Yi

    2012-01-01

    Child abuse is underreported for children with socioeconomic inequalities. The impact of geographic location combined with sociocultural characteristics on teachers' reports of child abuse remains unclear. A national survey of 572 kindergarten teachers from 79 schools in Taiwan used hierarchical linear modeling to investigate the contribution of…

  2. Can anti-speeding messages based on protection motivation theory influence reported speeding intentions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glendon, A Ian; Walker, Britta L

    2013-08-01

    The study investigated the effects of anti-speeding messages based on protection motivation theory (PMT) components: severity, vulnerability, rewards, self-efficacy, response efficacy, and response cost, on reported speeding intentions. Eighty-three participants aged 18-25 years holding a current Australian driver's license completed a questionnaire measuring their reported typical and recent speeding behaviors. Comparisons were made between 18 anti-speeding messages used on Australian roads and 18 new anti-speeding messages developed from the PMT model. Participants reported their reactions to the 36 messages on the perceived effectiveness of the message for themselves and for the general population of drivers, and also the likelihood of themselves and other drivers driving within the speed limit after viewing each message. Overall the PMT model-derived anti-speeding messages were better than jurisdiction-use anti-speeding messages in influencing participants' reported intention to drive within the speed limit. Severity and vulnerability were the most effective PMT components for developing anti-speeding messages. Male participants reported significantly lower intention to drive within the speed limit than did female participants. However, males reported significantly higher intention to drive within the speed limit for PMT-derived messages compared with jurisdiction-based messages. Third-person effects were that males reported anti-speeding messages to be more effective for the general driving population than for themselves. Females reported the opposite effect - that all messages would be more effective for themselves than for the general driving population. Findings provided support for using a sound conceptual basis as an effective foundation for anti-speeding message development as well as for evaluating proposed anti-speeding messages on the target driver population. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Suspected Greater Celandine hepatotoxicity: liver-specific causality evaluation of published case reports from Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teschke, Rolf; Glass, Xaver; Schulze, Johannes; Eickhoff, Axel

    2012-03-01

    In 21 published case reports, the use of the herb Greater Celandine (GC) (Chelidonium majus L.) has been causally related to liver injury, but a variety of confounding variables were evident that might have offset causality. This study reanalyses causality levels in these cases with a liver-specific causality evaluation method. All 21 cases were submitted to the liver-specific, standardized, structured, quantitative and updated scale of the Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences. This scale considers, among other items, latency period, course of alanine aminotransferase after treatment discontinuation, risk factors, comedication and alternative causes. Using this method for assessment, causality for GC was highly probable in two and probable in six cases, with lower causality grading in the remaining 13 cases. In these patients, causality for GC was possible in 10 cases and excluded in three cases. On the basis of the eight cases with highly probable and probable causality gradings, GC hepatotoxicity represents an idiosyncratic reaction of the metabolic type, whereas immunologic or obligatory hepatotoxic features are lacking. In some cases, alternative diagnoses and poor data quality were confounding variables that reduced causality levels. Confounding variables reduced causality levels for GC in reported cases of liver injury, but there is still striking evidence for herb-induced liver injury by GC with high causality gradings. GC hepatotoxicity is caused by an idiosyncratic reaction of the metabolic form, but there is uncertainty with respect to its culprit(s).

  4. Greater Confinement Disposal Test at the Nevada Test Site, Final Technology Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dickman, P. T.

    1989-01-01

    The Greater Confinement Disposal Test (GCDT) was conducted at the Nevada Test Site to demonstrate an alternative method for management of high-specific-activity (HSA) low-level waste (LLW). The GCDT was initially conceived as a method for managing small volumes of highly concentrated tritium wastes, which, due to their environmental mobiilty, are considered unsuitable for routine shallow land disposal. Later, the scope of the GCDT was increased to address a variety of other "problem" HSA wastes including isotope sources and thermal generating wastes. The basic design for the GCDT evolved from a series of studies and assessments. Operational design objectives were to (1) emplace the wastes at a depth sufficient to minimize or eliminate routine environmental transport mechanisms and instrusion scenarios and (2) provide sufficient protection for operations personnel in the handling of HSA sources. To achieve both objectives, a large diameter borehole was selected. The GCDT consisted of a borehole 3 meters (10 feet) in diameter and 36 meters (120 feet) deep, surrounded by nine monitoring holes at varying radii. The GCDT was instrumented for the measurement of temperature, moisture, and soil-gas content. Over one million curies of HSA LLW were emplaced in GCDT. This report reviews the development of the GCDT project and presents analyses of data collected.

  5. Adrenal Rest Tumor from the Greater Omentum Mimicking Exophytic Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HCC): A Case Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Hyung Jo; Kim, Seong Hoon; Shin, Hyun Woong [Daegu Fatima Hospital, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jae Bok [Catholic University of Daegu, Gyeongsan (Korea, Republic of); Jo, Hyun Chul; Son, Mi Young; Kim, Tae Bong [Daegu Veterans Hospital, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-02-15

    Adrenal rest tumors are aberrant adrenocortical tissue which has been most commonly described in abdominal and pelvic sites. To our knowledge, there has been no previous description of an adrenal rest tumor of the greater omentum. We present a case of a pathologically confirmed adrenal rest tumor of the greater omentum in a 76-year- old man

  6. Nesting ecology of greater white-fronted geese on the Nowitna National Wildlife Refuge: 1988 progress report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report covers the nesting ecology of greater white-fronted geese on the Nowitna National Wildlife Refuge. Aerial surveys to document spring phenology and...

  7. Intentional injury reported by young people in the Federated States of Micronesia, Kingdom of Tonga and Vanuatu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Havea Drew

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Intentional injury presents a threat to the physical and psychological well being of young people, especially in developing countries, which carry the greatest part of the global injury burden. While the importance of this problem is recognized, there are limited population data in low and middle income countries that can guide public health action. The present study investigates the prevalence and distribution of intentional injury among young people in three Pacific Island societies, and examines behavioural and psychosocial factors related to risk of intentional injury. Methods Population surveys were conducted with students aged 11–17 years in Pohnpei State in the Federated States of Micronesia (n = 1495, the Kingdom of Tonga (n = 2808 and Vanuatu (n = 4474. Surveys measured self-reported injury and intentional injury, sources of intentional injury, and the range of behavioural, psychological, educational and social variables that may be related to injury risk. Results Among boys and girls aged 14–17 years the respective period prevalence of intentional injury was 62% and 56% in Pohnpei, 58% and 41% in Tonga, and 33% and 24% in Vanuatu. The prevalence of intentional injury declined with age in Tonga and Vanuatu, but there was little evidence of an age-trend in Pohnpei. Across the three societies, the major sources of intentional injury among boys were 'other persons' followed by boyfriends/girlfriends and fathers. Mothers, boyfriends/girlfriends and other persons were primary sources of injury among girls. An intentional injury was reported more often by those who had been bullied (OR 1.40–1.66, P Conclusion Intentional injury was reported extensively in these three populations. Interventions directed towards the school environment and which take into account the role of bullying and drug use need to be considered.

  8. 76 FR 68741 - Notice of Intent To Prepare a Draft Environmental Impact Statement/Environment Impact Report...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-07

    ... Intent To Prepare a Draft Environmental Impact Statement/Environment Impact Report (DEIS/DEIR) for a... wetlands, streams, rivers, and other waters of the U.S. and the potential impacts on the human...

  9. Factors affecting nursing students' intention to report medication errors: An application of the theory of planned behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Natan, Merav; Sharon, Ira; Mahajna, Marlen; Mahajna, Sara

    2017-11-01

    Medication errors are common among nursing students. Nonetheless, these errors are often underreported. To examine factors related to nursing students' intention to report medication errors, using the Theory of Planned Behavior, and to examine whether the theory is useful in predicting students' intention to report errors. This study has a descriptive cross-sectional design. Study population was recruited in a university and a large nursing school in central and northern Israel. A convenience sample of 250 nursing students took part in the study. The students completed a self-report questionnaire, based on the Theory of Planned Behavior. The findings indicate that students' intention to report medication errors was high. The Theory of Planned Behavior constructs explained 38% of variance in students' intention to report medication errors. The constructs of behavioral beliefs, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control were found as affecting this intention, while the most significant factor was behavioral beliefs. The findings also reveal that students' fear of the reaction to disclosure of the error from superiors and colleagues may impede them from reporting the error. Understanding factors related to reporting medication errors is crucial to designing interventions that foster error reporting. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Case report 358: Desmoid tumor of the greater wing of the right sphenoid bone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crisi, G.; Calo, M.; Mauri, C.

    1986-03-01

    In summary, a case has been presented of a 26-year-old man who on admission showed a mild right proptosis and swelling of the right temple. Roentgenograms of the skull demonstrated loss of the right innominate line. CT studies after contrast demonstrated a sharply-demarcated, destructive area of the right greater sphenoid wing with an enhancing, spindle-shaped, soft tissue mass observed around the bony defect. Increased uptake was demonstrated on a radionuclide scan. The lesion was surgically removed and proved to be a desmoid. (orig./SHA).

  11. How report cards on physicians, physician groups, and hospitals can have greater impact on consumer choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinaiko, Anna D; Eastman, Diana; Rosenthal, Meredith B

    2012-03-01

    Public report cards with quality and cost information on physicians, physician groups, and hospital providers have proliferated in recent years. However, many of these report cards are difficult for consumers to interpret and have had little impact on the provider choices consumers are making. To gain a more focused understanding of why these reports cards have not been more successful and what improvements could be made, we interviewed experts and surveyed registrants at the March 2011 AHRQ National Summit on Public Reporting for Consumers in Health Care. We found broad agreement that public reporting has been disconnected from consumer decisions about providers because of weaknesses in report card content, design, and accessibility. Policy makers have an opportunity to change the landscape of public reporting by taking advantage of advances in measurement, data collection, and information technology to deliver a more consumer-centered report card. Overcoming the constraint of limited public funding, and achieving the acceptance of providers, is critical to realizing future success.

  12. Greater-Than-Class C Low-Level Radioactive Waste Transportation Strategy report and institutional plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmitt, R.C.; Tyacke, M.J.

    1995-01-01

    This document contains two parts. Part I, Greater-Than-Class-C Low-Level Radioactive Waste Transportation Strategy, addresses the requirements, responsibilities, and strategy to transport and receive these wastes. The strategy covers (a) transportation packaging, which includes shipping casks and waste containers; (b) transportation operations relating to the five facilities involved in transportation, i.e., waste originator, interim storage, dedicated storage, treatment, and disposal; (c) system safety and risk analysis; (d) routes; (e) emergency preparedness and response; and (o safeguards and security. A summary of strategic actions is provided at the conclusion of Part 1. Part II, Institutional Plan for Greater-Than-Class C Low-Level Radioactive Waste Packaging and Transportation, addresses the assumptions, requirements, and institutional plan elements and actions. As documented in the Strategy and Institutional Plan, the most challenging issues facing the GTCC LLW Program shipping campaign are institutional issues closely related to the strategy. How the Program addresses those issues and demonstrates to the states, local governments, and private citizens that the shipments can and will be made safely will strongly affect the success or failure of the campaign.

  13. Capillary haemangioma of the greater omentum in a 5-month-old female infant: a case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chateil, J.F. [Hopital Pellegrin, 33 - Bordeaux (France). Service de Neuro-Radiologie; Unite de Radiopediatrie, Hopital Pellegrin, Bordeaux (France); Saragne-Feuga, C.; Brun, M.; Diard, F. [Hopital Pellegrin, 33 - Bordeaux (France). Service de Neuro-Radiologie; Perel, Y. [Service de Pediatrie A, Hopital Pellegrin, Bordeaux (France); Neuenschwander, S. [Service de Radiologie, Institut Curie, Paris (France); Vergnes, P. [Service de Chirurgie Pediatrique, Hopital Pellegrin, Bordeaux (France)

    2000-12-01

    Capillary haemangiomas are frequent benign tumours in infancy. The authors report a case of capillary haemangioma of the greater omentum, discovered in a child of 5 months of age and studied with US, CT and MRI. The localization of such a lesion in the greater omentum is exceptional. Abdominal US revealed a heterogeneous, multinodular intraperitoneal mass. Doppler study demonstrated hypervascularity of the lesion. CT localized the mass to the greater omentum. The mass was hypodense on the unenhanced scan and enhanced massively after injection. The infant suffered a reaction to contrast medium during the CT. MRI demonstrated a mass which was hypointense on T1-weighted images and hyperintense on T2-weighted images. Laparotomy confirmed the location of the mass within the greater omentum and allowed resection of the tumour. (orig.)

  14. Herbal hepatotoxicity by Greater Celandine (Chelidonium majus): causality assessment of 22 spontaneous reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teschke, Rolf; Glass, Xaver; Schulze, Johannes

    2011-12-01

    Toxic liver injury due to the herb Greater Celandine (GC) (Chelidonium majus L.) has been assumed in patients originating from various European countries and created concern. Based on regulatory and liver unspecific ad hoc causality assessments in 22 spontaneous cases of Germany, causality levels for GC were considered probable in 16 and possible in 6 cases. We now analyzed the data of these 22 cases regarding their causality levels employing the liver specific, standardized, structured and quantitative assessment method of the updated scale of CIOMS (Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences). Causality for GC was found highly probable (n=2), probable (n=6), possible (n=10), unlikely (n=1), and excluded (n=3). Thus, causality could be upgraded in 2 cases to a highly probable causality level, but had to be down graded to excluded, unlikely, or possible causality levels in 3, 1, or 9 cases, respectively. GC hepatotoxicity shows a hepatocellular pattern of liver injury with female gender predominance. On average, age of the patients was 56.4 years, treatment 36.4 days, and latency period until first symptoms and jaundice 29.8 and 35.6 days, respectively. This analysis therefore provides further evidence for the existence of GC hepatotoxicity as a distinct form of herb induced liver injury, but due to poor data quality the causal association between GC use and liver injury is less strong than hitherto assumed. We propose replacement of the regulatory organ unspecific by a liver specific causality assessment method in cases of herb induced liver injury as well as stricter pharmacovigilance strategies towards improvements of data quality. Toxicological studies are now warranted to elucidate the mechanism(s) of human GC hepatotoxicity that represents a European issue. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. College students who have an eveningness preference report lower self-control and greater procrastination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Digdon, Nancy L; Howell, Andrew J

    2008-11-01

    Previous research suggests a possible link between eveningness and general difficulties with self-regulation (e.g., evening types are more likely than other chronotypes to have irregular sleep schedules and social rhythms and use substances). Our study investigated the relationship between eveningness and self-regulation by using two standardized measures of self-regulation: the Self-Control Scale and the Procrastination Scale. We predicted that an eveningness preference would be associated with poorer self-control and greater procrastination than would an intermediate or morningness preference. Participants were 308 psychology students (mean age=19.92 yrs) at a small Canadian college. Students completed the self-regulation questionnaires and Morningness/Eveningness Questionnaire (MEQ) online. The mean MEQ score was 46.69 (SD=8.20), which is intermediate between morningness and eveningness. MEQ scores ranged from definite morningness to definite eveningness, but the dispersion of scores was skewed toward more eveningness. Pearson and partial correlations (controlling for age) were used to assess the relationship between MEQ score and the Self-Control Scale (global score and 5 subscale scores) and Procrastination Scale (global score). All correlations were significant. The magnitude of the effects was medium for all measures except one of the Self-Control subscales, which was small. A multiple regression analysis to predict MEQ score using the Self-Control Scale (global score), Procrastination Scale, and age as predictors indicated the Self-Control Scale was a significant predictor (accounting for 20% of the variance). A multiple regression analysis to predict MEQ scores using the five subscales of the Self-Control Scale and age as predictors showed the subscales for reliability and work ethic were significant predictors (accounting for 33% of the variance). Our study showed a relationship between eveningness and low self-control, but it did not address whether the

  16. Greater Green River Basin production improvement project, Phase 1: Site characterization report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeJarnett, B.B.; Krystinik, L.F.; Mead, R.H.; Poe, S.C.

    1996-05-01

    Several tight, naturally-fractured, gas-productive formations in the Greater Green River Basin (GGRB) in Wyoming have been exploited using conventional vertical well technology. Typically, hydraulic fracture treatments must be performed in completing these wells to increase gas production rates to economic levels. However, with the maturation of horizontal drilling technology hydraulic fracture treatments may not be the most effective method for improving gas production from these tight reservoirs. Two of the most prolific tight gas reservoirs in the Green River Basin, the Frontier and the Mesaverde, are candidates for the application of horizontal well completion technology. The objective of the proposed project is to apply the DOE`s technical concept to the Second Frontier Formation on the western flank of the Rock Springs Uplift. Previous industry attempts to produce in commercial quantities from the Second Frontier Formation have been hampered by lack of understanding of both the in-situ natural fracture system and lack of adequate stimulation treatments. The proposed technical approach involves drilling a vertical characterization well to the Second Frontier Formation at a depth of approximately 16,000 ft. from a site located about 18 miles northwest of Rock Springs, Wyoming. Logging, coring, and well testing information from the vertical well will be used to design a hydraulic fracturing treatment and to assess the resulting production performance. Data from the vertical drilling phase will be used to design a 2,500 to 3,000-ft lateral wellbore which will be kicked off from the vertical hole and extend into the blanket marine sandstone bench of the Second Frontier Formation. The trajectory of this wellbore will be designed to intersect the maximum number of natural fractures to maximize production rates. Production testing of the resulting completion will provide an assessment of reserve potential related to horizontal lateral completions.

  17. Self-reported posttraumatic growth predicts greater subsequent posttraumatic stress amidst war and terrorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalta, Alyson K; Gerhart, James; Hall, Brian J; Rajan, Kumar B; Vechiu, Catalina; Canetti, Daphna; Hobfoll, Stevan E

    2017-03-01

    This study tested three alternative explanations for research indicating a positive, but heterogeneous relationship between self-reported posttraumatic growth (PTG) and posttraumatic stress symptoms (PSS): (a) the third-variable hypothesis that the relationship between PTG and PSS is a spurious one driven by positive relationships with resource loss, (b) the growth over time hypothesis that the relationship between PTG and PSS is initially a positive one, but becomes negative over time, and (c) the moderator hypothesis that resource loss moderates the relationship between PTG and PSS such that PTG is associated with lower levels of PSS as loss increases. A nationally representative sample (N = 1622) of Israelis was assessed at three time points during a period of ongoing violence. PTG, resource loss, and the interaction between PTG and loss were examined as lagged predictors of PSS to test the proposed hypotheses. Results were inconsistent with all three hypotheses, showing that PTG positively predicted subsequent PSS when accounting for main and interactive effects of loss. Our results suggest that self-reported PTG is a meaningful but counterintuitive predictor of poorer mental health following trauma.

  18. 75 FR 21252 - Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement/Environmental Impact Report for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-23

    ... Department of the Army; U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement/ Environmental Impact Report for Phase 3 of Reclamation District No. 17 100-Year Levee Seepage... statement/environmental impact report (EIS/EIR) for Phase 3 of Reclamation District No. 17's (RD 17)...

  19. 76 FR 53423 - Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement/Environmental Impact Report for the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-26

    ... Department of the Army; Corps of Engineers Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement/ Environmental Impact Report for the Section 408 Permission for the Southport Sacramento River Early... to prepare an Environmental Impact Statement/Environmental Impact Report (EIS/EIR) under Section...

  20. 77 FR 54904 - Intent to Prepare a Draft Environmental Impact Statement/Environmental Impact Report for the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-06

    ... Department of the Army, Corps of Engineers Intent to Prepare a Draft Environmental Impact Statement/ Environmental Impact Report for the Proposed Ballona Wetlands Restoration Project at Ballona Creek Within the... a Draft Environmental Impact Statement/Environmental Impact Report (DEIS/EIR) for the...

  1. 77 FR 23670 - Intent To Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement/Environmental Impact Report for the Encinitas...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-20

    ... Los Angeles District intends to prepare an Environmental Impact Statement/Environmental Impact Report... Department of the Army; Corps of Engineers Intent To Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement/Environmental Impact Report for the Encinitas and Solana Beach Shoreline Protection Project, San Diego County,...

  2. Trypanosoma evansi in dromedary camel: with a case report of zoonosis in greater Cairo, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haridy, Fouad M; El-Metwally, Mohamed Tolba; Khalil, Hazem H M; Morsy, Tosson A

    2011-04-01

    Trypanosoma evansi (Steel, 1885) Balbiani, is the cause of trypanosomiasis (Surra) which multiples in the blood and body fluids. The incubation period varies from 7-15 days. The mortality rate was up to 20% and fatality rate may reach up to 100% in untreated camels. Three hundred randomly selected camels were 200 males 4-6 years old and 100 females 10-15 years. They were examined clinically and diagnosed by Giemsa stained blood smear, anti- trypanosomiasis-antibodies by ELISA and urine Thymol turbidity test for natural infection with T. evani (Surra). The results showed that camels were naturally infected with T. evansi as indicated by stained blood film examination and/or ELISA. Infection in males was 6.0% (stained blood smears), 8.0% (ELISA) and 5.0% (urine thymol turbidity test). In females the infection rate was 9.0%, 24.0% and 12% respectively. By correlation with suggestive clinical manifestations, ELISA proved to be more sensitive and specific (13.3%) than stained blood films (10.0%) and urine Thymol turbidity test (7.3%). Regarding humans, one out of 30 was positive as indicated by ELISA and stained blood smear but was negative by urine thymol turbidity test. The human case was successfully treated as indicated clinically, parasitologically and serologically. This is the first reported Egyptian human case of trypanosomiasis evansi, a neglected zoonosis.

  3. Structural characteristics of hospitals and nurse-reported care quality, work environment, burnout and leaving intentions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindqvist, Rikard; Smeds Alenius, Lisa; Griffiths, Peter; Runesdotter, Sara; Tishelman, Carol

    2015-03-01

    To investigate whether hospital characteristics not readily susceptible to change (i.e. hospital size, university status, and geographic location) are associated with specific self-reported nurse outcomes. Research often focuses on factors within hospitals (e.g. work environment), which are susceptible to change, rather than on structural factors in their own right. However, numerous assumptions exist about the role of structural factors that may lead to a sense of pessimism and undermine efforts at constructive change. Data was derived from survey questions on assessments of work environment and satisfaction, intention to leave, quality of care and burnout (measured by the Maslach Burnout Inventory), from a population-based sample of 11 000 registered nurses in Sweden. Mixed model regressions were used for analysis. Registered nurses in small hospitals were slightly more likely to rank their working environment and quality of nursing care better than others. For example 23% of staff in small hospitals were very satisfied with the work environment compared with 20% in medium-sized hospitals and 21% in large hospitals. Registered nurses in urban areas, who intended to leave their job, were more likely to seek work in another hospital (38% vs. 32%). While some structural factors were related to nurse-reported outcomes in this large sample, the associations were small or of questionable importance. The influence of structural factors such as hospital size on nurse-reported outcomes is small and unlikely to negate efforts to improve work environment. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Predicting medical staff intention to use an online reporting system with modified unified theory of acceptance and use of technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, I-Chiu; Hsu, Hui-Mei

    2012-01-01

    Barriers to report incident events using an online information system (IS) may be different from those of a paper-based reporting system. The nationwide online Patient-Safety Reporting System (PSRS) contains a value judgment behind use of the system, similar to the Value of Perceived Consequence (VPC), which is seldom discussed in ISs applications of other disciplines. This study developed a more adequate research framework by integrating the VPC construct into the well-known Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT) model as a theoretical base to explore the predictors of medical staff's intention to use online PSRS. The results showed that management support was an important factor to influence medical staff's intention of using PSRS. The effects of factors such as performance expectancy, perceived positive, and perceived negative consequence on medical staff's intention of using PSRS were moderated by gender, age, experience, and occupation. The results proved that the modified UTAUT model is significant and useful in predicting medical staff's intention of using the nationwide online PSRS.

  5. Explaining reported puma-related behaviors and behavioral intentions among northern Arizona residents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattson, David J.; Ruther, Elizabeth J.

    2012-01-01

    Management of pumas in the American West is typified by conflict among stakeholders plausibly rooted in life experiences and worldviews. We used a mail questionnaire to assess demographics, nature-views, puma-related life experiences and behaviors, and support for puma-related policies among residents of northern Arizona. Data from the questionnaire (n = 693 respondents) were used to model behaviors and support for policies. Compared to models based on nature-views and life experiences, those based on demographics had virtually no support from the data. The Utilitarian/Dominionistic nature-view had the strongest effect of any variable in six of seven models, and was associated with firearms and opposition to policies that would limit killing pumas. The Humanistic/Moralistic nature-view was positively associated with non-lethal behaviors and policies in five models. Gender had the strongest effect of any demographic variable. Compared to demographics alone, our results suggest that worldviews provide a more meaningful explanation of reported human behaviors and behavioral intentions regarding pumas.

  6. Social and institutional evaluation report for Greater-Than-Class C Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, T.L.; Lewis, B.E.; Turner, K.H.; Rozelle, M.A. [Dames and Moore, Denver, CO (United States)

    1993-10-01

    This report identifies and characterizes social and institutional issues that would be relevant to the siting, licensing, construction, closure, and postclosure of a Greater-Than-Class-C low-level radioactive waste (GTCC LLW) disposal facility. A historical perspective of high-level radioactive waste (HLW) and LLW disposal programs is provided as an overview of radioactive waste disposal and to support the recommendations and conclusions in the report. A characterization of each issue is provided to establish the basis for further evaluations. Where applicable, the regulatory requirements of 10 CFR 60 and 61 are incorporated in the issue characterizations. The issues are used to compare surface, intermediate depth, and deep geologic disposal alternatives. The evaluation establishes that social and institutional issues do not significantly discriminate among the disposal alternatives. Recommendations are provided for methods by which the issues could be considered throughout the lifecycle of a GTCC LLW disposal program.

  7. Waste Management Facilities Cost Information report for Greater-Than-Class C and DOE equivalent special case waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feizollahi, F.; Shropshire, D.

    1993-07-01

    This Waste Management Facility Cost Information (WMFCI) report for Greater-Than-Class C low-level waste (GTCC LLW) and DOE equivalent special case waste contains preconceptual designs and planning level life-cycle cost (PLCC) estimates for treatment, storage, and disposal facilities needed for management of GTCC LLW and DOE equivalent waste. The report contains information on 16 facilities (referred to as cost modules). These facilities are treatment facility front-end and back-end support functions (administration support, and receiving, preparation, and shipping cost modules); seven treatment concepts (incineration, metal melting, shredding/compaction, solidification, vitrification, metal sizing and decontamination, and wet/air oxidation cost modules); two storage concepts (enclosed vault and silo); disposal facility front-end functions (disposal receiving and inspection cost module); and four disposal concepts (shallow-land, engineered shallow-land, intermediate depth, and deep geological cost modules). Data in this report allow the user to develop PLCC estimates for various waste management options. A procedure to guide the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and its contractor personnel in the use of estimating data is also included in this report.

  8. Adults with Greater Weight Satisfaction Report More Positive Health Behaviors and Have Better Health Status Regardless of BMI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine E. Blake

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Prior studies suggest that weight satisfaction may preclude changes in behavior that lead to healthier weight among individuals who are overweight or obese. Objective. To gain a better understanding of complex relationships between weight satisfaction, weight-related health behaviors, and health outcomes. Design. Cross-sectional analysis of data from the Aerobics Center Longitudinal Study (ACLS. Participants. Large mixed-gender cohort of primarily white, middle-to-upper socioeconomic status (SES adults with baseline examination between 1987 and 2002 (n=19,003. Main Outcome Variables. Weight satisfaction, weight-related health behaviors, chronic health conditions, and clinical health indicators. Statistical Analyses Performed. Chi-square test, t-tests, and linear and multivariate logistic regression. Results. Compared to men, women were more likely to be dieting (32% women; 18% men and had higher weight dissatisfaction. Men and women with greater weight dissatisfaction reported more dieting, yo-yo dieting, and snacking and consuming fewer meals, being less active, and having to eat either more or less than desired to maintain weight regardless of weight status. Those who were overweight or obese and dissatisfied with their weight had the poorest health. Conclusion. Greater satisfaction with one’s weight was associated with positive health behaviors and health outcomes in both men and women and across weight status groups.

  9. Greater Caribbean Energy and Environment Future. Ad hoc working group report, Key Biscayne, Florida, October 26-28, 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thorhaug, A. (ed.)

    1980-01-01

    This report of Workshop I (presented in outline form) by the Greater Caribbean Energy and Environment Foundation begin an intensive focus on the energy problems of the Caribbean. The process by which environmental assessments by tropical experts can be successfully integrated into energy decisions is by: (1) international loan institutions requiring or strongly recommending excellent assessments; (2) engineering awareness of total effects of energy projects; (3) governmental environmental consciousness-raising with regard to natural resource value and potential inadvertent and unnecessary resource losses during energy development; and (4) media participation. Section headings in the outline are: preamble; introduction; research tasks: today and twenty years hence; needed research, demonstration and information dissemination projects to get knowledge about Caribbean energy-environment used; summary; recommendations; generalized conclusions; and background literature. (JGB)

  10. Relationships Between Program Size, Training Experience, and Career Intentions: Pediatrics Resident Reports From 2010 to 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumacher, Daniel J; Frintner, Mary Pat; Cull, William

    2016-01-01

    To determine the relationship between pediatric residency program size and resident demographic characteristics, career intentions, and training experiences. Annual national random samples of 1000 graduating pediatrics residents were surveyed between 2010 and 2014. Response years were pooled for analysis, and trends in resident demographic characteristics, career intentions and job search, and training experiences were compared across program class size: small (training as program size decreases. These findings suggest that the training experiences of some residents do not optimally align with their future practice. Copyright © 2016 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. New reports, phylogenetic analysis, and a key to Lactarius Pers. in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem informed by molecular data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward G. Barge

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem (GYE, located in the Central Rocky Mountains of western North America, is one of the largest nearly intact temperate-zone ecosystems on Earth. Here, Lactarius is an important component of ectomycorrhizal communities in many habitat types, from low elevation riparian areas to high elevation conifer forests and alpine tundra. Molecular phylogenetic analyses of ITS and RPB2 gene sequences along with detailed morphological examination confirm at least 20 Lactarius species, as well as three varieties, and one unresolved species group in the GYE. Eight taxa are reported from the GYE for the first time, and nearly every major ectomycorrhizal host plant in the GYE appears to have at least one Lactarius species associated with it. Broad intercontinental distributions are suggested for alpine Salix and Betula associates, and for certain subalpine Picea and aspen (Populus spp. associates. Some species appear to be restricted to western North America with Pinus, Pseudotsuga or Abies. The distribution and/or host affinities of others is not clear due in part to ambiguous host assignment, taxonomic problems or the relative rarity with which they have been reported.

  12. Self-reported intentional and unintentional non-adherence to medication in a general practice population.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk, L. van; Dulmen, S. van; Sluijs, E.; Heerdink, R.; Ridder, D. de; Bensing, J.

    2006-01-01

    Background: Non-adherence to medication is a major public health problem all over the world. Poor adherence to medication regimes accounts for substantial worsening of disease and an increase in health care costs. Few studies on non-adherence distinguished between intentional and unintentional

  13. Young adult cannabis users report greater propensity for risk-taking only in non-monetary domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilman, Jodi M; Calderon, Vanessa; Curran, Max T; Evins, A Eden

    2015-02-01

    Though substance use is often associated with elevated risk-taking in real-world scenarios, many risk-taking tasks in experimental psychology using financial gambles fail to find significant differences between individuals with substance use disorders and healthy controls. We assessed whether participants using marijuana would show a greater propensity for risk-taking in distinct domains including, but not limited to, financial risk-taking. In the current study, we assessed risk-taking in young adult (age 18-25) regular marijuana users and in non-using control participants using a domain-specific risk-taking self-report scale (DOSPERT) encompassing five domains of risk-taking (social, financial, recreational, health/safety, and ethical). We also measured behavioral risk-taking using a laboratory monetary risk-taking task. Marijuana users and controls reported significant differences on the social, health/safety, and ethical risk-taking scales, but no differences in the propensity to take recreational or financial risks. Complementing the self-report finding, there were no differences between marijuana users and controls in their performance on the laboratory risk-taking task. These findings suggest that financial risk-taking may be less sensitive than other domains of risk-taking in assessing differences in risky behavior between those who use marijuana and those who do not. In order to more consistently determine whether increased risk-taking is a factor in substance use, it may be necessary to use both monetary risk-taking tasks and complementary assessments of non-monetary-based risk-taking measures. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Ecology of Greater Sage-Grouse in the Bi-State Planning Area Final Report, September 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casazza, Michael L.; Overton, Cory T.; Farinha, Melissa A.; Torregrosa, Alicia; Fleskes, Joseph P.; Miller, Michael R.; Sedinger, James S.; Kolada, Eric J.

    2009-01-01

    Conservation efforts for greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus), hereafter sage-grouse, are underway across the range of this species. Over 70 local working groups have been established and are implementing on-the-ground sage-grouse oriented conservation projects. Early on in this process, the California Department of Fish and Game (CDFG) recognized the need to join in these efforts and received funding from the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) under the Candidate Species Conservation Program to help develop a species conservation plan for sage-grouse in the Mono County area. This conservation plan covers portions of Alpine, Mono, and Inyo counties in California and Douglas, Esmeralda, Lyon, and Mineral counties in Nevada. A concurrent effort underway through the Nevada Governor's Sage-grouse Conservation Team established Local Area Working Groups across Nevada and eastern California. The Mono County populations of sage-grouse were encompassed by the Bi-State Local Planning Area, which was comprised of six population management units (PMUs). The state agencies from California (CDFG) and Nevada (Nevada Department of Wildlife; NDOW) responsible for the management of sage-grouse agreed to utilize the process that had begun with the Nevada Governor's Team in order to develop local plans for conservation planning and implementation. Resources from the USFWS were applied to several objectives in support of the development of the Bi-State Local Area Sage-grouse Conservation Plan through a grant to the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). Objectives included: (1) participate in the development of the Bi-State Conservation Plan, (2) compile and synthesize existing sage-grouse data, (3) document seasonal movements of sage-grouse, (4) identify habitats critical to sage-grouse, (5) determine survival rates and identify causal factors of mortality, (6) determine nest success and brood success of sage-grouse, and (7) identify sage-grouse lek sites. Progress reports

  15. Towards a greater understanding of the illicit tobacco trade in Europe: a review of the PMI funded 'Project Star' report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmore, Anna B; Rowell, Andy; Gallus, Silvano; Lugo, Alessandra; Joossens, Luk; Sims, Michelle

    2014-05-01

    Following a legal agreement with the European Union (EU), Philip Morris International (PMI) commissions a yearly report ('Project Star', PS) on the European illicit cigarette trade from KPMG, the global accountancy firm. Review of PS 2010 report. Comparison with data from independent sources including a 2010 pan-European survey (N=18,056). Within PS, data covering all 27 EU countries are entered into a model. While the model itself seems appropriate, concerns are identified with the methodologies underlying the data inputs and thus their quality: there is little transparency over methodologies; interview data underestimate legal non-domestic product partly by failing to account for legal cross-border sales; illicit cigarette estimates rely on tobacco industry empty pack surveys which may overestimate illicit; and there is an over-reliance on data supplied by PMI with inadequate external validation. Thus, PMI sales data are validated using PMI smoking prevalence estimates, yet PMI is unable to provide sales (shipment) data for the Greek islands and its prevalence estimates differ grossly from independent data. Consequently, comparisons with independent data suggest PS will tend to overestimate illicit cigarette levels particularly where cross-border shopping is frequent (Austria, Finland, France) and in Western compared with Eastern European countries. The model also provides data on the nature of the illicit cigarette market independent of seizure data suggesting that almost a quarter of the illicit cigarette market in 2010 comprised PMI's own brands compared with just 5% counterfeited PMI brands; a finding hidden in PMI's public representation of the data. PS overestimates illicit cigarette levels in some European countries and suggests PMI's supply chain control is inadequate. Its publication serves the interests of PMI over those of the EU and its member states. PS requires greater transparency, external scrutiny and use of independent data. Published by the BMJ

  16. Purchase intention, purchase behavior and the active solar market: a follow-up study. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnston, P.E.; Lilien, G.L.

    1982-05-01

    By following up on some prior respondents to solar surveys, solar energy purchase intentions are related to actual purchase behavior. Also examined is the relationship between attitudinal and demographic variables and trends in intention variables. Two sets of data are analyzed. The first set was collected in the spring of 1980. The method used was an initial telephone survey followed by a mailing to each participating respondent. The mailing included information about active solar energy systems and a mail questionnaire for the respondent ot complete and return. The early study examined the homeowners' awareness of active solar energy systems, awareness of federal and state incentives for installing solar equipment, attitudes and beliefs about active solar systems, likelihood of purchasing a solar system in the short and long term, and demographics. The second set is a followup of 343 cases selected from the earlier study. (LEW)

  17. Brief report: Compensatory health beliefs are negatively associated with intentions for regular fruit and vegetable consumption when self-efficacy is low.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storm, Vera; Reinwand, Dominique; Wienert, Julian; Kuhlmann, Tim; De Vries, Hein; Lippke, Sonia

    2016-01-28

    Compensatory health beliefs (the beliefs that an unhealthy behaviour can be compensated by a healthy behaviour) can interfere with adherence to fruit and vegetable consumption recommendations. Fruit and vegetable consumption, social cognitive variables and compensatory health beliefs were investigated via self-report at baseline (T0) and 8-week follow-up (T1) in N = 790 participants. Self-efficacy predicted fruit and vegetable consumption intentions. Planning mediated between intentions and T1 fruit and vegetable consumption. Compensatory health beliefs negatively predicted intentions at low self-efficacy levels only. The results propose the use of self-efficacy interventions to diminish the negative effects of compensatory health beliefs when forming fruit and vegetable consumption intentions and foster planning to translate intentions into behaviour.

  18. Progress report 1988: predator control to enhance production of Greater Sandhill Cranes on Malheur National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The nesting population of greater sandhill cranes on Malheur National Wildlife Refuge, Oregon has declined from 181 pairs in 1986 when predator control began to 137...

  19. Progress report 1989: predator control to enhance the production of Greater Sandhill Cranes on Malheur National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The nesting population of greater sandhill cranes on Malheur National Wildlife Refuge, Oregon has declined from 236 pairs in 1971 to 181 pairs in 1986 when predator...

  20. Progress report 1987: predator control to enhance the production of Greater Sandhill Cranes on Malheur National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The nesting population of greater sandhill cranes on Malheur National Wildlife Refuge, Oregon has declined from 236 pairs in 1971 to 181 pairs in 1986. Nesting...

  1. Progress Report 1986 : Predator Control to Enhance the Production of Greater Sandhill Cranes on Malheur National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The nesting population of greater sandhill cranes on Malheur National Wildlife Refuge, Oregon has declined from 236 pairs in 1971 to 181 pairs in 1986. Nesting...

  2. Progress report 1991: predator control to enhance the production of greater Sandhill Cranes on Malheur National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The nesting population of greater sandhill cranes on Malheur National Wildlife Refuge, Oregon had declined from 236 pairs in 1971 to 181 pairs in 1986 when predator...

  3. Progress Report 1990: predator control to enhance the production of Greater Sandhill Cranes on Malheur National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The nesting population of greater sandhill cranes on Malheur National Wildlife Refuge, Oregon had declined from 236 pairs in 1971 to 181 pairs in 1986 when predator...

  4. Case Report: Anteromedial temporosphenoidal encephalocele with a clinically silent lateral bony defect in the greater wing of the sphenoid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pandey Anoop

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Anteromedial temporosphenoidal encephalocele is the least common type of temporal encephalocele. It commonly presents with spontaneous cerebrospinal fluid rhinorrhea in adults. This article presents the CT cisternography and MRI findings of one such case, which also had an associated clinically silent defect in the greater wing of the sphenoid on the same side.

  5. Complicated sternal dehiscence treated with the strasbourg thoracic osteosyntheses system (STRATOS and the transposition of greater omentum: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casablanca Giuseppe

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Sternal dehiscence is a serious complication after cardiac surgery. Sternal refixation, performed by simple rewiring or techniqual modification of rewiring as described by Robicsek, can fail, overall when the bone quality is poor or the sternum is completely destroyed. The sternal closure systems, consisting of plates, screws or rib clips and titanium bars, have been recently introduced to treat the complicated sternal dehiscence. We describe for the first time the use of the Strasbourg Thoracic Osteosyntheses System (STRATOS and the greater omentum, to treat a complicated sternal dehiscence, causing chest pain and respiratory failure.

  6. Unravelling intention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinding, Mikkel C; Pedersen, Michael N; Overgaard, Morten

    2013-01-01

    Experimental studies investigating the contribution of conscious intention to the generation of a sense of agency for one’s own actions tend to rely upon a narrow definition of intention. Often it is operationalized as the conscious sensation of wanting to move right before movement. Existing...

  7. Collective intentions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dunin-Keplicz, B; Verbrugge, L.C.

    2002-01-01

    In this paper the notion of collective intention in teams of agents involved in cooperative problem solving (CPS) in multiagent systems (MAS) is investigated. Starting from individual intentions, goals, and beliefs defining agents' local asocial motivational and informational attitudes, we arrive at

  8. Unravelling intention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinding, Mikkel Christoffer; Pedersen, Michael Nygaard; Overgaard, Morten

    2013-01-01

    Experimental studies investigating the contribution of conscious intention to the generation of a sense of agency for one’s own actions tend to rely upon a narrow definition of intention. Often it is operationalized as the conscious sensation of wanting to move right before movement. Existing res...

  9. The Relationships Among Perceived Patients' Safety Culture, Intention to Report Errors, and Leader Coaching Behavior of Nurses in Korea: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, YuKyung; Yu, Soyoung

    2017-09-01

    This study was undertaken to explore the correlations among nurses' perceptions of patient safety culture, their intention to report errors, and leader coaching behaviors. The participants (N = 289) were nurses from 5 Korean hospitals with approximately 300 to 500 beds each. Sociodemographic variables, patient safety culture, intention to report errors, and coaching behavior were measured using self-report instruments. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, Pearson correlation coefficient, the t test, and the Mann-Whitney U test. Nurses' perceptions of patient safety culture and their intention to report errors showed significant differences between groups of nurses who rated their leaders as high-performing or low-performing coaches. Perceived coaching behavior showed a significant, positive correlation with patient safety culture and intention to report errors, i.e., as nurses' perceptions of coaching behaviors increased, so did their ratings of patient safety culture and error reporting. There is a need in health care settings for coaching by nurse managers to provide quality nursing care and thus improve patient safety. Programs that are systematically developed and implemented to enhance the coaching behaviors of nurse managers are crucial to the improvement of patient safety and nursing care. Moreover, a systematic analysis of the causes of malpractice, as opposed to a focus on the punitive consequences of errors, could increase error reporting and therefore promote a culture in which a higher level of patient safety can thrive.

  10. EnergyWorks Final Report: A Better Buildings Neighborhood Program in the Five-County Greater Philadelphia Region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gajewski, Katherine [City of Philadelphia

    2014-03-05

    This report covers the grant performance period of July 1, 2010-September 30, 2013 and discusses of the program design, outcomes and best practices as they relate to the following six areas: 1. Institutional Design and Business Model; 2. Program Design and Customer Experience; 3. Driving Demand; 4. Workforce Development; 5. Financing and Incentives; 6. Data and Evaluation.

  11. 76 FR 7091 - Notice of Intent To Require Reporting Forms for Savings and Loan Holding Companies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-08

    ... reports would also collect organizational structure and ] activity information from SLHCs in order to... Changes in Organizational Structure. Agency form number: FR Y-10. Frequency: As needed, FR Y-10 is..._financial_and_structure_reports.pdf . A summary of these forms can be found below. The Board acknowledges...

  12. Do older people with visual impairment and living alone in a rural developing country report greater difficulty in managing stairs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hairi, Noran N; Bulgiba, Awang; Peramalah, Devi; Mudla, Izzuna

    2013-01-01

    Managing stairs is a challenging activity of daily living (ADL) for older people. This study aims to examine the association between visual impairment and difficulty in managing stairs among older people living alone and those living with others. A population-based cross sectional study was conducted in rural Malaysia from 2007 till 2008. Seven hundred and sixty five older people aged 60 years and over underwent eye examination for visual impairment. Visual acuity criteria were used to define visual impairment. Presenting visual acuity was assessed using a standard metric Snellen Chart of E type. Difficulty in managing stairs was measured according to a question drawn from the Barthel Index which asks "do you need help in climbing stairs". Overall, the prevalence of difficulty in managing stairs among older people in our population was 135 (18.3%, 95% CI 15.7-21.2). After adjusting for important confounders the odds ratio (OR) for visual impairment and difficulty in managing stairs among older people living alone was 5.04 (95% CI 2.27, 10.62). Among older people living with others, the adjusted OR for visual impairment and difficulty in managing stairs was 3.10 (95% CI 1.52, 6.80). In a sample of older people aged 60 years and over, those living alone with visual impairment had greater difficulty in managing stairs than those living with others. Identification of these groups of older people is useful for targeting interventions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Natural Recharge to the Unconfined Aquifer System on the Hanford Site from the Greater Cold Creek Watershed: Progress Report 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waichler, Scott R.; Wigmosta, Mark S.; Coleman, Andre M.

    2004-09-14

    Movement of contaminants in groundwater at the Hanford Site is heavily dependent on recharge to the unconfined aquifer. As the effects of past artificial discharges dissipate, the water table is expected to return to more natural conditions, and natural recharge will become the driving force when evaluating future groundwater flow conditions and related contaminant transport. Previous work on the relationship of natural recharge to groundwater movement at the Hanford Site has focused on direct recharge from infiltrating rainfall and snowmelt within the area represented by the Sitewide Groundwater Model (SGM) domain. However, part of the groundwater recharge at Hanford is provided by flow from Greater Cold Creek watershed (GCC), a large drainage area on the western boundary of the Hanford Site that includes Cold Creek Valley, Dry Creek Valley, and the Hanford side of Rattlesnake Mountain. This study was undertaken to estimate the recharge from GCC, which is believed to enter the unconfined aquifer as both infiltrating streamflow and shallow subsurface flow. To estimate recharge, the Distributed Hydrology-Soil-Vegetation Model (DHSVM) was used to simulate a detailed water balance of GCC from 1956 to 2001 at a spatial resolution of 200~m and a temporal resolution of one hour. For estimating natural recharge to Hanford from watersheds along its western and southwestern boundaries, the most important aspects that need to be considered are 1)~distribution and relative magnitude of precipitation and evapotranspiration over the watershed, 2)~streamflow generation at upper elevations and infiltration at lower elevations during rare runoff events, and 3)~permeability of the basalt bedrock surface underlying the soil mantle.

  14. Modified versus standard intention-to-treat reporting: Are there differences in methodological quality, sponsorship, and findings in randomized trials? A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duca Piergiorgio

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Randomized controlled trials (RCTs that use the modified intention-to-treat (mITT approach are increasingly being published. Such trials have a preponderance of post-randomization exclusions, industry sponsorship, and favourable findings, and little is known whether in terms of these items mITT trials are different with respect to trials that report a standard intention-to-treat. Methods To determine differences in the methodological quality, sponsorship, authors' conflicts of interest, and findings among trials with different "types" of intention-to-treat, we undertook a cross-sectional study of RCTs published in 2006 in three general medical journals (the Journal of the American Medical Association, the New England Journal of Medicine and the Lancet and three specialty journals (Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, the American Heart Journal and the Journal of Clinical Oncology. Trials were categorized based on the "type" of intention-to-treat reporting as follows: ITT, trials reporting the use of standard ITT approach; mITT, trials reporting the use of a "modified intention-to-treat" approach; and "no ITT", trials not reporting the use of any intention-to-treat approach. Two pairs of reviewers independently extracted the data in duplicate. The strength of the associations between the "type" of intention-to-treat reporting and the quality of reporting (sample size calculation, flow-chart, lost to follow-up, the methodological quality of the trials (sequence generation, allocation concealment, and blinding, the funding source, and the findings was determined. Odds ratios (OR were calculated with 95% confidence intervals (CI. Results Of the 367 RCTs included, 197 were classified as ITT, 56 as mITT, and 114 as "no ITT" trials. The quality of reporting and the methodological quality of the mITT trials were similar to those of the ITT trials; however, the mITT trials were more likely to report post-randomization exclusions

  15. Yoga Meditation Practitioners Exhibit Greater Gray Matter Volume and Fewer Reported Cognitive Failures: Results of a Preliminary Voxel-Based Morphometric Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brett Froeliger

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Hatha yoga techniques, including physical postures (asanas, breathing exercises (pranayama, and meditation, involve the practice of mindfulness. In turn, yoga meditation practices may induce the state of mindfulness, which, when evoked recurrently through repeated practice, may accrue into trait or dispositional mindfulness. Putatively, these changes may be mediated by experience-dependent neuroplastic changes. Though prior studies have identified differences in gray matter volume (GMV between long-term mindfulness practitioners and controls, no studies to date have reported on whether yoga meditation is associated with GMV differences. The present study investigated GMV differences between yoga meditation practitioners (YMP and a matched control group (CG. The YMP group exhibited greater GM volume in frontal, limbic, temporal, occipital, and cerebellar regions; whereas the CG had no greater regional greater GMV. In addition, the YMP group reported significantly fewer cognitive failures on the Cognitive Failures Questionnaire (CFQ, the magnitude of which was positively correlated with GMV in numerous regions identified in the primary analysis. Lastly, GMV was positively correlated with the duration of yoga practice. Results from this preliminary study suggest that hatha yoga practice may be associated with the promotion of neuroplastic changes in executive brain systems, which may confer therapeutic benefits that accrue with repeated practice.

  16. Momentary assessment of physical activity intention-behavior coupling in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maher, Jaclyn P; Rhodes, Ryan E; Dzubur, Eldin; Huh, Jimi; Intille, Stephen; Dunton, Genevieve F

    2017-02-02

    Research attempting to elucidate physical activity (PA) intention-behavior relations has focused on differences in long-term behavior forecasting between people. However, regular PA requires a repeated performance on a daily or within-daily basis. An empirical case study application is presented using intensive longitudinal data from a study of PA in adults to (a) describe the extent to which short-term intention-behavior coupling occurs and (b) explore time-varying predictors of intention formation and short-term intention-behavior coupling. Adults (n = 116) participated in three 4-day waves of ecological momentary assessment (EMA). Each day, participants received EMA questionnaires assessing short-term PA intentions and wore accelerometers to assess whether they engaged in ≥10 min of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) in the 3-hour period after each EMA prompt. Concurrent affective states and contexts were also assessed through EMA. Participants reported having short-term intentions to engage in PA in 41% of EMA prompts. However, participants only engaged in ≥10 min of MVPA following 16% of the prompts that short-term PA intentions were reported indicating an intention-behavior gap of 84%. Odds of intentions followed by PA were greater on occasions when individuals reported higher levels of positive affect than was typical for them. This study is the first to take an EMA approach to describe short-term intention-behavior coupling in adults. Results suggest that adults have difficulty translating intentions into behavior at the momentary level, more so than over longer timescales, and that positive affect may be a key to successfully translating intentions into behavior.

  17. Brief Report: Need for Autonomy and Other Perceived Barriers Relating to Adolescents' Intentions to Seek Professional Mental Health Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Coralie J.; Deane, Frank P.

    2012-01-01

    The current study examined the relationship between belief-based barriers to seeking professional mental health care and help-seeking intentions in a sample of 1037 adolescents. From early adolescence to adulthood, for males and females, the need for autonomy was a strong barrier to seeking professional mental health care. Help-seeking fears were…

  18. 77 FR 63299 - Notice of Intent To Prepare a Joint Environmental Impact Statement/Environmental Impact Report...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-16

    ..., with the intention of meeting flood risk management objectives and dam safety requirements in a manner... and flood risk management objectives that comply with Congressional direction to reduce Folsom... following locations, dates, and times: Sacramento Library Galleria, 828 I Street, Sacramento, CA....

  19. Patients' level of satisfaction and self-reports of intention to comply following consultation with nurses and midwives with prescriptive authority: a cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drennan, Jonathan; Naughton, Corina; Allen, Deirdre; Hyde, Abbey; O'Boyle, Kathy; Felle, Patrick; Treacy, Margaret Pearl; Butler, Michelle

    2011-07-01

    Prescriptive authority for nurses and midwives was introduced in Ireland in 2007. This allows nurses and midwives who have completed a prescribing preparation programme to independently prescribe a wide-range of medications. To date little is known of patient outcomes such as satisfaction with the consultation process and intention to comply as a consequence of the introduction of nurse and midwife prescribing. There are four principal objectives within this study: (1) to measure the level of patients' satisfaction with education and advice received from a nurse or midwife with a prescribing remit; (2) to measure patients' satisfaction with the consultation process; (3) to measure patients' self-reports of their intention to comply with the prescriber's prescription and advice; and (4) to identify the variables that predict patients' intention to comply with the prescription and advice provided by a nurse or midwife with prescriptive authority. Cross-sectional descriptive survey. A total of one hundred and forty respondents completed the survey. Respondents consisted of adult patients who had received a prescription from a nurse prescriber in a general hospital, women who had received a prescription from a midwife in a maternity hospital and parents whose child received a prescription from a nurse in a children's hospital. Instruments used to measure patient outcomes included the Consultation Satisfaction Questionnaire (CSQ) and the compliance intent subscale of the Medical Interview Satisfaction Scale (MISS). A linear multiple regression model was performed to identify the variables that predicted patients' intent to comply. Patients and parents surveyed were highly satisfied with the care they received from nurses and midwives with prescriptive authority. Respondents also reported that they received comprehensive education and advice. Predictors of compliance intent included patient satisfaction with the time spent with the nurse or midwife during the prescribing

  20. Association of faculty perceptions of work-life with emotional exhaustion and intent to leave academic nursing: report on a national survey of nurse faculty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yedidia, Michael J; Chou, Jolene; Brownlee, Susan; Flynn, Linda; Tanner, Christine A

    2014-10-01

    The current and projected nurse faculty shortage threatens the capacity to educate sufficient numbers of nurses for meeting demand. As part of an initiative to foster strategies for expanding educational capacity, a survey of a nationally representative sample of 3,120 full-time nurse faculty members in 269 schools and programs that offered at least one prelicensure degree program was conducted. Nearly 4 of 10 participants reported high levels of emotional exhaustion, and one third expressed an intent to leave academic nursing within 5 years. Major contributors to burnout were dissatisfaction with workload and perceived inflexibility to balance work and family life. Intent to leave was explained not only by age but by several potentially modifiable aspects of work, including dissatisfaction with workload, salary, and availability of teaching support. Preparing sufficient numbers of nurses to meet future health needs will require addressing those aspects of work-life that undermine faculty teaching capacity. Copyright 2014, SLACK Incorporated.

