WorldWideScience

Sample records for reported greater exposure

  1. Conservatives report, but liberals display, greater happiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojcik, Sean P; Hovasapian, Arpine; Graham, Jesse; Motyl, Matt; Ditto, Peter H

    2015-03-13

    Research suggesting that political conservatives are happier than political liberals has relied exclusively on self-report measures of subjective well-being. We show that this finding is fully mediated by conservatives' self-enhancing style of self-report (study 1; N = 1433) and then describe three studies drawing from "big data" sources to assess liberal-conservative differences in happiness-related behavior (studies 2 to 4; N = 4936). Relative to conservatives, liberals more frequently used positive emotional language in their speech and smiled more intensely and genuinely in photographs. Our results were consistent across large samples of online survey takers, U.S. politicians, Twitter users, and LinkedIn users. Our findings illustrate the nuanced relationship between political ideology, self-enhancement, and happiness and illuminate the contradictory ways that happiness differences can manifest across behavior and self-reports.

  2. Promoting greater Federal energy productivity [Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hopkins, Mark; Dudich, Luther

    2003-03-05

    This document is a close-out report describing the work done under this DOE grant to improve Federal Energy Productivity. Over the four years covered in this document, the Alliance To Save Energy conducted liaison with the private sector through our Federal Energy Productivity Task Force. In this time, the Alliance held several successful workshops on the uses of metering in Federal facilities and other meetings. We also conducted significant research on energy efficiency, financing, facilitated studies of potential energy savings in energy intensive agencies, and undertook other tasks outlined in this report.

  3. Avian cholera exposure and carriers in greater white-fronted geese breeding in Alaska, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel, M.D.; Shadduck, D.J.; Goldberg, D.R.

    2005-01-01

    We conducted a 3-yr study (2001a??03) on greater white-fronted geese (Anser albifrons frontalis) breeding in Alaska, USA, to determine the exposure of this population to Pasteurella multocida and the potential role of these birds as disease carriers. We tested sera from nearly 600 adult geese for antibodies to P. multocida serotype 1. We found a low prevalence (birds sampled. Based on comparison with other waterfowl species, we concluded that these geese may be exposed to avian cholera during the winter or spring migration but are unlikely to play a significant role as carriers of the bacterium causing avian cholera.

  4. Prenatal ethanol exposure leads to greater ethanol-induced appetitive reinforcement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pautassi, Ricardo M; Nizhnikov, Michael E; Spear, Norman E; Molina, Juan C

    2012-09-01

    Prenatal ethanol significantly heightens later alcohol consumption, but the mechanisms that underlie this phenomenon are poorly understood. Little is known about the basis of 'this effect of prenatal ethanol on the sensitivity to ethanol's reinforcing effects. One possibility is that prenatal ethanol exposure makes subjects more sensitive to the appetitive effects of ethanol or less sensitive to ethanol's aversive consequences. The present study assessed ethanol-induced second-order conditioned place preference (CPP) and aversion and ethanol-induced conditioned taste aversion (CTA) in infant rats prenatally exposed to ethanol (2.0 g/kg) or vehicle (water) or left untreated. The involvement of the κ opioid receptor system in ethanol-induced CTA was also explored. When place conditioning occurred during the ascending limb of the blood-ethanol curve (Experiment 1), the pups exposed to ethanol in utero exhibited greater CPP than untreated controls, with a shift to the right of the dose-response curve. Conditioning during a later phase of intoxication (30-45 min post-administration; Experiment 2) resulted in place aversion in control pups exposed to vehicle during late gestation but not in pups that were exposed to ethanol in utero. Ethanol induced a reliable and similar CTA (Experiment 3) in the pups treated with vehicle or ethanol during gestation, and CTA was insensitive to κ antagonism. These results suggest that brief exposure to a moderate ethanol dose during late gestation promotes ethanol-mediated reinforcement and alters the expression of conditioned aversion by ethanol. This shift in the motivational reactivity to ethanol may be an underlying basis of the effect of prenatal ethanol on later ethanol acceptance.

  5. Is maternal PTSD associated with greater exposure of very young children to violent media?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schechter, Daniel S; Gross, Anna; Willheim, Erica; McCaw, Jaime; Turner, J Blake; Myers, Michael M; Zeanah, Charles H; Gleason, Mary Margaret

    2009-12-01

    This study examined media viewing by mothers with violence-related posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and related media exposure of their preschool-age children. Mothers (N = 67) recruited from community pediatric clinics participated in a protocol involving a media-preference survey. Severity of maternal PTSD and dissociation were significantly associated with child exposure to violent media. Family poverty and maternal viewing behavior were also associated. Maternal viewing behavior mediated the effects specifically of maternal PTSD severity on child exposure. Clinicians should assess maternal and child media viewing practices in families with histories of violent trauma exposure and related psychopathology.

  6. Arthroscopic Tuberoplasty for a Malunited Greater Tuberosity Fracture: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killen, Maire-Clare; Charalambous, Charalambos P

    2015-01-01

    Superior migration and malunion of a fractured greater tuberosity can lead to mechanical subacromial impingement with resultant ongoing pain and limitation of abduction. We describe such a case successfully treated with arthroscopic excision of the protruding portion of the greater tuberosity, with marked improvement in pain and range of movement. The greater tuberosity was exposed by elevating the supraspinatus tendon, which was reattached at the end of the procedure. This case, along with outcomes of similar techniques previously reported in literature suggest that arthroscopic excision of a superiorly malunited greater tuberosity is associated with good symptomatic outcome and preservation of rotator cuff function.

  7. Why do Greater one-horned rhinoceroses (Rhinoceros unicornis) die? - An evaluation of necropsy reports

    OpenAIRE

    Wyss, F; Wenker, C; Robert, N.; Clauss, Marcus; von Houwald, F

    2012-01-01

    Many case reports about different diseases in greater one-horned rhinoceroses (Rhinoceros unicornis) have been published, but an overview of the prevalence of diseases and an evaluation of causes of death is lacking. Necropsy reports of 106 greater one-horned rhinoceroses from 38 zoos worldwide were evaluated. Half of them were from adult animals, a third from perinatal deaths/stillbirths and the rest from juveniles and sub adults. Cardiac problems (cardiomyopathy, myocarditis, heart infarct)...

  8. DOE occupational radiation exposure. Report 1992--1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-05-01

    The DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report, 1992-1994 reports occupational radiation exposures incurred by individuals at US Department of Energy (DOE) facilities from 1992 through 1994. This report includes occupational radiation exposure information for all DOE employees, contractors, subcontractors, and visitors. This information is analyzed and trended over time to provide a measure of the DOE`s performance in protecting its workers from radiation. Occupational radiation exposure at DOE has been decreasing over the past 5 years. In particular, doses in the higher dose ranges are decreasing, including the number of doses in excess of the DOE limits and doses in excess of the 2 rem Administrative Control Level (ACL). This is an indication of greater attention being given to protecting these individuals from radiation in the workplace.

  9. DOE occupational radiation exposure. Report 1992--1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-05-01

    The DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report, 1992-1994 reports occupational radiation exposures incurred by individuals at US Department of Energy (DOE) facilities from 1992 through 1994. This report includes occupational radiation exposure information for all DOE employees, contractors, subcontractors, and visitors. This information is analyzed and trended over time to provide a measure of the DOE`s performance in protecting its workers from radiation. Occupational radiation exposure at DOE has been decreasing over the past 5 years. In particular, doses in the higher dose ranges are decreasing, including the number of doses in excess of the DOE limits and doses in excess of the 2 rem Administrative Control Level (ACL). This is an indication of greater attention being given to protecting these individuals from radiation in the workplace.

  10. Kratom exposures reported to Texas poison centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrester, Mathias B

    2013-01-01

    Kratom use is a growing problem in the United States. Kratom exposures reported to Texas poison centers between January 1998 and September 2013 were identified. No kratom exposures were reported from 1998 to 2008 and 14 exposures were reported from 2009 to September 2013. Eleven patients were male, and 11 patients were in their 20s. The kratom was ingested in 12 patients, inhaled in 1, and both ingested and inhaled in 1. Twelve patients were managed at a healthcare facility and the remaining 2 were managed at home.

  11. DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure, 2001 report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2001-12-31

    The goal of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is to conduct its operations, including radiological, to ensure the safety and health of all DOE employees, contractors, and subcontractors. The DOE strives to maintain radiation exposures to its workers below administrative control levels and DOE limits and to further reduce these exposures to levels that are “As Low As Reasonably Achievable” (ALARA). The 2001 DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report provides a summary and analysis of the occupational radiation exposure received by individuals associated with DOE activities. The DOE mission includes stewardship of the nuclear weapons stockpile and the associated facilities, environmental restoration of DOE, and energy research.

  12. DOE occupational radiation exposure 2007 report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2007-12-31

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Corporate Safety Analysis (HS-30) within the Office of Health, Safety and Security (HSS) publishes the annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report to provide an overview of the status of radiation protection practices at DOE.* The annual DOEOccupational Radiation Exposure 2007 Report provides an evaluation of DOE-wide performance regarding compliance with DOE Part 835 dose limits and ALARA process requirements. In addition the report provides data to DOE organizations responsible for developing policies for protection of individuals from the effects of radiation. This report provides a summary and an analysis of occupational radiation exposure information from the monitoring of individuals involved in DOE activities. The occupational radiation exposure information is analyzed in terms of aggregate data, dose to individuals, and dose by site over the past five years.

  13. DOE occupational radiation exposure 2006 report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2006-12-31

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Corporate Safety Analysis (HS-30) within the Office of Health, Safety and Security (HSS) publishes the annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report to provide an overview of the status of radiation protection practices at DOE. This report provides a summary and an analysis of occupational radiation exposure information for all monitored individuals associated with DOE activities. The occupational radiation exposure information is analyzed in terms of aggregate data, dose to individuals, and dose by site over the past five years.

  14. DOE occupational radiation exposure 2005 report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2005-12-31

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Offi ce of Corporate Safety Analysis (HS-30) within the Office of Health Safety and Security (HSS) publishes the annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report to provide an overview of the status of radiation protection practices at DOE. This report provides a summary and an analysis of occupational radiation exposure information for all monitored individuals associated with the DOE activities. The occupational radiation exposure information is analyzed in terms of aggregate data, dose to individuals, and dose by site over the past 5 years.

  15. Metastasis of greater wing of sphenoid bone in bronchogenic carcinoma: a unusual case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Prashant K; Mital, Mukta; Dwivedi, Amit; Gupta, Kumkum

    2011-01-01

    Orbital metastasis in systemic cancer is known to occur and occurs in up to 7% of all systemic cancers. Orbital features typically present after the diagnosis of the primary tumor. In about 20% of cases, there is no known primary cancer at the time of presentation with orbital metastatic disease. Here we report a case of a 60-year-old male smoker, in whom proptosis, due to metastasis in greater wing of left sphenoid bone secondary to bronchogenic carcinoma, was the initial symptom. We could not find in literature metastasis to greater wing of sphenoid bone due to small cell carcinoma of lung.

  16. Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor arising from the greater omentum: Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tokunaga Masakazu

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNSTs are rare soft tissue tumors that arise from a peripheral nerve or exhibit nerve sheath differentiation. Most of these tumors arise on the trunk, extremities, or head and neck regions; they are very rarely located in the abdominal cavity. The patient was a 71-year-old man who was referred to our hospital for a mass and pain in the right lower abdomen. Abdominal computed tomography revealed a large (9 × 9 cm, well-circumscribed, lobulated, heterogeneously enhanced mass in the pelvis. Exploratory laparotomy revealed a large mass in the greater omentum, and the tumor was completely excised. Histopathological analysis revealed that the tumor was composed of spindle cells with high mitotic activity. On staining the tumor, positive results were obtained for S-100 but negative results were obtained for c-kit, cluster of differentiation (CD34, α-smooth muscle actin, and desmin. These findings strongly supported a diagnosis of MPNST primarily arising from the greater omentum. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of an MPNST arising from the greater omentum. In this report, we have described the case of a patient with an MPNST arising from the greater omentum and have discussed the clinical characteristics and management of MPNSTs.

  17. DOE occupational radiation exposure 2004 report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2004-12-31

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Corporate Performance Assessment (EH-3) publishes the annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report. This report is intended to be a valuable tool for DOE and DOE contractor managers and workers in managing radiological safety programs and to assist them in prioritizing resources. We appreciate the efforts and contributions from the various stakeholders within and outside DOE to make the report most useful. This report includes occupational radiation exposure information for all monitored DOE employees, contractors, and subcontractors, as well as members of the public. DOE is defined to include the National Nuclear Security Administration sites. The exposure information is analyzed in terms of aggregate data, dose to individuals, and dose by site. For the purposes of examining trends, data for the past 5 years are included in the analysis.

  18. DOE occupational radiation exposure 2003 report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2003-12-31

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Corporate Performance Assessment (EH-3) publishes the annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report. This report is intended to be a valuable tool for DOE and DOE contractor managers and workers in managing radiological safety programs and to assist them in prioritizing resources. We appreciate the efforts and contributions from the various stakeholders within and outside DOE to make the report most useful. This report includes occupational radiation exposure information for all monitored DOE employees, contractors, subcontractors, and members of the public. DOE is defined to include the National Nuclear Security Administration sites. The exposure information is analyzed in terms of aggregate data, dose to individuals, and dose by site. For the purposes of examining trends, data for the past 5 years are included in the analysis.

  19. DOE occupational radiation exposure 1998 report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    1998-12-31

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Environment, Safety and Health with support from Environment Safety and Health Technical Information Services publishes the DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report. This report is intended to be a valuable tool for DOE/DOE contractor managers in managing radiological safety programs and to assist them in prioritizing resources. We appreciate the efforts and contributions from the various stakeholders within and outside DOE and hope we have succeeded in making the report more useful. This report includes occupational radiation exposure information for all monitored DOE employees, contractors, subcontractors, and visitors. The exposure information is analyzed in terms of aggregate data, dose to individuals, and dose by site. For the purposes of examining trends, data for the past 5 years are included in the analysis.

  20. DOE occupational radiation exposure 2002 report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2002-12-31

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Corporate Performance Assessment (EH-3) publishes the annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report. This report is intended to be a valuable tool for DOE and DOE contractor managers and workers in managing radiological safety programs and to assist them in prioritizing resources. We appreciate the efforts and contributions from the various stakeholders within and outside DOE to make the report most useful. This report includes occupational radiation exposure information for all monitored DOE employees, contractors, subcontractors, and members of the public. The exposure information is analyzed in terms of aggregate data, dose to individuals, and dose by site. For the purposes of examining trends, data for the past 5 years are included in the analysis.

  1. DOE occupational radiation exposure 1999 report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    1999-12-31

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Safety and Health publishes the annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report. This report is intended to be a valuable tool for DOE and DOE contractor managers in managing radiological safety programs and to assist them in prioritizing resources. We appreciate the efforts and contributions from the various stakeholders within and outside DOE and hope we have succeeded in making the report more useful. This report includes occupational radiation exposure information for all monitored DOE employees, contractors, subcontractors, and visitors. The exposure information is analyzed in terms of aggregate data, dose to individuals, and dose by site. For the purposes of examining trends, data for the past 5 years are included in the analysis.

  2. DOE occupational radiation exposure 1997 report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    1997-12-31

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Environment, Safety and Health publishes the DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report. This report is intended to be a valuable tool for DOE/DOE contractor managers in managing radiological safety programs and to assist them in prioritizing resources. We appreciate the efforts and contributions from the various stakeholders within and outside DOE and hope we have succeeded in making the report more useful. This report includes occupational radiation exposure information for all monitored DOE employees, contractors, subcontractors, and visitors. The exposure information is analyzed in terms of aggregate data, dose to individuals, and dose by site. For the purposes of examining trends, data for the past 5 years are included in the analysis.

  3. DOE occupational radiation exposure 2002 report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2002-12-31

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Corporate Performance Assessment (EH-3) publishes the annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report. This report is intended to be a valuable tool for DOE and DOE contractor managers and workers in managing radiological safety programs and to assist them in prioritizing resources. We appreciate the efforts and contributions from the various stakeholders within and outside DOE to make the report most useful. This report includes occupational radiation exposure information for all monitored DOE employees, contractors, subcontractors, and members of the public. The exposure information is analyzed in terms of aggregate data, dose to individuals, and dose by site. For the purposes of examining trends, data for the past 5 years are included in the analysis.

  4. DOE occupational radiation exposure 1997 report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    1997-12-31

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Environment, Safety and Health publishes the DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report. This report is intended to be a valuable tool for DOE/DOE contractor managers in managing radiological safety programs and to assist them in prioritizing resources. We appreciate the efforts and contributions from the various stakeholders within and outside DOE and hope we have succeeded in making the report more useful. This report includes occupational radiation exposure information for all monitored DOE employees, contractors, subcontractors, and visitors. The exposure information is analyzed in terms of aggregate data, dose to individuals, and dose by site. For the purposes of examining trends, data for the past 5 years are included in the analysis.

  5. DOE occupational radiation exposure 2000 report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2000-12-31

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Safety and Health publishes the annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report. This report is intended to be a valuable tool for DOE and DOE contractor managers in managing radiological safety programs and to assist them in prioritizing resources. We appreciate the efforts and contributions from the various stakeholders within and outside DOE in making this report most useful to them. This report includes occupational radiation exposure information for all monitored DOE employees, contractors, subcontractors, and visitors. The exposure information is analyzed in terms of aggregate data, dose to individuals, and dose by site. For the purposes of examining trends, data for the past 5 years are included in the analysis.

  6. DOE occupational radiation exposure 1996 report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    1996-12-31

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Environment, Safety and Health publishes the DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report. This report is intended to be a valuable tool for DOE/DOE contractor managers in their management of radiological safety programs and to assist them in the prioritization of resources. We appreciate the efforts and contributions from the various stakeholders within and outside the DOE and hope we have succeeded in making the report more useful. This report includes occupational radiation exposure information for all DOE employees, contractors, subcontractors, and visitors. The exposure information is analyzed in terms of collective data, dose to individuals, and dose by site. For the purposes of examining trends, data for the past 5 years are included in the analysis.

  7. DOE occupational radiation exposure 1996 report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    The goal of the US Department of Energy (DOE) is to conduct its radiological operations to ensure the health and safety of all DOE employees including contractors and subcontractors. The DOE strives to maintain radiation exposures to its workers below administrative control levels and DOE limits and to further reduce these exposures and releases to levels that are ``As Low As Reasonably Achievable`` (ALARA). The DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report, 1996 provides summary and analysis of the occupational radiation exposure received by individuals associated with DOE activities. The DOE mission includes stewardship of the nuclear weapons stockpile and the associated facilities, environmental restoration of DOE and precursor agency sites, and energy research. Collective exposure at DOE has declined by 80% over the past decade due to a cessation in opportunities for exposure during the transition in DOE mission from weapons production to cleanup, deactivation and decommissioning, and changes in reporting requirements and dose calculation methodology. In 1996, the collective dose decreased by 10% from the 1995 value due to decreased doses at five of the seven highest-dose DOE sites. For 1996, these sites attributed the reduction in collective dose to the completion of several decontamination and decommissioning projects, reduced spent fuel storage activities, and effective ALARA practices. This report is intended to be a valuable tool for managers in their management of radiological safety programs and commitment of resources.

  8. DOE occupational radiation exposure 1996 report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    The goal of the US Department of Energy (DOE) is to conduct its radiological operations to ensure the health and safety of all DOE employees including contractors and subcontractors. The DOE strives to maintain radiation exposures to its workers below administrative control levels and DOE limits and to further reduce these exposures and releases to levels that are ``As Low As Reasonably Achievable`` (ALARA). The DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report, 1996 provides summary and analysis of the occupational radiation exposure received by individuals associated with DOE activities. The DOE mission includes stewardship of the nuclear weapons stockpile and the associated facilities, environmental restoration of DOE and precursor agency sites, and energy research. Collective exposure at DOE has declined by 80% over the past decade due to a cessation in opportunities for exposure during the transition in DOE mission from weapons production to cleanup, deactivation and decommissioning, and changes in reporting requirements and dose calculation methodology. In 1996, the collective dose decreased by 10% from the 1995 value due to decreased doses at five of the seven highest-dose DOE sites. For 1996, these sites attributed the reduction in collective dose to the completion of several decontamination and decommissioning projects, reduced spent fuel storage activities, and effective ALARA practices. This report is intended to be a valuable tool for managers in their management of radiological safety programs and commitment of resources.

  9. Variations in band reporting rate and implications for kill rate in Greater Snow Geese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillaume Souchay

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available We assessed spatial and temporal variation in reporting probability of banded Greater Snow Geese (Chen caerulescens atlantica shot by hunters in eastern North America and evaluated potential residual biases in kill rate estimation. Adult Greater Snow Geese were marked with reward (value: US$10, $20, $30, $50, and $100 and standard bands ($0, control in the Canadian Arctic from 2003 to 2005. We used a spatially explicit multinomial model based on 200 direct recoveries from 4256 banded geese to estimate reporting rate and harvest rate. We found that reporting rate for standard bands varied over time whereas harvest rate was higher in Canada than in the U.S. The reporting probability increased from 0.40 ± 0.11 in the first year of the study to 0.82 ± 0.14 and 0.84 ± 0.13 the second and third years, respectively. Overall, these reporting rates are higher than two previous estimates for this population, which leads to lower estimates of kill rate. However, the large annual differences in reporting rates found in this study lead to uncertainty in the estimation of kill rate. We suggest that the increase in reporting rate in the last two year of the study may be due to the dissemination of information among hunters regarding the presence of reward bands on birds, resulting in increased reporting rate for all bands. This raises issues about the need to adequately inform the public in such large-scale studies to avoid undesirable temporal trends over the course of the study.

  10. Hepatitis from Greater celandine (Chelidonium majus L.): review of literature and report of a new case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moro, Paola A; Cassetti, Federica; Giugliano, Gianni; Falce, Maria T; Mazzanti, Gabriela; Menniti-Ippolito, Francesca; Raschetti, Roberto; Santuccio, Carmela

    2009-07-15

    Folk medicine is a rich source of useful therapeutic tools. Nevertheless, use of medicinal plants can have unwanted, negative effects. By means of the description of an adverse reaction to a herbal remedy, we highlight the need for better efficacy-toxicity studies on these products. To report a case of possible Chelidonium majus L. (Greater celandine)-induced hepatitis and evaluate the past published cases. We outlined the main features of hepatitis associated with use of Chelidonium majus by providing a review of cases reported and analysing in detail a new one. Several cases of acute hepatitis related to Greater celandine consumption were found in the literature. The assessment for causality using Naranjo probability scale showed a probable relationship between the liver injury and the consumption of Chelidonium majus in the case we described. Our case, along with the other ones reported in the literature, increases the concern about the safety of oral use of Chelidonium majus. Plants used in traditional medicine are not necessarily harmless. Customers and prescribers should be aware of this, especially when a herbal drug is used with therapeutic purposes in absence of reliable studies of clinical efficacy and benefit-risk assessment.

  11. Childhood osteosarcoma of greater wing of sphenoid: case report and review of literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meel, Rachna; Thulkar, Sanjay; Sharma, Mehar Chand; Jagadesan, Pandjatcharan; Mohanti, Bidhu Kalyan; Sharma, Suresh Chandra; Bakhshi, Sameer

    2012-03-01

    Primary osteosarcoma of skull base is extremely rare. We present a case of primary osteosarcoma arising in greater wing of sphenoid in a child. Our patient had an incomplete excision after which he received adjuvant chemotherapy and radiotherapy. There was good response to adjuvant chemoradiotherapy and the patient is disease free at a follow-up of 18 months. Treatment of skull base osteosarcomas is difficult, as complete excision is often not possible. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of sphenoid wing osteosarcoma in childhood to be reported in literature.

  12. Suspected Greater Celandine hepatotoxicity: liver-specific causality evaluation of published case reports from Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teschke, Rolf; Glass, Xaver; Schulze, Johannes; Eickhoff, Axel

    2012-03-01

    In 21 published case reports, the use of the herb Greater Celandine (GC) (Chelidonium majus L.) has been causally related to liver injury, but a variety of confounding variables were evident that might have offset causality. This study reanalyses causality levels in these cases with a liver-specific causality evaluation method. All 21 cases were submitted to the liver-specific, standardized, structured, quantitative and updated scale of the Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences. This scale considers, among other items, latency period, course of alanine aminotransferase after treatment discontinuation, risk factors, comedication and alternative causes. Using this method for assessment, causality for GC was highly probable in two and probable in six cases, with lower causality grading in the remaining 13 cases. In these patients, causality for GC was possible in 10 cases and excluded in three cases. On the basis of the eight cases with highly probable and probable causality gradings, GC hepatotoxicity represents an idiosyncratic reaction of the metabolic type, whereas immunologic or obligatory hepatotoxic features are lacking. In some cases, alternative diagnoses and poor data quality were confounding variables that reduced causality levels. Confounding variables reduced causality levels for GC in reported cases of liver injury, but there is still striking evidence for herb-induced liver injury by GC with high causality gradings. GC hepatotoxicity is caused by an idiosyncratic reaction of the metabolic form, but there is uncertainty with respect to its culprit(s).

  13. Greater Confinement Disposal Test at the Nevada Test Site, Final Technology Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dickman, P. T.

    1989-01-01

    The Greater Confinement Disposal Test (GCDT) was conducted at the Nevada Test Site to demonstrate an alternative method for management of high-specific-activity (HSA) low-level waste (LLW). The GCDT was initially conceived as a method for managing small volumes of highly concentrated tritium wastes, which, due to their environmental mobiilty, are considered unsuitable for routine shallow land disposal. Later, the scope of the GCDT was increased to address a variety of other "problem" HSA wastes including isotope sources and thermal generating wastes. The basic design for the GCDT evolved from a series of studies and assessments. Operational design objectives were to (1) emplace the wastes at a depth sufficient to minimize or eliminate routine environmental transport mechanisms and instrusion scenarios and (2) provide sufficient protection for operations personnel in the handling of HSA sources. To achieve both objectives, a large diameter borehole was selected. The GCDT consisted of a borehole 3 meters (10 feet) in diameter and 36 meters (120 feet) deep, surrounded by nine monitoring holes at varying radii. The GCDT was instrumented for the measurement of temperature, moisture, and soil-gas content. Over one million curies of HSA LLW were emplaced in GCDT. This report reviews the development of the GCDT project and presents analyses of data collected.

  14. Adrenal Rest Tumor from the Greater Omentum Mimicking Exophytic Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HCC): A Case Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Hyung Jo; Kim, Seong Hoon; Shin, Hyun Woong [Daegu Fatima Hospital, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jae Bok [Catholic University of Daegu, Gyeongsan (Korea, Republic of); Jo, Hyun Chul; Son, Mi Young; Kim, Tae Bong [Daegu Veterans Hospital, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-02-15

    Adrenal rest tumors are aberrant adrenocortical tissue which has been most commonly described in abdominal and pelvic sites. To our knowledge, there has been no previous description of an adrenal rest tumor of the greater omentum. We present a case of a pathologically confirmed adrenal rest tumor of the greater omentum in a 76-year- old man

  15. Nesting ecology of greater white-fronted geese on the Nowitna National Wildlife Refuge: 1988 progress report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report covers the nesting ecology of greater white-fronted geese on the Nowitna National Wildlife Refuge. Aerial surveys to document spring phenology and...

  16. Case report 358: Desmoid tumor of the greater wing of the right sphenoid bone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crisi, G.; Calo, M.; Mauri, C.

    1986-03-01

    In summary, a case has been presented of a 26-year-old man who on admission showed a mild right proptosis and swelling of the right temple. Roentgenograms of the skull demonstrated loss of the right innominate line. CT studies after contrast demonstrated a sharply-demarcated, destructive area of the right greater sphenoid wing with an enhancing, spindle-shaped, soft tissue mass observed around the bony defect. Increased uptake was demonstrated on a radionuclide scan. The lesion was surgically removed and proved to be a desmoid. (orig./SHA).

  17. How report cards on physicians, physician groups, and hospitals can have greater impact on consumer choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinaiko, Anna D; Eastman, Diana; Rosenthal, Meredith B

    2012-03-01

    Public report cards with quality and cost information on physicians, physician groups, and hospital providers have proliferated in recent years. However, many of these report cards are difficult for consumers to interpret and have had little impact on the provider choices consumers are making. To gain a more focused understanding of why these reports cards have not been more successful and what improvements could be made, we interviewed experts and surveyed registrants at the March 2011 AHRQ National Summit on Public Reporting for Consumers in Health Care. We found broad agreement that public reporting has been disconnected from consumer decisions about providers because of weaknesses in report card content, design, and accessibility. Policy makers have an opportunity to change the landscape of public reporting by taking advantage of advances in measurement, data collection, and information technology to deliver a more consumer-centered report card. Overcoming the constraint of limited public funding, and achieving the acceptance of providers, is critical to realizing future success.

  18. Greater-Than-Class C Low-Level Radioactive Waste Transportation Strategy report and institutional plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmitt, R.C.; Tyacke, M.J.

    1995-01-01

    This document contains two parts. Part I, Greater-Than-Class-C Low-Level Radioactive Waste Transportation Strategy, addresses the requirements, responsibilities, and strategy to transport and receive these wastes. The strategy covers (a) transportation packaging, which includes shipping casks and waste containers; (b) transportation operations relating to the five facilities involved in transportation, i.e., waste originator, interim storage, dedicated storage, treatment, and disposal; (c) system safety and risk analysis; (d) routes; (e) emergency preparedness and response; and (o safeguards and security. A summary of strategic actions is provided at the conclusion of Part 1. Part II, Institutional Plan for Greater-Than-Class C Low-Level Radioactive Waste Packaging and Transportation, addresses the assumptions, requirements, and institutional plan elements and actions. As documented in the Strategy and Institutional Plan, the most challenging issues facing the GTCC LLW Program shipping campaign are institutional issues closely related to the strategy. How the Program addresses those issues and demonstrates to the states, local governments, and private citizens that the shipments can and will be made safely will strongly affect the success or failure of the campaign.

  19. Glucocorticoid augmentation of prolonged exposure therapy: rationale and case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Pratchett

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Rationale: Prolonged exposure (PE therapy has been found to reduce symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD; however, it is difficult for many patients to engage fully in the obligatory retelling of their traumatic experiences. This problem is compounded by the fact that habituation and cognitive restructuring – the main mechanisms through which PE is hypothesized to work – are not instantaneous processes, and often require several weeks before the distress associated with imaginal exposure abates. Case reports: Two cases are described that respectively illustrate the use of hydrocortisone and placebo, in combination with PE, for the treatment of combat-related PTSD. Based on known effects of glucocorticoids on learning and memory performance, we hypothesized that augmentation with hydrocortisone would improve the therapeutic effects of PE by hastening “new” learning and facilitating decreases in the emotional impact of fear memories during the course of treatment. The veteran receiving hydrocortisone augmentation of PE displayed an accelerated and ultimately greater decline in PTSD symptoms than the veteran receiving placebo. Conclusions: While no general conclusion can be derived from comparison of two patients, the findings are consistent with the rationale for augmentation. These case reports support the potential for an appropriately designed and powered clinical trial to examine the efficacy of glucocorticoids in augmenting the effects of psychotherapy for PTSD.

  20. Capillary haemangioma of the greater omentum in a 5-month-old female infant: a case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chateil, J.F. [Hopital Pellegrin, 33 - Bordeaux (France). Service de Neuro-Radiologie; Unite de Radiopediatrie, Hopital Pellegrin, Bordeaux (France); Saragne-Feuga, C.; Brun, M.; Diard, F. [Hopital Pellegrin, 33 - Bordeaux (France). Service de Neuro-Radiologie; Perel, Y. [Service de Pediatrie A, Hopital Pellegrin, Bordeaux (France); Neuenschwander, S. [Service de Radiologie, Institut Curie, Paris (France); Vergnes, P. [Service de Chirurgie Pediatrique, Hopital Pellegrin, Bordeaux (France)

    2000-12-01

    Capillary haemangiomas are frequent benign tumours in infancy. The authors report a case of capillary haemangioma of the greater omentum, discovered in a child of 5 months of age and studied with US, CT and MRI. The localization of such a lesion in the greater omentum is exceptional. Abdominal US revealed a heterogeneous, multinodular intraperitoneal mass. Doppler study demonstrated hypervascularity of the lesion. CT localized the mass to the greater omentum. The mass was hypodense on the unenhanced scan and enhanced massively after injection. The infant suffered a reaction to contrast medium during the CT. MRI demonstrated a mass which was hypointense on T1-weighted images and hyperintense on T2-weighted images. Laparotomy confirmed the location of the mass within the greater omentum and allowed resection of the tumour. (orig.)

  1. Child-Specific Exposure Scenarios Examples (Final Report)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Child-Specific Exposure Scenarios Examples (Final Report) is intended to be a companion document to the Exposure Factors Handbook (U.S. EPA 2011). The example scenarios were compiled from questions and inquiries received from users of the Exposure Factors Handbo...

  2. Herbal hepatotoxicity by Greater Celandine (Chelidonium majus): causality assessment of 22 spontaneous reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teschke, Rolf; Glass, Xaver; Schulze, Johannes

    2011-12-01

    Toxic liver injury due to the herb Greater Celandine (GC) (Chelidonium majus L.) has been assumed in patients originating from various European countries and created concern. Based on regulatory and liver unspecific ad hoc causality assessments in 22 spontaneous cases of Germany, causality levels for GC were considered probable in 16 and possible in 6 cases. We now analyzed the data of these 22 cases regarding their causality levels employing the liver specific, standardized, structured and quantitative assessment method of the updated scale of CIOMS (Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences). Causality for GC was found highly probable (n=2), probable (n=6), possible (n=10), unlikely (n=1), and excluded (n=3). Thus, causality could be upgraded in 2 cases to a highly probable causality level, but had to be down graded to excluded, unlikely, or possible causality levels in 3, 1, or 9 cases, respectively. GC hepatotoxicity shows a hepatocellular pattern of liver injury with female gender predominance. On average, age of the patients was 56.4 years, treatment 36.4 days, and latency period until first symptoms and jaundice 29.8 and 35.6 days, respectively. This analysis therefore provides further evidence for the existence of GC hepatotoxicity as a distinct form of herb induced liver injury, but due to poor data quality the causal association between GC use and liver injury is less strong than hitherto assumed. We propose replacement of the regulatory organ unspecific by a liver specific causality assessment method in cases of herb induced liver injury as well as stricter pharmacovigilance strategies towards improvements of data quality. Toxicological studies are now warranted to elucidate the mechanism(s) of human GC hepatotoxicity that represents a European issue. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. College students who have an eveningness preference report lower self-control and greater procrastination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Digdon, Nancy L; Howell, Andrew J

    2008-11-01

    Previous research suggests a possible link between eveningness and general difficulties with self-regulation (e.g., evening types are more likely than other chronotypes to have irregular sleep schedules and social rhythms and use substances). Our study investigated the relationship between eveningness and self-regulation by using two standardized measures of self-regulation: the Self-Control Scale and the Procrastination Scale. We predicted that an eveningness preference would be associated with poorer self-control and greater procrastination than would an intermediate or morningness preference. Participants were 308 psychology students (mean age=19.92 yrs) at a small Canadian college. Students completed the self-regulation questionnaires and Morningness/Eveningness Questionnaire (MEQ) online. The mean MEQ score was 46.69 (SD=8.20), which is intermediate between morningness and eveningness. MEQ scores ranged from definite morningness to definite eveningness, but the dispersion of scores was skewed toward more eveningness. Pearson and partial correlations (controlling for age) were used to assess the relationship between MEQ score and the Self-Control Scale (global score and 5 subscale scores) and Procrastination Scale (global score). All correlations were significant. The magnitude of the effects was medium for all measures except one of the Self-Control subscales, which was small. A multiple regression analysis to predict MEQ score using the Self-Control Scale (global score), Procrastination Scale, and age as predictors indicated the Self-Control Scale was a significant predictor (accounting for 20% of the variance). A multiple regression analysis to predict MEQ scores using the five subscales of the Self-Control Scale and age as predictors showed the subscales for reliability and work ethic were significant predictors (accounting for 33% of the variance). Our study showed a relationship between eveningness and low self-control, but it did not address whether the

  4. Greater Green River Basin production improvement project, Phase 1: Site characterization report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeJarnett, B.B.; Krystinik, L.F.; Mead, R.H.; Poe, S.C.

    1996-05-01

    Several tight, naturally-fractured, gas-productive formations in the Greater Green River Basin (GGRB) in Wyoming have been exploited using conventional vertical well technology. Typically, hydraulic fracture treatments must be performed in completing these wells to increase gas production rates to economic levels. However, with the maturation of horizontal drilling technology hydraulic fracture treatments may not be the most effective method for improving gas production from these tight reservoirs. Two of the most prolific tight gas reservoirs in the Green River Basin, the Frontier and the Mesaverde, are candidates for the application of horizontal well completion technology. The objective of the proposed project is to apply the DOE`s technical concept to the Second Frontier Formation on the western flank of the Rock Springs Uplift. Previous industry attempts to produce in commercial quantities from the Second Frontier Formation have been hampered by lack of understanding of both the in-situ natural fracture system and lack of adequate stimulation treatments. The proposed technical approach involves drilling a vertical characterization well to the Second Frontier Formation at a depth of approximately 16,000 ft. from a site located about 18 miles northwest of Rock Springs, Wyoming. Logging, coring, and well testing information from the vertical well will be used to design a hydraulic fracturing treatment and to assess the resulting production performance. Data from the vertical drilling phase will be used to design a 2,500 to 3,000-ft lateral wellbore which will be kicked off from the vertical hole and extend into the blanket marine sandstone bench of the Second Frontier Formation. The trajectory of this wellbore will be designed to intersect the maximum number of natural fractures to maximize production rates. Production testing of the resulting completion will provide an assessment of reserve potential related to horizontal lateral completions.

  5. Self-reported posttraumatic growth predicts greater subsequent posttraumatic stress amidst war and terrorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalta, Alyson K; Gerhart, James; Hall, Brian J; Rajan, Kumar B; Vechiu, Catalina; Canetti, Daphna; Hobfoll, Stevan E

    2017-03-01

    This study tested three alternative explanations for research indicating a positive, but heterogeneous relationship between self-reported posttraumatic growth (PTG) and posttraumatic stress symptoms (PSS): (a) the third-variable hypothesis that the relationship between PTG and PSS is a spurious one driven by positive relationships with resource loss, (b) the growth over time hypothesis that the relationship between PTG and PSS is initially a positive one, but becomes negative over time, and (c) the moderator hypothesis that resource loss moderates the relationship between PTG and PSS such that PTG is associated with lower levels of PSS as loss increases. A nationally representative sample (N = 1622) of Israelis was assessed at three time points during a period of ongoing violence. PTG, resource loss, and the interaction between PTG and loss were examined as lagged predictors of PSS to test the proposed hypotheses. Results were inconsistent with all three hypotheses, showing that PTG positively predicted subsequent PSS when accounting for main and interactive effects of loss. Our results suggest that self-reported PTG is a meaningful but counterintuitive predictor of poorer mental health following trauma.

  6. 76 FR 22648 - Resolution Plans and Credit Exposure Reports Required

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-22

    ... Banking Act and that have at least $50 billion in worldwide assets to prepare resolution plans and credit... credit exposure report requirements of the Dodd-Frank Act with respect to foreign banking organizations... Resolution Plans and Credit Exposure Reports Required AGENCIES: Board of Governors of the Federal...

  7. Trypanosoma evansi in dromedary camel: with a case report of zoonosis in greater Cairo, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haridy, Fouad M; El-Metwally, Mohamed Tolba; Khalil, Hazem H M; Morsy, Tosson A

    2011-04-01

    Trypanosoma evansi (Steel, 1885) Balbiani, is the cause of trypanosomiasis (Surra) which multiples in the blood and body fluids. The incubation period varies from 7-15 days. The mortality rate was up to 20% and fatality rate may reach up to 100% in untreated camels. Three hundred randomly selected camels were 200 males 4-6 years old and 100 females 10-15 years. They were examined clinically and diagnosed by Giemsa stained blood smear, anti- trypanosomiasis-antibodies by ELISA and urine Thymol turbidity test for natural infection with T. evani (Surra). The results showed that camels were naturally infected with T. evansi as indicated by stained blood film examination and/or ELISA. Infection in males was 6.0% (stained blood smears), 8.0% (ELISA) and 5.0% (urine thymol turbidity test). In females the infection rate was 9.0%, 24.0% and 12% respectively. By correlation with suggestive clinical manifestations, ELISA proved to be more sensitive and specific (13.3%) than stained blood films (10.0%) and urine Thymol turbidity test (7.3%). Regarding humans, one out of 30 was positive as indicated by ELISA and stained blood smear but was negative by urine thymol turbidity test. The human case was successfully treated as indicated clinically, parasitologically and serologically. This is the first reported Egyptian human case of trypanosomiasis evansi, a neglected zoonosis.

  8. Assessing agreement of self-reported and observed physical exposures of the upper extremity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale, Ann Marie; Strickland, Jaime; Gardner, Bethany; Symanzik, Juergen; Evanoff, Bradley Allen

    2010-01-01

    Assessment of workplace physical exposures by self-reported questionnaires has logistical advantages in population studies, but is subject to exposure misclassification. This study measured agreement between eight self-reported and observer-rated physical exposures to the hands and wrists, and evaluated predictors of intermethod agreement. Workers (n = 341) from three occupational categories (clerical/technical, construction, and service) completed self-administered questionnaires and worksite assessments. Analyses compared self-reported and observed ratings using a weighted kappa coefficient. Personal and psychosocial factors, presence of upper extremity symptoms, andjob type were evaluated as predictors of agreement. Weighted kappa values were substantial for lifting (0.67) and holding vibrating tools (0.61), moderate for forceful grip (0.58), and fair to poor for all other exposures. Upper extremity symptoms did not predict greater disagreement between self-reported and observed exposures. Occupational category was the only significant predictor of inter-method agreement. Self-reported exposures may provide a useful estimate of some work exposures for population studies.

  9. Transplacental isopropanol exposure: case report and review of metabolic principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, J N; Carney, J; Szczepanski, K; Calello, D P; Hurt, H

    2007-03-01

    Isopropanol, a known central nervous system depressant has been reported to cause toxicity via multiple routes including ingestion, inhalation and dermal exposure. We present a case of transplacental isopropanol exposure in a neonate. A woman reported polysubstance abuse in the 1 to 2 days before precipitously delivering a newborn infant. The neonate developed hypotension, hypotonia and seizure activity within the first few hours of life. Blood samples from the infant revealed toxic levels of isopropanol. Similar symptoms have been reported in infants with isopropanol toxicity from other routes of exposure.

  10. Social and institutional evaluation report for Greater-Than-Class C Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, T.L.; Lewis, B.E.; Turner, K.H.; Rozelle, M.A. [Dames and Moore, Denver, CO (United States)

    1993-10-01

    This report identifies and characterizes social and institutional issues that would be relevant to the siting, licensing, construction, closure, and postclosure of a Greater-Than-Class-C low-level radioactive waste (GTCC LLW) disposal facility. A historical perspective of high-level radioactive waste (HLW) and LLW disposal programs is provided as an overview of radioactive waste disposal and to support the recommendations and conclusions in the report. A characterization of each issue is provided to establish the basis for further evaluations. Where applicable, the regulatory requirements of 10 CFR 60 and 61 are incorporated in the issue characterizations. The issues are used to compare surface, intermediate depth, and deep geologic disposal alternatives. The evaluation establishes that social and institutional issues do not significantly discriminate among the disposal alternatives. Recommendations are provided for methods by which the issues could be considered throughout the lifecycle of a GTCC LLW disposal program.

  11. Waste Management Facilities Cost Information report for Greater-Than-Class C and DOE equivalent special case waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feizollahi, F.; Shropshire, D.

    1993-07-01

    This Waste Management Facility Cost Information (WMFCI) report for Greater-Than-Class C low-level waste (GTCC LLW) and DOE equivalent special case waste contains preconceptual designs and planning level life-cycle cost (PLCC) estimates for treatment, storage, and disposal facilities needed for management of GTCC LLW and DOE equivalent waste. The report contains information on 16 facilities (referred to as cost modules). These facilities are treatment facility front-end and back-end support functions (administration support, and receiving, preparation, and shipping cost modules); seven treatment concepts (incineration, metal melting, shredding/compaction, solidification, vitrification, metal sizing and decontamination, and wet/air oxidation cost modules); two storage concepts (enclosed vault and silo); disposal facility front-end functions (disposal receiving and inspection cost module); and four disposal concepts (shallow-land, engineered shallow-land, intermediate depth, and deep geological cost modules). Data in this report allow the user to develop PLCC estimates for various waste management options. A procedure to guide the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and its contractor personnel in the use of estimating data is also included in this report.

  12. Overview of DOE Radiation Exposure Information Reporting System (REIRS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fix, J.J.; Briscoe, G.J.; Selby, J.M.; Vallario, E.J.

    1981-05-01

    The purpose of the study is to determine the adequacy of the present system, identify any necessary short-term improvements and propose feasible alternatives for an improved system. The study includes topical reports as follows: current Personnel Dosimetry Practices at DOE Facilities; overview of DOE Radiation Exposure Information Reporting System (REIRS); and alternatives to Provide Upgraded Occupational Exposure Record System. This study constitutes the second report and was a joint effort between Battelle Northwest and EG and G, Idaho Falls. EG and G has been responsible for the respository since the fall of 1978.

  13. Adults with Greater Weight Satisfaction Report More Positive Health Behaviors and Have Better Health Status Regardless of BMI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine E. Blake

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Prior studies suggest that weight satisfaction may preclude changes in behavior that lead to healthier weight among individuals who are overweight or obese. Objective. To gain a better understanding of complex relationships between weight satisfaction, weight-related health behaviors, and health outcomes. Design. Cross-sectional analysis of data from the Aerobics Center Longitudinal Study (ACLS. Participants. Large mixed-gender cohort of primarily white, middle-to-upper socioeconomic status (SES adults with baseline examination between 1987 and 2002 (n=19,003. Main Outcome Variables. Weight satisfaction, weight-related health behaviors, chronic health conditions, and clinical health indicators. Statistical Analyses Performed. Chi-square test, t-tests, and linear and multivariate logistic regression. Results. Compared to men, women were more likely to be dieting (32% women; 18% men and had higher weight dissatisfaction. Men and women with greater weight dissatisfaction reported more dieting, yo-yo dieting, and snacking and consuming fewer meals, being less active, and having to eat either more or less than desired to maintain weight regardless of weight status. Those who were overweight or obese and dissatisfied with their weight had the poorest health. Conclusion. Greater satisfaction with one’s weight was associated with positive health behaviors and health outcomes in both men and women and across weight status groups.

  14. Greater Caribbean Energy and Environment Future. Ad hoc working group report, Key Biscayne, Florida, October 26-28, 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thorhaug, A. (ed.)

    1980-01-01

    This report of Workshop I (presented in outline form) by the Greater Caribbean Energy and Environment Foundation begin an intensive focus on the energy problems of the Caribbean. The process by which environmental assessments by tropical experts can be successfully integrated into energy decisions is by: (1) international loan institutions requiring or strongly recommending excellent assessments; (2) engineering awareness of total effects of energy projects; (3) governmental environmental consciousness-raising with regard to natural resource value and potential inadvertent and unnecessary resource losses during energy development; and (4) media participation. Section headings in the outline are: preamble; introduction; research tasks: today and twenty years hence; needed research, demonstration and information dissemination projects to get knowledge about Caribbean energy-environment used; summary; recommendations; generalized conclusions; and background literature. (JGB)

  15. Time-Course Reduction in Patient Exposure to Radiation From Coronary Interventional Procedures: The Greater Paris Area Percutaneous Coronary Intervention Registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georges, Jean-Louis; Karam, Nicole; Tafflet, Muriel; Livarek, Bernard; Bataille, Sophie; Loyeau, Aurélie; Mapouata, Mireille; Benamer, Hakim; Caussin, Christophe; Garot, Philippe; Varenne, Olivier; Barbou, Franck; Teiger, Emmanuel; Funck, François; Karrillon, Gaëtan; Lambert, Yves; Spaulding, Christian; Jouven, Xavier

    2017-08-01

    The frequency of complex percutaneous coronary interventions (PCIs) has increased in the last few years, with a growing concern on the radiation dose received by the patients. Multicenter data from large unselected populations on patients' radiation doses during coronary angiography (CA) and PCI and temporal trends are lacking. This study sought to evaluate the temporal trends in patients' exposure to radiation from CA and PCI. Data were taken from the CARDIO-ARSIF registry that prospectively collects data on all CAs and PCIs performed in the 36 catheterization laboratories in the Greater Paris Area, the most populated regions in France with about 12 million inhabitants. Kerma area product and Fluoroscopy time from 152 684 consecutive CAs and 103 177 PCIs performed between 2009 and 2013 were analyzed. A continuous trend for a decrease in median [interquartile range] Kerma area product was observed, from 33 [19-55] Gy cm(2) in 2009 to 27 [16-44] Gy cm(2) in 2013 for CA (P<0.0001), and from 73 [41-125] to 55 [31-91] Gy cm(2) for PCI (P<0.0001). Time-course differences in Kerma area product remained highly significant after adjustment on Fluoroscopy time, PCI procedure complexity, change of x-ray equipment, and other patient- and procedure-related covariates. In a large patient population, a steady temporal decrease in patient radiation exposure during CA and PCI was noted between 2009 and 2013. Kerma area product reduction was consistent in all types of procedure and was independent of patient-related factors and PCI procedure complexity. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  16. New reports, phylogenetic analysis, and a key to Lactarius Pers. in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem informed by molecular data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward G. Barge

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem (GYE, located in the Central Rocky Mountains of western North America, is one of the largest nearly intact temperate-zone ecosystems on Earth. Here, Lactarius is an important component of ectomycorrhizal communities in many habitat types, from low elevation riparian areas to high elevation conifer forests and alpine tundra. Molecular phylogenetic analyses of ITS and RPB2 gene sequences along with detailed morphological examination confirm at least 20 Lactarius species, as well as three varieties, and one unresolved species group in the GYE. Eight taxa are reported from the GYE for the first time, and nearly every major ectomycorrhizal host plant in the GYE appears to have at least one Lactarius species associated with it. Broad intercontinental distributions are suggested for alpine Salix and Betula associates, and for certain subalpine Picea and aspen (Populus spp. associates. Some species appear to be restricted to western North America with Pinus, Pseudotsuga or Abies. The distribution and/or host affinities of others is not clear due in part to ambiguous host assignment, taxonomic problems or the relative rarity with which they have been reported.

  17. Young adult cannabis users report greater propensity for risk-taking only in non-monetary domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilman, Jodi M; Calderon, Vanessa; Curran, Max T; Evins, A Eden

    2015-02-01

    Though substance use is often associated with elevated risk-taking in real-world scenarios, many risk-taking tasks in experimental psychology using financial gambles fail to find significant differences between individuals with substance use disorders and healthy controls. We assessed whether participants using marijuana would show a greater propensity for risk-taking in distinct domains including, but not limited to, financial risk-taking. In the current study, we assessed risk-taking in young adult (age 18-25) regular marijuana users and in non-using control participants using a domain-specific risk-taking self-report scale (DOSPERT) encompassing five domains of risk-taking (social, financial, recreational, health/safety, and ethical). We also measured behavioral risk-taking using a laboratory monetary risk-taking task. Marijuana users and controls reported significant differences on the social, health/safety, and ethical risk-taking scales, but no differences in the propensity to take recreational or financial risks. Complementing the self-report finding, there were no differences between marijuana users and controls in their performance on the laboratory risk-taking task. These findings suggest that financial risk-taking may be less sensitive than other domains of risk-taking in assessing differences in risky behavior between those who use marijuana and those who do not. In order to more consistently determine whether increased risk-taking is a factor in substance use, it may be necessary to use both monetary risk-taking tasks and complementary assessments of non-monetary-based risk-taking measures. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Ecology of Greater Sage-Grouse in the Bi-State Planning Area Final Report, September 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casazza, Michael L.; Overton, Cory T.; Farinha, Melissa A.; Torregrosa, Alicia; Fleskes, Joseph P.; Miller, Michael R.; Sedinger, James S.; Kolada, Eric J.

    2009-01-01

    Conservation efforts for greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus), hereafter sage-grouse, are underway across the range of this species. Over 70 local working groups have been established and are implementing on-the-ground sage-grouse oriented conservation projects. Early on in this process, the California Department of Fish and Game (CDFG) recognized the need to join in these efforts and received funding from the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) under the Candidate Species Conservation Program to help develop a species conservation plan for sage-grouse in the Mono County area. This conservation plan covers portions of Alpine, Mono, and Inyo counties in California and Douglas, Esmeralda, Lyon, and Mineral counties in Nevada. A concurrent effort underway through the Nevada Governor's Sage-grouse Conservation Team established Local Area Working Groups across Nevada and eastern California. The Mono County populations of sage-grouse were encompassed by the Bi-State Local Planning Area, which was comprised of six population management units (PMUs). The state agencies from California (CDFG) and Nevada (Nevada Department of Wildlife; NDOW) responsible for the management of sage-grouse agreed to utilize the process that had begun with the Nevada Governor's Team in order to develop local plans for conservation planning and implementation. Resources from the USFWS were applied to several objectives in support of the development of the Bi-State Local Area Sage-grouse Conservation Plan through a grant to the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). Objectives included: (1) participate in the development of the Bi-State Conservation Plan, (2) compile and synthesize existing sage-grouse data, (3) document seasonal movements of sage-grouse, (4) identify habitats critical to sage-grouse, (5) determine survival rates and identify causal factors of mortality, (6) determine nest success and brood success of sage-grouse, and (7) identify sage-grouse lek sites. Progress reports

  19. Towards a greater understanding of the illicit tobacco trade in Europe: a review of the PMI funded 'Project Star' report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmore, Anna B; Rowell, Andy; Gallus, Silvano; Lugo, Alessandra; Joossens, Luk; Sims, Michelle

    2014-05-01

    Following a legal agreement with the European Union (EU), Philip Morris International (PMI) commissions a yearly report ('Project Star', PS) on the European illicit cigarette trade from KPMG, the global accountancy firm. Review of PS 2010 report. Comparison with data from independent sources including a 2010 pan-European survey (N=18,056). Within PS, data covering all 27 EU countries are entered into a model. While the model itself seems appropriate, concerns are identified with the methodologies underlying the data inputs and thus their quality: there is little transparency over methodologies; interview data underestimate legal non-domestic product partly by failing to account for legal cross-border sales; illicit cigarette estimates rely on tobacco industry empty pack surveys which may overestimate illicit; and there is an over-reliance on data supplied by PMI with inadequate external validation. Thus, PMI sales data are validated using PMI smoking prevalence estimates, yet PMI is unable to provide sales (shipment) data for the Greek islands and its prevalence estimates differ grossly from independent data. Consequently, comparisons with independent data suggest PS will tend to overestimate illicit cigarette levels particularly where cross-border shopping is frequent (Austria, Finland, France) and in Western compared with Eastern European countries. The model also provides data on the nature of the illicit cigarette market independent of seizure data suggesting that almost a quarter of the illicit cigarette market in 2010 comprised PMI's own brands compared with just 5% counterfeited PMI brands; a finding hidden in PMI's public representation of the data. PS overestimates illicit cigarette levels in some European countries and suggests PMI's supply chain control is inadequate. Its publication serves the interests of PMI over those of the EU and its member states. PS requires greater transparency, external scrutiny and use of independent data. Published by the BMJ

  20. Minimizing Surface Exposure to Climate Extremity in Coastal Megacities by Structure Remodelling using Integral Geographic Information System: Lessons from Greater Mumbai Metropolitan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, A.

    2016-12-01

    Coastal metropolitans in South Asia represent the most densely populated and congested urban spaces ranking among the largest urban settlements of the planet. These megacities are characterized by inadequate infrastructure, lack of mitigation tools, and weak resilience of urban ecosystems. Additionally, climate change has increased vulnerability of poor and marginalized population living in rapidly growing coastal megacities to increased frequency, severity and intensity of extreme weather events. This has adversely affected local counter strategies and adaptation tools, transforming such events into hazards with the inability to respond and mitigate. Study aimed to develop a participatory framework for risk reduction in Greater Mumbai Metropolitan by Structure Remodeling (SR) in integral GIS. Research utilized terrain analysis tools and vulnerability mapping, and identified risk susceptible fabric and checked its scope for SR without: 1.adding to its (often) complex fragmentation, and 2.without interference with the ecosystem services accommodated by it. Surfaces available included paved ground, streetscapes commercial facades, rooftops,public spaces, open as well as dark spaces. Remodeling altered certain characteristics in the intrinsic or extrinsic cross-section profile or in both (if suitable) with infrastructure measures (grey, green, blue) that collectively involved ecosystem services and maintained natural hydrological connection. This method fairly reduced exposure of vulnerable surface and minimized risk to achieve extremity-neutral state. Harmonizing with public perception and incorporating priorities of local authorities, the method is significant as it rises above the fundamental challenges arising during management of (often) conflicting perspectives and interests of multiplicity of stakeholders involved at various levels in urban climate governance while ensuring inclusive solutions with reduced vulnerability and increased resilience. Additionally

  1. Cholinesterase and self-reported pesticide exposure among pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Peyster, A; Willis, W O; Molgaard, C A; MacKendrick, T M; Walker, C

    1993-01-01

    Ascertainment of exposure to cholinesterase-inhibiting pesticides in pregnant subjects is complicated by altered enzyme activity that results from metabolic changes associated with pregnancy. Nevertheless, this study found a high correlation (Pearson chi-square = 13.67, p = .008) between classification of pesticide exposure using self-reported interview information and plasma cholinesterase activity for 203 pregnant women for whom three trimester cholinesterase values were available. All plasma cholinesterase activity values were referenced, by trimester, to a larger sample of 1,050 plasma cholinesterase values from 535 pregnant women. Subjects who lived nearest to agricultural land and who reported that they worked with pesticides in agricultural and other occupations tended to have lower plasma cholinesterase activity than those who reported use of household pesticides only.

  2. Biodentine pulpotomy several days after pulp exposure: Four case reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borkar, Swati A; Ataide, Ida

    2015-01-01

    Conventionally, few-days-old pulp exposures have been treated with root canal treatment. We report four cases of traumatized, fully matured, maxillary permanent central incisors, which have been treated by Biodentine pulpotomy several days after traumatic pulp exposure. Biodentine pulpotomy consisted of pulp tissue removal to a depth of 2 mm, then capping the pulpal wound with Biodentine, followed by immediate restoration. The teeth were assessed clinically through pulpal sensitivity tests and radiographically for periapical healing. At each recall (24 hours, 1 week, 30 days, 3, 6, 12, and 18 months), no spontaneous pain was observed; the pulp showed signs of vitality and absence of periapical radiolucency after 18 months. Biodentine pulpotomy is recommended as a treatment option for cases of vital pulp exposure in permanent incisors due to trauma.

  3. Biodentine pulpotomy several days after pulp exposure: Four case reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borkar, Swati A.; Ataide, Ida

    2015-01-01

    Conventionally, few-days-old pulp exposures have been treated with root canal treatment. We report four cases of traumatized, fully matured, maxillary permanent central incisors, which have been treated by Biodentine pulpotomy several days after traumatic pulp exposure. Biodentine pulpotomy consisted of pulp tissue removal to a depth of 2 mm, then capping the pulpal wound with Biodentine, followed by immediate restoration. The teeth were assessed clinically through pulpal sensitivity tests and radiographically for periapical healing. At each recall (24 hours, 1 week, 30 days, 3, 6, 12, and 18 months), no spontaneous pain was observed; the pulp showed signs of vitality and absence of periapical radiolucency after 18 months. Biodentine pulpotomy is recommended as a treatment option for cases of vital pulp exposure in permanent incisors due to trauma. PMID:25657533

  4. Biodentine pulpotomy several days after pulp exposure: Four case reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swati A Borkar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Conventionally, few-days-old pulp exposures have been treated with root canal treatment. We report four cases of traumatized, fully matured, maxillary permanent central incisors, which have been treated by Biodentine pulpotomy several days after traumatic pulp exposure. Biodentine pulpotomy consisted of pulp tissue removal to a depth of 2 mm, then capping the pulpal wound with Biodentine, followed by immediate restoration. The teeth were assessed clinically through pulpal sensitivity tests and radiographically for periapical healing. At each recall (24 hours, 1 week, 30 days, 3, 6, 12, and 18 months, no spontaneous pain was observed; the pulp showed signs of vitality and absence of periapical radiolucency after 18 months. Biodentine pulpotomy is recommended as a treatment option for cases of vital pulp exposure in permanent incisors due to trauma.

  5. Progress report 1988: predator control to enhance production of Greater Sandhill Cranes on Malheur National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The nesting population of greater sandhill cranes on Malheur National Wildlife Refuge, Oregon has declined from 181 pairs in 1986 when predator control began to 137...

  6. Progress report 1989: predator control to enhance the production of Greater Sandhill Cranes on Malheur National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The nesting population of greater sandhill cranes on Malheur National Wildlife Refuge, Oregon has declined from 236 pairs in 1971 to 181 pairs in 1986 when predator...

  7. Progress report 1987: predator control to enhance the production of Greater Sandhill Cranes on Malheur National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The nesting population of greater sandhill cranes on Malheur National Wildlife Refuge, Oregon has declined from 236 pairs in 1971 to 181 pairs in 1986. Nesting...

  8. Progress Report 1986 : Predator Control to Enhance the Production of Greater Sandhill Cranes on Malheur National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The nesting population of greater sandhill cranes on Malheur National Wildlife Refuge, Oregon has declined from 236 pairs in 1971 to 181 pairs in 1986. Nesting...

  9. Progress report 1991: predator control to enhance the production of greater Sandhill Cranes on Malheur National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The nesting population of greater sandhill cranes on Malheur National Wildlife Refuge, Oregon had declined from 236 pairs in 1971 to 181 pairs in 1986 when predator...

  10. Progress Report 1990: predator control to enhance the production of Greater Sandhill Cranes on Malheur National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The nesting population of greater sandhill cranes on Malheur National Wildlife Refuge, Oregon had declined from 236 pairs in 1971 to 181 pairs in 1986 when predator...

  11. Caregiver-reports of Internet Exposure and Posttraumatic Stress Among Boston-Area Youth Following the 2013 Marathon Bombing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comer, Jonathan S.; DeSerisy, Mariah; Green, Jennifer Greif

    2017-01-01

    Although practitioners and researchers have considered children’s television-based terrorism exposure, Internet-based exposure has not been sufficiently examined. We examined the scope and correlates of children’s Internet-based exposure following the Boston Marathon bombing among Boston-area youth (N=460; 4–19 years), and the potential moderating role of age. Further exploratory analyses examined patterns of caregiver attempts to regulate child Internet exposure. Caregivers reported on child Internet-based and direct exposure to traumatic bombing-related events, and youth posttraumatic stress (PTS). Online youth consumed on average over two daily hours of Internet coverage, and roughly one-third consumed over three daily hours of coverage. Internet exposure was particularly high among children over 12. Greater Internet-based exposure was associated with PTS, and 12–15 year olds were particularly vulnerable. Further exploratory analyses found that although most caregivers reported believing media exposure can cause children further trauma, a considerable proportion of caregivers made no attempt to restrict or regulate their child’s Internet-based exposure. These findings help practitioners clarify forms of indirect exposure that can place youth at risk following terrorism. Future work is needed to examine the important roles caregivers play as media regulators and as promoters of child coping and media literacy following terrorism. PMID:28770253

  12. Case Report: Anteromedial temporosphenoidal encephalocele with a clinically silent lateral bony defect in the greater wing of the sphenoid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pandey Anoop

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Anteromedial temporosphenoidal encephalocele is the least common type of temporal encephalocele. It commonly presents with spontaneous cerebrospinal fluid rhinorrhea in adults. This article presents the CT cisternography and MRI findings of one such case, which also had an associated clinically silent defect in the greater wing of the sphenoid on the same side.

  13. Reporting individual results for biomonitoring and environmental exposures: lessons learned from environmental communication case studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brody, Julia Green; Dunagan, Sarah C; Morello-Frosch, Rachel; Brown, Phil; Patton, Sharyle; Rudel, Ruthann A

    2014-05-26

    Measurement methods for chemicals in biological and personal environmental samples have expanded rapidly and become a cornerstone of health studies and public health surveillance. These measurements raise questions about whether and how to report individual results to study participants, particularly when health effects and exposure reduction strategies are uncertain. In an era of greater public participation and open disclosure in science, researchers and institutional review boards (IRBs) need new guidance on changing norms and best practices. Drawing on the experiences of researchers, IRBs, and study participants, we discuss ethical frameworks, effective methods, and outcomes in studies that have reported personal results for a wide range of environmental chemicals. Belmont Report principles and community-based participatory research ethics imply responsibilities to report individual results, and several recent biomonitoring guidance documents call for individual reports. Meaningful report-back includes contextual information about health implications and exposure reduction strategies. Both narrative and graphs are helpful. Graphs comparing an individual's results with other participants in the study and benchmarks, such as the National Exposure Report, are helpful, but must be used carefully to avoid incorrect inferences that higher results are necessarily harmful or lower results are safe. Methods can be tailored for specific settings by involving participants and community members in planning. Participants and researchers who have participated in report-back identified benefits: increasing trust in science, retention in cohort studies, environmental health literacy, individual and community empowerment, and motivation to reduce exposures. Researchers as well as participants gained unexpected insights into the characteristics and sources of environmental contamination. Participants are almost universally eager to receive their results and do not regret getting

  14. Longitudinal Study of Maternal Report of Sleep Problems in Children with Prenatal Exposure to Cocaine and Other Drugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Kristen C.; High, Pamela C.; Miller-Loncar, Cynthia L.; LaGasse, Linda L.; Lester, Barry M.

    2009-01-01

    Sleep data were collected by maternal report in a prospective longitudinal follow-up of cocaine exposed and unexposed children. There were 139 subjects: 23 with no prenatal drug exposure, 55 exposed to cocaine alone or in combination with other drugs, and 61 exposed to drugs other than cocaine. Characteristics differed between exposure groups, including birth size, caretaker changes, and maternal SES and postnatal drug use. Compared to those with no drug exposure, children with prenatal drug exposure other than cocaine experienced greater sleep problems (mean [SD], 5 [4.93] vs 7.7 [4.85], p = .026). Prenatal nicotine exposure was a unique predictor of sleep problems (R2 = .028, p = .048). Early sleep problems predicted later sleep problems (all p’s <.01). Together, these preliminary findings suggest possible neurotoxic sleep effects that persist over time. Larger studies, however, need to be conducted that better control for potential postnatal confounding factors. PMID:19787489

  15. Longitudinal study of maternal report of sleep problems in children with prenatal exposure to cocaine and other drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Kristen C; High, Pamela C; Miller-Loncar, Cynthia L; Lagasse, Linda L; Lester, Barry M

    2009-01-01

    Sleep data were collected by maternal report in a prospective longitudinal follow up of cocaine-exposed and unexposed children. There were 139 participants: 23 with no prenatal drug exposure, 55 exposed to cocaine alone or in combination with other drugs, and 61 exposed to drugs other than cocaine. Characteristics differed between exposure groups including birth size, caretaker changes, maternal socioeconomic status, and postnatal drug use. Compared to those with no drug exposure, children with prenatal drug exposure other than cocaine experienced greater sleep problems (p = .026). Prenatal nicotine exposure was a unique predictor of sleep problems (p = .048). Early sleep problems predicted later sleep problems (all ps effects that persist over time. Larger studies, however, need to be conducted that better control for potential postnatal confounding factors.