  1. Post-thrombotic syndrome patient education based on the health belief model: self-reported intention to comply with recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carolyn, Crumley

    2011-01-01

    (69.2%) indicated that they intended to wear the stockings. Patient education for post-thrombotic syndrome prevention based on the Health Belief Model resulted in self-reported intention to comply with recommendations to wear graduated elastic compression stockings. Compliance may be enhanced by specifically addressing individual risk factors and barriers to stocking application.

  2. First report of a mixed infection of Trichinella nelsoni and Trichinella T8 in a leopard (Panthera pardus from the Greater Kruger National Park, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louis J. La Grange

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available At least three Trichinella species, namely Trichinella nelsoni, Trichinella britovi and Trichinella zimbabwensis, and one genotype (Trichinella T8, have been isolated from sylvatic carnivores on the African continent. With the exception of T. britovi, the other species are known to circulate in wildlife of the Kruger National Park (KNP, South Africa, and KNP neighbouring game reserves (collectively known as the greater KNP area. Lions (Panthera leo and spotted hyenas (Crocuta crocuta appear to be the most important reservoirs of T. nelsoni and Trichinella T8 in the KNP and surrounding areas. Interspecies predation between lions and hyenas has been implicated as a primary mode of maintaining the life cycles of these two Trichinella species. This is the first report of a mixed natural infection of T. nelsoni and Trichinella T8 in a leopard (Panthera pardus from South Africa. Trichinella muscle larvae were identified to species level by multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Probable sources of infection, based on the known dietary preference and prey species’ range of leopards, are also discussed. The described occurrence of Trichinella species in a leopard from the greater KNP area raises the question of possible sources of infection for this predator species.

  3. First report of a mixed infection of Trichinella nelsoni and Trichinella T8 in a leopard (Panthera pardus) from the Greater Kruger National Park, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Grange, Louis J; Reininghaus, Björn; Mukaratirwa, Samson

    2014-11-20

    At least three Trichinella species, namely Trichinella nelsoni, Trichinella britovi and Trichinella zimbabwensis, and one genotype (Trichinella T8), have been isolated from sylvatic carnivores on the African continent. With the exception of T. britovi, the other species are known to circulate in wildlife of the Kruger National Park (KNP), South Africa, and KNP neighbouring game reserves (collectively known as the greater KNP area). Lions (Panthera leo) and spotted hyenas (Crocuta crocuta) appear to be the most important reservoirs of T. nelsoni and Trichinella T8 in the KNP and surrounding areas. Interspecies predation between lions and hyenas has been implicated as a primary mode of maintaining the life cycles of these two Trichinella species. This is the first report of a mixed natural infection of T. nelsoni and Trichinella T8 in a leopard (Panthera pardus) from South Africa. Trichinella muscle larvae were identified to species level by multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Probable sources of infection, based on the known dietary preference and prey species' range of leopards, are also discussed. The described occurrence of Trichinella species in a leopard from the greater KNP area raises the question of possible sources of infection for this predator species.

  4. Using the Theory of Planned Behavior to predict intention to comply with a food recall message.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freberg, Karen

    2013-01-01

    The Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) has provided considerable insight into the public's intention to comply with many different health-related messages, but has not been applied previously to intention to comply with food safety recommendations and recalls ( Hallman & Cuite, 2010 ). Because food recalls can differ from other health messages in their urgency, timing, and cessation, the applicability of the TPB in this domain is unknown. The research reported here attempted to address this gap using a nationally representative consumer panel. Results showed that, consistent with the theory's predictions, attitudes and subjective norms were predictive of the intention to comply with a food recall message, with attitudes having a much greater impact on intent to comply than subjective norms. Perceived behavioral control failed to predict intention to comply. Implications of these results for health public relations and crisis communications and recommendations for future research were discussed.

  5. Intention seekers: conspiracist ideation and biased attributions of intentionality.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Brotherton

    Full Text Available Conspiracist beliefs are widespread and potentially hazardous. A growing body of research suggests that cognitive biases may play a role in endorsement of conspiracy theories. The current research examines the novel hypothesis that individuals who are biased towards inferring intentional explanations for ambiguous actions are more likely to endorse conspiracy theories, which portray events as the exclusive product of intentional agency. Study 1 replicated a previously observed relationship between conspiracist ideation and individual differences in anthropomorphisation. Studies 2 and 3 report a relationship between conspiracism and inferences of intentionality for imagined ambiguous events. Additionally, Study 3 again found conspiracist ideation to be predicted by individual differences in anthropomorphism. Contrary to expectations, however, the relationship was not mediated by the intentionality bias. The findings are discussed in terms of a domain-general intentionality bias making conspiracy theories appear particularly plausible. Alternative explanations are suggested for the association between conspiracism and anthropomorphism.

  6. A study on intentions of English disaster news reporters%英语灾难新闻报道者意向研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪婷婷; 黄秋文

    2012-01-01

    本文运用奥斯汀和塞尔的言语行为理论分析灾难新闻报道,发现报道者通常通过直接和间接的方式,采用不同的新闻报道话语传递出不同的意向。研究表明,灾难新闻报道者通过选择不同的报道话语,意在传递客观灾难信息的同时,表达其情感状态和引导公众行动。%In this paper, the intentions of English disaster news reporters are analyzed under the framework of Speech Act Theory in Pragmatics. The results indicate that English disaster news reporters often convey disastrous information in a very objective way. The news report, however, also carries various other intentions of the reporters in a direct or indi- rect way. Disaster news reporters use different speech acts to convey the disastrous information to the audience, pass on their emotional state such as sympathy to people, affect people ' s thoughts and persuade people to think and act in their way.

  7. Pedestrian self-reported use of smart phones: Positive attitudes and high exposure influence intentions to cross the road while distracted.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lennon, Alexia; Oviedo-Trespalacios, Oscar; Matthews, Sarah

    2017-01-01

    Pedestrian crashes are an important issue globally as pedestrians are a highly vulnerable road user group, accounting for approximately 35% of road deaths worldwide each year. In highly motorised countries, pedestrian distraction by hand held technological devices appears to be an increasing factor in such crashes. An online survey (N=363) was conducted to 1) obtain prevalence information regarding the extent to which people cross the road while simultaneously using mobile phones for potentially distracting activities; 2) identify whether younger adult pedestrians are more exposed to/at risk of injury due to this cause than older adults; and 3) explore whether the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) might provide insight into the factors influencing the target behaviours. Self-reported frequency of using a smart phone for three levels of distraction (visual and cognitive-texting/internet; cognitive only- voice calls; audio only-listening to music) while crossing the road was collected. Results indicated that about 20% of the sample had high exposure to smart phone use while crossing, especially 18-30year olds who were significantly more likely than other age groups to report frequent exposure. TPB constructs of Attitude, Subjective Norm, and Perceived Behavioural Control significantly predicted intentions to use a smart phone while crossing the road, accounting for 62% of variance in Intentions for the entire sample, and 54% of the variance for 18-30year olds. Additional variables of Mobile Phone Involvement and Group Norms provided an additional significant 6% of the variance explained for both groups. Attitude was by far the strongest predictor for both the whole sample and for 18-30year olds, accounting for 38% and 41% explained variance, respectively. This suggests that pedestrians with positive attitudes towards using their smart phones while crossing the road have stronger intentions to do so. Moreover, high exposure was associated with stronger intentions to

  8. Patient-reported symptoms during radiotherapy. Clinically relevant symptom burden in patients treated with palliative and curative intent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koerner, Philipp [Universitaetsklinikum Wuerzburg, Interdisziplinaeres Zentrum Palliativmedizin, Wuerzburg (Germany); Universitaetsklinikum Wuerzburg, Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Strahlentherapie, Wuerzburg (Germany); Ehrmann, Katja [Universitaetsklinikum Wuerzburg, Medizinische Psychologie und Psychotherapie, Medizinische Soziologie und Rehabilitationswissenschaften, Wuerzburg (Germany); Hartmannsgruber, Johann [Praxis Landshut, Kinderzahnheilkunde, Landshut (Germany); Metz, Michaela; Steigerwald, Sabrina; Flentje, Michael [Universitaetsklinikum Wuerzburg, Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Strahlentherapie, Wuerzburg (Germany); Oorschot, Birgitt van [Universitaetsklinikum Wuerzburg, Interdisziplinaeres Zentrum Palliativmedizin, Wuerzburg (Germany)

    2017-07-15

    The benefits of patient-reported symptom assessment combined with integrated palliative care are well documented. This study assessed the symptom burden of palliative and curative-intent radiation oncology patients. Prior to first consultation and at the end of RT, all adult cancer patients planned to receive fractionated percutaneous radiotherapy (RT) were asked to answer the Edmonton Symptom Assessment Scale (ESAS; nine symptoms from 0 = no symptoms to 10 = worst possible symptoms). Mean values were used for curative vs. palliative and pre-post comparisons, and the clinical relevance was evaluated (symptom values ≥ 4). Of 163 participating patients, 151 patients (90.9%) completed both surveys (116 curative and 35 palliative patients). Before beginning RT, 88.6% of palliative and 72.3% of curative patients showed at least one clinically relevant symptom. Curative patients most frequently named decreased general wellbeing (38.6%), followed by tiredness (35.0%), anxiety (32.4%), depression (30.0%), pain (26.3%), lack of appetite (23.5%), dyspnea (17.8%), drowsiness (8.0%) and nausea (6.1%). Palliative patients most frequently named decreased general wellbeing (62.8%), followed by pain (62.8%), tiredness (60.0%), lack of appetite (40.0%), anxiety (38.0%), depression (33.3%), dyspnea (28.5%), drowsiness (25.7%) and nausea (14.2%). At the end of RT, the proportion of curative and palliative patients with a clinically relevant symptom had increased significantly to 79.8 and 91.4%, respectively; whereas the proportion of patients reporting clinically relevant pain had decreased significantly (42.8 vs. 62.8%, respectively). Palliative patients had significantly increased tiredness. Curative patients reported significant increases in pain, tiredness, nausea, drowsiness, lack of appetite and restrictions in general wellbeing. Assessment of patient-reported symptoms was successfully realized in radiation oncology routine. Overall, both groups showed a high symptom burden

  9. Intentional esophageal intubation to improve visualization during emergent endotracheal intubation in the context of massive vomiting: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorour, Khaled; Donovan, Lucas

    2015-03-01

    Impaired visualization during intubation due to vomitus of gastric contents is a potential cause of failed intubation. An 82-year-old woman was intubated emergently for respiratory distress secondary to aspiration of gastric contents. Her intubation was hindered by the presence of a massive amount of ongoing vomitus that impaired visualization and overwhelmed all suction capabilities. Intentional blind intubation of the esophagus with an endotracheal tube was performed with successful diversion of ongoing vomitus away from the airway. Thereafter, after brief suctioning, the larynx was quickly visualized and the patient was successfully intubated.

  10. Reimplante intencional en diente geminado con lesión endoperio tipo IV: Reporte de caso Intentional replantation gemina injured in tooth type IV endoperio: Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.S. Rodríguez Rodríguez

    2012-10-01

    , persistent fistula, large periapical lesions, periodontal pocket, root anatomy of the tooth organ palate (palatine canal alleged and that the anatomy tooth is favorable to perform the procedure. The extraction and intentional replantation is the treatment in cases where the endodontic treatment fails and the anomaly dental periapical surgery also fail because only temporarily remove the lesion but not the cause it is the communication between the oral cavity and apical area. However, it is known that this treatment option can have risks and benefits, including tooth loss or possible ankylosis and with a success rate of 42.9%. The present case report describes the extraction and intentional replantation geminate tooth with a persistent periapical lesion of periodontal origin, with symptoms and fistula, after endodontic treatment complex, its evolution and success.

  11. Towards a greater understanding of the illicit tobacco trade in Europe: a review of the PMI funded ‘Project Star’ report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmore, Anna B; Rowell, Andy; Gallus, Silvano; Lugo, Alessandra; Joossens, Luk; Sims, Michelle

    2014-01-01

    Background Following a legal agreement with the European Union (EU), Philip Morris International (PMI) commissions a yearly report (‘Project Star’, PS) on the European illicit cigarette trade from KPMG, the global accountancy firm. Methods Review of PS 2010 report. Comparison with data from independent sources including a 2010 pan-European survey (N=18 056). Findings Within PS, data covering all 27 EU countries are entered into a model. While the model itself seems appropriate, concerns are identified with the methodologies underlying the data inputs and thus their quality: there is little transparency over methodologies; interview data underestimate legal non-domestic product partly by failing to account for legal cross-border sales; illicit cigarette estimates rely on tobacco industry empty pack surveys which may overestimate illicit; and there is an over-reliance on data supplied by PMI with inadequate external validation. Thus, PMI sales data are validated using PMI smoking prevalence estimates, yet PMI is unable to provide sales (shipment) data for the Greek islands and its prevalence estimates differ grossly from independent data. Consequently, comparisons with independent data suggest PS will tend to overestimate illicit cigarette levels particularly where cross-border shopping is frequent (Austria, Finland, France) and in Western compared with Eastern European countries. The model also provides data on the nature of the illicit cigarette market independent of seizure data suggesting that almost a quarter of the illicit cigarette market in 2010 comprised PMI's own brands compared with just 5% counterfeited PMI brands; a finding hidden in PMI's public representation of the data. Conclusions PS overestimates illicit cigarette levels in some European countries and suggests PMI's supply chain control is inadequate. Its publication serves the interests of PMI over those of the EU and its member states. PS requires greater transparency, external scrutiny and

  12. Intentions to Cheat: Ajzen's Planned Behavior and Goal-Related Personality Facets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lonsdale, Damian

    2017-02-17

    This study sought to test antecedents to college students' intentions to cheat by utilizing Ajzen's ( 1991 ) theory of planned behavior (TPB), and four goal-related personality facets. Those facets were behavioral approach, behavioral inhibition, need for achievement-hope of success, and need for achievement-fear of failure. As hypothesized, perceived friends' and parents' attitudes toward academic dishonesty (two subjective norms) and perceived ease of cheating (perceived behavioral control) all positively predicted overall intentions to cheat. Perceived friends' attitudes seemed to play a more influential role than perceived parents' attitudes. Interestingly, male students reported greater parental acceptance of academic misconduct than female students reported. Among the personality facets, behavioral approach and need for achievement-hope of success were positive and negative predictors of cheating intentions, respectively. A more fine-grained examination of take-home assignments revealed that students considered them easier to cheat on and reported greater intentions to cheat on them in comparison to other forms of academic work (e.g., exams and papers). Also, need for achievement-fear of failure positively predicted intentions to cheat on take-home assignments, but not other cheating intentions. Implications and suggestions for future research are discussed.

  13. Moderators of the mediated effect of intentions, planning, and saturated-fat intake in obese individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soureti, Anastasia; Hurling, Robert; van Mechelen, Willem; Cobain, Mark; ChinAPaw, Mai

    2012-05-01

    The present study aimed to advance our understanding of health-related theory, that is, the alleged intention-behavior gap in an obese population. It examined the mediating effects of planning on the intention-behavior relationship and the moderated mediation effects of age, self-efficacy and intentions within this relationship. The study was conducted over a five-week period. Complete data from 571 obese participants were analyzed. The moderated mediation hypothesis was conducted using multiple-regression analysis. To test our theoretical model, intentions (Week 2), action self-efficacy (Week 2), maintenance self-efficacy (Week 5), planning (Week 5), and saturated-fat intake (Weeks 1 and 5) were measured by self-report. As hypothesized, planning mediated the intention-behavior relationship for perceived (two-item scale) and percentage-saturated-fat intake (measured by a food frequency questionnaire). Age, self-efficacy, and intention acted as moderators in the above mediation analysis. In specific, younger individuals, those with stronger intention, and people with higher levels of maintenance self-efficacy at higher levels of planning showed greater reductions in their perceived saturated-fat intake. For successful behavior change, knowledge of its mediators and moderators is needed. Future interventions targeting planning to change saturated-fat intake should be guided by people's intentions, age, and self-efficacy levels.

  14. Knowledge and social engagement change in intention to be screened for colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina, Yamile; Briant, Katherine J; Sanchez, Janeth I; O'Connell, Mary A; Thompson, Beti

    2017-01-24

    Innovative technologies have been used to promote colorectal cancer (CRC) screening among the underserved. However, the impact of these innovative technologies on knowledge and social engagement likelihood as they relate to subsequent intention to be screened across different populations has not been fully explored. Using a pre-post-test design with an inflatable walk-through colon, we assessed changes in knowledge and social engagement likelihood across populations and their associations with intention to be screened in two community settings. One was a community setting in Washington State (WA); the other, a college campus in New Mexico (NM). Differential effects on knowledge and social engagement likelihood were examined across demographic groups (race/ethnicity, gender, age, education, insurance status, and geographic region). Finally, we assessed if changes in knowledge and social engagement likelihood were associated with CRC screening intention. NM males had greater gains in CRC knowledge than NM females; in WA, Hispanics, younger, less educated, and uninsured participants had greater gains in knowledge. NM females and younger WA participants were more likely to discuss CRC with their social networks than NM males and older WA participants. In WA, Hispanics and older adults reported greater intention to be screened for CRC. Change in social engagement likelihood, but not knowledge, was associated with intention to be screened. The effectiveness of health promotion technologies on knowledge and social engagement may vary across different demographic characteristics. Further, the importance of social engagement likelihood in interacting with intention to be screened was substantiated.

  15. Intention understanding in autism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Boria

    Full Text Available When we observe a motor act (e.g. grasping a cup done by another individual, we extract, according to how the motor act is performed and its context, two types of information: the goal (grasping and the intention underlying it (e.g. grasping for drinking. Here we examined whether children with autistic spectrum disorder (ASD are able to understand these two aspects of motor acts. Two experiments were carried out. In the first, one group of high-functioning children with ASD and one of typically developing (TD children were presented with pictures showing hand-object interactions and asked what the individual was doing and why. In half of the "why" trials the observed grip was congruent with the function of the object ("why-use" trials, in the other half it corresponded to the grip typically used to move that object ("why-place" trials. The results showed that children with ASD have no difficulties in reporting the goals of individual motor acts. In contrast they made several errors in the why task with all errors occurring in the "why-place" trials. In the second experiment the same two groups of children saw pictures showing a hand-grip congruent with the object use, but within a context suggesting either the use of the object or its placement into a container. Here children with ASD performed as TD children, correctly indicating the agent's intention. In conclusion, our data show that understanding others' intentions can occur in two ways: by relying on motor information derived from the hand-object interaction, and by using functional information derived from the object's standard use. Children with ASD have no deficit in the second type of understanding, while they have difficulties in understanding others' intentions when they have to rely exclusively on motor cues.

  16. Lodging Update: Greater Boston

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Roginsky

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Pinnacle Advisory Group provides an update of lodging industry performance in New England and Boston for the first half of 2012. While the New England region outpaced the nation, the specific story varies from state to state. Only Massachusetts and Vermont achieved REVPAR performance better than the national average. A review of the Greater Boston lodging market reveals that a healthy local economy and strong convention calendar, combined with a number of one-time events and limited new supply, boosted the local market in 2012. The outlook for 2013 in Greater Boston remains positive, with expectations of a 4.7% growth in REVPAR.

  17. Exposure to violence and intentions to engage in moralistic violence during early adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkin, S; Kreiter, S; DuRant, R H

    2001-12-01

    This study examined young adolescents'intentions to use moralistic violence and their violence exposure, examining male-female differences. Sixth-grade students (n=702) from Georgia middle schools servicing impoverished communities participated. Data were obtained on the students' exposure to violence, family structure and education level, church attendance, gang interest, drug use, and depression status. The dependent variable, intention to use moralistic violence, was measured with an 11-item scale. Linear regression models were run separately for males and females. Males had significantly higher mean intention to use moralistic violence than females (p=0.002). Males reported being exposed to violence more than females, but exposure decreased as attendance to religious services increased. For these 11-12-year-olds, unconventional peer social norms, such as witnessing violence, increased their intention to use violence while involvement in conventional activities, such as church attendance, decreased it. The protective effect was greater for males than females.

  18. Brief Report: Understanding Intention to Be Physically Active and Physical Activity Behaviour in Adolescents from a Low Socio-Economic Status Background: An Application of the Theory of Planned Behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Michael J.; Rivis, Amanda; Jordan, Caroline

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this brief report is to report on the utility of the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) for predicting the physical activity intentions and behaviour of British adolescents from lower-than-average socio-economic backgrounds. A prospective questionnaire design was employed with 197, 13-14 year olds (76 males, 121 females). At time 1…

  19. Brief Report: Understanding Intention to Be Physically Active and Physical Activity Behaviour in Adolescents from a Low Socio-Economic Status Background: An Application of the Theory of Planned Behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Michael J.; Rivis, Amanda; Jordan, Caroline

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this brief report is to report on the utility of the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) for predicting the physical activity intentions and behaviour of British adolescents from lower-than-average socio-economic backgrounds. A prospective questionnaire design was employed with 197, 13-14 year olds (76 males, 121 females). At time 1…

  20. Reactance and Intentionality Attributions as Determinants of the Intent to File a Grievance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Michael E.; Bowlby, Roger L.

    1989-01-01

    Experimental studies were conducted in two unions to examine the effects of perceptual variables--reactance and intentionality attributions--on the intent to seek redress from management action. Based on participants' responses to a series of vignettes, both studies demonstrated that greater threat and dispositional attributions provoked stronger…

  1. Top-down modulation of brain activity underlying intentional action and its relationship with awareness of intention: an ERP/Laplacian analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigoni, Davide; Brass, Marcel; Roger, Clémence; Vidal, Franck; Sartori, Giuseppe

    2013-09-01

    Intentional actions are executed with the peculiar experience of "I decide to do that." It has been proposed that intentional actions involve a specific brain network involving the supplementary motor areas (SMAs). Here, we manipulated the internal representation participants attended to (intention vs. movement) in order to (1) examine the activity of SMAs and of the primary motor cortex (M1) during intentional action preparation and execution, and (2) investigate the temporal relationship between activity in these structures and intention awareness. Participants performed self-paced key presses. After each key press, participants were asked to report either the time they had the first intention to press the key (W-condition) or the time they actually started the movement (M-condition). We then estimated surface Laplacians from brain electrical potentials recorded while participants were performing the task. Activity in SMAs was greater in the W-condition than in the M-condition more than 1 s before electromyographic (EMG) activation, suggesting that this region is indeed associated to the formation of conscious intention. Conversely, activity in primary motor cortex (M1) contralateral to the responding hand was larger in the M-condition than in the W-condition, revealing that this region is also modulated by top-down processes. In addition, waveforms time-locked to the W-judgement revealed that M1 as well as EMG activation preceded the time at which participants become aware of their intention by about 0.3 s. This observation argues against the possibility that the temporal delay between motor-related activation and intention awareness results from smearing artifacts.

  2. [Greater trochanteric pain syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gollwitzer, H; Opitz, G; Gerdesmeyer, L; Hauschild, M

    2014-01-01

    Greater trochanteric pain is one of the common complaints in orthopedics. Frequent diagnoses include myofascial pain, trochanteric bursitis, tendinosis and rupture of the gluteus medius and minimus tendon, and external snapping hip. Furthermore, nerve entrapment like the piriformis syndrome must be considered in the differential diagnosis. This article summarizes essential diagnostic and therapeutic steps in greater trochanteric pain syndrome. Careful clinical evaluation, complemented with specific imaging studies and diagnostic infiltrations allows determination of the underlying pathology in most cases. Thereafter, specific nonsurgical treatment is indicated, with success rates of more than 90 %. Resistant cases and tendon ruptures may require surgical intervention, which can provide significant pain relief and functional improvement in most cases.

  3. 76 FR 71310 - Notice of Intent To Reduce the Frequency of Chemical Use Surveys and All Associated Reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-17

    ...; Production Practices and Costs Report (PPCR), and the Production Practices Report (PPR). The PPR component is... costs associated with the various production practices to complete the cost of production estimates for.... Soybeans. 2013 Vegetable Rice and Peanuts. 2014 Cotton Cotton. 2015 Corn and Potatoes (PPR).. To...

  4. What Is the Real Intention of The United States?-On US Presidential Report on “Tibetan Issue”

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUAZI

    2003-01-01

    On May 8, 2003, US President Bush submitted a report on the so-called “Tibetan issue” to Congressin accordance with Foreign Relations Authorization Act, 2003. The report US recognition of Tibet as part of China, but declared support for the 14th Dalai Lama in his pursuit of

  5. The Effect of Falsely Balanced Reporting of the Autism-Vaccine Controversy on Vaccine Safety Perceptions and Behavioral Intentions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Graham; Clarke, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    Controversy surrounding an autism-vaccine link has elicited considerable news media attention. Despite being widely discredited, research suggests that journalists report this controversy by presenting claims both for and against a link in a relatively "balanced" fashion. To investigate how this reporting style influences judgments of vaccine…

  6. Intention versus identification as determinants of adolescents' health behaviours: evidence and correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivis, Amanda; Sheeran, Paschal; Armitage, Christopher J

    2011-09-01

    The present study used a within-participants design to (a) assess the predictive validity of prototype identification versus intention for adolescents' health behaviours and (b) examine whether control of health behaviour by intention relative to identification is associated with key individual difference variables. Participants were school children (N = 136) who completed measures of intention, perceived behavioural control and prototype identification for 14 health-related behaviours at Time 1, and reported their behaviour 2 weeks later (Time 2). A hierarchical regression showed that prototype identification and intention exhibited similar predictive validity in the prediction of adolescents' health behaviour. Importantly, identification contributed an additional 6% to the variance in behaviour, after controlling for intention and perceived behavioural control from the theory of planned behaviour [TPB: Ajzen, I. ( 1991 ). The theory of planned behavior. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 50, 179-211.]. Additional analyses showed that greater social comparison tendencies, lower agreeableness, greater intellect and less emotional stability were all related to greater control of behaviour by prototype identification. The theoretical and practical implications of these findings are discussed.

  7. 29 CFR 825.311 - Intent to return to work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Intent to return to work. 825.311 Section 825.311 Labor... Intent to return to work. (a) An employer may require an employee on FMLA leave to report periodically on the employee's status and intent to return to work. The employer's policy regarding such reports...

  8. Intentionality, Representation, and Anticipation

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Preester, Helena

    2002-09-01

    Both Brentano and Merleau-Ponty have developed an account of intentionality, which nevertheless differ profoundly in the following respect. According to Brentano, intentionality mainly is a matter of mental presentations. This marks the beginning of phenomenology's difficult relation with the nature of the intentional reference. Merleau-Ponty, on the other hand, has situated intentionality on the level of the body, a turn which has important implications for the nature of intentionality. Intentionality no longer is primarily based on having (re)presentations, but is rooted in the dynamics of the living body. To contrast those approaches enables us to make clear in what way intentionality is studied nowadays. On the one hand, intentionality is conceived of as a matter of formal-syntactical causality in cognitive science, and in particular in classical-computational theory. On the other hand, a interactivist approach offers a more Merleau-Ponty-like point of view, in which autonomy, embodiment and interaction are stressed.

  9. Parental intention regarding the administration of the HPV vaccine for adolescent daughters in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mei-Chin; Chou, Cheng-Yang; Ma, Mi-Chia; Hsu, Yu-Yun Alice

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate parental intention regarding the human papilloma virus (HPV) vaccination for adolescent daughters. Parents or guardians of adolescent girls, aged 12-14 years, from junior high schools in Taiwan participated and completed a HPV vaccination intention survey based on the Theory of Planned Behavior. The survey was conducted from October to November, 2009. Most, 78%, of the respondents reported a high intention to vaccinate daughters against HPV. A high intention of vaccination was associated with a family history of gynecological tumors (adjusted odds ratio [OR]: 2.22, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.10-4.51) and HPV awareness (adjusted OR: 2.33, 95% CI: 1.45-3.76). Higher parental intention was reported by respondents with a positive attitude toward the HPV vaccine (adjusted OR: 6.83, 95% CI: 4.16-11.22), perceived greater influence of subjective norms (adjusted OR: 121.23, 95% CI: 42.69-344.21), greater perceived behavioral control (adjusted OR: 67.69, 95% CI: 16.40-279.41), and perceived that the vaccine had limited influence on adolescent sexual behavior (adjusted OR: 2.24, 95% CI: 1.41-3.78). Health-care professionals must be knowledgeable about the HPV and actively promote vaccination among adolescent girls. Improvements in vaccination can be achieved through recommendations by physicians and nurses.

  10. Does Stock Market Performance Influence Retirement Intentions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goda, Gopi Shah; Shoven, John B.; Slavov, Sita Nataraj

    2012-01-01

    Media reports predicted that the stock market decline in October 2008 would cause changes in retirement intentions, due to declines in retirement assets. We use panel data from the Health and Retirement Study to investigate the relationship between stock market performance and retirement intentions during 1998-2008, a period that includes the…

  11. Does Stock Market Performance Influence Retirement Intentions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goda, Gopi Shah; Shoven, John B.; Slavov, Sita Nataraj

    2012-01-01

    Media reports predicted that the stock market decline in October 2008 would cause changes in retirement intentions, due to declines in retirement assets. We use panel data from the Health and Retirement Study to investigate the relationship between stock market performance and retirement intentions during 1998-2008, a period that includes the…

  12. Mediator of moderators: temporal stability of intention and the intention-behavior relation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheeran, Paschal; Abraham, Charles

    2003-02-01

    Intention certainty, past behavior, self-schema, anticipated regret, and attitudinal versus normative control all have been found to moderate intention-behavior relations. It is argued that moderation occurs because these variables produce "strong" intentions. Stability of intention over time is a key index of intention strength. Consequently, it was hypothesized that temporal stability of intention would mediate moderation by these other moderators. Participants (N = 185) completed questionnaire measures of theory of planned behavior constructs and moderator variables at two time points and subsequently reported their exercise behavior. Findings showed that all of the moderators, including temporal stability, were associated with significant improvements in consistency between intention and behavior. Temporal stability also mediated the effects of the other moderators, supporting the study hypothesis.

  13. Public acceptance of management actions and judgments of responsibility for the wolves of the southern Greater Yellowstone Area: Report to Grand Teton National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Jonathan G.; Johnson, S. Shea; Shelby, Lori B.

    2005-01-01

    Introduction Wolves of Grand Teton National Park and the Greater Yellowstone Area Gray wolves (Canis lupus) appeared in Grand Teton National Park (GRTE) in October of 1998, two years after being reintroduced to Yellowstone National Park (YNP). Since that time, five packs have been within the GRTE borders - Gros Ventre Pack, Nez Perce Pack, Yellowstone Delta Pack, Teton Pack, and Green River Pack (Table 1). Wolves in the Greater Yellowstone Area are increasing and spreading out geographically (USFWS and others, 2004). This dispersion was demonstrated recently by the death of a 2-year-old female wolf from the Swan Lake pack on I-70 in Colorado (June 7, 2004; http://mountain-prairie.USFWS.gov/pressrel /04-43.htm). The organization of wolf packs in the GYA is dynamic and highly structured. In 2003, for example, a wolf from the Teton Pack joined with the Green River Pack, and several young wolves left the Teton Pack and moved south (USFWS and others, 2004). Pack size (averaging five to ten members) is dependent on hunting efficiency, which depends on prey size, type, and density. Each pack defends home ranges of several hundred square miles. The social structure of the pack is based on a breeding pair (an alpha male and female). Other wolves in the pack can be categorized as betas (males and/or females second in rank to the alphas), subordinates, pups, and occasional omegas (outcasts). Because generally only the alpha pair breeds, subordinate wolves of reproductive age must disperse from their packs and form new associations in order to breed. (http://www.nps.gov/grte/wolf/biolo.htm). The reintroduced wolves are classified by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) as "nonessential experimental" under section 10(j) of the Endangered Species Act. The recovery criteria for the GYA wolves were met in 2002 for removing the wolves from the Endangered Species List (30 or more breeding pairs). Currently, the USFWS manages wolf populations in the GYA until delisting occurs

  14. Dispositional optimism and perceived risk interact to predict intentions to learn genome sequencing results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taber, Jennifer M; Klein, William M P; Ferrer, Rebecca A; Lewis, Katie L; Biesecker, Leslie G; Biesecker, Barbara B

    2015-07-01

    Dispositional optimism and risk perceptions are each associated with health-related behaviors and decisions and other outcomes, but little research has examined how these constructs interact, particularly in consequential health contexts. The predictive validity of risk perceptions for health-related information seeking and intentions may be improved by examining dispositional optimism as a moderator, and by testing alternate types of risk perceptions, such as comparative and experiential risk. Participants (n = 496) had their genomes sequenced as part of a National Institutes of Health pilot cohort study (ClinSeq®). Participants completed a cross-sectional baseline survey of various types of risk perceptions and intentions to learn genome sequencing results for differing disease risks (e.g., medically actionable, nonmedically actionable, carrier status) and to use this information to change their lifestyle/health behaviors. Risk perceptions (absolute, comparative, and experiential) were largely unassociated with intentions to learn sequencing results. Dispositional optimism and comparative risk perceptions interacted, however, such that individuals higher in optimism reported greater intentions to learn all 3 types of sequencing results when comparative risk was perceived to be higher than when it was perceived to be lower. This interaction was inconsistent for experiential risk and absent for absolute risk. Independent of perceived risk, participants high in dispositional optimism reported greater interest in learning risks for nonmedically actionable disease and carrier status, and greater intentions to use genome information to change their lifestyle/health behaviors. The relationship between risk perceptions and intentions may depend on how risk perceptions are assessed and on degree of optimism. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.

  15. Emotional scenes elicit more pronounced self-reported emotional experience and greater EPN and LPP modulation when compared to emotional faces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thom, Nathaniel; Knight, Justin; Dishman, Rod; Sabatinelli, Dean; Johnson, Douglas C; Clementz, Brett

    2014-06-01

    Emotional faces and scenes carry a wealth of overlapping and distinct perceptual information. Despite widespread use in the investigation of emotional perception, expressive face and evocative scene stimuli are rarely assessed in the same experiment. Here, we evaluated self-reports of arousal and pleasantness, as well as early and late event-related potentials (e.g., N170, early posterior negativity [EPN], late positive potential [LPP]) as subjects viewed neutral and emotional faces and scenes, including contents representing anger, fear, and joy. Results demonstrate that emotional scenes were rated as more evocative than emotional faces, as only scenes produced elevated self-reports of arousal. In addition, viewing scenes resulted in more extreme ratings of pleasantness (and unpleasantness) than did faces. EEG results indicate that both expressive faces and emotional scenes evoke enhanced negativity in the N170 component, while the EPN and LPP components show significantly enhanced modulation only by scene, relative to face stimuli. These data suggest that viewing emotional scenes results in a more pronounced emotional experience that is associated with reliable modulation of visual event-related potentials that are implicated in emotional circuits in the brain.

  16. Basis of intentions as a moderator of the intention-health behavior relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conner, Mark; McEachan, Rosemary; Lawton, Rebecca; Gardner, Peter

    2016-03-01

    Previous research has shown that the degree to which individuals base their intentions on particular underlying cognitions (i.e., motives) significantly moderates the intention-behavior relationship. Studies have individually examined the moderating effect of intentions based on overall attitude, affective attitudes, injunctive norms, and moral norms. The present research used a within-persons approach to simultaneously test the moderating effects of intentions based on instrumental attitude, affective attitude, anticipated affective reactions, injunctive norms, descriptive norms, and moral norms on the intention-behavior relationship and the impact of controlling for intention stability, self-efficacy, and past behavior. Adults (N = 366) completed questionnaires assessing instrumental attitude, affective attitude, anticipated affective reactions, injunctive norms, descriptive norms, moral norms, self-efficacy and past behavior at baseline; intentions at baseline and 1-month follow-up; and behavior at 2-month follow-up for 20 health behaviors. The main outcome measures were the self-reported performance of 20 health behaviors. When tested simultaneously using multilevel modeling the only significant moderator of the intention-behavior relationship was the extent to which intentions were based on anticipated affective reactions (intentions more strongly based on anticipated affective reactions were significantly stronger predictors of behavior). This effect remained when we also controlled for intention stability (which also moderated the intention-behavior relationship), self-efficacy, and past behavior. Intentions based on anticipated affective reactions may be particularly important predictors of health behaviors. Studies manipulating such intentions to test their effects on behavior change are required. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. Exposure to Weight-Stigmatizing Media: Effects on Exercise Intentions, Motivation, and Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearl, Rebecca L; Dovidio, John F; Puhl, Rebecca M; Brownell, Kelly D

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the impact of exposure to weight-stigmatizing media on exercise intentions, motivation, and behavior, as well as to examine the interaction between this exposure and past experiences with weight stigma. A community sample of 72 women were randomly assigned to view a brief weight-stigmatizing or neutral video. Participants' choice of taking the stairs versus the elevator was observed before they completed measures of exercise intentions, motivation, and behavior; psychological well-being; and experiences with weight stigma. A follow-up survey was sent to participants 1 week later that assessed exercise behavior and intentions. Frequency of past weight stigma correlated with worse psychological well-being and more controlled (versus autonomous) exercise motivation. Significant interactions were found between past weight-stigmatizing experiences and exposure to the weight-stigmatizing video for outcomes of exercise intentions, behavior, and drive for thinness. Participants in the stigma condition with higher frequency of past experiences reported greater exercise intentions and behavior, along with higher drive for thinness. Past experiences of weight stigma interact with exposure to weight-stigmatizing media to increase exercise intentions and behavior, although this effect is accompanied by a heightened drive for thinness that may increase risk for long-term negative health consequences.

  18. Motivation, intentionality, and mind wandering: Implications for assessments of task-unrelated thought.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seli, Paul; Cheyne, James Allan; Xu, Mengran; Purdon, Christine; Smilek, Daniel

    2015-09-01

    Researchers of mind wandering frequently assume that (a) participants are motivated to do well on the tasks they are given, and (b) task-unrelated thoughts (TUTs) that occur during task performance reflect unintentional, unwanted thoughts that occur despite participants' best intentions to maintain task-focus. Given the relatively boring and tedious nature of most mind-wandering tasks, however, there is the possibility that some participants have little motivation to do well on such tasks, and that this lack of motivation might in turn result in increases specifically in intentional TUTs. In the present study, we explored these possibilities, finding that individuals reporting lower motivation to perform well on a sustained-attention task reported more intentional relative to unintentional TUTs compared with individuals reporting higher motivation. Interestingly, our results indicate that the extent to which participants engage in intentional versus unintentional TUTs does not differentially relate to performance: both types of off-task thought were found to be equally associated with performance decrements. Participants with low levels of task-motivation also engaged in more overall TUTs, however, and this increase in TUTs was associated with greater performance decrements. We discuss these findings in the context of the literature on mind wandering, highlighting the importance of assessing the intentionality of TUTs and motivation to perform well on tasks assessing mind wandering.

  19. The Effects of Alcohol on Intentions to Drink and Drive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Tara K.; And Others

    If people in a normal, baseline state are asked about certain behaviors, such as drinking and driving, they are likely to report negative intentions; however, the context within which intentions are assessed may significantly affect the relationship among attitudes, intentions, and behavior. Male undergraduates who completed a questionnaire about…

  20. Imaging the Intentional Stance in a Competitive Game

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gallagher, Helen; Jack, Anthony I.; Roepstorff, Andreas

    2002-01-01

    The "intentional stance" is the disposition to treat an entity as a rational agent, possessing particular beliefs, desires, and intentions, in order to interpret and predict it's behavior. The intentional stance is a component of a broader social cognitive function, mentalizing. Here we report...

  1. Hispanic adults' beliefs, attitudes, and intentions regarding the female condom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogart, L M; Cecil, H; Pinkerton, S D

    2000-04-01

    The present study used the theory of planned behavior (TPB) (Ajzen, 1985) augmented by AIDS knowledge to investigate factors influencing intentions of Hispanic adults to use the female condom. A total of 146 persons (75 women and 71 men; mean age, 27 years) recruited from community-based organizations completed an anonymous survey regarding intentions to use the female condom with their main sex partner. The TPB model had greater predictive utility for women's, than for men's, female condom use intentions. For men, attitudes and norms did not predict female condom use intentions, but greater AIDS knowledge was related to lower intentions to use the female condom, above and beyond the TPB constructs. Perceived behavioral control, operationalized as self-efficacy, significantly increased the predictive utility of the TPB model for women's female condom use intentions but not for men's. Behavior change strategies to increase female condom use are discussed in light of these findings.

  2. Design Intent for CAD Modeling Features Using Boolean Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonawane, Chandrakant R.; Sujit, Ghadge

    2017-05-01

    The objective of this paper is to add one more enhancement to design intent by adding a rule to find the intersection edges created between Boolean features. Design Intent is a core module in CAD software which is used for smart design of referencing elements to create required features. In general, the particular design intent will form a particular rule which can be utilized for specified purpose. In this paper, a design intent rule for Edge Blend feature is designed. The rule is also implemented and integrated with CAD software. The major contributions of this paper is to create a new intent design rule which picks the edges of the feature Present design intent rule is intended to pick the intersection edges of the feature, in doing so; the intent will avoid referencing to topology over referencing to hierarchy objects for greater reliability

  3. Attitudinal Explanation on Virtual Shopping Intention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ritzky Karina M.R. Brahmana

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Virtual stores provide great efficiency in the retail value chain, and their existence has tremendously paved the way for electronic commerce. Understanding the intention of consumers to shop online in attitudinal perspective will provide important contribution to the area of e-commerce. This research proposes Task Technology Fit, Perceived Ease of Use (PEoU, and Perceived Usefulness (PU as the factors that drive consumers’ intention. The results from our survey study of 310 online consumers in Indonesia indicate that TTF affects PEoU and PU significantly. Our hierarchical model also reports that PEoU is the mediating effect on the relationship between TTF and Intention. The resulting model explains a large portion of the factors that lead a user’s behavioural intention to use a virtual shop. Keywords : Attitudinal, Task Technology Fit, Perceived Ease of Use, Perceived Usefulness, Retail, Virtual Shopping Intention

  4. Mind-Wandering With and Without Intention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seli, Paul; Risko, Evan F; Smilek, Daniel; Schacter, Daniel L

    2016-08-01

    The past decade has seen a surge of research examining mind-wandering, but most of this research has not considered the potential importance of distinguishing between intentional and unintentional mind-wandering. However, a recent series of papers have demonstrated that mind-wandering reported in empirical investigations frequently occurs with and without intention, and, more crucially, that intentional and unintentional mind-wandering are dissociable. This emerging literature suggests that, to increase clarity in the literature, there is a need to reconsider the bulk of the mind-wandering literature with an eye toward deconvolving these two different cognitive experiences. In this review we highlight recent trends in investigations of the intentionality of mind-wandering, and we outline a novel theoretical framework regarding the mechanisms underlying intentional and unintentional mind-wandering.

  5. The time between intention and action affect the experience of action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikkel C. Vinding

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available We present a study investigating how the delay between the intention to act and the following action, influenced the experience of action. In experiments investigating sense of agency and experience of action, the contrast is most often between voluntary and involuntary actions. It is rarely asked whether different types of intentions influence the experience of action differently. To investigate this we distinguished between proximal intentions (i.e. intentions for immediate actions and delayed intentions (i.e. intentions with a temporal delay between intention and action. The distinction was implemented in an intentional binding paradigm, by varying the delay between the time where participants formed the intention to act and the time at which they performed the action. The results showed that delayed intentions were followed by a stronger binding effect for the tone following the action compared to proximal intentions. The actions were reported to have occurred earlier for delayed intentions than for proximal intentions. This effect was independent of the binding effect usually found in intentional binding experiments. This suggests that two perceptual shifts occurred in the contrast between delayed intentions and proximal intentions: The first being the binding effect, the second a general shift in the perceived time of action. Neither the stronger binding effect for tone, nor the earlier reports of action, differed across delays for delayed intentions. The results imply that delayed intentions and proximal intentions have a different impact on the experience of action.

  6. How Does Supervisor Support Influence Turnover Intent Among Frontline Hospital Workers? The Mediating Role of Affective Commitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Helen M; Swanberg, Jennifer E; Bright, Charlotte Lyn

    2016-01-01

    Turnover among frontline hospital service workers can disrupt organizational effectiveness, reduce profitability, and limit the ability to provide high-quality, patient-centered care. This concern is compounded by the increasing reliance on frontline supervisors to manage this workforce, often without necessary training and support. However, research addressing the relationship between frontline supervisor support and intent to turnover among service workers and the process by which these variables are related is limited. By surveying 270 housekeeping and dietary service workers employed at 2 US hospitals, this study examined the relationship between supervisor support and turnover intent and assessed the mediating role of affective commitment between supervisor support and intent to turnover. Turnover intentions were lower for workers who reported greater levels of supervisor support and affective commitment; both supervisor support and affective commitment were significant predictors of turnover intent when tested individually. However, when controlling for affective commitment, supervisor support no longer predicted turnover intent, indicating that affective commitment fully mediated the relationship between supervisor support and intent to turnover. Implications for further research and organizational practice are discussed.

  7. Intentional burns in Nepal: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lama, Bir Bahadur; Duke, Janine M; Sharma, Narayan Prasad; Thapa, Buland; Dahal, Peeyush; Bariya, Nara Devi; Marston, Wendy; Wallace, Hilary J

    2015-09-01

    Intentional burns injuries are associated with high mortality rates, and for survivors, high levels of physical and psychological morbidity. This study provides a comprehensive assessment of intentional burn admissions to the adult Burns Unit at Bir Hospital, Kathmandu, Nepal, during the period 2002-2013. A secondary data analysis of de-identified data of patients hospitalized at Bir Hospital, Kathmandu, with a burn during the period of 1 January 2002 to 31 August 2013. Socio-demographic, injury and psychosocial factors of patients with intentional and unintentional burns are described and compared. Chi-square tests, Fisher's exact test and Wilcoxon rank sum tests were used to determine statistical significance. There were a total of 1148 burn admissions of which 329 (29%) were for intentional burn, 293 (26%) were self-inflicted and 36 (3%) were due to assault. Mortality rates for intentional burns were approximately three times those for unintentional burns (60 vs. 22%). When compared to unintentional burns, patients with intentional burns were more likely to be female (79 vs. 48%), married (84 vs. 67%), younger (25 vs. 30 years), have more extensive burns (total body surface area, %: 55 vs. 25) and higher mortality (60 vs. 22%). Intentional burns were more likely to occur at home (95 vs. 67%), be caused by fire (96 vs. 77%), and kerosene was the most common accelerant (91 vs. 31%). A primary psychosocial risk factor was identified in the majority of intentional burn cases, with 60% experiencing adjustment problems/interpersonal conflict and 32% with evidence of a pre-existing psychological condition. A record of alcohol/substance abuse related to the patient or other was associated with a greater proportion of intentional burns when compared with unintentional burns (17 vs. 4%). The majority of intentional burn patients were female. Almost all intentional burns occurred in the home and were caused by fire, with kerosene the most common accelerant used. Underlying

  8. Investigation and analysis of influencing factors of adverse events report intent among clinical nurses%临床护士不良事件报告习惯调查分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛秋云; 翟荣慧; 仲丽霞; 张伟

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate adverse events report intent and its influencing factors in clinical nurses. Methods Questionnaire investigation was conducted among 917 clinical nurses from ten hospitals in Tai'an city using the Intent to Report Questionnaire. Results The score of clinical nurses adverse events report intent was 36.80 ± 19.71. The score of each dimension in descending order were:nurses operation adverse events, system process adverse events, and patient care adverse events. Hospital levels were significant influencing factors of clinical nurses adverse events report intent. Pressure sores were the most frequently reported, and report of patient injury caused by unreasonable nurse manpower allocation was the lowest frequency. Conclusions The level of clinical nurses adverse events report intent need to be improved. Nursing managers should pay attention to improve nurse reporting adverse event in order to better promote the safety of patients and reduce occurrence of adverse event.%目的:调查临床护士不良事件报告习惯现况及其影响因素。方法采用护理不良事件报告习惯量表,对泰安市10所医院的917名临床护士进行问卷调查。结果临床护士不良事件报告习惯得分为(36.80±19.71)分;各类事件平均得分由高到低依次为:护士操作类不良事件、系统流程类不良事件和患者照护类不良事件;临床护士不良事件报告习惯的影响因素只有医院级别;压疮的报告频率最高,而护士人力配置不合理导致患者伤害的报告频率最低。结论临床护士不良事件报告习惯水平有待提高,护理管理者要注重提高护士不良事件报告习惯,主动上报不良事件,以更好地提高患者安全管理水平,降低不良事件的发生率。

  9. Incorporation of Therapeutic Interventions in Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetic Modeling of Human Clinical Case Reports of Accidental or Intentional Overdosing with Ethylene Glycol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corley, Rick A.; McMartin, K. E.

    2005-05-16

    Ethylene glycol is a high production volume chemical used in the manufacture of resins and fibers, antifreeze, deicing fluids, heat transfer and hydraulic fluids. Although occupational uses of ethylene glycol have not been associated with adverse effects, there are case reports where humans have either intentionally or accidentally ingested large quantities of ethylene glycol, primarily from antifreeze. The acute toxicity of ethylene glycol in humans and animals and can proceed through three stages, each associated with a different metabolite: central nervous system depression (ethylene glycol), cardiopulmonary effects associated with metabolic acidosis (glycolic acid) and ultimately renal toxicity (oxalic acid), depending upon the total amounts consumed and effectiveness of therapeutic interventions. A physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model developed in a companion paper (Corley et al., 2004) was refined in this study to include clinically relevant treatment regimens for ethylene glycol poisoning such as hemodialysis or metabolic inhibition with either ethanol or fomepizole. Such modifications enabled the model to describe several human case reports which included analysis of ethylene glycol and/or glycolic acid. Such data and model simulations provide important confirmation that the PBPK model developed previously can adequately describe the pharmacokinetics of ethylene glycol in humans following low, occupational or environmentally relevant inhalation exposures, as well as massive oral doses even under conditions where treatments have been employed that markedly affect the disposition of ethylene glycol and glycolic acid. By integrating the case report data sets with controlled studies in this PBPK model, it was demonstrated that fomepizole, if administered early enough in a clinical situation, can be more effective than ethanol or hemodialysis in preventing the metabolism of ethylene glycol to more toxic metabolites. Hemodialysis remains an

  10. Principle-based concept analysis: intentionality in holistic nursing theories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghebati, Nahid; Mohammadi, Eesa; Ahmadi, Fazlollah; Noaparast, Khosrow Bagheri

    2015-03-01

    This is a report of a principle-based concept analysis of intentionality in holistic nursing theories. A principle-based concept analysis method was used to analyze seven holistic theories. The data included eight books and 31 articles (1998-2011), which were retrieved through MEDLINE and CINAHL. Erickson, Kriger, Parse, Watson, and Zahourek define intentionality as a capacity, a focused consciousness, and a pattern of human being. Rogers and Newman do not explicitly mention intentionality; however, they do explain pattern and consciousness (epistemology). Intentionality has been operationalized as a core concept of nurse-client relationships (pragmatic). The theories are consistent on intentionality as a noun and as an attribute of the person-intentionality is different from intent and intention (linguistic). There is ambiguity concerning the boundaries between intentionality and consciousness (logic). Theoretically, intentionality is an evolutionary capacity to integrate human awareness and experience. Because intentionality is an individualized concept, we introduced it as "a matrix of continuous known changes" that emerges in two forms: as a capacity of human being and as a capacity of transpersonal caring. This study has produced a theoretical definition of intentionality and provides a foundation for future research to further investigate intentionality to better delineate its boundaries. © The Author(s) 2014.

  11. Becoming an intentional teacher.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugh, B J

    1991-01-01

    This series of articles, Managing Your Academic Career, presents ways to intentionally improve your teaching. This first article explains the concept of becoming an intention teacher. Subsequent articles will deal with strategies that are useful in clinical teaching, such as preparing students to value and use research in practice, and providing feedback to students in the clinical setting.

  12. Revisiting Phenomenal Intentionality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farid Masrour

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This essay has two goals. The goal of the first section is to raise a few clarificatory questions about the exact contour of Crane’s account of intentionality, its relation to phenomenology, and his motivation for it. The second section aims to describe a general worry about programs that combine a broadly anti-externalist outlook on intentionality with the idea that there is an intimate connection between phenomenology and intentionality. I argue that programs like this either suffer from a problem that I call intentional luck or, in the attempt to avoid this problem, have to weaken the connection between intentionality and phenomenology. Since Crane’s general outlook falls under this program, it is subject to this worry.

  13. RoadSense : a success? : effects on behavioural intention and opinions. Report on behalf of Mercedes-Benz Nederland B.V.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Twisk, D.A.M. & Vlakveld, W.P.

    2011-01-01

    Mercedes-Benz commissioned the present study in order to investigate the magnitude and nature of the road risk of young car passengers in the Netherlands, and to assess the effects of the RoadSense programme on their behavioural intentions and opinions. Using questionnaires, a before and after study

  14. Commitment and the emigration intentions of South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-03-11

    Mar 11, 2013 ... This work is licensed under the .... This implies that high commitment to a country should reduce .... rotation were conducted on the intention to quit items and .... found that positive managerial strategy can generate greater.