  16. Complicated sternal dehiscence treated with the strasbourg thoracic osteosyntheses system (STRATOS and the transposition of greater omentum: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casablanca Giuseppe

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Sternal dehiscence is a serious complication after cardiac surgery. Sternal refixation, performed by simple rewiring or techniqual modification of rewiring as described by Robicsek, can fail, overall when the bone quality is poor or the sternum is completely destroyed. The sternal closure systems, consisting of plates, screws or rib clips and titanium bars, have been recently introduced to treat the complicated sternal dehiscence. We describe for the first time the use of the Strasbourg Thoracic Osteosyntheses System (STRATOS and the greater omentum, to treat a complicated sternal dehiscence, causing chest pain and respiratory failure.

  17. 75 FR 52355 - Draft National Conversation on Public Health and Chemical Exposures Work Group Reports...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-25

    ... Prevention Draft National Conversation on Public Health and Chemical Exposures Work Group Reports... exposures. This notice announces the availability of draft National Conversation work group reports for... National Conversation Leadership Council and facilitating the work group process. DATES: Draft work...

  18. Summary of worldwide pediatric malignancies reported after exposure to etanercept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chernyukhin Nataliya

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Concerns have been raised about a potential link between the use of TNF inhibitors and development of malignancy in the pediatric population. We examined the worldwide experience of etanercept use in pediatric patients and the occurrence of malignancies as reported from clinical trials, registry studies, post-marketing surveillance, and published scientific literature. Methods All reports of "malignancy" in pediatric patients (including subjects who received etanercept before age 18 and developed a malignancy before age 22 were collected from the etanercept clinical trials database and global safety database using the Medical Dictionary for Regulatory Activities (MedDRA; v12.0 standardized MedDRA query "Malignancies" from 1998 to August 2009. Cases were collected irrespective of treatment indication. All cases were included regardless of exposure to other TNF blockers or other biologics and whether the other exposure was before or after etanercept. Results A total of 18 potential malignancies were identified: 4 leukemias, 7 lymphomas, and 7 solid tumors. Three of the 18 malignancies remain unconfirmed. No malignancies were reported from clinical trials or the open-label extension studies in any indication in children. Conclusion The data suggest that there does not appear to be an increased risk of malignancy overall with the use of etanercept. Among etanercept-exposed patients aged 4 to 17 years, the estimated worldwide and US reporting rates for lymphoma were approximately 0.01 per 100 patient-years (1 in 10,000 pt-yrs. While the reported rate of lymphoma is higher in pediatric patients treated with etanercept than in normal children, the expected rate of lymphoma in biologic naïve JIA patients is currently unknown. The risk of TNF inhibitors in the development of malignancies in children and adolescents is difficult to assess because of the rarity of malignant events, the absence of knowledge of underlying frequency of

  19. IMPLICATIONS OF THE CURRENT EXPOSURE DRAFT ON AUDIT REPORTING

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    George Silviu CORDOȘ

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The regulatory changes come as a response to perceived deficiencies in the postfinancial crisis, and their goal is to improve users' perception of the usefulness and quality of the audit report. The article approaches the subject of these proposals to revise the standards and their implications for the audit report. The article is divided into five parts: the first part the authors present a brief introduction to the subject matter; the second part presents the research methodology; the third part the authors present a review of the literature research; the fourth section presents an analysis of the responses of EU respondents to the Exposure Draft issued by the IAASB in July 2013 and the last part the authors present research findings, limitations and perspectives.

  20. Virtual Reality Exposure Therapy Using a Virtual Iraq: Case Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerardi, Maryrose; Rothbaum, Barbara Olasov; Ressler, Kerry; Heekin, Mary; Rizzo, Albert

    2013-01-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has been estimated to affect up to 18% of returning Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF) veterans. Soldiers need to maintain constant vigilance to deal with unpredictable threats, and an unprecedented number of soldiers are surviving serious wounds. These risk factors are significant for development of PTSD; therefore, early and efficient intervention options must be identified and presented in a form acceptable to military personnel. This case report presents the results of treatment utilizing virtual reality exposure (VRE) therapy (virtual Iraq) to treat an OIF veteran with PTSD. Following brief VRE treatment, the veteran demonstrated improvement in PTSD symptoms as indicated by clinically and statistically significant changes in scores on the Clinician Administered PTSD Scale (CAPS; Blake et al., 1990) and the PTSD Symptom Scale Self-Report (PSS-SR; Foa, Riggs, Dancu, & Rothbaum, 1993). These results indicate preliminary promise for this treatment. PMID:18404648

  1. Radiation exposures for DOE contractor employees-1988. Twenty-first annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merwin, S. E. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Millet, W. H. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Traub, R. J. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1990-12-01

    This report is one of a series of annual reports provided by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) summarizing occupational radiation exposures received by DOE and DOE contractor employees. These reports provide an overview of radiation exposures received each year and identify trends in exposures being experienced over the years.

  2. Radiation Exposures for DOE and DOE Contractor Employees - 1989. Twenty-second annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, M. H. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Eschbach, P. A. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Harty, R. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Millet, W. H. [Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Scholes, V. A. [Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    1992-12-01

    This report is one of a series of annual reports provided by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) summarizing occupational radiation exposures received by DOE and DOE contractor employees. These reports provide an overview of radiation exposures received each year and identify trends in exposures being experienced over the years.

  3. EnergyWorks Final Report: A Better Buildings Neighborhood Program in the Five-County Greater Philadelphia Region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gajewski, Katherine [City of Philadelphia

    2014-03-05

    This report covers the grant performance period of July 1, 2010-September 30, 2013 and discusses of the program design, outcomes and best practices as they relate to the following six areas: 1. Institutional Design and Business Model; 2. Program Design and Customer Experience; 3. Driving Demand; 4. Workforce Development; 5. Financing and Incentives; 6. Data and Evaluation.

  4. Do older people with visual impairment and living alone in a rural developing country report greater difficulty in managing stairs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hairi, Noran N; Bulgiba, Awang; Peramalah, Devi; Mudla, Izzuna

    2013-01-01

    Managing stairs is a challenging activity of daily living (ADL) for older people. This study aims to examine the association between visual impairment and difficulty in managing stairs among older people living alone and those living with others. A population-based cross sectional study was conducted in rural Malaysia from 2007 till 2008. Seven hundred and sixty five older people aged 60 years and over underwent eye examination for visual impairment. Visual acuity criteria were used to define visual impairment. Presenting visual acuity was assessed using a standard metric Snellen Chart of E type. Difficulty in managing stairs was measured according to a question drawn from the Barthel Index which asks "do you need help in climbing stairs". Overall, the prevalence of difficulty in managing stairs among older people in our population was 135 (18.3%, 95% CI 15.7-21.2). After adjusting for important confounders the odds ratio (OR) for visual impairment and difficulty in managing stairs among older people living alone was 5.04 (95% CI 2.27, 10.62). Among older people living with others, the adjusted OR for visual impairment and difficulty in managing stairs was 3.10 (95% CI 1.52, 6.80). In a sample of older people aged 60 years and over, those living alone with visual impairment had greater difficulty in managing stairs than those living with others. Identification of these groups of older people is useful for targeting interventions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Natural Recharge to the Unconfined Aquifer System on the Hanford Site from the Greater Cold Creek Watershed: Progress Report 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waichler, Scott R.; Wigmosta, Mark S.; Coleman, Andre M.

    2004-09-14

    Movement of contaminants in groundwater at the Hanford Site is heavily dependent on recharge to the unconfined aquifer. As the effects of past artificial discharges dissipate, the water table is expected to return to more natural conditions, and natural recharge will become the driving force when evaluating future groundwater flow conditions and related contaminant transport. Previous work on the relationship of natural recharge to groundwater movement at the Hanford Site has focused on direct recharge from infiltrating rainfall and snowmelt within the area represented by the Sitewide Groundwater Model (SGM) domain. However, part of the groundwater recharge at Hanford is provided by flow from Greater Cold Creek watershed (GCC), a large drainage area on the western boundary of the Hanford Site that includes Cold Creek Valley, Dry Creek Valley, and the Hanford side of Rattlesnake Mountain. This study was undertaken to estimate the recharge from GCC, which is believed to enter the unconfined aquifer as both infiltrating streamflow and shallow subsurface flow. To estimate recharge, the Distributed Hydrology-Soil-Vegetation Model (DHSVM) was used to simulate a detailed water balance of GCC from 1956 to 2001 at a spatial resolution of 200~m and a temporal resolution of one hour. For estimating natural recharge to Hanford from watersheds along its western and southwestern boundaries, the most important aspects that need to be considered are 1)~distribution and relative magnitude of precipitation and evapotranspiration over the watershed, 2)~streamflow generation at upper elevations and infiltration at lower elevations during rare runoff events, and 3)~permeability of the basalt bedrock surface underlying the soil mantle.

  6. Immune response profiles after caterpillar exposure: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamar A Smith-Norowitz

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Tamar A Smith-Norowitz1,3, Kevin B Norowitz1, Stephan Kohlhoff1,3, Kaushal Kalra1,3, Seto Chice2,3, Martin H Bluth41Departments of Pediatrics, 2Pathology, 3Center for Allergy and Asthma Research, SUNY Downstate Medical Center, NY, USA; 4Department of Pathology, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI, USARationale: The role of the immune response to caterpillar exposure is not well described. This case study is the first to report a patient who presented with an allergic reaction after exposure to the larvae of the sycamore tussock moth, Halysidota harrisii Walsh, 1864.Methods: Blood was collected from an allergic asthmatic adult (m/42 y/o at 2 hrs – 2 wks after contact urticaria with associated dyspnea after exposure to the larvae of the sycamore tussock moth, Halysidota harrisii Walsh, 1864. Distributions of blood lymphocytes (CD4+, CD8+, CD8+CD60+, CD19+, CD23+, CD16/56+, CD25, CD45RA+, CD45RO+, monocytes (CD1d+, levels of serum immunoglobulins (IgM, IgG, IgA, IgE, and cytokines (IFN-γ, IL-4, TNF-a were studied (flow cytometry, nephelometry, UniCAP Total IgE Fluoroenzymeimmunoassay, cytokine ELISA, clinical toxicology.Results: Numbers of CD4+ T cells, CD25+ cells, CD19+ B cells, and CD1d+ monocytes decreased (22, 27, 33, 20%, respectively one week post reaction, CD45RA+ naïve T cells decreased at 36 hours (21%,while CD8+CD60+ T cells and CD23+ cells decreased 48 hrs (33, 74%, respectively post reaction. In contrast, numbers of CD16/56+ NK precursor cells increased (60% 12 hrs, then decreased (65% 48 hrs post reaction; other lymphocyte subsets were unaffected. Serum IgM, IgG and IgA were within normal range; however, serum IgE demonstrated a bimodal elevation at 2 hrs (15% and one week post reaction. Levels of IFN-γ, IL-4, and TNF-a were not detected in serum pre-exposure (<1.0–4.0 pg/mL. However, high levels of IFN-γ (187–319 pg/mL and TNF-a (549–749 pg/mL were detected in serum 24–36 hrs and 3.5–24 hrs post

  7. Child-Specific Exposure Factors Handbook (Final Report) 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    The National Center for Environmental Assessment Staff (NCEA) have prepared this handbook to provide information on various physiological and behavioral factors commonly used in assessing children’s exposure to environmental chemicals. Children have different exposure circumstanc...

  8. Greater sensitivity to novelty in rats is associated with increased motor impulsivity following repeated exposure to a stimulating environment: implications for the etiology of impulse control deficits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferland, Jacqueline-Marie N; Zeeb, Fiona D; Yu, Katrina; Kaur, Sukhbir; Taves, Matthew D; Winstanley, Catharine A

    2014-12-01

    Heightened motor impulsivity and increased novelty-seeking commonly co-occur in psychiatric disorders, including drug addiction. However, the relationship between these two phenomena remains unclear. One-time tests of novelty sensitivity commonly used in preclinical experiments, such as the open-field or novel-object test, fail to capture the fact that novelty-seekers repeatedly experience novel, stimulating situations. The present study therefore investigated whether repeated exposure to a novel, stimulating environment (SE) altered impulsive action. Male Long-Evans rats were trained to perform the five-choice serial reaction time task (5CSRTT) which measures motor impulsivity in the form of premature responding as well as attention and motivation. Animals were then exposed to a novel SE (1 h/day for 16 days) immediately prior to the 5CSRTT. Significant increases in premature responding were observed in a subgroup of reactive animals termed high responders (HR-SE). These rats were not more impulsive at baseline, and levels of impulsivity normalised once exposure to the SE was discontinued. No other aspect of 5CSRTT performance was affected by the SE challenge. We also determined that HR-SE rats were hyperactive in a novel environment. Biochemical analyses revealed changes in gene and protein expression within the dorsal hippocampus of HR-SE rats, including decreases in mRNA encoding the dopamine D1 receptor and brain-derived neurotrophic factor. These results indicate a novel mechanism by which impulsivity and novelty-reactivity interact that may enhance addiction vulnerability synergistically. Furthermore, studying such context-induced impulsivity may provide insight into the process by which environmental load precipitates psychiatric symptoms in impulse control disorders.

  9. RECRUITING, RETAINING, AND REPORTING EXPOSURE STUDY RESULTS TO PARTICIPANTS AND THE PUBLIC

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA's National Exposure Research Laboratory (NERL) is developing techniques and capabilities to recruit and retain participants in exposure measurement studies and to effectively report study results to participants and the public. These techniques are being applied in three N...

  10. Oral Migalastat HCl Leads to Greater Systemic Exposure and Tissue Levels of Active α-Galactosidase A in Fabry Patients when Co-Administered with Infused Agalsidase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David G Warnock

    Full Text Available Migalastat HCl (AT1001, 1-Deoxygalactonojirimycin is an investigational pharmacological chaperone for the treatment of α-galactosidase A (α-Gal A deficiency, which leads to Fabry disease, an X-linked, lysosomal storage disorder. The currently approved, biologics-based therapy for Fabry disease is enzyme replacement therapy (ERT with either agalsidase alfa (Replagal or agalsidase beta (Fabrazyme. Based on preclinical data, migalastat HCl in combination with agalsidase is expected to result in the pharmacokinetic (PK enhancement of agalsidase in plasma by increasing the systemic exposure of active agalsidase, thereby leading to increased cellular levels in disease-relevant tissues. This Phase 2a study design consisted of an open-label, fixed-treatment sequence that evaluated the effects of single oral doses of 150 mg or 450 mg migalastat HCl on the PK and tissue levels of intravenously infused agalsidase (0.2, 0.5, or 1.0 mg/kg in male Fabry patients. As expected, intravenous administration of agalsidase alone resulted in increased α-Gal A activity in plasma, skin, and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs compared to baseline. Following co-administration of migalastat HCl and agalsidase, α-Gal A activity in plasma was further significantly increased 1.2- to 5.1-fold compared to agalsidase administration alone, in 22 of 23 patients (95.6%. Importantly, similar increases in skin and PBMC α-Gal A activity were seen following co-administration of migalastat HCl and agalsidase. The effects were not related to the administered migalastat HCl dose, as the 150 mg dose of migalastat HCl increased α-Gal A activity to the same extent as the 450 mg dose. Conversely, agalsidase had no effect on the plasma PK of migalastat. No migalastat HCl-related adverse events or drug-related tolerability issues were identified.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01196871.

  11. Marine exposure of a half-module. Progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-12-31

    The samples previously irradiated for quantification of elements through their short-lived radionuclides were re-irradiated for 4 hours in the UCI reactor at full-power. Subsequently, from 1--2 days following irradiation, until 1--2 months later gamma ray spectra were acquired. In this interval 3--4 spectra were taken. The counting periods were brief initially (1 hour) and were increased to longer periods (24--48 hours) with progression of time. In addition 25 elemental standards were neutron bombarded for 1 hour and gamma ray analyzed at suitable times after the irradiation. In FWPF, the concentration was uniformly low. It should be noted that iridium was detected in this material at a concentration of 6.5 parts per billion and could be the result of cross-contamination in the preparation of the sample. With regard to the HMSDs, a number of elements such as scandium, chromium, cobalt, strontium, the rare-earths, hafnium and uranium are present in amounts that bear resemblance to their concentrations in the local sediment. Iron was the major component in the HMSD M (54.1%). The quantity of iron in the HMSD S is also substantially greater than could be accounted for from its sedimentary content. Silver appeared in the HMSD W and S at 12.1 and 3.3 ppM, respectively and gold in the sub-ppM range for each of the HMSDs. Their source is unknown. Iridium was present in HMSD W and M at concentrations significantly greater than in the FWPF. The previous report cited calcium as the major component in the GIS spots. In accord with this finding, another alkaline earth metal, strontium, was also present at high levels in this sample. Also to be noted was a concentration of tantalum that greatly exceeded amounts present in the HMSDs, a concentration of uranium an order of magnitude higher than in the sediment, and a concentration of iridium several orders of magnitude greater than in the HMSDs.

  12. Carbamazepine overdose after exposure to simethicone: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guneysel Ozlem

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Carbamazepine is an anticonvulsant drug and is also used as a treatment for patients with manic-depressive illness, post-herpetic neuralgia or phantom limb pain. The drug itself has many drug interactions. Simethicone is an antifoaming agent and is reported to be an inert material with no known drug interaction with carbamazepine. Case presentation We present a case of a patient who was routinely using carbamazepine 400 mg three times per day and levetiracetam 500 mg twice daily, and experienced carbamazepine overdose after exposure to simethicone. After cessation of simethicone therapy normal drug levels of carbamazepine were obtained again with the standard dose of the drug. The mechanism of interaction is unknown but the risk of overdose should be considered when prescribing simethicone to a patient who is using carbamazepine. Conclusion Simethicone and carbamazepine, when taken together, may be a cause of carbamazepine toxicity. The risk of carbamazepine overdose should be considered when prescribing simethicone to a patient who is using carbamazepine.

  13. Yoga Meditation Practitioners Exhibit Greater Gray Matter Volume and Fewer Reported Cognitive Failures: Results of a Preliminary Voxel-Based Morphometric Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brett Froeliger

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Hatha yoga techniques, including physical postures (asanas, breathing exercises (pranayama, and meditation, involve the practice of mindfulness. In turn, yoga meditation practices may induce the state of mindfulness, which, when evoked recurrently through repeated practice, may accrue into trait or dispositional mindfulness. Putatively, these changes may be mediated by experience-dependent neuroplastic changes. Though prior studies have identified differences in gray matter volume (GMV between long-term mindfulness practitioners and controls, no studies to date have reported on whether yoga meditation is associated with GMV differences. The present study investigated GMV differences between yoga meditation practitioners (YMP and a matched control group (CG. The YMP group exhibited greater GM volume in frontal, limbic, temporal, occipital, and cerebellar regions; whereas the CG had no greater regional greater GMV. In addition, the YMP group reported significantly fewer cognitive failures on the Cognitive Failures Questionnaire (CFQ, the magnitude of which was positively correlated with GMV in numerous regions identified in the primary analysis. Lastly, GMV was positively correlated with the duration of yoga practice. Results from this preliminary study suggest that hatha yoga practice may be associated with the promotion of neuroplastic changes in executive brain systems, which may confer therapeutic benefits that accrue with repeated practice.

  14. Radiation exposures for DOE and DOE contractor employees - 1991. Twenty-fourth annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, M.H.; Hui, T.E. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Millet, W.H.; Scholes, V.A. [Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    1994-11-01

    This is the 24th annual radiation exposure report published by US DOE and its predecessor agencies. This report summarizes the radiation exposures received by both employees and visitors at DOE and COE contractor facilities during 1991. Trends in radiations exposures are evaluated. The significance of the doses is addressed by comparing them to the DOE limits and by correlating the doses to health risks based on risk estimates from expert groups.

  15. An Exploratory Study: Assessment of Modeled Dioxin Exposure in Ceramic Art Studios (Final Report, 2008)

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA announced the availability of the final report, An Exploratory Study: Assessment of Modeled Dioxin Exposure in Ceramic Art Studios. This report investigates the potential dioxin exposure to artists/hobbyists who use ball clay to make pottery and related products. Derm...

  16. Occupational blood exposure among health care workers: I. Frequency and reporting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nelsing, S; Nielsen, T L; Nielsen, Jens Ole

    1993-01-01

    The frequency and reporting rate concerning occupational blood exposure were investigated among former and currently employed medical staff at a Department of Infectious Diseases (DID) having a high prevalence of HIV-positive patients. Subjects were asked to complete an anonymous questionnaire de......, carries a real and serious risk of contracting infectious diseases due to occupational exposure to blood. The importance of reporting needs to be emphasized.......The frequency and reporting rate concerning occupational blood exposure were investigated among former and currently employed medical staff at a Department of Infectious Diseases (DID) having a high prevalence of HIV-positive patients. Subjects were asked to complete an anonymous questionnaire...... describing occupational percutaneous exposure (PCE) and mucocutaneous exposure (MCE) to blood, experienced during their employment at the DID. 135 out of 168 (80%) subjects responded. 45 subjects described 37 incidents of PCE and 15 of MCE. 44 of the exposures (85%) involved HIV-positive blood and 6 (11...

  17. Self-Reported Youth and Adult Exposure to Alcohol Marketing in Traditional and Digital Media: Results of a Pilot Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jernigan, David H; Padon, Alisa; Ross, Craig; Borzekowski, Dina

    2017-03-01

    Alcohol marketing is known to be a significant risk factor for underage drinking. However, little is known about youth and adult exposure to alcohol advertising in digital and social media. This study piloted a comparative assessment of youth and adult recall of exposure to online marketing of alcohol. From September to October 2013, a pilot survey of past 30-day exposure to alcohol advertising and promotional content in traditional and digital media was administered to a national sample of 1,192 youth (ages 13 to 20) and 1,124 adults (ages ≥21) using a prerecruited Internet panel maintained by GfK Custom Research. The weighted proportions of youth and adults who reported this exposure were compared by media type and by advertising and promotional content. Youth were more likely than adults to recall exposure to alcohol advertising on television (69.2% vs. 61.9%), radio (24.8% vs. 16.7%), billboards (54.8% vs. 35.4%), and the Internet (29.7% vs. 16.8%), but less likely to recall seeing advertising in magazines (35.7% vs. 36.4%). Youth were also more likely to recall seeing advertisements and pictures on the Internet of celebrities using alcohol (36.1% vs. 20.8%) or wearing clothing promoting alcohol (27.7% vs. 15.9%), and actively respond (i.e., like, share, or post) to alcohol-related content online. Youth report greater exposure to alcohol advertising and promotional content than adults in most media, including on the Internet. These findings emphasize the need to assure compliance with voluntary industry standards on the placement of alcohol advertising and the importance of developing better tools for monitoring youth exposure to alcohol marketing, particularly on the Internet. Copyright © 2017 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  18. Biocides Steering Group on human exposure assessment: A preliminary report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hemmen, J.J. van

    1999-01-01

    In a project granted by DG XI of the European Commission, it is attempted to collate experimental and theoretical data on human (workers and consumers) exposure assessment to biocidal products, and to outline the methodology for sampling and measurement. On the basis of the available evidence, appro

  19. First report of a mixed infection of Trichinella nelsoni and Trichinella T8 in a leopard (Panthera pardus from the Greater Kruger National Park, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louis J. La Grange

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available At least three Trichinella species, namely Trichinella nelsoni, Trichinella britovi and Trichinella zimbabwensis, and one genotype (Trichinella T8, have been isolated from sylvatic carnivores on the African continent. With the exception of T. britovi, the other species are known to circulate in wildlife of the Kruger National Park (KNP, South Africa, and KNP neighbouring game reserves (collectively known as the greater KNP area. Lions (Panthera leo and spotted hyenas (Crocuta crocuta appear to be the most important reservoirs of T. nelsoni and Trichinella T8 in the KNP and surrounding areas. Interspecies predation between lions and hyenas has been implicated as a primary mode of maintaining the life cycles of these two Trichinella species. This is the first report of a mixed natural infection of T. nelsoni and Trichinella T8 in a leopard (Panthera pardus from South Africa. Trichinella muscle larvae were identified to species level by multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Probable sources of infection, based on the known dietary preference and prey species’ range of leopards, are also discussed. The described occurrence of Trichinella species in a leopard from the greater KNP area raises the question of possible sources of infection for this predator species.

  20. First report of a mixed infection of Trichinella nelsoni and Trichinella T8 in a leopard (Panthera pardus) from the Greater Kruger National Park, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Grange, Louis J; Reininghaus, Björn; Mukaratirwa, Samson

    2014-11-20

    At least three Trichinella species, namely Trichinella nelsoni, Trichinella britovi and Trichinella zimbabwensis, and one genotype (Trichinella T8), have been isolated from sylvatic carnivores on the African continent. With the exception of T. britovi, the other species are known to circulate in wildlife of the Kruger National Park (KNP), South Africa, and KNP neighbouring game reserves (collectively known as the greater KNP area). Lions (Panthera leo) and spotted hyenas (Crocuta crocuta) appear to be the most important reservoirs of T. nelsoni and Trichinella T8 in the KNP and surrounding areas. Interspecies predation between lions and hyenas has been implicated as a primary mode of maintaining the life cycles of these two Trichinella species. This is the first report of a mixed natural infection of T. nelsoni and Trichinella T8 in a leopard (Panthera pardus) from South Africa. Trichinella muscle larvae were identified to species level by multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Probable sources of infection, based on the known dietary preference and prey species' range of leopards, are also discussed. The described occurrence of Trichinella species in a leopard from the greater KNP area raises the question of possible sources of infection for this predator species.

  1. Management of exposure of three-dimensional mandibular reconstructive plates in mandibular reconstruction:Report of 2 cases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Li-qun1; WU Andri; ZHANG Chen-ping; ZHENG Jia-wei

    2004-01-01

    Exposure of three-dimensional mandibular reconstructive plate was a main complication in its clinical application, which includes intraoral exposure and extraoral exposure. This paper reported two typical cases with plate exposure and reviewed the literatures in analysis of the causes of plate exposure and its preventive measures.

  2. Marriage consummated for 32 Iranian women using therapist-aided exposure therapy : a brief report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molaeinezhad, M.; Salehi, M.; Borg, C.; Yousefy, A.; Roudsari, R. Latifnejad; Salehi, P.; Shafiei, K.; Khoei, E. Merghati

    2014-01-01

    This brief report discusses the effectiveness of therapist-aided gradual exposure therapy for a sample of women suffering from lifelong vaginismus (LLV). Thirty two women who have never been able to have sexual intercourse, performed weekly exposure sessions of vaginal penetration exercises assisted

  3. Effects of Classroom Acoustics and Self-Reported Noise Exposure on Teachers' Well-Being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristiansen, Jesper; Persson, Roger; Lund, Soren Peter; Shibuya, Hitomi; Nielsen, Per Moberg

    2013-01-01

    Beyond noise annoyance and voice problems, little is known about the effects that noise and poor classroom acoustics have on teachers' health and well-being. The aim of this field study was therefore to investigate the effects of perceived noise exposure and classroom reverberation on measures of well-being. Data on self-reported noise exposure,…

  4. Möbius and Prenatal Exposure to Misoprostol. Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julián Andrés Ramírez-Cheyne

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Möbius syndrome is a congenital paralysis of the seventh cranial nerve that may be associated with involvement of other cranial nerves or other systems. In the United States frequencies from 0.002 to 0.0002 % of all births, and 1/ 50 000 newborns have been calculated. The aim of the study was to present a case of a newborn with Möbius syndrome prenatally exposed to Misoprostol, detected in a third level hospital, under the parameters of the Latin American Collaborative Study of Congenital Malformations (ECLAMC. Literature search focused on the association of prenatal exposure to Misoprostol and congenital malformations, was realized. Case Presentation: New­born with phenotypic characteristics of Möbius syndrome, 16 -year-old mother with history of use of Misoprostol 200 mcg vaginally and 200 mcg orally during the fourth week of gestation. Discussion: Facial palsy and congenital musculoskeletal anomaly have to be established in order to diagnose Möbius syndrome, the patient meets both. Prenatal exposure to Misoprostol has been associated with the occurrence of birth defects, mainly Möbius syndrome and limb defects of terminal transverse type. One of the teratogenic mechanisms proposed for Misoprostol is vascular disruption, as we propose it could be in this case.

  5. Bilateral periorbital necrotizing fasciitis following exposure to Holi colors: A case report

    OpenAIRE

    Chauhan Deepender; Arora Ritu; Das Sima; Shroff Daraius; Narula Ritesh

    2007-01-01

    Holi festival is celebrated in India traditionally by applying colors on one another. Various ocular adverse effects of these colors have been reported including conjunctivitis and corneal abrasion. We report a case of bilateral periorbital necrotizing fasciitis, following exposure to Holi colors. General physicians might encounter more such cases after exposure to Holi colors. In India, these colors are prepared on a small scale and lack any quality checks. Use of such toxic colors shou...

  6. Bilateral periorbital necrotizing fasciitis following exposure to Holi colors: A case report

    OpenAIRE

    Chauhan, Deepender; Arora, Ritu; Das, Sima; Shroff, Daraius; Narula, Ritesh

    2007-01-01

    Holi festival is celebrated in India traditionally by applying colors on one another. Various ocular adverse effects of these colors have been reported including conjunctivitis and corneal abrasion. We report a case of bilateral periorbital necrotizing fasciitis, following exposure to Holi colors. General physicians might encounter more such cases after exposure to Holi colors. In India, these colors are prepared on a small scale and lack any quality checks. Use of such toxic colors should be...

  7. Recovery of anaerobic digestion after exposure to toxicants. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, J.; Parkin, G.F.; Speece, R.E.

    1979-12-01

    The concept that methane fermentation cannot tolerate chronic or slug doses of toxicants has almost totally precluded methane fermentation as a viable contender for the treatment of industrial wastewaters. This study assayed a wide variety of toxicants, heavy metals, inorganic salts, organic chemicals, solvents, and antibiotics which are used in industrial processes and, therefore, appear in the industrial wastewaters therefrom. Toxicity was related to the reduction in methane production of a control containing no toxicant. The response of methane fermentation after exposure to a toxicant was assayed with unacclimated cultures as well as cultures which had been acclimated to increasing concentrations of the toxicant over long periods of time. The reversible nature of the toxicants was assayed by adding slug doses to plug flow anaerobic filters and recording gas production prior to, during, and after toxicant addition.

  8. Clinical Features of Reported Ethylene Glycol Exposures in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jobson, Meghan A; Hogan, Susan L; Maxwell, Colin S; Hu, Yichun; Hladik, Gerald A; Falk, Ronald J; Beuhler, Michael C; Pendergraft, William F

    2015-01-01

    Ethylene glycol is highly toxic and represents an important cause of poisonings worldwide. Toxicity can result in central nervous system dysfunction, cardiovascular compromise, elevated anion gap metabolic acidosis and acute kidney injury. Many states have passed laws requiring addition of the bittering agent, denatonium benzoate, to ethylene glycol solutions to reduce severity of exposures. The objectives of this study were to identify differences between unintentional and intentional exposures and to evaluate the utility of denatonium benzoate as a deterrent. Using the National Poison Data System, we performed a retrospective analysis of reported cases of ethylene glycol exposures from January 2006 to December 2013. Outcome classification was summed for intentionality and used as a basis for comparison of effect groups. There were 45,097 cases of ethylene glycol exposures resulting in 154 deaths. Individuals more likely to experience major effects or death were older, male, and presented with more severe symptoms requiring higher levels of care. Latitude and season did not correlate with increased exposures; however, there were more exposures in rural areas. Denatonium benzoate use appeared to have no effect on exposure severity or number. Deaths due to ethylene glycol exposure were uncommon; however, there were major clinical effects and more exposures in rural areas. Addition of denatonium benzoate was not associated with a reduction in exposures. Alternative means to deter ingestion are needed. These findings suggest the need to consider replacing ethylene glycol with alternative and less toxic agents.

  9. Towards a greater understanding of the illicit tobacco trade in Europe: a review of the PMI funded ‘Project Star’ report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmore, Anna B; Rowell, Andy; Gallus, Silvano; Lugo, Alessandra; Joossens, Luk; Sims, Michelle

    2014-01-01

    Background Following a legal agreement with the European Union (EU), Philip Morris International (PMI) commissions a yearly report (‘Project Star’, PS) on the European illicit cigarette trade from KPMG, the global accountancy firm. Methods Review of PS 2010 report. Comparison with data from independent sources including a 2010 pan-European survey (N=18 056). Findings Within PS, data covering all 27 EU countries are entered into a model. While the model itself seems appropriate, concerns are identified with the methodologies underlying the data inputs and thus their quality: there is little transparency over methodologies; interview data underestimate legal non-domestic product partly by failing to account for legal cross-border sales; illicit cigarette estimates rely on tobacco industry empty pack surveys which may overestimate illicit; and there is an over-reliance on data supplied by PMI with inadequate external validation. Thus, PMI sales data are validated using PMI smoking prevalence estimates, yet PMI is unable to provide sales (shipment) data for the Greek islands and its prevalence estimates differ grossly from independent data. Consequently, comparisons with independent data suggest PS will tend to overestimate illicit cigarette levels particularly where cross-border shopping is frequent (Austria, Finland, France) and in Western compared with Eastern European countries. The model also provides data on the nature of the illicit cigarette market independent of seizure data suggesting that almost a quarter of the illicit cigarette market in 2010 comprised PMI's own brands compared with just 5% counterfeited PMI brands; a finding hidden in PMI's public representation of the data. Conclusions PS overestimates illicit cigarette levels in some European countries and suggests PMI's supply chain control is inadequate. Its publication serves the interests of PMI over those of the EU and its member states. PS requires greater transparency, external scrutiny and

  10. Occupational asthma after exposure to azodicarbonamide: report of four cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Normand, J C; Grange, F; Hernandez, C; Ganay, A; Davezies, P; Bergeret, A; Prost, G

    1989-01-01

    Azodicarbonamide (Chemical Abstract Service Registry No 123.77.3) is an organic low molecular weight agent used for blowing and foaming plastics. Finely ground azodicarbonamide can be a pulmonary and sometimes a cutaneous acute sensitiser. Four cases of work related asthma are reported.