  15. Factors influencing intention to purchase beef in the Irish market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, M; de Boer, M; O'Reilly, S; Cotter, L

    2003-11-01

    This paper reports on the findings of a study into consumer perceptions towards beef and the influence of these perceptions on consumption. Fishbein and Ajzen's [Belief, attitude, intention and behaviour. An introduction to theory and research (1995) Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley] Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA) provided a useful framework for this analysis. The influence of attitudes and important others (subjective norm) on intention to consume beef were explored. The findings support the usefulness of this model in understanding behaviour towards beef. In this study both attitude and the subjective norm influenced intention to consume beef, but it was attitude that was of greater importance. Health, eating enjoyment and safety were most important determinants of attitude with price, environment and animal welfare less so. An evaluation of the impact of the introduction of new information which related to one belief (health) was also conducted. Those indicating that they would consider increasing their consumption of beef had a more positive attitude towards beef and had more positive health and eating enjoyment beliefs about beef than the 'no' group who had significantly higher safety concerns.

  16. Mobile intention recognition

    CERN Document Server

    Kiefer, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Mobile Intention Recognition addresses problems of practical relevance for mobile system engineers: how can we make mobile assistance systems more intelligent? How can we model and recognize patterns of human behavior which span more than a limited spatial context? This text provides an overview on plan and intention recognition, ranging from the late 1970s to very recent approaches. This overview is unique as it discusses approaches with respect to the specificities of mobile intention recognition. This book covers problems from research on mobile assistance systems using methods from artific

  17. Intention estimation in brain-machine interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Joline M.; Nuyujukian, Paul; Kao, Jonathan C.; Chestek, Cynthia A.; Ryu, Stephen I.; Shenoy, Krishna V.

    2014-02-01

    Objective. The objective of this work was to quantitatively investigate the mechanisms underlying the performance gains of the recently reported ‘recalibrated feedback intention-trained Kalman Filter’ (ReFIT-KF). Approach. This was accomplished by designing variants of the ReFIT-KF algorithm and evaluating training and online data to understand the neural basis of this improvement. We focused on assessing the contribution of two training set innovations of the ReFIT-KF algorithm: intention estimation and the two-stage training paradigm. Main results. Within the two-stage training paradigm, we found that intention estimation independently increased target acquisition rates by 37% and 59%, respectively, across two monkeys implanted with multiunit intracortical arrays. Intention estimation improved performance by enhancing the tuning properties and the mutual information between the kinematic and neural training data. Furthermore, intention estimation led to fewer shifts in channel tuning between the training set and online control, suggesting that less adaptation was required during online control. Retraining the decoder with online BMI training data also reduced shifts in tuning, suggesting a benefit of training a decoder in the same behavioral context; however, retraining also led to slower online decode velocities. Finally, we demonstrated that one- and two-stage training paradigms performed comparably when intention estimation is applied. Significance. These findings highlight the utility of intention estimation in reducing the need for adaptive strategies and improving the online performance of BMIs, helping to guide future BMI design decisions.

  18. Is Intentionality Real Enough?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Paternoster

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available According to Crane intentionality is nothing less than the mark of the mental. Nonetheless, there are many issues raised by this concept, beginning with the problem of non-existent relata. In this comment-article I discuss the concept of intentionality in its generality, trying to state its ontological status and to assess its explanatory dispensability. In particular, I focus on the argument, addressed by Crane, whereby Wittgenstein eliminates intentionality, characterizing it as a grammatical fiction, a pseudo-entity created by the grammar of the language of mental states ascriptions. I will argue that: (1 although Crane’s specific argument against Wittgenstein is not conclusive, Wittgenstein’s linguistic strategy does not work; and yet (2 we should not be committed to a robust realist (that is, ontologically strong account of intentionality.

  19. Investigating the Image of Japanese Food on Intention of Behavior: Indonesian Intention to Visit Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mega Mirasaputri Cahyanti

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Country-of-Origin Image (COI has been recognized as a possible factor to influence the image of product especially toward international products. COI occurred due to the consumer’s behavior which uses the nation image on some international products to consider the quality before they build a bearing on the products. The better the country’s image in some products, the greater influence and impact will be given to their products image. Many previous studies have been done on COI toward foreign products, focused on the intention behavior. The intention behavior in this study is including a purchase intention or intention to try a product. However, research about its impact in the term of tourism is limited. Moreover, the use of international food as an object is limited as well. This study addressed an insight of tourism impact about Indonesian intention to visit Japan which influenced by image of Japanese food, which given by country’s image (Japan. The results showed that the image of Japanese food perceived after they consumed it, significantly influence an intention to visit Japan. Therefore, marketing and promotions of a countries as one entity should focus to use their traditional food (international product for other people from other countries to promote their country as tourism destination. Keywords: Country of Origin Image (COI, Intention to Visit a Country, International food.

  20. Implementation intentions, perfectionism, and goal progress: perhaps the road to hell is paved with good intentions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Theodore A; Koestner, Richard; Topciu, Raluca A

    2005-07-01

    Two studies explored whether perfectionism moderates the impact of implementation intentions on goal progress. Study 1 used an implementation intention manipulation to examine the effects of these plans in interaction with perfectionism on the progress of New Year's resolutions. Study 2 added a repeated implementation intention condition and monitored affect and monthly goal progress. The results of both studies revealed a significant backfire effect of the implementation intentions on goal progress for participants high on a particular dimension of perfectionism (socially prescribed perfectionism). These perfectionists reported doing significantly worse at reaching their personal goals when they were asked to formulate implementation intentions than when they completed a control exercise. There also was evidence that implementation planning aroused negative affect for socially prescribed perfectionists. These results are the first to suggest that implementation planning may be contra-indicated for individuals with self-critical tendencies.

  1. Conscientiousness predicts greater recovery from negative emotion

    OpenAIRE

    Kristin N Javaras; Schaefer, Stacey M.; van Reekum, Carien M.; Lapate, Regina C.; Greischar, Lawrence L.; Bachuber, David R.; Love, Gale; Ryff, Carol D.; Richard J Davidson

    2012-01-01

    Greater levels of conscientiousness have been associated with lower levels of negative affect. We focus on one mechanism through which conscientiousness may decrease\\ud negative affect: effective emotion regulation, as reflected by greater recovery from negative stimuli. In 273 adults who were 35 - 85 years old, we collected self-report measures of personality including conscientiousness and its self-control facet, followed\\ud on average 2 years later by psychophysiological measures of emotio...

  2. A Principle of Intentionality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Charles K.

    2017-01-01

    The mainstream theories and models of the physical sciences, including neuroscience, are all consistent with the principle of causality. Wholly causal explanations make sense of how things go, but are inherently value-neutral, providing no objective basis for true beliefs being better than false beliefs, nor for it being better to intend wisely than foolishly. Dennett (1987) makes a related point in calling the brain a syntactic (procedure-based) engine. He says that you cannot get to a semantic (meaning-based) engine from there. He suggests that folk psychology revolves around an intentional stance that is independent of the causal theories of the brain, and accounts for constructs such as meanings, agency, true belief, and wise desire. Dennett proposes that the intentional stance is so powerful that it can be developed into a valid intentional theory. This article expands Dennett’s model into a principle of intentionality that revolves around the construct of objective wisdom. This principle provides a structure that can account for all mental processes, and for the scientific understanding of objective value. It is suggested that science can develop a far more complete worldview with a combination of the principles of causality and intentionality than would be possible with scientific theories that are consistent with the principle of causality alone. PMID:28223954

  3. Greater omentum in reconstruction of refractory wounds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈余明; 沈祖尧

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the clinical efficacy of greater omentum in reconstruction of refractory wounds. Methods: From August 1988 to May 2001, 20 patients with refractory wound underwent pedicle or microvascular free transfer of the greater omentum. Indications of surgery were electrical injury of the wrist and hand in 9 patients, electrical injury of the scalp and cranial bones in 3, avulsion injury of the scalp in 2, radiation-related ulcer of the chest wall in 2, ulcer and osteomyelitis following resection of the sternum sarcoma in 1, electrical injury of the abdomen in 1, bone and soft tissue defects following compound fracture of the leg in 1, and extensive scar and ulcer of the leg and footdrop following trauma in 1. Severe infection and extensive tissue necrosis were present prior to surgical operation in 12 patients. Eleven patients were treated with pedicled omental flaps, and 9 patients with free omental flaps. The size of the omental flaps ranged from 20 cm×12 cm to 38 cm×23 cm. Results: All the omental flaps survived. Healing at the first intention of the wounds was achieved in 17 cases. The on-top skin grafts resulted in partial necrosis of lipid liquefaction developed in the omentum and healed with dressing change in 2 cases. A sinus tract of osteomyelitis occurred in one case and healed after delayed excision of the necrosed bone. Follow-up study of all cases from 3 to 24 months showed no recurrent wounds and post-operative abdominal complication. Recovery with acceptable appearance and restoration of function was satisfactory. Conclusions: Greater omentum provides a well-vascularized tissue with lymphatic ducts for wound coverage. It has strong resistance against infection. It is very malleable and can be molded easily. Therefore it is an ideal tissue in filling cavities and repairing defects, especially in covering large and irregular defects that can not be treated with skin or muscle flaps.

  4. Conscientiousness predicts greater recovery from negative emotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javaras, Kristin N; Schaefer, Stacey M; van Reekum, Carien M; Lapate, Regina C; Greischar, Lawrence L; Bachhuber, David R; Love, Gayle Dienberg; Ryff, Carol D; Davidson, Richard J

    2012-10-01

    Greater levels of conscientiousness have been associated with lower levels of negative affect. We focus on one mechanism through which conscientiousness may decrease negative affect: effective emotion regulation, as reflected by greater recovery from negative stimuli. In 273 adults who were 35-85 years old, we collected self-report measures of personality including conscientiousness and its self-control facet, followed on average 2 years later by psychophysiological measures of emotional reactivity and recovery. Among middle-aged adults (35-65 years old), the measures of conscientiousness and self-control predicted greater recovery from, but not reactivity to, negative emotional stimuli. The effect of conscientiousness and self-control on recovery was not driven by other personality variables or by greater task adherence on the part of high conscientiousness individuals. In addition, the effect was specific to negative emotional stimuli and did not hold for neutral or positive emotional stimuli.

  5. Husserl on Collective Intentionality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Szanto, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Unlike Husserl’s theory of empathy and intersubjectivity, his theory of collective intentionality has hardly been studied. In this paper, I shall address this neglected but important aspect of his phenomenology. I will argue that Husserl’s contribution, on closer scrutiny, not only stands......, respectively. On this background, I will concentrate on Husserl’s alternative construal and demonstrate how it entails a robust anti-individualism regarding both the form and the subject of we-intentions. I will suggest that, contrary to appearances, Husserl does not fall prey to committing a content...

  6. Intentions and willingness to drive while drowsy among university students: An application of an extended theory of planned behavior model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Clark J; Geiger-Brown, Jeanne; Beck, Kenneth H

    2016-08-01

    A web-based questionnaire was used to assess the utility of constructs from the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) and the Prototype Willingness Model (PWM) to predict intentions and willingness to engage in drowsy driving in a sample of 450 university students. Those students who reported more favorable attitudes and subjective norm and greater perceived control and willingness in relation to drowsy driving behavior were more likely to report stronger intentions to engage in drowsy driving behavior. Augmenting the TPB constructs with the PWM construct of willingness significantly explained up to an additional 8 percent of the variance in drowsy driving intention. Perceived behavioral control and willingness were consistently the strongest predictors of drowsy driving intention in the augmented model, which together with the control (personal) variables explained up to 70 percent of the variance in intention. Thus, the Theory of Planned Behavior and the Prototype Willingness Model may be useful for understanding motivational influences on drowsy driving behavior in young people and present promising theoretical frameworks for designing more effective interventions against drowsy driving in this population.

  7. Intentional minds: A philosophical analysis of intention tested through fMRI experiments involving people with schizophrenia, people with autism, and healthy individuals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno G Bara

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we show how we empirically tested one of the most relevant topics in philosophy of mind through a series of fMRI experiments: the classification of different types of intention. To this aim, firstly we trace a theoretical distinction among private, prospective and communicative intentions. Second, we propose a set of predictions concerning the recognition of these three types of intention in healthy individuals, and we report the experimental results corroborating our theoretical model of intention. Third, we derive from our model predictions relevant for the domain of psychopathological functioning. In particular, we treat the cases of both hyper-intentionality (as in paranoid schizophrenia and hypo-intentionality (as in autistic spectrum disorders. Our conclusion is that the theoretical model of intention we propose contributes to enlarge our knowledge on the neurobiological bases of intention processing, in both healthy people and in people with impairments to the neurocognitive system that underlies intention recognition.

  8. Husserl on Collective Intentionality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Szanto, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    on an equal footing with contemporary analytic accounts but, indeed, helps to alleviate some of their shortcomings. In particular, I will elaborate on the differences in the social integration of individuals and collectives in terms of intersubjective, social, communal and collective intentionality...

  9. Intentionality Versus Constructive Empiricism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.A.I. Buekens; F.A. Muller (Archibald)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractBy focussing on the intentional character of observation in science, we argue that Constructive Empiricism-B. C. van Fraassen's much debated and explored view of science-is inconsistent. We then argue there are at least two ways out of our Inconsistency Argument, one of which is more eas

  10. Intentional Design for Empowerment

    CERN Document Server

    Podolefsky, Noah

    2013-01-01

    I argue for empowering education, adapting Marx's idea of ownership of the means of production, and discuss interactive simulations as one example of a tool in which intentional design can support student ownership of learning. I propose a model that leverages affordances of educational tools to do positive work toward empowering education.

  11. Evilness as intention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertelsen, Preben

    2005-01-01

    be held responsible for. A basic model of human activity is presented based on human connectedness to the world in general and on co-existence as a core of the human condition in particular. Genuine evilness is defined as intentional detachment from and destruction of human co-existence. This definition...

  12. Intentionality Versus Constructive Empiricism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.A.I. Buekens; F.A. Muller (Archibald)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractBy focussing on the intentional character of observation in science, we argue that Constructive Empiricism-B. C. van Fraassen's much debated and explored view of science-is inconsistent. We then argue there are at least two ways out of our Inconsistency Argument, one of which is more

  13. Network mechanisms of intentional learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampshire, Adam; Hellyer, Peter J; Parkin, Beth; Hiebert, Nole; MacDonald, Penny; Owen, Adrian M; Leech, Robert; Rowe, James

    2016-02-15

    The ability to learn new tasks rapidly is a prominent characteristic of human behaviour. This ability relies on flexible cognitive systems that adapt in order to encode temporary programs for processing non-automated tasks. Previous functional imaging studies have revealed distinct roles for the lateral frontal cortices (LFCs) and the ventral striatum in intentional learning processes. However, the human LFCs are complex; they house multiple distinct sub-regions, each of which co-activates with a different functional network. It remains unclear how these LFC networks differ in their functions and how they coordinate with each other, and the ventral striatum, to support intentional learning. Here, we apply a suite of fMRI connectivity methods to determine how LFC networks activate and interact at different stages of two novel tasks, in which arbitrary stimulus-response rules are learnt either from explicit instruction or by trial-and-error. We report that the networks activate en masse and in synchrony when novel rules are being learnt from instruction. However, these networks are not homogeneous in their functions; instead, the directed connectivities between them vary asymmetrically across the learning timecourse and they disengage from the task sequentially along a rostro-caudal axis. Furthermore, when negative feedback indicates the need to switch to alternative stimulus-response rules, there is additional input to the LFC networks from the ventral striatum. These results support the hypotheses that LFC networks interact as a hierarchical system during intentional learning and that signals from the ventral striatum have a driving influence on this system when the internal program for processing the task is updated.

  14. Daniel Dennett: intentionality system. An interpretation of intentional strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viorel ROTILĂ

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we show some of the meanings in which Daniel Dennett uses the term intentionality, in an attempt to establish to it the quality of key concept for understanding the mind, namely consciousness. By analyzing the American thinker’s ideas, we consider that in all of them an intentionality system can be identified, which includes the approaches and different names that he dedicates to this concept. Qualitative differences in the discourse about intentionality can open the way of the approach of intentionality from an evolutionary perspective, indicating the changes over time. The intentionality system is a proposal for understanding Dennett’s thinking in a coherent paradigm.

  15. Product Design and intentional Emergence facilitated by Serious Play

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mabugunje, Ade; Hansen, Poul H. Kyvsgård; Eris, Ozgur;

    2008-01-01

    "In this paper we discuss the phenomenon "intentional emergence" in a product development process context. We point to play as an enabler for intentional emergence and report on experiences with the Lego Serious Play method. Following our initial empirical experiences we identify six central...

  16. The Unfolding Impact of Leader Identity Entrepreneurship on Burnout, Work Engagement, and Turnover Intentions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steffens, Niklas K; Yang, Jie; Jetten, Jolanda; Haslam, S Alexander; Lipponen, Jukka

    2017-07-27

    The present research expands upon previous theory and empirical work concerning the leadership-health link by examining the lagged effects of leader identity entrepreneurship (i.e., leaders' creation of a sense of "we" and "us" among team members) on team members' burnout, work engagementi and turnover intentions. We report results from a 2-wave field study with employees from a large solar panel producing organization in China conducted over a 10-month period. Findings indicate that perceived leader identity entrepreneurship predicted greater subsequent work engagement among team members, as well as lower subsequent burnout and turnover intentions. Moreover, effects on reduced turnover intentions were mediated by reduced burnout and increased work engagement. These findings are the first to examine how leader identity entrepreneurship impacts subsequent employee health and turnover intentions and suggest that leaders help to promote health and well-being in the workplace by creating and developing a sense of shared identity among those they lead. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. Ethics without Intention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di Nucci, Ezio

    Ethics Without Intention tackles the questions raised by difficult moral dilemmas by providing a critical analysis of double effect and its most common ethical and political applications. The book discusses the philosophical distinction between intended harm and foreseen but unintended harm....... This distinction, which, according to the doctrine of double effect, makes a difference to the moral justification of actions, is widely applied to some of the most controversial ethical and political questions of our time: collateral damages in wars and acts of terrorism; palliative care, euthanasia, abortion...... of our time. An engaging and comprehensive introduction to the doctrine of double effect. - See more at: http://www.bloomsbury.com/uk/ethics-without-intention-9781472525796/#sthash.NKISOPL8.dpuf...

  18. Bayesian Games with Intentions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Bjorndahl

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available We show that standard Bayesian games cannot represent the full spectrum of belief-dependent preferences. However, by introducing a fundamental distinction between intended and actual strategies, we remove this limitation. We define Bayesian games with intentions, generalizing both Bayesian games and psychological games, and prove that Nash equilibria in psychological games correspond to a special class of equilibria as defined in our setting.

  19. Investigators find hundreds of intentional nuclear releases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lobsenz, G.

    1994-10-24

    Investigators with the federal Advisory Committee on Human Radiation Experiments have said that the category of intentional releases is now known to be larger, in variety and quantity, than the 13 releases identified prior to the committee`s formation in January 1994 by President Clinton. The committee is now aware of hundreds of additional intentional releases. In addition to the intentional releases, the committee said it had compiled documents on 400 biomedical experiments involving radiation prior to 1975, and had at least fragmentary evidence of more than 1,000 more. The committee also discovered a top secret 1953 Defense Department policy statement on human experimentation that was based on the World War II-era Nuremberg Code. The committee said it was looking into how or whether the policy was implemented. The committee is expected to issue a final report, including recommendations on possible compensation for victims by April 1995.

  20. The neural correlates of emotion regulation by implementation intentions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glyn P Hallam

    Full Text Available Several studies have investigated the neural basis of effortful emotion regulation (ER but the neural basis of automatic ER has been less comprehensively explored. The present study investigated the neural basis of automatic ER supported by 'implementation intentions'. 40 healthy participants underwent fMRI while viewing emotion-eliciting images and used either a previously-taught effortful ER strategy, in the form of a goal intention (e.g., try to take a detached perspective, or a more automatic ER strategy, in the form of an implementation intention (e.g., "If I see something disgusting, then I will think these are just pixels on the screen!", to regulate their emotional response. Whereas goal intention ER strategies were associated with activation of brain areas previously reported to be involved in effortful ER (including dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, ER strategies based on an implementation intention strategy were associated with activation of right inferior frontal gyrus and ventro-parietal cortex, which may reflect the attentional control processes automatically captured by the cue for action contained within the implementation intention. Goal intentions were also associated with less effective modulation of left amygdala, supporting the increased efficacy of ER under implementation intention instructions, which showed coupling of orbitofrontal cortex and amygdala. The findings support previous behavioural studies in suggesting that forming an implementation intention enables people to enact goal-directed responses with less effort and more efficiency.

  1. [Autoerotic fatalities in Greater Dusseldorf].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartung, Benno; Hellen, Florence; Borchard, Nora; Huckenbeck, Wolfgang

    2011-01-01

    Autoerotic fatalities in the Greater Dusseldorf area correspond to the relevant medicolegal literature. Our results included exclusively young to middle-aged, usually single men who were found dead in their city apartments. Clothing and devices used showed a great variety. Women's or fetish clothing and complex shackling or hanging devices were disproportionately frequent. In most cases, death occurred due to hanging or ligature strangulation. There was no increased incidence of underlying psychiatric disorders. In most of the deceased no or at least no remarkable alcohol intoxication was found. Occasionally, it may be difficult to reliably differentiate autoerotic accidents, accidents occurring in connection with practices of bondage & discipline, dominance & submission (BDSM) from natural death, suicide or homicide.

  2. REAL INTENTIONALITY V.2: WHY INTENTIONALITY ENTAILS CONSCIOUSNESS?

    OpenAIRE

    Strawson, Galen

    2005-01-01

    Intentionality is an essentially mental, essentially occurrent, and essentially experiential (conscious) phenomenon. Any attempt to characterize intentionality that detaches it from conscious experience faces two insuperable problems. First, it is obliged to concede that almost everything (if not everything) has intentionality—all the way down to subatomic particles. Second, it has the consequence that everything that has intentionality has far too much of it—perhaps an infinite amount. The k...

  3. Impact of conscious intent on chunking during motor learning

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Song, Sunbin; Cohen, Leonardo

    2014-01-01

    ...." Such chunks are defined by the faster speed of performance of groups of movements. The purpose of this report is to determine how conscious intent to learn impacts chunking, an issue that remains unknown...

  4. Physics in Canadian Secondary Schools: Intentions, Perceptions, and Achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finegold, Menahem; Raphael, Dennis

    1988-01-01

    Reports on an analysis of secondary school physics teaching with respect to three aspects of curriculum. Indicates that limited but significant relationships exist among intentions, translations, and achievement in the teaching of physics in Canadian secondary schools. (TW)

  5. Greater trochanter apophysitis in the adolescent athlete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Simon W; Safran, Marc R

    2015-05-01

    Lower limb traction apophysitis is common in young athletes, occurring at sites such as the tibial tubercle (Osgood-Schlatter disease) and distal patella (Sinding-Larsen-Johansson disease). Around the hip, iliac apophysitis is well recognized, but no cases of greater trochanter apophysitis have previously been reported. We describe the case of a 15-year-old male basketball player with a 2-month history of the right hip pain and significant functional limitation. X-rays revealed widening of the greater trochanter apophysis with subchondral sclerosis, consistent with a diagnosis of traction apophysitis. The patient was treated with a period of relative rest and anti-inflammatory medication. He gradually returned to full athletic activity, including basketball, without recurrence of pain or limitation. We describe the first reported case of traction apophysitis of the greater trochanter. The unique muscular anatomy of this apophysis with balanced forces explains the rarity of this condition. If encountered, rest and activity modification is the recommended treatment.

  6. Predicting women's intentions for contralateral prophylactic mastectomy: An application of an extended theory of planned behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Imogen; Tesson, Stephanie; Porter, David; Phillips, Kelly-Anne; Rankin, Nicole; Musiello, Toni; Marven, Michelle; Butow, Phyllis

    2016-04-01

    Most women with unilateral breast cancer (BC) without BRCA1/2 gene mutations are at low risk of contralateral breast cancer (CBC). One CBC risk-management option is contralateral prophylactic mastectomy (CPM). While there is no evidence that CPM increases life-expectancy, its uptake is increasing. This study aimed to assess the validity of an extended social-cognition model, the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB), in predicting women's intentions to undergo CPM. Four hundred women previously treated for BC completed an online survey exploring demographic and disease factors, attitude, subjective norm, perceived behavioural control, anticipated regret, uncertainty avoidance, self-efficacy to not have CPM and intentions to undergo CPM in a common hypothetical decision-making scenario. The TPB uniquely explained 25.7% of intention variance. Greater anticipated regret, uncertainty avoidance and lower self-efficacy to cope with not having CPM were associated with stronger CPM intentions, explaining an additional 7.7%, 10.6% and 2.9% respectively, of variance over and above the TPB. Women who had undergone CPM, had not attended university, and had children reported stronger CPM intentions. A holistic understanding of CPM decision-making appears to require consideration beyond CBC risk, demographics and disease characteristics, exploring women's expectations about CPM outcomes, others' opinions, and avoidance of emotionality and difficulties associated with not undergoing surgery. This study provides a theoretical basis from which the complexity of CPM decision-making may be understood, and from which resources for patients and treating staff may be developed to support women's informed decision-making aligning with their personal values. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Determinants of Social Entrepreneurial Intentions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hockerts, Kai

    2017-01-01

    predicts social entrepreneurial intentions. This effect is mediated by the antecedents suggested by Mair and Noboa. Social entrepreneurial self-efficacy has both the largest impact on intentions as well as being itself most responsive to prior experience. Lastly, the study shows that the amount of optional...... social entrepreneurship electives students enroll in is predicted by social entrepreneurial intentions.......This article tests the model proposed by Mair and Noboa (2006) who identify four antecedents which they suggest predict social entrepreneurial intentions. The study extends the model by including prior experience with social problems as an additional variable. Findings show that prior experience...

  8. Preliminary report on the Northern California Power Agency's Notice of Intention to seek certification for NCPA Geothermal Project No. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-01-01

    This preliminary report on the Northern California Power Agency (NCPA) geothermal power plant proposal has been prepared pursuant to California Public Resources Code Sections 25510, 25512, and 25540. It presents the preliminary Findings of fact and Conclusions adopted by the Commission Committee assigned to conduct proceedings on the Notice. In addition, the report contains a description of the proposed project, a summary of the proceedings to date, and local, state, and Federal government agency comments on the proposal. Finally, the report presents the Committee's view of those issues that require further consideration in future proceedings on the Notice. Pursuant to Public Resources Code Sections 25512 and 25540, the report presents preliminary Findings and Conclusions on: (1) conformity to the forecast of statewide and service area electric power demands; (2) the degree to which the proposed site and facility conform with applicable local, regional, state and Federal standards, ordinances, and laws; and (3) the safety and reliability of the facility.

  9. Greater Trochanter Tuberculosis : MRI Findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    My Youssef Alaoui Lamrani

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis has been reported in almost all bones of body. The great trochanter tuberculosis (GTT installation is insidious and clinical symptoms are often vague with moderate painful swelling and stiffness. GTT is about 0,2 to 2% of all osteo-articular tuberculosis, occurring most commonly by hematogenous seeding secondary to primary focus elsewhere, more commonly in the lungs. Isolated GTT is unusual and thus its awareness is slow and diagnosis is often delayed.

  10. Satisfaction, burnout and intention to stay of emergency nurses in Shanghai.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Hui; Ma, Lily; Gao, Caiping; Li, Tengteng; Huang, Lihua; Huang, Weiqin

    2017-07-01

    Stability of the nursing workforce is considered a key factor for high-quality healthcare. Satisfaction and burnout are reported to be closely related to staff turnover. This study investigates satisfaction and burnout of ED nurses in Shanghai and association of these factors with intention to stay on the job. This is a cross-sectional descriptive survey study conducted between October and December 2015. Our own questionnaire and the Maslach Burnout Inventory were used to construct the survey. The convenience sampling method was used. The survey targeted ED nurses in 30 Shanghai hospitals. Data were analysed using descriptive, non-paired t-tests, analysis of variance and multivariable logistic regression to decipher possible causes for burnout and identify reasons for continued interest in staying on the job by ED nurses. Of 1137 nurses who received surveys, 976 (87%) responded. Among the respondents, 75% reported being very satisfied or satisfied with their jobs, but there was a high level of burnout, and 22.5% of the nurses expressed their intention to leave the ED within the following year (pburnout were associated with intention to leave. Salary, nurse-patient relationships, nurse staffing and work environment were areas where nurses were less satisfied, while group cohesion was associated with greater satisfaction. ED nurses in Shanghai report a high level of burnout, which is associated with an intention to leave their jobs. Interventions are needed to improve satisfaction and reduce burnout to maintain the stability of the nursing workforce. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  11. Intention to seek information on cancer genetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.E. Andrews

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The public has a high interest in seeking personal genetic information, which holds implications for health information seeking research and health care policy. Rapid advances in cancer genetics research promise early detection, prevention and treatment, yet consumers may have greater difficulty finding and using the information they may need to make informed decisions regarding their personal health and the future of their families. Design. A statewide telephone survey was conducted of non-institutionalized Kentucky residents 18 years of age or older to investigate factors associated with the intention to seek cancer genetics information, including the need for such information seeking help. Results. The results show that intention to seek cancer genetics information, if testing were readily available, is moderately high (62.5% of those responding; n=835, and that status as a racial minority, the perception that cancer runs in one's family, and frequent worrying about cancer risk are statistically significant predictors of intent to seek genetics information. Conclusion. . We argue that an already complex health information environment will be even more difficult for individuals to navigate as genetic research becomes more ubiquitous in health care. An increase in demand for genetics information in various forms, as suggested by these results and those of other studies, implies that enduring intervention strategies are needed to help individuals acquire necessary health information literacy skills, with special attention given to racial minorities.

  12. The Relationship between Concussion Knowledge and the High School Athlete's Intention to Report Traumatic Brain Injury Symptoms: A Systematic Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Mary Ellen; Sanner, Jennifer E.

    2017-01-01

    Sports-related concussion or traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a frequent occurrence among high school athletes. Long-term and short-term effects of TBI on the athlete's developing brain can be minimized if the athlete reports and is effectively treated for TBI symptoms. Knowledge of concussion symptoms and a school culture of support are critical…

  13. The Relationship between Concussion Knowledge and the High School Athlete's Intention to Report Traumatic Brain Injury Symptoms: A Systematic Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Mary Ellen; Sanner, Jennifer E.

    2017-01-01

    Sports-related concussion or traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a frequent occurrence among high school athletes. Long-term and short-term effects of TBI on the athlete's developing brain can be minimized if the athlete reports and is effectively treated for TBI symptoms. Knowledge of concussion symptoms and a school culture of support are critical…

  14. Intention, History, and Artifact Concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloom, Paul

    1996-01-01

    Claims that people determine whether something is a member of a given artifact kind by inferring that it was successfully created with the intention that it belong to that kind. Discusses function-based and intentional-historical accounts of artifact concepts. Concludes that a rich set of inferential capacities is needed to constitute a theory of…

  15. The effect of message framing on breast self-examination attitudes, intentions, and behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyerowitz, B E; Chaiken, S

    1987-03-01

    In this study we tested the framing hypothesis that a pamphlet stressing the negative consequences of not performing breast self-examination (BSE) would be more persuasive than a pamphlet emphasizing BSE's positive consequences. College-aged female subjects were exposed to a loss-frame pamphlet, a gain-frame pamphlet, or a no-arguments pamphlet, or they received no pamphlet describing the importance of and the techniques for performing BSE. Attitudes toward BSE and intentions to perform BSE were assessed immediately after this intervention and again 4 months later. The follow-up also assessed subjects' postexperimental BSE behavior. Consistent with predictions, subjects who read a pamphlet with arguments framed in loss language manifested more positive BSE attitudes, intentions, and behaviors than did subjects in the other three conditions. The greater impact of the loss pamphlet could not be attributed to greater fear arousal, better memory for pamphlet content, greater perceived susceptibility to breast cancer, or stronger beliefs in BSE's efficacy on the part of the loss subjects. Only measures of perceived self-efficacy in performing BSE were differentially affected by the framing manipulation, with loss subjects reporting the greatest levels of self-confidence. The results are discussed in terms of prospect theory's framing postulate and a simpler negativity-bias conceptualization, and underlying mechanisms such as differential salience and vividness are considered. Clinical implications of the findings are also explored.

  16. Predicting Intentions of a Familiar Significant Other Beyond the Mirror Neuron System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Cacioppo

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Inferring intentions of others is one of the most intriguing issues in interpersonal interaction. Theories of embodied cognition and simulation suggest that this mechanism takes place through a direct and automatic matching process that occurs between an observed action and past actions. This process occurs via the reactivation of past self-related sensorimotor experiences within the inferior frontoparietal network (including the mirror neuron system, MNS. The working model is that the anticipatory representations of others' behaviors require internal predictive models of actions formed from pre-established, shared representations between the observer and the actor. This model suggests that observers should be better at predicting intentions performed by a familiar actor, rather than a stranger. However, little is known about the modulations of the intention brain network as a function of the familiarity between the observer and the actor. Here, we combined functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI with a behavioral intention inference task, in which participants were asked to predict intentions from three types of actors: A familiar actor (their significant other, themselves (another familiar actor, and a non-familiar actor (a stranger. Our results showed that the participants were better at inferring intentions performed by familiar actors than non-familiar actors and that this better performance was associated with greater activation within and beyond the inferior frontoparietal network i.e., in brain areas related to familiarity (e.g., precuneus. In addition, and in line with Hebbian principles of neural modulations, the more the participants reported being cognitively close to their partner, the less the brain areas associated with action self-other comparison (e.g., inferior parietal lobule, attention (e.g., superior parietal lobule, recollection (hippocampus, and pair bond (ventral tegmental area, VTA were recruited, suggesting that the

  17. 2007 status of climate changes: synthesis report. Summary for policy-makers; Bilan 2007 des changements climatiques: rapport de synthese. Resume a l'intention des decideurs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    This Synthesis Report is based on the assessment carried out by the three Working Groups of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). It provides an integrated view of climate change as the final part of the IPCC's Fourth Assessment Report (AR4). Topic 1 summarises observed changes in climate and their effects on natural and human systems, regardless of their causes, while topic 2 assesses the causes of the observed changes. Topic 3 presents projections of future climate change and related impacts under different scenarios. Topic 4 discusses adaptation and mitigation options over the next few decades and their interactions with sustainable development. Topic 5 assesses the relationship between adaptation and mitigation on a more conceptual basis and takes a longer-term perspective. Topic 6 summarises the major robust findings and remaining key uncertainties in this assessment.

  18. Final report on the Pacific Gas and Electric Company's notice of intention to seek certification for Geysers Unit 17, 78-NOI-3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-01-01

    Final findings and conclusions are presented on: conformity to the forecast of statewide and service area electric power demands; conformity of the proposed site and facility with applicable local, regional, state, and federal standard ordinances, and laws; and the safety and reliability of the facility. Also included is a proposed decision approving the notice, with conditions, for consideration by the full Commission. In addition, a description of the proposed project, a summary of the proceedings to date; local, state, and federal government agency comments on the Preliminary Report, and the Committee's view of those issues that require further consideration are included. (MHR)

  19. Turizm Sektöründe Tüketicilerin Şikayetlerini Bildirme Eğilimleri( Consumers’ Intentions to Report Their Complaints in the Tourism Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Metin KOZAK

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Consumer complaints are an important factor for service providers; effective handling of consumer complaints can be a key to acquiring loyal customers. However, despite the abundance of studies on customer complaints regarding goods and service products of hotels and restaurants, there is a lack of research on customer complaints regarding tourism destinations. Aiming to specifically focus on customer complaints about a tourist destination, this study investigates (1 what types of complaints foreign tourists have, (2 how they tend to report their complaints and to whom and (3 what sorts of practical measures they recommend in order to resolve their own complaints. To achieve this, an on-site self-administered survey was undertaken on foreign charter tourists visiting the south-west part of Turkey during the summer of 2004. Results showed that tourists had several complaints and also suggestions about resolving their complaints, mostly with monetary compensation. The paper includes managerial implications and future research suggestions.

  20. Exploring intentions to discriminate against patients living with HIV/AIDS among future healthcare providers in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earnshaw, Valerie A; Jin, Harry; Wickersham, Jeffrey; Kamarulzaman, Adeeba; John, Jacob; Altice, Frederick L

    2014-06-01

    Stigma towards people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) is strong in Malaysia. Although stigma has been understudied, it may be a barrier to treating the approximately 81 000 Malaysian PLWHA. The current study explores correlates of intentions to discriminate against PLWHA among medical and dental students, the future healthcare providers of Malaysia. An online, cross-sectional survey of 1296 medical and dental students was conducted in 2012 at seven Malaysian universities; 1165 (89.9%) completed the survey and were analysed. Socio-demographic characteristics, stigma-related constructs and intentions to discriminate against PLWHA were measured. Linear mixed models were conducted, controlling for clustering by university. The final multivariate model demonstrated that students who intended to discriminate more against PLWHA were female, less advanced in their training, and studying dentistry. They further endorsed more negative attitudes towards PLWHA, internalised greater HIV-related shame, reported more HIV-related fear and disagreed more strongly that PLWHA deserve good care. The final model accounted for 38% of the variance in discrimination intent, with 10% accounted for by socio-demographic characteristics and 28% accounted for by stigma-related constructs. It is critical to reduce stigma among medical and dental students to eliminate intentions to discriminate and achieve equitable care for Malaysian PLWHA. Stigma-reduction interventions should be multipronged, addressing attitudes, internalised shame, fear and perceptions of deservingness of care. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Cognitive effects on entrepreneurial intentions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kent Wickstrøm; Rezaei, Shahamak; Wherry, Frederik

    2014-01-01

    individuals staying at home with regard to entrepreneurial intentions and with regard to their cognitive make-up. Also, we examine differences in the impact of cognitions of émigrés and homeland individuals respectively on their entrepreneurial intentions. We use data from the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor......Cognitive characteristics of individuals have previously been established as important predictors of entrepreneurial intentions. Yet, we know little about this relationship in a transnational and ethnic entrepreneurship context. In this paper, we examine if and how émigrés differs from those...

  2. Determinants of Social Entrepreneurial Intentions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hockerts, Kai

    . Results indicate that prior experience is positively linked to social entrepreneurial intentions. Moreover, this effect is mediated by the antecedents suggested by Mair and Noboa. The findings suggest that self-efficacy has both the biggest impact on intentions as well as being itself most responsive...... entrepreneurial behavior of master students such as evidenced in the number of electives selected which have a social entrepreneurial profile.......This paper tests the model proposed by Mair and Noboa (2006) who identify four antecedents which they suggest predict social entrepreneurial intentions and behavior. This study tests the Mair and Noboa model and extends it by including prior experience with social problems as an additional variable...

  3. Commercial Integrated Heat Pump with Thermal Storage --Demonstrate Greater than 50% Average Annual Energy Savings, Compared with Baseline Heat Pump and Water Heater (Go/No-Go) FY16 4th Quarter Milestone Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Bo [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Baxter, Van D. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Rice, C. Keith [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Abu-Heiba, Ahmad [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-03-01

    For this study, we authored a new air source integrated heat pump (AS-IHP) model in EnergyPlus, and conducted building energy simulations to demonstrate greater than 50% average energy savings, in comparison to a baseline heat pump with electric water heater, over 10 US cities, based on the EnergyPlus quick-service restaurant template building. We also assessed water heating energy saving potentials using ASIHP versus gas heating, and pointed out climate zones where AS-IHPs are promising.

  4. On the relation between motivation and retention in educational contexts: The role of intentional and unintentional mind wandering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seli, Paul; Wammes, Jeffrey D; Risko, Evan F; Smilek, Daniel

    2016-08-01

    Highly motivated students often exhibit better academic performance than less motivated students. However, to date, the specific cognitive mechanisms through which motivation increases academic achievement are not well understood. Here we explored the possibility that mind wandering mediates the relation between motivation and academic performance, and additionally, we examined possible mediation by both intentional and unintentional forms of mind wandering. We found that participants reporting higher motivation to learn in a lecture-based setting tended to engage in less mind wandering, and that this decrease in mind wandering was in turn associated with greater retention of the lecture material. Critically, we also found that the influence of motivation on retention was mediated by both intentional and unintentional types of mind wandering. Not only do the present results advance our theoretical understanding of the mechanisms underlying the relation between motivation and academic achievement, they also provide insights into possible methods of intervention that may be useful in improving student retention in educational settings.

  5. Relations among Individual Differences in Reproductive Strategies, Sexual Attractiveness, Affective and Punitive Intentions, and Imagined Sexual or Emotional Infidelity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel N. Jones

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available We examined relations among Mating Effort, Mate Value, Sex and individuals' self-reported responses to imagined sexual or emotional infidelity. We asked participants to describe the (1 upset or bother (2 aversive emotional reactions (3 punitive impulses, and (4 punitive intentions they experienced in response to imagined sexual or emotional infidelity. The results replicated previously documented sex differences in jealousy. In addition, imagined sexual infidelity upset individuals higher in Mating Effort more than those lower in Mating Effort. Higher Mating Effort also predicted greater temptation, intention, and likelihood to engage in punitive behaviors in response to imagined sexual or emotional infidelity. We discuss these data in light of individual differences in relations between reproductive strategy and romantic jealousy. Additionally, we point to the importance of controlling for co-linearity between reactions to sexual and emotional infidelity, and the need for addressing related methodological problems within jealousy research.

  6. Interaction between intention and environmental constraints on the fractal dynamics of human performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washburn, Auriel; Coey, Charles A; Romero, Veronica; Malone, MaryLauren; Richardson, Michael J

    2015-11-01

    The current study investigated whether the influence of available task constraints on power-law scaling might be moderated by a participant's task intention. Participants performed a simple rhythmic movement task with the intention of controlling either movement period or amplitude, either with or without an experimental stimulus designed to constrain period. In the absence of the stimulus, differences in intention did not produce any changes in power-law scaling. When the stimulus was present, however, a shift toward more random fluctuations occurred in the corresponding task dimension, regardless of participants' intentions. More importantly, participants' intentions interacted with available task constraints to produce an even greater shift toward random variation when the task dimension constrained by the stimulus was also the dimension the participant intended to control. Together, the results suggest that intentions serve to more tightly constrain behavior to existing environmental constraints, evidenced by changes in the fractal scaling of task performance.

  7. How to use intentional silence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemerer, Douglas

    2016-09-07

    Rationale and key points This article explains intentional silence, which can provide a therapeutic nursing presence that demonstrates compassion and respect for the patient. » Intentional silence can enhance the therapeutic relationship between the nurse and patient. » Intentional silence can be used to reduce the patient's emotional lability by ensuring that they feel listened to. » It is important that nurses are able to respond therapeutically to rhetorical statements and/or those concerning serious or severe clinical circumstances. » The nurse can use intentional silence to support the patient in acknowledging, processing and reflecting on changes in their health. Reflective activity 'How to' articles can help to update your practice and ensure it remains evidence based. Apply this article to your practice. Reflect on and write a short account of: 1. How this article will change your practice. 2. How you could use this article to educate your colleagues. Subscribers can upload their reflective accounts at rcni.com/portfolio.

  8. ENTREPRENEURIAL ATTITUDES AND INTENTIONS AMONG ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    UDS-CAPTURED

    ... people. The psychological literature suggests that attitude and intention .... Within the field of psychology, attitudes refer to relatively fixed patterns in people's thoughts, feelings, and ..... entrepreneurial careers, suggesting that other environmental and social learning experiences ... The Research instrument and variables.

  9. Antecedents of Social Entrepreneurial Intentions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hockerts, Kai

    2013-01-01

    This paper is a contribution towards Mair and Noboa ‘s (2006) model of the antecedents of social entrepreneurial intentions. The Mair/Noboa model builds on Krueger’s (1993) proposal of a theory of planned behavior for entrepreneurial intention formation by suggesting that social entrepreneurial i...... such as empathy, moral obligation, self-efficacy, and social support to the context of social entrepreneurship and thus provide the basis for future research into the effectiveness of social entrepreneurship research....

  10. Understanding the effects of MTV's 16 and Pregnant on adolescent girls' beliefs, attitudes, and behavioral intentions toward teen pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubrey, Jennifer Stevens; Behm-Morawitz, Elizabeth; Kim, Kyungbo

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the impact of a popular documentary series about teen pregnancy, MTV's 16 and Pregnant, on adolescent girls' pregnancy-related attitudes, beliefs, and behavioral intentions. The results suggest that girls who watched 16 and Pregnant, compared with a control group, reported a lower perception of their own risk for pregnancy and a greater perception that the benefits of teen pregnancy outweigh the risks. The authors also examined the relationships between homophily and parasocial interaction with the teen moms featured in 16 and Pregnant and attitudes, beliefs, and behavioral intentions, finding that homophily predicted lower risk perceptions, greater acceptance of myths about teen pregnancy, and more favorable attitudes about teen pregnancy. Parasocial interaction demonstrated the same pattern of results, with the addition of also predicting fewer behavioral intentions to avoid teen pregnancy. Last, results revealed that teen girls' perceptions that the message of 16 and Pregnant was encouraging of teen pregnancy predicted homophily and parasocial interaction with the teen moms. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.

  11. Characterizing an ERP correlate of intentions understanding using a sequential comic strips paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vistoli, D; Passerieux, C; El Zein, M; Clumeck, C; Braun, S; Brunet-Gouet, E

    2015-08-01

    Chronometric properties of theory of mind and intentions understanding more specifically are well documented. Notably, it was demonstrated using magnetoencephalography that the brain regions involved were recruited as soon as 200 ms post-stimulus. We used event-related potentials (ERPs) to characterize an electrophysiological marker of attribution of intentions. We also explored the robustness of this ERP signature under two conditions corresponding to either explicit instructions to focus on others' intentions or implicit instructions with no reference to mental states. Two matched groups of 16 healthy volunteers each received either explicit or no instructions about intentions and performed a nonverbal attribution of intentions task based on sequential four-image comic strips depicting either intentional or physical causality. A bilateral posterior positive component, ranging from 250 to 650 ms post-stimulus, showed greater amplitude in intentional than in physical condition (the intention ERP effect). This effect occurs during the third image only, suggesting that it reflects the integration of information depicted in the third image to the contextual cues given by the first two. The intention effect was similar in the two groups of subjects. Overall, our results identify a clear ERP marker of the first hundreds of milliseconds of intentions processing probably related to a contextual integrative mechanism and suggest its robustness by showing its blindness to task demands manipulation.

  12. Neural substrates underlying intentional empathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Gang; Yang, Xuedong; Wang, Xiaoying; Northoff, Georg; Han, Shihui

    2012-01-01

    Although empathic responses to stimuli with emotional contents may occur automatically, humans are capable to intentionally empathize with other individuals. Intentional empathy for others is even possible when they do not show emotional expressions. However, little is known about the neuronal mechanisms of this intentionally controlled empathic process. To investigate the neuronal substrates underlying intentional empathy, we scanned 20 healthy Chinese subjects, using fMRI, when they tried to feel inside the emotional states of neutral or angry faces of familiar (Asian) and unfamiliar (Caucasian) models. Skin color evaluation of the same stimuli served as a control task. Compared to a baseline condition, the empathy task revealed a network of established empathy regions, including the anterior cingulate cortex, bilateral inferior frontal cortex and bilateral anterior insula. The contrast of intentional empathy vs skin color evaluation, however, revealed three regions: the bilateral inferior frontal cortex, whose hemodynamic responses were independent of perceived emotion and familiarity and the right-middle temporal gyrus, whose activity was modulated by emotion but not by familiarity. These findings extend our understanding of the role of the inferior frontal cortex and the middle temporal gyrus in empathy by demonstrating their involvement in intentional empathy. PMID:21511824

  13. Decoding intention at sensorimotor timescales.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathew Salvaris

    Full Text Available The ability to decode an individual's intentions in real time has long been a 'holy grail' of research on human volition. For example, a reliable method could be used to improve scientific study of voluntary action by allowing external probe stimuli to be delivered at different moments during development of intention and action. Several Brain Computer Interface applications have used motor imagery of repetitive actions to achieve this goal. These systems are relatively successful, but only if the intention is sustained over a period of several seconds; much longer than the timescales identified in psychophysiological studies for normal preparation for voluntary action. We have used a combination of sensorimotor rhythms and motor imagery training to decode intentions in a single-trial cued-response paradigm similar to those used in human and non-human primate motor control research. Decoding accuracy of over 0.83 was achieved with twelve participants. With this approach, we could decode intentions to move the left or right hand at sub-second timescales, both for instructed choices instructed by an external stimulus and for free choices generated intentionally by the participant. The implications for volition are considered.

  14. Exploring entrepreneurial intentions in Latin American university students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francoise Contreras Torres

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine if entrepreneurial intention, based on Ajzen’s model of planned behavior (1991, can be predicted by risk propensity, internal locus of control and leadership skills. Six standardized and reliable instruments were applied to 1493 undergraduate university business students in Latin American countries, selected through non-random quota sampling in accordance with their formation level in each of the five participating universities. Using structural equation techniques, the research model was validated and intention estimated and analyzed in relation to a set of socio-demographic variables. According to the results, entrepreneurial intention can be significantly predicted by the psychological variables under consideration and, contrary to what has been reported in other research, no gender differences were found in the intention of entrepreneurship. These findings are discussed.

  15. Post-irradiation angiosarcoma of the greater omentum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westenberg, A.H.; Wiggers, T.; Henzen-Logmans, S.C.; Verweij, J.; Meerwaldt, J.A.; Geel, A.N. van (Dr Daniel den Hoed Cancer Center, Rotterdam (Netherlands))

    1989-04-01

    A case of angiosarcoma of the greater omentum is reported. This angiosarcoma developed 8 years after irradiation for cervical carcinoma and presented with an intra-abdominal hemorrhage. The authors describe her clinical course, treatment and follow-up. Although several other locations of irradiation-induced sarcomas have been published, this is the first report in literature of a postirradiation angiosarcoma in the greater omentum. (author).

  16. Post-irradiation angiosarcoma of the greater omentum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westenberg, A H; Wiggers, T; Henzen-Logmans, S C; Verweij, J; Meerwaldt, J A; van Geel, A N

    1989-04-01

    A case of angiosarcoma of the greater omentum is reported. This angiosarcoma developed 8 years after irradiation for cervical carcinoma and presented with an intra-abdominal hemorrhage. We describe her clinical course, treatment and follow-up. Although several other locations of irradiation-induced sarcomas have been published, this is the first report in literature of a postirradiation angiosarcoma in the greater omentum.

  17. Satisfaction strength and intention to purchase a new product

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tudoran, Ana Alina; Olsen, Svein Ottar; Dopico, Domingo C.

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the role of satisfaction strength on the correspondence between reported satisfaction and intention to purchase a new product. The market testing underlying this study analyzes the market opportunities for a novel prototype. The research was conducted at a central location wit...... satisfaction level alone. The study argues on the nomological validity of the satisfaction construct and reveals that assessment of satisfaction strength should support the management goal of identifying truly satisfied customers.......This study examines the role of satisfaction strength on the correspondence between reported satisfaction and intention to purchase a new product. The market testing underlying this study analyzes the market opportunities for a novel prototype. The research was conducted at a central location...... with 239 randomly selected consumers. Results indicate that (un)certainty, ambivalence, and importance cognitions and feelings significantly moderate the relationship between reported satisfaction and individuals’ intention to purchase. For example, the association between consumers’ reported satisfaction...

  18. Monitoring and research on the Bi-State Distinct Population Segment of greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) in the Pine Nut Mountains, California and Nevada—Study progress report, 2011–15

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coates, Peter S.; Andrle, Katie M.; Ziegler, Pilar T.; Casazza, Michael L.

    2016-09-29

    The Bi-State distinct population segment (DPS) of greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) that occurs along the Nevada–California border was proposed for listing as threatened under the Endangered Species Act (ESA) by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) in October 2013. However, in April 2015, the FWS determined that the Bi-State DPS no longer required protection under the ESA and withdrew the proposed rule to list the Bi-State DPS (U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, 2015). The Bi-State DPS occupies portions of Alpine, Mono, and Inyo Counties in California, and Douglas, Esmeralda, Lyon, Carson City, and Mineral Counties in Nevada. Unique threats facing this population include geographic isolation, expansion of single-leaf pinyon (Pinus monophylla) and Utah juniper (Juniperus osteosperma), anthropogenic activities, and recent changes in predator communities. Estimating population vital rates, identifying seasonal habitat, quantifying threats, and identifying movement patterns are important first steps in developing effective sage-grouse management and conservation plans. During 2011–15, we radio- and Global Positioning System (GPS)-marked (2012–14 only) 44, 47, 17, 9, and 3 sage-grouse, respectively, for a total of 120, in the Pine Nut Mountains Population Management Unit (PMU). No change in lek attendance was detected at Mill Canyon (maximum=18 males) between 2011 and 2012; however, 1 male was observed in 2014 and no males were observed in 2013 and 2015. Males were observed near Bald Mountain in 2013, making it the first year this lek was observed to be active during the study period. Males were observed at a new site in the Buckskin Range in 2014 during trapping efforts and again observed during surveys in 2015. Findings indicate that pinyon-juniper is avoided by sage-grouse during every life stage. Nesting females selected increased sagebrush cover, sagebrush height, and understory horizontal cover, and brood-rearing females selected similar areas

  19. Understanding strength exercise intentions and behavior in hematologic cancer survivors: an analysis of the intention-behavior gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallerand, James R; Rhodes, Ryan E; Walker, Gordon J; Courneya, Kerry S

    2016-12-01

    Strength exercise improves many health outcomes in cancer survivors but the prevalence and correlates of strength exercise have not been well-described. Moreover, no study has examined the critical intention-behavior gap for exercise in cancer survivors. The aims of this study are to quantify the intention-behavior gap for strength exercise in hematologic cancer survivors (HCS) and examine correlates of both intention formation and translation using the multi-process action control framework (M-PAC). A random sample of 2100 HCS in Alberta, Canada, were mailed a survey assessing strength exercise behavior, the M-PAC, and demographic/medical variables. Separate logistic regressions were used to analyze the relationships between the correlates and intention formation and translation. Surveys were completed by 606 HCS with 58 % (n = 353) intending to do strength exercise. HCS who were not retired (OR = 1.56, p = 0.001), were highly educated (OR = 1.32, p = 0.001), and had a favorable attitude (OR = 1.56, p intention. Of those with an exercise intention, 51 % (n = 181) reported regular strength exercise. HCS with a detailed plan (OR = 1.86, p intention into behavior. Just over half of HCS intended to do strength exercise and only half of intenders translated that intention into behavior. Interventions targeting both intention formation and translation may provide the best approach for increasing strength exercise in HCS.