  11. Mercury Report-Children's exposure to elemental mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the report written? Children attending a daycare in New Jersey were exposed to elemental (metallic) mercury. The ... Mercury is also in some medical and mechanical equipment used in the home and in ... some medical and dental clinics use mercury or items that contain mercury. ...

  12. Radiation exposures for DOE and DOE contractor employees, 1990. Twenty-third annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, M.H.; Hui, T.E. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Millet, W.H.; Scholes, V.A. [Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    1994-03-01

    This is the 23rd in a series of annual radiation exposure reports published by the Department of Energy (DOE) or its predecessors. This report summarizes the radiation exposures received by both employees and visitors at DOE and DOE contractor facilities during 1990. Trends in radiation exposures are evaluated by comparing the doses received in 1990 to those received in previous years. The significance of the doses is addressed by comparing them to the DOE limits and by correlating the doses to health risks based on risk estimated from expert groups. This report is the third that is based on detailed exposure data for each individual monitored at a DOE facility. Prior to 1988, only summarized data from each facility were available. This report contains information on different types of radiation doses, including total effective, internal, penetrating, shallow, neutron, and extremity doses. It also contains analysis of exposures by age, sex, and occupation of the exposed individuals. This report also continues the precedent established in the Twenty-First (1988) Annual Report by conducting a detailed, one-time review and analysis of a particular topic of interest. The special topic for this report is a comparison of total effective, internal, and extremity dose equivalent values against penetrating dose equivalent values.

  13. And yet they correlate: psychophysiological activation predicts self-report outcomes of exposure therapy in claustrophobia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alpers, Georg W; Sell, Roxane

    2008-10-01

    The study examines whether self-reported fear and physiological activation are concordant when claustrophobic patients are exposed to small spaces, whether the measures change in synchrony for individual patients and whether initial activation of measures can predict the outcome of an exposure treatment. Ten patients with claustrophobia participated in six in-vivo exposure sessions with continuous monitoring of self-reported fear and their EKG. Partial pressure of carbon dioxide (pCO(2)), a measure of hyperventilation, was available in a subsample of patients. While evidence for concordance of self-reported fear and heart rate was limited, the measures changed synchronously within subjects. Most importantly, higher heart rate at the beginning of the first exposure session predicted better treatment outcome. Because self-reported fear turned out not to be a reliable predictor of the outcome, this is interpreted as evidence for the incremental validity of physiological measures of fear.

  14. Validity and reliability of self-reported exposure to environmental tobacco smoke in work offices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willemsen, MC; Brug, J; Uges, DRA; VosdeWael, ML

    1997-01-01

    Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) is an occupational carcinogen. Large companies often examine ETS exposure by employee surveys, However, reliable and valid self-report measures have been lacking. This study compared validity and reliability of various self-report measures, One hundred and seven non

  15. Self-Reported and FEMA Flood Exposure Assessment after Hurricane Sandy: Association with Mental Health Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bian; Schneider, Samantha; Schwartz, Rebecca; Taioli, Emanuela

    2017-01-01

    Hurricane Sandy caused extensive physical and economic damage; the long-term mental health consequences are unknown. Flooding is a central component of hurricane exposure, influencing mental health through multiple pathways that unfold over months after flooding recedes. Here we assess the concordance in self-reported and Federal Emergency Management (FEMA) flood exposure after Hurricane Sandy and determine the associations between flooding and anxiety, depression, and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Self-reported flood data and mental health symptoms were obtained through validated questionnaires from New York City and Long Island residents (N = 1231) following Sandy. Self-reported flood data was compared to FEMA data obtained from the FEMA Modeling Task Force Hurricane Sandy Impact Analysis. Multivariable logistic regressions were performed to determine the relationship between flooding exposure and mental health outcomes. There were significant discrepancies between self-reported and FEMA flood exposure data. Self-reported dichotomous flooding was positively associated with anxiety (ORadj: 1.5 [95% CI: 1.1–1.9]), depression (ORadj: 1.7 [1.3–2.2]), and PTSD (ORadj: 2.5 [1.8–3.4]), while self-reported continuous flooding was associated with depression (ORadj: 1.1 [1.01–1.12]) and PTSD (ORadj: 1.2 [1.1–1.2]). Models with FEMA dichotomous flooding (ORadj: 2.1 [1.5–2.8]) or FEMA continuous flooding (ORadj: 1.1 [1.1–1.2]) were only significantly associated with PTSD. Associations between mental health and flooding vary according to type of flood exposure measure utilized. Future hurricane preparedness and recovery efforts must integrate micro and macro-level flood exposures in order to accurately determine flood exposure risk during storms and realize the long-term importance of flooding on these three mental health symptoms. PMID:28129410

  16. Self-Reported and FEMA Flood Exposure Assessment after Hurricane Sandy: Association with Mental Health Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieberman-Cribbin, Wil; Liu, Bian; Schneider, Samantha; Schwartz, Rebecca; Taioli, Emanuela

    2017-01-01

    Hurricane Sandy caused extensive physical and economic damage; the long-term mental health consequences are unknown. Flooding is a central component of hurricane exposure, influencing mental health through multiple pathways that unfold over months after flooding recedes. Here we assess the concordance in self-reported and Federal Emergency Management (FEMA) flood exposure after Hurricane Sandy and determine the associations between flooding and anxiety, depression, and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Self-reported flood data and mental health symptoms were obtained through validated questionnaires from New York City and Long Island residents (N = 1231) following Sandy. Self-reported flood data was compared to FEMA data obtained from the FEMA Modeling Task Force Hurricane Sandy Impact Analysis. Multivariable logistic regressions were performed to determine the relationship between flooding exposure and mental health outcomes. There were significant discrepancies between self-reported and FEMA flood exposure data. Self-reported dichotomous flooding was positively associated with anxiety (ORadj: 1.5 [95% CI: 1.1-1.9]), depression (ORadj: 1.7 [1.3-2.2]), and PTSD (ORadj: 2.5 [1.8-3.4]), while self-reported continuous flooding was associated with depression (ORadj: 1.1 [1.01-1.12]) and PTSD (ORadj: 1.2 [1.1-1.2]). Models with FEMA dichotomous flooding (ORadj: 2.1 [1.5-2.8]) or FEMA continuous flooding (ORadj: 1.1 [1.1-1.2]) were only significantly associated with PTSD. Associations between mental health and flooding vary according to type of flood exposure measure utilized. Future hurricane preparedness and recovery efforts must integrate micro and macro-level flood exposures in order to accurately determine flood exposure risk during storms and realize the long-term importance of flooding on these three mental health symptoms.

  17. Self-reported advertising exposure to sugar-sweetened beverages among US youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Gayathri; Onufrak, Stephen; Zytnick, Deena; Kingsley, Beverly; Park, Sohyun

    2015-05-01

    According to the Federal Trade Commission, in 2009, the top food category with teen-directed marketing expenditures was sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB). The present study reports on exposure to SSB advertisements using self-report data from adolescents. Cross-sectional study design using descriptive statistics to assess self-reported frequency of exposure to SSB advertisements and multivariable logistic regression to examine associations between frequency of SSB advertising exposure and sociodemographic variables. Online survey conducted at home. US adolescents aged 12-17 years (n 847). Among the surveyed adolescents, 42 % to 54 % reported seeing/hearing SSB advertisements ≥1 time/d. Those aged 14-15 years were more likely to report seeing/hearing soda, sports drink and energy drink advertisements ≥1 time/d than 16- to 17-year-olds. Males were more likely to report seeing/hearing sports drink advertising ≥1 time/d than females. Non-Hispanic black adolescents were more likely to report seeing/hearing fruit drink and sports drink advertisements ≥1 time/d than non-Hispanic white adolescents. Adolescents whose parents had high-school education or less were more likely to report seeing/hearing soda, fruit drink and energy drink advertisements ≥1 time/d than adolescents whose parents were college graduates. Almost half of the adolescents sampled reported daily SSB advertising exposure, with higher exposure among African Americans and adolescents with less educated parents. These data can help inform potential actions that decision makers might take, such as education of adolescents and their caregivers on the potential impact of beverage advertising, especially among groups at higher risk for obesity.

  18. Lodging Update: Greater Boston

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Roginsky

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Pinnacle Advisory Group provides an update of lodging industry performance in New England and Boston for the first half of 2012. While the New England region outpaced the nation, the specific story varies from state to state. Only Massachusetts and Vermont achieved REVPAR performance better than the national average. A review of the Greater Boston lodging market reveals that a healthy local economy and strong convention calendar, combined with a number of one-time events and limited new supply, boosted the local market in 2012. The outlook for 2013 in Greater Boston remains positive, with expectations of a 4.7% growth in REVPAR.

  19. The effect of exposure duration on visual character identification in single, whole and partial report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Anders; Andersen, Tobias

    2012-01-01

    The psychometric function of single letter identification is typically described as a function of stimulus intensity. However, the effect of stimulus exposure duration on letter identification remains poorly described. This is surprising because the effect of exposure duration has played a central...... role in modelling performance in whole and partial report tasks in which multiple simultaneously presented letters are to be reported (Shibuya & Bundesen, 1988). Therefore, we investigated visual letter identification as a function of exposure duration. On each trial, a single randomly chosen letter (A....... Finally, after insertion into Bundesen’s Theory of Visual Attention (Bundesen, 1990), the same psychometric functions enable closer fits to data from a previous whole and partial report experiment....

  20. Parent report and electronic medical record agreement on asthma education provided and children's tobacco smoke exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, Kathleen F; Haven, Kristen M; Nuño, Velia Leybas; Magruder, Theresa; Bailey, William C; Gerald, Lynn B

    2013-11-01

    To examine the concordance between parent report and electronic medical record documentation of asthma health education provided during a single clinic visit and second-hand tobacco smoke exposure among children with asthma. Parents of children with asthma were recruited from two types of clinics using different electronic medical record systems: asthma-specialty or general pediatric health department clinics. After their child's outpatient visit, parents were interviewed by trained study staff. Interview data were compared to electronic medical records for agreement in five categories of asthma health education and for the child's environmental tobacco smoke exposure. Kappa statistics were used to identify strength of agreement. Chi square and t-tests were used to examine differences between clinic types. Of 255 parents participating in the study 90.6% were African American and 96.1% were female. Agreement was poor across all clinics but was higher within the asthma specialty clinics than the health department clinics for smoke exposure (κ = 0.410 versus 0.205), asthma diagnosis/disease process (κ = 0.213 versus -0.016) and devices reviewed (κ = 0.253 versus -0.089) with parents generally reporting more education provided. For the 203 children with complete medical records, 40.5% did not have any documentation regarding smoking exposure in the home and 85.2% did not have any documentation regarding exposure elsewhere. We found low concordance between the parent's report and the electronic medical record for smoke exposure and asthma education provided. Un- or under-documented smoke exposure and health education have the potential to affect continuity of care for pediatric patients with asthma.

  1. [Greater trochanteric pain syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gollwitzer, H; Opitz, G; Gerdesmeyer, L; Hauschild, M

    2014-01-01

    Greater trochanteric pain is one of the common complaints in orthopedics. Frequent diagnoses include myofascial pain, trochanteric bursitis, tendinosis and rupture of the gluteus medius and minimus tendon, and external snapping hip. Furthermore, nerve entrapment like the piriformis syndrome must be considered in the differential diagnosis. This article summarizes essential diagnostic and therapeutic steps in greater trochanteric pain syndrome. Careful clinical evaluation, complemented with specific imaging studies and diagnostic infiltrations allows determination of the underlying pathology in most cases. Thereafter, specific nonsurgical treatment is indicated, with success rates of more than 90 %. Resistant cases and tendon ruptures may require surgical intervention, which can provide significant pain relief and functional improvement in most cases.

  2. Self-reported acute health symptoms and exposure to companion animals#

    Science.gov (United States)

    Self-reported acute health symptoms and exposure to companion animalsWhitney S. Krueger1,2, Elizabeth D. Hilborn2, Timothy J. Wade21Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, USA2Environmental Public Health Division, Office of Research and Development, U...

  3. Self-reported occupational exposure to chemical and physical factors and risk of skin problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alfonso, Jose Hernan; Thyssen, Jacob P; Tynes, Tore;

    2015-01-01

    Prospective studies on occupational dermatoses in the general working population are sparse. This study investigated prospectively the impact of self-reported occupational exposure to chemicals and physical factors on the risk of skin problems. The cohort comprised respondents drawn randomly from...

  4. The Mental Health Consequences of Adolescents' Exposure to Violence. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Mark I.; And Others

    The extent to which adolescents are exposed to various types of violence, as victims or witnesses, and the association of such exposure with trauma symptoms and violent behavior were studied in samples of students from central city, suburban, and small city high schools. An anonymous self-report questionnaire was completed by 3,735 students in 6…

  5. Validity of self-reported exposure to second-hand smoke in hospitality venues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galán, Iñaki; Mayo, Elga; López, María J; Pérez-Ríos, Mónica; Fu, Marcela; Martínez-Sánchez, Jose M; Schiaffino, Anna; Moncada, Albert; Montes, Agustín; Nebot, Manel; Fernández, Esteve

    2014-08-01

    The aim was to assess the validity of self-reported exposure to second-hand smoke (SHS) in 50 hospitality venues of Madrid (Spain) in 2010, taking as a reference vapour-phase nicotine measured by active sampling. The questions posed in the questionnaire permitted distinguishing between the different levels of SHS. However, the moderate relationship found (Spearman׳s correlation=0.387, phospitality venues, based solely on self-reported information, should be used with caution.

  6. Accidental exposure to UV radiation produced by germicidal lamp: case report and risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaffina, Salvatore; Camisa, Vincenzo; Lembo, Marco; Vinci, Maria Rosaria; Tucci, Mario Graziano; Borra, Massimo; Napolitano, Antonio; Cannatà, Vittorio

    2012-01-01

    Ultraviolet radiation is known to cause both benefits and harmful effects on humans. The adverse effects mainly involve two target organs, skin and eye, and can be further divided into short- and long-term effects. The present case report describes an accidental exposure of two health-care workers to ultraviolet radiation produced by a germicidal lamp in a hospital pharmacy. The germicidal lamp presented a spectrum with an intense UV-C component as well as a modest UV-B contribution. Overexposure to UV-C radiation was over 100 times as large as the ICNIRP exposure limits. A few hours after the exposure, the two subjects reported symptoms of acute UV injury and both of them continued having significant clinical signs for over 2 years. In this study, we describe acute and potentially irreversible effects caused by high UV exposure. In addition, we present the results of risk assessment by occupational exposure to germicidal lamps. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Photochemistry and Photobiology © 2012 The American Society of Photobiology.

  7. Occupational solvent exposure and glomerulonephritis: a case report and review of the literature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniell, W.E.; Couser, W.G.; Rosenstock, L.

    1988-04-15

    The authors describe a patient who presented with renal failure after a one-year period of unprotected heavy occupational exposure to organic solvents. Renal biopsy results and serological finding were diagnostic of anti-glomerular basement membrane antibody-mediated glomerulonephritis. An analytic review of the literature revealed substantial evidence linking solvent exposure to the development of glomerulonephritis (GN), with seven of nine case-control studies demonstrating a statistically significant association. Odds ratios were reported by or could be calculated for six of these studies, and the five positive studies detected a 2.8- to 8.9-fold increased risk for GN among solvent-exposed individuals. The findings in several of these studies of dose-response relationships, the reports of variations in disease severity in relation to exposure intensity, and the absence of alternative explanations for the association provide additional supportive evidence for a solvent effect. The authors conclude that in the case presented herein and in cases of GN with similar exposure histories, solvent exposure may play a significant contributing role in the development of GN.

  8. Disentangling the Exposure Experience: The Roles of Community Context and Report-Back of Environmental Exposure Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Crystal; Brown, Phil; Morello-Frosch, Rachel; Brody, Julia Green; Rudel, Ruthann; Zota, Ami; Dunagan, Sarah; Tovar, Jessica; Patton, Sharyle

    2011-01-01

    This article examines participants' responses to receiving their results in a study of household exposure to endocrine disrupting compounds and other pollutants. The authors study how the "exposure experience"--the embodied, personal experience and understanding of chronic exposure to environmental pollutants--is shaped by community context and…

  9. Bilateral periorbital necrotizing fasciitis following exposure to Holi colors: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chauhan Deepender

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Holi festival is celebrated in India traditionally by applying colors on one another. Various ocular adverse effects of these colors have been reported including conjunctivitis and corneal abrasion. We report a case of bilateral periorbital necrotizing fasciitis, following exposure to Holi colors. General physicians might encounter more such cases after exposure to Holi colors. In India, these colors are prepared on a small scale and lack any quality checks. Use of such toxic colors should be discouraged, and all doctors should caution people against using synthetic dyes. This case report highlights the need to put manufacturing of Holi colors under guidelines of the Food and Drug Cosmetic Act and the Bureau of Indian Standards.

  10. Bilateral periorbital necrotizing fasciitis following exposure to Holi colors: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauhan, Deepender; Arora, Ritu; Das, Sima; Shroff, Daraius; Narula, Ritesh

    2007-01-01

    Holi festival is celebrated in India traditionally by applying colors on one another. Various ocular adverse effects of these colors have been reported including conjunctivitis and corneal abrasion. We report a case of bilateral periorbital necrotizing fasciitis, following exposure to Holi colors. General physicians might encounter more such cases after exposure to Holi colors. In India, these colors are prepared on a small scale and lack any quality checks. Use of such toxic colors should be discouraged, and all doctors should caution people against using synthetic dyes. This case report highlights the need to put manufacturing of Holi colors under guidelines of the Food and Drug Cosmetic Act and the Bureau of Indian Standards.

  11. Self-reported noise exposure as a risk factor for long-term sickness absence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Thomas; Christensen, Karl Bang; Lund, Thomas;

    2009-01-01

    -quarter and three-quarters of their time at work had an increased risk of 43% (CI: 10-85%) for sickness absence of two weeks or longer compared to men that reported never to be exposed to loud noise. Men that reported to be little/rarely exposed to loud noise had an increased risk of 37% (CI: 7-76%). Men...... that reported to be exposed to loud noise more than three-quarters of their time at work did not have an increased risk of sickness absence. This latter result might be due a healthy worker effect and/or more frequent use of hearing protection in this group. Along with evidence from previous studies......Self-reported noise exposure is on the rise in Denmark. Little is known, however, about the social consequences, including sickness absence, of noise exposure. The aim of this paper was to investigate the association between self-reported noise exposure and long-term sickness absence...

  12. Indoor Air Pollution and Health in Ghana: Self-Reported Exposure to Unprocessed Solid Fuel Smoke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armah, Frederick A; Odoi, Justice O; Luginaah, Isaac

    2015-06-01

    Most countries in Sub-Saharan Africa including Ghana still depend extensively on unprocessed solid cooking fuels with many people exposed on a daily basis to harmful emissions and other health risks. In this study, using complementary log-log multivariate models, we estimated the health effects of exposure to smoke from unprocessed wood in four regions of Ghana while controlling for socio-environmental and socio-demographic factors. The results show that the distribution of self-reported exposure to smoke was highest among participants in the Northern region, rural dwellers, the 25-49 age groups, individuals with no education, and married women. As expected, exposure to smoke was higher in crowded households and in communities without basic social amenities. Region, residential locality, housing quality (type of roofing, floor and exterior materials), self-reported housing condition, and access to toilet facilities were associated with self-reported exposure to solid fuel smoke. Participants living in urban areas were less likely (OR = 0.82, ρ ≤ 0.01) to be exposed to solid fuel smoke compared to their rural counterparts. An inverse relationship between self-reported housing condition and exposure to solid fuel smoke was observed and persisted even after adjustments were made for confounding variables in the demographic model. In Ghana, the cost and intermittent shortages of liquefied petroleum gas and other alternative fuel sources hold implications for the willingness of the poor to shift to their use. Thus, the poorest rural populations with nearly no cash income and electricity, but with access to wood and/or agricultural waste, are unlikely to move to clean fuels or use significantly improved stoves without large subsidies, which are usually not sustainable. However, there appears to be large populations between these extremes that can be targeted by efforts to introduce improved stoves.

  13. Pleural mesothelioma: Case-report of uncommon occupational asbestos exposure in a small furniture industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oddone, Enrico; Imbriani, Marcello

    2016-01-01

    The relationship between asbestos exposure and malignant mesothelioma is no longer disputed, although it is not always easy to trace past occupational exposure. This report describes a case of uncommon asbestos exposure of a small furniture industry worker, who subsequently died of pleural malignant mesothelioma, to stress the crucial importance of a full reconstruction of the occupational history, both for legal and compensation purposes. Sarcomatoid pleural mesothelioma was diagnosed in a 70-year-old man, who was previously employed as a carpenter in a small furniture industry. He worked for about 6 years in the small factory, was exposed to asbestos during the assembly of the furniture inspired by classical architecture, in which asbestos cement tubes were used to reproduce classical columns. During this production process no specific work safety measures were applied, nor masks or local aspirators. No extra-professional exposure to asbestos was identified. This mesothelioma case was investigated by the Public Prosecutor's assignment that commissioned expert evidence on the legal accountability for the disease. Despite its uncommon expositive circumstance, the length of latency (about 30 years), the duration of exposure, the clinical and histochemical features are all consistent with literature evidence, accounting for the occupational origin of this malignancy.

  14. Pleural mesothelioma: Case-report of uncommon occupational asbestos exposure in a small furniture industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrico Oddone

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between asbestos exposure and malignant mesothelioma is no longer disputed, although it is not always easy to trace past occupational exposure. This report describes a case of uncommon asbestos exposure of a small furniture industry worker, who subsequently died of pleural malignant mesothelioma, to stress the crucial importance of a full reconstruction of the occupational history, both for legal and compensation purposes. Sarcomatoid pleural mesothelioma was diagnosed in a 70-year-old man, who was previously employed as a carpenter in a small furniture industry. He worked for about 6 years in the small factory, was exposed to asbestos during the assembly of the furniture inspired by classical architecture, in which asbestos cement tubes were used to reproduce classical columns. During this production process no specific work safety measures were applied, nor masks or local aspirators. No extra-professional exposure to asbestos was identified. This mesothelioma case was investigated by the Public Prosecutor’s assignment that commissioned expert evidence on the legal accountability for the disease. Despite its uncommon expositive circumstance, the length of latency (about 30 years, the duration of exposure, the clinical and histochemical features are all consistent with literature evidence, accounting for the occupational origin of this malignancy.

  15. Medication Exposures and Subsequent Development of Ewing Sarcoma: A Review of FDA Adverse Event Reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith U. Cope

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Ewing sarcoma family of tumors (ESFT are rare but deadly cancers of unknown etiology. Few risk factors have been identified. This study was undertaken to ascertain any possible association between exposure to therapeutic drugs and ESFT. Methods. This is a retrospective, descriptive study. A query of the FDA Adverse Event Reporting System (FAERS was conducted for all reports of ESFT, January 1, 1998, through December 31, 2013. Report narratives were individually reviewed for patient characteristics, underlying conditions and drug exposures. Results. Over 16 years, 134 ESFT reports were identified, including 25 cases of ESFT following therapeutic drugs and biologics including immunosuppressive agents and hormones. Many cases were confounded by concomitant medications and other therapies. Conclusions. This study provides a closer look at medication use and underlying disorders in patients who later developed ESFT. While this study was not designed to demonstrate any clear causative association between ESFT and prior use of a single product or drug class, many drugs were used to treat immune-related disease and growth or hormonal disturbances. Further studies may be warranted to better understand possible immune or neuroendocrine abnormalities or exposure to specific classes of drugs that may predispose to the later development of ESFT.

  16. Assessment of the Effects of Acute and Repeated Exposure to Blast Overpressure in Rodents: Towards a Greater Understanding of Blast and the Potential Ramifications for Injury in Humans Exposed to Blast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Thomas Ahlers

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI resulting from exposure to improvised explosive devices (IEDs has fueled a requirement to develop animals models that mirror this condition using exposure to blast overpressure (BOP. En route to developing a model of repeated exposure to BOP we sought to initially characterize the effects of acute BOP exposure in rodents, focusing specifically on the levels of BOP exposure that produced clinical mTBI symptoms. We first measured BOP effects on gross motor function on a balance beam. Separate groups of unanesthetized rats were exposed (in different orientations to 40 kPa, 75 kPa and 120 kPa BOP exposure inside a pneumatically driven shock tube. Results demonstrated that rats exposed to 120 kPa demonstrated transient alterations or loss of consciousness indicated by a transient loss of righting and by increased latencies on the balance beam. The 120 kPa exposure was the threshold for overt pathology for acute BOP exposure with approximately 30% of rats presenting with evidence of subdural hemorrhage and cortical contusions. All animals exposed to 120 kPa BOP manifested evidence of significant pulmonary hemorrhage. Anterograde memory deficits were observed in rats exposed to 75 kPa facing the BOP wave and rats exposed to 120 kPa in the lateral (side orientation. We next assessed repeated exposure to either lateral or frontal 40 kPa BOP in anesthetized rats, once per day for 12 days. Results showed that repeated exposure in the frontal, but not side, orientation to the BOP wave produced a transitory learning deficit on a Morris water maze (MWM task as shown by significantly longer latencies to reach the submerged platform in the second and third blocks of a four block session. Implications of these data are discussed in relation to the manifestation of mTBI in military personnel exposed to IEDs. Finally, we suggest that there are multiple types of brain injury from blast.

  17. Radiation Exposures for DOE and DOE Contractor Employees - 1990. Twenty-third annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, M. H. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Hui, T. E. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Millet, W. H. [Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Scholes, V. A. [Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    1993-11-01

    All U.S. Department of Energy and DOE contractors are required by DOE Order 5484.1, Chapter IV, to submit occupational radiation exposure records to a central depository. For 1990, data were required to be submitted for all employees who were required to be monitored in accordance with DOE Order 5480.11 and for all visitors who had a positive exposure. The data required included the total effective dose equivalent, external penetrating whole-body dose equivalent, internal dose equivalent, the shallow dose equivalent, neutron dose equivalent, and extremity dose equivalent. Data regarding the exposed individuals included the individual's age, sex, and occupation category. This report is a summary of data reported by DOE and DOE contractors for the calendar year 1990.

  18. Public acceptance of management actions and judgments of responsibility for the wolves of the southern Greater Yellowstone Area: Report to Grand Teton National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Jonathan G.; Johnson, S. Shea; Shelby, Lori B.

    2005-01-01

    Introduction Wolves of Grand Teton National Park and the Greater Yellowstone Area Gray wolves (Canis lupus) appeared in Grand Teton National Park (GRTE) in October of 1998, two years after being reintroduced to Yellowstone National Park (YNP). Since that time, five packs have been within the GRTE borders - Gros Ventre Pack, Nez Perce Pack, Yellowstone Delta Pack, Teton Pack, and Green River Pack (Table 1). Wolves in the Greater Yellowstone Area are increasing and spreading out geographically (USFWS and others, 2004). This dispersion was demonstrated recently by the death of a 2-year-old female wolf from the Swan Lake pack on I-70 in Colorado (June 7, 2004; http://mountain-prairie.USFWS.gov/pressrel /04-43.htm). The organization of wolf packs in the GYA is dynamic and highly structured. In 2003, for example, a wolf from the Teton Pack joined with the Green River Pack, and several young wolves left the Teton Pack and moved south (USFWS and others, 2004). Pack size (averaging five to ten members) is dependent on hunting efficiency, which depends on prey size, type, and density. Each pack defends home ranges of several hundred square miles. The social structure of the pack is based on a breeding pair (an alpha male and female). Other wolves in the pack can be categorized as betas (males and/or females second in rank to the alphas), subordinates, pups, and occasional omegas (outcasts). Because generally only the alpha pair breeds, subordinate wolves of reproductive age must disperse from their packs and form new associations in order to breed. (http://www.nps.gov/grte/wolf/biolo.htm). The reintroduced wolves are classified by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) as "nonessential experimental" under section 10(j) of the Endangered Species Act. The recovery criteria for the GYA wolves were met in 2002 for removing the wolves from the Endangered Species List (30 or more breeding pairs). Currently, the USFWS manages wolf populations in the GYA until delisting occurs

  19. Examining the public’s exposure to reports about ethnic groups in mainstream Russian media.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gladkova A. A.

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the exposure of Russian public to reports about ethnic groups in current mainstream Russian media by analyzing the amount of such reports today, as well as results of an online survey (n = 1040 aimed at revealing to what extent the public is indeed exposed to them by the respondents’ own estimations. The survey showed that generally users tend to lack information about ethnicities in mainstream media and demonstrate a certain interest in learning more about other ethnic groups in Russia through media channels. We argue thus that the public’s exposure to information about ethnic issues, although relatively high on a quantitative level (i.e., in terms of the actual number of reports, is lower on a qualitative one (i.e., the share of the respondents who actually come across such reports. The paper also reveals a number of tendencies from analyzing users’ age groups and their regions of living. In general, we believe that singling out both specifics of the public’s exposure to information about ethnicities and the connection between this exposure and the public’s attitudes toward ethnicities (which is planned as the second stage of the current research project may contribute to better understanding of the effects media can have on their audience in terms of agenda-setting and psychological influence. The current research can also be of interest when discussing the role mass media play in building harmonious relationships between representatives of different ethnic groups in a multiethnic society such as the Russian one.

  20. Biologic indicators of exposure to cadmium and lead palmerton, Pennsylvania. Part 2. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarasua, S.M.; McGeehin, M.A.; Stallings, F.L.; Terracciano, G.L.; Amler, R.W.

    1995-05-01

    In Part 2 of this study, no difference was reported in the results of medical tests of the blood, liver, kidney, and immune systems of participants living in the two study areas. No relationships was found between exposure to cadmium and lead and the immune, liver, and blood system tests. No community wide medical action is needed in Palmerton based on the results of this study. No further site-specific health studies are recommended.

  1. Report on recent over-exposure accidents with a medical linac in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kudoh, Hisaaki [Tokyo Univ., Nuclear Engineering Research Lab., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2003-02-01

    On December 21, 2001, at a hospital in Tokyo, an engineer setting a medical-linac was over-exposed by the equipment due to lack of communication between workers. The exposed dose was initially reported as 1000 mSv (1 Sv), but later revised to 200 mSv at most. The outline of the accident and the statistical data on radiation exposure accidents in Japan and the world are briefly overlooked. (author)

  2. Occupational blood exposure among health care workers: I. Frequency and reporting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nelsing, S; Nielsen, T L; Nielsen, Jens Ole

    1993-01-01

    The frequency and reporting rate concerning occupational blood exposure were investigated among former and currently employed medical staff at a Department of Infectious Diseases (DID) having a high prevalence of HIV-positive patients. Subjects were asked to complete an anonymous questionnaire de......, carries a real and serious risk of contracting infectious diseases due to occupational exposure to blood. The importance of reporting needs to be emphasized.......The frequency and reporting rate concerning occupational blood exposure were investigated among former and currently employed medical staff at a Department of Infectious Diseases (DID) having a high prevalence of HIV-positive patients. Subjects were asked to complete an anonymous questionnaire.......5%) involved blood from a patient with hepatitis B. Annual incidence rates of PCE and MCE were: for A) interns and residents, 0.51 PCE/year and 0.17 MCE/year; B) for senior residents and senior physicians, 0.13 PCE/year and 0.21 MCE/year; C) for registered nurses, 0.11 PCE/year and 0.03 MCE/year; D...

  3. Emotional scenes elicit more pronounced self-reported emotional experience and greater EPN and LPP modulation when compared to emotional faces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thom, Nathaniel; Knight, Justin; Dishman, Rod; Sabatinelli, Dean; Johnson, Douglas C; Clementz, Brett

    2014-06-01

    Emotional faces and scenes carry a wealth of overlapping and distinct perceptual information. Despite widespread use in the investigation of emotional perception, expressive face and evocative scene stimuli are rarely assessed in the same experiment. Here, we evaluated self-reports of arousal and pleasantness, as well as early and late event-related potentials (e.g., N170, early posterior negativity [EPN], late positive potential [LPP]) as subjects viewed neutral and emotional faces and scenes, including contents representing anger, fear, and joy. Results demonstrate that emotional scenes were rated as more evocative than emotional faces, as only scenes produced elevated self-reports of arousal. In addition, viewing scenes resulted in more extreme ratings of pleasantness (and unpleasantness) than did faces. EEG results indicate that both expressive faces and emotional scenes evoke enhanced negativity in the N170 component, while the EPN and LPP components show significantly enhanced modulation only by scene, relative to face stimuli. These data suggest that viewing emotional scenes results in a more pronounced emotional experience that is associated with reliable modulation of visual event-related potentials that are implicated in emotional circuits in the brain.