  20. Factor Composition of the Suicide Intent Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mieczkowski, Tammy A.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Analyzed Suicide Intent Scale using data from 98 psychiatric inpatients who had attempted suicide. Analysis resulted in two-factor solution: Lethal Intent factor contained items pertaining to subjective level of lethal intent; Planning factor contained items related to objective planning for attempt. Findings suggest that Suicide Intent Scale can…

  1. Grant Monitoring: Department of Education Could Improve Its Processes with Greater Focus on Assessing Risks, Acquiring Financial Skills, and Sharing Information. Report to Congressional Requesters. GAO-10-57

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashby, Cornelia M.

    2009-01-01

    The Department of Education (Education) awards about $45 billion in grants each year to school districts, states, and other entities. In addition, the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 provided an additional $97 billion in grant funding. In a series of reports from 2002 to 2009, Education's Inspector General cited a number of grantees…

  2. Autonomy and self-efficacy as influencing factors in nurses' behavioral intention to disinfect needleless intravenous systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Judy S; Kirksey, Kenn M; Becker, Heather; Brown, Adama

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine associations among nurses' behavioral intention to disinfect needleless connectors, autonomy, self-efficacy, attitudes, beliefs, perceived control, and social norms. A convenience sample (N = 171) of registered nurses participated in a cross-sectional study to examine factors related to "scrubbing the hub." While experienced nurses reported greater autonomy and self-efficacy, recent graduates were more likely to consistently use optimal disinfection techniques. Since practice is most influenced by peers, programs should be aimed at educational pedagogy aligning preceptor practice with empirically derived guidelines. Fostering exchange of ideas in a multigenerational work force may facilitate adherence to best practices.

  3. Non-suicidal self-injury, attempted suicide, and suicidal intent among psychiatric inpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andover, Margaret S; Gibb, Brandon E

    2010-06-30

    Although attempted suicide and non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) differ in several important ways, a significant number of individuals report histories of both behaviors. The current study further examined the relations between NSSI and attempted suicide among psychiatric inpatients. Self-report questionnaires were administered to 117 psychiatric inpatients at a general hospital (M=39.45 years old, S.D.=12.84 years, range=17-73 years). We found that presence and number of NSSI episodes were significantly related to presence and number of suicide attempts. Supporting the importance of NSSI assessment, patients' history of NSSI (presence and frequency) was more strongly associated with history of suicide attempts than were patients' depressive symptoms, hopelessness, and symptoms of borderline personality disorder, and as strongly associated with suicide attempt history as current levels of suicidal ideation. Finally, among patients with a history of suicide attempts, those with an NSSI history reported significantly greater lethal intent for their most severe attempt, and patients' number of prior NSSI episodes was positively correlated with the level of lethal intent associated with their most severe suicide attempt.

  4. Intent Attributions and Aggression: A Study of Children and Their Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, David A.; Mitchell, Carianne; Yang, Chongming

    2008-01-01

    This research aimed to further clarify the relationship between children's self-reported hostile intent attributions (for ambiguous instrumental or relational provocations) and peer-reported aggression (physical and relational) in 500 fourth-grade children. In addition, we examined whether parents' intent attributions might predict children's…

  5. Expressive writing as a brief intervention for reducing drinking intentions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Chelsie M; Rodriguez, Lindsey M; Neighbors, Clayton

    2013-12-01

    The present study examined the effectiveness of expressive writing in reducing drinking behavior. We expected that students prompted to write about negative drinking experiences would show greater decreases in future drinking intentions compared to the neutral and the positive writing conditions. We also expected that decreases in drinking intentions following the writing prompts might differ based on current drinking and AUDIT scores. Participants included 200 (76% female) undergraduates who completed measures of their current drinking behavior. They were then randomly assigned to either write about: a time when they had a lot to drink that was a good time (Positive); a time when they had a lot to drink that was a bad time (Negative); or their first day of college (Neutral), followed by measures assessing intended drinking over the next three months. Results revealed that participants intended to drink significantly fewer drinks per week and engage in marginally fewer heavy drinking occasions after writing about a negative drinking occasion when compared to control. Interactions provided mixed findings suggesting that writing about a positive event was associated with higher drinking intentions for heavier drinkers. Writing about a negative event was associated with higher intentions among heavier drinkers, but lower intentions among those with higher AUDIT scores. This research builds on previous expressive writing interventions by applying this technique to undergraduate drinkers. Preliminary results provide some support for this innovative strategy but also suggest the need for further refinement, especially with heavier drinkers.

  6. [Intentional and Non-Intentional Distortion of Research Findings].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamińska, Dorota; Kusztal, Mariusz

    2015-01-01

    The flood of scientific information increases the risk of research findings distortion. The authors brought attention to the possible pitfalls of statistical inference in biomedical research. Due to intentional or non-intentional errors in study design and size, data collection and inappropriate statistical analysis some of research findings are false or exaggerated. Researchers excessively motivated to publish all possible study results sometimes seek any possible way to achieve p-value less than 0.05. False-positive study results can be obtained in underpowered studies, excessive flexibility in study designs and participants recruitment, probing different control groups, creating special subgroups or changing statistical tests.

  7. Beyond Human Intentions and Emotions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsa eJuan

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Although significant advances have been made in our understanding of the neural basis of action observation and intention understanding in the last few decades by studies demonstrating the involvement of a specific brain network (action observation network; AON, these have been largely based on experimental studies in which people have been considered as strictly isolated entities. However, we, as social species, spend much more of our time performing actions interacting with others. Research shows that a person’s position along the continuum of perceived social isolation/ bonding to others is associated with a variety of physical and mental health effects. Thus, there is a crucial need to better understand the neural basis of intention understanding performed in an interpersonal and emotional context. To address this issue, we performed a meta-analysis using of fMRI studies over the past decade that examined brain and cortical network processing associated with understanding the intention of others actions versus those associated with passionate love for others. Both overlapping and distinct cortical and subcortical regions were identified for intention and love, respectively. These findings provide scientists and clinicians with a set of brain regions that can be targeted for future neuroscientific studies on intention understanding, and help further develop neurocognitive models of pair-bonding.

  8. Beyond human intentions and emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juan, Elsa; Frum, Chris; Bianchi-Demicheli, Francesco; Wang, Yi-Wen; Lewis, James W; Cacioppo, Stephanie

    2013-01-01

    Although significant advances have been made in our understanding of the neural basis of action observation and intention understanding in the last few decades by studies demonstrating the involvement of a specific brain network (action observation network; AON), these have been largely based on experimental studies in which people have been considered as strictly isolated entities. However, we, as social species, spend much more of our time performing actions interacting with others. Research shows that a person's position along the continuum of perceived social isolation/bonding to others is associated with a variety of physical and mental health effects. Thus, there is a crucial need to better understand the neural basis of intention understanding performed in interpersonal and emotional contexts. To address this issue, we performed a meta-analysis using of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies over the past decade that examined brain and cortical network processing associated with understanding the intention of others actions vs. those associated with passionate love for others. Both overlapping and distinct cortical and subcortical regions were identified for intention and love, respectively. These findings provide scientists and clinicians with a set of brain regions that can be targeted for future neuroscientific studies on intention understanding, and help develop neurocognitive models of pair-bonding.

  9. Cyberfaking: I can, so I will? Intentions to fake in online psychological testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grieve, Rachel; Elliott, Jade

    2013-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether intentions to fake online (cyberfaking) or in pencil-and-paper psychological testing differ. Participants (N=154) completed online questionnaires measuring attitudes toward faking, perceived behavioral control over faking, subjective norms regarding faking, and intentions to fake in future psychological assessment, with online and pencil-and-paper test administration scenarios compared. Participants showed similar intentions toward cyberfaking and faking in pencil-and-paper testing. However, participants held more positive attitudes toward cyberfaking than faking offline, greater perceived behavioral control over cyberfaking than offline faking, and more favorable subjective norms toward cyberfaking compared to offline faking. Analysis via multiple regression revealed that more positive attitudes toward cyberfaking, greater perceived behavioral control over cyberfaking, and more favorable subjective norms regarding cyberfaking were significantly related to the intention to cyberfake. In addition, more positive attitudes toward faking offline and greater perceived behavioral control over faking offline were significantly related to the intention to fake in offline tests. Overall, results indicated a similar pattern of relationship in the prediction of intentions to engage in faking regardless of the test administration modality scenario. Subjective norm, however, was not a significant predictor for faking offline. Future research could aim to include a behavioral faking outcome measure, as well as examine intentions to cyberfake in specific scenarios (for example, faking good or faking bad).

  10. Institutional Influences on Succession Intentions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boyd, Britta; Fietze, Simon

    International research shows that entrepreneurial intentions (EI) largely depend on the institutional context. Family business research indicates that succession intentions (SI) similarly vary among countries but explanations up to now are mainly based on cultural differences. Especially in Nordic...... welfare countries entrepreneurial but also succession intention are lower than in countries with other welfare models. Therefore we investigate how SI differs in 17 countries with regards to the institutional context by combining the Global University Entrepreneurial Spirit Students’ Survey (GUESSS......) and the Comparative Welfare Entitlements Dataset (CWED). With this study we fill a research gap by analyzing the influence of social policy measured by the total generosity index on SI of students. The regression results show that SI among other variables depends on the welfare model in certain institutional contexts...

  11. Global Brands and Consumer Ethnocentrism of Youth Soft Drink Consumers in Greater Jakarta, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hammam Haris Tasurru

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Indonesia is a large market for consumer products targeting youth consumers, with populations of more than 70 million young inhabitants and market size of USD 155 billion. The large size of this potential market attracts foreign products with globallyrecognized brands to enter the Indonesian market. The objective of this study is to explain the purchase intention of youth consumers toward a particular brand of soft drink with global penetration by their perceptions and ethnocentrism. This study obtained response from 156 youths in Greater Jakarta, Indonesia. The resulting data was analyzed using structural equation modeling with LISREL software package. The study found that consumer ethnocentrism decreases purchase intention, both directly and indirectly through brand image. Contrary to the hypothesis, consumer ethnocentrism does not influence corporate image of the global firm, which significantly influences brand image but only slightly impacts purchase intentions directly.

  12. Design intent tool: User guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mills, Evan; Abell, Daniel; Bell, Geoffrey; Faludi, Jeremy; Greenberg, Steve; Hitchcock, Rob; Piette, Mary Ann; Sartor, Dalei; Stum, Karl

    2002-08-23

    This database tool provides a structured approach to recording design decisions that impact a facility's design intent in areas such as energy efficiency.Owners and de signers alike can plan, monitor and verify that a facility's design intent is being met during each stage of the design process. Additionally, the Tool gives commissioning agents, facility operators and future owners and renovators an understanding of how the building and its subsystems are intended to operate, and thus track and benchmark performance.

  13. Ethnic and Racial Differences in HPV Knowledge and Vaccine Intentions among Men Receiving HPV Test Results

    OpenAIRE

    Daley, Ellen M.; Marhefka, Stephanie; Buhi, Eric; Hernandez, Natalie D.; Chandler, Rasheeta; Vamos, Cheryl; Kolar, Stephanie; Wheldon, Christopher; Papenfuss, Mary R.; Giuliano, Anna R.

    2011-01-01

    We examined factors associated with HPV vaccine intentions by racial/ethnic group among men participating in a HPV natural history study. HPV knowledge, vaccine intentions and perceived barriers were assessed among non-Hispanic White, non-Hispanic Black and Hispanic men. Men were tested for HPV every 6 months. After receiving test results from their previous visit, participants (N=477) reported their intentions for HPV vaccination in a computer-assisted survey instrument (CASI). Vaccine inten...

  14. Greater Celandine hepatotoxicity: a clinical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teschke, Rolf; Frenzel, Christian; Glass, Xaver; Schulze, Johannes; Eickhoff, Axel

    2012-01-01

    Herbal hepatotoxicity is a rare and poorly described disease because reported cases are mostly scattered and lack an appropriate causality assessment. We now describe in detail the clinical picture of herbal hepatotoxicity by extracts of Greater Celandine (GC), syn. Chelidonium majus L. from the Papaveraceae family, which contain more than 20 ingredients including various biologically active isoquinoline alkaloids. For this purpose, we analyzed and reviewed published cases of 16 patients from various European countries. In all patients, herbal hepatotoxicity was of probable and highly probable causality for GC, using the original and updated scale of CIOMS (Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences). GC associated hepatotoxicity usually has an acute clinical course exhibiting a hepatocellular pattern of injury and is correlated to an idiosyncratic reaction with its metabolic subtype. Jaundice combined with high values of serum aminotransferases was present in virtually all cases with favourable outcome despite severe clinical course. In conclusion, GC hepatotoxicity is a typical herbal hepatotoxicity with a sound causality track for GC, but there is uncertainty regarding the respective causative compound(s). The present detailed review of GC hepatotoxicity may serve as an example for clinical causality assessments of future cases of liver injury due to other herbs.

  15. Examining the attitudes of hospital pharmacists to reporting medication safety incidents using the theory of planned behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Steven David; Phipps, Denham L; Ashcroft, Darren

    2015-08-01

    To assess the effect of factors within hospital pharmacists' practice on the likelihood of their reporting a medication safety incident. Theory of planned behaviour (TPB) survey. Twenty-one general and teaching hospitals in the North West of England. Two hundred and seventy hospital pharmacists (response rate = 45%). Hospital pharmacists were invited to complete a TPB survey, based on a prescribing error scenario that had resulted in serious patient harm. Multiple regression was used to determine the relative influence of different TPB variables, and participant demographics, on the pharmacists' self-reported intention to report the medication safety incident. The TPB variables predicting intention to report: attitude towards behaviour, subjective norm, perceived behavioural control and descriptive norm. Overall, the hospital pharmacists held strong intentions to report the error, with senior pharmacists being more likely to report. Perceived behavioural control (ease or difficulty of reporting), Descriptive Norms (belief that other pharmacists would report) and Attitudes towards Behaviour (expected benefits of reporting) showed good correlation with, and were statistically significant predictors of, intention to report the error [R = 0.568, R(2) = 0.323, adjusted R(2) = 0.293, P behavioural and control beliefs about the reporting process. This should include instilling greater confidence about the benefits of reporting and not harming professional relationships with doctors, greater clarity about what/not to report and a simpler reporting system. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press in association with the International Society for Quality in Health Care; all rights reserved.

  16. Combining self-affirmation with implementation intentions to promote fruit and vegetable consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Peter R; Brearley, Irina; Sheeran, Paschal; Barker, Margo; Klein, William M P; Creswell, J David; Levine, John M; Bond, Rod

    2014-07-01

    The current study tested whether self-affirmation in the context of a threatening health message helps promote a health behavior (fruit and vegetable consumption) over a 3-month period, and whether adding a manipulation to support the translation of intentions into behavior (an implementation intentions induction) enhances the impact of self-affirmation. Participants (N = 332, 71% women) reported their baseline consumption and were randomly assigned to condition in a 2 (self-affirmation: yes, no) × 2 (implementation intentions: formed, not formed) between-subjects factorial design. They completed a self-affirmation/control task and then read a health communication advising eating at least 5 portions of fruit and vegetables daily. Next participants reported intentions for behavior change, after which they formed/did not form relevant implementation intentions. Consumption was measured again 7 days and 3 months postintervention. Self-affirmed (vs. nonaffirmed) participants reported eating more fruit and vegetables at both follow-ups. Forming (vs. not forming) implementation intentions was also beneficial for consumption. At 7 days, there was also a significant self-affirmation × implementation intentions interaction: consumption was highest when self-affirmed participants also formed implementation intentions. The present study offers new evidence concerning the impact and durability of self-affirmation on health behaviors and the role of implementation intentions in enhancing the impact of self-affirmation.

  17. African American parents' HPV vaccination intent and concerns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders Thompson, Vetta L; Arnold, Lauren D; Notaro, Sheri R

    2012-02-01

    This study describes attitudes and social and environmental factors that affect African American parents' intent to vaccinate their daughters against human papillomavirus (HPV). Thirty African American parents of daughters aged nine to 17 years and no history of HPV infection completed semi-structured interviews. Interviews addressed factors that influenced intent to vaccinate, perception of community norms related to vaccination, vaccination scenarios involving place of vaccination, and vaccination prior to or after the child's initiation of sexual activity. A recurring theme was the influence of physician recommendation on African American parents' intent to obtain HPV vaccination for their daughters. Most parents reported that they could overcome barriers to vaccination, except vaccine costs and lack of insurance. While religious beliefs were important to parents, they reported that they would not interfere with vaccination decisions; fears of early sexuality due to vaccination were limited. The implications of these findings are discussed.

  18. Entrepreneurial Intention as Developmental Outcome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obschonka, Martin; Silbereisen, Rainer K.; Schmitt-Rodermund, Eva

    2010-01-01

    What predicts adults' entrepreneurial intentions? Utilizing a cross-sectional sample of 496 German scientists, we investigated a path model for the effects of entrepreneurial personality (Big Five profile), control beliefs, and recalled early entrepreneurial competence in adolescence (early inventions, leadership, commercial activities) on two…

  19. Purchase Intention of Foreign Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahasanul Haque

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The current research aims to investigate various factors that influence consumers’ intention of buying foreign products. The data were collected by means of self-structured questionnaires from a total of 260 Bangladeshi consumers residing in the two major cities of the country, Dhaka and Chittagong. At the initial stage, statistical analyses, particularly descriptive analysis as well as exploratory factor analysis, were conducted using SPSS, after which structural equation modeling was run by using AMOS. The findings have established that brand image and quality of foreign products carry significant positive influence on purchase intention of foreign products. However, religiosity leaves a significant negative effect on the purchase intention of foreign products. Furthermore, findings have also revealed that the image of the country of origin carries a significant positive effect on brand image but ethnocentrism carries a significant negative effect on perceptions about the quality of foreign products in their purchase intention. The major contribution of the current study is that it focuses on Bangladesh, as there is a vacuum in contemporary literature on this topic in the context of Bangladeshi consumers. The findings derived from the study could facilitate marketers in the creation of effective marketing strategies and at the same time are also valuable for academicians as well as consumers at large.

  20. Intentions and Information in Discourse

    CERN Document Server

    Asher, N; Asher, Nicholas; Lascarides, Alex

    1994-01-01

    This paper is about the flow of inference between communicative intentions, discourse structure and the domain during discourse processing. We augment a theory of discourse interpretation with a theory of distinct mental attitudes and reasoning about them, in order to provide an account of how the attitudes interact with reasoning about discourse structure.

  1. Diversity, intent, and aggregated search

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Rijke, M.

    2014-01-01

    Diversity, intent and aggregated search are three core retrieval concepts that receive significant attention. In search result diversification one typically considers the relevance of a document in light of other retrieved documents. The goal is to identify the probable "aspects" of an ambiguous

  2. Family Systems and Fertility Intentions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mönkediek, Bastian; Bras, Hilde

    2017-01-01

    Family systems, as normative frameworks in which family processes unfold, are believed to exert a major influence on fertility. While a number of studies have addressed family system effects on family size and the timing of births, the question of how family systems influence fertility intentions

  3. Entrepreneurial intention of Danish students

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fietze, Simon; Boyd, Britta

    2017-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to describe the entrepreneurial intention (EI) among Danish university students applying the theory of planned behaviour. Design/methodology/approach – Using cross-sectional data from the Danish Global University Student Spirit Survey 2013 (n=1...

  4. Diversity, intent, and aggregated search

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. de Rijke

    2014-01-01

    Diversity, intent and aggregated search are three core retrieval concepts that receive significant attention. In search result diversification one typically considers the relevance of a document in light of other retrieved documents. The goal is to identify the probable "aspects" of an ambiguous que

  5. Intentional learning: A concept analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollman, Sarah; Candela, Lori

    2017-07-19

    To use a concept analysis to determine a clear definition of the term "intentional learning" for use in nursing. The term intentional learning has been used for years in educational, business, and even nursing literature. It has been used to denote processes leading to higher order thinking and the ability to use knowledge in new situations; both of which are important skills to develop in nursing students. But the lack of a common, accepted definition of the term makes it difficult for nurse educators to base instruction and learning experiences on or to evaluate its overall effectiveness in educating students for diverse, fast-paced clinical practices. A concept analysis following the eight-step method developed by Walker and Avant (2011). Empirical and descriptive literature.  Five defining attributes were identified: (1) self-efficacy for learning, (2) active, effortful, and engaged learning, (3) mastery of goals where learning is the goal, (4) self-directed learning, and (5) self-regulation of learning. Through this concept analysis, nursing will have a clear definition of intentional learning. This will enable nurse educators to generate, evaluate, and test learning experiences that promote further development of intentional learning in nursing students. Nurses in practice will also be able to evaluate if the stated benefits are demonstrated and how this impacts patient care and outcomes. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Roles of perceived exchange quality and organisational identification in predicting turnover intention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manish Kumar

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores whether the perceived quality of the leader–member exchange and the general environment of exchange could predict turnover intention. It further examines the role of organisational identification as an explanatory variable mediating between exchange relationships and turnover intention. The authors used three-step hierarchical linear regressions on a data set collected in two time waves. The results supported the mediating role of organisational identification for the leader–member exchange and turnover intention relationship as well as the general environment of exchange and turnover intention relationship. Moreover, as was expected, the general exchange quality had a greater impact on organisational identification compared to the leader–member exchange quality. However, the findings did not confirm the expected trend in the case of two exchange variables predicting turnover intention.

  7. Intentions of older homebound women with regard to reaching help quickly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Eileen J; Ganong, Lawrence H; Matsuda, Sandy

    2013-01-01

    The purposes of this longitudinal phenomenological study were to describe intentions of older women relative to reaching help quickly (RHQ), to place those intentions in personal-social context, and to compare intentions of subscribers to a personal emergency response system (PERS) and nonsubscribers. The 40 participants were aged 85 or older, resided alone, and needed help to leave home. Two contextual features ("recognizing my risk of being unable to RHQ" and "recognizing my need for a RHQ device to sustain myself") were basic to two phenomena ("negotiating reliance on people to reach quickly if I need help" and "reducing my risk of being unable to RHQ"). There was greater variation in intentions and context within each of the two naturally occurring groups (subscribers and nonsubscribers) than between them. Practitioners cannot assume that women intend to use available RHQ devices in specific situations; preventive nursing involves proactive exploration of intentions relative to RHQ.

  8. Greater Trochanteric Pain Syndrome in general Practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Brinks (Tineke)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractThis thesis focuses on patients with greater trochanteric pain syndrome. These patients suffer from local pain at the lateral side of the hip. The syndrome is characterized by chronic intermittent or continuous pain at and around the greater trochanter, sometimes radiating to the lateral

  9. Evidence that implementation intentions reduce drivers' speeding behavior: testing a new intervention to change driver behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewster, Sarah E; Elliott, Mark A; Kelly, Steve W

    2015-01-01

    Implementation intentions have the potential to break unwanted habits and help individuals behave in line with their goal intentions. We tested the effects of implementation intentions in the context of drivers' speeding behavior. A randomized controlled design was used. Speeding behavior, goal intentions and theoretically derived motivational pre-cursors of goal intentions were measured at both baseline and follow-up (one month later) using self-report questionnaires. Immediately following the baseline questionnaire, the experimental (intervention) group (N=117) specified implementation intentions using a volitional help sheet, which required the participants to link critical situations in which they were tempted to speed with goal-directed responses to resist the temptation. The control group (N=126) instead received general information about the risks of speeding. In support of the hypotheses, the experimental group reported exceeding the speed limit significantly less often at follow-up than did the control group. This effect was specific to 'inclined abstainers' (i.e., participants who reported speeding more than they intended to at baseline and were therefore motivated to reduce their speeding) and could not be attributed to any changes in goal intentions to speed or any other measured motivational construct. Also in line with the hypotheses, implementation intentions attenuated the past-subsequent speeding behavior relationship and augmented the goal intention - subsequent speeding behavior relationship. The findings imply that implementation intentions are effective at reducing speeding and that they do so by weakening the effect of habit, thereby helping drivers to behave in accordance with their existing goal intentions. The volitional help sheet used in this study is an effective tool for promoting implementation intentions to reduce speeding.

  10. The role of intent in serosorting behaviors among men who have sex with men sexual partnerships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegler, Aaron J; Sullivan, Patrick S; Khosropour, Christine M; Rosenberg, Eli S

    2013-11-01

    Serosorting is increasingly assessed in studies of men who have sex with men (MSM). Most research studies have measured serosorting by combining reported unprotected anal intercourse (UAI) and the occurrence of participant and partner same HIV status (seroconcordance). The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's definition of serosorting also incorporates intent to be in such a partnership, although few studies incorporate both intent and behavior into their measures. Using data from a national, online survey of 3519 US MSM, we assessed the role of intention in seroconcordant partnerships, as measured by participant rating of the importance of shared serostatus when selecting a sex partner. For HIV+ men, 30% partnerships were seroconcordant; of these, 48% reported intent to be in such a partnership (intentional seroconcordance). For HIV- men, 64% partnerships were seroconcordant; of these, 80% reported intentional seroconcordance. Intentional seroconcordance was associated with UAI for HIV+ partnerships [odds ratio (OR): 1.9; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.3 to 2.9] but not significant for HIV- partnerships (OR: 1.1; CI: 0.99 to 1.3). In separate models where intent was not considered, seroconcordance was associated with UAI for HIV+ partnerships (OR: 3.2; 95% CI: 2.2 to 4.6) and for HIV- partnerships (OR: 1.2; 95% CI: 1.0 to 1.3; P = 0.03). Regardless of intentionality, seroconcordance was strongly associated with UAI for HIV+ men and weakly associated with UAI for HIV- men. Intentional seroconcordance was not associated with UAI more strongly than was seroconcordance in absence of consideration of intent. Intentionality may not be a critical element of the relationship between seroconcordance and UAI.

  11. Greater happiness for a greater number: is that possible and desirable?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Veenhoven (Ruut)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractGREATER HAPPINESS FOR A GREATER NUMBER: IS THAT POSSIBLE AND DESIRABLE? Utilitarian philosophy holds that public policy should aim at greater happiness for a greater number of people. This moral tenet meets many objections, on pragmatic grounds it is denounced as unfeasible and on ideolo

  12. Greater happiness for a greater number: is that possible and desirable?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Veenhoven (Ruut)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractGREATER HAPPINESS FOR A GREATER NUMBER: IS THAT POSSIBLE AND DESIRABLE? Utilitarian philosophy holds that public policy should aim at greater happiness for a greater number of people. This moral tenet meets many objections, on pragmatic grounds it is denounced as unfeasible and on

  13. Effects of illumination on store atmosphere, price and quality perception, and shopping intention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zielke, Stephan; Schielke, Thomas

    This paper analyzes how store lighting influences store atmosphere, price and quality perception, and the intention to shop in a retail store. A first experiment shows how the number and brightness of light beams influence these dependent variables. Results demonstrate that especially extreme...... combinations of both variables result in higher pleasure and shopping intention, while for price and quality perception different effects cancel each other out. A second experiment shows that orange light results in greater pleasure and shopping intention compared to blue light, when colors are saturated...

  14. Automatic Intention Recognition in Conversation Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtgraves, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    A fundamental assumption of many theories of conversation is that comprehension of a speaker's utterance involves recognition of the speaker's intention in producing that remark. However, the nature of intention recognition is not clear. One approach is to conceptualize a speaker's intention in terms of speech acts [Searle, J. (1969). "Speech…

  15. Automatic Intention Recognition in Conversation Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtgraves, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    A fundamental assumption of many theories of conversation is that comprehension of a speaker's utterance involves recognition of the speaker's intention in producing that remark. However, the nature of intention recognition is not clear. One approach is to conceptualize a speaker's intention in terms of speech acts [Searle, J. (1969). "Speech…

  16. Predicting client attendance at further treatment following drug and alcohol detoxification: Theory of Planned Behaviour and Implementation Intentions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Peter J; Leung, Joanne; Deane, Frank P; Lyons, Geoffrey C B

    2016-11-01

    Despite clinical recommendations that further treatment is critical for successful recovery following drug and alcohol detoxification, a large proportion of clients fail to attend treatment after detoxification. In this study, individual factors and constructs based on motivational and volitional models of health behaviour were examined as predictors of post-detoxification treatment attendance. The sample consisted of 220 substance-dependent individuals participating in short-term detoxification programs provided by The Australian Salvation Army. The Theory of Planned Behaviour and Implementation Intentions were used to predict attendance at subsequent treatment. Follow-up data were collected for 177 participants (81%), with 104 (80%) of those participants reporting that they had either attended further formal treatment (e.g. residential rehabilitation programs, outpatient counselling) or mutual support groups in the 2 weeks after leaving the detoxification program. Logistic regression examined the predictors of further treatment attendance. The full model accounted for 21% of the variance in treatment attendance, with attitude and Implementation Intentions contributing significantly to the prediction. Findings from the present study would suggest that assisting clients to develop a specific treatment plan, as well as helping clients to build positive perceptions about subsequent treatment, will promote greater attendance at further treatment following detoxification. [Kelly PJ, Leung J, Deane FP, Lyons GCB. Predicting client attendance at further treatment following drug and alcohol detoxification: Theory of Planned Behaviour and Implementation Intentions. Drug Alcohol Rev 2016;35:678-685]. © 2015 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  17. Country Report on China's Participation in Greater Mekong Subregion Cooperation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    1.Executive SummaryThe Mekong River,which originates from the Danggula Mountain Range on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau in China and runs 4,880 km southward through six countries,namely,China,Myartmar,Laos,Thailand,Cambodia and Viet Nam,is an important transnational river in Asia and even the world.The section in China is called the Lancang River.Since the 1990s,the international cooperation in the Lancang-Mekong subregiun has received wide attention from the international community.Related countries and intemational organizations have carried out extensive cooperation,which has produced good results and forcefully facilitated economic and social development of the subregion.

  18. Chinese Teachers' Work Stress and Their Turnover Intention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shujie; Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J.

    2012-01-01

    This survey study employed qualitative dominant mixed research to explore the sources of teacher stress in China and the possible reasons for Chinese teachers' turnover intention. The data were collected in Jilin Province of China, and 510 teachers participated in the survey. Quantitatively, 40.4% of the surveyed teachers reported that they…

  19. Chinese Teachers' Work Stress and Their Turnover Intention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shujie; Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J.

    2012-01-01

    This survey study employed qualitative dominant mixed research to explore the sources of teacher stress in China and the possible reasons for Chinese teachers' turnover intention. The data were collected in Jilin Province of China, and 510 teachers participated in the survey. Quantitatively, 40.4% of the surveyed teachers reported that they…

  20. The Impact of Opportunity Recognition Skills Training On Entrepreneurial Intention of Female Nursing Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jahangir Yadollahi Farsi

    Full Text Available This paper using the Theory of Planned Behavior, presents a study ofentrepreneurial intentions among nursing students in Zanjan Azad University. By measuring the intention of nursing students, the factors that impact their intention to start business can be recognized and the effective programs to affect their intention can be designed and developed. A sample of 56 nursing student selected and assigned to test and control groups. Data was collected at tow stage: The first down at the beginning of the first semester and before an entrepreneurial training program (ETP performed, andthe second, down at 75 days later, after ETP program was accomplished. The training program focused on opportunity recognition assumed to have positive effect on entrepreneurial intention. Because they not involve in practical aspects of start up and giving participants thought of potential barriers we could measure the effectiveness of the training program.Results shows that unlike many studies that show entrepreneurial training program positively influence entrepreneurial intentions of students, this study find very low effect of entrepreneurial training program on entrepreneurial intentions of nursing students. This paradoxical finding might be as a result of other factors such as greater chance of nursing students to be employed after graduation. Our results also showed that like entrepreneurial intention, selfefficacy had not been influenced by training program. Social norms had been influenced by ETP but attitude toward behavior and perceived self efficacy had not influenced.

  1. Surgical excision of acne keloidalis nuchae with secondary intention healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajaj, V; Langtry, J A A

    2008-01-01

    Acne keloidalis nuchae (AKN) is a chronic scarring folliculitis that presents clinically as follicular papules and pustules. These can coalesce into firm hypertrophic plaques and nodules on the nape of the neck, most commonly affecting young adult men. Treatment includes topical steroids/antibiotics and oral antibiotics, but often has disappointing results. Surgical approaches include excision with primary closure or skin grafting, and hair-removal lasers. Another surgical approach is excision with secondary intention healing. This can result in good cosmesis with little or no recurrence. We report two men with AKN where treatment by excision with secondary intention was successful.

  2. The impact of sexual harassment on job satisfaction, turnover intentions, and absenteeism: findings from Pakistan compared to the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merkin, Rebecca S; Shah, Muhammad Kamal

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare and contrast how differences in perceptions of sexual harassment impact productive work environments for employees in Pakistan as compared to the US; in particular, how it affects job satisfaction, turnover, and/or absenteeism. This study analyzed employee responses in Pakistan (n = 146) and the United States (n = 102, 76) using questionnaire data. Significant results indicated that employees who were sexually harassed reported (a) a decrease in job satisfaction (b) greater turnover intentions and (c) a higher rate of absenteeism. Cross-cultural comparisons indicated that (a) Pakistani employees who were sexually harassed had greater job dissatisfaction and higher overall absenteeism than did their US counterparts and (b) Pakistani women were more likely to use indirect strategies to manage sexual harassment than were US targets.

  3. Remembered Experiences and Revisit Intentions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barnes, Stuart; Mattsson, Jan; Sørensen, Flemming

    2016-01-01

    Tourism is an experience-intensive sector in which customers seek and pay for experiences above everything else. Remembering past tourism experiences is also crucial for an understanding of the present, including the predicted behaviours of visitors to tourist destinations. We adopt a longitudinal...... approach to memory data collection from psychological science, which has the potential to contribute to our understanding of tourist behaviour. In this study, we examine the impact of remembered tourist experiences in a safari park. In particular, using matched survey data collected longitudinally and PLS...... path modelling, we examine the impact of positive affect tourist experiences on the development of revisit intentions. We find that longer-term remembered experiences have the strongest impact on revisit intentions, more so than predicted or immediate memory after an event. We also find that remembered...

  4. ENTREPRENEURIAL INTENTION AMONG MALAYSIAN ENGINEERING GRADUATES: MALE VERSUS FEMALE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lutfiah Natrah Abbas

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Engineering graduates are facing greater challenge to enter the limited job market in Malaysia and equipping graduates with entrepreneurial skills has been promoted as a potential solution to this issue. However, gender factor has been implicated in some studies to confound success of entrepreneurship courses.  The purpose of this study is to test the hypothesis of no difference between genders on entrepreneurial intention; a factor deemed to be important to entrepreneurship success. The Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB was selected as the framework for understanding this phenomenon.  Three hundred and twenty eight final year engineering students from one public technical university in Malaysia were selected for the study. The Entrepreneurial Intention Questionnaire (EIQ was used to gather data on entrepreneurial intention among participants.  Using a t-test to analyse data on differences, no statistical difference in entrepreneurial intention is found between males and females, while slight difference is found in the components of TPB (attitude towards behaviour, subjective norm, and perceived behavioural control. The study suggests that gender may not be a factor that needs to be dealt with in the implementation of entrepreneurship programmes among engineering students.

  5. Founding Intentions: A Gender Perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheiner, Ch.; Laspita, S.; Brem, Alexander

    2008-01-01

    cognitions (fostering and hindering perceptions) towards self-employment, that in fluence the professional choice, are examined in this study. Attention is also given to gender similarities or differencesand to catching a glimpse of entrepreneurial related variables as they occur over time. To examine those...... and womenequally.We could also show that the self-employment of the parents does have an influence on the founding intention of the children....

  6. Intention-Disguised Algorithmic Trading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuen, William; Syverson, Paul; Liu, Zhenming; Thorpe, Christopher

    Large market participants (LMPs) must often execute trades while keeping their intentions secret. Sometimes secrecy is required before trades are completed to prevent other traders from anticipating (and exploiting) the price impact of their trades. This is known as "front-running". In other cases, LMPs with proprietary trading strategies wish to keep their positions secret even after trading because their strategies and positions contain valuable information. LMPs include hedge funds, mutual funds, and other specialized market players.

  7. Consumer Online Grocery Buying Intention

    OpenAIRE

    Hansen, Torben; Jensen, Jan Møller; Solgaard, Hans Stubbe

    2003-01-01

    This paper tests the ability of two consumer theories - the theory of reasoned action and the theory of planned behavior - in predicting consumer online grocery buying intention. In addition, a comparison of the two theories is conducted. Data were collected from two web-based surveys of Danish (n=1222) and Swedish (n=1038) consumers using self-administered questionnaires. Lisrel results suggest that the theory of planned behavior (with the inclusion of a path from subjective norm to attitude...

  8. Quality of Working Life: An Antecedent to Employee Turnover Intention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosadeghrad, Ali Mohammad

    2013-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this study was to measure the level of quality of work life (QWL) among hospital employees in Iran. Additionally, it aimed to identify the factors that are critical to employees’ QWL. It also aimed to test a theoretical model of the relationship between employees’ QWL and their intention to leave the organization. Methods: A survey study was conducted based on a sample of 608 hospital employees using a validated questionnaire. Face, content and construct validity were conducted on the survey instrument. Results: Hospital employees reported low QWL. Employees were least satisfied with pay, benefits, job promotion, and management support. The most important predictor of QWL was management support, followed by job proud, job security and job stress. An inverse relationship was found between employees QWL and their turnover intention. Conclusion: This study empirically examined the relationships between employees’ QWL and their turnover intention. Managers can take appropriate actions to improve employees’ QWL and subsequently reduce employees’ turnover. PMID:24596835

  9. Hailstones across the Greater Sydney Metropolitan Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Rasuly

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This study addresses the recent climatology of hail occurrence in the Greater Metropolitan Severe Thunderstorm Warning Area (GMSTWA of New South Wales, Australia, which is a sprawling suburban area, with a population of nearly 4.7 million and one of Australia's largest metropolis. The main objective is to highlight the recent temporal-spatial fluctuations of hailstone frequencies and magnitudes for each of recognized and vastly inhabited Local Government Areas (LGAs. The relevant hail event data from 1989 to 2013 were initially derived from the severe storm archive of Australian Bureau of Meteorology. A climatologically oriented GIS technique was applied in the examining and mapping procedure of all hail events and hail days reported throughout the study area. By applying a specific criterion, all severe hails (defined as 2 cm or more in diameter were cautiously selected and then imported into the ArcGIS software for relevant analysis. Appropriate data layers were stored in a unique database to allow logical integration of the data directly into some geoprocessing functions, mainly for querying, analyzing and mapping purposes in a model-builder setting. The database includes 357 hailstones with sizes 2–11 cm and occurred in 169 hail days across the region during the past 25 years. The models have established that hailstones are neither temporally nor spatially uniform in magnitude throughout the study area. Temporal analysis indicated that most of hail events occurred predominately in the afternoons with peak time of 1–5 p.m. EST. They were particularly common in spring and summer, and reached maximum frequency in November and December. There was an average of 14.3 events each year, but a significant decreasing trend in terms of hail frequency and associated magnitude in the recent years has been identified. In turn, spatial models also established three main distribution patterns over the study area, which include the Sydney Metropolitan

  10. The effect of conformity tendency on pedestrians' road-crossing intentions in China: an application of the theory of planned behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ronggang; Horrey, William J; Yu, Ruifeng

    2009-05-01

    This paper presents a survey investigating the effects of age, gender and conformity tendency on Chinese pedestrians' intention to cross the road in potentially dangerous situations. A sample of 426 respondents completed a demographic questionnaire, a scale measuring their tendency towards social conformity, and a questionnaire based on the theory of planned behavior (TPB). This questionnaire measured people's intentions to cross the road in two different road crossing situations, their attitude towards the behavior, subjective norms, perceived behavioral control, anticipated affect, moral norms, and perceived risk. The two scenarios depicted (i) a situation where the crossing was consistent with other pedestrians' behavior (Conformity scenario) and (ii) a situation where the road crossing was inconsistent with other pedestrians (Non-Conformity scenario). Pedestrians reported greater likelihood in crossing the road when other pedestrians were crossing the road. People who showed greater tendencies towards social conformity also had stronger road crossing intentions than low conformity people for both scenarios. The predictive model explained 36% and 48% of the variance in the Non-Conformity and Conformity scenarios, respectively. Attitude, subjective norm, perceived behavioral control, and perceived risk emerged as the common predictors for both situations. The results have a number of theoretical and practical implications. In particular, interventions should focus on perceptions of risk that inform road users that crossing with other pedestrians against the signal is also unsafe and prohibited, and may lead to negative outcomes.

  11. Incidental and intentional encoding in young and elderly adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Téllez-Alanís, Bernarda; Cansino, Selene

    2004-08-06

    Event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded in young and elderly adults during the performance of an incidental encoding task (subjects were unexpectedly given a recognition test) followed by an intentional task (subjects expected the recognition test). Both tasks consisted of an encoding stage in which subjects classified words (natural/artificial) and a recognition stage in which they indicated whether the words were old (presented during the encoding stage) or new. In both groups and tasks, the ERPs, during encoding, differed as a function of subsequent recognition: the old words correctly recognized generated greater amplitude potentials than the incorrect ones. The memory processes expressed by these ERPs are preserved in elderly adults, independently of whether the information is incidentally or intentionally encoded.

  12. Greater Somalia, the never-ending dream?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zoppi, Marco

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides an historical analysis of the concept of Greater Somalia, the nationalist project that advocates the political union of all Somali-speaking people, including those inhabiting areas in current Djibouti, Ethiopia and Kenya. The Somali territorial unification project of “lost ter...

  13. Greater trochanteric fracture with occult intertrochanteric extension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiter, Michael; O'Brien, Seth D; Bui-Mansfield, Liem T; Alderete, Joseph

    2013-10-01

    Proximal femoral fractures are frequently encountered in the emergency department (ED). Prompt diagnosis is paramount as delay will exacerbate the already poor outcomes associated with these injuries. In cases where radiography is negative but clinical suspicion remains high, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the study of choice as it has the capability to depict fractures which are occult on other imaging modalities. Awareness of a particular subset of proximal femoral fractures, namely greater trochanteric fractures, is vital for both radiologists and clinicians since it has been well documented that they invariably have an intertrochanteric component which may require surgical management. The detection of intertrochanteric or cervical extension of greater trochanteric fractures has been described utilizing MRI but is underestimated with both computed tomography (CT) and bone scan. Therefore, if MRI is unavailable or contraindicated, the diagnosis of an isolated greater trochanteric fracture should be met with caution. The importance of avoiding this potential pitfall is demonstrated in the following case of an elderly woman with hip pain and CT demonstrating an isolated greater trochanteric fracture who subsequently returned to the ED with a displaced intertrochanteric fracture.

  14. Low CSF oxytocin reflects high intent in suicide attempters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jokinen, Jussi; Chatzittofis, Andreas; Hellström, Christer; Nordström, Peter; Uvnäs-Moberg, Kerstin; Asberg, Marie

    2012-04-01

    Data from animal studies suggest that oxytocin is an important modulating neuropeptide in regulation of social interaction. One human study has reported a negative correlation between CSF oxytocin levels, life history of aggression and suicidal behaviour. We hypothesized that CSF oxytocin levels would be related to suicidal behaviour, suicide intent, lifetime interpersonal violence and suicide risk. 28 medication free suicide attempters and 19 healthy volunteers participated in this cross sectional and longitudinal study. CSF and plasma morning basal levels of oxytocin were assessed with specific radio-immunoassays. The Beck Suicide Intent Scale (SIS), the Freeman scale and the Karolinska Interpersonal Violence Scale (KIVS) were used to assess suicide intent and lifetime violent behaviour. All patients were followed up for cause of death. The mean follow-up was 21 years. Suicide attempters had lower CSF oxytocin levels compared to healthy volunteers p=0.077. In suicide attempters CSF oxytocin showed a significant negative correlation with the planning subscale of SIS. CSF oxytocin showed a significant negative correlation with suicide intent, the planning subscale of SIS and Freeman interruption probability in male suicide attempters. Correlations between plasma oxytocin levels and the planning subscale of SIS and Freeman interruption probability were significant in male suicide attempters. Lifetime violent behaviour showed a trend to negative correlation with CSF oxytocin. In the regression analysis suicide intent remained a significant predictor of CSF oxytocin corrected for age and gender whereas lifetime violent behaviour showed a trend to be a predictor of CSF oxytocin. Oxytocin levels did not differ significantly in suicide victims compared to survivors. CSF oxytocin may be an important modulator of suicide intent and interpersonal violence in suicide attempters.

  15. Does intention to recommend HPV vaccines impact HPV vaccination rates?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feemster, Kristen A; Middleton, Maria; Fiks, Alexander G; Winters, Sarah; Kinsman, Sara B; Kahn, Jessica A

    2014-01-01

    Despite recommendations for routine vaccination, HPV vaccination rates among adolescent females have remained low. The objective of this prospective cohort study was to determine whether clinician intention to recommend HPV vaccines predicts HPV vaccine series initiation among previously unvaccinated 11 to 18 year-old girls (N=18,083) who were seen by a pediatric clinician (N=105) from a large primary care network within 3 years of vaccine introduction. We used multivariable logistic regression with generalized estimating equations, Cox Regression and standardized survival curves to measure the association between clinician intention and time to and rate of first HPV vaccine receipt among eligible females. All models adjusted for patient age, race/ethnicity, payor category, visit type, and practice location. Eighty-5 percent of eligible 11 to 12 year-old and 95% of 13 to 18 year-old girls were seen by a provider reporting high intention to recommend HPV vaccines. However, only 30% of the cohort initiated the HPV vaccine series and the mean number of days from first eligible visit to series initiation was 190 (95% C.I. 184.2, 195.4). After adjusting for covariates, high clinician intention was modestly associated with girls' likelihood of HPV vaccine series initiation (OR 1.36; 95 % C.I. 1.07, 1.71) and time to first HPV vaccination (HR 1.22; 95% 1.06, 1.40). Despite high intention to vaccinate among this cohort of pediatric clinicians, overall vaccination rates for adolescent girls remained low. These findings support ongoing efforts to develop effective strategies to translate clinician intention into timely HPV vaccine receipt.

  16. I didn’t want to do it!. The detection of past intentions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea eZangrossi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In daily life and in courtrooms, people regularly analyze the minds of others to understand intentions. Specifically, the detection of intentions behind prior events is one of the main issues dealt with in courtrooms. To our knowledge, there are no experimental works focused on the use of memory detection techniques to detect past intentions. This study aims at investigating whether reaction times (RTs could be used for this purpose, by evaluating the accuracy of the autobiographical Implicit Association Test (aIAT in the detection of past intentions. Sixty healthy volunteers took part in the experiment (mean age: 36.5 y; range: 18–55; 30 males. Participants were asked to recall and report information about a meeting with a person that had occurred at least one month before. Half of the participants were required to report about an intentional meeting, whereas the other half reported on a chance meeting. Based on the conveyed information, participants performed a tailored aIAT in which they had to categorize real reported information contrasted with counterfeit information. Results demonstrated that RTs can be a useful measure for the detection of past intentions and that aIAT can detect real past intentions with an accuracy of 95%.

  17. Influence Service Quality and Customer Satisfaction towards Drug Purchase Intention in Anggrek Outpatient Pharmacy Depo at Hasan Sadikin Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pratiwi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The quality of service is an evaluation which focused on customer’s awareness about a structural construction of a service or product that involves 5 main aspects which are tangibility, empathy, responsiveness, reliability and assurance. Based on monthly reports of pharmacy installation only about 30% of patients buy drugs in the Anggrek out patient depo out off patients visiting Anggrek out patient specialist clinic in Dr. Hasan Sadikin Hospital. The aim of this study is to determine the effect of service quality and customer satisfaction to purchase intention in the Anggrek out patient depo Hasan Sadikin hospital at Bandung. The method used in this study is analytical survey with cross sectional design. The samples used were 200 patients, consist of 104 customers who have visited more than one times and 96 first visit costumer to this clinic. Data was collected using a questionnaire and analyzed using Smart PLS V 2.0 software. The results of this study showed that the service quality with tangible dimensions, reliability, responsiveness, assurance, and empathy are affecting the customer satisfaction with a score of 12.755 t-count (greater than t-table 1.983 and a positive value of the original sample of 0.800. Customer satisfaction affecting the customer purchase intentions with t-count is greater than t-table values of 5.012 and 0.726 of the original positive sample. While the service quality does not directly influence customer purchase intention with the t-test is smaller than t-table is 1.455 and the negative of the original sample -0.287. Some of service quality influence customers that causes not purchasing drugs from the out patient depo there are effect of unavailability of counseling, long waiting time of service, the need for special counseling room, a spacious waiting room, and the completeness of drug availability.

  18. Low-perceived work ability, ageing and intention to leave nursing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Camerino, Donatella; Conway, Paul Maurice; Van der Heijden, Beatrice Isabella Johanna Maria

    2006-01-01

    This paper reports a study exploring nurses' perceived work ability and its associations with age and intention to leave nursing in a representative sample of registered nurses in 10 european countries....

  19. 76 FR 60810 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Notice of Intent To Renew Collection, Copies of Crop...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION Agency Information Collection Activities: Notice of Intent To Renew Collection, Copies of Crop and Market Information Reports AGENCY: Commodity Futures Trading Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY:...

  20. The intentional stance and cultural learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michael, John Andrew

    2015-01-01

    for a causal realist interpretation of the reference of intentional terms, insofar the causal interaction between intentional interpretations of behavior and cognitive development provides an anchor that links intentional terms to functional and/or neural processes. Importantly, causal (as opposed...... to descriptive) theories of reference make it possible to argue that intentional discourse can be referentially anchored to thecausal machinery that produces behavior without generating true descriptions of it. I conclude by drawing out some consequences of the developmental perspective for the way in which we......In this paper, I propose a developmental explanation of the reliability of the intentional stance as an interpretive strategy, and by doing so counter an objection to Dennett’s intentional stance theory (i.e.the ‘If it isn’t true, why does it work?’ objection). Specifically, young children’s use...

  1. Environmental planning and management in Greater Johannesburg.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Von Schirnding, Y E

    1996-03-01

    This article describes the actions among urban environmental, management, and development planners in Greater Johannesburg, South Africa. Initiatives, such as the Healthy Cities Project and Model Communities, are being integrated into an environmental management and development approach that attains the goals of Agenda 21. Greater Johannesburg has housing shortages and homelessness. Priority needs include the areas of housing, water, electricity, public transportation, and sanitation. Clean water and air are inequitably distributed. Other key environmental problems include illegal dumping, inadequate waste disposal, poor environmental hygiene in overcrowded inner city areas, lack of open spaces, flooding, and water scarcities. The newly formed metropolitan authority offers opportunities to improve coordination and integration of environmental problems. Stakeholders from government at all levels, politicians, nongovernmental organizations, and the business sector formed an intersectoral, interdepartmental environment management committee in 1995. Stakeholders will integrate Agenda 21 within broader urban development plans and processes. The executive committee and the full council approved a set of guiding principles on environmental policy and an administrative framework for management. Four workshops were held to ensure a participatory consultation process in 1995. The WHO Collaborating Center for Urban Health will be used to facilitate the work of the Greater Johannesburg Metropolitan Council. Changes are being made in the way local governments work.

  2. Color and women attractiveness: when red clothed women are perceived to have more intense sexual intent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guéguen, Nicolas

    2012-01-01

    Research has shown that with some nonhuman primates, red is associated with greater sexual attractiveness of females, and recent studies found that a woman with red clothes increases attraction behavior in men. However, the mechanism that explains such behavior was not studied. In this experiment, we hypothesized that men overestimated women's sexual intent when wearing red clothing. Participants evaluated attractiveness and the sexual intent of a woman presented in a photograph wearing a red, a blue, a green or a white tee-shirt. It was found that men evaluated higher sexual intent in the red clothing condition. It was also found that perception of the woman's sexual intent was not moderated by attractiveness rating.

  3. Judgments of cause and blame: sensitivity to intentionality in Asperger's syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Channon, Shelley; Lagnado, David; Fitzpatrick, Sian; Drury, Helena; Taylor, Isabelle

    2011-11-01

    Sensitivity to intentionality in people with Asperger's syndrome (AS) and matched controls was investigated using two scenario-based tasks. The first compared intentional and unintentional human actions and physical events leading to the same negative outcomes. The second compared intentional actions that varied in their subjective and objective likelihood of bringing about a negative outcome. Whilst adults with AS did not differ from controls in their judgments of causality, or in their blame judgments in relation to non-mentalistic factors, they showed heightened sensitivity to mentalistic considerations in their attributions of blame. They made greater differentiation than controls between intentional and unintentional actions, and also between actions that the protagonists believed to be likely versus unlikely to lead to negative consequences.

  4. What would menthol smokers do if menthol in cigarettes were banned? Behavioral intentions and simulated demand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Richard J; Bansal-Travers, Maansi; Carter, Lawrence P; Cummings, K Michael

    2012-07-01

      The US Food and Drug Administration must consider whether to ban the use of menthol in cigarettes. This study examines how current smokers might respond to such a ban on menthol cigarettes.   Convenience sample of adolescent and adult smokers recruited from an online survey panel.   United States, 2010.   A total of 471 adolescent and adult current cigarette smokers.   Respondents were asked a series of questions about how they might react if menthol cigarettes were banned. In addition, participants completed a simulation purchase task to estimate the demand for menthol and non-menthol cigarettes across a range of prices.   Overall, 36.1% of respondents said they always (18.9%) or usually (17.2%) smoked menthol cigarettes. When asked how they might respond to a ban on menthol cigarettes, 35% of current menthol smokers said they would stop smoking, and 25% said they would 'find a way to buy a menthol brand'. Those who reported they might quit tended to have greater current intentions to quit [odds ratio (OR) = 4.47], while those who reported that they might seek illicit menthol cigarettes were far less likely to report current intentions to quit (OR = 0.06). Estimates for demand elasticity for preferred cigarette type were similar for menthol (α = 0.0051) and non-menthol (α = 0.0049) smokers. Demand elasticity and peak consumption were related to usual cigarette type and cigarettes smoked per day, but did not appear to differ by race, gender or age.   Preliminary evidence suggests that a significant minority of smokers of menthol cigarettes in the United States would try to stop smoking altogether if such cigarettes were banned. © 2012 The Authors, Addiction © 2012 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  5. Intention as an object of interdisciplinary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekizyan Anait Khachaturovna

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the intent, which is a fundamental element in the process of speech production and, in general, defines the purpose of the statements, as well as response. In most scientific disciplines intention has been investigated in the framework of such concepts as “intention.” It motivates dialogue, it gives meaning and value. The article highlights the main approaches to the concept of “intention”: philosophical, social, psychological. Within the framework of these approaches it is used the features of the functioning of intentions with the main specific characteristics of this concept, namely: 1 intention, 2 determination, 3 intentionality, 4 goal setting, 5 modality, 6 communicative failure, 7 manipulation, 8 rational choice. In philosophy, the term “intention” is seen as an intention, purpose, direction. In psychology, the term becomes a feature of the subjectivity of intentional behavior. It is also noted that the intention of understanding the psychological approach refers us to the concept of “intention”, the article highlighted two types of modality and the disclosure of their identity. In the field of social sciences study the term is inextricably linked with the concept as a rational choice, which in turn contributes to the selection of the strategies and tactics of behavior of the speaker in the communication process. The paper also is identified and analyzed as part of the concept in the speech interaction and types of speech influence.

  6. Assessing communicative intents: a situated pragmatics approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewitt, L E

    2000-01-01

    The analysis of communicative intents is described as it has developed over time, beginning with J.L. Austin's work published in 1975. Recommendations for best practice are offered in which a situated approach is advocated. Key elements of this approach are a focus on contextual variables and open-ended, rather than list-oriented, assessments of range of intents. It is argued that intents must be assessed relative to the environment, with documentation of environmental variables such as barriers to communicative opportunity. Further, caution is urged in using lists of intents as the sole guide to analysis, because such lists serve to limit awareness of individual differences and multifunctionality of utterances.

  7. Predictors of intentions to perform six cancer-related behaviours: roles for injunctive and descriptive norms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith-McLallen, Aaron; Fishbein, Martin

    2008-08-01

    This study reports an application of the integrative model to the prediction of intentions to engage in three cancer screening behaviours (mammogram, colonoscopy and PSA test) and three healthy lifestyle behaviours (exercising, eating fruits and vegetables, and controlling ones diet to lose weight). We examined the roles of attitudes, perceived behavioural control, injunctive norms (what important others think one should do), and descriptive norms (perceptions of what others do) as predictors of participant's intentions to engage in each behaviour. Results indicated that injunctive norms were the strongest predictors of prostate and colon cancer screening intentions and contributed significantly to the prediction of intentions to get a mammogram. In contrast, injunctive norms contributed relatively little to the prediction of lifestyle behaviours, but were strongly predictive of intentions to eat fruits and vegetables. Implications for designing behaviour-specific communications and interventions are discussed.

  8. Ebony and Ivory? Interracial dating intentions and behaviors of disadvantaged African American women in Kentucky.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luke, David J; Oser, Carrie B

    2015-09-01

    Using data from 595 predominantly disadvantaged African American women in Kentucky, this study examines perceptions about racial/ethnic partner availability, cultural mistrust, and racism as correlates of interracial dating intentions and behaviors with both white and Hispanic men. Participants reported levels of dating intentions and behaviors were significantly higher with whites than Hispanics. The multivariate models indicate less cultural mistrust and believing it is easier to find a man of that racial/ethnic category were associated with higher interracial dating intentions. Women were more likely to have dated a white man if they believed it was easier to find a white man and had interracial dating intentions; however, interracial dating intentions was the only significant correlate of having dated a Hispanic man. Findings suggest a shrinking social distance between racial groups, broadening the MMPI for African American women; yet, the low levels of interracial relationships are likely driven by preferences of men.

  9. Ebony and Ivory?:Interracial Dating Intentions and Behaviors of Disadvantaged African American Women in Kentucky

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luke, David J.; Oser, Carrie B.

    2015-01-01

    Using data from 595 predominantly disadvantaged African American women in Kentucky, this study examines perceptions about racial/ethnic partner availability, cultural mistrust, and racism as correlates of interracial dating intentions and behaviors with both white and Hispanic men. Participants reported levels of dating intentions and behaviors were significantly higher with whites than Hispanics. The multivariate models indicate less cultural mistrust and believing it is easier to find a man of that racial/ethnic category were associated with higher interracial dating intentions. Women were more likely to have dated a white man if they believed it was easier to find a white man and had interracial dating intentions; however, interracial dating intentions was the only significant correlate of having dated a Hispanic man. Findings suggest a shrinking social distance between racial groups, broadening the MMPI for African American women; yet, the low levels of interracial relationships are likely driven by preferences of men. PMID:26188458

  10. Greater Sage-Grouse National Research Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanser, Steven E.; Manier, Daniel J.

    2013-01-01

    The condition of the sagebrush ecosystem has been declining in the Western United States, and greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus), a sagebrush-obligate species, has experienced concurrent decreases in distribution and population numbers. This has prompted substantial research and management over the past two decades to improve the understanding of sage-grouse and its habitats and to address the observed decreases in distribution and population numbers. The amount of research and management has increased as the year 2015 approaches, which is when the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) is expected to make a final decision about whether or not to protect the species under the Endangered Species Act. In 2012, the Sage-Grouse Executive Oversight Committee (EOC) of the Western Association of Fish and Wildlife Agencies (WAFWA) requested that the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) lead the development of a Greater Sage-Grouse National Research Strategy (hereafter Research Strategy). This request was motivated by a practical need to systematically connect existing research and conservation plans with persisting or emerging information needs. Managers and researchers also wanted to reduce redundancy and help focus limited funds on the highest priority research and management issues. The USGS undertook the development of this Research Strategy, which addresses information and science relating to the greater sage-grouse and its habitat across portions of 11 Western States. This Research Strategy provides an outline of important research topics to ensure that science information gaps are identified and documented in a comprehensive manner. Further, by identifying priority topics and critical information needed for planning, research, and resource management, it provides a structure to help coordinate members of an expansive research and management community in their efforts to conduct priority research.

  11. Interspecific hybridization between greater kudu and nyala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton, Desiré L; Tordiffe, Adrian; Luther, Ilse; Duran, Assumpta; van Wyk, Anna M; Brettschneider, Helene; Oosthuizen, Almero; Modiba, Catherine; Kotzé, Antoinette

    2014-06-01

    Hybridization of wildlife species, even in the absence of introgression, is of concern due to wasted reproductive effort and a reduction in productivity. In this study we detail an accidental mating between a female nyala (Tragelaphus angasii) and a male greater kudu (T. strepsiceros). The hybrid was phenotypically nyala and was identified as such based on mitochondrial DNA. Further genetic analysis based on nine microsatellite markers, chromosome number and chromosome morphology however, confirmed its status as an F1 hybrid. Results obtained from a reproductive potential assessment indicated that this animal does not have the potential to breed successfully and can be considered as sterile.

  12. Job insecurity, leadership empowerment behaviour, employee engagement and intention to leave in a petrochemical laboratory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonet van Schalkwyk

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Engaging individuals at work plays an important role in retaining them. Job security and leadership empowerment behaviour are antecedents of employee engagement.Research purpose: The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between job insecurity, leadership empowerment behaviour (as perceived by the employees who report to leaders, employee engagement and intention to leave their jobs in a petrochemical laboratory.Motivation for the study: Knowledge of the effects of job insecurity and leadership on employee engagement and turnover intention will contribute to improved talent management.Research design, approach and method: A correlational design was used. A total of 169 employees in a petrochemical laboratory were studied. The measuring instruments included the Job Insecurity Index, the Leadership Empowerment Behaviour Questionnaire, and the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale. Two questions were used to measure intention to leave.Main findings: The results showed that job insecurity was not statistically significantly related to employee engagement and turnover intention. Leadership empowerment behaviour contributed statistically significantly to employee engagement and low turnover intention. Employee engagement partially mediated the relationship between leadership empowerment behaviour and turnover intention.Practical implications: Leaders should be developed to show empowerment behaviour, because it affects employee engagement, which in turn affects their turnover intentionContribution: This was the first study that demonstrated the effect of empowerment behaviour of leaders on the engagement and turnover intention of employees.

  13. Intention to Receive Breast Cancer Screening and Related Factors of Influence Among Vietnamese Women in Transnational Marriages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Fang-Hsin

    2017-08-10

    Breast cancer is a major global health issue. Receivingregular breast cancer screenings aids in the early detection and treatment of breast cancer. Numerous factors influence whether a Vietnamese woman receives breast cancer screening. The aims of this study were to understand current rates of breast cancer screening and explore the factors that influence intention to undergo breast cancer screening among Vietnamese women in transnational marriages. This was a cross-sectional, community-based study. Data were collected via snowball sampling. We enrolled 250 women aged 18 years and over from September to December 2015. The percentage of participants who had received a breast self-examination, breast palpation, or breast ultrasound within the past year were 25.6%, 9.6%, and 21.2%, respectively. Moreover, only 6.8% of participants had received a mammography within the past 2 years. Participants with strong perceptions of breast cancer being a serious illness, who had fewer barriers to obtaining a breast cancer screening, or who had been advised by healthcare personnel to undergo screenings were more likely to report an intention to receive periodic breast self-examinations during the subsequent 1-year period. Participants who had lived in Taiwan for a longer period, had higher levels of perceived susceptibility to breast cancer, had prior experience with breast diseases, or had fewer barriers toobtaining a breast cancer screening were more likely to reportan intention to receive a breast ultrasound during the subsequent 1-year period. Finally, participants who were older, perceived greater benefits from receiving breast cancer screening, and had not entered menopause were more likely to report an intention to receive a mammography during the following 2 years. Medical care personnel should promote breast cancer screening among Vietnamese women in transnational marriages. The results may be useful in promoting greater awareness among medical care personnel of breast

  14. Greater trochanteric stippling in trisomy 7p

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilde, Justin R. [Starship Children' s Hospital, Department of Paediatrics, Auckland (New Zealand); Teele, Rita L. [Starship Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Auckland (New Zealand); Aftimos, Salim [Auckland City Hospital, Northern Regional Genetic Services, Auckland, Private Bag 92024 (New Zealand)

    2006-08-15

    Trisomy 7p is a rare condition involving partial or complete duplication of the short arm of chromosome 7. Radiological features include large fontanelles, widened sutures, dolicocephaly and asymmetrical skull. We report a new radiological finding of punctate calcifications in the region of femoral trochanters. This finding has not previously been reported with chromosome 7p duplication. (orig.)

  15. Emigration Intentions : Mere Words or True Plans? Explaining International Migration Intentions and Behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dalen, H.P.; Henkens, K.

    2008-01-01

    Do people follow up on their intentions? In this paper we confront the emigration intentions formed by inhabitants of the Netherlands during the year 2004-2005 and the emigration steps they took in the subsequent two years. Three results stand out. First, it appears that intentions are good predicto

  16. On the Necessity of Distinguishing Between Unintentional and Intentional Mind Wandering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seli, Paul; Risko, Evan F; Smilek, Daniel

    2016-05-01

    In recent years, there has been an enormous increase in the number of studies examining mind wandering. Although participants' reports of mind wandering are often assumed to largely reflect spontaneous, unintentional thoughts, many researchers' conceptualizations of mind wandering have left open the possibility that at least some of these reports reflect deliberate, intentional thought. Critically, however, in most investigations on the topic, researchers have not separately assessed each type of mind wandering; instead, they have measured mind wandering as a unitary construct, thereby conflating intentional and unintentional types. We report the first compelling evidence that an experimental manipulation can have qualitatively different effects on intentional and unintentional types of mind wandering. This result provides clear evidence that researchers interested in understanding mind wandering need to consider the distinction between unintentional and intentional occurrences of this phenomenon.

  17. Founding Intentions: A Gender Perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheiner, Ch.; Laspita, S.; Brem, Alexander;

    2008-01-01

    In contradiction to previous research, which concentrates almost exclusively onentrepreneurs during their professional activity, this study concentrates on an earlier point in time and that is before the working life begins. Therefore, the micro-social environment (family background) and specific ...... and womenequally.We could also show that the self-employment of the parents does have an influence on the founding intention of the children....... cognitions (fostering and hindering perceptions) towards self-employment, that in fluence the professional choice, are examined in this study. Attention is also given to gender similarities or differencesand to catching a glimpse of entrepreneurial related variables as they occur over time. To examine those...

  18. Enhancing blood donation intentions using multimedia donor education materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    France, Christopher R; France, Janis L; Wissel, Mary Ellen; Kowalsky, Jennifer M; Bolinger, Elizabeth M; Huckins, Jamie L

    2011-08-01

    Prior research has shown that education materials that directly address prospective donor concerns and provide specific coping suggestions are particularly effective at enhancing donation attitudes and intentions to give blood. This study compared the effect of donor coping materials, provided in written and audiovisual formats, as potential tools to enhance recruitment of prospective blood donors. The role of initial attitudes toward blood donation on responses to these materials was also considered. Young adults (62% female; mean [SD] age=19.1 [1.4]; mean [range] prior blood donations=1.32 [0-13]) were randomly assigned to 1) read a brochure addressing common blood donor concerns and suggesting specific coping strategies, 2) view a video addressing blood donor concerns and illustrating coping techniques, 3) read the brochure and view the video, or 4) read a control brochure on healthy eating and exercise. Measures of blood donation attitudes, anxiety, confidence, and intentions to give blood were completed before and after the intervention. Relative to the control brochure, all the intervention groups showed larger reductions in anxiety, more positive changes in attitude, and greater increases in donation confidence and intentions. The combination of the brochure and video outperformed either intervention alone in further improving donation attitudes among participants with high initial donation attitudes. Blood donation coping materials, presented in either written or audiovisual formats, significantly enhance willingness to donate blood among young adults regardless of their initial attitudes toward blood donation. © 2011 American Association of Blood Banks.

  19. Happiness in action: the impact of positive affect on the time of the conscious intention to act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigoni, Davide; Demanet, Jelle; Sartori, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    The temporal relationship between our conscious intentions to act and the action itself has been widely investigated. Previous research consistently shows that the motor intention enters awareness a few 100 ms before movement onset. As research in other domains has shown that most behavior is affected by the emotional state people are in, it is remarkable that the role of emotional states on intention awareness has never been investigated. Here we tested the hypothesis that positive and negative affects have opposite effects on the temporal relationship between the conscious intention to act and the action itself. A mood induction procedure that combined guided imagery and music listening was employed to induce positive, negative, or neutral affective states. After each mood induction session, participants were asked to execute voluntary self-paced movements and to report when they formed the intention to act. Exposure to pleasant material, as compared to exposure to unpleasant material, enhanced positive affect and dampened negative affect. Importantly, in the positive affect condition participants reported their intention to act earlier in time with respect to action onset, as compared to when they were in the negative or in the neutral affect conditions. Conversely the reported time of the intention to act when participants experienced negative affect did not differ significantly from the neutral condition. These findings suggest that the temporal relationship between the conscious intention to act and the action itself is malleable to changes in affective states and may indicate that positive affect enhances intentional awareness.

  20. Happiness in action: The impact of positive affect on the time of the conscious intention to act

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davide eRigoni

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The temporal relationship between our conscious intentions to act and the action itself has been widely investigated. Previous research consistently shows that the motor intention enters awareness a few hundred milliseconds before movement onset. As research in other domains has shown that most behavior is affected by the emotional state people are in, it is remarkable that the role of emotional states on intention awareness has never been investigated. Here we tested the hypothesis that positive and negative affects have opposite effects on the temporal relationship between the conscious intention to act and the action itself. A mood induction procedure that combined guided imagery and music listening was employed to induce positive, negative, or neutral affective states. After each mood induction session, participants were asked to execute voluntary self-paced movements and to report when they formed the intention to act. Exposure to pleasant material, as compared to exposure to unpleasant material, enhanced positive affect and dampened negative affect. Importantly, in the positive affect condition participants reported their intention to act earlier in time with respect to action onset, as compared to when they were in the negative or in the neutral affect conditions. Conversely the reported time of the intention to act when participants experienced negative affect did not differ significantly from the neutral condition. These findings suggest that the temporal relationship between the conscious intention to act and the action itself is malleable to changes in affective states and may indicate that positive affect enhances intentional awareness.

  1. Greater patient confidence yields greater functional outcomes after primary total shoulder arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Styron, Joseph F; Higuera, Carlos A; Strnad, Greg; Iannotti, Joseph P

    2015-08-01

    Patient satisfaction is increasingly being tied to reimbursement rates, and patient satisfaction is often associated with improving functionality and decreasing disability postoperatively. This study sought to determine if a total shoulder arthroplasty patient's preoperative confidence in his or her ability to attain the level of activity desired would influence postoperative functional scores. Patients undergoing a primary total shoulder arthroplasty at a single institution were asked to complete a preoperative questionnaire with multiple items including baseline symptom severity measures and their confidence in reaching their level of desired functionality postoperatively (scored 0-10). Patients then completed an identical postoperative questionnaire at their follow-up visits. Associations between the patient's confidence in attaining treatment goals and functional outcomes was established by multiple linear regression models that were adjusted for gender, age, body mass index, baseline 12-Item Short Form Health Survey mental component scores, college education, smoking status, baseline functional scores, and length of follow-up. Patients had a high level of confidence that their outcome would match their expectations, with an average score of 7.8 (range, 0-10; 28.4% reported a full 10/10 confidence). For every 1-point increase in confidence, patients experienced an average increase in their function score of 2.7 points (P = .039) and improvement in their pain score of 2.0 (P = .033) according to the Penn Shoulder Score. There was no significant association with the patient's 12-Item Short Form Health Survey score postoperatively. Patients with greater preoperative confidence actually have significantly better postoperative functional outcomes than their less confident peers even with adjustment for other known risk factors. Copyright © 2015 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Entrepreneurial Intentions in Developing and Developed Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iakovleva, Tatiana; Kolvereid, Lars; Stephan, Ute

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This study proposes to use the Theory of Planned Behaviour to predict entrepreneurial intentions among students in five developing and nine developed countries. The purpose is to investigate whether entrepreneurial intention and its antecedents differ between developing and developed countries, and to test the theory in the two groups of…

  3. Law School Intentions of Undergraduate Business Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmonds, Thomas; Flanagan, David J.; Palmer, Timothy B.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine factors that influence business students' intentions to enroll in law school. Scant research has focused on factors that influence business students' decisions to enroll in law school. This paper attempts to fill that gap. Hypotheses about student intentions are based on Ajzen & Fishbein's (1977) Theory…

  4. Entrepreneurship Education: Workshops and Entrepreneurial Intentions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruett, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Using data collected from participants in an entrepreneurship education workshop series, the author examined the series' impact and tested a model of entrepreneurial intentions incorporating social and psychological factors. He found that entrepreneurial disposition and workshop participation significantly influenced intentions, exposure to role…

  5. Discrepancy between snack choice intentions and behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weijzen, P.L.G.; Graaf, de C.; Dijksterhuis, G.B.

    2008-01-01

    Objective To investigate dietary constructs that affect the discrepancy between intentioned and actual snack choice. Design Participants indicated their intentioned snack choice from a set of 4 snacks (2 healthful, 2 unhealthful). One week later, they actually chose a snack from the same set. Within

  6. Age, job identification, and entrepreneurial intention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hatak, Isabella; Harms, Rainer; Fink, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to examine how age and job identification affect entrepreneurial intention. Design/methodology/approach – The researchers draw on a representative sample of the Austrian adult workforce and apply binary logistic regression on entrepreneurial intention. Find

  7. Entrepreneurial Intentions in Developing and Developed Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iakovleva, Tatiana; Kolvereid, Lars; Stephan, Ute

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This study proposes to use the Theory of Planned Behaviour to predict entrepreneurial intentions among students in five developing and nine developed countries. The purpose is to investigate whether entrepreneurial intention and its antecedents differ between developing and developed countries, and to test the theory in the two groups of…

  8. There Are No Primitive We-Intentions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salice, Alessandro

    2015-01-01

    John Searle’s account of collective intentions in action appears to have all the theoretical pros of the non-reductivist view on collective intentionality without the metaphysical cons of committing to the existence of group minds. According to Searle, when we collectively intend to do something...

  9. Motor Intentionality and the Case of Schneider

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Rasmus Thybo

    2009-01-01

    I argue that Merleau-Ponty’s use of the case of Schneider in his arguments for the existence of non-conconceptual and non-representational motor intentionality contains a problematic methodological ambiguity. Motor intentionality is both to be revealed by its perspicuous preservation and by its...

  10. Enterprise Potential, Entrepreneurial Intentions and Envy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edit Terek

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of research about the impact of envy on enterprise potential and entrepreneurial intentions. The research was conducted in Serbia and the respondents were students from 5 faculties, from the first to the fifth year of study. The results were gained by statistical analysis of the gathered information (380 completed questionnaires. Descriptive, correlation and regression analysis are the methods of statistical analysis that were used. From the dimensions of enterprise potential, the highest average value has the dimension Creativity, while from the dimensions of entrepreneurial intentions, the highest average value has the dimension Subjective norm. Of all the observed dimensions, the lowest value has the Envy dimension. Between envy and dimensions of enterprise potential and dimensions of entrepreneurial intentions, there are a number of statistically significant negative correlations. This is more prevalent at the dimension of entrepreneurial intentions. Feelings of inferiority in relation to other people and the perception of having a boring or a bad life have an especially negative impact on entrepreneurial potential and intentions. Envy, which occurs due to the desire for more entertainment, travel, and due to the perception of the lack of fortune, also has a negative impact on entrepreneurial potential and intentions, but the influence is considerably weaker. There is a statistically significant predictive effect of certain items of envy on enterprise potential dimensions and entrepreneurial intentions dimensions. But this fact is not so strongly expressed. Some results suggest the possibility (however small that envy, in some circumstances, can mildly encourage entrepreneurial intention.

  11. The post-orgasmic prolactin increase following intercourse is greater than following masturbation and suggests greater satiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brody, Stuart; Krüger, Tillmann H C

    2006-03-01

    Research indicates that prolactin increases following orgasm are involved in a feedback loop that serves to decrease arousal through inhibitory central dopaminergic and probably peripheral processes. The magnitude of post-orgasmic prolactin increase is thus a neurohormonal index of sexual satiety. Using data from three studies of men and women engaging in masturbation or penile-vaginal intercourse to orgasm in the laboratory, we report that for both sexes (adjusted for prolactin changes in a non-sexual control condition), the magnitude of prolactin increase following intercourse is 400% greater than that following masturbation. The results are interpreted as an indication of intercourse being more physiologically satisfying than masturbation, and discussed in light of prior research reporting greater physiological and psychological benefits associated with coitus than with any other sexual activities.

  12. Experience in judging intent to harm modulates parahippocampal activity: an fMRI study with experienced CCTV operators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrini, Karin; McAleer, Phil; Neary, Catherine; Gillard, Julia; Pollick, Frank E

    2014-08-01

    Does visual experience in judging intent to harm change our brain responses? And if it does, what are the mechanisms affected? We addressed these questions by studying the abilities of Closed Circuit Television (CCTV) operators, who must identify the presence of hostile intentions using only visual cues in complex scenes. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to assess which brain processes are modulated by CCTV experience. To this end we scanned 15 CCTV operators and 15 age and gender matched novices while they watched CCTV videos of 16 sec, and asked them to report whether each clip would end in violence or not. We carried out four separate whole-brain analyses including 3 model-based analyses and one analysis of intersubject correlation to examine differences between the two groups. The three model analyses were based on 1) experimentally pre-defined clip activity labels of fight, confrontation, playful, and neutral behaviour, 2) participants' reports of violent outcomes during the scan, and 3) visual saliency within each clip, as pre-assessed using eye-tracking. The analyses identified greater activation in the right superior frontal gyrus for operators than novices when viewing playful behaviour, and reduced activity for operators in comparison with novices in the occipital and temporal regions, irrespective of the type of clips viewed. However, in the parahippocampal gyrus, all three model-based analyses consistently showed reduced activity for experienced CCTV operators. Activity in the anterior part of the parahippocampal gyrus (uncus) was found to increase with years of CCTV experience. The intersubject correlation analysis revealed a further effect of experience, with CCTV operators showing correlated activity in fewer brain regions (superior and middle temporal gyrus, inferior parietal lobule and the ventral striatum) than novices. Our results indicate that long visual experience in action observation, aimed to predict harmful behaviour

  13. Susceptibility of sensor networks to intentional electromagnetic interference

    OpenAIRE

    Delsing, Jerker; Ekman, Jonas; Johansson, Jonny; Sundberg, Sofia; Bäckström, Mats; Nilsson, T.

    2006-01-01

    It is reasonable to think that sensor networks might be part of society critical systems in the future. Therefor this paper discusses and shows the vulnerabilities of sensor networks to intentional electromagnetic interference (IEMI). Principle ways of sensor network IEMI is addressed and followed by a discussion on schemes for protection. Experimental results for both in-band and exband interference from low- and high- level sources is reported. It is obvious that more emphasis has to be put...

  14. Forecasting intentional wildfires using temporal and spatiotemporal autocorrelations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffrey P. Prestemon; María L. Chas-Amil; Julia M. Touza; Scott L. Goodrick

    2012-01-01

    We report daily time series models containing both temporal and spatiotemporal lags, which are applied to forecasting intentional wildfires in Galicia, Spain. Models are estimated independently for each of the 19 forest districts in Galicia using a 1999–2003 training dataset and evaluated out-of-sample with a 2004–06 dataset. Poisson autoregressive models of order P –...

  15. Intonation and Communicative Intent in Mothers' Speech to Infants: Is the Melody the Message?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernald, Anne

    1989-01-01

    Explored the power of intonation of speech addressed to adults and preverbal infants to convey meaningful information to 80 adult listeners. Listeners used intonation to identify speaker's intent with greater accuracy in infant-directed speech than adult-directed speech. (RJC)

  16. Vicarious and Persuasive Influences on Efficacy Expectations and Intentions To Perform Breast Self-Examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Ronald B.

    2000-01-01

    Tests the impact of symbolic modeling and persuasive efficacy information on self-efficacy beliefs and intentions to perform breast self-examinations among 147 undergraduate students. Assesses the effects of these modes of efficacy induction on fear arousal and response-outcome expectations. Finds symbolic modeling engendered greater efficacy…

  17. A systematic review of maternal obesity and breastfeeding intention, initiation and duration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amir, Lisa H; Donath, Susan

    2007-07-04

    Breastfeeding behaviour is multifactorial, and a wide range of socio-cultural and physiological variables impact on a woman's decision and ability to breastfeed successfully. An association has been reported between maternal obesity and low breastfeeding rates. This is of public health concern because obesity is rising in women of reproductive age and the apparent association with increased artificial feeding will lead to a greater risk of obesity in children. The aim of this paper is to examine the relationship between maternal overweight and obesity and breastfeeding intention and initiation and duration. A systematic review was conducted in January and February 2007, using the following databases: Medline, CINAHL and the Australian Breastfeeding Association's Lactation Resource Centre. Studies which have examined maternal obesity and infant feeding intention, initiation, duration and delayed onset of lactation were tabulated and summarised. Studies have found that obese women plan to breastfeed for a shorter period than normal weight women and are less likely to initiate breastfeeding. Of the four studies that examined onset of lactation, three reported a significant relationship between obesity and delayed lactogenesis. Fifteen studies, conducted in the USA, Australia, Denmark, Kuwait and Russia, have examined maternal obesity and duration of breastfeeding. The majority of large studies found that obese women breastfed for a shorter duration than normal weight women, even after adjusting for possible confounding factors. There is evidence from epidemiological studies that overweight and obese women are less likely to breastfeed than normal weight women. The reasons may be biological or they may be psychological, behavioral and/or cultural. We urgently need qualitative studies from women's perspective to help us understand women in this situation and their infant feeding decisions and behaviour.

  18. A systematic review of maternal obesity and breastfeeding intention, initiation and duration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donath Susan

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Breastfeeding behaviour is multifactorial, and a wide range of socio-cultural and physiological variables impact on a woman's decision and ability to breastfeed successfully. An association has been reported between maternal obesity and low breastfeeding rates. This is of public health concern because obesity is rising in women of reproductive age and the apparent association with increased artificial feeding will lead to a greater risk of obesity in children. The aim of this paper is to examine the relationship between maternal overweight and obesity and breastfeeding intention and initiation and duration. Methods A systematic review was conducted in January and February 2007, using the following databases: Medline, CINAHL and the Australian Breastfeeding Association's Lactation Resource Centre. Studies which have examined maternal obesity and infant feeding intention, initiation, duration and delayed onset of lactation were tabulated and summarised. Results Studies have found that obese women plan to breastfeed for a shorter period than normal weight women and are less likely to initiate breastfeeding. Of the four studies that examined onset of lactation, three reported a significant relationship between obesity and delayed lactogenesis. Fifteen studies, conducted in the USA, Australia, Denmark, Kuwait and Russia, have examined maternal obesity and duration of breastfeeding. The majority of large studies found that obese women breastfed for a shorter duration than normal weight women, even after adjusting for possible confounding factors. Conclusion There is evidence from epidemiological studies that overweight and obese women are less likely to breastfeed than normal weight women. The reasons may be biological or they may be psychological, behavioral and/or cultural. We urgently need qualitative studies from women's perspective to help us understand women in this situation and their infant feeding decisions and behaviour.

  19. Attitude and Intention Regarding Pain Management among Chinese Nursing Students: A Cross-Sectional Questionnaire Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Liang-Yu; Xu, Yin-Chuan; Lin, Dan-Ni; Jin, Jing-Feng; Yan, Min

    2017-08-01

    Optimal pain management is a priority in effective nursing care. Lack of sufficient pain knowledge associated with inadequate pain management has been proved. However, the intention, defined as the predictor of behavior, regarding pain management remains unknown. Therefore, the study was to determine the attitude and intention regarding pain management among Chinese nursing students and investigate the underlying determinants and their interactions in terms of intention toward pain management. The Pain Management Survey Questionnaire, comprising the key determinants of the theory of planned behavior-that is, direct attitude, belief-based intention, subjective norm, direct control, and indirect control-was used to collect data from 512 nursing students who undertook clinical rotation in an affiliated hospital of a medical college in China. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, independent sample t test, Pearson correlation analysis, or structural equation modeling analysis. Chinese nursing students reported negative attitudes and behavioral intentions toward pain management. Direct control, subjective norm, belief-based attitude, and indirect control independently predicted nursing students' intention to treat patients with pain. Direct control was the strongest predictor. Structural equation modeling analysis further revealed 39.84% of the variance associated with intention that could be explained by determinants of the theory of planned behavior. Additionally, educational school level and previous pain management training had great effects on pain management intention. Overall, this study identified intention as an important factor in effective pain treatment. Chinese nursing students have negative attitudes and insufficient intention to pain management. Therefore, hospitals and universities in China should manage these factors to improve nursing students' practice regarding pain management. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Pain Management Nursing

  20. MODELING AND SHIFTING FOCUS AS A FACILITATOR FOR INTENTIONAL EMERGENCE IN TRANSFORMATION DESIGN

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Louise Møller; Hansen, Poul H. Kyvsgård; Mabogunje, Ade

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we discuss the phenomenon "intentional emergence" in a transformation design context. We examine modeling and play enablers for intentional emergence and report on experiences with the Lego Serious Play method. The empirical observations are based on a real-time transformation design...... project called The Good Elderly Life, in which we focus on especially initial project scoping and problem investigations. Based on an analysis of video-material and interviews, we have found indications which suggest that intentional emergence - in relation to project scoping and problem investigation...

  1. When planning is not enough: the self-regulatory effect of implementation intentions on changing snacking habits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, Leona; Bagozzi, Richard P; Spanjol, Jelena

    2010-05-01

    This study examined whether matching implementation intentions to people's regulatory orientation affects the effectiveness of changing unhealthy snacking habits. Participants' regulatory orientation was either measured (as a chronic trait) or manipulated (as a situational state), and participants were randomly assigned to implementation intention conditions to eat more healthy snacks or avoid eating unhealthy ones. A self-reported online food diary of healthy and unhealthy snacks over a 2-day period. Participants with weak unhealthy snacking habits consumed more healthy snacks when forming any type of implementation intentions (regardless of match or mismatch with their regulatory orientation), while participants with strong unhealthy snacking habits consumed more healthy snacks only when forming implementation intentions that matched their regulatory orientations. RESULTS suggest that implementation intentions that match regulatory orientation heighten motivation intensity and put snacking under intentional control for people with strong unhealthy snacking habits. (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved.

  2. Behavior and Design Intent Based Product Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    László Horváth

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available A knowledge based modeling of mechanical products is presented for industrial CAD/CAM systems. An active model is proposed that comprise knowledge from modeling procedures, generic part models and engineers. Present day models of mechanical systems do not contain data about the background of human decisions. This situation motivated the authors at their investigations on exchange design intent information between engineers. Their concept was extending of product models to be capable of description of design intent information. Several human-computer and human-human communication issues were considered. The complex communication problem has been divided into four sub-problems, namely communication of human intent source with the computer system, representation of human intent, exchange of intent data between modeling procedures and communication of the represented intent with humans. Paper discusses the scenario of intelligent modeling based engineering. Then key concepts for the application of computational intelligence in computer model based engineering systems are detailed including knowledge driven models as well as areas of their application. Next, behavior based models with intelligent content involving specifications and knowledge for the design processes are emphasized and an active part modeling is proposed and possibilities for its application are outlined. Finally, design intent supported intelligent modeling is discussed.

  3. Perception and intentions to quit among waterpipe smokers in Qatar: a cross-sectional survey

    OpenAIRE

    Jaam, M.; Al-Marridi, W.; Fares, H.; Izham, M.; Kheir, N; Awaisu, A.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the perceptions and attitudes of waterpipe (shisha) smokers in Qatar regarding the health risks associated with addiction and to determine their intentions to quit. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 181 self-reported waterpipe smokers. Participants were approached in public places as well as in shisha cafes in Qatar. The questionnaire included items related to perception, attitude and intention to quit. Both descriptive and inferential statistics...

  4. Ebony and Ivory?:Interracial Dating Intentions and Behaviors of Disadvantaged African American Women in Kentucky

    OpenAIRE

    Luke, David J.; Oser, Carrie B.

    2015-01-01

    Using data from 595 predominantly disadvantaged African American women in Kentucky, this study examines perceptions about racial/ethnic partner availability, cultural mistrust, and racism as correlates of interracial dating intentions and behaviors with both white and Hispanic men. Participants reported levels of dating intentions and behaviors were significantly higher with whites than Hispanics. The multivariate models indicate less cultural mistrust and believing it is easier to find a man...

  5. F-35 Sustainment: Need for Affordable Strategy, Greater Attention to Risks, and Improved Cost Estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    F - 35 SUSTAINMENT Need for Affordable Strategy, Greater Attention to Risks, and Improved Cost Estimates Report...2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2014 to 00-00-2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE F - 35 Sustainment: Need for Affordable Strategy, Greater...House of Representatives September 2014 F - 35 SUSTAINMENT Need for Affordable Strategy, Greater Attention to Risks, and Improved Cost Estimates Why

  6. Grassroots Action Research and the Greater Good

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rainey Isobel

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available

    This study examines the action research topics and topic preferences of two groups of grassroots teachers: active researchers, and potential researchers. The analysis of the topics appears to indicate that, over the past decade, action research at the teaching of English at the grassroots level to speakers of other languages has been principally understood in terms of professional development with respect to teachers’ methodologies and learners’ learning behaviours. A nascent concern for a more ample approach to professional development and issues conducive to the greater good of the profession can, it is mooted, flourish only with the collaboration of all relevant stakeholders.

    En este estudio se examinan los temas de investigación acción y los temas preferidos por dos grupos de profesores de base: uno de investigadores activos y otro de investigadores potenciales. El análisis sugiere que, durante la última década, la investigación acción en el aula de inglés para hablantes de otras lenguas se ha entendido principalmente en términos del desarrollo profesional con respecto a las metodologías de los profesores y las conductas estudiantiles de aprendizaje. Se considera que un incipiente interés por un enfoque más amplio y por asuntos conducentes al beneficio general de la profesión, solamente puede florecer con la colaboración de todos los actores más importantes.

  7. Sunscreen Purchase Intention amongst Young Moroccan Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Bachleda

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Employing structural equation modeling and an extended theory of planned behaviour (TPB incorporating the additional influence of price perception as a conceptual framework, this paper explored the determinants of sunscreen purchase intention for young Moroccan adults. Consistent with the TPB, results confirmed the importance of subjective norms, attitude and perceived control in shaping sunscreen purchase intention. However, contrary to assumptions price was not found to be a significant factor in sunscreen purchase intention. Results of this study support the application of the TPB in the sunscreen purchase context and highlight the importance of using its constructs over price in the development of effective marketing campaigns.

  8. Propositional Attitudes, Intentionality and Lawful Behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Henrique de A. Dutra

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to discuss Quine’s last analysis of propositional attitudes as involving intentionality and as regards human action and the very subject matter of social sciences. As to this problem, Quine acquiesces in both Davidson’s anomalous monism and Dennett’s intentional stance. An alternative analysis is here presented, which is based on Howard Rachlin’s teleological behaviorism. Some problems regarding this approach are also considered. Intentionality and rationality are still to be saved, but they are construed according to a lawful perspective to human behavior and social contexts of action.

  9. Responsiveness of a simple tool for assessing change in behavioral intention after continuing professional development activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Légaré, France; Freitas, Adriana; Turcotte, Stéphane; Borduas, Francine; Jacques, André; Luconi, Francesca; Godin, Gaston; Boucher, Andrée; Sargeant, Joan; Labrecque, Michel

    2017-01-01

    Background Continuing professional development (CPD) activities are one way that new knowledge can be translated into changes in practice. However, few tools are available for evaluating the extent to which these activities change health professionals’ behavior. We developed a questionnaire called CPD-Reaction for assessing the impact of CPD activities on health professionals’ clinical behavioral intentions. We evaluated its responsiveness to change in behavioral intention and verified its acceptability among stakeholders. Methods and findings We enrolled 376 health professionals who completed CPD-Reaction before and immediately after attending a CPD activity. We contacted them three months later and asked them to self-report on any behavior change. We compared the mean rankings on each CPD-Reaction construct before and immediately after CPD activities. To estimate its predictive validity, we compared the median behavioral intention score (post-activity) of health professionals reporting a behavior change three months later with the median behavioral intention score of physicians who reported no change. We explored stakeholders’ views on CPD-Reaction in semi-structured interviews. Participants were mostly family physicians (62.2%), with an average of 19 years of clinical practice. Post-activity, we observed an increase in intention-related scores for all constructs (P < 0.001) with the most appreciable for the construct beliefs about capabilities. A total of 313 participants agreed to be contacted at follow up, and of these only 69 (22%) reported back. Of these, 43 (62%) self-reported a behavior change. We observed no statistically significant difference in intention between health professionals who later reported a behavior change and those who reported no change (P = 0.30). Overall, CPD stakeholders found the CPD-Reaction questionnaire of interest and suggested potential solutions to perceived barriers to its implementation. Conclusion The CPD

  10. Effects of nurse work environment on job dissatisfaction, burnout, intention to leave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nantsupawat, A; Kunaviktikul, W; Nantsupawat, R; Wichaikhum, O-A; Thienthong, H; Poghosyan, L

    2017-03-01

    The nursing shortage is a critical issue in many countries. High turnover rates among nurses is contributing to the shortage, and job dissatisfaction, intention to leave, and burnout have been identified as some of the predictors of nurse turnover. A well-established body of evidence demonstrates that the work environment for nurses influences nurse job dissatisfaction, intention to leave, and burnout, but there never has been a study undertaken in Thailand to investigate this relationship. To investigate how work environment affects job dissatisfaction, burnout, and intention to leave among nurses in Thailand. The study used a cross-sectional survey to collect data from 1351 nurses working in 43 inpatient units in five university hospitals across Thailand. The participants completed the Practice Environment Scale of the Nursing Work Index, the Maslach Burnout Inventory, and measures of job dissatisfaction and intention to leave. Logistical regression models assessed the association between work environment and nurse-reported job dissatisfaction, burnout, and intent to leave. Nurses working in university hospitals with better work environments had significantly less job dissatisfaction, intention to leave, and burnout. The nurse work environment is a significant feature contributing to nurse retention in Thai university hospitals. Improving the work environment for nurses may lead to lower levels of job dissatisfaction, intention to leave, and burnout. Focusing on these nurse outcomes can be used as a strategy to retain nurses in the healthcare system. Addressing the challenges of poor work environments requires coordinated action from policymakers and health managers. © 2016 International Council of Nurses.

  11. Neural mechanisms underlying attribution of hostile intention in nonaggressive individuals: An ERP study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagnon, Jean; Aubin, Mercédès; Emond, Fannie Carrier; Derguy, Sophie; Bessette, Monique; Jolicoeur, Pierre

    2016-12-01

    Although the perception of hostile intentions in other people can have a clear adaptive function, researchers have paid little attention to the capacity of nonaggressive individuals to infer hostile intentions in others. The goal of the present study was to study brain mechanisms associated with expectations of hostile/non-hostile intent and their on-line evaluation. Scenarios with a hostile versus non-hostile social context followed by a character's ambiguous aversive behavior were presented to readers, and we recorded and analyzed event-related brain potentials (ERPs) to critical words that disambiguated the hostile versus non-hostile intent behind the behavior. Fifty nonaggressive individuals participated in the study. Non-hostile critical words that violated hostile intention expectations elicited a larger negative-going ERP deflection with central and posterior maximums between 400 and 600ms after word onset compatible with an N400 effect. Finally, there were marginally significant correlations between N400 effect sizes and hostile as well as neutral attribution bias measured by a self-report questionnaire. The results suggest that nonaggressive individuals evaluate rapidly, on-line, their attributions of the hostile intent of others. The methodology we developed provides the field with a new paradigm with which to study social attributions of hostile intent likely to contribute to hostile or aggressive reactions.

  12. Potentials for Heat Savings in Greater Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Jørgen; Karlsson, Kenneth

    1998-01-01

    are suggested. Two scenarios for future heat savings are established, deviating in the rates of renovation, demolition, and construction of buildings, as well as in the thermal insulation standards, ventilation systems ,and in the daily behaviour. The results are that compared to the base year 1995, heat......This report describes methodologies for analysing heat saving potentials. The background for the lack of activities in that field is suggested. Various elements of heat savings are described, including changes in daily behaviour and life styles. Definition of various levels of potentials...

  13. Appeal for legislation on greater safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baillie, Jonathan

    2011-10-01

    An Essex-headquartered company which claims to manufacture the world's leading "brand" of glass vision panel, is calling for legislation to regulate the quality and design of such products. With no statutory governance currently in place, it is concerned that a rash of badly-designed, poorer quality variants, that it says have emerged in recent years, pose a significant self-harm and ligature risk to mentally unwell patients in hospitals, and a potential danger to staff when components like internal fittings and the glass itself, especially should the latter be too thin and thus easy to break, are used as "weapons". HEJ editor Jonathan Baillie reports.

  14. The Impact of Nursing Students' Cultural Diversity on the Intention and Attitudes Toward the Use of Information Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonen, Ayala; Sharon, Dganit; Lev-Ari, Lilac; Strauss, Ester; Segev, Ronen

    2016-05-01

    This research highlights the evidences that: The greater the threat, the lower the attitude toward information technology is, and the greater the sense of challenge, the greater self-efficacy is. Innovativeness was found to be a behavioral intention predictor in two groups, secular Jews and Arabs. This study provides nurses and nurse educators with some valuable insights about how culture, religion, and education may influence nursing students' attitudes toward information technology. © The Author(s) 2015.

  15. Does Vaping in E-Cigarette Advertisements Affect Tobacco Smoking Urge, Intentions, and Perceptions in Daily, Intermittent, and Former Smokers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maloney, Erin K; Cappella, Joseph N

    2016-01-01

    Visual depictions of vaping in electronic cigarette advertisements may serve as smoking cues to smokers and former smokers, increasing urge to smoke and smoking behavior, and decreasing self-efficacy, attitudes, and intentions to quit or abstain. After assessing baseline urge to smoke, 301 daily smokers, 272 intermittent smokers, and 311 former smokers were randomly assigned to view three e-cigarette commercials with vaping visuals (the cue condition) or without vaping visuals (the no-cue condition), or to answer unrelated media use questions (the no-ad condition). Participants then answered a posttest questionnaire assessing the outcome variables of interest. Relative to other conditions, in the cue condition, daily smokers reported greater urge to smoke a tobacco cigarette and a marginally significantly greater incidence of actually smoking a tobacco cigarette during the experiment. Former smokers in the cue condition reported lower intentions to abstain from smoking than former smokers in other conditions. No significant differences emerged among intermittent smokers across conditions. These data suggest that visual depictions of vaping in e-cigarette commercials increase daily smokers' urge to smoke cigarettes and may lead to more actual smoking behavior. For former smokers, these cues in advertising may undermine abstinence efforts. Intermittent smokers did not appear to be reactive to these cues. A lack of significant differences between participants in the no-cue and no-ad conditions compared to the cue condition suggests that visual depictions of e-cigarettes and vaping function as smoking cues, and cue reactivity is the mechanism through which these effects were obtained.

  16. Engineering students and their entrepreneurial intentions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipa Dionísio Vieira

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Promoting entrepreneurship is a key opportunity in the current environment, and engineering have recognized this criticism by including in their curricula basic financial disciplines. Given the current economic situation, provide the future engineer with concepts and techniques to move from knowledge to action, can improve the value perception of entrepreneurship as an alternative to employability on behalf of others. The aim of this paper is to present the preliminary results of the ENGEmpreende survey developed to measure the perceived attitudes and values of entrepreneurship by engineering students. Our sample involves 387 students of engineering courses from University of Minho. Portuguese engineering students report good levels of thoughts about entrepreneurship. Our study also found that their entrepreneurship predisposition has dependency relationships with gender, thoughts about entrepreneurship and entrepreneurial activities. The results of the perceived image of the entrepreneur suggest that students recognize the positive image of the entrepreneur in society, but have doubts about what is best: entrepreneur or employee in a large company? As perceived barriers, engineering students perceive as difficult to find a business idea or access to bank loans. Students’ perceived skills and competence suggest a perceived high adaptability, perseverance, technical confidence and orientation to results. The results of ENGEmpreende survey give an additional contribution to the theme of engineering entrepreneurship intentions through the identification of entrepreneurship predisposition, attitude to self-employment, entrepreneurial image, barriers to entrepreneurship, risk perception and technical confidence.

  17. The role of issue familiarity and social norms: findings on new college students’ alcohol use intentions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajiv N. Rimal

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background. Scholars in a variety of disciplines are interested in understanding the conditions under which social norms affect human behavior. Following the distinction made between descriptive and injunctive norms by the focus theory of normative conduct, the theory of normative social behavior predicts that the influence of descriptive norms on behavior is moderated by injunctive norms, outcome expectations, and group identity. We extended the theory by testing the proposition that the influence of descriptive norms on behavior would be greater under conditions of greater issue familiarity, defined as the ease with which one can cognitively access the behavior or behavioral issue. Design and Methods. The model was tested in the domain of alcohol consumption intentions by conducting a survey among incoming students (n=719 to a large university in the United States. Data indicated that students in the sample were well representative of the university population. Results. The influence of descriptive norms on behavioral intentions was moderated by issue familiarity, as predicted. Familiarity was a facilitator of behavior: the influence of descriptive norms on behavioral intentions was greater under conditions of high, rather than low, familiarity. The overall model explained 53% of the variance in alcohol consumption intentions. Conclusions. Public health interventions promoting health behaviors need to take into account the extent to which the behaviors are familiar to the target audience. The influence of norms appears to be weaker when the behavior is unfamiliar or novel. Implications for theory and interventions for reducing alcohol consumption are discussed.

  18. How well do the theory of reasoned action and theory of planned behaviour predict intentions and attendance at screening programmes? A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, Richard; French, David P

    2008-01-01

    Meta-analysis was used to quantify how well the Theories of Reasoned Action and Planned Behaviour have predicted intentions to attend screening programmes and actual attendance behaviour. Systematic literature searches identified 33 studies that were included in the review. Across the studies as a whole, attitudes had a large-sized relationship with intention, while subjective norms and perceived behavioural control (PBC) possessed medium-sized relationships with intention. Intention had a medium-sized relationship with attendance, whereas the PBC-attendance relationship was small sized. Due to heterogeneity in results between studies, moderator analyses were conducted. The moderator variables were (a) type of screening test, (b) location of recruitment, (c) screening cost and (d) invitation to screen. All moderators affected theory of planned behaviour relationships. Suggestions for future research emerging from these results include targeting attitudes to promote intention to screen, a greater use of implementation intentions in screening information and examining the credibility of different screening providers.

  19. Carrying weapons and intent to harm among Victorian secondary school students in 1999 and 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemphill, Sheryl A; Tollit, Michelle A; Romaniuk, Helena; Williams, Joanne; Toumbourou, John W; Bond, Lyndal; Patton, George C

    2013-12-16

    To examine comparable survey data across 10 years to assess whether rates of self-reported weapon carrying and intent to harm others have increased as suggested in reported trends in violent offences. Population-based surveys administered to Victorian secondary school students in 1999 (8984 students) and 2009 (10 273 students) attending government, Catholic and independent schools. Student self-reports of carrying a weapon and attacking someone with the intent to harm in the past 12 months. In both surveys, about 15.0% of students reported carrying a weapon and about 7.0% reported attacking someone with intent to harm in the past 12 months, with higher rates among boys than girls. There was no change over time in the rates of students carrying weapons or attacking someone with the intent to harm, after controlling for demographic variables. In contrast to media portrayals and reported trends in violent offences, rates of students carrying weapons and attacking others with intent to harm have not changed between 1999 and 2009. These findings underline the importance of having national population-based data to regularly monitor the rates of these and related behaviours among young Australians.

  20. Inferior glenohumeral joint dislocation with greater tuberosity avulsion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mohd Faizan; Latif Zafar Jilani; Mazhar Abbas; Yasir Salam Siddiqui; Aamir Bin Sabir; M.K.A.Sherwani; Saifullah Khalid

    2015-01-01

    Inferior glenohumeral dislocation is the least common type of glenohumeral dislocations.It may be associated with fractures of the adjacent bones and neurovascular compromise.It should be treated immediately by close reduction.The associated neuropraxia usually recovers with time.Traction-counter traction method is commonly used for reduction followed by immobilization of the shoulder for three weeks.Here,we report a case of inferior glenohumeral joint dislocation with greater tuberosity fracture with transient neurovascular compromise and present a brief review of the literature.

  1. Zoo visitor perceptions, attitudes, and conservation intent after viewing African elephants at the San Diego Zoo Safari Park.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hacker, Charlotte E; Miller, Lance J

    2016-07-01

    Elephants in the wild face several conservation issues. With the rebranding of zoos as conservation and education pioneers, they have the ability to both educate and inspire guests to action. The purpose of this research was to analyze visitor perceptions and attitudes toward elephant conservation and outcomes post-exhibit visit. A one-page survey was randomly administered to assess perceptions of elephant behavior, attitudes about elephant conservation, and intended conservation-related outcomes from September 2013 to January 2014. Principle component analysis identified three major components: concern for elephants in zoos, importance of elephants in the wild, and modification of nature. Visitors who scored highly on conservation intent were those with positive attitudes towards elephants in the wild and negative attitudes regarding the modification of nature. The greatest changes in conservation intent were a result of a self-reported up-close encounter and the ability to witness active behaviors. Providing guests with the opportunity to witness or experience such occurrences may aid in a more successful delivery of the zoo's conservation message. Further research into guest emotions and affective states in relation to viewing elephants in a zoological institution would provide greater insight into improving the guest experience and helping zoos meet their conservation mission. Zoo Biol. 35:355-361, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Chiropractic intern attitudes, beliefs, and future practice intentions with regard to health promotion, wellness, and preventive services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grand, Stephen; Morehouse-Grand, Kenice; Carter, Shane

    2016-10-01

    This pilot study explored the attitudes, beliefs, and intentions of a group of chiropractic interns concerning health promotion, wellness, and preventive services before and after a series of brief educational interventions. Interns completed a survey before (n = 37) and after (n = 22) the interventions. The survey included 12 Likert scale questions about attitudes and intentions toward wellness and health promotion models. The interventions consisted of classroom lectures, clinical training, and online information pertaining to health promotion and wellness. The interns initially favored wellness models, perceived a need for them, and felt partially prepared to administer them, with mean Likert scores 4 or greater on a 1 to 5 scale. Afterward, the average scores were higher and the interns reported some benefit from this short course of training. The initial survey demonstrated that interns had some understanding of wellness, health promotion, and preventive services, and favored utilization of these services. The follow-up survey suggested that a short educational intervention could have a positive impact on these attitudes and future utilization of wellness procedures in their practices.

  3. 46 CFR 120.100 - Intent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... OVERNIGHT ACCOMMODATIONS FOR MORE THAN 49 PASSENGERS ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION General Provisions § 120.100 Intent. This part contains requirements for the design, construction, installation, and operation of electrical equipment and systems including power sources, lighting, motors, miscellaneous equipment,...