  4. Using an Emergency Department Syndromic Surveillance System to Evaluate Reporting of Potential Rabies Exposures, Illinois, 2013-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bemis, Kelley; Frias, Mabel; Patel, Megan Toth; Christiansen, Demian

    Mandatory reporting of potential rabies exposures and initiation of postexposure prophylaxis (PEP) allow local health authorities to monitor PEP administration for errors. Our objectives were to use an emergency department (ED) syndromic surveillance system to (1) estimate reporting compliance for exposure to rabies in suburban Cook County, Illinois, and (2) initiate interventions to improve reporting and reassess compliance. We queried ED records from 45 acute care hospitals in Cook County and surrounding areas from January 1, 2013, through June 30, 2015, for chief complaints or discharge diagnoses pertaining to rabies, PEP, or contact with a wild mammal (eg, bat, raccoon, skunk, fox, or coyote). We matched patients with ≥1 ED visit for potential rabies exposure to people with potential rabies exposure reported to the Cook County Department of Public Health. We considered nonmatches to have unreported exposures. We then initiated active surveillance in July 2015, disseminated education on reporting requirements in August and September 2015, and reassessed reporting completeness from July 2015 through February 2016. Of 248 patients with rabies-related ED visits from January 2013 through June 2015, 63 (25.4%) were reported. After interventions were implemented to increase reporting compliance, 53 of 98 (54.1%) patients with rabies-related ED visits from July 2015 through February 2016 were reported. Patients with ED visits for potential rabies exposure were twice as likely to be reported postintervention than preintervention (risk ratio = 2.1; 95% CI, 1.6-2.8). The volume of potential rabies exposure cases reported to the health department from July 2015 through February 2016 increased by 252% versus the previous year. Potential rabies exposures and PEP initiation are underreported in suburban Cook County. ED syndromic surveillance records can be used to estimate reporting compliance and conduct active surveillance.

  5. Lung fibrosis and exposure to wood dusts: Two cases report and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Riccò

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Increasing evidence suggests that idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF occurs more often in subjects previously exposed to wood dusts than in non-exposed subjects. Here we report 2 cases of the IPF among workers prolongedly exposed to high levels of hardwood dusts. Case report: The case No. 1: An 83 year-old male former smoker, retired joiner developed mild dyspnoea and chronic dry cough over the period preceding the examination. Pulmonary function tests (PFT identified a mild restrictive pattern and diffusion capacity for carbon dioxide (CO2 that was severely impaired (57% of predicted value. High resolution computer tomography (HRCT identified bilateral, subpleural basal reticular opacities in honeycombing, without any nodules or ground-glass opacities. The case No. 2: A 73 year-old male retired joiner, never smoker, presented a 3-year history of progressive breathlessness and non-productive cough in mild hypoxemia. Pulmonary function tests suggested a moderate restrictive pattern in severely impaired diffusion capacity for CO2 (54% of predicted value. High resolution computer tomography identified diffuse peripheral reticular opacities and honeycombing of lower fields, with apico-basilar gradient. Both cases received diagnosis of the idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Discussion: The pulmonary fibrosis is a common feature of several diseases and may be induced by inflammatory disorders following inhalation of organic and inorganic dusts (e.g., asbestos, silica, and several reports suggest that many cases of the IPF may be in fact secondary to occupational dust exposure as in the case reports we present here. Conclusions: Occupational exposure to wood dusts may be a risk factor for the IPF. Unfortunately, exposure reconstruction is frequently inconsistent and anamnesis often misses other causes of the pulmonary fibrosis (e.g., extrinsic allergic alveolitis. Med Pr 2015;66(5:739–747

  6. A review of the reporting and handling of missing data in cohort studies with repeated assessment of exposure measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karahalios Amalia

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Retaining participants in cohort studies with multiple follow-up waves is difficult. Commonly, researchers are faced with the problem of missing data, which may introduce biased results as well as a loss of statistical power and precision. The STROBE guidelines von Elm et al. (Lancet, 370:1453-1457, 2007; Vandenbroucke et al. (PLoS Med, 4:e297, 2007 and the guidelines proposed by Sterne et al. (BMJ, 338:b2393, 2009 recommend that cohort studies report on the amount of missing data, the reasons for non-participation and non-response, and the method used to handle missing data in the analyses. We have conducted a review of publications from cohort studies in order to document the reporting of missing data for exposure measures and to describe the statistical methods used to account for the missing data. Methods A systematic search of English language papers published from January 2000 to December 2009 was carried out in PubMed. Prospective cohort studies with a sample size greater than 1,000 that analysed data using repeated measures of exposure were included. Results Among the 82 papers meeting the inclusion criteria, only 35 (43% reported the amount of missing data according to the suggested guidelines. Sixty-eight papers (83% described how they dealt with missing data in the analysis. Most of the papers excluded participants with missing data and performed a complete-case analysis (n = 54, 66%. Other papers used more sophisticated methods including multiple imputation (n = 5 or fully Bayesian modeling (n = 1. Methods known to produce biased results were also used, for example, Last Observation Carried Forward (n = 7, the missing indicator method (n = 1, and mean value substitution (n = 3. For the remaining 14 papers, the method used to handle missing data in the analysis was not stated. Conclusions This review highlights the inconsistent reporting of missing data in cohort studies and the continuing

  7. A review of the reporting and handling of missing data in cohort studies with repeated assessment of exposure measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karahalios, Amalia; Baglietto, Laura; Carlin, John B; English, Dallas R; Simpson, Julie A

    2012-07-11

    Retaining participants in cohort studies with multiple follow-up waves is difficult. Commonly, researchers are faced with the problem of missing data, which may introduce biased results as well as a loss of statistical power and precision. The STROBE guidelines von Elm et al. (Lancet, 370:1453-1457, 2007); Vandenbroucke et al. (PLoS Med, 4:e297, 2007) and the guidelines proposed by Sterne et al. (BMJ, 338:b2393, 2009) recommend that cohort studies report on the amount of missing data, the reasons for non-participation and non-response, and the method used to handle missing data in the analyses. We have conducted a review of publications from cohort studies in order to document the reporting of missing data for exposure measures and to describe the statistical methods used to account for the missing data. A systematic search of English language papers published from January 2000 to December 2009 was carried out in PubMed. Prospective cohort studies with a sample size greater than 1,000 that analysed data using repeated measures of exposure were included. Among the 82 papers meeting the inclusion criteria, only 35 (43%) reported the amount of missing data according to the suggested guidelines. Sixty-eight papers (83%) described how they dealt with missing data in the analysis. Most of the papers excluded participants with missing data and performed a complete-case analysis (n=54, 66%). Other papers used more sophisticated methods including multiple imputation (n=5) or fully Bayesian modeling (n=1). Methods known to produce biased results were also used, for example, Last Observation Carried Forward (n=7), the missing indicator method (n=1), and mean value substitution (n=3). For the remaining 14 papers, the method used to handle missing data in the analysis was not stated. This review highlights the inconsistent reporting of missing data in cohort studies and the continuing use of inappropriate methods to handle missing data in the analysis. Epidemiological journals

  8. Reported toxicity in 1486 liquid detergent capsule exposures to the UK National Poisons Information Service 2009-2012, including their ophthalmic and CNS effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Hayley; Jones, Stephen; Wood, Kelly; Scott, Robert A H; Eddleston, Michael; Thomas, Simon H L; Thompson, John Paul; Vale, J Allister

    2014-02-01

    CONTEXT. Data on the ophthalmic and central nervous system (CNS) adverse effects of liquid detergent capsules (liquid laundry pods) are limited. OBJECTIVE. To ascertain the reported toxicity of liquid detergent capsules, particularly their ophthalmic and CNS adverse effects, in a large case series. METHODS. Between 1 May 2009 and 30 July 2012 the UK National Poisons Information Service collected prospectively 1509 telephone enquiries (involving 1486 exposures) relating to liquid detergent capsules. RESULTS. The majority of patients (95.6%) were children aged less than 5. Exposure to these products occurred mainly as a result of ingestion alone (n = 1215; 81.8%), with eye contact alone (n = 110; 7.4%), and skin contact alone (n = 20; 1.3%) being less common; multiple routes of exposure were involved in 141 (9.5%) cases. Following ocular exposure (n = 212), features suggesting conjunctivitis (n = 145; 68.4%) and corneal ulceration (n = 6; 2.8%) developed. The most common features reported following ingestion alone were nausea and vomiting (n = 721; 59.3%), followed by coughing (n = 53; 4.4%), drowsiness/CNS depression (n = 49; 42 of these were children were aged 2 years or less) and foaming at the mouth (n = 47; 3.9%). A rash occurred in 22 patients where ingestion was considered to be the route of exposure. Twenty patients were exposed via the dermal route alone and developed erythema (n = 9), rash (n = 6) and burn (n = 3). CONCLUSIONS. Ocular exposure to liquid detergent capsules may lead to conjunctivitis and corneal ulceration; detergent ingestion may result in central nervous system (CNS)depression. Greater consumer awareness is required to reduce injury from liquid detergent capsules, particularly that involving the eye.

  9. Hair nicotine concentration measurement in cats and its relationship to owner-reported environmental tobacco smoke exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, V A; McBrearty, A R; Watson, D G; Mellor, D J; Spence, S; Knottenbelt, C

    2017-01-01

    To investigate the association between hair nicotine concentration in cats and owner-reported exposure to environmental tobacco smoke. Owner questionnaires documented exposure. Nicotine was extracted from hair by sonification in methanol followed by hydrophilic interaction chromatography with mass spectrometry. Relationships between hair nicotine concentration and owner-reported exposure were examined using hypothesis-testing statistics and receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. The hair nicotine concentration of reportedly exposed cats was significantly higher than unexposed cats and groups of cats with different levels of exposure had significantly different median hair nicotine concentrations corresponding to exposure. A hair nicotine concentration of 0·1 ng/mg had a specificity of 98% (95% confidence interval: 83 to 100) and a sensitivity of 69% (95% confidence interval: 54 to 84) for detecting environmental tobacco smoke exposure. Outdoors access, coat colour, urban or rural environment and length of time living with the owner were not obviously associated with hair nicotine concentration. Feline hair nicotine concentration appears strongly associated with owner-reported environmental tobacco smoke exposure. Feline hair nicotine concentration could therefore be used as a biomarker for tobacco smoke exposure, allowing future studies to assess whether exposed cats have an increased risk of specific diseases. © 2017 British Small Animal Veterinary Association.

  10. Florida red tide and human health: a pilot beach conditions reporting system to minimize human exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkpatrick, Barbara; Currier, Robert; Nierenberg, Kate; Reich, Andrew; Backer, Lorraine C; Stumpf, Richard; Fleming, Lora; Kirkpatrick, Gary

    2008-08-25

    With over 50% of the US population living in coastal counties, the ocean and coastal environments have substantial impacts on coastal communities. While many of the impacts are positive, such as tourism and recreation opportunities, there are also negative impacts, such as exposure to harmful algal blooms (HABs) and water borne pathogens. Recent advances in environmental monitoring and weather prediction may allow us to forecast these potential adverse effects and thus mitigate the negative impact from coastal environmental threats. One example of the need to mitigate adverse environmental impacts occurs on Florida's west coast, which experiences annual blooms, or periods of exuberant growth, of the toxic dinoflagellate, Karenia brevis. K. brevis produces a suite of potent neurotoxins called brevetoxins. Wind and wave action can break up the cells, releasing toxin that can then become part of the marine aerosol or sea spray. Brevetoxins in the aerosol cause respiratory irritation in people who inhale it. In addition, asthmatics who inhale the toxins report increase upper and lower airway symptoms and experience measurable changes in pulmonary function. Real-time reporting of the presence or absence of these toxic aerosols will allow asthmatics and local coastal residents to make informed decisions about their personal exposures, thus adding to their quality of life. A system to protect public health that combines information collected by an Integrated Ocean Observing System (IOOS) has been designed and implemented in Sarasota and Manatee Counties, Florida. This system is based on real-time reports from lifeguards at the eight public beaches. The lifeguards provide periodic subjective reports of the amount of dead fish on the beach, apparent level of respiratory irritation among beach-goers, water color, wind direction, surf condition, and the beach warning flag they are flying. A key component in the design of the observing system was an easy reporting pathway for

  11. Evaluating the Accuracy of Self-Reported Exposure to Secondhand Smoke during Pregnancy by Measuring Umbilical Cord Blood Cotinine Concentration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Zahra Banihosseini

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS during pregnancy leads to fetal and neonatal complications. Since the effect of exposure to tobacco smoke during pregnancy on maternal self-reporting may not be accurate, this study design to evaluate the validity and accuracy of maternal self- reported SHS exposure, using the cord blood cotinine as a biomarker of exposure to tobacco at delivery. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study conducted on 108 non-smoking pregnant women. They were divided into two groups based on their reports; smoke exposed (54 and non-exposed groups (54. Exposure to tobacco smoke was assessed during pregnancy by measuring cord blood cotinine and using questionnaires. The umbilical cord blood of newborns was obtained at delivery room to evaluate the amount of cotinine (main metabolite of nicotine and for estimation of the accuracy of maternal self-reported to SHS exposure, cut-off point Cotinine level of umbilical cord serum that more than 2 ng/ml was considered as positive exposed. Result: The geometric mean cotinine of umbilical cord serum in the exposed group (3.71±1.22 ng/ml was significantly higher than the non-exposed (0.404±0.63 ng/ml (P<0.0001. There was a strong association between maternal reported SHS exposure and umbilical cord cotinine (Kappa= 98%, P<0.0001. In addition, the reported SHS exposure had 98% sensitivity, 100% specificity, 100% positive and 98% negative predictive value in comparison to umbilical cord cotinine concentration. Conclusion: This study shows that maternal self-reported SHS exposure is highly accurate .Moreover it seems valid questionnaire. Should be considered as an alternative method for measuring chemical biomarkers, such as cotinine; if the structured questionnaires and accurate interviewing techniques is used.

  12. Treacher Collins syndrome with multiple congenital heart defects after paroxetine exposure: case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinlen, N; Zenciroğlu, A; Dilli, D; Aydin, B; Beken, S; Okumuş, N

    2014-01-01

    Treacher Collins syndrome is an autosomal dominant disorder of craniofacial development with an incidence of I in 40,000 to in 70,000 live births. It is characterized by abnormalities of the pinnae which are frequently associated with atresia of the external auditory canals and anomalies of the middle ear ossicles. Rarely congenital heart defects can be present. Prenatal paroxetine exposure may enhance the risks of major malformation, particularly cardiac defects. This article reports a newborn, whose mother used paroxetine during pregnancy, presenting with multiple congenital heart defects associated to typical physical characteristics of Treacher Collins syndrome.

  13. Association and moderation of self-reported hypotension with traffic noise exposure: A neglected relationship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Lercher

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In a short-term experimental study about one-third of subjects exposed to noise shows both increases and decreases in blood pressure. While the association of noise with hypertension is established it is not yet known whether hypotension is associated with noise in field studies. In a cross-sectional study the association of self-reported hypotension and low blood pressure readings with traffic noise was examined in adults (age 25-65, N = 1989, participation = 62%. Noise exposure was based on both, short and long-term day/night recordings and standard noise mapping. Questionnaire data on socio-demographics, housing, life-style, noise and weather sensitivity, health status, mental and physical symptoms were available to adjust for potential confounding and testing for moderation. Non-linear multiple regression was applied to estimate the association between the two outcomes and overall noise exposure. We did not observe a stable relation between noise and low blood pressure readings since the number of subjects based on the recommended cut-off points (5 th percentile or 110 (100/60 mmHg was too small. However, self-reported hypotension was non-linearly associated with noise exposure ( P = 0.044 in the presence of a strong sex × age effect modification ( P < 0.0001. Another significant moderation by noise were observed with reported symptoms of exhaustion ( P = 0.03. Weather sensitivity showed a significant interaction with noise sensitivity ( P = 0.02 and also a non-linear interaction with age ( P = 0.02. The results remained stable after adjustment for variables known to be associated with constitutional hypotension. The exposure-effect curve ascends around sound levels of 55 dBA. The results suggest a novel moderated association of noise with self-reported hypotension, predominantly in weather sensitive women with symptoms of exhaustion. Further and larger studies are needed to replicate the potential moderating effect of noise on persons with

  14. Type B investigation report of curium-244 exposure at the ORNL TRU Facility, January 15, 1986

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Love, G.L.; Butler, H.M.; Duncan, D.T.; Oakes, T.W.

    1986-04-01

    This Type B Investigative Report provides an evaluation of relevant events and activities that led to, were a part of, or resulted from the release of curium-244 in the Building 7920 facility at ORNL in January 1986. Impacts have been evaluated with respect to employee exposures and the costs and loss of productivity resulting from increased bioassay analyses and activities of investigative committees. Management systems evaluated include (1) training of employees performing lab analyses, (2) adherence to procedures, and (3) response to unusual circumstances.

  15. Benzene ground-water exposure study, Nesmith, South Carolina. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stallings, F.L.

    1991-06-01

    Residents whose private well was contaminated with benzene and other volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were evaluated for VOC exposure. The extent to which they may have ingested contaminated water before discovering that the well was contaminated was not certain. However, they reported continuing to use water obtained from the well for bathing and household sanitation purposes after becoming aware of its contamination. Each adult household member completed a survey questionnaire to quantify individual water usage and characterize other potential exposure sources for VOCs. Although results of blood measurements for benzene for three family members showed blood levels of benzene that were within the range found in the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III) results, Blood levels for two of the family members were above the 90th percentile value for the reference population. Trichloroethene was not a suspected contaminant, but blood specimens of three study participants showed elevations in the upper 10 percent of the NHANES III population range. Two of the participants gave an occupational history consistent with an exposure potential to these analytes.

  16. Dog and cat exposures to hazardous substances reported to the Kansas State Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory: 2009-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahdi, Ali; Van der Merwe, Deon

    2013-06-01

    Pet dogs and cats in the USA are commonly exposed to potentially hazardous substances found in domestic environments. Requests for assistance and advice received by the Kansas State Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory regarding exposures in dogs and cats to substances perceived by their caretakers to be potentially harmful included 1,616 phone calls, over a 3-year period covering 2009-2012. Enquiries occurred more often during summer. Dogs were involved in 84.7 % of calls and cats in 15.3 %. Oral exposures were reported in 95.5 % of calls, dermal exposures in 3.7 % of calls, inhalation exposures in 0.6 % of calls, and parenteral exposures in 0.2 % of calls. Therapeutic drugs were the most frequently reported substances, accounting for 35.4 % of calls, followed by household chemicals (15.5 %); foods (14.8 %); pesticides (13.9 %); plants (12 %), industrial chemicals and fertilizers (3.6 %); cosmetics and personal care products (2.8 %); and animal, insect, and microorganism toxins (2.1 %). Although requests for information or assistance are not a measure of poisoning incidence, it can provide insight regarding relative exposure rates, help to identify changing exposure trends and emerging exposures, and reflect the public concern regarding actual or apparent harmful exposures in pets.

  17. Exposures and health effects at sea: report on the NIVA course: Maritime Occupational Medicine, Exposures and health Effects at Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carter, Tim; Jepsen, Jørgen Riis

    2014-01-01

    validity. This course, run by the NIVA Foundation and supported financially by the Nordic Council of Ministers, provided a first opportunity to draw a wide range of information and experience together to review exposure and health risks in seafarers. As a result it provided both a forum for deciding...

  18. Self-reported and measured stress related responses associated with exposure to wind turbine noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaud, David S; Feder, Katya; Keith, Stephen E; Voicescu, Sonia A; Marro, Leonora; Than, John; Guay, Mireille; Denning, Allison; Bower, Tara; Villeneuve, Paul J; Russell, Evan; Koren, Gideon; van den Berg, Frits

    2016-03-01

    The current study was the first to assess stress reactions associated with wind turbine noise (WTN) exposure using self-reported and objective measures. Randomly selected participants, aged 18-79 yr (606 males; 632 females), living between 0.25 and 11.22 km from wind turbines, were exposed to outdoor calculated WTN levels up to 46 dBA (response rate 78.9%). Multiple regression modeling left the great majority (77%-89%) of the variance in perceived stress scale (PSS) scores, hair cortisol concentrations, resting blood pressure, and heart rate unaccounted for, and WTN exposure had no apparent influence on any of these endpoints. PSS scores were positively, but weakly, related to cortisol concentrations and resting heart rate (Pearson r = 0.13 and r = 0.08, respectively). Across WTN categories, modeled mean PSS scores ranged from 13.15 to 13.84 (p = 0.8614). Modeled geometric means for hair cortisol concentrations, resting mean systolic, diastolic blood pressure, and heart rate were 150.54-191.12 ng/g (p = 0.5416), 113.38-116.82 mmHg (p = 0.4990), 67.98-70.34 mmHg (p = 0.5006), and 68.24-70.71 bpm (p = 0.5223), respectively. Irrespective of WTN levels, diastolic blood pressure appeared to be slightly (2.90 mmHg 95% CI: 0.75,5.05) higher among participants highly annoyed by blinking lights on turbines (p = 0.0081). Collectively, the findings do not support an association between exposure to WTN up to 46 dBA and elevated self-reported and objectively defined measures of stress.

  19. Improving disclosure and consent: "is it safe?": new ethics for reporting personal exposures to environmental chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brody, Julia Green; Morello-Frosch, Rachel; Brown, Phil; Rudel, Ruthann A; Altman, Rebecca Gasior; Frye, Margaret; Osimo, Cheryl A; Pérez, Carla; Seryak, Liesel M

    2007-09-01

    The recent flood of research concerning pollutants in personal environmental and biological samples-blood, urine, breastmilk, household dust and air, umbilical cord blood, and other media-raises questions about whether and how to report results to individual study participants. Clinical medicine provides an expert-driven framework, whereas community-based participatory research emphasizes participants' right to know and the potential to inform action even when health effects are uncertain. Activist efforts offer other models. We consider ethical issues involved in the decision to report individual results in exposure studies and what information should be included. Our discussion is informed by our experience with 120 women in a study of 89 pollutants in homes and by interviews with other researchers and institutional review board staff.

  20. Evidence Report: Risk of Cardiovascular Disease and Other Degenerative Tissue Effects from Radiation Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Zarana; Huff, Janice; Saha, Janapriya; Wang, Minli; Blattnig, Steve; Wu, Honglu; Cucinotta, Francis

    2015-01-01

    (SI unit for ionizing radiation dosage, i.e. one joule of radiation energy per one kilogram of matter)) to facilitate risk prediction. This risk has considerable uncertainty associated with it, and no acceptable model for projecting degenerative tissue risk is currently available. In particular, risk factors such as obesity, alcohol, and tobacco use can act as confounding factors that contribute to the large uncertainties. The PELs could be violated under certain scenarios, including following a large SPE (solar proton event) or long-term GCR (galactic cosmic ray) exposure. Specifically, for a Mars mission, the accumulated dose is sufficiently high that epidemiology data and preliminary risk estimates suggest a significant risk for cardiovascular disease. Ongoing research in this area is intended to provide the evidence base for accurate risk quantification to determine criticality for extended duration missions. Data specific to the space radiation environment must be compiled to quantify the magnitude of this risk to decrease the uncertainty in current PELs and to determine if additional protection strategies are required. New research results could lead to estimates of cumulative radiation risk from CNS and degenerative tissue diseases that, when combined with the cancer risk, may have major negative impacts on mission design, costs, schedule, and crew selection. The current report amends an earlier report (Human Research Program Requirements Document, HRP-47052, Rev. C, dated Jan 2009) in order to provide an update of evidence since 2009.

  1. Phthalate exposure associated with self-reported diabetes among Mexican women

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Svensson, Katherine [Graduate School of Public Health, Medical Sciences Campus, University of Puerto Rico, San Juan, PR (Puerto Rico); National Institute of Public Health, Universidad No. 655, Col. Santa Maria Ahuacatitlan, Cerrada los Pinos y Caminera, CP. 62100 Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Hernandez-Ramirez, Raul U.; Burguete-Garcia, Ana [National Institute of Public Health, Universidad No. 655, Col. Santa Maria Ahuacatitlan, Cerrada los Pinos y Caminera, CP. 62100 Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Cebrian, Mariano E. [Departamento de Toxicologia, Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados del Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Mexico City (Mexico); Calafat, Antonia M.; Needham, Larry L. [Division of Laboratory Sciences, National Center for Environmental Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA (United States); Claudio, Luz [Division of International Health, Department of Preventive Medicine, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, NY (United States); Lopez-Carrillo, Lizbeth, E-mail: lizbeth@insp.mx [National Institute of Public Health, Universidad No. 655, Col. Santa Maria Ahuacatitlan, Cerrada los Pinos y Caminera, CP. 62100 Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2011-08-15

    Background: Phthalates are ubiquitous industrial chemicals used as plasticizers in plastics made of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) to confer flexibility and durability. They are also present in products used for personal-care, industry and in medical devices. Phthalates have been associated with several adverse health effects, and recently it has been proposed that exposure to phthalates, could have an effect on metabolic homeostasis. This exploratory cross-sectional study evaluated the possible association between phthalate exposure and self-reported diabetes among adult Mexican women. Methods: As part of an on-going case-control study for breast cancer, only controls were selected, which constituted 221 healthy women matched by age ({+-}5 years) and place of residence with the cases. Women with diabetes were identified by self-report. Urinary concentrations of nine phthalate metabolites were measured by online solid phase extraction coupled to high performance liquid chromatography-isotope-dilution tandem mass spectrometry. Results: Participants with diabetes had significantly higher concentrations of di(2-ethylhexyl) pththalate (DEHP) metabolites: mono(2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl) phthalate (MEHHP), mono(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl) phthalate (MEOHP) and mono(2-ethyl-5-carboxypentyl) phthalate (MECPP) but lower levels of monobenzyl phthalate (MBzP) a metabolite of benzylbutyl phthalate, compared to participants without diabetes. A marginally significant positive associations with diabetes status were observed over tertiles with MEHHP (OR{sub T3vs.T1}=2.66; 95% CI: 0.97-7.33; p for trend=0.063) and MEOHP (OR{sub T3vs.T1}=2.27; 95% CI; 0.90-5.75; P for trend=0.079) even after adjusting for important confounders. Conclusions: The results suggest that levels of some phthalates may play a role in the genesis of diabetes. - Highlights: {yields} This study evaluated phthalate exposure and diabetes status among Mexican women. {yields} Urinary phthalates metabolite concentrations were used

  2. Modeling exposure to air pollution from the WTC disaster based on reports of perceived air pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lederman, Sally Ann; Becker, Mark; Sheets, Stephen; Stein, Janet; Tang, Deliang; Weiss, Lisa; Perera, Frederica P

    2008-04-01

    We examined the utility of a newly developed perceived air pollution (PAP) scale and of a modeled air pollution (MAP) scale derived from it for predicting previously observed birth outcomes of pregnant women enrolled following September 11, 2001. Women reported their home and work locations in the four weeks after September 11, 2001 and the PAP at each site on a four-point scale designed for this purpose. Locations were geocoded and their distance from the World Trade Center (WTC) site determined. PAP values were used to develop a model of air pollution for a 20-mile radius from the WTC site. MAP values were assigned to each geocoded location. We examined the relationship of PAP and MAP values to maternal characteristics and to distance of home and work sites from the WTC site. Both PAP and MAP values were highly correlated with distance from the WTC. Maternal characteristics that were associated with PAP values reported for home or work sites (race, demoralization, material hardship, first trimester on September 11) were not associated with modeled MAP values. Relationships of several birth outcomes to proximity to the WTC, which we previously reported using this data set, were also seen when MAP values were used as the measure of exposure, instead of proximity. MAP developed from reports of PAP may be useful to identify high-risk areas and predict health outcomes when there are multiple sources of pollution and a "distance from source" analysis is impossible.

  3. Reported rabies pre-exposure immunization of students at US Colleges of Veterinary Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindenmayer, Joann M; Wright, James C; Nusbaum, Kenneth E; Saville, William J A; Evanson, Timothy C; Pappaioanou, Marguerite

    2013-01-01

    In 2008, the US experienced a disruption in human rabies vaccine supplies, leading public health authorities to prioritize vaccine release for post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) and limit vaccine supplies for pre-exposure prophylaxis (PreEP) in high-risk groups. In 2008, the Association of American Veterinary Medical Colleges (AAVMC) surveyed its member institutions on rabies vaccination policies and practices. Senior administrators at Colleges of Veterinary Medicine (CVMs) and departments of veterinary science and comparative medicine were asked to identify the person most knowledgeable about their institution's student rabies vaccination program. Respondents were asked to describe their policies and procedures for administering PreEP to veterinary medical students and staff and to estimate the annual demand for student and staff PreEP vaccine. Twenty-one CVMs responded. Twenty (95%) reported requiring PreEP of veterinary medical students and 16 (80%) of those 20 required vaccination upon matriculation. An estimated 7,309 doses of vaccine were required for PreEP of an estimated 2,436 first-year US veterinary medical students. Seventy-two percent of respondents administered PreEP in August, September, and October, coinciding with the highest public demand for PEP. CVMs should consider altering the timing of rabies vaccine administration to veterinary medical students and staff to other months, thereby helping to ensure that PEP rabies vaccine will be available to people with validated rabies exposures and to ensure that supplies will be available for PreEP of students and staff. AAVMC may wish to identify and support a point of coordination to facilitate the purchase and distribution of human rabies vaccine among its US member CVMs.

  4. [Human exposures to veterinary medicines reported to the Poisons Information Centre Erfurt from 2003 to 2012].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hentschel, H; Prasa, D; Bergmann, I; Enden, G; Frimlova, G; Just, S; Plenert, B; Stürzebecher, A; Deters, M

    2014-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to get information on all human exposures to veterinary medicines (HEVM) reported to the Poisons Information Centre (PIC) over a 10-year period. A retrospective analysis of all HEVM was undertaken and a comparison was made to all human exposures (HE) registered by the PIC from the beginning of 2003 to the end of 2012 according to frequencies, circumstances of exposure, symptom severity, age groups, and substances involved in HEVM. In total, 389 cases of HEVM with 409 veterinary medicines were registered (0.30% of all HE, 360 monoexposures). The relative frequency of children and adults in HEVM (children: 52.4%, adults: 46.0%) and all HE (children: 48.7%, adults 48.7%) was the same with significant (pveterinary medicines (ATCvet) in HEVM were antiparasitic substances, insecticides and repellents (n=185), substances for the nervous system (n=48), substances for the cardiovascular system (n=35), and immunologicals (n=35). HEVM mostly resulted in no or mild symptoms (83.8%) and rarely in moderate (10/389, 2.6%) or even severe symptoms (5/389, 1.3%). In 4 of 5 cases of HEVM with severe symptoms, veterinary surgeons used products for animal euthanasia (n=3) or methadone (n=1). Once, self-medication with anthelmintics for several days by a goatherd resulted in transient blindness. In comparison to other HE, HEVM are rare. Most accidental HEVM in laymen result only in none to mild symptoms. If veterinary surgeons, however, swallow or inject products for animal euthanasia or opioids in suicidal intention, severe symptoms can be expected. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  5. [Respiratory manifestations after exposure to sulfurous anhydride in wine-cellar workers: 6 case reports].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Testud, F; Matray, D; Lambert, R; Hillion, B; Blanchet, C; Teisseire, C; Thibaudier, J M; Raoux, C; Pacheco, Y

    2000-02-01

    Sulfite treatment of wine [a process exploiting the biocidal and anti-oxidant properties of sulfur dioxide (SO2)] involves the use of liquified gas, aqueous solutions or bisulfites, i.e. the salts of sulfurous acid which slowly release SO2. This procedure can result in repeated exposures of operators to significant amounts of SO2. However, risks associated with the use of SO2 are greatly under-estimated by wine producers and wine-cellar workers. We report on 6 cases of respiratory symptoms attributable to SO2 identified during a survey of wine-cellars in the French Beaujolais district. Their pathogenesis is discussed after an overview of the occupational toxicology of SO2.

  6. Reports of Severe Physical Punishment and Exposure to Animal Cruelty by Inmates Convicted of Felonies and by University Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Karla S.; Knutson, John F.

    1997-01-01

    A self-report questionnaire designed to assess abusive childhood environments and exposure to animal cruelty was administered to 314 prison inmates. Although high rates of physical punishment characterized the entire sample, persons charged with violent but nonhomicidal crimes reported more severely punitive childhood histories than those charged…

  7. Conscientiousness predicts greater recovery from negative emotion

    OpenAIRE

    Kristin N Javaras; Schaefer, Stacey M.; van Reekum, Carien M.; Lapate, Regina C.; Greischar, Lawrence L.; Bachuber, David R.; Love, Gale; Ryff, Carol D.; Richard J Davidson

    2012-01-01

    Greater levels of conscientiousness have been associated with lower levels of negative affect. We focus on one mechanism through which conscientiousness may decrease\\ud negative affect: effective emotion regulation, as reflected by greater recovery from negative stimuli. In 273 adults who were 35 - 85 years old, we collected self-report measures of personality including conscientiousness and its self-control facet, followed\\ud on average 2 years later by psychophysiological measures of emotio...

  8. Self-reported acute health symptoms and exposure to companion animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: In order to understand the etiological burden of disease associated with acute health symptoms (e.g. gastrointestinal [GI], respiratory, dermatological), it is important to understand how common exposures influence these symptoms. Exposures to familiar and unfamiliar ...

  9. Nasal cancer and occupational exposures. Preliminary report of a joint Nordic case-referent study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hernberg, S; Collan, Y; Degerth, R

    1983-01-01

    showed a connection with adenocarcinoma. Softwood dust exposure alone was associated with epidermoid and anaplastic carcinomas. No associations were found for a number of exposures, including agricultural chemicals, textile dust, asbestos, quartz dust, organic solvents, and leather work. Possible...