  4. Structural Factors Affecting Health Examination Behavioral Intention

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Huang, Hui-Ting; Kuo, Yu-Ming; Wang, Shiang-Ru; Wang, Chia-Fen; Tsai, Chung-Hung

    2016-01-01

    .... Here, we used the health belief model as a foundation and integrated social psychological factors and investigated the factors influencing health examination behavioral intention among the public in Taiwan...

  5. Intentional Electromagnetic Interferences in Communication Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Abdul Nabi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available IEMI is the intentional generation of electromagnetic energy introducing noise or signals into electrical andor electronic systems by interrupting damaging and diverting these systems for jamming terrorist or criminal malicious purposes.

  6. Laser formed intentional firearm microstamping technology: counterinsurgency intelligence gathering tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lizotte, Todd E.; Ohar, Orest P.

    2009-09-01

    Warfare relies on effective, accurate and timely intelligence an especially critical task when conducting a counterinsurgency operation [1]. Simply stated counterinsurgency is an intelligence war. Both insurgents and counterinsurgents need effective intelligence capabilities to be successful. Insurgents and counterinsurgents therefore attempt to create and maintain intelligence networks and fight continuously to neutralize each other's intelligence capabilities [1][2]. In such an environment it is obviously an advantage to target or proactively create opportunities to track and map an insurgent movement. Quickly identifying insurgency intelligence assets (Infiltrators) within a host government's infrastructure is the goal. Infiltrators can occupy various areas of government such as security personnel, national police force, government offices or military units. Intentional Firearm Microstamping offers such opportunities when implemented into firearms. Outfitted within firearms purchased and distributed to the host nation's security forces (civilian and military), Intentional Firearm Microstamping (IFM) marks bullet cartridge casings with codes as they are fired from the firearm. IFM is incorporated onto optimum surfaces with the firearm mechanism. The intentional microstamp tooling marks can take the form of alphanumeric codes or encoded geometric codes that identify the firearm. As the firearm is discharged the intentional tooling marks transfer a code to the cartridge casing which is ejected out of the firearm. When recovered at the scene of a firefight or engagement, the technology will provide forensic intelligence allowing the mapping and tracking of small arms traffic patterns within the host nation or identify insurgency force strength and pinpoint firearm sources, such as corrupt/rogue military units or police force. Intentional Firearm Microstamping is a passive mechanical trace technology that can be outfitted or retrofitted to semiautomatic handguns and

  7. Strategic Intent, Confucian Harmony and Firm Success

    OpenAIRE

    Edward J. Romar

    2009-01-01

    This paper argues that by using the Confucian concept of harmony as its strategicintent a firm can be both ethical and successful. Using the work of Peter F. Drucker,Michael Porter, and Gary Hamel and C. K. Prahalad the paper discusses the role ofstrategic intent as a contributing factor to firm success. The paper then discusses how theConfucian concept of harmony fulfills the concept of strategic intent and how harmony cancontribute to the development of a successful and ethical organization...

  8. SIGNIFICADO E INTENCIONALIDAD MEANING AND INTENTIONALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Marcela Trigos Carrillo

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available John Searle propone una teoría de la Intencionalidad de la mente de la cual se debería desprender una teoría sobre la Intencionalidad del significado, bajo el presupuesto de que la mente es la que impone la Intencionalidad al lenguaje y no al contrario. Si esto es así, entonces, debería ser posible derivar de esta teoría la teoría de la intención de significar y, desde allí, las condiciones de satisfacción de los actos de habla. Este artículo tiene el objetivo de analizar la teoría general de la Intencionalidad, propuesta por Searle, y probar que en efecto es posible. A partir de tal estructura se derivará una teoría Intencional del significado con base en el análisis de la intención de significar. Este estudio propone nuevas alternativas de análisis para las teorías semánticas basadas en la Intencionalidad.John Searle sets out a Theory of Intentionality of Mind, from which should be inferred a Theory of Intentionality of Meaning, under the assumption that it is the mind who imposes Intentionality to language, and not vice versa. If this is so, then it should be possible to derive from this theory an intention-based theory of meaning, and from there, the conditions of satisfaction of speech acts. This article aims to analyze the general Theory of Intentionality proposed by Searle, and prove that it is in fact possible. From such a structure will derive an Intentional Theory of Meaning based on the analysis of the intention of meaning. This analysis raises some new alternatives for Intentionality-based semantic theories.

  9. Work Factors, Work-Family Conflict, the Theory of Planned Behaviour and Healthy Intentions: A Cross-Cultural Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukri, Madihah; Jones, Fiona; Conner, Mark

    2016-12-01

    The present study examined the roles of work factors (i.e. job demands and job resources), work-family conflicts and culture on predictors of healthy intentions (fruit and vegetable consumption, low-fat diet and physical activity) within the framework of the theory of planned behaviour (TPB). Employees from the United Kingdom (N = 278) and Malaysia (N = 325) participated in the study. Results indicated that higher job demands were significantly related to lower intentions to eat a low-fat diet. Women reported higher intentions to eat a low-fat diet than men did, while participants from the United Kingdom had lower intentions to engage in physical activity compared with those from Malaysia. The efficacy of TPB variables in explaining intentions was verified, with perceived behavioural control (i.e. self-efficacy), attitudes and descriptive norms combined with past behaviour predictive across the samples. The results also suggest the roles of culture and work interference with family variables in moderating TPB-intention relationships and confirm that TPB variables mediate the effects of job demands and job resources on intentions. Practically, to promote health, identifying strategies to reduce stress factors; specifying important cognitive factors affecting work factors and thus, healthy intentions; and acknowledging cultural-specific determinants of healthy intentions are recommended. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Intention-behavior gap is wider for walking and moderate physical activity than for vigorous physical activity in university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebar, Amanda L; Maher, Jaclyn P; Doerksen, Shawna E; Elavsky, Steriani; Conroy, David E

    2016-02-01

    The theory of planned behavior proposes that physical activity is the result of intentions; however little is known about whether the relation between intentions and behavior differs between vigorous, moderate physical activity, and walking. For university students, vigorous physical activity is oftentimes enacted as a goal-directed behavior; whereas walking is oftentimes a means to achieving a goal other than physical activity (e.g., transportation). The study was a one-week prospective study. Undergraduate students (N=164) reported intentions for walking, moderate physical activity, and vigorous physical activity and self-reported these behaviors one week later. Hierarchical linear modeling revealed that intentions were more strongly related to vigorous physical activity than to moderate physical activity or walking. Intention-enhancing interventions may effectively promote vigorous physical activity, but other motivational processes may be more appropriate to target in interventions of walking and moderate physical activity. Copyright © 2014 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Context-Aware Online Commercial Intention Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Derek Hao; Shen, Dou; Sun, Jian-Tao; Yang, Qiang; Chen, Zheng

    With more and more commercial activities moving onto the Internet, people tend to purchase what they need through Internet or conduct some online research before the actual transactions happen. For many Web users, their online commercial activities start from submitting a search query to search engines. Just like the common Web search queries, the queries with commercial intention are usually very short. Recognizing the queries with commercial intention against the common queries will help search engines provide proper search results and advertisements, help Web users obtain the right information they desire and help the advertisers benefit from the potential transactions. However, the intentions behind a query vary a lot for users with different background and interest. The intentions can even be different for the same user, when the query is issued in different contexts. In this paper, we present a new algorithm framework based on skip-chain conditional random field (SCCRF) for automatically classifying Web queries according to context-based online commercial intention. We analyze our algorithm performance both theoretically and empirically. Extensive experiments on several real search engine log datasets show that our algorithm can improve more than 10% on F1 score than previous algorithms on commercial intention detection.

  12. Attempted suicide, suicidal intent, and alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, A S; Stenager, E; Brahe, U B

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to relate suicidal intent to the suicide method chosen and the medical lethality of the suicidal act, and to discuss how ingestion of alcohol impacts these three factors. The study was based upon interviews with 139 suicidal patients admitted to the Department of Psychiatry of Odense University Hospital. The results indicated a tendency for suicide attempters using wrist-cutting to score low on the Suicidal Intent Scale. Patients using kinds of self-injury other than self-poisoning or wrist-cutting scored high. In the case of self-poisoning, suicidal intent did not influence the choice of toxic agent, nor was the choice of method and/or choice of toxic agent affected by alcohol ingestion. A correlation between suicidal intent and the lethality of the suicide attempt was seen only among patients without a diagnosis of alcohol dependence. Alcohol-dependent patients who made highly lethal attempts scored relatively low on the Suicidal Intent Scale. The results indicate that the lethality of the suicidal act is only an incomplete guide to a patient's suicidal intent. However, it should be stressed that, despite the fact that alcohol-dependent suicide attempters may not strongly wish to die, they are nonetheless at high risk for making fatal suicide attempts.

  13. Childlessness Intentions and Ideals in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miettinen, Anneli

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Using data from Eurobarometer Surveys 2001–2011 we examine trends and correlates of childlessness intentions and ideals across Europe over the past decade. We distinguish childlessness as a personal preference (personal ideal number of children is zero from intended childlessness (intention to have no children as these reflect somewhat different dimensions of childlessness as a conscious decision. We find that, on average, childlessness as a personal preference is relatively rare in Europe, although in some western European countries a sizeable proportion of young adults express a desire to have no children. Intentional childlessness is slightly more common than ideal childlessness is, since about 11% of currently childless young adults aged 18 to 40 years in Europe intend to have no children. We analyse factors related to childlessness intentions and ideals on the individual and country levels. A weaker individual socioeconomic position influences the intention to remain childless through various channels, such as unemployment or low socioeconomic status. Associations between individual’s social position and ideal childlessness are less clear. Results also indicate that macro-economic conditions do not have a direct impact on intentional childlessness, whereas a higher prevalence of traditional family values in a country is related to a lower likelihood of individuals considering childlessness to be their ideal family form.

  14. Community Teaching Practice for Greater Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siao-cing Guo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Field experience has been considered a vital part of teacher education. Universities have to search for ways for student teachers to gain experience in an authentic teaching environment. Several successful models incorporating service learning have been reported across fields (Brooks & Schramm, 2007; Nandan, 2010; Salas, Safaradan, & Ugarte, 2008, but there is still insufficient research found that combined English teacher preparation and service learning (Hsieh, 2002. Consequently, this researcher incorporated service learning into an English methodology course in Taiwan to engage students in higher learning experiences that take them beyond traditional teacher training. This paper describes a four-stage process of community service teaching, presenting its benefits and challenges. This study which incorporated quantitative and qualitative methodologies proved that teaching practices in collaboration with community libraries created three-way benefits: advancing the quality of college education and bringing valuable learning opportunities to the student teachers as well as the children who participated; and creating memorable experiences for the students and the communities that participated. Keywords: service learning, teacher preparation, university partnership, higher education

  15. Responsiveness of a simple tool for assessing change in behavioral intention after continuing professional development activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Légaré, France; Freitas, Adriana; Turcotte, Stéphane; Borduas, Francine; Jacques, André; Luconi, Francesca; Godin, Gaston; Boucher, Andrée; Sargeant, Joan; Labrecque, Michel

    2017-01-01

    Continuing professional development (CPD) activities are one way that new knowledge can be translated into changes in practice. However, few tools are available for evaluating the extent to which these activities change health professionals' behavior. We developed a questionnaire called CPD-Reaction for assessing the impact of CPD activities on health professionals' clinical behavioral intentions. We evaluated its responsiveness to change in behavioral intention and verified its acceptability among stakeholders. We enrolled 376 health professionals who completed CPD-Reaction before and immediately after attending a CPD activity. We contacted them three months later and asked them to self-report on any behavior change. We compared the mean rankings on each CPD-Reaction construct before and immediately after CPD activities. To estimate its predictive validity, we compared the median behavioral intention score (post-activity) of health professionals reporting a behavior change three months later with the median behavioral intention score of physicians who reported no change. We explored stakeholders' views on CPD-Reaction in semi-structured interviews. Participants were mostly family physicians (62.2%), with an average of 19 years of clinical practice. Post-activity, we observed an increase in intention-related scores for all constructs (P behavior change. We observed no statistically significant difference in intention between health professionals who later reported a behavior change and those who reported no change (P = 0.30). Overall, CPD stakeholders found the CPD-Reaction questionnaire of interest and suggested potential solutions to perceived barriers to its implementation. The CPD-Reaction questionnaire seems responsive to change in behavioral intention. Although CPD stakeholders found it interesting, future implementation will require addressing barriers they identified.

  16. Unintentional Exposure to Online Sexual Content and Sexual Behavior Intentions Among College Students in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jingwen; Jemmott, John B

    2015-07-01

    This study examined the relations of unintentional exposure to Internet sexual content to intentions for sex and condom use and potential mediators of these relations, including attitudes, norms, and self-efficacy, among college students in China. A sample of 524 Chinese college students completed an online questionnaire. Mediation path analyses were conducted to test the theory of planned behavior as a model of the relations between unintentional exposure and intentions to have sex and use condoms. On average, students reported being unintentionally exposed to Internet sexual content about 3 to 4 times during the past month. Unintentional exposure was indirectly associated with intention to have sex, mediated through descriptive and injunctive norms. Descriptive norm was a stronger mediator for females than males. In contrast, unintentional exposure was unrelated to condom-use intention and mediators. The theory of planned behavior provides a model for the development of Internet-based interventions with these students.

  17. Intention to purchase organic food among young consumers: Evidences from a developing nation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Rambalak; Pathak, Govind Swaroop

    2016-01-01

    The present study attempts to investigate the consumer's intention to purchase organic food in the context of a developing nation (India) using the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB). Further, the study has incorporated additional constructs (moral attitude, health consciousness and environmental concern) in the TPB and measured its appropriateness. Responses were collected from 220 young consumers adopting convenience sampling approach. Data were analyzed using Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) to evaluate the strength of relationship between the constructs. The findings reported that the TPB partially supported the organic food purchase intention. Among the additional constructs incorporated, moral attitude and health consciousness positively influenced the consumer's intention to purchase organic food. The study has supported the inclusion of new constructs in the TPB as it has improved the predictive power of the proposed framework in determining consumer's intention to purchase organic food.

  18. Relationships among employees' working conditions, mental health, and intention to leave in nursing homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuan; Punnett, Laura; Gore, Rebecca

    2014-02-01

    Employee turnover is a large and expensive problem in the long-term care environment. Stated intention to leave is a reliable indicator of likely turnover, but actual predictors, especially for nursing assistants, have been incompletely investigated. This quantitative study identifies the relationships among employees' working conditions, mental health, and intention to leave. Self-administered questionnaires were collected with 1,589 employees in 18 for-profit nursing homes. A working condition index for the number of beneficial job features was constructed. Poisson regression modeling found that employees who reported four positive features were 77% less likely to state strong intention to leave (PR = 0.23, p employee mental health. Effective workplace intervention programs must address work organization features to reduce employee intention to leave. Healthy workplaces should build better interpersonal relationships, show respect for employee work, and involve employees in decision-making processes.

  19. Specific attitudes which predict psychology students' intentions to seek help for psychological distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Susan J; Caputi, Peter; Wilson, Coralie J

    2014-03-01

    Although many postgraduate psychology programs address students' mental health, there are compelling indications that earlier, undergraduate, interventions may be optimal. We investigated specific attitudes that predict students' intentions to seek treatment for psychological distress to inform targeted interventions. Psychology students (N = 289; mean age = 19.75 years) were surveyed about attitudes and intentions to seek treatment for stress, anxiety, or depression. Less than one quarter of students reported that they would be likely to seek treatment should they develop psychological distress. Attitudes that predicted help-seeking intentions related to recognition of symptoms and the benefits of professional help, and openness to treatment for emotional problems. The current study identified specific attitudes which predict help-seeking intentions in psychology students. These attitudes could be strengthened in undergraduate educational interventions promoting well-being and appropriate treatment uptake among psychology students. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Correlates of Protective Motivation Theory (PMT) to adolescents' drug use intention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Cynthia Sau Ting; Wong, Ho Ting; Chou, Lai Yan; To, Bobby Pak Wai; Lee, Wai Lok; Loke, Alice Yuen

    2014-01-03

    Early onset and increasing proliferation of illicit adolescent drug-use poses a global health concern. This study aimed to examine the correlation between Protective Motivation Theory (PMT) measures and the intention to use drugs among adolescents. An exploratory quantitative correlation design and convenience sampling were adopted. A total of 318 students completed a self-reported questionnaire that solicited information related to their demographics and activities, measures of threat appraisal and coping appraisal, and the intention to use drugs. Logistic regression analysis showed that intrinsic and extrinsic rewards were significant predictors of intention. The odds ratios were equal to 2.90 (p < 0.05) and 8.04 (p < 0.001), respectively. The logistic regression model analysis resulted in a high Nagelkerke R2 of 0.49, which suggests that PMT related measures could be used in predicting drug use intention among adolescents. Further research should be conducted with non-school adolescents to confirm the application.

  1. Concealing their communication: exploring psychosocial predictors of young drivers' intentions and engagement in concealed texting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauld, Cassandra S; Lewis, Ioni; White, Katherine M

    2014-01-01

    Making a conscious effort to hide the fact that you are texting while driving (i.e., concealed texting) is a deliberate and risky behaviour involving attention diverted away from the road. As the most frequent users of text messaging services and mobile phones while driving, young people appear at heightened risk of crashing from engaging in this behaviour. This study investigated the phenomenon of concealed texting while driving, and utilised an extended Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) including the additional predictors of moral norm, mobile phone involvement, and anticipated regret to predict young drivers' intentions and subsequent behaviour. Participants (n=171) were aged 17-25 years, owned a mobile phone, and had a current driver's licence. Participants completed a questionnaire measuring their intention to conceal texting while driving, and a follow-up questionnaire a week later to report their behavioural engagement. The results of hierarchical multiple regression analyses showed overall support for the predictive utility of the TPB with the standard constructs accounting for 69% of variance in drivers' intentions, and the extended predictors contributing an additional 6% of variance in intentions over and above the standard constructs. Attitude, subjective norm, PBC, moral norm, and mobile phone involvement emerged as significant predictors of intentions; and intention was the only significant predictor of drivers' self-reported behaviour. These constructs can provide insight into key focal points for countermeasures including advertising and other public education strategies aimed at influencing young drivers to reconsider their engagement in this risky behaviour.

  2. Development of the Work Intention Inventory Short-Form

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nimon, Kim; Zigarmi, Drea

    2015-01-01

    The Work Intention Inventory (WII: Zigarmi, Nimon, Houson, Witt, & Diehl, 2012) was designed to assess five measures of work intention. Measuring employee intentions is important to consider when evaluating outcomes associated with employee engagement or work passion as research indicates intentions are strong predictors of behavior. Following…

  3. Quality of Working Life: An Antecedent to Employee Turnover Intention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Mohammad Mosadeghrad

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Background The purpose of this study was to measure the level of quality of work life (QWL among hospital employees in Iran. Additionally, it aimed to identify the factors that are critical to employees’ QWL. It also aimed to test a theoretical model of the relationship between employees’ QWL and their intention to leave the organisation. Methods A survey study was conducted based on a sample of 608 hospital employees using a validated questionnaire. Face, content and construct validity were conducted on the survey instrument. Results Hospital employees reported low QWL. Employees were least satisfied with pay, benefits, job promotion, and management support. The most important predictor of QWL was management support, followed by job proud, job security and job stress. An inverse relationship was found between employees QWL and their turnover intention. Conclusion This study empirically examined the relationships between employees’ QWL and their turnover intention. Managers can take appropriate actions to improve employees’ QWL and subsequently reduce employees’ turnover.

  4. Attitudes and intention to donate oocytes for research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purewal, Satvinder; van den Akker, Olga

    2010-03-01

    In 2007, the Human Fertilization and Embryology Authority permitted oocyte donation for research through voluntary donation or within an oocyte share model. The aims of this study were to investigate volunteer (nonpatient) women's attitudes and intentions to donate using components of the Theory of Planned Behavior and their attitudes toward parenthood through structural equation modeling. Questionnaires. Online. A total of 253 nonpatient women. Attitudes towards oocyte donation for research and reasons for parenthood scale. Of the 253 respondents, 94 were potential donors, 98 were possible donors, and 61 were non-donors. Most potential donors (68%) reported no preference towards donating their oocytes for research or an infertile couple. Structural equation modeling revealed that age (beta = -.03) and components of the TPB (beta = .16) had a statistically significant direct effect on intentions to donate for research. Attitudes toward parenthood was not linked to intentions to donate for research. There appears to be a strong altruistic motive along with the theoretical underpinnings of positive attitudes, feeling supported, and accepting the consequences of oocyte donation for research, suggesting these have the potential to inform recruitment practices and tailor clinical services. Copyright 2010 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Attitude as a Mediator between Acculturation and Behavioral Intention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahim, Nasser B; Davis, Sharon; Tomaka, Joe

    2016-11-01

    Immigrants, specifically African-born black persons, are affected by the HIV epidemic in the U.S. The low level of condom use among immigrants is a risk factor for contracting HIV and STIs. Immigrants go through acculturation process in their new adopted countries-a process reported to influence many health risks and protective factors; however, the mechanism through which acculturation influences health behaviors is not well understood. Thus, study examined the mediating role of attitude in the relationship between acculturation and the intention to use male condoms in steady heterosexual relationships among Somali and Ethiopian immigrants in Minnesota. The study was a regression analysis and the method of data collection cross-sectional. Participants were (n = 205) Somali and Ethiopian immigrants in Minnesota who volunteered for the study. Study participants responded to questions on attitudes, behavioral intention, and acculturation levels. The indirect effect of acculturation through the mediator, attitude, was not significant, product coefficient (a × b) = 0.04, 95% CI: [0.00, 0.11]; hence attitude did not mediate the relationship between acculturation and the intention to use condoms in the study population. However, there were significant direct and total effects of acculturation (c' = .27, p acculturation on condom use. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Perceived ambiguity as a barrier to intentions to learn genome sequencing results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taber, Jennifer M; Klein, William M P; Ferrer, Rebecca A; Han, Paul K J; Lewis, Katie L; Biesecker, Leslie G; Biesecker, Barbara B

    2015-10-01

    Many variants that could be returned from genome sequencing may be perceived as ambiguous-lacking reliability, credibility, or adequacy. Little is known about how perceived ambiguity influences thoughts about sequencing results. Participants (n = 494) in an NIH genome sequencing study completed a baseline survey before sequencing results were available. We examined how perceived ambiguity regarding sequencing results and individual differences in medical ambiguity aversion and tolerance for uncertainty were associated with cognitions and intentions concerning sequencing results. Perceiving sequencing results as more ambiguous was associated with less favorable cognitions about results and lower intentions to learn and share results. Among participants low in tolerance for uncertainty or optimism, greater perceived ambiguity was associated with lower intentions to learn results for non-medically actionable diseases; medical ambiguity aversion did not moderate any associations. Results are consistent with the phenomenon of "ambiguity aversion" and may influence whether people learn and communicate genomic information.

  7. Perceived ambiguity as a barrier to intentions to learn genome sequencing results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taber, Jennifer M.; Klein, William M.P.; Ferrer, Rebecca A.; Han, Paul K. J.; Lewis, Katie L.; Biesecker, Leslie G.; Biesecker, Barbara B.

    2015-01-01

    Many variants that could be returned from genome sequencing may be perceived as ambiguous—lacking reliability, credibility, or adequacy. Little is known about how perceived ambiguity influences thoughts about sequencing results. Participants (n=494) in an NIH genome sequencing study completed a baseline survey before sequencing results were available. We examined how perceived ambiguity regarding sequencing results and individual differences in medical ambiguity aversion and tolerance for uncertainty were associated with cognitions and intentions concerning sequencing results. Perceiving sequencing results as more ambiguous was associated with less favorable cognitions about results and lower intentions to learn and share results. Among participants low in tolerance for uncertainty or optimism, greater perceived ambiguity was associated with lower intentions to learn results for non-medically actionable diseases; medical ambiguity aversion did not moderate any associations. Results are consistent with the phenomenon of “ambiguity aversion” and may influence whether people learn and communicate genomic information. PMID:26003053

  8. Effects of deceptive packaging and product involvement on purchase intention: an elaboration likelihood model perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lammers, H B

    2000-04-01

    From an Elaboration Likelihood Model perspective, it was hypothesized that postexposure awareness of deceptive packaging claims would have a greater negative effect on scores for purchase intention by consumers lowly involved rather than highly involved with a product (n = 40). Undergraduates who were classified as either highly or lowly (ns = 20 and 20) involved with M&Ms examined either a deceptive or non-deceptive package design for M&Ms candy and were subsequently informed of the deception employed in the packaging before finally rating their intention to purchase. As anticipated, highly deceived subjects who were low in involvement rated intention to purchase lower than their highly involved peers. Overall, the results attest to the robustness of the model and suggest that the model has implications beyond advertising effects and into packaging effects.

  9. Understanding intention to use electronic information resources: A theoretical extension of the technology acceptance model (TAM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Donghua

    2008-11-06

    This study extended the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) by examining the roles of two aspects of e-resource characteristics, namely, information quality and system quality, in predicting public health students' intention to use e-resources for completing research paper assignments. Both focus groups and a questionnaire were used to collect data. Descriptive analysis, data screening, and Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) techniques were used for data analysis. The study found that perceived usefulness played a major role in determining students' intention to use e-resources. Perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use fully mediated the impact that information quality and system quality had on behavior intention. The research model enriches the existing technology acceptance literature by extending TAM. Representing two aspects of e-resource characteristics provides greater explanatory information for diagnosing problems of system design, development, and implementation.

  10. The relationship between pregnancy intention and change in perinatal cigarette smoking: an analysis of PRAMS data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chisolm, Margaret S; Cheng, Diana; Terplan, Mishka

    2014-02-01

    This study examined the relationship between pregnancy intention and change in perinatal cigarette smoking from a large national sample of women in the United States, the 2004-2008 Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (PRAMS). The study sample consisted of 49,510 female smokers. Smoking rates and quantities were captured prior to pregnancy, the last 3 months of pregnancy, and postpartum. Changes in smoking were compared between pregnancies classified as intended, mistimed, and unwanted. Regardless of pregnancy intention status, most behavior change happened before the final 3 months of pregnancy. Overall, most women were able to quit or reduce smoking. However women with unwanted pregnancies had 0.86 times the adjusted odds of quitting/reducing cigarette smoking compared to women with intended or mistimed pregnancies (95% CI: 0.78, 0.95). Findings suggest early smoking cessation interventions lead to greater change in smoking, regardless of pregnancy intention, although change is more difficult for women with unwanted pregnancies.

  11. Neural substrates and social consequences of interpersonal gratitude: Intention matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hongbo; Cai, Qiang; Shen, Bo; Gao, Xiaoxue; Zhou, Xiaolin

    2017-06-01

    Voluntary help during a time of need fosters interpersonal gratitude, which has positive social and personal consequences such as improved social relationships, increased reciprocity, and decreased distress. In a behavioral and a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) experiment, participants played a multiround interactive game where they received pain stimulation. An anonymous partner interacted with the participants and either intentionally or unintentionally (i.e., determined by a computer program) bore part of the participants' pain. In each round, participants either evaluated their perceived pain intensity (behavioral experiment) or transferred an amount of money to the partner (fMRI experiment). Intentional (relative to unintentional) help led to lower experience of pain, higher reciprocity (money allocation), and increased interpersonal closeness toward the partner. fMRI revealed that for the most grateful condition (i.e., intentional help), value-related structures such as the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) showed the highest activation in response to the partner's decision, whereas the primary sensory area and the anterior insula exhibited the lowest activation at the pain delivery stage. Moreover, the vmPFC activation was predictive of the individual differences in reciprocal behavior, and the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) activation was predictive of self-reported gratitude. Furthermore, using multivariate pattern analysis (MVPA), we showed that the neural activation pattern in the septum/hypothalamus, an area associated with affiliative affect and social bonding, and value-related structures specifically and sensitively dissociated intentional help from unintentional help conditions. These findings contribute to our understanding of the psychological and neural substrates of the experience of interpersonal gratitude and the social consequences of this emotion. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. Inferring on the intentions of others by hierarchical Bayesian learning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreea O Diaconescu

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Inferring on others' (potentially time-varying intentions is a fundamental problem during many social transactions. To investigate the underlying mechanisms, we applied computational modeling to behavioral data from an economic game in which 16 pairs of volunteers (randomly assigned to "player" or "adviser" roles interacted. The player performed a probabilistic reinforcement learning task, receiving information about a binary lottery from a visual pie chart. The adviser, who received more predictive information, issued an additional recommendation. Critically, the game was structured such that the adviser's incentives to provide helpful or misleading information varied in time. Using a meta-Bayesian modeling framework, we found that the players' behavior was best explained by the deployment of hierarchical learning: they inferred upon the volatility of the advisers' intentions in order to optimize their predictions about the validity of their advice. Beyond learning, volatility estimates also affected the trial-by-trial variability of decisions: participants were more likely to rely on their estimates of advice accuracy for making choices when they believed that the adviser's intentions were presently stable. Finally, our model of the players' inference predicted the players' interpersonal reactivity index (IRI scores, explicit ratings of the advisers' helpfulness and the advisers' self-reports on their chosen strategy. Overall, our results suggest that humans (i employ hierarchical generative models to infer on the changing intentions of others, (ii use volatility estimates to inform decision-making in social interactions, and (iii integrate estimates of advice accuracy with non-social sources of information. The Bayesian framework presented here can quantify individual differences in these mechanisms from simple behavioral readouts and may prove useful in future clinical studies of maladaptive social cognition.

  13. Inferring on the intentions of others by hierarchical Bayesian learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaconescu, Andreea O; Mathys, Christoph; Weber, Lilian A E; Daunizeau, Jean; Kasper, Lars; Lomakina, Ekaterina I; Fehr, Ernst; Stephan, Klaas E

    2014-09-01

    Inferring on others' (potentially time-varying) intentions is a fundamental problem during many social transactions. To investigate the underlying mechanisms, we applied computational modeling to behavioral data from an economic game in which 16 pairs of volunteers (randomly assigned to "player" or "adviser" roles) interacted. The player performed a probabilistic reinforcement learning task, receiving information about a binary lottery from a visual pie chart. The adviser, who received more predictive information, issued an additional recommendation. Critically, the game was structured such that the adviser's incentives to provide helpful or misleading information varied in time. Using a meta-Bayesian modeling framework, we found that the players' behavior was best explained by the deployment of hierarchical learning: they inferred upon the volatility of the advisers' intentions in order to optimize their predictions about the validity of their advice. Beyond learning, volatility estimates also affected the trial-by-trial variability of decisions: participants were more likely to rely on their estimates of advice accuracy for making choices when they believed that the adviser's intentions were presently stable. Finally, our model of the players' inference predicted the players' interpersonal reactivity index (IRI) scores, explicit ratings of the advisers' helpfulness and the advisers' self-reports on their chosen strategy. Overall, our results suggest that humans (i) employ hierarchical generative models to infer on the changing intentions of others, (ii) use volatility estimates to inform decision-making in social interactions, and (iii) integrate estimates of advice accuracy with non-social sources of information. The Bayesian framework presented here can quantify individual differences in these mechanisms from simple behavioral readouts and may prove useful in future clinical studies of maladaptive social cognition.

  14. Intentionality and hatha yoga: an exploration of the theory of intentionality, the matrix of healing--a growth model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deary, Lauri; Roche, Joan; Plotkin, Karen; Zahourek, Rothlyn

    2011-01-01

    Hatha yoga increases self-awareness and well-being. Intentionality is creating motivation and then action. This qualitative study explored intentionality during hatha yoga sessions using narrative analysis. The results supported and expanded Zahourek's theory of intentionality, the matrix of healing, and provide new insights into intentionality in healing.

  15. A Nuanced Look at Women in STEM Fields at Two-Year Colleges: Factors That Shape Female Students' Transfer Intent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xueli; Chan, Hsun-yu; Soffa, Sara Jimenez; Nachman, Brett Ranon

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we explored the relationship between the intent to transfer upward and a set of motivational, contextual, and socio-demographic background factors among 696 female students beginning in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) programs or courses at two-year colleges in a Midwestern state. Drawing upon survey data and administrative records, our multinomial logistic regression analysis revealed that students' math and science self-efficacy beliefs, as well as transfer-oriented interaction, were significant and positive predictors for their intent to transfer into STEM fields as opposed to having no intent to transfer. In addition, the association between transfer intent and these key motivational and contextual factors was moderated by students' racial/ethnic backgrounds, marital status, and childcare obligations. For example, despite the positive relationship between transfer-oriented interaction and the intention to transfer into STEM fields, Black women were less likely to have intent to transfer into STEM fields than White students until Black students reported a moderate level of transfer-oriented interaction. Conversely, Hispanic students were more likely to report intent to transfer into STEM fields than their White peers, even when Hispanic students reported a relatively low level of engagement in transfer-oriented interaction. These and other reported findings bear important and nuanced implications as policymakers, educators, and researchers continue to discover ways to better support women's educational pathways and success in STEM fields at and through two-year colleges. PMID:28220102

  16. A Nuanced Look at Women in STEM Fields at Two-Year Colleges: Factors That Shape Female Students' Transfer Intent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xueli; Chan, Hsun-Yu; Soffa, Sara Jimenez; Nachman, Brett Ranon

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we explored the relationship between the intent to transfer upward and a set of motivational, contextual, and socio-demographic background factors among 696 female students beginning in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) programs or courses at two-year colleges in a Midwestern state. Drawing upon survey data and administrative records, our multinomial logistic regression analysis revealed that students' math and science self-efficacy beliefs, as well as transfer-oriented interaction, were significant and positive predictors for their intent to transfer into STEM fields as opposed to having no intent to transfer. In addition, the association between transfer intent and these key motivational and contextual factors was moderated by students' racial/ethnic backgrounds, marital status, and childcare obligations. For example, despite the positive relationship between transfer-oriented interaction and the intention to transfer into STEM fields, Black women were less likely to have intent to transfer into STEM fields than White students until Black students reported a moderate level of transfer-oriented interaction. Conversely, Hispanic students were more likely to report intent to transfer into STEM fields than their White peers, even when Hispanic students reported a relatively low level of engagement in transfer-oriented interaction. These and other reported findings bear important and nuanced implications as policymakers, educators, and researchers continue to discover ways to better support women's educational pathways and success in STEM fields at and through two-year colleges.

  17. Effect of pretesting on intentions and behaviour: a pedometer and walking intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spence, John C; Burgess, Jenny; Rodgers, Wendy; Murray, Terra

    2009-09-01

    This study addressed the influence of pedometers and a pretest on walking intentions and behaviour. Using a Solomon four-group design, 63 female university students were randomly assigned to one of four conditions: pedometer and pretest (n = 16), pedometer and no pretest (n = 16), no pedometer and pretest (n = 15), no pedometer and no pretest (n = 16). The pretest conditions included questions on walking, intentions to walk 12,500 steps per day, and self-efficacy for walking 12,500 steps per day. In the pedometer conditions a Yamax Digi-Walker SW-650 pedometer was worn for one week. All participants completed posttest questions. While significant pretest x pedometer interactions would have indicated the presence of pretest sensitisation, no such interactions were observed for either intention or self-reported walking. Wearing pedometers reduced intentions for future walking and coping self-efficacy. However, after controlling for pretest self-reported walking, pedometer use resulted in more self-reported walking. We conclude that wearing a pedometer increased self-reported walking behaviour but that a pretest did not differentially influence walking intentions, behaviour, or self-efficacy.

  18. Bridging the intention-behavior gap : Inducing implementation intentions through persuasive appeals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fennis, Bob M.; Adriaanse, Marieke A.; Pol, Bert; Stroebe, W

    2011-01-01

    The potential of using implementation intentions action plans that link a critical situational cue to a specific goal-directed behavior to bridge the intention behavior gap in consumer behavior has been limited by the practice of using explicit instructions to induce the construct. In two studies, w

  19. Momentum Trumps Intention: Failed Intentions toward Higher Education of Low-Wage Working Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deutsch, Francine M.; Ta, Phuong H.

    2015-01-01

    Two longitudinal studies examined the effects of explicit intention, as described in Ajzen's (1991) theory of planned behavior, on preschool teachers' success in enrolling in college. In the first study, 88 low-wage female teachers and teachers' aides who represented 85 child care centers were surveyed about their intentions to pursue college…

  20. Bridging the gap between intentions and behavior: Implementation intentions, action control, and procrastination.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.A.J. van Hooft (Edwin); M.Ph. Born (Marise); T.W. Taris (Toon); H. van der Flier (Henk); R.W.B. Blonk (Roland)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractIn the context of Ajzen’s (1991) theory of planned behavior, the antecedents of intentions are better understood than the antecedents of behavior. The current study aimed to improve the understanding of the transition from intentions to behavior. Based on the work of Gollwitzer (1993),

  1. Bridging the Gap between Intentions and Behavior: Implementation Intentions, Action Control, and Procrastination

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Hooft, Edwin A. J.; Born, Marise Ph.; Taris, Toon W.; van der Flier, Henk; Blonk, Roland W. B.

    2005-01-01

    In the context of Ajzen's (1991) theory of planned behavior, the antecedents of intentions are better understood than the antecedents of behavior. The current study aimed to improve the understanding of the transition from intentions to behavior. Based on the work of Gollwitzer (1993), Kuhl and Beckmann (1994), and Lay (1986) we proposed a model…

  2. Momentum Trumps Intention: Failed Intentions toward Higher Education of Low-Wage Working Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deutsch, Francine M.; Ta, Phuong H.

    2015-01-01

    Two longitudinal studies examined the effects of explicit intention, as described in Ajzen's (1991) theory of planned behavior, on preschool teachers' success in enrolling in college. In the first study, 88 low-wage female teachers and teachers' aides who represented 85 child care centers were surveyed about their intentions to pursue college…

  3. Bridging the intention-behavior gap : Inducing implementation intentions through persuasive appeals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fennis, Bob M.; Adriaanse, Marieke A.; Pol, Bert; Stroebe, W

    The potential of using implementation intentions action plans that link a critical situational cue to a specific goal-directed behavior to bridge the intention behavior gap in consumer behavior has been limited by the practice of using explicit instructions to induce the construct. In two studies,

  4. The validation of the turnover intention scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris F.C. Bothma

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Turnover intention as a construct has attracted increased research attention in the recent past, but there are seemingly not many valid and reliable scales around to measure turnover intention.Research purpose: This study focused on the validation of a shortened, six-item version of the turnover intention scale (TIS-6.Motivation for the study: The research question of whether the TIS-6 is a reliable and a valid scale for measuring turnover intention and for predicting actual turnover was addressed in this study.Research design, approach and method: The study was based on a census-based sample (n= 2429 of employees in an information, communication and technology (ICT sector company (N= 23 134 where the TIS-6 was used as one of the criterion variables. The leavers (those who left the company in this sample were compared with the stayers (those who remained in the employ of the company in this sample in respect of different variables used in the study.Main findings: It was established that the TIS-6 could measure turnover intentions reliably (α= 0.80. The TIS-6 could significantly distinguish between leavers and stayers (actual turnover, thereby confirming its criterion-predictive validity. The scale also established statistically significant differences between leavers and stayers in respect of a number of the remaining theoretical variables used in the study, thereby also confirming its differential validity. These comparisons were conducted for both the 4-month and the 4-year period after the survey was conducted.Practical/managerial implications: Turnover intention is related to a number of variables in the study which necessitates a reappraisal and a reconceptualisation of existing turnover intention models.Contribution/value-add: The TIS-6 can be used as a reliable and valid scale to assess turnover intentions and can therefore be used in research to validly and reliably assess turnover intentions or to

  5. Individual differences in moral judgment competence are related to activity of the prefrontal cortex when attributing blame to evil intention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaojing; Yang, Juan; Li, Peng; Li, Hong

    2016-01-01

    The weighing of intentions and consequences is inconsistent in adult's moral judgments, and this is particularly prominent when assigning blame to the immoral intentions in the absence of negative outcomes. The current study extends previous research by examining how individual differences in moral judgment competence are reflected in the cortical network when making judgments about immoral intentions. Twenty-four participants were scanned, using functional magnetic resonance imaging, while making judgments about three kinds of moral scenarios: a neutral condition, an immoral intention condition, and an immoral condition. The result showed that comparing with making judgments about the other two conditions, making judgments about the immoral intentions takes longer time and was associated with significantly elevated activity in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex. Additionally, moral judgment competence scores were inversely correlated with activity in the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex when assigning blame to the immoral intentions. Greater activity in the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in participants with lower moral judgment competence possibly reflected increased recruitment of cognitive resource applied to control impulsive response and integrate competitive information in making judgments about the immoral intention.

  6. When minds matter for moral judgment: intent information is neurally encoded for harmful but not impure acts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakroff, Alek; Dungan, James; Koster-Hale, Jorie; Brown, Amelia; Saxe, Rebecca; Young, Liane

    2016-03-01

    Recent behavioral evidence indicates a key role for intent in moral judgments of harmful acts (e.g. assault) but not impure acts (e.g. incest). We tested whether the neural responses in regions for mental state reasoning, including the right temporoparietal junction (RTPJ), are greater when people evaluate harmful vs impure violations. In addition, using multivoxel pattern analysis, we investigated whether the voxel-wise pattern in these regions distinguishes intentional from accidental actions, for either kind of violation. The RTPJ was preferentially recruited in response to harmful vs impure acts. Moreover, although its response was equally high for intentional and accidental acts, the voxel-wise pattern in the RTPJ distinguished intentional from accidental acts in the harm domain but not the purity domain. Finally, we found that the degree to which the RTPJ discriminated between intentional and accidental acts predicted the impact of intent information on moral judgments but again only in the harm domain. These findings reveal intent to be a uniquely critical factor for moral evaluations of harmful vs impure acts and shed light on the neural computations for mental state reasoning. © The Author (2015). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Eye-tracking reveals a slowdown of social context processing during intention attribution in patients with schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roux, Paul; Brunet-Gouet, Eric; Passerieux, Christine; Ramus, Franck

    2016-01-01

    Background Schizophrenia is associated with poor theory of mind (ToM), particularly in the attribution of intentions to others. It is also associated with abnormal gaze behaviours and contextual processing. This study investigated to what extent impaired ToM in patients with schizophrenia is related to abnormal processing of social context. Methods We evaluated ToM using a nonverbal intention attribution task based on comic strips depicting social/nonsocial and contextual/noncontextual events while eye movements were recorded. Eye-tracking was used to assess processing time dedicated to visual cues contained in regions of interest identified in a pilot study. We measured cognitive contextual control on a separate task. Results We tested 29 patients with schizophrenia and 29 controls. Compared with controls, patients were slower in intention attribution but not in physical reasoning. They looked longer than controls at contextual cues displayed in the first 2 context pictures of the comic strips, and this difference was greater for intention attribution than for physical reasoning. We found no group difference in time spent looking at noncontextual cues. Patients’ impairment in contextual control did not explain their increased reaction time and gaze duration on contextual cues during intention attribution. Limitations Difficulty may not have been equivalent between intention attribution and physical reasoning conditions. Conclusion Overall, schizophrenia was characterized by a delay in intention attribution related to a slowdown of social context processing that was not explained by worse executive contextual control. PMID:26836621

  8. The readiness potential reflects intentional binding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han-Gue eJo

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available When a voluntary action is causally linked with a sensory outcome, the action and its consequent effect are perceived as being closer together in time. This effect is called intentional binding. Although many experiments were conducted on this phenomenon, the underlying neural mechanisms are not well understood. While intentional binding is specific to voluntary action, we presumed that preconscious brain activity (the readiness potential, RP, which occurs before an action is made, might play an important role in this binding effect. In this study, the brain dynamics were recorded with electroencephalography (EEG and analyzed in single-trials in order to estimate whether intentional binding is correlated with the early neural processes. Moreover, we were interested in different behavioral performance between meditators and non-meditators since meditators are expected to be able to keep attention more consistently on a task. Thus, we performed the intentional binding paradigm with twenty mindfulness meditators and compared them to matched controls. Although, we did not observe a group effect on either behavioral data or EEG recordings, we found that self-initiated movements following ongoing negative deflections of slow cortical potentials (SCPs result in a stronger binding effect compared to positive potentials, especially regarding the perceived time of the consequent effect. Our results provide the first direct evidence that the early neural activity within the range of SCPs affects perceived time of a sensory outcome that is caused by intentional action.

  9. A Framework for Assessment of Intentional Fires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iraj Mohammadfam

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objectives : It is not possible to live without using fire. However, fire could destruct human properties in a short time. One of the most important types of fire is intentional fire. This type of fire has become a great problem for insurance companies, fire departments, industries, government and business in the recent years. This study aimed to provide a framework for risk assessment of intentional fires . Methods: In the present study, risk assessment and management model for protecting critical properties and security vulnerability assessment model were used to develop a comprehensive framework for risk assessment of intentional fires. The framework was examined in an automotive industry . Results : The designed framework contained five steps as 1 asset inventory and prioritizing them according to their importance, 2 invasion assessment, 3 vulnerability assessment, 4 risk assessment and design and 5 implementation and evaluating the effectiveness of corrective/preventive actions. Thirty different scenarios for intentional fires were identified by implementing the designed framework in an automotive company, and then the associated risk of each scenario was quantitatively determined. Conclusion : Compared to seven models, the proposed framework represents its comprehension. Development of safety and security standards and a central security information bank to reduce security risks, including the risk of intentional fires is recommended .

  10. The readiness potential reflects intentional binding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Han-Gue; Wittmann, Marc; Hinterberger, Thilo; Schmidt, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    When a voluntary action is causally linked with a sensory outcome, the action and its consequent effect are perceived as being closer together in time. This effect is called intentional binding. Although many experiments were conducted on this phenomenon, the underlying neural mechanisms are not well understood. While intentional binding is specific to voluntary action, we presumed that preconscious brain activity (the readiness potential, RP), which occurs before an action is made, might play an important role in this binding effect. In this study, the brain dynamics were recorded with electroencephalography (EEG) and analyzed in single-trials in order to estimate whether intentional binding is correlated with the early neural processes. Moreover, we were interested in different behavioral performance between meditators and non-meditators since meditators are expected to be able to keep attention more consistently on a task. Thus, we performed the intentional binding paradigm with 20 mindfulness meditators and compared them to matched controls. Although, we did not observe a group effect on either behavioral data or EEG recordings, we found that self-initiated movements following ongoing negative deflections of slow cortical potentials (SCPs) result in a stronger binding effect compared to positive potentials, especially regarding the perceived time of the consequent effect. Our results provide the first direct evidence that the early neural activity within the range of SCPs affects perceived time of a sensory outcome that is caused by intentional action.

  11. Promoting the translation of intentions into action by implementation intentions: Behavioral effects and physiological correlates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank eWieber

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The present review addresses the physiological correlates of planning effects on behavior. Although intentions to act qualify as predictors of behavior, accumulated evidence indicates that there is a substantial gap between even strong intentions and subsequent action. One effective strategy to reduce this intention-behavior gap is the formation of implementation intentions that specify when, where, and how to act on a given goal in an if-then format (If I encounter situation Y, then I will initiate action Z!. It has been proposed that implementation intentions render the mental representation of the situation highly accessible and establish a strong associative link between the mental representations of the situation and the action. These process assumptions have been examined in behavioral research, and in physiological research, a field that has begun to investigate the temporal dynamics of and brain areas involved in implementation intention effects. In the present review, we first summarize studies on the cognitive processes that are central to the strategic automation of action control by implementation intentions. We then examine studies involving critical samples with impaired self-regulation. Lastly, we review studies that have applied physiological measures such as heart rate, cortisol level, and eye movement, as well as electroencephalography (EEG and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI studies on the neural correlates of implementation intention effects. In support of the assumed processes, implementation intentions increased goal attainment in studies on cognitive processes and in critical samples, modulated brain waves related to perceptual and decision processes, and generated less activity in brain areas associated with effortful action control. In our discussion, we reflect on the status quo of physiological research on implementation intentions, methodological and conceptual issues, related research, and propose future

  12. Greater Happiness for a Greater Number: Did the Promise of Enlightenment Come True?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veenhoven, Ruut

    2017-01-01

    In the eighteenth century 'Enlightened' thinkers challenged the belief that happiness exists only in Heaven. They claimed that happiness is possible in earthly life and foresaw that greater happiness would be achieved using reason. Did this promise of greater happiness come true? Several scholars doubt that we have become any happier and some claim that happiness has declined. These critical claims are tested using the time trend data available in the World Database of Happiness, which cover the period 1950-2010 and involve 1531 data points in 67 nations yielding 199 time-series ranging for 10 to more than 40 years. The analysis reveals that happiness has risen in most nations. The average yearly rise in the 67 nations was +0.012 on scale 0-10, which equals a rise of one full point every 83 years. At this rate happiness must have improved by more than two points over the past two centuries and, together with increasing longevity, this denotes an unprecedented rise in happy life years.

  13. Neural processing of intentional biological motion in unaffected siblings of children with autism spectrum disorder: an fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Alex A; Vander Wyk, Brent C

    2013-12-01

    Despite often showing behaviorally typical levels of social cognitive ability, unaffected siblings of children with autism spectrum disorder have been found to show similar functional and morphological deficits within brain regions associated with social processing. They have also been reported to show increased activation to biological motion in these same regions, such as the posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS), relative to both children with autism and control children. It has been suggested that this increased activation may represent a compensatory reorganization of these regions as a result of the highly heritable genetic influence of autism. However, the response patterns of unaffected siblings in the domain of action perception are unstudied, and the phenomenon of compensatory activation has not yet been replicated. The present study used functional magnetic resonance imaging to determine the neural responses to intentional biological actions in 22 siblings of children with autism and 22 matched controls. The presented actions were either congruent or incongruent with the actor's emotional cue. Prior studies reported that typically developing children and adults, but not children with autism, show increased activation to incongruent actions (relative to congruent), within the pSTS and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. We report that unaffected siblings did not show a compensatory response, or a preference for incongruent over congruent trials, in any brain region. Moreover, interaction analyses revealed a sub-region of the pSTS in which control children showed an incongruency preference to a significantly greater degree than siblings, which suggests a localized deficit in siblings. A sample of children with autism also did not show differential activation in the pSTS, providing further evidence that it is an area of selective disruption in children with autism and siblings. While reduced activation to both conditions was unique to the autism sample

  14. An experimental study of the effects of electronic cigarette warnings on young adult nonsmokers' perceptions and behavioral intentions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mays, Darren; Smith, Clayton; Johnson, Andrea C; Tercyak, Kenneth P; Niaura, Raymond S

    2016-01-01

    Electronic cigarette ("e-cigarette") manufacturers use warning labels on their advertising that vary widely in content and the U.S. Food and Drug Administration has issued a warning label requirement for e-cigarettes. There is limited data on the effects of these warnings on e-cigarette perceptions and other potential predictors of future tobacco use behavior in populations of interest to inform future regulatory requirements. This study examined the effects of e-cigarette warnings on perceptions of e-cigarettes and cigarettes and other cognitive precursors to tobacco use among young adult non-smokers. Non-smoking young adults ages 18 to 30 years (n = 436) were recruited through an internet-based crowdsourcing platform for an online experiment. Participants completed pre-exposure measures of demographics, tobacco use, and other relevant constructs and were randomized to view 1 of 9 e-cigarette stimuli in a 3 (Ad/Warning condition: Ad Only, Ad with Warning, Warning Only) x 3 (E-cigarette brand: Blu, MarkTen, Vuse) design. After viewing e-cigarette stimuli, participants reported perceptions of e-cigarettes and behavioral intentions to use e-cigarettes. Participants in the Ad Only and Ad with Warning conditions also completed a heat-mapping task assessing aspects of the ads that captured their attention. Then, participants were randomized to view cigarette ads from 1 of 3 major cigarette brands and reported perceptions of cigarettes and intentions to smoke cigarettes. Participants in the Warning Only condition reported significantly greater perceived harm and addictiveness of e-cigarettes and thoughts about not using e-cigarettes than the Ad Only and Ad with Warning conditions (p's advertisements had little impact.

  15. Gateway to curiosity: Medical marijuana ads and intention and use during middle school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Amico, Elizabeth J; Miles, Jeremy N V; Tucker, Joan S

    2015-09-01

    Over the past several years, medical marijuana has received increased attention in the media, and marijuana use has increased across the United States. Studies suggest that as marijuana has become more accessible and adults have become more tolerant regarding marijuana use, adolescents perceive marijuana as more beneficial and are more likely to use if they are living in an environment that is more tolerant of marijuana use. One factor that may influence adolescents' perceptions about marijuana and marijuana use is their exposure to advertising of this product. We surveyed sixth- to eighth-grade youth in 2010 and 2011 in 16 middle schools in Southern California (n = 8,214; 50% male; 52% Hispanic; mean age = 13 years) and assessed exposure to advertising for medical marijuana, marijuana intentions, and marijuana use. Cross-lagged regressions showed a reciprocal association of advertising exposure with marijuana use and intentions during middle school. Greater initial medical marijuana advertising exposure was significantly associated with a higher probability of marijuana use and stronger intentions to use 1 year later, and initial marijuana use and stronger intentions to use were associated with greater medical marijuana advertising exposure 1 year later. Prevention programs need to better explain medical marijuana to youth, providing information on the context for proper medical use of this drug and the potential harms from use during this developmental period. Furthermore, as this is a new frontier, it is important to consider regulating medical marijuana advertisements, as is currently done for alcohol and tobacco products.

  16. Government instability shifts skin tone representations of and intentions to vote for political candidates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Chadly; Balcetis, Emily; Cole, Shana; West, Tessa V; Caruso, Eugene M

    2016-01-01

    Does government stability shift the way White and Black Americans represent and make voting decisions about political candidates? Participants judged how representative lightened, darkened, and unaltered photographs were of a racially ambiguous candidate ostensibly running for political office (Studies 1-3). When the governmental system was presented as stable, White participants who shared (vs. did not share) the candidate's political beliefs rated a lightened photo as more representative of the candidate, and Black participants who shared (vs. did not share) the candidate's political beliefs rated a darkened photo as more representative (Studies 1-3). However, under conditions of instability, both Whites and Blacks who shared (vs. did not share) the candidate's political beliefs rated a lightened photo as more representative (Study 3). Representations of (Studies 2 and 3) and actual differences in (Studies 4a and 4b) skin tone predicted intentions to vote for candidates, as a function of government stability and participants' race. Further evidence suggested that system stability shifted the motivations that guided voting decisions (Study 4a and 4b). When the system was stable, the motivation to enhance one's group predicted greater intentions to vote for lighter skinned candidates among Whites, and greater intentions to vote for darker skinned candidates among Blacks. When the system was unstable, however, lacking confidence in the sociopolitical system predicted intentions to vote for lighter skinned candidates among both Whites and Blacks. Implications for political leadership and social perception are discussed.

  17. Different Psychosocial Factors Are Associated With Different Intention and Self-Efficacy Toward Eating Breakfast Among Japanese Breakfast Skippers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakade, Makiko; Tsubota-Utsugi, Megumi; Imai, Eri; Tsuboyama-Kasaoka, Nobuyo; Nishi, Nobuo; Takimoto, Hidemi

    2017-03-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted among 7593 adults to clarify lifestyle and psychosocial characteristics of breakfast skippers with different intention and self-efficacy toward eating breakfast. Data were obtained from Japan's national survey in 2009. Multinomial logistic regression analyses were performed to examine the characteristics of each breakfast skipper (having intention and self-efficacy toward eating breakfast [IS], having intention but not self-efficacy [INS], and not having intention to eat breakfast [NI]) compared with breakfast eaters. IS men were less likely to demonstrate understanding of healthy eating. INS and NI men were more likely to eat alone. INS and NI women were less likely to demonstrate understanding of healthy eating. NI men and women were less likely to report weight management behavior. Current smoking and being sleep-deprived were commonly associated with breakfast skipping in both sexes. Our results suggested the need for approaches considering type of breakfast skippers (eg, different intention and self-efficacy).

  18. Keeping it Natural: Does Persuasive Magazine Content Have an Effect on Young Women's Intentions for Birth?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Kate; Miller, Yvette D

    2015-01-01

    Information in the popular media tends to be biased toward promoting the benefits of medicalized birth for low-risk pregnancies. We aimed to assess the effect of communicating the benefits of non-medicalized birth in magazine articles on women's birth intentions and to identify the mechanisms by which social communication messages affected women's intentions for birth. A convenience sample of 180 nulliparous Australian women aged 18-35 years were randomly exposed to a magazine article endorsing non-medicalized birth (using either celebrity or non-celebrity endorsement) or organic eating (control) throughout June-July 2011. Magazine articles that endorsed non-medicalized birth targeted perceived risk of birth, expectations for labor and birth, and attitudes toward birth. These variables and intention for birth were assessed by self-report before and after exposure. Exposure to a magazine article that endorsed non-medicalized birth significantly reduced women's intentions for a medicalized birth, regardless of whether the endorsement was by celebrities or non-celebrities. Changes in perceived risk of birth mediated the effect of magazine article exposure on women's intentions for a medicalized birth. Persuasive communication that endorses non-medicalized birth could be delivered at the population level and may reduce women's intentions for a medicalized birth.

  19. Demands in reflecting about another's motives and intentions modulate vicarious embarrassment in autism spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulus, Frieder M; Kamp-Becker, Inge; Krach, Sören

    2013-04-01

    The affective responses to another person's condition depend on the ability to reflect about another's thoughts and intentions. This is relevant also for high-functioning individuals with ASD who have considerable difficulties in reading the intentions of others. With the present study we introduce a novel paradigm to induce vicarious embarrassment as a form of social pain. We predicted that the vicarious embarrassment experiences of high-functioning individuals with ASD should specifically decline in social contexts that require reflecting on another's intentions. Thirty-two young adults with high-functioning ASD were matched with regards to age, gender, and verbal IQ to a control group. Vicarious embarrassment was examined with previously validated stimuli describing 30 situations that elicit vicarious embarrassment in the observer. The situations manipulated whether the displayed protagonist either accidentally or intentionally transgressed a social norm in public and participants rated their vicarious embarrassment from the observer's perspective. The ASD group showed comparable vicarious embarrassment experience in response to observing another's accidental norm transgressions but significantly reduced vicarious embarrassment when observing another who intentionally violated socials norms. Vicarious embarrassment was significantly correlated with trait empathy in the ASD group. In complex social scenarios individuals with ASD are impaired in reporting experience of vicarious embarrassment, primarily when it is required to reflect on another's intentions. The present study thus contributes to a better understanding of how persons with ASD are affected in the diversity of empathic processes in the social, everyday life environment they are embedded in.

  20. Physical Activity and Transitioning to College: The Importance of Intentions and Habits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allom, Vanessa; Mullan, Barbara; Cowie, Eloise; Hamilton, Kyra

    2016-03-01

    First generation students transitioning to college experience specific challenges that impact on their engagement in physical activity. Furthermore, this population experiences a context disruption that provides a unique opportunity to examine whether intention and habit predict physical activity. The aim of the current research was to determine the efficacy of the theory of planned behavior in the prediction of intention and behavior within this population, and to determine whether habit contributes to the prediction of physical activity. In this observational study, a convenience sample of first generation college students (N = 101) completed measures of theory of planned behavior variables and habit strength at Time 1, and one week later reported physical activity. The theory of planned behavior was partially supported in this context, as intention was the only significant predictor of behavior. Habit strength accounted for additional variance in physical activity but did not moderate the relationship between intention and behavior. The hypothesized model accounted for 46.9% of the variance in physical activity, and intention (β = .455) and habit (β = .364) were significant predictors. Intention and habit exert independent effects on physical activity within this population, and are both suitable targets for intervention.

  1. Suicide ideation and intent in Malaysia: a review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aishvarya, S; Maniam, T; Sidi, Hatta; Oei, T P S

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to review the literature on suicide ideation and intent in Malaysia. PsyINFO, PubMed, Medline databases from 1845 to 2012 and detailed manual search of local official reports from Ministry of Health, Malaysian Psychiatric Association and unpublished dissertations from 3 local universities providing postgraduate psychiatric training, were included in the current review. A total of 13 studies on suicide ideation and intent in Malaysia were found and reviewed. The review showed that research on suicide ideation and intent in Malaysia was fragmented and limited, at best. Approximately 50% of existing research on suicide ideation and intent simply focused on sociodemographic data. Fifty-four percent of the data were obtained from hospitals. No study has been conducted on treatment and interventions for suicide ideation and intent. None of the studies used validated suicide scales. The impact of culture was rarely considered. It was clear from the review that for researchers, clinicians and public health policy makers to gain a better understanding of suicide behavior especially suicide ideation and intent in Malaysia, more systematic and empirically stringent methodologies and research frameworks need to be used.

  2. The development of bystander intentions and social-moral reasoning about intergroup verbal aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Sally B; Rutland, Adam; Cameron, Lindsey

    2015-11-01

    A developmental intergroup approach was taken to examine the development of prosocial bystander intentions among children and adolescents. Participants as bystanders (N = 260) aged 8-10 and 13-15 years were presented with scenarios of direct aggression between individuals from different social groups (i.e., intergroup verbal aggression). These situations involved either an ingroup aggressor and an outgroup victim or an outgroup aggressor and an ingroup victim. This study focussed on the role of intergroup factors (group membership, ingroup identification, group norms, and social-moral reasoning) in the development of prosocial bystander intentions. Findings showed that prosocial bystander intentions declined with age. This effect was partially mediated by the ingroup norm to intervene and perceived severity of the verbal aggression. However, a moderated mediation analysis showed that only when the victim was an ingroup member and the aggressor an outgroup member did participants become more likely with age to report prosocial bystander intentions due to increased ingroup identification. Results also showed that younger children focussed on moral concerns and adolescents focussed more on psychological concerns when reasoning about their bystander intention. These novel findings help explain the developmental decline in prosocial bystander intentions from middle childhood into early adolescence when observing direct intergroup aggression. © 2015 The British Psychological Society.

  3. Volitional action as perceptual detection: predictors of conscious intention in adolescents with tic disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganos, Christos; Asmuss, Luisa; Bongert, Jens; Brandt, Valerie; Münchau, Alexander; Haggard, Patrick

    2015-03-01

    Voluntary actions are accompanied by a distinctive subjective experience, so that they feel quite different from physically similar involuntary movements. However, the nature and origin of this experience of volition remain unclear. Voluntary actions emerge during early childhood, in parallel with reduction of involuntary movements. However, the available markers of the experience of volition, notably Libet's mental chronometry of intention, cannot readily be used in young children. In Gilles de la Tourette syndrome (GTS), however, involuntary tic movements may coexist with voluntary control into adulthood. Therefore, adolescents with GTS could potentially confuse the two classes of movement. We have measured the temporal experience of voluntary action in a well-characterised group of adolescents with GTS, and age-matched controls. We replicated previous reports of a conscious intention occurring a few hundred milliseconds prior to voluntary keypress actions. Multiple regression across 25 patients' results showed that age and trait tic severity did not influence the experience of conscious intention. However, patients with stronger premonitory urges prior to tics showed significantly later conscious intentions, suggesting that the anticipatory experience of one's own volition involves a perceptual discrimination between potentially competing pre-movement signals. Patients who were more able to voluntarily suppress their tics showed significantly earlier conscious intention, suggesting that the perceptual discrimination between different action classes may also contribute to voluntary control of tics. We suggest that the brain learns voluntary control by perceptually discriminating a special class of internal 'intentional' signals, allowing them to emerge from motor noise.

  4. Exploring the Moderating Role of Perceived Flexibility Advantages in Mobile Learning Continuance Intention (MLCI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui-Ting Huang

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The primary purpose of this study was to explore the key factors that could affect mobile learning continuance intention (MLCI, and examine the moderating effect of perceived flexibility advantages (PFA on the relationship between key mobile learning elements and continuance intention. Five hundred undergraduate students who had previously adopted mobile devices to learn English took part in this study. Partial least squares (PLS analysis was utilized to test the hypotheses in this study. It has been found that the perceived usefulness of mobile technology, subjective norm, and self-management of learning could be closely linked to mobile learning continuance intention. With particular respect to the moderating role of perceived flexibility advantages, it has been demonstrated that PFA could moderate the relationship between perceived usefulness of mobile technology and mobile learning continuance intention, as well as the association between subjective norm and mobile learning continuance intention, whereas PFA did not moderate the link between self-management of learning and mobile learning continuance intention.This report has further added to the body of knowledge in the field of mobile learning through empirical examination.

  5. Social Cognitive Theory Predictors of Human Papillomavirus Vaccination Intentions of College Men at a Southeastern University.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priest, Hannah M; Knowlden, Adam P; Sharma, Manoj

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to use social cognitive theory to predict human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination intentions of college men attending a large, southeastern university. Data collection comprised two phases. Phase I established face and content validity of the instrument by a panel of six experts. Phase II assessed internal consistency reliability using Cronbach's alpha and predicted behavioral intentions applying multiple linear regression. HPV knowledge, expectations, self-efficacy to get HPV vaccine, situational perception, self-efficacy in overcoming barriers to get HPV vaccine, and self-control to get HPV vaccine were regressed on behavioral intentions. Situational perception and self-control to get HPV vaccine were significant predictors, accounting for 22% of variance in behavioral intentions to get vaccinated within the next 6 months. Overall, college men reported low behavioral intentions to getting vaccinated. Future interventions should target situational perception and self-control to increase HPV vaccination intentions. © The Author(s) 2015 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  6. Ethnic and racial differences in HPV knowledge and vaccine intentions among men receiving HPV test results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daley, Ellen M; Marhefka, Stephanie; Buhi, Eric; Hernandez, Natalie D; Chandler, Rasheeta; Vamos, Cheryl; Kolar, Stephanie; Wheldon, Christopher; Papenfuss, Mary R; Giuliano, Anna R

    2011-05-23

    We examined factors associated with HPV vaccine intentions by racial/ethnic group among men participating in a HPV natural history study. HPV knowledge, vaccine intentions and perceived barriers were assessed among non-Hispanic White, non-Hispanic Black and Hispanic men. Men were tested for HPV every 6 months. After receiving test results from their previous visit, participants (N=477) reported their intentions for HPV vaccination in a computer-assisted survey instrument (CASI). Vaccine intentions were high among all respondents, although differences were found between racial and ethnic groups in awareness and knowledge of HPV and, vaccine intentions and perceived access and barriers to receiving the HPV vaccine. In order to effectively disseminate the vaccine among men, factors that may promote or inhibit vaccine acceptability need to be identified. Identifying these factors related to vaccine intentions among minority and majority men offers an opportunity for addressing barriers to health equity and, in turn, reductions in HPV-related disparities. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The emergence of intention attribution in infancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodward, Amanda L.; Sommerville, Jessica A.; Gerson, Sarah; Henderson, Annette M. E.; Buresh, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    Perception of the social world in terms of agents and their intentional relations is fundamental to human experience. In this chapter, we review recent investigations into the origins of this fundamental ability that trace its roots to the first year of life. These studies show that infants represent others’ actions not as purely physical motions, but rather as actions directed at goals and objects of attention. Infants are able to recover intentional relations at varying levels of analysis, including concrete action goals, higher-order plans, acts of attention, and collaborative goals. There is mounting evidence that these early competencies are strongly influenced by infants’ own experience as intentional agents. Action experience shapes infants’ action perception. PMID:24771952

  8. Predictors of turnover intention in nurse faculty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gormley, Denise K; Kennerly, Susan

    2011-04-01

    Turnover of nurse faculty is an increasingly important issue in nursing as the available number of qualified faculty continues to decrease. Understanding the factors that contribute to turnover is important to academic administrators to retain and recruit qualified nursing faculty. The purpose of this study was to examine predictors of turnover intention in nurse faculty working in departments and schools of nursing in Carnegie Doctoral/Research Universities-Extensive, public and private, not-for-profit institutions. The multidimensional model of organizational commitment was used to frame this study. The predictor variables explored were organizational climate, organizational commitment, work role balance, role ambiguity, and role conflict. The work roles examined were research, teaching, and service. Logistical regression was performed to examine the predictors of turnover intention. Organizational climate intimacy and disengagement, affective and continuance organizational commitment, and role ambiguity were shown to predict turnover intention in nurse faculty. Copyright 2011, SLACK Incorporated.

  9. Occupational commitment and job satisfaction mediate effort-reward imbalance and the intention to continue nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satoh, Miho; Watanabe, Ikue; Asakura, Kyoko

    2017-01-01

    Occupational commitment and job satisfaction are major predictors of the intention to continue nursing. This study's purpose was to verify the mediating effects of job satisfaction and three components of occupational commitment on the relationship between effort-reward imbalance and the intention to continue nursing. A self-report questionnaire was distributed to 3977 nurses by the nursing department of 12 hospitals in the Tohoku and Kanto districts of Japan in 2013. Of these, 1531 (response rate: 38.5%) nurses returned the questionnaire by mail and the complete data that were provided by 1241 nurses (valid response rate: 31.2%) were analyzed. Structural equation modeling showed that the effort-reward ratio had negative effects on job satisfaction and affective and normative occupational commitment. Job satisfaction and affective and normative occupational commitment had positive effects on the intention to continue nursing, whereas the effort-reward ratio had no direct effect on the intention to continue nursing. Continuance occupational commitment was not a mediator, but it positively influenced the intention to continue nursing. The findings suggest that it is important to increase job satisfaction and affective and normative occupational commitment in order to enhance their buffering effects on the relationship between job stress and the intention to continue nursing. Measures to increase continuance occupational commitment also would be an effective method of strengthening the intention to continue nursing. Improvements in these areas should contribute to an increase in nurses' intention to continue nursing and prevent the loss of this precious human resource from the health sector. © 2016 Japan Academy of Nursing Science.

  10. Attitudes and intentions to smoke: a study of young Brazilian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pires, P P; Ribas, R C; Borzekowski, D L G

    2015-11-01

    Children at earlier stages tend to be more susceptible towards different types of tobacco messages. These are able to influence attitudes and behaviours around smoking. This study examined how these messages are able to influence 5- and 6-year olds' attitudes about smokers and their smoking intentions. Researchers worked one-on-one with 5- and 6-year olds (n = 398) in Brazil. Children could attribute positive and negative characteristics to two different persons in photos as smoker/non-smoker. Children could indicate the attribute as of a smoker, a non-smoker, both or none. Children were asked also about their smoking intentions. Analysis considered parental smoking, sex, age, cigarette and alcohol brand logos, children's location and media characters from cartoons. We conducted a path analysis for a multivariate model of children's attitudes and intentions about smoking. Overall, children had negative attitudes about smokers (M = -4.58, SD = 4.08) and a total of 32 (8.0%) of them reported intentions to smoke. The resulting multivariate model indicates that parental smoking is a source for a positive image of smokers, while being 6 years old, living in rural areas, being aware of alcohol brands and recognizing educational cartoons tended to be negatively correlated to children's attitudes. Further, 6 year olds were found to be less likely to have smoking intentions, while attitude about smokers was positively related with intentions. One's attitudes served as a mediator for all of the variables in the model towards smoking intentions. The path models differed for each sex. Shaped by social and environmental influences, very young children have opinions about smokers. In turn, these attitudes significantly predict children's smoking intentions. To corroborate this research, we recommend that longitudinal designs be employed to help model why Brazilian children become smokers. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Solitary fibrous tumor of the greater omentum mimicking an ovarian tumor in a young woman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabet Rodriguez Tarrega

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of solitary fibrous tumor (SFT of greater omentum in a young woman. SFT arising from the greater omentum can mimic a gynecologic neoplasm. SFTs are generally benign but some of them are malignant and have uncertain prognosis. An adequate follow-up is essential in these patients.

  12. 内科护士对不良事件报告执行意向的影响因素分析%Analysis of influencing factors of implementation intention of nurses on adverse event reporting in department of in-ternal medicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张庆娜; 胡少华; 陆彩云; 吕冶芳; 祁金梅; 戴芬

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To understand the status quo of the cognition and attitude of nurses in internal medicine department toward the adverse event reporting,and to analyze its influencing factors,so as to provide the basis for the further improvement of nursing adverse events reporting system.Methods:A total of 436 nurses were se-lected from internal medicine department by using convenience sampling method.The self compiled question-naire of cognition and attitude toward adverse event reporting was used for investigation.Results:The positive response rate of nurses’cognition and attitude toward the adverse events was 72.5 1%,And its five dimensions including reporting cognition 80.72%.tmplementation intention 79.86%,managing expectations 70.01%,pun-ishment environmental 68.85%,department culture 63.12%.The Influencing factors of implementation inten-tion on adverse event reporting were nurse job seniority,punishment environment,department culture and re-porting cognition.Conclusion:The general cognition and attitude toward the adverse events reporting is positive. It suggests that hospitals should make personalized management on the basis of the systematic safety manage-ment,further improve the adverse event reporting system and promote the adverse events reporting behavior.%[目的]了解内科护士对不良事件报告认知与态度的现状,并分析其影响因素,为护理不良事件报告系统的进一步完善提供依据。[方法]采用便利抽样法选取我院436名内科护士,应用自行编制的不良事件报告认知与态度问卷进行调查。[结果]护士对不良事件的认知与态度的积极应答率为72.51%,5个维度的积极反应率分别为报告认知80.72%、执行意向79.86%、管理期望70.01%、惩罚环境68.85%、科室文化63.12%;不良事件报告执行意向的影响因素为护龄、惩罚环境、科室文化、报告认知。[结论]护士对不良事件报告的总体认知与态度较正向,建议医院在系统化

  13. Do Adolescent Sexual Behavior and Intention to Engage in Sexual Behavior Change in High School Years in Hong Kong?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shek, D T L; Leung, H

    2016-02-01

    In this study we examined sexual behavior and intention to engage in sexual behavior among Chinese high school students in Hong Kong using 6 waves of data collected over 6 years. We also focused on the related sociodemographic and family correlates. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, INTERVENTIONS, AND MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: A 6-year longitudinal study was conducted. At each wave, a questionnaire was used to collect data on sociodemographic characteristics, positive youth development, and family functioning in the respondents. Individual growth curve models showed that adolescent sexual behavior and intention increased over time. Adolescents with higher levels of positive youth development reported lower levels of past sexual behavior. Youths from better-off and higher functioning families increased their sexual behavior at slower rates than did youths from families with economic disadvantage and poor family functioning. Regarding intention to have sex, older adolescents reported higher levels of intention. Youngsters with higher levels of perceived family functioning and positive youth development reported lower levels of initial intention. Adolescent boys increased their intention at a faster rate than did girls. Findings from the study identified risk factors (ie, age, gender, and economic disadvantage) and protective factors (ie, healthy family functioning, positive youth development) that influence the levels and growth rates of adolescent sexual behavior and intention. Implications for future research and interventions are discussed. Copyright © 2016 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. High Job Demands and Low Job Control Increase Nurses' Professional Leaving Intentions: The Role of Care Setting and Profit Orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendsche, Johannes; Hacker, Winfried; Wegge, Jürgen; Rudolf, Matthias

    2016-10-01

    We investigated how two types of care setting (home care and nursing home) and type of ownership (for-profit vs. public/non-profit) of geriatric care services interacted in influencing registered nurses' intention to give up their profession. In prior research, employment in for-profit-organizations, high job demands, and low job control were important antecedents of nurses' intent to leave. However, the impact of care setting on these associations was inconclusive. Therefore, we tested a mediated moderation model predicting that adverse work characteristics would drive professional leaving intentions, particularly in for-profit services and in nursing homes. A representative German sample of 304 registered nurses working in 78 different teams participated in our cross-sectional study. As predicted, lower job control and higher job demands were associated with higher professional leaving intentions, and nurses reported higher job demands in public/non-profit care than in for-profit care, and in nursing homes compared to home care. Overall, RNs in nursing homes and home care reported similar intent to leave, but in for-profit settings only, nurses working in nursing homes reported higher professional leaving intentions than did nurses in home care, which was linked to lower job control in the for-profit nursing home setting, supporting mediated moderation. Taken together, our results indicate that the interplay of care setting and type of ownership is important when explaining nurses' intentions to give up their profession. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Conscientiousness and fruit and vegetable consumption: exploring behavioural intention as a mediator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Antonia E; O'Connor, Daryl B; Lawton, Rebecca; Hill, Patrick L; Roberts, Brent W

    2015-10-22

    Clear associations have emerged between conscientiousness and health behaviours, such that higher levels of conscientiousness are predictive of beneficial health behaviours. This study investigated the conscientiousness-fruit and vegetable consumption relationship and whether behavioural intention mediated this relationship. A large sample of adults (N = 2136) completed an online battery of questionnaires measuring conscientiousness, behavioural intentions to consume fruit and vegetables, together with self-reported behaviour. Correlation analysis revealed that conscientiousness and each of its facets were positively associated with behavioural intention and self-reported behaviour. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses revealed that after controlling for age, gender and education, total conscientiousness, and the facets of responsibility, industriousness, order and virtue predicted self-reported behaviour. Further analysis revealed that in line with the Theory of Planned Behaviour, behavioural intention fully mediated the conscientiousness-fruit and vegetable behaviour relationship. In conclusion, low levels of conscientiousness were found to be associated with lower fruit and vegetable intentions, with the latter also associated with fruit and vegetable consumption.

  16. Strategic Intent, Confucian Harmony and Firm Success

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward J. Romar

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper argues that by using the Confucian concept of harmony as its strategicintent a firm can be both ethical and successful. Using the work of Peter F. Drucker,Michael Porter, and Gary Hamel and C. K. Prahalad the paper discusses the role ofstrategic intent as a contributing factor to firm success. The paper then discusses how theConfucian concept of harmony fulfills the concept of strategic intent and how harmony cancontribute to the development of a successful and ethical organization. The paperconcludes with a brief discussion of the applicability of Confucian ethics to the financialservices industry.

  17. Staff and patient views on intentional rounding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenny, Rebecca; Norton, Christine

    Intentional rounding is controversial, with growing evidence questioning its effectiveness. This article describes the planning stage of a quality improvement project to develop rounding undertaken by a London trust. Through a survey, interviews, observations and an audit, it was found that neither patients nor staff believed intentional rounding was effective in improving patient care. The system was not carried out as indicated by trust policy, and patients interviewed questioned the need for rounding. It is suggested that nurses and patients work together to develop a new model of inpatient care provision, with emphasis placed on an effective nurse-patient relationship.

  18. Nurses' intentions to give lifestyle support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie, Karen

    Models of behaviour change can help identify factors that influence health behaviours such as eating a healthy diet and physical activity. The Theory of Planned Behaviour has been shown to be relatively effective at predicting people's intention to engage in health-related behaviours. More recent research has explored whether it can help predict the intentions of one group of people to support another group to engage in healthy behaviour. This has implications for nurses, who are often facilitators of patient health. This article gives an overview of the model and discusses its potential implications for nurses.

  19. Transition Initiatives as Light Intentional Communities: Uncovering Liminality and Friction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth van de Grift

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The Transition Network is a global grassroots network that supports community-led resilience in the face of global change. This paper reports on an ethnographic study of one of its longest-running projects, Transition Town Lewes (TTL in the United Kingdom. The aim of the study is to analyse TTL as a community. More specifically, we ask two questions: (1 what type of community is TTL? and (2 what are the challenges TTL faces as a community? With this, we contribute to the existing literature on local sustainability initiatives and in particular on Transition initiatives, by providing an in-depth understanding of the challenges and social dynamics at play in a day-to-day setting. We conducted three months of intensive ethnographic fieldwork using participant observation, interviews, and a focus group. Our analysis shows that TTL is a community that, on the one hand, is motivated by explicit intentions and goals, but that, on the other hand, leaves openness and flexibility regarding the level and specifics of participants’ engagement. We introduce the novel concept of ‘light intentional community’ to describe this type of community. We first investigate intentionality in TTL, finding that differences exist between individual participant motivations and stated TTL objectives. We go on to describe the ‘light’ aspect of TTL—the differences in levels of engagement between community participants. Our analysis shows that TTL and its participants face two main challenges. First, TTL participants experience ‘multi-dimensional liminality’: they operate in a liminal space between mainstream society and TTL practices, and additionally experience a continuous sense of transitioning toward a moving goal. Second, TTL as a community faces internal and external frictions. These challenges are interrelated and stem from the structure and dynamics of TTL as a light intentional community. We conclude by reflecting on our analysis of the nature and

  20. Conveying Communicative Intent: Moves and Metadiscourse in Abstract Writing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuah Ek Lon

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstracts form the first reading contact of extended discourse in pursuance of a meaningful engagement with a report. An abstract possesses distinct features drawn from a specific genre of academic writing that communicates its discourse intent to any academic or professional community. Among the discourse conventions is the use of a move pattern and metadiscourse elements which together, establishes logical connections with the reader. This paper investigates good communication practice in abstract writing, a significant preliminary that fronts a report. The effectiveness of an abstract specifically, can be tied to the realization of a peculiar move structure that is accompanied by a judicious choice of words and phrases that relates to and involves the reader both interactively and interactionally. A content analysis of the move structure and its underlying metadiscourse in 100 randomly selected abstracts gives petite indication of how students manage abstract writing in a technical report. The results will have a bearing on situating appropriate pedagogical approaches for the teaching of a salient feature in academic writing and will also inform students of related genre expectations towards abstract writing. It is a skill that they may not have sufficient contact with in their university writing experience, though, nonetheless, one that needs to be accomplished to fulfill communicative intent that serves both local and international purposes insofar as academic writing is concerned. Keywords: abstract, metadiscourse, rhetorical moves and genre

  1. Linking Sleep to Hypertension: Greater Risk for Blacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Pandey

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Evidence suggests that insufficient sleep duration is associated with an increased likelihood for hypertension. Both short (8 hour sleep durations as well as hypertension are more prevalent among blacks than among whites. This study examined associations between sleep duration and hypertension, considering differential effects of race and ethnicity among black and white Americans. Methods. Data came from a cross-sectional household interview with 25,352 Americans (age range: 18–85 years. Results. Both white and black short sleepers had a greater likelihood of reporting hypertension than those who reported sleeping 6 to 8 hours. Unadjusted logistic regression analysis exploring the race/ethnicity interactions between insufficient sleep and hypertension indicated that black short (8 hours sleepers were more likely to report hypertension than their white counterparts (OR = 1.34 and 1.37, resp.; P<0.01. Significant interactions of insufficient sleep with race/ethnicity were observed even after adjusting to effects of age, sex, income, education, body mass index, alcohol use, smoking, emotional distress, diabetes, coronary heart disease, and stroke. Conclusion. Results suggest that the race/ethnicity interaction is a significant mediator in the relationship between insufficient sleep and likelihood of having a diagnosis of hypertension.

  2. Influences of personality traits and continuation intentions on physical activity participation within the theory of planned behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatzisarantis, Nikos L D; Hagger, Martin S

    2008-01-01

    Previous research has suggested that the theory of planned behaviour is insufficient in capturing all the antecedents of physical activity participation and that continuation intentions or personality traits may improve the predictive validity of the model. The present study examined the combined effects of continuation intentions and personality traits on health behaviour within the theory of planned behaviour. To examine these effects, 180 university students (N = 180, Male = 87, Female = 93, Age = 19.14 years, SD = 0.94) completed self-report measures of the theory of planned behaviour, personality traits and continuation intentions. After 5 weeks, perceived achievement of behavioural outcomes and actual participation in physical activities were assessed. Results supported discriminant validity between continuation intentions, conscientiousness and extroversion and indicated that perceived achievement of behavioural outcomes and continuation intentions of failure predicted physical activity participation after controlling for personality effects, past behaviour and other variables in the theory of planned behaviour. In addition, results indicated that conscientiousness moderated the effects of continuation intentions of failure on physical activity such that continuation intentions of failure predicted physical activity participation among conscientious and not among less conscientious individuals. These findings suggest that the effects of continuation intentions on health behaviour are contingent on personality characteristics.

  3. Rape Myth Acceptance, Efficacy, and Heterosexual Scripts in Men's Magazines: Factors Associated With Intentions to Sexually Coerce or Intervene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hust, Stacey J T; Rodgers, Kathleen Boyce; Ebreo, Stephanie; Stefani, Whitney

    2016-06-12

    Sexual coercion has gained researchers' attention as an underreported form of sexual abuse or harm. The percentage of male and female college students who reported engaging in sexual coercion was as high as 82% for verbally coercive behaviors over the course of a year. Guided by heterosexual scripting theory and the integrated model of behavioral prediction, we examine potential factors associated with college students' intentions to sexually coerce or to intervene when friends plan to sexually coerce (bystander intention). Factors included young college students' beliefs about rape myth acceptance, perceived norms, efficacy to reduce sexual-assault risk, and exposure to men's and women's magazines. As predicted, results indicate rape myth acceptance was positively associated with intentions to sexually coerce, and negatively associated with bystander intentions to intervene. Students' efficacy to reduce sexual-assault risk was negatively associated with intentions to sexually coerce, and positively associated with bystander intentions. Exposure to the heterosexual scripts in men's magazines, which connect sexual prowess to masculinity, was associated with intentions to sexually coerce. Exposure to magazines was not associated with bystander intentions to intervene. Overall, an understanding of the independent contribution of these factors toward sexual coercion and intervention has implications for dating violence prevention programming. © The Author(s) 2016.

  4. International Large Detector. Letter of intent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoeck, Holger [Sydney Univ., NSW (Australia). Falkiner High Energy Physics Group; Bergauer, Thomas; Dragicevic, Marko [Oesterreichische Akademie der Wissenschaften, Vienna (AT). Inst. fuer Hochenergiephysik] (and others)

    2010-07-01

    In the summer of 2007, the GLD concept study group, whose membership was largely based in Asia, and the LDC concept study group, which was mostly based in Europe with a strong north american membership, joined forces to produce a single Letter of Intent for a detector at the International Linear Collider, and formed the ILD concept group. Both the GLD and LDC concepts used the particle flow algorithm for jet reconstruction and a TPC for the central tracker. The basic parameters of the two concepts such as the size of the detector and the strength of the solenoid field, however, were quite different and had to be unified in order to write this letter of intent for ILD. Also, other critical details such as the interaction region design had to be unified. This was a non-trivial task, neither politically nor sociologically. The newly-formed concept study group, the ILD group, created a management team and engaged in intense studies to define the ILD detector concept by scientifically optimising the detector designs. The process has worked remarkably well, and we present here the outcome of this study as well as the large amount of studies that preceded separately by the two older concept groups. The ILD detector concept is now well defined, even though some technology choices are still open. One of the merits of unifying the detector concepts was that it revitalised the studies on physics performance and detector designs. We believe that the level of sophistication of the simulation and physics analyses has reached a high degree of sophistication for a detector group at this stage. This was achieved through collaboration and competition, and is the result of a productive learning process. The unification had also positive effects on the subdetector R and D efforts. Most R and D on detector technologies relevant to the GLD and LDC groups is being performed within the framework of detector R and D collaborations such as LCTPC, SiLC, CALICE, and FCAL which pursue their

  5. Differences between intentional and non-intentional burns in India: implications for prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natarajan, Mangai

    2014-08-01

    Non-intentional and deliberate burns in India and other developing countries present particular challenges of prevention and treatment. This exploratory study sought improved understanding of burns in order to inform treatment and prevention. It gathered data in 2011/2012 on burns from the hospital registry (N=768) of a government hospital in India and from interviews with women patients (N=60) admitted to the burns ward. Analysis indicated that: (1) the conditions that facilitate intentional and non-intentional burns are similar, but intentional burns involve additional contributory factors; (2) a high proportion of patients subjected to burns are young women in domestic situations; and (3) a higher proportion of their TBSA was burned, with consequent higher mortality than for men. It was concluded that: (1) Haddon's matrix and the situational crime prevention framework of criminology assist in understanding the etiology of intentional burns and in identifying preventive measures; (2) social service and criminal justice agencies have important roles in dealing with victims of intentional burns during and after treatment; (3) full account should be taken of gender-related physical, psychological and family factors in planning treatment; and (4) maintaining careful records of burns cases is vital for estimating the prevalence and incidence of intentional injuries. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  6. Inactive nurses in Taiwan: human capital, intention to return to hospital nursing, and incentives for returning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hsing-Yi; Tang, Fu-In; Chen, I-Ju; Yin, Teresa J C; Chen, Chu-Chieh; Yu, Shu

    2016-04-01

    To investigate inactive nurses' human capital, intention to return to hospital nursing and incentives for returning. Few studies have discussed the loss of human capital with regard to inactive nurses and how to attract them to return to clinical work. Systematic random sampling was used, with 328 subjects completing the mailed questionnaires, resulting in a response rate of 25.4%. Inactive nurses not only had moderate to high human capital (average years of nursing experience was 10.29, with moderate to high levels of nursing professional commitment and nursing competence) and were young. Forty-three percent of subjects reported intending to return to hospital nursing. Sufficient nurse staffing, greater safety in the working environment, and re-entry preparation programmes were incentives for returning. Recruiting inactive nurses back to hospital work is vital and feasible as inactive nurses had a moderate to high degree of human capital. The most feasible way is offering reasonable working conditions, in particular, providing sufficient staffing, a safe working environment and re-entry preparation programmes. The findings confirm the human capital of inactive nurses and provide concrete directions for nursing managers to follow when recruiting inactive nurses to hospital nursing. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Greater Sandhill Crane colt survival on the Ruby Lake National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report details Greater Sandhill Crane colt survival at Ruby lake NWR during the time period from 1984 to 2006. Management recommendations are suggested to...

  8. The Effects of Elaboration on the Strength of Doping-Related Attitudes: Resistance to Change and Behavioral Intentions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horcajo, Javier; Luttrell, Andrew

    2016-06-01

    This experiment analyzed whether attitudes toward the legalization of several doping behaviors would resist change and predict behavioral intentions when they were initially formed through thoughtful (i.e., high elaboration) versus nonthoughtful (i.e., low elaboration) processes. Participants were randomly assigned first to a persuasive message either against or in favor of the legalization, which they read with relatively high or low degrees of deliberative thinking. Attitudes and intentions regarding legalization were assessed following that message. Next, each participant received a second message that was opposed to the first one, serving as an attack against the attitude that participants had just formed. Finally, attitudes were again assessed. As hypothesized, participants showed greater attitude-consistent intentions when they formed their initial attitudes through thoughtful (vs. nonthoughtful) consideration of the first message. Moreover, the second message resulted in greater resistance to attitude change when participants formed their initial attitudes through thoughtful (vs. nonthoughtful) processes.

  9. Promoting the translation of intentions into action by implementation intentions: behavioral effects and physiological correlates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieber, Frank; Thürmer, J. Lukas; Gollwitzer, Peter M.

    2015-01-01

    The present review addresses the physiological correlates of planning effects on behavior. Although intentions to act qualify as predictors of behavior, accumulated evidence indicates that there is a substantial gap between even strong intentions and subsequent action. One effective strategy to reduce this intention–behavior gap is the formation of implementation intentions that specify when, where, and how to act on a given goal in an if-then format (“If I encounter situation Y, then I will initiate action Z!”). It has been proposed that implementation intentions render the mental representation of the situation highly accessible and establish a strong associative link between the mental representations of the situation and the action. These process assumptions have been examined in behavioral research, and in physiological research, a field that has begun to investigate the temporal dynamics of and brain areas involved in implementation intention effects. In the present review, we first summarize studies on the cognitive processes that are central to the strategic automation of action control by implementation intentions. We then examine studies involving critical samples with impaired self-regulation. Lastly, we review studies that have applied physiological measures such as heart rate, cortisol level, and eye movement, as well as electroencephalography (EEG) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies on the neural correlates of implementation intention effects. In support of the assumed processes, implementation intentions increased goal attainment in studies on cognitive processes and in critical samples, modulated brain waves related to perceptual and decision processes, and generated less activity in brain areas associated with effortful action control. In our discussion, we reflect on the status quo of physiological research on implementation intentions, methodological and conceptual issues, related research, and propose future

  10. Relational care: learning to look beyond intentionality to the 'non-intentional' in a caring relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenwood, Dennis

    2007-10-01

    This paper considers the implications for nursing practice of what the continental philosopher Emmanuel Levinas described as the 'non-intentional'. The place of the non-intentional emerges from a critique of Buber's conception of the 'I-Thou' and the 'I-It' relations, and is revealed to a person in the moments prior to the grasping of conscious understanding. A specific incident that took place between a nurse and a person diagnosed with dementia is described and then used to illustrate an exploration of the 'I-Thou' relation and then the non-intentional. The nurse practitioner's pre-understandings of the term dementia are shown to have hindered the emergence of an 'I-Thou' relation and the possibility of a non-intentional glimpse of the otherness of the other. It is suggested here that the plausible associations that become synonymous with a diagnosis like dementia detract from attentiveness to another 'person'. The more tangible an understanding of another person becomes, the less likely it is that a person can really experience the other as separate to their perception of them. The implications for practitioner education and learning in relation to the non-intentional are considered, in particular the need to reflect on the immediacy of the feelings experienced in a relationship. The non-intentional highlights how 'I', as a nurse practitioner, can exclude the other by imposing an understanding on what is seen and experienced in relation to another person. The 'I' prioritizes intentional understanding and so obscures the importance of the spontaneous response to the tear in the eye of the other, which is the basis for Levinas's conception of the non-intentional. The spontaneity of the non-intentional is what Levinas believed confirmed the separateness and autonomy of the other and consequently should be the basis for a therapeutic nursing relationship with a patient.

  11. Predictors of safer sex intentions and protected sex among heterosexual HIV-negative methamphetamine users: an expanded model of the Theory of Planned Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mausbach, Brent T; Semple, Shirley J; Strathdee, Steffanie A; Patterson, Thomas L

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test a version of the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) for predicting safe sex behavior in a sample of 228 HIV-negative heterosexual methamphetamine users. We hypothesized that, in addition to TPB constructs, participants' amount of methamphetamine use and desire to stop unsafe sex behaviors would predict intentions to engage in safer sex behaviors. In turn, we predicted that safer sex intentions would be positively correlated with participants' percentage of protected sex. Hierarchical linear regression indicated that 48% of the total variance in safer sex intentions was predicted by our model, with less negative attitudes toward safer sex, greater normative beliefs, greater control beliefs, less methamphetamine use, less intent to have sex, and greater desire to stop unsafe sex emerging as significant predictors of greater safer sex intentions. Safer sex intentions were positively associated with future percent protected sex (p<0.05). These findings suggest that, among heterosexual methamphetamine users, the TPB is an excellent model for predicting safer sex practices in this population, as are some additional factors (e.g., methamphetamine use). Effective interventions for increasing safer sex practices in methamphetamine user will likely include constructs from this model with augmentations to help reduce methamphetamine use.

  12. Key Determinants of Waste Separation Intention among Students on Campus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayob Siti Fadzilah

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to identify the key determinants of waste separation intention among the students in Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM. As reported in World Bank Report, generation of global municipal solid waste are approximately 1.3 billion tonnes per year, and it will increase approximately 2.2 billion tonnes per year by 2025. Similar trend in Malaysia which approximately eight million tonnes of municipal solid waste is produced daily. Upward trend of the solid waste generated is contributed by various forces including growth, increase of population, residents attitude and rapid urbanisation in the country. Considering the negative impacts from increase of waste generated in the country such as environmental degradation, separate the waste at its source can increase recycling rate and hence reduce waste generation. In the 11th Malaysia Plan, the government has urged the nation to actively practice waste separation. Understanding the determinants influencing waste separation behaviour can lead to effective waste reduction among the targeted group. This study adopted the Theory of Planned Behaviour as the fundamental framework. The key determinants of waste separation behaviour are attitude, subjectives norm, and perceived behavioural control. An elicitation survey has been conducted to explore the students’s beliefs relative to the waste separation behaviour. The empirical data collected were analysed using structural equation modelling (SEM assisted by SmartPLS software. The result shows that only determinants are significant towards intention which are attitude and Perceived Behavioural Control while Subjective Norm is not. The results of the study is significance to the organisation as identification of the determinants that influence waste separation intention contributes to a more focused waste separation programme that allign to Malaysia’s objective towards a sustainable developing country.

  13. Residents' intentions and actions after patient safety education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wagner Cordula

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Medical residents are key figures in delivering care and an important target group for patient safety education. The objective of this study was to assess residents' intentions and actions concerning patient safety improvement after patient safety education. Methods Four multi-specialty 2-day patient safety courses were organized, in which residents from five Dutch hospitals participated. At the end of these courses participants were asked to formulate an action point to improve patient safety. Three months later semi-structured interviews were conducted to reveal actions that were taken, factors that had influenced their behaviour and reactions concerning the education. An inductive theory approach was used to analyze transcriptions. Results Out of 71 participants, sixty-nine (97% residents were interviewed. In total they had formulated 91 action points, which mainly focused on: 'Improving organization of own work/Follow policies' and 'Improving culture/Educating colleagues about patient safety'. Sixty-two (90% residents declared to have taken action, and 50 (55% action points were fully carried out. Most actions taken were at the level of the individual professional, rather than at the level of their social or organizational context. Results of actions included adjusting the structure of their own work, organizing patient safety education for colleagues, communicating more efficiently and in a more structured way with colleagues, and reporting incidents. Promoters for action included: 'Awareness of the importance of the action to be taken', 'Supportive attitude of colleagues' and 'Having received patient safety education'. Barriers included: 'Impeding attitude of colleagues', 'High work-pressure', 'Hierarchy' and 'Switching of work stations'. Conclusions After patient safety training, residents reported various intentions to contribute to patient safety improvement. Numerous actions were taken, but there still is a

  14. Happy Moves? Assessing the Link Between Life Satisfaction and Emigration Intentions

    OpenAIRE

    Ivlevs, A.

    2015-01-01

    It has been shown that higher levels of subjective well-being lead to greater work productivity, better physical health and enhanced social skills. Because of these positive externalities, policymakers across the world should be interested in attracting and retaining happy and life-satisfied migrants. This paper studies the link between life satisfaction and one’s intentions to move abroad. Using survey data from 35 European and Central Asian countries, I find a U-shaped association between l...

  15. Enrollment, Childbearing Motivations, and Intentions of Couples in the Creighton Model Effectiveness, Intentions, and Behaviors Assessment (CEIBA Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph B. Stanford

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available ContextThe Creighton Model FertilityCareTM System (CrM is a standardized approach for educating women about the biomarkers of their fertility. Couples can use this information for timing intercourse during “fertile” or “infertile” days in order to try to conceive or to avoid pregnancy.ObjectivesThe study of Creighton Model Effectiveness, Intentions, and Behaviors Assessment (CEIBA was conducted to assess fertility motivations, intentions, fertility-related sexual behaviors, and their impact on effectiveness to avoid and to conceive among new users of the CrM. This paper reports enrollment baseline characteristics.Settings and designWe conducted this prospective cohort study at 17 CrM FertilityCareTM Centers; 16 in the USA and one in Toronto, Canada.Materials and methodsCouples who were new or returning users of the CrM were eligible. Couples who were initially trying to conceive or had a history of subfertility were excluded. Couples were enrolled and followed prospectively by their CrM instructors and also by CEIBA study staff. They completed baseline questionnaires.Results1,132 new couples were assessed; 1,090 (96% couples were screened; 429 (39% couples were eligible; 305 women (71% and 290 (95% male partners were enrolled. The majority of women was engaged (39% or married (51%, college graduates (77%, Caucasian non-Hispanic (80%, and Roman Catholic (80%. The most common reasons for learning CrM (women were to use a natural method for family planning (91%, for moral/ethical/religious reasons (70%, the lack of side effects (71%, or insight into the menstrual cycle and fertility (62%. Women and men intended to have a mean of three and two additional children, respectively. Of women, 21% intended to have a child within a year and 60% between 1 and 3 years. The mean positive childbearing motivation score was 3.3 for both women and men (range 1–4, with 4 being most positive.ConclusionCouples beginning use of the CrM to avoid pregnancy

  16. Uncovering the burden of intentional injuries among children and adolescents in the emergency department

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Introduction In low- and middle-income countries, injuries are a leading cause of mortality in children. Much work has been done in the context of unintentional injuries but there is limited knowledge about intentional injuries among children. The objective of this paper was to understand the characteristics of children with intentional injuries presenting to emergency departments in Pakistan. Methods The data was from the Pakistan National Emergency Departments Surveillance (Pak-NEDS), conducted from November 2010 to March 2011 in seven major emergency departments of Pakistan. Data on 30,937 children under 18 years of age was collected. This paper reports frequency of intentional injuries and compares patient demographics, nature of injury, and discharge outcome for two categories of intentional injuries: assault and self-inflicted injuries. Results Intentional injuries presenting to the emergency departments (EDs) accounted for 8.2% (2551/30,937) amongst all other causes for under 18 years. The boy to girl ratio was 1:0.35. Intentional injuries included assault (n = 1679, 65.8%) and self-inflicted injuries (n = 872, 34.2%). Soft tissue injuries were most commonly seen in assault injuries in boys and girls but fractures were more common in self-inflicted injuries in both genders. Conclusion Intentional injury is one of the reasons for seeking emergency treatment amongst children and a contributor to morbidity in EDs of Pakistan. Moreover, such injuries may be underestimated due to lack of reporting and investigative resources. Early identification may be the first step leading to prevention. PMID:26692292

  17. The impact of grandparental investment on mothers' fertility intentions in four European countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antti Tanskanen

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Evolutionary theory predicts that grandparental investment should support the childbearing of adult children, but evidence from contemporary developed countries is mixed or relatively weak. One possible reason for this lack of clarity is that grandparental support for fertility may vary by country, the economic situation of the adult child's household, and the lineage and the sex of the grandparent. Objective: We investigate the associations between grandparental investments and the intentions of mothers to have a second or third child in four European countries - Bulgaria, France, Lithuania, and Norway - while paying special attention to effect of the country, the financial security of the household, and the different grandparent types. Methods: Using the first wave data (2004-08 of the Generations and Gender Surveys, we measured grandparental investment by the amount of child care help and emotional support mothers reported receiving from their parents. We studied these factors with binary logistic regression analysis. Results: Both emotional support and child care help from grandparents were associated with increased fertility intentions in France and Norway. Emotional support was also associated with increased fertility intentions in Bulgaria, while grandparental child care help was associated with decreased intentions in Lithuania. Emotional support was more strongly associated with fertility intentions in financially secure households. Emotional support received from a maternal grandmother, a maternal grandfather, and a paternal grandmother; and child care help received from a maternal grandfather; were associated with an increased probability that a mother would report the intention to have another child. Conclusions: Grandparental investment, especially emotional support, appears to be most influential in wealthier European countries and among more financially secure families. When a family's socioeconomic situation and the

  18. Predictors of responses to organizational wrongdoing: a study of intentions of management accountants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casal, Jose C; Bogui, Frederic B

    2008-08-01

    It has been proposed that employees aware of organizational wrongdoing face two decisions: whether or not to blow the whistle and whether or not to leave their organizations. Of these only the decision to blow the whistle has received attention, leaving a gap in knowledge; thus, a survey of 330 management accountants was analyzed to examine potential predictors of intended responses to organizational wrongdoing. Analysis of ratings indicated that intent to leave increased with seriousness of wrongdoing and expected retaliation for whistleblowing and decreased with expected effectiveness of whistleblowing. Intent to stay and blow the whistle increased with expected effectiveness of whistleblowing and role responsibility for reporting and decreased with expected retaliation for whistleblowing; intent to leave and blow the whistle increased with expected effectiveness of whistleblowing and role responsibility for reporting.

  19. Attribution of Negative Intention in Williams Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godbee, Kali; Porter, Melanie A.

    2013-01-01

    People with Williams syndrome (WS) are said to have sociable and extremely trusting personalities, approaching strangers without hesitation. This study investigated whether people with WS are less likely than controls to attribute negative intent to others when interpreting a series of ambiguous pictures. This may, at least partially, explain…

  20. Collective intention, social identity, and rational choice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, J.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper I propose that what social psychologists refer to as social identity is a plausible empirical correlate on the part of the individual to what some philosophers and economists call collective intention. A discussion of an experiment yields the question what kind of mental state social

  1. Explaining lower educated workers' training intentions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanders, J.; Oomens, S.; Blonk, R.W.B.; Hazelzet, A.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to contribute to the discussion on how to increase lower educated workers' participation in training programs inside and outside the workplace through stimulating intentions with respect to training. Design/methodology/approach: This article is based on data

  2. Explaining Lower Educated Workers' Training Intentions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Jos; Oomens, Shirley; Blonk, Roland W. B.; Hazelzet, Astrid

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to contribute to the discussion on how to increase lower educated workers' participation in training programs inside and outside the workplace through stimulating intentions with respect to training. Design/methodology/approach: This article is based on data from the Study on Life Long Learning and Employment…

  3. Internships in SMEs and Career Intentions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walmsley, Andreas; Thomas, Rhodri; Jameson, Stephanie

    2012-01-01

    The literature on internships (also placements) emphasises their importance in career development, even seeing them as a launch pad for graduate careers. Indeed, universities use internships to enable students to develop a range of skills and to help clarify and refine employment intentions and career goals. Traditionally, most internships have…

  4. Attribution of Hostile Intent in Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadel, Barbara S.; Altrocchi, John

    1969-01-01

    Presents a selective literary analysis, including Melville, Shakespeare, J. P. Donleavy, Truman Capote, Dostoevsky, Emily Bronte, Ken Kesey and John Knowles, that attempts to show which types of people attribute hostile intent to which other types of people under which conditions. (MB)

  5. Mission Command: Elasticity, Equilibrium, Culture, and Intent

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-11-01

    nouveau point d’équilibre C2. Afin d’être en mesure de fonctionner efficacement d’une façon adaptative, les organisations militaires doivent élaborer...Establishing common intent: The key to co-ordinated military action. In Allan English (ed.), Leadership and Command and the Operational Art : Canadian

  6. Structural Factors Affecting Health Examination Behavioral Intention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hui-Ting; Kuo, Yu-Ming; Wang, Shiang-Ru; Wang, Chia-Fen; Tsai, Chung-Hung

    2016-04-01

    Disease screening instruments used for secondary prevention can facilitate early determination and treatment of pathogenic factors, effectively reducing disease incidence, mortality rates, and health complications. Therefore, people should be encouraged to receive health examinations for discovering potential pathogenic factors before symptoms occur. Here, we used the health belief model as a foundation and integrated social psychological factors and investigated the factors influencing health examination behavioral intention among the public in Taiwan. In total, 388 effective questionnaires were analyzed through structural model analysis. Consequently, this study yielded four crucial findings: (1) The established extended health belief model could effectively predict health examination behavioral intention; (2) Self-efficacy was the factor that most strongly influenced health examination behavioral intention, followed by health knowledge; (3) Self-efficacy substantially influenced perceived benefits and perceived barriers; (4) Health knowledge and social support indirectly influenced health examination behavioral intention. The preceding results can effectively increase the acceptance and use of health examination services among the public, thereby facilitating early diagnosis and treatment and ultimately reducing disease and mortality rates.

  7. Exploring Behavioral Intentions among Young Mothers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turney, Howard M.; Conway, Pat; Plummer, Pam; Adkins, Samuel E.; Hudson, George Cliff; McLeod, David A.; Zafaroni, Aileen

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between young mothers' individual characteristics (demographics and self-efficacy), social support, and behavioral intentions regarding education and child bearing. Using a home visiting model, the program recruited 141 teen mothers to participate. Young mothers completed an initial assessment, measuring…

  8. Using Mobile Learning: Determinates Impacting Behavioral Intention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowenthal, Jeffrey N.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the factors or determinates that impact the behavioral intention of students to use mobile learning (m-learning) technology. These determinates include performance expectancy, effort expectancy, and self-management of learning, all mediated by age, gender, or both. Regression coefficients showed strong and significant…

  9. Explaining lower educated workers' training intentions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanders, J.; Oomens, S.; Blonk, R.W.B.; Hazelzet, A.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to contribute to the discussion on how to increase lower educated workers' participation in training programs inside and outside the workplace through stimulating intentions with respect to training. Design/methodology/approach: This article is based on data fro

  10. Socially extended intentions-in-action

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blomberg, Olle

    2011-01-01

    According to a widely accepted constraint on the content of intentions, here called the exclusivity constraint, one cannot intend to perform another agent’s action, even if one might be able to intend that she performs it. For example, while one can intend that one’s guest leaves before midnight,...