  10. Validity of Self-Reported Tobacco Smoke Exposure among Non-Smoking Adult Public Housing Residents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shona C Fang

    Full Text Available Tobacco smoke exposure (TSE in public multi-unit housing (MUH is of concern. However, the validity of self-reports for determining TSE among non-smoking residents in such housing is unclear.We analyzed data from 285 non-smoking public MUH residents living in non-smoking households in the Boston area. Participants were interviewed about personal TSE in various locations in the past 7 days and completed a diary of home TSE for 7 days. Self-reported TSE was validated against measurable saliva cotinine (lower limit of detection (LOD 0.02 ng/ml and airborne apartment nicotine (LOD 5 ng. Correlations, estimates of inter-measure agreement, and logistic regression assessed associations between self-reported TSE items and measurable cotinine and nicotine.Cotinine and nicotine levels were low in this sample (median = 0.026 ng/ml and 0.022 μg/m3, respectively. Prevalence of detectable personal TSE was 66.3% via self-report and 57.0% via measurable cotinine (median concentration among those with cotinine>LOD: 0.057 ng/ml, with poor agreement (kappa = 0.06; sensitivity = 68.9%; specificity = 37.1%. TSE in the home, car, and other peoples' homes was weakly associated with cotinine levels (Spearman correlations rs = 0.15-0.25, while TSE in public places was not associated with cotinine. Among those with airborne nicotine and daily diary data (n = 161, a smaller proportion had household TSE via self-report (41.6% compared with measurable airborne nicotine (53.4% (median concentration among those with nicotine>LOD: 0.04 μg/m3 (kappa = 0.09, sensitivity = 46.5%, specificity = 62.7%.Self-report alone was not adequate to identify individuals with TSE, as 31% with measurable cotinine and 53% with measurable nicotine did not report TSE. Self-report of TSE in private indoor spaces outside the home was most associated with measurable cotinine in this low-income non-smoking population.

  11. Case report: Atrial fibrillation following exposure to ambient air pollution particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    CONTEXT: Exposure to air pollution can result in the onset of atrial fibrillation. CASE PRESENTATION: We present a case of a 58 year old woman who volunteered to participate in a controlled exposure to concentrated ambient particles (CAPs). Twenty minutes into the exposure, there...

  12. Limitations and information needs for engineered nanomaterialspecific exposure estimation and scenarios: recommendations for improved reporting practices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clark, K.; Tongeren, M. van; Christensen, F.; Brouwer, D.H.; Nowack, B.; Gottschalk, F.; Micheletti, C.; Schmid, K.; Gerritsen, R.; Aitken, R.; Vaquero, C.; Gkanis, V.; Housiadas, C.; López de Ipiña, J.M.; Riediker, M.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to describe the process and challenges in building exposure scenarios for engineered nanomaterials (ENM), using an exposure scenario format similar to that used for the European Chemicals regulation (REACH). Over 60 exposure scenarios were developed based on information from

  13. Body dissatisfaction and mirror exposure: evidence for a dissociation between self-report and physiological responses in highly body-dissatisfied women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fátima Servián-Franco

    Full Text Available Weight and shape concerns are widespread in the general population. Mirror exposure has been used to reduce body dissatisfaction but little is known about the mechanisms which underlie this therapeutic technique. The present study examined emotional, cognitive, and psychophysiological responses, in women with high and low levels of body dissatisfaction, exposed to their own bodies in a mirror.Forty-two university-attending women (21 high body-dissatisfied (HBD and 21 low body-dissatisfied (LBD, were confronted with their own body during four 5-min trials in which participants were instructed to focus their attention on different parts of their body under standardized conditions. Emotional and cognitive measures were taken after each exposure trial. Heart rate (HR and skin conductance (SC were recorded continuously.HBD women experienced more negative emotions and cognitions following body exposure compared to LBD women but, conversely, showed a reduced physiological reaction in terms of HR and SC. In both groups greater physiological responses were observed looking at the thighs, buttocks, and abdomen. Extent of negative emotions and cognitions were positively associated with HR and/or SC in LBD women but no associations were observed in HBD women.The dissociation between self-report and psychophysiological measures in HBD women supports the existence of a passive-behavioral inhibited coping style in HBD women and suggests deficiencies in the generation of physiological correlates of emotion related to body dissatisfaction.

  14. Justification of diagnostic medical exposures: some practical issues. Report of an International Atomic Energy Agency Consultation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malone, J; Guleria, R; Craven, C; Horton, P; Järvinen, H; Mayo, J; O'reilly, G; Picano, E; Remedios, D; Le Heron, J; Rehani, M; Holmberg, O; Czarwinski, R

    2012-05-01

    The Radiation Protection of Patients Unit of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) is concerned about the effectiveness of justification of diagnostic medical exposures. Recent published work and the report of an initial IAEA consultation in the area gave grounds for such concerns. There is a significant level of inappropriate usage, and, in some cases, a poor level of awareness of dose and risk among some key groups involved. This article aims to address this. The IAEA convened a second group of experts in November 2008 to review practical and achievable actions that might lead to more effective justification. This report summarises the matters that this group considered and the outcome of their deliberations. There is a need for improved communication, both within professions and between professionals on one hand, and between professionals and the patients/public on the other. Coupled with this, the issue of consent to imaging procedures was revisited. The need for good evidence-based referral guidelines or criteria of acceptability was emphasised, as was the need for their global adaptation and dissemination. Clinical audit was regarded as a key tool in ensuring that justification becomes an effective, transparent and accountable part of normal radiological practice. In summary, justification would be facilitated by the "3 As": awareness, appropriateness and audit.

  15. Self-reported symptoms associated with exposure to electromagnetic fields: a questionnaire study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Küçer, Nermin; Pamukçu, Tuğba

    2014-01-01

    Abstract In the last years, it has been discussed frequently whether there are any harmful effects of electromagnetic fields on human health. Electromagnetic fields are generated by several natural and man-made sources. Part of the electromagnetic spectrum called Radiofrequency is used in communication systems such as mobile (cellular) phone and computer. The aim of our study was to explore different self-reported symptoms that may be associated with exposure to electromagnetic fields. This survey study was conducted, using a questionnaire, on 350 people aged +9 years in Turkey. The chi-square test was used for data analysis. Self-reported symptoms were headache, vertigo/dizziness, fatigue, forgetfulness, sleep disturbance-insomnia, tension-anxiety, joint and bone pain, lacrimation of the eyes, hearing loss and tinnitus. As a result of the survey, the study has shown that users of mobile phone and computer more often complained of headache, joint and bone pain, hearing loss, vertigo/dizziness, tension-anxiety symptoms according to time of daily usage (p < 0.05). In users of mobile phone and computer, women significantly (p < 0.05) complained more often of headache, vertigo/dizziness, fatigue, forgetfulness and tension-anxiety than men.

  16. Exposure to wind turbine noise: Perceptual responses and reported health effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaud, David S; Feder, Katya; Keith, Stephen E; Voicescu, Sonia A; Marro, Leonora; Than, John; Guay, Mireille; Denning, Allison; McGuire, D'Arcy; Bower, Tara; Lavigne, Eric; Murray, Brian J; Weiss, Shelly K; van den Berg, Frits

    2016-03-01

    Health Canada, in collaboration with Statistics Canada, and other external experts, conducted the Community Noise and Health Study to better understand the impacts of wind turbine noise (WTN) on health and well-being. A cross-sectional epidemiological study was carried out between May and September 2013 in southwestern Ontario and Prince Edward Island on 1238 randomly selected participants (606 males, 632 females) aged 18-79 years, living between 0.25 and 11.22 km from operational wind turbines. Calculated outdoor WTN levels at the dwelling reached 46 dBA. Response rate was 78.9% and did not significantly differ across sample strata. Self-reported health effects (e.g., migraines, tinnitus, dizziness, etc.), sleep disturbance, sleep disorders, quality of life, and perceived stress were not related to WTN levels. Visual and auditory perception of wind turbines as reported by respondents increased significantly with increasing WTN levels as did high annoyance toward several wind turbine features, including the following: noise, blinking lights, shadow flicker, visual impacts, and vibrations. Concern for physical safety and closing bedroom windows to reduce WTN during sleep also increased with increasing WTN levels. Other sample characteristics are discussed in relation to WTN levels. Beyond annoyance, results do not support an association between exposure to WTN up to 46 dBA and the evaluated health-related endpoints.

  17. NTP Toxicity Study Report on the atmospheric characterization, particle size, chemical composition, and workplace exposure assessment of cellulose insulation (CELLULOSEINS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Daniel L

    2006-08-01

    , further quantitative and qualitative analyses were not performed. An aerosol generation system was designed to separate CI particles based upon aerodynamic size and to simulate the process used during CI installation at work sites. Less than 0.1% of each of the CI samples was collected as the small respirable particle fraction. The mean equivalent diameter of respirable particles ranged from 0.6 to 0.7 mum. The numbers of fibers in the respirable fractions ranged from 9.7 x 103 to 1.4 x 106 fibers/g of CI. The respirable particle fractions did not contain cellulose material and consisted mainly of fire retardants and small quantities of clays. The respirable fraction from one CI sample was administered by intratracheal instillation to male Fischer 344 rats at doses of 0, 0.625, 1.25, 2.5, 5, or 10 mg/kg body weight; the bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid cellularity was evaluated 3 days later. Based upon the relatively mild severity of the inflammatory response, a dose of 5 mg/kg body weight was selected for use in a subsequent 28-day study. Rats received CI, titanium dioxide (particle controls), or sterile saline (controls). BAL fluid was evaluated 1, 3, 7, 14, and 28 days after instillation, and lung histopathology was evaluated 14 and 28 days after treatment. CI caused a greater influx of inflammatory cells than titanium dioxide and caused significant increases in BAL fluid protein and lactate dehydrogenase. These CI-induced changes in BAL fluid parameters were transient and by day 14 were not significantly different than those observed in rats treated with titanium dioxide or phosphate-buffered saline. Unlike titanium dioxide, CI treatment caused a minimal to mild nonprogressive, minimally fibrosing granulomatous pneumonitis characterized by nodular foci of macrophages and giant cells. These results indicated that few respirable particles or fibers are likely generated during the CI application and that the acute pulmonary toxicity is minimal. The CI exposure

  18. BOOK REVIEW: NCRP Report No. 160: Ionizing Radiation Exposure of the Population of the United States NCRP Report No. 160: Ionizing Radiation Exposure of the Population of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurston, Jim

    2010-10-01

    This report by Committee 6 of the Council is an extensive update of a previous report on the exposure of the US population to ionizing radiation sources from data gathered in the 1980s (published as Report 93 in 1987). It is combined with an update on the more in-depth assessment of data on medical exposures previously reported in 1989 (Report 100). Individual chapters in this new report are dedicated to specific sources of exposure to the US population—both from natural and artificial radiation—and the level of detail in each chapter is intended to reflect the significance of the contribution of each source to the total collective dose of the population. The first chapter is on the most significant contributor: background radiation. It expands on the concept of natural background radiation in Report 93, renaming it 'ubiquitous background', and describing in detail the contributions from both extra-terrestrial and terrestrial sources. The data demonstrates that the average dose from such exposure has varied little since the previous report (a slight increase from 3.0 mSv to 3.1 mSv). The next chapter is on medical radiation, i.e. the exposure to the population when attending as patients, not including occupational exposure to hospital workers. The most striking data published in the entire report is the increase in the contribution to the total US population dose attributed to such medical exposures. It is now as significant as that from background radiation: medical exposures now account for an average effective dose to the US citizen of 3.00 mSv, up from 0.53 mSv in 1992 (Report 100). The most important contribution to this increase is the 1.46 mSv from CT scanning alone. The nuclear medicine (including PET) contribution is up from 0.14 mSv to 0.77mSv. This evidently must be due to significant changes in medical radiological practice in the US tied to the increase in the availability of CT and PET imaging facilities. These increasing contributions have driven

  19. Who Is Exposed to Secondhand Smoke? Self-Reported and Serum Cotinine Measured Exposure in the U.S., 1999-2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanling Shi

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available This study presents self-reported and serum cotinine measures of exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS for nonsmoking children, adolescents, and adults. Estimates are disaggregated by time periods and sociodemographic characteristics based on analyses of the 1999-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Self-reported exposure rates are found to be highest for children, followed by adolescents and adults. Important differences in exposure are found by socioeconomic characteristics. Using serum cotinine to measure exposure yields much higher prevalence rates than self-reports. Rates of SHS exposure remain high, but cotinine levels are declining for most groups.

  20. Conscientiousness predicts greater recovery from negative emotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javaras, Kristin N; Schaefer, Stacey M; van Reekum, Carien M; Lapate, Regina C; Greischar, Lawrence L; Bachhuber, David R; Love, Gayle Dienberg; Ryff, Carol D; Davidson, Richard J

    2012-10-01

    Greater levels of conscientiousness have been associated with lower levels of negative affect. We focus on one mechanism through which conscientiousness may decrease negative affect: effective emotion regulation, as reflected by greater recovery from negative stimuli. In 273 adults who were 35-85 years old, we collected self-report measures of personality including conscientiousness and its self-control facet, followed on average 2 years later by psychophysiological measures of emotional reactivity and recovery. Among middle-aged adults (35-65 years old), the measures of conscientiousness and self-control predicted greater recovery from, but not reactivity to, negative emotional stimuli. The effect of conscientiousness and self-control on recovery was not driven by other personality variables or by greater task adherence on the part of high conscientiousness individuals. In addition, the effect was specific to negative emotional stimuli and did not hold for neutral or positive emotional stimuli.

  1. Hydrofluoric acid exposure: a case report and review on the clinical presentation and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strausburg, Matthew; Travers, Jeffrey; Mousdicas, Nico

    2012-01-01

    Exposure to hydrofluoric acid can cause severe skin damage via both corrosive and chemical means. Dermatologists should be aware of the various clinical presentations and knowledgeable of how to manage such patients. A case of a man with exposure of the hands after use of a consumer product containing hydrofluoric acid is presented. The presentation may vary depending on the concentration and duration of exposure. Patients experiencing exposure are at risk of serious complications, including death, resulting from electrolyte abnormalities. Information regarding the source of exposure will allow the physician to better predict the patient's course. The use of immediate flushing with water and the use of topical calcium gluconate can prevent extensive damage to the area of exposure and potentially fatal complications that may occur. More extensive burns may necessitate more invasive therapies. The treatment and the management and monitoring of such cases will allow for more optimal outcomes.

  2. Screening Health Risk Assessment Burn Pit Exposures, Balad Air Base, Iraq and Addendum Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-05-01

    http://deploymenthealthlibrary.fhp.osd.mil/accessLog.jsp?prodid=313). ii. Health Effects of Dioxin Exposure for Service Members, (http...uncertainty, regulatory agencies try to lower dioxin exposure levels in human populations as much as possible. g. Recent research has shown that some...pit, time spent indoors versus outdoors, frequency of meteorological conditions promoting exposure, or other factors that could impact dioxin

  3. Co-infection of Primary Syphilis and HIV after a Single Exposure - a Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geleki Stamatina

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Human immunodeficiency virus type 1- infected patients with syphilis are among the most important transmitters of HIV-1 infection due to biological effects of genital ulcerations, and aggravation due to their continued risky behavior. The association between primary syphilis and acute HIV-1 co-infection is not well documented, and reports on isolated cases are raising special interest and indicate that this double primary co-infection may occur. We present a case of a 31-year-old man with no past medical history who presented with fever, papular rash on the face which lasted for a few days, and a single genital ulcer. He was diagnosed with primary syphilis and primary HIV-1 infection after a single exposure with an infected female sex worker. Male-to-female HIV transmission during vaginal intercourse is significantly more likely than female-to-male HIV transmission. However, high prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases among female sex workers contributed to high HIV transmission probability, as in our case.

  4. Harmonization of future needs for dermal exposure assessment and modeling : a workshop report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marquart, H.; Maidment, S.; Mcclaflin, J.L.; Fehrenbacher, M.C.

    2001-01-01

    Dermal exposure assessment and modeling is still in early phases of development. This article presents the results of a workshop organized to harmonize the future needs in this field. Methods for dermal exposure assessment either assess the mass of contaminant that is transferred to the skin, or the

  5. Performance Reporting - The IASB's Proposed Formats of Financial Statements in the Exposure Draft of IAS1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thinggaard, Frank; Wagenhofer, Alfred; Evans, Lisa

    2006-01-01

    This paper is a response to the Exposure Draft of proposed amendments to IAS 1 Presentation of Financial Statements published by the IASB in March 2006. The objective is to bring to the standard setter’s attention research that is relevant to the issues raised in the exposure draft. We review...

  6. Brief Report: Does Exposure to Violent Video Games Increase Moral Disengagement among Adolescents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabbiadini, Alessandro; Andrighetto, Luca; Volpato, Chiara

    2012-01-01

    Several studies have repeatedly shown that violent/action video games increase aggressive tendencies. The present study provides preliminary evidence that exposure to these games also affects the process of moral disengagement. High school students (N = 385) were recruited, and the impact of both recency and frequency of their exposure to the…

  7. The Effect of Exposure Duration on Visual Character Identification in Single, Whole, and Partial Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Anders; Andersen, Tobias S.

    2012-01-01

    The psychometric function of single-letter identification is typically described as a function of stimulus intensity. However, the effect of stimulus exposure duration on letter identification remains poorly described. This is surprising because the effect of exposure duration has played a central role in modeling performance in whole and partial…

  8. Exposure Therapy for Fear of Spiders in an Adult with Learning Disabilities: A Case Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowdrey, Felicity A.; Walz, Linda

    2015-01-01

    The evidence-base for exposure therapy in people with learning disabilities experiencing specific phobias is sparse. This case study describes the assessment, formulation and treatment of spider phobia in a woman with learning disabilities using an exposure-based intervention augmented with mindfulness practice and bereavement work. To evaluate…

  9. Exposure Therapy for Fear of Spiders in an Adult with Learning Disabilities: A Case Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowdrey, Felicity A.; Walz, Linda

    2015-01-01

    The evidence-base for exposure therapy in people with learning disabilities experiencing specific phobias is sparse. This case study describes the assessment, formulation and treatment of spider phobia in a woman with learning disabilities using an exposure-based intervention augmented with mindfulness practice and bereavement work. To evaluate…

  10. Hemolytic Anemia as an Outcome of Occupational Exposure to Formalin: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zohreh Yazdi

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Occupational exposure studies indicate that formaldehyde exposure causes temporary and consistent effects on industrial workers exposed to formalin. Case: The case was a 36-year-old man who had developed intravascular hemolytic anemia caused by formalin after inhalation exposure. Formalin is a clear solution of 37% formaldehyde in water. The primary route of exposure to formaldehyde is inhalation. The case was presented with severe Coomb's negative hemolytic anemia with hemoglobinuria and was treated successfully with therapeutic red cell transfusion and exposure removal. Conclusion: All employers must provide a safe and healthy workplace for prevention of harmful effects of formalin. Elimination of formalin from workplace, implementation of local and general ventilation, and using proper protective equipments are the most effective methods in the workplace.

  11. Self-reported parental exposure to pesticide during pregnancy and birth outcomes: the MecoExpo cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flora Mayhoub

    Full Text Available The MecoExpo study was performed in the Picardy region of northern France, in order to investigate the putative relationship between parental exposures to pesticides (as reported by the mother on one hand and neonatal parameters on the other. The cohort comprised 993 mother-newborn pairs. Each mother completed a questionnaire that probed occupational, domestic, environmental and dietary sources of parental exposure to pesticides during her pregnancy. Multivariate regression analyses were then used to test for associations between the characteristics of parental pesticide exposure during pregnancy and the corresponding birth outcomes. Maternal occupational exposure was associated with an elevated risk of low birth weight (odds ratio (OR [95% confidence interval]: 4.2 [1.2, 15.4]. Paternal occupational exposure to pesticides was associated with a lower than average gestational age at birth (-0.7 weeks; p = 0.0002 and an elevated risk of prematurity (OR: 3.7 [1.4, 9.7]. Levels of domestic exposure to veterinary antiparasitics and to pesticides for indoor plants were both associated with a low birth weight (-70 g; p = 0.02 and -160 g; p = 0.005, respectively. Babies born to women living in urban areas had a lower birth length and a higher risk of low birth length (-0.4 cm, p = 0.006 and OR: 2.9 [1.5, 5.5], respectively. The present study results mainly demonstrate a negative correlation between fetal development on one hand and parental occupational and domestic exposure to pesticides on the other. Our study highlights the need to perform a global and detailed screening of all potential physiological effects when assessing in utero exposure to pesticides.

  12. Self-reported exposure to pesticides in residential settings and risk of breast cancer: a case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graber Nora J

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pesticides are widely used in households to control insects and weeds. Several studies, over the past decades, have examined the possible relationship of serum concentration of organochlorine pesticides and the development of breast cancer. However, little data exists regarding an association between self-reported, residential exposure to pesticides and breast cancer risk. We, therefore, present a case-control study examining self-reported exposure to household pesticides with regard to associated risk of breast cancer. Methods This study was conducted in the area in and around New York City, NY and included 1205 patients (447 cases and 758 controls. Cases were defined as women with newly diagnosed breast cancer or carcinoma in-situ, while controls included women with benign breast diseases or those undergoing non-breast related surgery. All patients were asked a series of questions to determine their pesticide exposure, including the type of pesticide, location of exposure (inside vs. outside the home, who applied the pesticide (self vs. a professional and duration of pesticide use. Logistic regression models were used to estimate unadjusted and adjusted odds ratios (OR and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI. Results The most common pests encountered in participants' homes were ants, carpenter ants, and cockroaches. The calculated adjusted odds ratios for both self and professionally applied pesticides, specifically against the above mentioned insects, with regard to breast cancer risk were 1.25 (95% CI: 0.79-1.98 and 1.06 (95% CI: 0.65-1.73, respectively. Similarly, odds ratios and confidence intervals were calculated for other types of pesticides. Conclusions Overall, the results of our study did not show an association between self-reported exposure to pesticides and breast cancer risk. Future studies, utilizing a larger sample size and more specific detail on time frame of pesticide exposure, are needed to

  13. Occupational radiation exposure at commercial nuclear power reactors and other facilities 1995: Twenty-eighth annual report. Volume 17

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, M.L. [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States). Div. of Regulatory Applications; Hagemeyer, D. [Science Applications International Corp., Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    1997-01-01

    This report summarizes the occupational exposure data that are maintained in the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission`s (NRC) Radiation Exposure Information and Reporting System (REIRS). The bulk of the information contained in the report was compiled from the 1995 annual reports submitted by six of the seven categories of NRC licensees subject to the reporting requirements of 10 CFR 20.2206. Since there are no geologic repositories for high-level waste currently licensed, only six categories will be considered in this report. In 1995, the annual collective dose per reactor for light water reactor licensees (LWRs) was 199 person-cSv (person-rem). This is the same value that was reported for 1994. The annual collective dose per reactor for boiling water reactors (BWRs) was 256 person-cSv (person-rem) and, for pressurized water reactors (PWRs), it was 170 person-cSv (person-rem). Analyses of transient worker data indicate that 17,153 individuals completed work assignments at two or more licensees during the monitoring year. The dose distributions are adjusted each year to account for the duplicate reporting of transient workers by multiple licensees. In 1995, the average measurable dose calculated from reported data was 0.26 cSv (rem). The corrected dose distribution resulted in an average measurable dose of 0.32 cSv (rem).

  14. Methemoglobinemia induced by exposure to topical benzocaine for an awake nasal intubation--a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shih-Kai; Wu, Ji-Leih; Lee, Yung-Lung; Tsao, Shao-Lun

    2007-06-01

    Topical benzocaine and lidocaine are widely used in general anesthesia to minimize the stimulation by awake intubation and in very rare occasion they may induce methemoglobinemia. Although this complication is uncommon, it may be potentially lethal. Here we report a 29-year-old female who was scheduled to receive correction of malocclusion and developed acute methemoglobinemia soon after induction of general anesthesia. Three weeks ago, she had received open reduction for fracture of mandible with intermaxillary fixation under general anesthesia, for which awake fiberoptic intubation was smoothly performed after premedication with 2% topical lidocaine and intravenous fentanyl. This time, trachomucosal block with 4 mL of 4% topical lidocaine and spray of 20% topical benzocaine over the oral cavity and nostrils were carried out before intubation. Awake blind intubation was performed because she could not open her mouth for more than 1 cm. A 6.5 mm-sized nasal endotracheal tube was smoothly placed in first attempt. About 10 min later, an unexplained cyanosis occurred and SpO2 fell to about 70%. Based on a high oxygen tension by arterial blood gas analysis (PaO2) with a contradictory fall of oxygen saturation by pulse oximetry (SpO2), acute methemoglobinemia was highly suspected. The diagnosis was confirmed by multiple-wavelength CO-oximetry. The methemoglobinemia was resolved gradually after methylene blue was given. In conclusion, we must always take the possibility of methemoglobinemia into consideration for differential diagnosis in case of unexplained cyanosis, particularly when patients have prior exposure to methemoglobin-inducing agents.

  15. The power of positive and negative expectations to influence reported symptoms and mood during exposure to wind farm sound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crichton, Fiona; Dodd, George; Schmid, Gian; Gamble, Greg; Cundy, Tim; Petrie, Keith J

    2014-12-01

    Wind farm developments have been hampered by claims that sound from wind turbines causes symptoms and negative health reports in nearby residents. As scientific reviews have failed to identify a plausible link between wind turbine sound and health effects, psychological expectations have been proposed as an explanation for health complaints. Building on recent work showing negative expectations can create symptoms from wind turbines, we investigated whether positive expectations can produce the opposite effect, in terms of a reduction in symptoms and improvements in reported health. 60 participants were randomized to either positive or negative expectation groups and subsequently exposed to audible wind farm sound and infrasound. Prior to exposure, negative expectation participants watched a DVD incorporating TV footage about health effects said to be caused by infrasound produced by wind turbines. In contrast, positive expectation participants viewed a DVD that outlined the possible therapeutic effects of infrasound exposure. During exposure to audible windfarm sound and infrasound, symptoms and mood were strongly influenced by the type of expectations. Negative expectation participants experienced a significant increase in symptoms and a significant deterioration in mood, while positive expectation participants reported a significant decrease in symptoms and a significant improvement in mood. The study demonstrates that expectations can influence symptom and mood reports in both positive and negative directions. The results suggest that if expectations about infrasound are framed in more neutral or benign ways, then it is likely reports of symptoms or negative effects could be nullified.

  16. Graded exposure therapy for addressing claustrophobic reactions to continuous positive airway pressure: a case series report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Means, Melanie K; Edinger, Jack D

    2007-01-01

    Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is a safe, effective treatment for obstructive sleep apnea, and yet many patients develop claustrophobic reactions to the CPAP nasal mask and cannot tolerate this treatment. We examined the efficacy of a graded in-vivo exposure therapy for enhancing CPAP adherence using a retrospective, case series design. Objective CPAP adherence data were obtained on clinical patients who attended 1 or more sessions of exposure therapy with a behavioral sleep psychologist. Compared to pre-treatment, patients used CPAP significantly longer after exposure therapy. No predictors of treatment response were identified. CPAP exposure therapy may be beneficial in some cases; however, further research is needed to determine types of patients most likely to benefit from this therapy.

  17. A geographic approach to modelling human exposure to traffic air pollution using GIS. Separate appendix report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solvang Jensen, S.

    1998-10-01

    A new exposure model has been developed that is based on a physical, single media (air) and single source (traffic) micro environmental approach that estimates traffic related exposures geographically with the postal address as exposure indicator. The micro environments: residence, workplace and street (road user exposure) may be considered. The model estimates outdoor levels for selected ambient air pollutants (benzene, CO, NO{sub 2} and O{sub 3}). The influence of outdoor air pollution on indoor levels can be estimated using average (I/O-ratios. The model has a very high spatial resolution (the address), a high temporal resolution (one hour) and may be used to predict past, present and future exposures. The model may be used for impact assessment of control measures provided that the changes to the model inputs are obtained. The exposure model takes advantage of a standard Geographic Information System (GIS) (ArcView and Avenue) for generation of inputs, for visualisation of input and output, and uses available digital maps, national administrative registers and a local traffic database, and the Danish Operational Street Pollution Model (OSPM). The exposure model presents a new approach to exposure determination by integration of digital maps, administrative registers, a street pollution model and GIS. New methods have been developed to generate the required input parameters for the OSPM model: to geocode buildings using cadastral maps and address points, to automatically generate street configuration data based on digital maps, the BBR and GIS; to predict the temporal variation in traffic and related parameters; and to provide hourly background levels for the OSPM model. (EG)

  18. Scientific report on human and animal dietary exposure to ergot alkaloids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Annette

    per day). Dietary exposure estimates for animals, assuming a mean concentration scenario, varied between 0.31–0.46 μg/kg bw per day in beef cattle and 6.82–8.07 μg/kg bw per day (LB–UB) in piglets, while exposure estimates assuming a high concentration scenario (95th percentile) varied between 1...

  19. Affect labeling enhances exposure effectiveness for public speaking anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niles, Andrea N; Craske, Michelle G; Lieberman, Matthew D; Hur, Christopher

    2015-05-01

    Exposure is an effective treatment for anxiety but many patients do not respond fully. Affect labeling (labeling emotional experience) attenuates emotional responding. The current project examined whether affect labeling enhances exposure effectiveness in participants with public speaking anxiety. Participants were randomized to exposure with or without affect labeling. Physiological arousal and self-reported fear were assessed before and after exposure and compared between groups. Consistent with hypotheses, participants assigned to Affect Labeling, especially those who used more labels during exposure, showed greater reduction in physiological activation than Control participants. No effect was found for self-report measures. Also, greater emotion regulation deficits at baseline predicted more benefit in physiological arousal from exposure combined with affect labeling than exposure alone. The current research provides evidence that behavioral strategies that target prefrontal-amygdala circuitry can improve treatment effectiveness for anxiety and these effects are particularly pronounced for patients with the greatest deficits in emotion regulation.

  20. Prenatal exposure of a girl with autism spectrum disorder to 'horsetail' (Equisetum arvense herbal remedy and alcohol: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martínez-Salcedo Eduardo

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Autism is a complex neurodevelopmental disorder in which the interactions of genetic, epigenetic and environmental influences are thought to play a causal role. In humans, throughout embryonic and fetal life, brain development is exquisitely susceptible to injury caused by exposure to toxic chemicals present in the environment. Although the use of herbal supplements during pregnancy is relatively common, little information is available on their association with fetal neurodevelopment. This is, to the best of our knowledge, the first report in the literature to associate a new plausible mechanism of neurodevelopmental toxicity with a case of autism spectrum disorder through a vitamin deficiency potentiated by concomitant use of herbal supplements and ethanol exposure. Case presentation We describe the pediatric environmental history of a three-year-old Caucasian girl with an autism spectrum disorder. We utilized her pediatric environmental history to evaluate constitutional, genetic, and environmental factors pertinent to manifestation of neurodevelopment disorders. Both parents reported prenatal exposure to several risk factors of interest. A year prior to conception the mother began a weight loss diet and ingested 1200 mg/day of 'horsetail' (Equisetum arvense herbal remedies containing thiaminase, an enzyme that with long-term use can lead to vitamin deficiency. The mother reported a significant weight loss during the pregnancy and a deficiency of B-complex vitamins. Thiamine (vitamin B1 deficiency could have been potentiated by the horsetail's thiaminase activity and ethanol exposure during pregnancy. No other risk factors were identified. Conclusions A detailed and careful pediatric environmental history, which includes daily intake, herbal remedies and ethanol exposure, should be obtained from all patients with autism spectrum disorder. Maternal consumption of ethanol and of herbal supplements with suspected or

  1. Workshop Report on Atomic Bomb Dosimetry--Residual Radiation Exposure: Recent Research and Suggestions for Future Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-06-06

    There is a need for accurate dosimetry for studies of health effects in the Japanese atomic bomb survivors because of the important role that these studies play in worldwide radiation protection standards. International experts have developed dosimetry systems, such as the Dosimetry System 2002 (DS02), which assess the initial radiation exposure to gamma rays and neutrons but only briefly consider the possibility of some minimal contribution to the total body dose by residual radiation exposure. In recognition of the need for an up-to-date review of the topic of residual radiation exposure in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, recently reported studies were reviewed at a technical session at the 57th Annual Meeting of the Health Physics Society in Sacramento, California, 22-26 July 2012. A one-day workshop was also held to provide time for detailed discussion of these newer studies and to evaluate their potential use in clarifying the residual radiation exposures to the atomic-bomb survivors at Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Suggestions for possible future studies are also included in this workshop report.

  2. Workshop report on atomic bomb dosimetry-residual radiation exposure: recent research and suggestions for future studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, George D; Egbert, Stephen D; Al-Nabulsi, Isaf; Beck, Harold L; Cullings, Harry M; Endo, Satoru; Hoshi, Masaharu; Imanaka, Tetsuji; Kaul, Dean C; Maruyama, Satoshi; Reeves, Glen I; Ruehm, Werner; Sakaguchi, Aya; Simon, Steven L; Spriggs, Gregory D; Stram, Daniel O; Tonda, Tetsuji; Weiss, Joseph F; Weitz, Ronald L; Young, Robert W

    2013-08-01

    There is a need for accurate dosimetry for studies of health effects in the Japanese atomic bomb survivors because of the important role that these studies play in worldwide radiation protection standards. International experts have developed dosimetry systems, such as the Dosimetry System 2002 (DS02), which assess the initial radiation exposure to gamma rays and neutrons but only briefly consider the possibility of some minimal contribution to the total body dose by residual radiation exposure. In recognition of the need for an up-to-date review of the topic of residual radiation exposure in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, recently reported studies were reviewed at a technical session at the 57th Annual Meeting of the Health Physics Society in Sacramento, California, 22-26 July 2012. A one-day workshop was also held to provide time for detailed discussion of these newer studies and to evaluate their potential use in clarifying the residual radiation exposures to the atomic-bomb survivors at Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Suggestions for possible future studies are also included in this workshop report.

  3. Self-reported sleep disturbances due to railway noise: exposure-response relationships for nighttime equivalent and maximum noise levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aasvang, Gunn Marit; Moum, Torbjorn; Engdahl, Bo

    2008-07-01

    The objective of the present survey was to study self-reported sleep disturbances due to railway noise with respect to nighttime equivalent noise level (L(p,A,eq,night)) and maximum noise level (L(p,A,max)). A sample of 1349 people in and around Oslo in Norway exposed to railway noise was studied in a cross-sectional survey to obtain data on sleep disturbances, sleep problems due to noise, and personal characteristics including noise sensitivity. Individual noise exposure levels were determined outside of the bedroom facade, the most-exposed facade, and inside the respondents' bedrooms. The exposure-response relationships were analyzed by using logistic regression models, controlling for possible modifying factors including the number of noise events (train pass-by frequency). L(p,A,eq,night) and L(p,A,max) were significantly correlated, and the proportion of reported noise-induced sleep problems increased as both L(p,A,eq,night) and L(p,A,max) increased. Noise sensitivity, type of bedroom window, and pass-by frequency were significant factors affecting noise-induced sleep disturbances, in addition to the noise exposure level. Because about half of the study population did not use a bedroom at the most-exposed side of the house, the exposure-response curve obtained by using noise levels for the most-exposed facade underestimated noise-induced sleep disturbance for those who actually have their bedroom at the most-exposed facade.