  11. Attribution of Hostile Intent in Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadel, Barbara S.; Altrocchi, John

    1969-01-01

    Presents a selective literary analysis, including Melville, Shakespeare, J. P. Donleavy, Truman Capote, Dostoevsky, Emily Bronte, Ken Kesey and John Knowles, that attempts to show which types of people attribute hostile intent to which other types of people under which conditions. (MB)

  12. Control, intentional action, and moral responsibility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hindriks, Frank

    2011-01-01

    Skill or control is commonly regarded as a necessary condition for intentional action. This received wisdom is challenged by experiments conducted by Joshua Knobe and Thomas Nadelhoffer, which suggest that moral considerations sometimes trump considerations of skill and control. I argue that this ef

  13. Perception, Attitudes, Intentions, Decisions and Actual Behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fischer, A.R.H.

    2017-01-01

    This chapter discusses how linear models that assume a causal link from perception, to attitude, to intention and decisions and finally behavior have long dominated consumer behavior research. The theory of planned behavior, the technology acceptance model and the norm activation model are examples

  14. Intentional Vocabulary Learning Using Digital Flashcards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Hsiu-Ting

    2015-01-01

    As an attempt to follow through on the claims made by proponents of intentional vocabulary learning, the present study set out to examine whether and how digital flashcards can be incorporated into a university course to promote the vocabulary learning of English language learners. The overall research findings underscore the value of learning…

  15. Distinguishing intention and function in art appreciation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Glenn; Carlson, Allen

    2013-04-01

    We applaud Bullot & Reber's (B&R's) attempt to encompass the function of artworks within their psycho-historical model of art appreciation. However, we suggest that in order to fully realize this aim, they require a clearer distinction between an artist's intentions toward an artwork and its proper functions. We also show how such a distinction improves the internal coherence of their model.

  16. SiD Letter of Intent

    CERN Document Server

    Aihara, H; Oreglia, M.; Berger, E.L.; Guarino, V.; Repond, J.; Weerts, H.; Xia, L.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, Q.; Srivastava, A.; Butler, J.M.; Goldstein, Joel; Velthuis, J.; Radeka, V.; Zhu, R.-Y.; Lutz, P.; de Roeck, A.; Elsener, K.; Gaddi, A.; Gerwig, H.; Grefe, C.; Klempt, W.; Linssen, L.; Schlatter, D.; Speckmayer, P.; Thom, J.; Yang, J.; Christian, D.C.; Cihangir, S.; Cooper, W.E.; Demarteau, M.; Fisk, H.E.; Garren, L.A.; Krempetz, K.; Kutschke, R.K.; Lipton, R.; Para, A.; Tschirhart, R.; Wenzel, H.; Yarema, R.; Grunewald, M.; Pankov, A.; U., Gomel State Tech.; Dutta, T.; Dauncey, P.D.; Balbuena, J.P.; Fleta, C.; Lozano, M.; Ullan, M.; Christian, G.B.; Faus-Golfe, A.; Fuster, J.; Lacasta, C.; Marinnas, C.; Vos, M.; Duarte, J.; Fernandez, M.; Gonzalez, J.; Jaramillo, R.; Lopez, Virto, A.; Martinez-Eivero, C.; Moya, D.; Ruiz-Mimeno, A.; Vila, I.; Colledani, C.; Dorokhov, A.; Hu-Guo, C.; Winter, M.; Moortgat-Pick, G.; Onoprienko, D.V.; Kim, G.N.; Park, H.; Adloff, C.; Blaha, J.; Blaising, J.-J.; Cap, S.; Chefdeville, M.; Drancourt, C.; Espargiliare, A.; Gaglione, R.; Geffroy, N.; Jacquemier, J.; Karyotakis, Y.; Prast, J.; Vouters, G.; Gronberg, J.; Walston, S.; Wright, D.; Sawyer, L.; Laloum, M.; Ciobanu, C.; Chauveau, J.; Savoy-Navarro, A.; Andricek, L.; Moser, H.-G.; Cowan, R.f.; Fisher, P.; Yamamoto, R.K.; Kenney, ClMl; Boos, E.E.; Merkin, M.; Chen, S.; Chakraborty, D.; Dyshkant, A.; Hedin, D.; Zutshi, V.; Galkin, V.; D'Ascenzo, N.; Ossetski, D.; Saveliev, V.; Kapusta, F.; De Masi, R.; Vrba, V.; Lu, C.; McDonald, K.T.; Smith, A.J.S.; Bortoletto, D.; Coath, R.; Crooks, J.; Damerell, C.; Gibson, M.; Nichols, A.; Stanitzki, M.; Strube, J.; Turchetta, R.; Tyndel, M.; Weber, M.; Worm, S.; Zhang, Z.; Barklow, T.L.; Belymam, A.; Breidenbach, M.; Cassell, R.; Craddock, W.; Deaconu, C.; Dragone, A.; Graf, N.A.; Haller, G.; Herbst, R.; Hewett, J.L.; Jaros, J.A.; Johnson, A.S.; Kim, P.C.; MacFarlane, D.B.; Markiewicz, T.; Maruyama, T.; McCormick, J.; Moffeit, K.; Neal, H.A.; Nelson, T.K.; Oriunno, M.; Partridge, R.; Peskin, M.E.; Rizzo, T.G.; Rowson, P.; Su, D.; Woods, M.; Chakrabarti, S.; Dieguez, A.; Garrido, Ll.; Kaminski, J.; Conway, J.S.; Chertok, M.; Gunion, J.; Holbrook, B.; Lander, R.L.; Tripathi, S.M.; Fadeyev, V.; Schumm, B.A.; Oreglia, M.; Gill, J.; Nauenberg, U.; Oleinik, G.; Wagner, S.R.; Ranjan, K.; Shivpuri, R.; Varner, G.S.; Orava, R.; Van Kooten, R.; Bilki, B.; Charles, M.; Kim, T.J.; Mallik, U.; Norbeck, E.; Onel, Y.; Brau, B.P.; Willocq, S.; Taylor, G.N.; Riles, Keith; Yang, H.-J.; Kriske, R.; Cremaldi, L.; Rahmat, R.; Lastovicka-Medin, G.; Seidel, S.; Hildreth, M.D.; Wayne, M.; Brau, J.E.; Frey, R.; Sinev, N.; Strom, D.M.; Torrence, E.; Banda, Y.; Burrows, P.N.; Devetak, E.; Foster, B.; Lastovicka, T.; Li, Y.-M.; Nomerotski, A.; Riera-Babures, J.; Vilasis-Cardona, X.; Manly, S.; Adeva, B.; Iglesias Escudero, C.; Vazquez Regueiro, P.; Saborido Silva, J.J.; Gallas Torreira, A.; Gao, D.; Jie, W.; Jungfeng, Y.; Li, C.; Liu, S.; Liu, Y.; Sun, Y.; Wang, Q.; Yi, J.; Yonggang, W.; Zhao, Z.; De, K.; Farbin, A.; Park, S.; Smith, J.; White, A.P.; Yu, J.; Lou, X.C.; Abe, T.; Aihara, H.; Iwasaki, M.; Lubatti, H.J.; Band, H.R.; Feyzi, F.; Prepost, R.; Karchin, P.E.; Milstene, C.; Baltay, C.; Dhawan, S.; Kwon, Y.-J.

    2009-01-01

    Letter of intent describing SiD (Silicon Detector) for consideration by the International Linear Collider IDAG panel. This detector concept is founded on the use of silicon detectors for vertexing, tracking, and electromagnetic calorimetry. The detector has been cost-optimized as a general-purpose detector for a 500 GeV electron-positron linear collider.

  17. Exploring Behavioral Intentions among Young Mothers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turney, Howard M.; Conway, Pat; Plummer, Pam; Adkins, Samuel E.; Hudson, George Cliff; McLeod, David A.; Zafaroni, Aileen

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between young mothers' individual characteristics (demographics and self-efficacy), social support, and behavioral intentions regarding education and child bearing. Using a home visiting model, the program recruited 141 teen mothers to participate. Young mothers completed an initial assessment, measuring…

  18. PREDICTING ADVERTISING EXPENDITURES USING INTENTION SURVEYS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ALSEM, KJ; LEEFLANG, PSH

    1994-01-01

    In this article we study the use of intention surveys to predict the effects of a possible entrant. The case under investigation deals with the introduction of private broadcasting in the Netherlands. Several predictions of the advertising expenditures in various media are given which depend on a nu

  19. Alligning vertical collection relevance with user intent

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhou, Ke; Demeester, Thomas; Nguyen, Dong; Hiemstra, Djoerd; Trieschnigg, Dolf

    2014-01-01

    Selecting and aggregating different types of content from multiple vertical search engines is becoming popular in web search. The user vertical intent, the verticals the user expects to be relevant for a particular information need, might not correspond to the vertical collection relevance, the vert

  20. PREDICTING ADVERTISING EXPENDITURES USING INTENTION SURVEYS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ALSEM, KJ; LEEFLANG, PSH

    1994-01-01

    In this article we study the use of intention surveys to predict the effects of a possible entrant. The case under investigation deals with the introduction of private broadcasting in the Netherlands. Several predictions of the advertising expenditures in various media are given which depend on a nu

  1. Awareness, Knowledge and Intentions for Postgraduate Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jepsen, Denise M.; Varhegyi, Melinda M.

    2011-01-01

    Many university administrators, academics and marketers expend time and financial resources promoting postgraduate study options, yet scant scholarly research has addressed students' attraction to postgraduate study. This study examines awareness and knowledge of, and intentions to pursue postgraduate study from the perspective of current…

  2. Employee Development and Turnover Intention: Theory Validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Wali; Nas, Zekeriya

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: This study aims to examine the pattern of behavior of turnover intentions in developing countries "vis-a-vis" the one in advanced countries through the empirical data from public universities in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. The study provides empirical evidence from academia in Pakistan, thereby enriching the understanding of…

  3. Using Mobile Learning: Determinates Impacting Behavioral Intention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowenthal, Jeffrey N.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the factors or determinates that impact the behavioral intention of students to use mobile learning (m-learning) technology. These determinates include performance expectancy, effort expectancy, and self-management of learning, all mediated by age, gender, or both. Regression coefficients showed strong and significant…

  4. CONSUMERS’ PURCHASE INTENTIONS TOWARDS NATURAL COSMETICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matea Matić

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to determine which variables influence consumers’ intentions towards purchasing natural cosmetics. Several variables are included in the regression analysis such as age, gender, consumers’ purchase tendency towards organic food, consumers’ new natural cosmetics brands and consumers’ tendency towards health consciousness. The data was collected through an online survey questionnaire using the purposive sample of 204 consumers from the Dubrovnik-Neretva County in March and April of 2015. Various statistical analyses were used such as binary logistic regression and correlation analysis. Binary logistic regression results show that gender, consumers’ purchase tendency towards organic food and consumers’ purchase tendency towards new natural cosmetics brands have an influence on consumer purchase intentions. However, consumers’ tendency towards health consciousness has no influence on consumers’ intentions towards purchasing natural cosmetics. Results of the correlation analysis indicate that there is a strong positive correlation between purchase intentions towards natural cosmetics and consumer references of natural cosmetics. The findings may be useful to online retailers, as well as marketers and practitioners to recognize and better understand the new trends that occur in the industry of natural cosmetics.

  5. Good Intentions, Bad Advice for Bilingual Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harlin, Rebecca; Paneque, Oneyda M.

    2006-01-01

    Quite often, educators tell families of children who are learning English as a second language to speak only English, and not their native language, at home. Although these educators may have good intentions, the authors argue that the educators' advice to families is misguided and stems from misunderstandings about the nature of bilingualism and…

  6. Intentional change, intrinsic motivations, and goal generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzotti, Riccardo; Moderato, Paolo

    2014-08-01

    Wilson et al. draw our attention to the problem of a science of intentional change. We stress the connection between their approach and existing paradigms for learning and goal generation that have been developed in machine learning, artificial intelligence, and psychology. These paradigms outline the structural principles of a domain-general and teleologically open agent.

  7. Alligning Vertical Collection Relevance with User Intent

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhou, Ke; Demeester, Thomas; Nguyen, Dong-Phuong; Hiemstra, Djoerd; Trieschnigg, Rudolf Berend

    Selecting and aggregating different types of content from multiple vertical search engines is becoming popular in web search. The user vertical intent, the verticals the user expects to be relevant for a particular information need, might not correspond to the vertical collection relevance, the

  8. Explaining lower educated workers' training intentions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanders, J.; Oomens, S.; Blonk, R.W.B.; Hazelzet, A.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to contribute to the discussion on how to increase lower educated workers' participation in training programs inside and outside the workplace through stimulating intentions with respect to training. Design/methodology/approach: This article is based on data fro

  9. Internships in SMEs and Career Intentions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walmsley, Andreas; Thomas, Rhodri; Jameson, Stephanie

    2012-01-01

    The literature on internships (also placements) emphasises their importance in career development, even seeing them as a launch pad for graduate careers. Indeed, universities use internships to enable students to develop a range of skills and to help clarify and refine employment intentions and career goals. Traditionally, most internships have…

  10. To Brexit or not to Brexit: The roles of Islamophobia, conspiracist beliefs, and integrated threat in voting intentions for the United Kingdom European Union membership referendum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swami, Viren; Barron, David; Weis, Laura; Furnham, Adrian

    2017-06-20

    We used an identities approach to examine voting intentions in the June 2016 UK referendum on membership of the European Union (EU). In April 2016, 303 British adults (58.7% women, age M = 34.73) indicated their voting intentions for the referendum and completed measures of identification with the national in-group, perceived threat from Muslim immigrants, belief in Islamophobic conspiracy narratives, Islamophobia, general conspiracist beliefs, ambiguity tolerance, and belief in a clash of civilizations. Path and mediation analyses indicated that greater belief in Islamophobic conspiracy theories mediated the link between Islamophobia and intention to vote to leave. Islamophobia and Islamophobic conspiracist beliefs also mediated the effects of perceived threat from Muslims on voting intentions. Other variables acted as antecedents of perceived threat or Islamophobic conspiracy narratives. These findings highlight the role that identity-based cognitions may have played in shaping voting intentions for the UK EU referendum. © 2017 The British Psychological Society.

  11. A Cross-Country Exploration: Dietetic Students' Knowledge, Attitudes, and Intentions to Provide Services to the Elderly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Myeonghwa; Seo, Sunhee

    2009-01-01

    This study identified dietetic students' knowledge of aging, attitudes, and intentions to provide services to the elderly and compared the cross-cultural differences between the United States and South Korea. The results show that knowledge about aging and the elderly, coursework experiences, and internship experiences are much greater among…

  12. A Cross-Country Exploration: Dietetic Students' Knowledge, Attitudes, and Intentions to Provide Services to the Elderly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Myeonghwa; Seo, Sunhee

    2009-01-01

    This study identified dietetic students' knowledge of aging, attitudes, and intentions to provide services to the elderly and compared the cross-cultural differences between the United States and South Korea. The results show that knowledge about aging and the elderly, coursework experiences, and internship experiences are much greater among…

  13. College Students' Intentions to Use Calorie Information on a Restaurant Menu: Application of the Theory of Planned Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stran, Kimberly A.; Knol, Linda L.; Severt, Kimberly; Lawrence, Jeannine C.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Obesity continues to be an epidemic in the United States and is associated with multiple chronic diseases. Greater numbers of people eat in restaurants and select high calorie foods. Labeling laws require calorie information on menus in some restaurants. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine the predictors of intention to…

  14. College Students' Intentions to Use Calorie Information on a Restaurant Menu: Application of the Theory of Planned Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stran, Kimberly A.; Knol, Linda L.; Severt, Kimberly; Lawrence, Jeannine C.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Obesity continues to be an epidemic in the United States and is associated with multiple chronic diseases. Greater numbers of people eat in restaurants and select high calorie foods. Labeling laws require calorie information on menus in some restaurants. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine the predictors of intention to…

  15. Determinants of Behavior Change Intention Among Heterosexual Thai Males Diagnosed with Sexually Transmitted Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thato, Ratsiri; Daengsaard, Ekkachai

    2016-11-01

    This study sought to identify factors associated with intention to change sexual practices among heterosexual Thai males diagnosed with sexually transmitted infections (STIs). STI clinic patients (n = 247) reported their sexual behaviors and condom use during the previous 3 months. STI and HIV knowledge, motivation to change sexual practices, and behavioral skills were assessed. Then, self-reported behavior change intention, including consistent condom use, reducing number of sexual partners, not using drugs and alcohol when having sex, and refusal of condomless sex, was examined. Consistent condom use in the past 3 months by Thai males diagnosed with STIs was low across all types of sexual partners (lover 13.8%, casual partner 14.9%, and sex worker 2.5%). Risk reduction self-efficacy (p behavior change intention. Significant predictors of behavior change intention were risk reduction self-efficacy (p behavior change intention variance. Intervention aimed at enhancing motivation and behavioral skills to adopt preventive behaviors should be developed to prevent recurrent STIs, including HIV infection, among heterosexual Thai males diagnosed with STIs.

  16. Job satisfaction and intention to quit: an empirical analysis of nurses in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Kadar Muhammad Masum

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to identify the facets influencing job satisfaction and intention to quit of nurses employed in Turkey. Using a non-probability sampling technique, 417 nurses from six large private hospitals were surveyed from March 2014 to June 2014. The nurses’ demographic data, their job-related satisfaction and turnover intentions were recorded through a self-administered questionnaire. In this study, descriptive and bivariate analyses were used to explore data, and multivariate analysis was performed using logistic regression. Nurses’ job satisfaction was found at a moderate level with 61% of the nurses intended to quit. Nevertheless, nurses reported a high satisfaction level with work environment, supervisor support, and co-workers among the selected nine facets of job satisfaction. They also reported a low satisfaction level with contingent reward, fringe benefits, and pay. The impact of demographic characteristics on job satisfaction and intention to quit was also examined. The study revealed a negative relationship between job satisfaction and intention to quit the existing employment. Moreover, satisfaction with supervisor support was the only facet that significantly explained turnover intent when controlling for gender, age, marital status, education, and experience. The implications for nurse management were also described for increasing nurses’ job satisfaction and retention. This study is beneficial for hospital management to ensure proper nursing care that would lead to a better quality healthcare service.

  17. Job satisfaction and intention to quit: an empirical analysis of nurses in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masum, Abdul Kadar Muhammad; Azad, Md Abul Kalam; Hoque, Kazi Enamul; Beh, Loo-See; Wanke, Peter; Arslan, Özgün

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the facets influencing job satisfaction and intention to quit of nurses employed in Turkey. Using a non-probability sampling technique, 417 nurses from six large private hospitals were surveyed from March 2014 to June 2014. The nurses' demographic data, their job-related satisfaction and turnover intentions were recorded through a self-administered questionnaire. In this study, descriptive and bivariate analyses were used to explore data, and multivariate analysis was performed using logistic regression. Nurses' job satisfaction was found at a moderate level with 61% of the nurses intended to quit. Nevertheless, nurses reported a high satisfaction level with work environment, supervisor support, and co-workers among the selected nine facets of job satisfaction. They also reported a low satisfaction level with contingent reward, fringe benefits, and pay. The impact of demographic characteristics on job satisfaction and intention to quit was also examined. The study revealed a negative relationship between job satisfaction and intention to quit the existing employment. Moreover, satisfaction with supervisor support was the only facet that significantly explained turnover intent when controlling for gender, age, marital status, education, and experience. The implications for nurse management were also described for increasing nurses' job satisfaction and retention. This study is beneficial for hospital management to ensure proper nursing care that would lead to a better quality healthcare service.

  18. Job satisfaction and intention to quit: an empirical analysis of nurses in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azad, Md. Abul Kalam; Hoque, Kazi Enamul; Beh, Loo-See; Wanke, Peter; Arslan, Özgün

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the facets influencing job satisfaction and intention to quit of nurses employed in Turkey. Using a non-probability sampling technique, 417 nurses from six large private hospitals were surveyed from March 2014 to June 2014. The nurses’ demographic data, their job-related satisfaction and turnover intentions were recorded through a self-administered questionnaire. In this study, descriptive and bivariate analyses were used to explore data, and multivariate analysis was performed using logistic regression. Nurses’ job satisfaction was found at a moderate level with 61% of the nurses intended to quit. Nevertheless, nurses reported a high satisfaction level with work environment, supervisor support, and co-workers among the selected nine facets of job satisfaction. They also reported a low satisfaction level with contingent reward, fringe benefits, and pay. The impact of demographic characteristics on job satisfaction and intention to quit was also examined. The study revealed a negative relationship between job satisfaction and intention to quit the existing employment. Moreover, satisfaction with supervisor support was the only facet that significantly explained turnover intent when controlling for gender, age, marital status, education, and experience. The implications for nurse management were also described for increasing nurses’ job satisfaction and retention. This study is beneficial for hospital management to ensure proper nursing care that would lead to a better quality healthcare service. PMID:27168960

  19. Brands as Intentional Agents Framework: How Perceived Intentions and Ability Can Map Brand Perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kervyn, Nicolas; Fiske, Susan T; Malone, Chris

    2012-04-01

    Building on the Stereotype Content Model, this paper introduces and tests the Brands as Intentional Agents Framework. A growing body of research suggests that consumers have relationships with brands that resemble relations between people. We propose that consumers perceive brands in the same way they perceive people. This approach allows us to explore how social perception theories and processes can predict brand purchase interest and loyalty. Brands as Intentional Agents Framework is based on a well-established social perception approach: the Stereotype Content Model. Two studies support the Brands as Intentional Agents Framework prediction that consumers assess a brand's perceived intentions and ability and that these perceptions elicit distinct emotions and drive differential brand behaviors. The research shows that human social interaction relationships translate to consumer-brand interactions in ways that are useful to inform brand positioning and brand communications.

  20. Leadership skills for nursing unit managers to decrease intention to leave

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roche MA

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Michael A Roche,1 Christine Duffield,1,2 Sofia Dimitrelis,1 Belinda Frew1 1Centre for Health Services Management, Faculty of Health, University of Technology, Sydney, NSW, 2Clinical Nursing and Midwifery Research Centre, School of Nursing and Midwifery, Edith Cowan University, Joondalup, WA, Australia Aim: To examine specific elements of nursing leadership linked to intention to leave, in public acute care hospitals. Background: Nurse turnover is a global issue receiving widespread attention due to prolonged and projected workforce shortages. Nurse management and leadership qualities have been associated with intention to leave and turnover of nurses. The role of the nurse unit managers in the retention of nurses is becoming increasingly important, particularly because of their strong influence on the quality and stability of the work environment. Methods: Data were collected from 62 medical, surgical, and mixed units across eleven public acute care hospitals in three Australian states (September 2008 to August 2010. A total of 1,673 nurses completed a nurse survey that included measures of intention to leave and leadership aspects of the practice environment. Analyses explored specific leadership characteristics that were associated with turnover intent. Results: The role of nursing unit managers was confirmed to be a major factor in nurses’ intention to remain or leave their current workplace. Nurses valued “human” skills more highly than other leadership characteristics, including their manager’s connection with nurses’ concerns, clarity, participation in decisions, and encouragement. Conclusion: Strong leadership qualities in the nursing unit manager have been associated with greater job satisfaction, reduced turnover intention among nursing staff, and improved patient outcomes. Nurse leaders need to be supported in an effort to retain nurses given ongoing workforce issues and to ensure high-quality patient care. Keywords: nurse

  1. Do habits always override intentions? Pitting unhealthy snacking habits against snack-avoidance intentions

    OpenAIRE

    Gardner, Benjamin; Corbridge, Sharon; McGowan, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Background Habit is defined as a process whereby an impulse towards behaviour is automatically initiated upon encountering a setting in which the behaviour has been performed in the past. A central tenet of habit theory is that habit overrides intentional tendencies in directing behaviour, such that as habit strength increases, intention becomes less predictive of behaviour. Yet, evidence of this effect has been methodologically limited by modelling the impact of positively-correlated habits ...

  2. Migration Intentions of Ghanaian Medical Students: The Influence of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Migration Intentions of Ghanaian Medical Students: The Influence of existing Funding Mechanisms of Medical Education("The Fee Factor") ... CI=1.32, 3.38) than non-fee-paying students to have intentions of migrating after their training.

  3. 76 FR 55000 - Notice of Intent To Renew Information Collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Research Service Notice of Intent To Renew Information Collection AGENCY: Agricultural Research... Research Service intent to seek comments on renewing the National Arboretum's information collection...

  4. Myiasis in Dogs in the Greater Accra Region of Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Sherry A M; Gakuya, Daniel W; Mbuthia, Paul G; Mande, John D; Afakye, Kofi; Maingi, Ndichu

    2016-01-01

    Myiasis is the infestation of tissues of live vertebrate animals and humans with dipterous larvae. In sub-Saharan Africa, Cordylobia anthropohaga and Cordylobia rodhaini are known to be responsible for cutaneous myiasis in animals and humans. Human cases of myiasis, purportedly acquired in Ghana but diagnosed in other countries, have been reported; however, published data on its occurrence in animals in Ghana is unavailable. This study assessed the prevalence of canine myiasis among owned dogs in the Greater Accra region (GAR) of Ghana. A cross-sectional study was conducted in the Greater Accra region of Ghana, selected for being the region with the highest estimated population density of owned dogs. Physical examination and demographic characteristics of the study dogs were assessed. Management of the dogs was assessed through a questionnaire administered to the dog owners. A total of 392 owned dogs were sampled. Twenty-nine (7.4%) had cutaneous myiasis caused by C. rodhaini. In addition, one (0.2%) of the dogs had intestinal myiasis, with Dermatobia hominis as the offending larvae. Among the breeds of dogs with myiasis, the mongrel was most affected, with 24 (82.8%) out of the 29 cases. The mongrels, majority of which (24; 82.8%) were males, were left to roam freely in the community. Results from this study demonstrate that C. rodhaini and D. hominis are important causes of myiasis in owned dogs in the GAR of Ghana. Dogs could play a role in the spread of myiasis to humans, with its attendant public health implications.

  5. Enzootic reticuloendotheliosis in the endangered Attwater's and greater prairie chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavala, Guillermo; Cheng, Sunny; Barbosa, Taylor; Haefele, Holly

    2006-12-01

    Reticuloendotheliosis (RE) in captive greater prairie chickens (GPC, Tympanuchus cupido pinnatus) and Attwater's prairie chickens (APC, Tympanuchus cupido attwateri) was first reported in 1998. RE is caused by avian reticuloendotheliosis virus (REV), an oncogenic and immunosuppressive retrovirus infecting multiple species of wild and domestic birds. During August 2004 through May 2006 a captive population of prairie chickens was affected simultaneously with a neoplastic condition and also avian pox, the latter being detected in 7.4% (2 of 27) of all birds submitted for histopathology. A survey for REV was conducted in order to examine its possible role in mortality observed primarily in juvenile and adult specimens of prairie chickens. The investigative procedures included postmortem examinations, histopathology, molecular detection, and virus isolation. In total, 57 Attwater's prairie chickens and two greater prairie chickens were included in the study. REV infection was diagnosed using virus isolation or polymerase chain reaction (PCR) or both in 59.5% (28 of 47) of blood samples and/or tumors from suspect birds. Lymphosarcomas were detected in the tissues of 37% (10 of 27) of the birds submitted for histopathology. Such lymphosarcomas suggestive of RE represented the most frequent morphologic diagnosis on histopathology among 27 separate submissions of naturally dead prairie chickens. Overall, REV was detected or RE diagnosed in 34 of 59 prairie chickens (57.62%). The average death age of all birds diagnosed with lymphosarcomas on histopathology was 2.2 yr, ranging from birds of undetermined gender). Reticuloendotheliosis virus was confirmed as a significant cause of mortality in captive prairie chickens.

  6. Guidance on Compatibility of UST Systems with Ethanol Blends Greater Than 10 Percent and Biodiesel Blends Greater Than 20 Percent

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA guidance on complying with the federal compatibility requirement for underground storage tank (UST) systems storing gasoline containing greater than 10 percent ethanol or diesel containing greater than 20 percent biodiesel.

  7. Intention and planning predicting medication adherence following coronary artery bypass graft surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakpour, Amir H; Gellert, Paul; Asefzadeh, Saeed; Updegraff, John A; Molloy, Gerard J; Sniehotta, Falko F

    2014-10-01

    medication was more predictive of medication adherence in those patients who reported higher intentions to take medication, reflecting the idea that planning helps patients overcome unintentional reasons of being non-adherent. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Impact of health claims in prebiotic-enriched breads on purchase intent, emotional response and product liking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Katie L; Miah, Emma M; Morris, Gordon A; Morris, Cecile

    2014-03-01

    The impact of health claims on purchase intent, emotional response and liking has never been previously reported. In this study, prebiotic-enriched bread was used as a model functional food. Purchase intent, emotional response and liking were investigated in three phases: (1) focus groups were used to gauge consumer perception of health claims and functional foods, (2) the impact of health claims on purchase intent and emotional responses were measured using an online survey (n = 122) and (3) hedonic ratings on bread rolls presented with or without any associated claims were obtained (n = 100). A cluster analysis of the purchase intent data identified two clusters of consumers who were either receptive or non-receptive to health claims. Receptive and non-receptive consumers significantly differed in the emotions they reported with respect to the claims. The hedonic ratings did not significantly differ between the breads tasted with or without health claims.

  9. Predicting Intentional Communication in Preverbal Preschoolers with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandbank, Micheal; Woynaroski, Tiffany; Watson, Linda R.; Gardner, Elizabeth; Keçeli Kaysili, Bahar; Yoder, Paul

    2017-01-01

    Intentional communication has previously been identified as a value-added predictor of expressive language in preverbal preschoolers with autism spectrum disorder. In the present study, we sought to identify value-added predictors of intentional communication. Of five theoretically-motivated putative predictors of intentional communication…

  10. Incidental and intentional flavor memory in young and older subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moller, P.; Mojet, J.; Koster, E.P.

    2007-01-01

    Incidental and intentional learning and memory for 2 novel flavors were compared in young and elderly subjects. Incidental and intentional learning groups rated 2 new soups on acceptability for different occasions and were tested for memory the next day. On the first day, only the intentional group

  11. Deceptive intent: physiological reactions in different interpersonal contexts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ströfer, Sabine

    2016-01-01

    This dissertation advanced the deception field by examining the psychological processes associated with deceptive intent. The main focus forms the intention to deceive and more specifically, whether cues to deception already can be measured during truth telling with the mere intention to lie. In ord

  12. 8 CFR 1003.105 - Notice of Intent to Discipline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Notice of Intent to Discipline. 1003.105... and Procedures § 1003.105 Notice of Intent to Discipline. (a) Issuance of Notice to practitioner. (1... subject of the preliminary inquiry a Notice of Intent to Discipline. Service of this notice will be...

  13. A Cross-Cultural Approach to Understanding Entrepreneurial Intention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriano, Juan A.; Gorgievski, Marjan; Laguna, Mariola; Stephan, Ute; Zarafshani, Kiumars

    2012-01-01

    The current research aims to shed light on the role of culture in the formation of career intentions. It draws on the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB; Ajzen), which has been widely employed to predict intentions, including entrepreneurial career intentions, but past research has almost exclusively been conducted in "Western" countries.…

  14. A Cross-Cultural Approach to Understanding Entrepreneurial Intention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriano, Juan A.; Gorgievski, Marjan; Laguna, Mariola; Stephan, Ute; Zarafshani, Kiumars

    2012-01-01

    The current research aims to shed light on the role of culture in the formation of career intentions. It draws on the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB; Ajzen), which has been widely employed to predict intentions, including entrepreneurial career intentions, but past research has almost exclusively been conducted in "Western" countries.…

  15. Made to Symbolize: Intentionality and Children's Early Understanding of Symbols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharon, Tanya

    2005-01-01

    This experiment tested whether children's insight into a difficult symbolic relation could be increased by explicitly emphasizing the intentionality surrounding the artifact's creation and use. Specifically, I explicitly emphasized (a) the adult's intent to communicate information via the artifact and (b) the artifact's intentional origins and…

  16. Incidental and intentional flavor memory in young and older subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moller, P.; Mojet, J.; Koster, E.P.

    2007-01-01

    Incidental and intentional learning and memory for 2 novel flavors were compared in young and elderly subjects. Incidental and intentional learning groups rated 2 new soups on acceptability for different occasions and were tested for memory the next day. On the first day, only the intentional group

  17. Prediction of pharmacist intention to provide medication disposal education using the theory of planned behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tai, Bik-Wai Bilvick; Hata, Micah; Wu, Stephanie; Frausto, Sonya; Law, Anandi V

    2016-10-01

    Lack of familiarity with proper medication disposal options among patients can lead to personal and environmental safety concerns, besides signalling non-adherence. Given that community pharmacists are in a position to educate patients, this study assessed community pharmacists' knowledge on medication disposal and examined the utility of the theory of planned behaviour (TPB) in predicting their intention to provide medication disposal education to their patients. A cross-sectional, self-administered survey was distributed to community pharmacists in California. Descriptive statistics were reported for all survey items. Cronbach's alpha and Pearson correlation were used to determine the reliability for the four TPB constructs (attitude, subjective norm, perceived behavioural control and intention). Multiple linear regressions were performed to predict intent using the other three TPB constructs. Pharmacists (n = 142) demonstrated a positive intention to provide education (mean = 5.91 ± 1.22; range: 2 to 8), but most (67.9%) provided this information once a month or less. Attitude (β = 0.266, P = 0.001), subjective norm (β = 0.333, P behavioural control (β = 0.211, P = 0.009) were significant predictors of intention, accounting for 40.8% of the variance in intention to provide disposal education. Scale reliability ranged from 0.596 to 0.619 for the four constructs. Few pharmacists accurately selected all of the appropriate recommendations of disposal for non-controlled and controlled substances (15.9% and 10.1%, respectively). Pharmacists showed favourable attitude, subjective norm, perceived behaviour control and intention in providing such education. However, their knowledge in this area may be lacking and they are not consistently providing this information to their patients. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Seeking Health Information Online: The Moderating Effects of Problematic Situations on User Intention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidan Xia

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This study investigates how online user intention in searching health information is affected by problematic situations. Design/methodology/approach: Based on the Theory of Reasoned Action, the Technology Acceptance Model, and Sense-making theory, we propose two dimensions of problematic situations: urgency and severity of health issues being searched online. Data were collected through a questionnaire survey among 214 Wuhan University students and analyzed using hierarchical regression analysis. Findings: Perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, and subjective norm can influence user intention to seek health information online. The urgency of problematic situations has a negative moderating effect on the relationship between perceived ease of use and user intention and the relationship between subjective norm and user intention. The severity of problematic situations has a negative moderating effect on the relationship between subjective norm and user intention. Research limitations: The respondents of the survey are limited to students in one Chinese university, so whether this study’s results can be applied to another population or not remains to be verified. In addition, only two dimensions of problematic situations are considered in this study. Practical implications: The paper puts forward the moderating effect of problematic situations and verifies it, which is the compensation for online health information-seeking behavior research. Besides, our analyses have implications for professional design of health care systems and related consumer information searches, and improve their performance. Originality/value: Previous work has reported the effects of problematic situation on user intention to seek health information online, ignoring its influence on other factors. This empirical study extends that work to identify the influence of problematic situation when seeking intention-behavior data in two dimensions, urgency and

  19. Pregnancy intentions among female sex workers: recognising their rights and wants as mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duff, Putu; Shoveller, Jeannie; Feng, Cindy; Ogilvie, Gina; Montaner, Julio; Shannon, Kate

    2015-04-01

    To better understand the prevalence and correlates of pregnancy intentions among female sex workers (FSWs). Cross-sectional analysis using data from an open prospective cohort of street and off-street FSWs in Vancouver, Canada, in partnership with local sex work and community agencies. FSWs were recruited through outreach to street and off-street locations (e.g. massage parlours, micro-brothels) and completed interviewer-administered questionnaires and HIV/sexually transmitted infection testing. Bivariable and multivariable logistic regression was used to evaluate correlates of pregnancy intention, based on a 'yes' or 'no' response to the question "Are you planning on have any (any more) children in the future?". Of the 510 women, 394 (77.3%) reported prior pregnancy, with 140 (27.5%) of the entire sample reporting positive pregnancy intentions. Regarding ethnicity, 35.3% were Caucasian and 26.3% were Asian/visible minority, with no differences in pregnancy intention by ethnicity or HIV status; 38.4% reported Canadian Aboriginal ancestry. In our final multivariable model, servicing clients in formal indoor settings, inconsistent condom use by clients, younger age, and intimate partner violence (IPV) were associated with pregnancy intention. FSWs may have pregnancy intention levels similar to that of women in other occupations. Policy changes are needed to improve FSWs' access to integrated HIV and reproductive health services and harm reduction services, particularly for FSWs experiencing IPV. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  20. Predictors of healthcare professionals' intention and behaviour to encourage physical activity in patients with cardiovascular risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kok Gerjo

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Healthcare professionals can play a crucial role in optimizing the health status of patients with cardiovascular risk factors (abdominal obesity, high blood pressure, low HDL cholesterol, elevated triglycerides and elevated blood glucose. In order to do this, it is imperative that we understand the social-cognitive determinants (including habits that underlie healthcare professionals' intention and the corresponding behavior of actually encouraging patients with cardiovascular risk factors to engage in physical activity. Methods In this longitudinal Professionals' Intention and Behavior (PIB study, healthcare professionals (N = 278, aged 20-61 years with approximately 60% having attained an education level exceeding bachelor's degree, types of healthcare professionals 60% in physiotherapy and 40% in nursing completed online surveys measuring the social-cognitive determinants of healthcare professionals' intention and the corresponding behavior of actually encouraging patients with cardiovascular risk factors to engage in physical activity. Results Social-cognitive determinants accounted for 41% (p We explored the congruence between healthcare professionals' intention to encourage patients and the self-reported behavior of encouraging patients. We found that intention and behavior were congruent in 39.7% of the healthcare professionals. Additionally, the intention to encourage and the corresponding behavior of encouraging was incongruent in 31.7% of the healthcare professionals. Conclusions In the prevention of cardiovascular disease, healthcare professionals' intention to encourage physical activity among patients and subsequent behavior of encouraging patients is important for the improvement of patients' cardiovascular risk profiles. We found that the intentions and self-reported behavior of healthcare professionals working with patients with cardiovascular risk factors can be predicted by social-cognitive determinants thus

  1. THE INTENTION OF HAVING SEXUAL RELATIONS DURING THE ADOLESCENCE: THE ROLE OF THE TELEVISION, PARENTAL RELATIONSHIPS AND COGNITIONS

    OpenAIRE

    ELVIA VARGAS-TRUJILLO; FERNANDO BARRERA; MARÍA CONSUELO BURGOS; BERTA CECILIA DAZA

    2006-01-01

    This study assessed the influence of television, parent-child relationship and adolescents’ cognitions overthe intentions to engage in sexual activity during adolescence. Sample consisted of 231 high-school students(116 women and 115 men), between 12 and 18 years old, from low, middle and high socioeconomicstatus. A self-report questionnaire was used to gather information on the study’s variables. Correlationand regression analysis show that intentions are determined by personal attitudes and...

  2. The Relationship between Perceived Transformative Class Experiences and Subsequent Prosocial Intentions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrell-Levy, Marinda K.; Kerpelman, Jennifer L.

    2015-01-01

    The present study tested a model showing how different aspects of high school courses focusing on social justice and prosocial development predicted prosocial intentions of students (N = 362) 2 to 29 years after they had completed the courses. Results indicated that students reporting more transformative class experiences (higher critical…

  3. Development of a Questionnaire to Assess University Students' Intentions to Use Behavioral Alcohol-Reduction Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonar, Erin E.; Hoffmann, Erica; Rosenberg, Harold; Kryszak, Elizabeth; Young, Kathleen M.; Ashrafioun, Lisham; Kraus, Shane W.; Bannon, Erin E.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the psychometric properties of a new self-report questionnaire designed to assess college students' intentions to employ 31 specific alcohol-reduction strategies. Method: Students attending a large public university were recruited to complete alcohol-reduction, drinking history, and personality questionnaires online.…

  4. Nutrition-Related Cancer Prevention Cognitions and Behavioral Intentions: Testing the Risk Perception Attitude Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Helen W.; Beckjord, Ellen Burke; Finney Rutten, Lila J.; Hesse, Bradford W.

    2008-01-01

    This study tested whether the risk perception attitude framework predicted nutrition-related cancer prevention cognitions and behavioral intentions. Data from the 2003 Health Information National Trends Survey were analyzed to assess respondents' reported likelihood of developing cancer (risk) and perceptions of whether they could lower their…

  5. Unforgiving motivations among divorced parents: Moderation of contact intention and contact frequency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kluwer, E.S.

    2016-01-01

    This research tests the prediction that unforgiving motivations (feelings of revenge and distance) toward the ex-spouse are associated with less reported well-being of divorced parents and their children when the intent to maintain contact with the ex-partner is high rather than low. It is also pred

  6. Contraceptive Attitudes and Intention to Use Condoms in Sexually Experienced and Inexperienced Adolescent Males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pleck, Joseph H.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Assessed contraceptive attitudes and intention to use a condom at next intercourse among 1,880 adolescent males. Findings showed that about three-fifths of sexually experienced and inexperienced adolescent males intending to have sex in the next year reported an "almost certain chance" of condom use with a hypothetical future partner. (Author/PVV)

  7. Family/Friend Recommendations and Mammography Intentions: The Roles of Perceived Mammography Norms and Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina, Yamile; Ornelas, India J.; Doty, Sarah L.; Bishop, Sonia; Beresford, Shirley A. A.; Coronado, Gloria D.

    2015-01-01

    Identifying factors that increase mammography use among Latinas is an important public health priority. Latinas are more likely to report mammography intentions and use, if a family member or friend recommends that they get a mammogram. Little is known about the mechanisms underlying the relationship between social interactions and mammography…

  8. Ready, Set, Go: African American Preadolescents' Sexual Thoughts, Intentions, and Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Kim S.; Fasula, Amy M.; Lin, Carol Y.; Levin, Martin L.; Wyckoff, Sarah C.; Forehand, Rex

    2012-01-01

    Understanding of preadolescent sexuality is limited. To help fill this gap, we calculated frequencies, percentages, and confidence intervals for 1,096 preadolescents' reports of sexual thoughts, intentions, and sexual behavior. Cochran-Armitage trend tests accounted for age effects. Findings show that 9-year-olds are readying for sexual activity,…

  9. Nutrition-Related Cancer Prevention Cognitions and Behavioral Intentions: Testing the Risk Perception Attitude Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Helen W.; Beckjord, Ellen Burke; Finney Rutten, Lila J.; Hesse, Bradford W.

    2008-01-01

    This study tested whether the risk perception attitude framework predicted nutrition-related cancer prevention cognitions and behavioral intentions. Data from the 2003 Health Information National Trends Survey were analyzed to assess respondents' reported likelihood of developing cancer (risk) and perceptions of whether they could lower their…

  10. Development of a Questionnaire to Assess University Students' Intentions to Use Behavioral Alcohol-Reduction Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonar, Erin E.; Hoffmann, Erica; Rosenberg, Harold; Kryszak, Elizabeth; Young, Kathleen M.; Ashrafioun, Lisham; Kraus, Shane W.; Bannon, Erin E.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the psychometric properties of a new self-report questionnaire designed to assess college students' intentions to employ 31 specific alcohol-reduction strategies. Method: Students attending a large public university were recruited to complete alcohol-reduction, drinking history, and personality questionnaires online.…

  11. A national cross-sectional study on nurses' intent to leave and job satisfaction in Lebanon: implications for policy and practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamal Diana

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lebanon is perceived to be suffering from excessive nurse migration, low job satisfaction, poor retention and high turnover. Little is known about the magnitude of nurse migration and predictors of intent to leave. The objective of this study is to determine the extent of nurses' intent to leave and examine the impact of job satisfaction on intent to leave. Intent to leave was explored to differentiate between nurses who intend to leave their current hospital and those intending to leave the country. Methods A cross-sectional design was used to survey nurses currently practicing in Lebanese hospitals. A total of 1,793 nurses employed in 69 hospitals were surveyed. Questions included those relating to demographic characteristics, intent to leave, and the McCloskey Mueller Satisfaction Scale. Univariate descriptive statistics were conducted on sample's demographic characteristics including gender, age, marital status and educational level. Bivariate associations between intent to leave and demographic characteristics were tested using Pearson Chi-square. Differences in satisfaction scores between nurses with and without intent to leave were tested using t-test and ANOVA f-test. A multinomial logistic regression model was created to predict intent to leave the hospital and intent to leave the country. Results An alarming 67.5% reported intent to leave within the next 1 to 3 years, many of whom disclosed intent to leave the country (36.7%. Within nurses who reported an intent to leave the hospital but stay in Lebanon, 22.1% plan to move to a different health organization in Lebanon, 29.4% plan to leave the profession and 48.5% had other plans. Nurses reported being least satisfied with extrinsic rewards. A common predictor of intent to leave the hospital and the country was dissatisfaction with extrinsic rewards. Other predictors of intent to leave (country or hospital included age, gender, marital status, degree type, and

  12. The relationship between drinking games and intentions to continue drinking, intentions to drive after drinking, and adverse consequences: results of a field study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clapp, John D; Reed, Mark B; Ruderman, Danielle E

    2014-09-01

    Drinking games have become a nearly universal aspect of excessive drinking on university campuses with 50-62% of college students reporting playing drinking games in the past month. Participation in drinking games has been correlated with numerous negative consequences and increased consumption of alcohol. The present study addresses the influence of drinking games on three drinking-related outcomes: problems experienced the night of the drinking event, the intent to keep drinking, and the intent to drive after drinking. The data collected for the present study were part of a study testing environmental influences of drinking behaviors of young adults. A total of 226 randomly selected parties (representing 1725 partygoers) were selected for study inclusion. Three multilevel logistic regression models tested the relationship between drinking games and the three drinking-related outcomes. Participants who reported playing drinking games were 1.58 times more likely to report continued drinking intentions than participants who did not play drinking games. If drinking games were observed at a party, participants were 2.38 times more likely to plan to drive while intoxicated. Additionally, participants who reported playing drinking games were 1.59 times more likely to report experiencing a drinking-related problem than participants who did not play drinking games. Drinking games have consequences beyond increasing the level of intoxication; they contribute to problematic behavior at individual and environmental levels. Preventing drinking games is warranted.

  13. The Role of Alcohol Use during Sexual Situations in the Relationship between Sexual Revictimization and Women’s Intentions to Engage in Unprotected Sex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkhill, Michele R.; Norris, Jeanette; Cue Davi, Kelly

    2015-01-01

    Research has demonstrated relationships among childhood sexual abuse, adult sexual assault, and sexual risk taking. This study proposes that one mechanism through which the victimization-sexual risk taking relationship works is through an increased likelihood of drinking during sexual situations. Using path analysis, the current study explores this hypothesis in a sample of 230 women. The model illustrates that women with a history of child and adult sexual victimization reported greater intentions to engage in unprotected sex and that this relationship is in part accounted for by an increased likelihood of drinking in sexual situations. The results suggest that sexual risk reduction programs and sexual assault treatment programs should educate women about the alcohol-involved sexual risk taking that often follows sexual assault victimization. PMID:25069152

  14. Good intentions and ICH-GCP: Trial conduct training needs to go beyond the ICH-GCP document and include the intention-to-treat principle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browne, Lois H; Graham, Peter H

    2014-12-01

    It is assumed investigators and statisticians fully understand the importance of avoiding missing outcomes and the intention-to-treat principle during design and analysis phases of a randomised controlled trial in order to obtain the most valuable and reliable results. However, many personnel undertaking day-to-day trial conduct and data collection commonly rely exclusively for guidance on the widely implemented, indeed regulated, International Conference on Harmonisation-Good Clinical Practice document as the guideline and standard for trial conduct. This article describes adverse consequences of omission of intention-to-treat principles from training for trial personnel and explores the need for training in addition to the International Conference on Harmonisation-Good Clinical Practice guideline document. Data from the Breast Boost Study were used to illustrate a comparison of actual results, where vigilant senior investigators re-enforced intention-to-treat requirements throughout all aspects of trial conduct with results that could easily have occurred if study personnel did not understand the importance of intention-to-treat principles. Experience as a co-ordinating centre for an international trial (Trans-Tasman Radiation Oncology Group 08.06 Breast STARS) acted as an audit of data-management culture regarding intention-to-treat in Australia and New Zealand. Despite the Breast Boost Study exceeding planned accrual, it was demonstrated that the study, which found a statistically significant result, could have reported a negative or inconclusive result under the scenario of trial conduct personnel having lack of understanding of the importance of avoiding losses to follow-up. Trans-Tasman Radiation Oncology 08.06 co-ordination experience verified that data-management culture in Australia and New Zealand does not adequately recognise intention-to-treat principles, and this is reflected in trial conduct. Trial data described are limited to two trials and in the

  15. Automatic recognition of malicious intent indicators.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drescher, D. J.; Yee, Mark L.; Giron, Casey; Fogler, Robert Joseph; Nguyen, Hung D.; Koch, Mark William

    2010-09-01

    A major goal of next-generation physical protection systems is to extend defenses far beyond the usual outer-perimeter-fence boundaries surrounding protected facilities. Mitigation of nuisance alarms is among the highest priorities. A solution to this problem is to create a robust capability to Automatically Recognize Malicious Indicators of intruders. In extended defense applications, it is not enough to distinguish humans from all other potential alarm sources as human activity can be a common occurrence outside perimeter boundaries. Our approach is unique in that it employs a stimulus to determine a malicious intent indicator for the intruder. The intruder's response to the stimulus can be used in an automatic reasoning system to decide the intruder's intent.

  16. Occupational turnover intentions among substance abuse counselors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothrauff, Tanja C; Abraham, Amanda J; Bride, Brian E; Roman, Paul M

    2011-01-01

    This study examined predictor, moderator, and mediator variables of occupational turnover intention (OcTI) among substance abuse counselors. Data were obtained via questionnaires from 929 counselors working in 225 private substance abuse treatment (SAT) programs across the United States. Hierarchical multiple regression models were conducted to assess predictor, moderator, and mediator variables of OcTI. OcTI scores were relatively low on a 7-point scale, indicating that very few counselors definitely intended to leave the SAT field. Age, certification, positive perceptions of procedural and distributive justice, and hospital-based status negatively predicted OcTI. Counselors' substance use disorder-impacted history moderated the association between organizational commitment and OcTI. Organizational turnover intention partially mediated the link between organizational commitment and OcTI. Workforce stability might be achieved by promoting perceptions of advantages to working in a particular treatment program, having organizational commitment, showing appreciation for counselors' work, and valuing employees from diverse backgrounds.

  17. Bioterrorism: intentional introduction of animal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, N P; Rinderknecht, J L

    2011-04-01

    The possibility of the intentional introduction of animal disease as an act of bioterrorism adds a new dimension to the development of strategies for assessment, prevention, response and recovery from exotic diseases, including the zoonoses. The vulnerability of livestock operations, the likelihood of success, the possibility of the use of genetically engineered organisms and limited resources to handle multiple outbreaks place new pressures on policy-makers and emergency responders to make best use of limited resources. The methods for managing a natural occurrence or accidental introduction of high-consequence diseases are generally applicable to containment and recovery from outbreaks of intentionally introduced animal diseases. Zoonotic agents increase the complexity at both international and national levels. Modern biology provides both increased threat of new disease entities and methods for earlier and more effective detection and intervention. Improved methods are emerging for defining trade restrictions and animal movement and for determining when it is safe to resume normal trade.

  18. Can transformational managers control turnover intention?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massad A. Alatawi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Orientation and research purpose: Employee turnover is a complex phenomenon that has negative consequences for organisations. The purpose of this study was to measure the correlation between transformational leadership style and turnover intention to control the employee turnover rate in organisations.Research method: This study utilised a two-stage clustering method and web-based survey research with a correlational design to collect the data. A total of 356 responses were collected from 14 clusters in Southern California; however, the final selected data for analysis came from 210 subjects with a cluster-sampling design of (14 × 15.Main findings and managerial implications: This study concluded that the transformational leadership style has a negative correlation with turnover intention. Managers who adopt this style of leadership can expect lower rates of turnover; thus, they can stay competitive in an unstable economy and achieve enhanced productivity, improved performance and reduction in expenses.

  19. Nurses' intention to apply clinical practice guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogan, Ella; Tabak, Nili

    2012-12-01

    Using Ajzen and Madden's Theory of Planned Behavior, this study investigates factors which influence nurses' intention to apply clinical practice guidelines in their daily ward work. A convenience sample of 91 nurses in internal medicine wards in three Israeli hospitals answered four questionnaires. Data were processed by Pearson correlation coefficients and multivariate regression. The main findings were that burnout was negatively correlated with the intention to work according to guidelines and that professionalism (in the sense of a tendency to follow taught procedure rather than personal judgment) was positively correlated with it. Furthermore, nurses who perceive their behavioral control and subjective norms to be positive will be the most determined to work according to guidelines, provided they personally command the necessary resources to do so.

  20. Entrepreneurial intention modeling using hierarchical multiple regression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Jeger

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study is to identify the contribution of effectuation dimensions to the predictive power of the entrepreneurial intention model over and above that which can be accounted for by other predictors selected and confirmed in previous studies. As is often the case in social and behavioral studies, some variables are likely to be highly correlated with each other. Therefore, the relative amount of variance in the criterion variable explained by each of the predictors depends on several factors such as the order of variable entry and sample specifics. The results show the modest predictive power of two dimensions of effectuation prior to the introduction of the theory of planned behavior elements. The article highlights the main advantages of applying hierarchical regression in social sciences as well as in the specific context of entrepreneurial intention formation, and addresses some of the potential pitfalls that this type of analysis entails.