  4. Association of Poultry Processing Industry Exposures With Reports of Occupational Finger Amputations: Results of an Analysis of OSHA Severe Injury Report (SIR) Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevin, Remington L; Bernt, Jon; Hodgson, Michael

    2017-08-17

    This analysis was conducted to identify industry exposures strongly associated with reports of finger amputation. Reports of severe occupational injuries in the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Severe Injury Report (SIR) database were analyzed in relation to U.S. Census Bureau industry employment data. Industries with significantly elevated reporting odds ratios (RORs) and relative reporting risks (RRRs) were identified. Multiple population association measures including population attributable fraction (PAF) were calculated by industry. Among industries with statistically significant RRR and ROR, the poultry processing industry (RRR = 12.60, ROR = 3.37) accounted for the highest PAF by RRR (2.34%) and ROR (1.65%) CONCLUSION:: The results of this analysis identify the poultry processing industry as a leading source of reports of occupational finger amputations and substantiate the need for further collaboration with this industry.

  5. The three most common occupational exposures reported by pregnant women: A update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bentur, Y.; Koren, G. (Motherisk Program, Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario (Canada))

    1991-08-01

    Many uncertainties exist in regard to counseling women with occupational exposures during pregnancy. This is due to limited knowledge of the reproductive toxicologic effects of industrial agents, lack of safety standards aimed at protecting the fetus, and limitations in assessing the extent of exposure. The approach to this subject taken by the Motherisk Program and a review of the three most common occupational exposures are presented. Epidemiologic studies and measurements of radiation do not suggest a reproductive hazard for video display terminals. Exposure to organic solvents is hard to quantitate, and information is sparse and sometimes contradictory, and therapeutic decisions are difficult to reach. To date there is no convincing evidence that working with organic solvents within safety regulations would harm a fetus, in contradistinction to detrimental fetal effects of solvent abuse. The reproductive risks of lead are well documented, fetal exposure can be assessed, and effective treatment exists, but its effects on the pregnancy have not been fully established. However, new evidence suggests that maternal levels that are much lower than the accepted adult limits may be damaging to the fetus. 107 references.

  6. Accuracy and Concordance in Reporting for Secondhand Smoke Exposure among Adolescents Undergoing Treatment for Cancer and Their Parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDermott, Michael J; Nicholson, Jody S; Tyc, Vida L

    2013-09-01

    Few studies have examined adolescent reporting accuracy for secondhand smoke exposure (SHSe), and never for youth with cancer. SHSe reporting from adolescents being treated for cancer (Mage=14.92 years, SD=1.67) was examined against parent/guardian reports and urine cotinine among 42 adolescent-parent dyads. Number of days in hospital-based lodgings prior to assessment emerged as the strongest predictor of urine cotinine (β=-0.46, p=0.003) and adolescent SHSe reporting significantly predicted urine cotinine (β=0.37, p=0.011) beyond relevant demographic and contextual variables (overall R(2)=0.40, F(6, 35)=3.90, p=0.004). Findings support adolescents as accurate reporters of discrete SHSe occurrences.

  7. Occupational radiation exposure at commercial nuclear power reactors and other facilities 1996: Twenty-ninth annual report. Volume 18

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, M.L. [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States). Div. of Regulatory Applications; Hagemeyer, D. [Science Applications International Corp., Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    1998-02-01

    This report summarizes the occupational exposure data that are maintained in the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission`s (NRC) Radiation Exposure Information and Reporting System (REIRS). The bulk of the information contained in the report was compiled from the 1996 annual reports submitted by six of the seven categories of NRC licensees subject to the reporting requirements of 10 CFR 20.2206. Since there are no geologic repositories for high level waste currently licensed, only six categories will be considered in this report. Annual reports for 1996 were received from a total of 300 NRC licensees, of which 109 were operators of nuclear power reactors in commercial operation. Compilations of the reports submitted by the 300 licensees indicated that 138,310 individuals were monitored, 75,139 of whom received a measurable dose. The collective dose incurred by these individuals was 21,755 person-cSv (person-rem){sup 2} which represents a 13% decrease from the 1995 value. The number of workers receiving a measurable dose also decreased, resulting in the average measurable dose of 0.29 cSv (rem) for 1996. The average measurable dose is defined to be the total collective dose (TEDE) divided by the number of workers receiving a measurable dose. These figures have been adjusted to account for transient reactor workers. Analyses of transient worker data indicate that 22,348 individuals completed work assignments at two or more licensees during the monitoring year. The dose distributions are adjusted each year to account for the duplicate reporting of transient workers by multiple licensees. In 1996, the average measurable dose calculated from reported was 0.24 cSv (rem). The corrected dose distribution resulted in an average measurable dose of 0.29 cSv (rem).

  8. Correlates of self-reported exposure to advertising of tobacco products and electronic cigarettes across 28 European Union member states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filippidis, Filippos T; Laverty, Anthony A; Fernandez, Esteve; Mons, Ute; Tigova, Olena; Vardavas, Constantine I

    2017-06-12

    Despite advertising bans in most European Union (EU) member states, outlets for promotion of tobacco products and especially e-cigarettes still exist. This study aimed to assess the correlates of self-reported exposure to tobacco products and e-cigarettee advertising in the EU. We analysed data from wave 82.4 of the Eurobarometer survey (November-December 2014), collected through interviews in 28 EU member states (n=27 801 aged ≥15 years) and data on bans of tobacco advertising extracted from the Tobacco Control Scale (TCS, 2013). We used multilevel logistic regression to assess sociodemographic correlates of self-reported exposure to any tobacco and e-cigarette advertisements. 40% and 41.5% of the respondents reported having seen any e-cigarette and tobacco product advertisement respectively within the past year. Current smokers, males, younger respondents, those with financial difficulties, people who had tried e-cigarettes and daily internet users were more likely to report having seen an e-cigarette and a tobacco product advertisement. Respondents in countries with more comprehensive advertising bans were less likely to self-report exposure to any tobacco advertisements (OR 0.87; 95% CI 0.79 to 0.96 for one-unit increase in TCS advertising score), but not e-cigarette advertisements (OR 1.08; 95% CI 0.95 to 1.22). Ten years after ratification of the Framework Convention for Tobacco Control, self-reported exposure to tobacco and e-cigarette advertising in the EU is higher in e-cigarette and tobacco users, as well as those with internet access. The implementation of the Tobacco Products Directive may result in significant changes in e-cigarette advertising, therefore improved monitoring of advertising exposure is required in the coming years. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  9. [Autoerotic fatalities in Greater Dusseldorf].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartung, Benno; Hellen, Florence; Borchard, Nora; Huckenbeck, Wolfgang

    2011-01-01

    Autoerotic fatalities in the Greater Dusseldorf area correspond to the relevant medicolegal literature. Our results included exclusively young to middle-aged, usually single men who were found dead in their city apartments. Clothing and devices used showed a great variety. Women's or fetish clothing and complex shackling or hanging devices were disproportionately frequent. In most cases, death occurred due to hanging or ligature strangulation. There was no increased incidence of underlying psychiatric disorders. In most of the deceased no or at least no remarkable alcohol intoxication was found. Occasionally, it may be difficult to reliably differentiate autoerotic accidents, accidents occurring in connection with practices of bondage & discipline, dominance & submission (BDSM) from natural death, suicide or homicide.

  10. Uncertainties in Cancer Risk Coefficients for Environmental Exposure to Radionuclides. An Uncertainty Analysis for Risk Coefficients Reported in Federal Guidance Report No. 13

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pawel, David [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency; Leggett, Richard Wayne [ORNL; Eckerman, Keith F [ORNL; Nelson, Christopher [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency

    2007-01-01

    Federal Guidance Report No. 13 (FGR 13) provides risk coefficients for estimation of the risk of cancer due to low-level exposure to each of more than 800 radionuclides. Uncertainties in risk coefficients were quantified in FGR 13 for 33 cases (exposure to each of 11 radionuclides by each of three exposure pathways) on the basis of sensitivity analyses in which various combinations of plausible biokinetic, dosimetric, and radiation risk models were used to generate alternative risk coefficients. The present report updates the uncertainty analysis in FGR 13 for the cases of inhalation and ingestion of radionuclides and expands the analysis to all radionuclides addressed in that report. The analysis indicates that most risk coefficients for inhalation or ingestion of radionuclides are determined within a factor of 5 or less by current information. That is, application of alternate plausible biokinetic and dosimetric models and radiation risk models (based on the linear, no-threshold hypothesis with an adjustment for the dose and dose rate effectiveness factor) is unlikely to change these coefficients by more than a factor of 5. In this analysis the assessed uncertainty in the radiation risk model was found to be the main determinant of the uncertainty category for most risk coefficients, but conclusions concerning the relative contributions of risk and dose models to the total uncertainty in a risk coefficient may depend strongly on the method of assessing uncertainties in the risk model.

  11. Carbon tetrachloride/carbon disulfide exposures in grain fumigation. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marano, D.E.; White, K.L.; Deer, H.; Alexander, G.

    1986-03-01

    The use of 80/20 compounds as liquid-fumigant mixtures in the grain-handling industry was considered. Worker exposures to carbon tetrachloride and carbon disulfide were measured at representative facilities throughout the industry. Work practices that may contribute to high exposure levels were cited. Approximately equal amounts of liquid fumigants and solid formulations of phosphine are used throughout the industry. As spraying is done on a sporadic basis, it does not appear likely to present a major problem such as might be encountered in continuous exposure situations. The authors conclude that grain workers do not appear to be an ideal study group for a neurotoxicity morbidity study due to the fact that the physical distance between study sites and the small number of workers at each site makes it difficult logistically. A concerted effort throughout the grain industry to educate those workers in the grain-handling portions of that industry toward the safe handling of fumigants should go far in alleviating any problems arising from exposure to fumigants.

  12. Brief Report: Do Delinquency and Community Violence Exposure Explain Internalizing Problems in Early Adolescent Gang Members?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madan, Anjana; Mrug, Sylvie; Windle, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Adolescent gang members are at higher risk for internalizing problems as well as exposure to community violence and delinquency. This study examined whether gang membership in early adolescence is associated with internalizing problems (depression, anxiety, and suicidal behavior) and whether these associations are mediated by delinquency and…

  13. PRELIMINARY REPORT: EFFECTS OF IRRADIATION AND THERMAL EXPOSURE ON ELASTOMERIC SEALS FOR CASK TRANSPORTATION AND STORAGE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verst, C.; Skidmore, E.; Daugherty, W.

    2014-05-30

    A testing and analysis approach to predict the sealing behavior of elastomeric seal materials in dry storage casks and evaluate their ability to maintain a seal under thermal and radiation exposure conditions of extended storage and beyond was developed, and initial tests have been conducted. The initial tests evaluate the aging response of EPDM elastomer O-ring seals. The thermal and radiation exposure conditions of the CASTOR® V/21 casks were selected for testing as this cask design is of interest due to its widespread use, and close proximity of the seals to the fuel compared to other cask designs leading to a relatively high temperature and dose under storage conditions. A novel test fixture was developed to enable compression stress relaxation measurements for the seal material at the thermal and radiation exposure conditions. A loss of compression stress of 90% is suggested as the threshold at which sealing ability of an elastomeric seal would be lost. Previous studies have shown this value to be conservative to actual leakage failure for most aging conditions. These initial results indicate that the seal would be expected to retain sealing ability throughout extended storage at the cask design conditions, though longer exposure times are needed to validate this assumption. The high constant dose rate used in the testing is not prototypic of the decreasingly low dose rate that would occur under extended storage. The primary degradation mechanism of oxidation of polymeric compounds is highly dependent on temperature and time of exposure, and with radiation expected to exacerbate the oxidation.

  14. NASA study of cataract in astronauts (NASCA). Report 1: Cross-sectional study of the relationship of exposure to space radiation and risk of lens opacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chylack, Leo T; Peterson, Leif E; Feiveson, Alan H; Wear, Mary L; Manuel, F Keith; Tung, William H; Hardy, Dale S; Marak, Lisa J; Cucinotta, Francis A

    2009-07-01

    The NASA Study of Cataract in Astronauts (NASCA) is a 5-year longitudinal study of the effect of space radiation exposure on the severity/progression of nuclear, cortical and posterior subcapsular (PSC) lens opacities. Here we report on baseline data that will be used over the course of the longitudinal study. Participants include 171 consenting astronauts who flew at least one mission in space and a comparison group made up of three components: (a) 53 astronauts who had not flown in space, (b) 95 military aircrew personnel, and (c) 99 non-aircrew ground-based comparison subjects. Continuous measures of nuclear, cortical and PSC lens opacities were derived from Nidek EAS 1000 digitized images. Age, demographics, general health, nutritional intake and solar ocular exposure were measured at baseline. Astronauts who flew at least one mission were matched to comparison subjects using propensity scores based on demographic characteristics and medical history stratified by gender and smoking (ever/never). The cross-sectional data for matched subjects were analyzed by fitting customized non-normal regression models to examine the effect of space radiation on each measure of opacity. The variability and median of cortical cataracts were significantly higher for exposed astronauts than for nonexposed astronauts and comparison subjects with similar ages (P=0.015). Galactic cosmic space radiation (GCR) may be linked to increased PSC area (P=0.056) and the number of PSC centers (P=0.095). Within the astronaut group, PSC size was greater in subjects with higher space radiation doses (P=0.016). No association was found between space radiation and nuclear cataracts. Cross-sectional data analysis revealed a small deleterious effect of space radiation for cortical cataracts and possibly for PSC cataracts. These results suggest increased cataract risks at smaller radiation doses than have been reported previously.

  15. Greater trochanter apophysitis in the adolescent athlete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Simon W; Safran, Marc R

    2015-05-01

    Lower limb traction apophysitis is common in young athletes, occurring at sites such as the tibial tubercle (Osgood-Schlatter disease) and distal patella (Sinding-Larsen-Johansson disease). Around the hip, iliac apophysitis is well recognized, but no cases of greater trochanter apophysitis have previously been reported. We describe the case of a 15-year-old male basketball player with a 2-month history of the right hip pain and significant functional limitation. X-rays revealed widening of the greater trochanter apophysis with subchondral sclerosis, consistent with a diagnosis of traction apophysitis. The patient was treated with a period of relative rest and anti-inflammatory medication. He gradually returned to full athletic activity, including basketball, without recurrence of pain or limitation. We describe the first reported case of traction apophysitis of the greater trochanter. The unique muscular anatomy of this apophysis with balanced forces explains the rarity of this condition. If encountered, rest and activity modification is the recommended treatment.

  16. Self-reported Occupational Exposures Relevant for Cancer among 28,000 Offshore Oil Industry Workers Employed between 1965 and 1999.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenehjem, Jo S; Friesen, Melissa C; Eggen, Tone; Kjærheim, Kristina; Bråtveit, Magne; Grimsrud, Tom K

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine self-reported frequency of occupational exposure reported by 28,000 Norwegian offshore oil workers in a 1998 survey. Predictors of self-reported exposure frequency were identified to aid future refinements of an expert-based job-exposure-time matrix (JEM). We focus here on reported frequencies for skin contact with oil and diesel; exposure to oil vapor from shaker, to exhaust fumes, vapor from mixing chemicals used for drilling, natural gas, chemicals used for water injection and processing, and to solvent vapor. Exposure frequency was reported by participants as the exposed proportion of the work shift, defined by six categories, in their current or last position offshore (between 1965 and 1999). Binary Poisson regression models with robust variance were used to examine the probabilities of reporting frequent exposure (≥¼ vs. <¼ of work shift) according to main activity, time period, supervisory position, type of company, type of installation, work schedule, and education. Holding a non-supervisory position, working shifts, being employed in the early period of the offshore industry, and having only compulsory education increased the probability of reporting frequent exposure. The identified predictors and group-level patterns may aid future refinement of the JEM previously developed for the present cohort.

  17. Assessment of mercury exposure in human populations: A status report from Augusta Bay (southern Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonsignore, Maria; Andolfi, Nunzia; Barra, Marco; Madeddu, Anselmo; Tisano, Francesco; Ingallinella, Vincenzo; Castorina, Maria; Sprovieri, Mario

    2016-10-01

    Here we investigate mercury concentrations in the blood (HgB), urine (HgU) and human hair (HgH) of 224 individuals from a coastal area (Eastern Sicily, SE Italy) strongly affected by Hg contamination from one of the largest chlor-alkali plants in Europe. The factors affecting the distribution of Hg and the extent of the exposure of individuals have been explored with a multidisciplinary approach. Multiple regression analyses, together with evidence of high levels of HgB (exceeding the HBMI recommended levels in 50% of cases) and HgH (exceeding the EPA reference dose in 70% of cases), primarily suggest that the consumption of local fish is the main source of Hg for humans. no. significant exposure to inorganic mercury was identified. Toxicokinetic calculations produced a provisional tolerable weekly intake (PTWI) level that, in most cases, exceeds international recommendations, particularly for residents in the studied area. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. A decrease in the size of the basal ganglia following prenatal alcohol exposure: a preliminary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattson, S N; Riley, E P; Jernigan, T L; Garcia, A; Kaneko, W M; Ehlers, C L; Jones, K L

    1994-01-01

    Prenatal alcohol exposure is known to cause damage to the central nervous system. This study sought to further elucidate the structural brain damage that occurs following prenatal alcohol exposure in both children and rats. Two children with histories of maternal alcohol abuse but who did not qualify for a diagnosis of Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS), based on established criteria, underwent magnetic resonance imaging. Reduced volumes were found for the cerebrum and cerebellum. In addition, the proportional volume of the basal ganglia was reduced, although the proportional volumes of cortical and subcortical fluid, cortical gray matter, limbic and nonlimbic cortex, and diencephalic structures were unaffected. These findings are compared with our recent MRI findings in two cases of FAS. In addition, the caudate-putamen and ventricular areas were assessed in rats exposed to alcohol prenatally. Whereas the overall brain section area was not reduced in size, the area of the caudate-putamen was reduced and that of the ventricles was enlarged.

  19. A comparison between self-reported and GIS-based proxies of residential exposure to environmental pollution in a case-control study on lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordioli, M; Ranzi, A; Freni Sterrantino, A; Erspamer, L; Razzini, G; Ferrari, U; Gatti, M G; Bonora, K; Artioli, F; Goldoni, C A; Lauriola, P

    2014-06-01

    In epidemiological studies both questionnaire results and GIS modeling have been used to assess exposure to environmental risk factors. Nevertheless, few studies have used both these techniques to evaluate the degree of agreement between different exposure assessment methodologies. As part of a case-control study on lung cancer, we present a comparison between self-reported and GIS-derived proxies of residential exposure to environmental pollution. 649 subjects were asked to fill out a questionnaire and give information about residential history and perceived exposure. Using GIS, for each residence we evaluated land use patterns, proximity to major roads and exposure to industrial pollution. We then compared the GIS exposure-index values among groups created on the basis of questionnaire responses. Our results showed a relatively high agreement between the two methods. Although none of these methods is the "exposure gold standard", understanding similarities, weaknesses and strengths of each method is essential to strengthen epidemiological evidence.

  20. Chemical Warfare Agent Operational Exposure Hazard Assessment Research: FY07 Report and Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    accidentally exposed to VX vapor. The method employs GC-MS/MS on a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer using stable isotope dilution for quantitation... Technique for Assessing Exposure to VX via GC-MS/MS Analysis 85 3.3.1 Introduction 85 3.3.2 Materials and Methods 85 3.3.3 Results and Discussion 90...guinea pigs were anesthetized using isoflurane (3% induction, 15-2% maintenance; with oxygen). All procedures were performed using aseptic technique

  1. Markers of exposure to diesel exhaust in railroad workers. Research report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schenker, M.B.; Samuels, S.J.; Kado, N.Y.; Hammond, S.K.; Smith, T.J.

    1990-01-01

    The study measured the exposure of railroad workers to diesel exhaust and environmental tobacco smoke by using personal air samples taken over two consecutive work shifts. Urine samples were collected from 87 subjects at the end of the study work shifts and were analyzed for markers of cigarette smoking (nicotine, cotinine) and for mutagenicity, using a sensitive microsuspension assay (Salmonella strain TA98 with or without S9 enzyme). Among smokers, a dose-response relationship was observed between urinary mutagenicity and the number of cigarettes smoked on the study day. After cigarette smoking was controlled for, no association was present between diesel exhaust exposure and urinary mutagenicity. Among nonsmokers, detectable concentrations of mutagens were present in the urine, but no association could be found between markers of diesel exhaust or environmental tobacco smoke and urinary mutagenicity. It was concluded that the mutagens associated with the levels of exposure to diesel exhaust or environmental tobacco smoke in the study were undetectable in the urine.

  2. Exposure limits for nanoparticles: report of an international workshop on nano reference values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Broekhuizen, Pieter; van Veelen, Wim; Streekstra, Willem-Henk; Schulte, Paul; Reijnders, Lucas

    2012-07-01

    This article summarizes the outcome of the discussions at the international workshop on nano reference values (NRVs), which was organized by the Dutch trade unions and employers' organizations and hosted by the Social Economic Council in The Hague in September 2011. It reflects the discussions of 80 international participants representing small- and medium-size enterprises (SMEs), large companies, trade unions, governmental authorities, research institutions, and non-governmental organizations (NGOs) from many European countries, USA, India, and Brazil. Issues that were discussed concerned the usefulness and acceptability of precaution-based NRVs as a substitute for health-based occupational exposure limits (OELs) and derived no-effect levels (DNELs) for manufactured nanoparticles (NPs). Topics concerned the metrics for measuring NPs, the combined exposure to manufactured nanomaterials (MNMs) and process-generated NPs, the use of the precautionary principle, the lack of information about the presence of nanomaterials, and the appropriateness of soft regulation for exposure control. The workshop concluded that the NRV, as an 8-h time-weighted average, is a comprehensible and useful instrument for risk management of professional use of MNMs with a dispersible character. The question remains whether NRVs, as advised for risk management by the Dutch employers' organization and trade unions, should be under soft regulation or that a more binding regulation is preferable.

  3. Modified Exposure and Response Prevention to Treat the Repetitive Behaviors of a Child with Autism: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian A. Boyd

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the case study of a school-aged child with autism whose repetitive behaviors were treated with a modified version of a technique routinely used in cognitive behavior therapy (i.e., exposure response prevention to treat obsessive-compulsive disorder. A trained behavioral therapist administered the modified ERP treatment over the course of an intensive two-week treatment period with two therapy sessions occurring daily. The treatment was successful at decreasing the amount of child distress and cooccurring problem behavior displayed; however, the child's interest in the repetitive behavior eliciting stimulus (i.e., puzzles remained. The case study demonstrates specific ways that exposure response prevention strategies can be adapted to the unique kinds of repetitive behaviors that present clinically in autism. A larger clinical trial is needed to substantiate these findings.

  4. Greater Trochanter Tuberculosis : MRI Findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    My Youssef Alaoui Lamrani

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis has been reported in almost all bones of body. The great trochanter tuberculosis (GTT installation is insidious and clinical symptoms are often vague with moderate painful swelling and stiffness. GTT is about 0,2 to 2% of all osteo-articular tuberculosis, occurring most commonly by hematogenous seeding secondary to primary focus elsewhere, more commonly in the lungs. Isolated GTT is unusual and thus its awareness is slow and diagnosis is often delayed.

  5. Carcinogenicity and teratogenicity vs. psychogenicity: Psychological characteristics associated with self-reported Agent Orange exposure among Vietnam combat veterans who seek treatment for substance abuse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robinowitz, R.; Roberts, W.R.; Dolan, M.P.; Patterson, E.T.; Charles, H.L.; Atkins, H.G.; Penk, W.E. (Univ. of Texas Health Science Center, Dallas (USA))

    1989-09-01

    This study asked, What are the psychological characteristics of Vietnam combat veterans who claim Agent Orange exposure when compared with combat-experienced cohorts who do not report such contamination The question was researched among 153 heroin addicts, polydrug abusers, and chronic alcoholics who were seeking treatment: 58 reported moderate to high defoliant exposure while in combat; 95 reported minimal to no exposure while in Vietnam. The null hypothesis was accepted for measures of childhood and present family social climate, premilitary backgrounds, reasons for seeking treatment, patterns and types of illicit drug and alcohol use, interpersonal problems, intellectual functioning, and short-term memory. The null hypothesis was rejected for personality differences, however, those who self-reported high Agent Orange exposure scored significantly higher on MMPI scales F, Hypochondriasis, Depression, Paranoia, Psychasthenia, Schizophrenia, Mania, and Social interoversion. The results suggest that clinicians carefully assess attributional processing of those who report traumatic experience.

  6. Military Exposures

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Enter ZIP code here Enter ZIP code here Military Exposures Veterans may have been exposed to a range of chemical, physical, and environmental hazards during military service. Reports on Veterans’ Health Care Use What ...

  7. Occupational radiation exposure at commercial nuclear power reactors and other facilities 1994. Twenty-seventh annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, M.L.; Hagemeyer, D. [Science Applications International Corporation, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    1996-01-01

    This report summarizes the occupational exposure data that are maintained in the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission`s (NRC) Radiation Exposure Information and Reporting System (REIRS). Annual reports for 1994 were received from a total of 303 NRC licensees, of which 109 were operators of nuclear power reactors in commercial operation. Compilations of the reports submitted by the 303 licensees indicated that 152,028 individuals were monitored, 79,780 of whom received a measurable dose. The collective dose incurred by these individuals was 24,740 person-cSv (person-rem){sup 2} which represents a 15% decrease from the 1993 value. The number of workers receiving a measurable dose also decreased, resulting in the average measurable dose of 0.31 cSv (rem) for 1994. The average measurable dose is defined to be the total collective dose (TEDE) divided by the number of workers receiving a measurable dose. These figures have been adjusted to account for transient reactor workers. In 1994, the annual collective dose per reactor for light water reactor licensees (LWRs) was 198 person-cSv (person-rem). This represents a 18% decrease from the 1993 value of 242 person-cSv (person-rem). The annual collective dose per reactor for boiling water reactors (BWRs) was 327 person-cSv (person-rem) and, for pressurized water reactors (PWRs), it was 131 person-cSv (person-rem). Analyses of transient worker data indicate that 18,178 individuals completed work assignments at two or more licensees during the monitoring year. The dose distributions are adjusted each year to account for the duplicate reporting of transient workers by multiple licensees. In 1994, the average measurable dose calculated from reported data was 0.28 cSv (rem). The corrected dose distribution resulted in an average measurable dose of 0.31 cSv (rem).

  8. Prevalence of hazardous exposures in veterinary practice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiggins, P.; Schenker, M.B.; Green, R.; Samuels, S.

    1989-01-01

    All female graduates of a major U.S. veterinary school were surveyed by mailed questionnaire to obtain details of work practice and hazard exposure during the most recent year worked and during all pregnancies. Exposure questions were based on previously implicated occupational hazards which included anesthetic gases, radiation, zoonoses, prostaglandins, vaccines, physical trauma, and pesticides. The response rate was 86% (462/537). We found that practice type and pregnancy status were major determinants of hazard exposure within the veterinary profession. Small-animal practitioners reported the highest rates of exposure to anesthetic gas (94%), X-ray (90%), and pesticides (57%). Large-animal practitioners reported greater rates of trauma (64%) and potential exposure to prostaglandins (92%), Brucella abortus vaccine (23%), and carbon monoxide (18%). Potentially hazardous workplace practices or equipment were common. Forty-one percent of respondents who reported taking X-rays did not wear film badges, and 76% reported physically restraining animals for X-ray procedures. Twenty-seven percent of the respondents exposed to anesthetic gases worked at facilities which did not have waste anesthetic gas scavenging systems. Women who worked as veterinarians during a pregnancy attempted to reduce exposures to X-rays, insecticides, and other potentially hazardous exposures. Some potentially hazardous workplace exposures are common in veterinary practice, and measures to educate workers and to reduce these exposures should not await demonstration of adverse health effects.

  9. Notes from the Field: Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa) Exposures Reported to Poison Centers - United States, 2010-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anwar, Mehruba; Law, Royal; Schier, Josh

    2016-07-29

    Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa) is a plant consumed throughout the world for its stimulant effects and as an opioid substitute (1). It is typically brewed into a tea, chewed, smoked, or ingested in capsules (2). It is also known as Thang, Kakuam, Thom, Ketum, and Biak (3). The Drug Enforcement Administration includes kratom on its Drugs of Concern list (substances that are not currently regulated by the Controlled Substances Act, but that pose risks to persons who abuse them), and the National Institute of Drug Abuse has identified kratom as an emerging drug of abuse (3,4). Published case reports have associated kratom exposure with psychosis, seizures, and deaths (5,6). Because deaths have been attributed to kratom in the United States (7), some jurisdictions have passed or are considering legislation to make kratom use a felony (8). CDC characterized kratom exposures that were reported to poison centers and uploaded to the National Poison Data System (NPDS) during January 2010-December 2015. The NPDS is a national database of information logged by the country's regional poison centers serving all 50 United States, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico and is maintained by the American Association of Poison Control Centers. NPDS case records are the result of call reports made by the public and health care providers.

  10. A longitudinal study of environmental tobacco smoke exposure in children: Parental self reports versus age dependent biomarkers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunyer Jordi

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Awareness of the negative effects of smoking on children's health prompted a decrease in the self-reporting of parental tobacco use in periodic surveys from most industrialized countries. Our aim is to assess changes between ETS exposure at the end of pregnancy and at 4 years of age determined by the parents' self-report and measurement of cotinine in age related biological matrices. Methods The prospective birth cohort included 487 infants from Barcelona city (Spain. Mothers were asked about maternal and household smoking habit. Cord serum and children's urinary cotinine were analyzed in duplicate using a double antibody radioimmunoassay. Results At 4 years of age, the median urinary cotinine level in children increased 1.4 or 3.5 times when father or mother smoked, respectively. Cotinine levels in children's urine statistically differentiated children from smoking mothers (Geometric Mean (GM 19.7 ng/ml; 95% CI 16.83–23.01 and exposed homes (GM 7.1 ng/ml; 95% CI 5.61–8.99 compared with non-exposed homes (GM 4.5 ng/ml; 95% CI 3.71–5.48. Maternal self-reported ETS exposure in homes declined in the four year span between the two time periods from 42.2% to 31.0% (p Conclusion We concluded that cotinine levels determined in cord blood and urine, respectively, were useful for categorizing the children exposed to smoking and showed that a certain increase in ETS exposure during the 4-year follow-up period occurred.

  11. Evidence Report: Risk of Acute and Late Central Nervous System Effects from Radiation Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Gregory A.; Simonsen, Lisa; Huff, Janice L.

    2016-01-01

    Possible acute and late risks to the central nervous system (CNS) from galactic cosmic rays (GCR) and solar particle events (SPE) are concerns for human exploration of space. Acute CNS risks may include: altered cognitive function, reduced motor function, and behavioral changes, all of which may affect performance and human health. Late CNS risks may include neurological disorders such as Alzheimer's disease (AD), dementia and premature aging. Although detrimental CNS changes are observed in humans treated with high-dose radiation (e.g., gamma rays and 9 protons) for cancer and are supported by experimental evidence showing neurocognitive and behavioral effects in animal models, the significance of these results on the morbidity to astronauts has not been elucidated. There is a lack of human epidemiology data on which to base CNS risk estimates; therefore, risk projection based on scaling to human data, as done for cancer risk, is not possible for CNS risks. Research specific to the spaceflight environment using animal and cell models must be compiled to quantify the magnitude of CNS changes in order to estimate this risk and to establish validity of the current permissible exposure limits (PELs). In addition, the impact of radiation exposure in combination with individual sensitivity or other space flight factors, as well as assessment of the need for biological/pharmaceutical countermeasures, will be considered after further definition of CNS risk occurs.

  12. Accidental carbon monoxide poisoning presenting without a history of exposure: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bennetto Luke

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Carbon monoxide poisoning is easy to diagnose when there is a history of exposure. When the exposure history is absent, or delayed, the diagnosis is more difficult and relies on recognising the importance of multi-system disease. We present a case of accidental carbon monoxide poisoning. Case presentation A middle-aged man, who lived alone in his mobile home was found by friends in a confused, incontinent state. Initial signs included respiratory failure, cardiac ischaemia, hypotension, encephalopathy and a rash, whilst subsequent features included rhabdomyolysis, renal failure, amnesia, dysarthria, parkinsonism, peripheral neuropathy, supranuclear gaze palsy and cerebral haemorrhage. Despite numerous investigations including magnetic resonance cerebral imaging, lumbar puncture, skin biopsy, muscle biopsy and electroencephalogram a diagnosis remained elusive. Several weeks after admission, diagnostic breakthrough was achieved when the gradual resolution of the patient's amnesia, encephalopathy and dysarthria allowed an accurate history to be taken for the first time. The patient's last recollection was turning on his gas heating for the first time since the spring. A gas heating engineer found the patient's gas boiler to be in a dangerous state of disrepair and it was immediately decommissioned. Conclusion This case highlights several important issues: the bewildering myriad of clinical features of carbon monoxide poisoning, the importance of making the diagnosis even at a late stage and preventing the patient's return to a potentially fatal toxic environment, and the paramount importance of the history in the diagnostic method.

  13. Notes from the field: carbon monoxide exposures reported to poison centers and related to hurricane Sandy - Northeastern United States, 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-09

    Hurricane Sandy made landfall as a post-tropical cyclone along the coast of southern New Jersey on Monday, October 29, 2012. In the wake of Sandy, state and federal public health agencies have observed an increase in the number of exposures to carbon monoxide (CO) reported to poison centers. CO is imperceptible and can cause adverse health effects ranging from fatigue and headache to cardiorespiratory failure, coma, and death. CO poisoning is a leading cause of mortality and morbidity in post-disaster situations, when widespread power outages occur and risky behaviors, such as improper placement of generators and indoor use of charcoal grills, increase.

  14. Predicted risk of childhood allergy, asthma, and reported symptoms using measured phthalate exposure in dust and urine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hsu, N.-Y.; Lee, C.-C.; Wang, J.-Y.

    2012-01-01

    in settled dust from the homes of 101 children (3–9 years old) were measured, along with their corresponding urinary metabolites. Other environmental risk factors, including indoor CO2, PM2.5, formaldehyde, 1,3-b-D-glucan, endotoxin, allergen and fungal levels, were concomitantly examined. Subjects health......). Higher levels of dibutyl phthalate and its metabolites, mono-n-butyl phthalate, and mono-2-ethylhexyl phthalate were found to be the potential risk factors for the health outcomes of interest. Similarly, indoor fungal exposure remained a significant risk factor, especially for reported respiratory...

  15. National Wildlife Health Center: Research progress report (August 1998): Determination of lead exposure in black ducks wintering in Tennessee ten years after implementation of non-toxic shot

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Attached is the progress report for the first year of the cooperative research study on lead exposure for black ducks in Tennessee. Research objectives included...

  16. National Wildlife Health Center: Final research report (September 1999): Determination of lead exposure in black ducks wintering in Tennessee ten years after implementation of non-toxic shot

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Attached is the final project report for the cooperative research study on lead exposure for black ducks in Tennessee. Research objectives included determining the...

  17. Exposure to and engagement with gambling marketing in social media: Reported impacts on moderate-risk and problem gamblers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gainsbury, Sally M; King, Daniel L; Russell, Alex M T; Delfabbro, Paul; Derevensky, Jeffrey; Hing, Nerilee

    2016-03-01

    Digital advertising for gambling and specifically marketing via social media have increased in recent years, and the impact on vulnerable consumers, including moderate-risk and problem gamblers, is unknown. Social media promotions often fall outside of advertising restrictions and codes of conduct and may have an inequitable effect on susceptible gamblers. This study aimed to investigate recall of exposure to, and reported impact on gamblers of, gambling promotions and marketing content on social media, with a focus on vulnerable users currently experiencing gambling problems. Gamblers who use social media (N = 964) completed an online survey assessing their exposure to and engagement with gambling operators on social media, their problem gambling severity, and the impact of social media promotions on their gambling. Gamblers at moderate risk and problem gamblers were significantly more likely to report having been exposed to social media gambling promotions and indicated actively engaging with gambling operators via these platforms. They were more likely to self-report that they had increased gambling as a result of these promotions, and over one third reported that the promotions had increased their problems. This research suggests that gamblers at moderate risk or those experiencing gambling problems are more likely to be impacted by social media promotions, and these may play a role in exacerbating disordered gambling. Future research should verify these self-reported results with behavioral data. However, the potential influence of advertisements via these new platforms should be considered by clinicians and policymakers, given their potential role in the formation of this behavioral addiction.

  18. The radiological impact on the Greater London population of postulated accidental releases from the Sizewell PWR

    CERN Document Server

    Kelly, G N; Charles, D; Hemming, C R

    1983-01-01

    This report contains an assessment of the radiological impact on the Greater London population of postulated accidental releases from the Sizewell PWR. Three of the degraded core accident releases postulated by the CEGB are analysed. The consequences, conditional upon each release, are evaluated in terms of the health impact on the exposed population and the impact of countermeasures taken to limit the exposure. Consideration is given to the risk to the Greater London population as a whole and to individuals within it. The consequences are evaluated using the NRPB code MARC (Methodology for Assessing Radiological Consequences). The results presented in this report are all conditional upon the occurrence of each release. In assessing the significance of the results, due account must be taken of the frequency with which such releases may be predicted to occur.

  19. Exposure to road traffic and railway noise and associations with blood pressure and self-reported hypertension: a cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tjønneland Anne

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Epidemiological studies suggest that long-term exposure to transport noise increases the risk for cardiovascular disorders. The effect of transport noise on blood pressure and hypertension is uncertain. Methods In 1993-1997, 57,053 participants aged 50-64 year were enrolled in a population-based cohort study. At enrolment, systolic and diastolic blood pressure was measured. Incident hypertension during a mean follow-up of 5.3 years was assessed by questionnaire. Residential long-term road traffic noise (Lden was estimated for 1- and 5-year periods preceding enrolment and preceding diagnosis of hypertension. Residential exposure to railway noise was estimated at enrolment. We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of associations between road traffic and railway noise and blood pressure at enrolment with linear regression, adjusting for long-term air pollution, meteorology and potential lifestyle confounders (N = 44,083. Incident self-reported hypertension was analyzed with Cox regression, adjusting for long-term air pollution and potential lifestyle confounders. Results We found a 0.26 mm Hg higher systolic blood pressure (95% confidence intervals (CI: -0.11; 0.63 per 10 dB(A increase in 1-year mean road traffic noise levels, with stronger associations in men (0.59 mm Hg (CI: 0.13; 1.05 per 10 dB(A and older participants (0.65 mm Hg (0.08; 1.22 per 10 dB(A. Road traffic noise was not associated with diastolic blood pressure or hypertension. Exposure to railway noise above 60 dB was associated with 8% higher risk for hypertension (95% CI: -2%; 19%, P = 0.11. Conclusions While exposure to road traffic noise was associated with systolic blood pressure in subgroups, we were not able to identify associations with hypertension.

  20. A State-of-the-Art Report on Technologies of a Safety Assessment and a Radioactivity Exposure Assessment for the Decommissioning Process of Nuclear Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Kwan Seong; Kang, Young Ae; Lee, Dong Gyu; Lee, Kune Woo; Jung, Chong Hun

    2007-09-15

    This report is to provide the reference contents of research and development for technologies of radioactivity exposure and safety assessment for development of the decommissioning technology for nuclear facilities. This report consists of as follows: - Analyzing and discussing on state-of-the-art technologies of a radioactivity exposure assessment of a decommissioning for nuclear facilities - Analyzing and discussing on state-of-the-art technologies of a safety assessment of a decommissioning for nuclear facilities.

  1. Crown-root fracture with pulp exposure: a case report with 16-year follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moura, Lucia Fatima Almeida de Deus; Leao, Valeria Leopoldino de Area; de Moura, Marcoeli Silva; de Moura, Carmem Dolores Vilarinho Soares; Goncalves, Alessandro Ribeiro; Lima, Cacilda Castelo Branco; de Lima, Marina de Deus Moura

    2015-01-01

    A 12-year-old boy presented for dental care 35 days after he fell from his bicycle. Clinical and radiographic examinations revealed a longitudinal crown-root fracture with pulp exposure in the maxillary left central incisor. The radiograph also suggested necrosis of the maxillary right central incisor. Urgent treatment of the left central incisor involved gingivectomy followed by autogenous bonding of the tooth fragment with self-curing composite resin. Immediately after bonding, coronal access was prepared, chemical and mechanical preparation was completed, and a calcium hydroxide intracanal dressing was placed. One week after the initial appointment, endodontic treatment was initiated in the right central incisor. The root canal of the maxillary left central incisor was maintained with calcium hydroxide paste (replaced at 45-day intervals) for 1 year and then definitively obturated. At the 16-year follow-up, satisfactory periodontal, esthetic, and clinical conditions were observed, and a radiograph revealed no resorption or periapical changes.

  2. Determinants of exposure to metalworking fluid aerosols: a literature review and analysis of reported measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Donguk; Stewart, Patrica A; Coble, Joseph B

    2009-04-01

    An extensive literature review of published metalworking fluid (MWF) aerosol measurement data was conducted to identify the major determinants that may affect exposure to aerosol fractions (total or inhalable, thoracic and respirable) and mass median diameters (MMDs). The identification of determinants was conducted through published studies and analysis of published measurement levels. For the latter, weighted arithmetic means (WAMs) by number of measurements were calculated and compared using analysis of variance and t-tests. The literature review found that the major factors affecting aerosol exposure levels were, primarily, decade, type of industry, operation and fluid and engineering control measures. Our analysis of total aerosol levels found a significant decline in measured levels from an average of 5.36 mg m(-3) prior to the 1970s and 2.52 mg m(-3) in the 1970s to 1.21 mg m(-3) in the 1980s, 0.50 mg m(-3) in the 1990s and 0.55 mg m(-3) in the 2000s. Significant declines from the 1990s to the 2000s also were found in thoracic fraction levels (0.48 versus 0.40 mg m(-3)), but not for the respirable fraction. The WAMs for the auto (1.47 mg m(-3)) and auto parts manufacturing industry (1.83 mg m(-3)) were significantly higher than that for small-job machine shops (0.68 mg m(-3)). In addition, a significant difference in the thoracic WAM was found between the automotive industry (0.46 mg m(-3)) and small-job machine shops (0.32 mg m(-3)). Operation type, in particular, grinding, was a significant factor affecting the total aerosol fraction [grinding operations (1.75 mg m(-3)) versus other machining (0.95 mg m(-3))], but the levels associated with these operations were not statistically different for either the thoracic or the respirable fractions. Across all decades, the total aerosol fraction for straight oils (1.49 mg m(-3)) was higher than for other fluid types (soluble = 1.08 mg m(-3), synthetic = 0.52 mg m(-3) and semisynthetic = 0.50 mg m(-3)). Fluid type

  3. Solar-collector-materials exposure to the IPH site environment. Volume 1. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morris, V.L.

    1982-01-01

    In-situ environmental exposure tests were conducted at nine proposed intermediate-temperature Industrial Process Heat (IPH) sites. Three types of reflector materials were evaluated for survivability at the nine sites: second-surface silvered glass, aluminized acrylic FEK-244 film on aluminumsubstrate and Alzak (electropolished aluminum) on aluminium substrate. Black chrome absorber material and low-iron float glass were evaluated for thermal, photochemical, and environmental degradation. The reflector specimens were monitored for decreases in specular and hemispherical reflectance due to soil buildup. The absorber material was evaluated for changes in solar absorptivity and emissivity, and the float glass was monitored for changes in transmissivity. Surface and subsurface defects on all materials were examined microscopically and, where deemed of note, were documented photographically.

  4. Solar-collector materials exposure to the IPH site environment. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morris, V.L.

    1982-01-01

    In-situ environmental exposure tests were conducted at nine proposed intermediate-temperature Industrial Process Heat (IPH) sites. Three types of reflector materials were evaluated for survivability at the nine sites: second-surface silvered glass, aluminized acrylic FEK-244 film on aluminum substrate, and Alzak (electropolished aluminum) on aluminum substrate. Black chrome absorber material and low-iron float glass were evaluated for thermal, photochemical, and environmental degradation. The reflector specimens were monitored for decreases in specular and hemispherical reflectance due to soil buildup. The absorber material was evaluated for changes in solar absorptivity and emissivity, and the float glass was monitored for changes in transmissivity. Surface and subsurface defects on all materials were examined microscopically and, where deemed of note, were documented photographically.

  5. Congenital microtia in a neonate due to maternal isotretinoin exposure 1 month before pregnancy: Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirazi, Mahboobeh; Abbariki, Ezzat; Pirjani, Reihaneh; Akhavan, Setareh; Dastgerdy, Ebrahim

    2015-06-01

    Isotretinoin is a drug used for treating severe cystic/nodular acne. Severe malformations have been documented in neonates whose mothers had taken isotretinoin during pregnancy. Women who became pregnant one cycle after completing therapy are believed to be at teratogenic risk not higher than baseline. We describe the case of a newborn whose mother had taken the drug for 4 weeks. The woman then had contraception for 4 weeks (after the drug treatment had finished), and became pregnant after that period. The newborn had isolated bilateral microtia due to suspected isotretinoin exposure. His mother also had a history of urine tract infection in the second week of pregnancy that was treated with cephalexin. The parents were not from a consanguineous marriage and had no family history of congenital malformations. To reduce the risk, effective contraception should be continued in fertile women more than 1 month after completing therapy.

  6. Murine partial-body radiation exposure model for biodosimetry studies - Preliminary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blakely, William F., E-mail: blakely@afrri.usuhs.mil [Uniformed Services University, Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute, Scientific Research Department, 8901 Wisconsin Avenue, Bethesda, MD 20889-5603 (United States); Sandgren, David J., E-mail: Sandgren@afrri.usuhs.mil [Uniformed Services University, Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute, Scientific Research Department, 8901 Wisconsin Avenue, Bethesda, MD 20889-5603 (United States); Nagy, Vitaly, E-mail: nagy@afrri.usuhs.mil [Uniformed Services University, Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute, Scientific Research Department, 8901 Wisconsin Avenue, Bethesda, MD 20889-5603 (United States); Kim, Sung-Yop, E-mail: kimy@afrri.usuhs.mil [Uniformed Services University, Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute, Scientific Research Department, 8901 Wisconsin Avenue, Bethesda, MD 20889-5603 (United States); Ossetrova, Natalia I., E-mail: ossetrova@afrri.usuhs.mil [Uniformed Services University, Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute, Scientific Research Department, 8901 Wisconsin Avenue, Bethesda, MD 20889-5603 (United States)

    2011-09-15

    The objective of the present study was to establish a murine partial-body radiation exposure model for studies supporting the identification and validation of novel biological dosimetry diagnostic assays. A lead shielding - Plexiglas irradiation apparatus with cutouts to permit irradiation of single-mouse-holder constrained CD2F1 male mice to total-body (3/3), mid- and lower-body (2/3), mid-body only (1/3), and 100% lead shielding sham-treated (0 Gy) controls (0/3) with a 250-kVp X-ray source (dose: 6 Gy, dose rate: 0.50 Gy min{sup -1}) was used. Doses and dose uniformity were measured using alanine - electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and ionization chambers. Dosimetry mapping results showed {approx}2 and {approx}12% non-uniformity in the radiation fields for the two smaller (1/3, 2/3) and one larger (3/3) fields, respectively. Hematology results showed no marked differences in neutrophil and platelet counts 1 and 2 days (d) after irradiation. The lymphocyte counts, as expected, demonstrate a progressive decline below baseline levels 1 and 2 d after irradiation with increasing fraction of the body exposed, while the neutrophil to lymphocyte ratios show the inverse effect, with a progressive increase with the fraction of body exposed. The bone marrow biomarker, Flt3 ligand, demonstrated a progressive increase in values with increasing fraction of the body exposed; the 2 d response was enhanced compared to 1 d. The radioresponse 1 d after irradiation for the acute phase reactant protein biomarker, serum amyloid A (SAA) that is synthesized by the liver, was significantly influenced depending on whether the mouse head was in the radiation field. Use of multiple biomarkers based on hematology and proteomic targets provide an enhancement in early-phase partial-body radiation exposure assessment.

  7. Benzalkonium chloride exposure in cats: a retrospective analysis of 245 cases reported to the Veterinary Poisons Information Service (VPIS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, N; Edwards, N

    2015-02-28

    Benzalkonium chloride is commonly found in household products. This retrospective study examined 245 cases of feline exposure to benzalkonium chloride-containing products reported to the Veterinary Poisons Information Service (VPIS). A single route of exposure was reported in 188 cats (ingestion 126, skin 58, buccal 4); 57 cats had multiple routes. The common products involved were household antibacterial cleaners (43.6 per cent), household disinfectants (22.3 per cent) and patio cleaners (17.5 per cent). The most common signs were hypersalivation/drooling (53.9 per cent), tongue ulceration (40.4 per cent), hyperthermia (40.4 per cent) and oral ulceration (22.9 per cent). The mean time recorded for onset of the first clinical sign was 6.4 hours (range five minutes to 48 hours, median 4.5 hours, n=60), however, the VPIS was not contacted until 14.0 ± 13.2 hours after exposure (n=120). This figure also reflects the time of presentation. The most common treatments given were antibiotics (82.0 per cent), fluids (50.2 per cent), analgesia (45.3 per cent), gastroprotectants (31.0 per cent), dermal decontamination (24.1 per cent) and steroids (22.7 per cent). 13 cats (5.3 per cent) received syringe or nasogastric feeding. Of 245 cats, 12 (4.9 per cent) remained asymptomatic, 230 (93.9 per cent) recovered and three died (1.2 per cent). The time to recovery ranged from 1 to 360 hours (n=67) with a mean of 100.4 ± 82.0 hours (4.2 ± 3.4 days, median 72 hours).

  8. Household exposure to pesticides and bladder exstrophy in a newborn baby boy: a case report and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Marlene

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Bladder exstrophy is a rare urogenital abnormality. Other urogenital malformations have been associated with exposure to hormonal pesticide disruptors during critical developmental periods. This is the first report in the literature to associate household exposure to pesticides with bladder exstrophy. Case presentation We describe the pediatric environmental history of a newborn baby boy with isolated bladder exstrophy. In this case the pediatric environmental history includes the constitutional, genealogical, genetic and environmental factors related to bladder exstrophy, which revealed a cockroach infestation in the parents' home and the daily use of bug spray to kill them. The mother used one bottle of spray every 2 days (1000cc and more in the summer, when the problem was worse. During gestational weeks 0-12, the mother intensively used a domestic pesticide consisting of a mixture of pyrethroids (cyfenothrin 0.5%, and tetramethrin 0.31% and pyriproxyfen (0.01%. She described repeated episodes of mild to moderate poisoning that are associated with the use of household pesticides. The mother is a housewife and the father works as a fumigator of fruit fields and he reported gastrointestinal symptoms associated with the use of occupational pesticides. However, he did not believe he carried traces of these products into the home and his wife washed his work clothes separately. The pyrethroids and pyriproxyfen were detected in a urine sample obtained from the child 4 months after he was born. No other risk factors were identified. Conclusions A detailed and carefully conducted pediatric environmental history, which includes information about home pesticide use, should be carried out for all children with bladder exstrophy. Domestic exposure to pesticides during critical developmental periods may have deleterious effects for the fetus.

  9. Factors associated with second-hand smoke exposure in non-smoking pregnant women in Spain: self-reported exposure and urinary cotinine levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aurrekoetxea, Juan J; Murcia, Mario; Rebagliato, Marisa; Fernández-Somoano, Ana; Castilla, Ane Miren; Guxens, Mònica; López, María José; Lertxundi, Aitana; Espada, Mercedes; Tardón, Adonina; Ballester, Ferran; Santa-Marina, Loreto

    2014-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the main sources of and sociodemographic factors associated with second-hand smoke (SHS) exposure, assessed both by questionnaire and by urinary cotinine (UC) levels, in non-smoking pregnant women. We conducted a cross-sectional study in pregnant women from 4 different regions in Spain. A total of 1783 non-smoking pregnant women completed a questionnaire about their previous smoking habit and SHS exposure in their 3rd trimester of pregnancy and provided a urine sample for measuring UC levels. We used logistic regression models to assess the relationship between several sociodemographic variables and some potential sources of SHS exposure. In addition, we analysed the association of several sociodemographic variables and the SHS exposure according to UC levels, using Tobit regression analysis. More than half of women (55.5%) were exposed to SHS in their 3rd trimester of pregnancy. The following variables were associated with SHS exposure: having smoked previously, low educational level, and being primiparous. Data collection after the first law banning smoking in public places was associated with lower risk of SHS exposure in restaurants and at work. UC levels were higher among women exposed to more than one source. Having a partner who smoked at home was the source of SHS with the greatest impact on UC levels, followed by having a partner who smoked but not at home, other people smoking in the household, being exposed during leisure time, at work and at restaurants. The most important source of SHS exposure was exposure at home. Prevention of SHS exposure should be addressed not only with pregnant women but also with their families.

  10. Relationship between child abuse exposure and reported contact with child protection organizations: results from the Canadian Community Health Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afifi, Tracie O; MacMillan, Harriet L; Taillieu, Tamara; Cheung, Kristene; Turner, Sarah; Tonmyr, Lil; Hovdestad, Wendy

    2015-08-01

    Much of what is known about child abuse in Canada has come from reported cases of child abuse and at-risk samples, which likely represent the most severe cases of child abuse in the country. The objective of the current study is to examine the prevalence of a broad range of child abuse experiences (physical abuse, sexual abuse, and exposure to IPV) and investigate how such experiences and sociodemographic variables are related to contact with child protection organizations in Canada using a representative general population sample. Data were drawn from the 2012 Canadian Community Health Survey: Mental Health collected from the 10 provinces using a multistage stratified cluster design (n=23,395; household response rate=79.8%; aged 18 years and older). Physical abuse only (16.8%) was the most prevalent child abuse experience reported with the exposure to specific combinations of two or more types of child abuse ranging from 0.4% to 3.7%. Only 7.6% of the adult population with a history of child abuse reported having had contact with child protection organizations. Experiencing all three types of child abuse was associated with the greatest odds of contact with child protection organizations (AOR=15.8; 95% CI=10.1 to 24.6). Physical abuse only was associated with one of the lowest odds of contact with child protection organizations. Preventing child abuse is widely acknowledged as an important, but challenging public health goal. Strategies to increase reporting of child abuse may help to protect children and to connect families with necessary services. One obvious priority would be physical abuse.

  11. Commercial Integrated Heat Pump with Thermal Storage --Demonstrate Greater than 50% Average Annual Energy Savings, Compared with Baseline Heat Pump and Water Heater (Go/No-Go) FY16 4th Quarter Milestone Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Bo [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Baxter, Van D. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Rice, C. Keith [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Abu-Heiba, Ahmad [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-03-01

    For this study, we authored a new air source integrated heat pump (AS-IHP) model in EnergyPlus, and conducted building energy simulations to demonstrate greater than 50% average energy savings, in comparison to a baseline heat pump with electric water heater, over 10 US cities, based on the EnergyPlus quick-service restaurant template building. We also assessed water heating energy saving potentials using ASIHP versus gas heating, and pointed out climate zones where AS-IHPs are promising.

  12. Monitoring of radiation exposure. Annual report 2000; Saeteilyn kaeyttoe ja muu saeteilytoiminta. Vuosiraportti 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rantanen, E. [ed.

    2001-03-01

    At the end of 2000, there were 1,779 valid safety licenses in Finland for the use of radiation. In addition, there were 2,038 responsible parties for dental x-ray diagnostics. The registry Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK) listed 13,754 radiation sources and 270 radionuclide laboratories. In the year 2000 360 inspections were made concerning the safety licences and 53 concerning dental x-ray diagnostics. The import of radioactive substances amounted to 175,836 GBq and export to 74,420 GBq. Short-lived radionuclides produced in Finland amounted to 55,527 GBq. In the year 2000 there were 10,846 workers monitored for radiation exposure at 1,171 work sites. Of these employees, 27% received an annual dose exceeding the recording level. The annual effective dose limit was not exceeded. The total dose recorded in the dose registry(sum of the individual dosemeter readings) was 6.5 Sv in 2000.

  13. 76 FR 61098 - Exposure Factors Handbook: 2011 Edition; Release of Final Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-03

    ... and soil adherence factors; consumption of fruits and vegetables, fish, meats, dairy products, and... National Center for Environmental Assessment (NCEA) within EPA's Office of Research and Development. The... the Recent Additions and Publications menus at http://www.epa.gov/ncea . Paper copies of the report...

  14. Congenital cerebral palsy and prenatal exposure to self-reported maternal infections, fever, or smoking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Streja, Elani; Miller, Jessica E; Bech, Bodil H

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to investigate the association between maternal self-reported infections, fever, and smoking in the prenatal period and the subsequent risk for congenital cerebral palsy (CP). STUDY DESIGN: We included the 81,066 mothers of singletons born between 1996...

  15. Assessing obstetric risk factors for maternal morbidity: congruity between medical records and mothers' reports of obstetric exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gartland, Deirdre; Lansakara, Nirosha; Flood, Margaret; Brown, Stephanie J

    2012-02-01

    We sought to assess congruity between data abstracted from medical records with answers to self-administered questionnaires. This was a multicenter prospective nulliparous pregnancy cohort. A total of 1507 women enrolled. Analyses were reported for 1296 with medical record data and 3-month postpartum follow-up. There was near-perfect agreement (κ ≥ 0.80) between maternal report and abstracted data for reproductive history, induction/augmentation method, epidural/spinal analgesia, method of birth, perineal repair, infant birthweight, and gestation. Agreement was poor to moderate for maternal position in second stage and duration of pushing. Maternal report of pregnancy, labor, and birth factors was very reliable and considered more accurate in relation to maternal position in labor and birth, smoking, prior terminations, and miscarriages. Use of routine birthing outcome summaries may introduce measurement error as hospitals differ in their definitions and reporting practices. Using primary data sources (eg, partograms) with clearly defined prespecified criteria will provide the most accurate obstetric exposure and outcome data. Copyright © 2012 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Quantitative ultraviolet skin exposure in children during selected outdoor activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melville, S K; Rosenthal, F S; Luckmann, R; Lew, R A

    1991-06-01

    We determined the cumulative exposure of 3 body sites to ultraviolet radiation from sunlight for 126 children observed from 1-3 d during a variety of common recreational activities at a girl scout camp, baseball camp and community baseball field. Median arm exposure to children playing baseball at a camp ranged from 27.6% to 33.2% of the possible ambient exposure. These exposures are similar to adult exposures reported for comparable activities. Median exposure to the arm at the girl scout camp during mixed activities ranged from 9.0% to 26.5% of possible ambient exposure. At the girl scout camp, exposure both within and between activity groups varied substantially and were more variable than the baseball players' exposure. Arm exposure was greater than cheek and forehead exposure for all subject groups, with an arm-to-cheek exposure ratio ranging from 1.7 to 2.3. For organized sports, such as baseball, it may be possible to assign a single exposure estimate for use in epidemiologic studies or risk estimates. However, for less uniform outdoor activities, wide variability in exposure makes it more difficult to predict an individual's exposure.

  17. The role of reported tobacco-specific media exposure on adult attitudes towards proposed policies to limit the portrayal of smoking in movies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, Kelly D; Viswanath, K; Blendon, Robert J; Vallone, Donna

    2010-06-01

    To assess the relative, independent contribution of reported tobacco-specific media exposure (pro-tobacco advertising, anti-tobacco advertising, and news coverage of tobacco issues) to US adults' support for policy efforts that aim to regulate the portrayal of smoking in movies. Using the American Legacy Foundation's 2003 American Smoking and Health Survey (ASHES-2), multivariable logistic regression was used to model the predicted probability that US adults support movie-specific tobacco control policies, by reported exposure to tobacco-specific media messages, controlling for smoking status, education, income, race/ethnicity, age, sex, knowledge of the negative effects of tobacco and state. Across most outcome variables under study, findings reveal that reported exposure to tobacco-specific media messages is associated with adult attitudes towards movie-specific policy measures. Most exposure to tobacco information in the media (with the exception of pro-tobacco advertising on the internet) contributes independently to the prediction of adult support for movie-specific policies. The direction of effect follows an expected pattern, with reported exposure to anti-tobacco advertising and news coverage of tobacco predicting supportive attitudes towards movie policies, and reported exposure to pro-tobacco advertising lessening support for some movie policies, though the medium of delivery makes a difference. Media campaigns to prevent tobacco use and exposure to secondhand smoke have had value beyond the intended impact of single-issue campaigns; exposure to anti-tobacco campaigns and public dialogue about the dangers of tobacco seem also to be associated with shaping perceptions of the social world related to norms about tobacco, and ideas about regulating the portrayal of smoking in movies.

  18. Minimal change disease caused by exposure to mercury-containing skin lightening cream: a report of 4 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Hon-Lok; Mak, Yuen-Fun; Chu, Kwok-Hong; Lee, William; Fung, Samuel Kaâ Shun; Chan, Thomas Yan-Keung; Tong, Kwok-Lung

    2013-04-01

    Mercury is a known cause of nephrotic syndrome and the underlying renal pathology in most of the reported cases was membranous nephropathy. We describe here 4 cases of minimal change disease following exposure to mercury-containing skin lightening cream for 2 - 6 months. The mercury content of the facial creams was very high (7,420 - 30,000 parts per million). All patients were female and presented with nephrotic syndrome and heavy proteinuria (8.35 - 20.69 g/d). The blood and urine mercury levels were 26 - 129 nmol/l and 316 - 2,521 nmol/d, respectively. Renal biopsy revealed minimal change disease (MCD) in all patients. The use of cosmetic cream was stopped and chelation therapy with D-penicillamine was given. Two patients were also given steroids. The time for blood mercury level to normalize was 1 - 7 months, whereas it took longer for urine mercury level to normalize (9 - 16 months). All patients had complete remission of proteinuria and the time to normalization of proteinuria was 1 - 9 months. Mercury-containing skin lightening cream is hazardous because skin absorption of mercury can cause minimal change disease. The public should be warned of the danger of using such products. In patients presenting with nephrotic syndrome, a detailed history should be taken, including the use of skin lightening cream. With regard to renal pathology, apart from membranous nephropathy, minimal change disease should be included as another pathological entity caused by mercury exposure or intoxication.

  19. Case Report: Analytical Electron Microscopy of Lung Granulomas Associated with Exposure to Coating Materials Carried by Glass Wool Fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Angela S.; Moreira, Valéria B.; Castro, Marcos César S.; Soares, Porfírio J.; Algranti, Eduardo; Andrade, Leonardo R.

    2010-01-01

    Context Man-made vitreous fibers (MMVFs) are noncrystalline inorganic fibrous material used for thermal and acoustical insulation (e.g., rock wool, glass wool, glass microfibers, and refractory ceramic fibers). Neither epidemiologic studies of human exposure nor animal studies have shown a noticeable hazardous effect of glass wools on health. However, MMVFs have been anecdotally associated with granulomatous lung disease in several case reports. Case presentation Here, we describe the case of a patient with multiple bilateral nodular opacities who was exposed to glass wool fibers and coating materials for 7 years. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid revealed an increased total cell count (predominantly macrophages) with numerous cytoplasmic particles. Lung biopsy showed peribronchiolar infiltration of lymphoid cells and many foreign-body–type granulomas. Alveolar macrophages had numerous round and elongated platelike particles inside the cytoplasm. X-ray microanalysis of these particles detected mainly oxygen/aluminum/silicon and oxygen/magnesium/silicon, compatible with kaolinite and talc, respectively. No elemental evidence for glass fibers was found in lung biopsy. Discussion The contribution of analytical electron microscopy applied in the lung biopsy was imperative to confirm the diagnosis of pneumoconiosis associated with a complex occupational exposure that included both MMVFs and coating materials. Relevance to clinical or professional practice This case study points out the possible participation of other components (coating materials), beyond MMVFs, in the etiology of pneumoconiosis. PMID:20123612

  20. Chylothorax following anterior thoraco-lumbar spine exposure. A case report and review of literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora de Sambricio, A; Garrido Stratenwerth, E

    2015-01-01

    Pleural effusion is a possible complication of the thoraco-abdominal approach to the spine. It is more commonly a reactive effusion, but it also may be caused by hemothorax, empyema or, less commonly, a chylothorax. The case of a chylothorax is reported as a late onset complication of a double anterior and posterior instrumented fusion of the lumbar spine. Its management and clinical outcome, and a review of the literature is presented. Copyright © 2014 SECOT. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  1. Virtual reality exposure therapy and hypnosis for flying phobia in a treatment-resistant patient: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, Joseph A

    2012-10-01

    Flying phobia is a problem that affects a significant portion of the population. There are a number of therapeutic approaches but no one is universally accepted as the gold standard. One therapy is hypnosis. A recent addition to the armamentarium is virtual reality exposure (VRE) therapy. Both therapies are short-term and compare favorably to in vivo desensitization. Heretofore a combination of both approaches has not been reported. This article presents a case of a 50-year phobia to flying that was refractory to traditional methods including pharmacotherapy, systematic desensitization, and cognitive behavioral therapy but was successfully treated using VRE therapy and hypnosis as the primary modalities. This treatment was supplemented by other approaches. The rationale for this multimodal therapy and possible mechanisms involved are discussed.

  2. [Hypersensitivity pneumonitis-like disease caused by exposure to Mycobacterium avium complex in bathtub water at home: a case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanno, Kiyoshi; Akai, Masaya; Kato, Tomohiro; Tada, Toshihiko; Watanabe, Kizuku; Shiozaki, Kouhei; Hase, Mitsuo

    2012-05-01

    We report here a case of hypersensitivity pneumonitis-like disease in an adult, likely due to exposure to Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) in his bathtub water at home. A 63-year-old man was referred to our hospital with exertional dyspnea. Chest computed tomography showed bilateral, diffuse, centrilobular ground-glass nodules. Bronchoalveolar lavage showed marked lymphocytosis. Transbronchial biopsy showed epithelioid cell granulomas and lymphocyte alveolitis. Cultures of the patient's sputum and bathtub water yielded MAC. Variable-number tandem repeat analysis of the MAC strains in the sputum and bathtub water samples showed that the strains were genetically identical. The clinical condition of the patient improved at home under chemotherapy by avoiding the use of the bathtub.

  3. Evaluation of reports of dioxin exposure and soft tissue sarcoma pathology among chemical workers in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fingerhut, M.A.; Halperin, W.E.; Honchar, P.A.; Smith, A.B.; Groth, D.H.; Russell, W.O.

    1984-10-01

    A review of employment records and tissue specimens of seven workers, reported previously as having occupational dioxin exposure and soft tissue sarcomas, confirms that four workers had employment of 2 to 19 years in the production of 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4,5-T) or trichlorophenol, products contaminated with 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzodioxin, the most toxic dioxin isomer. Of these individuals, two have confirmed soft tissue sarcomas. In addition three individuals who worked for companies which made 2,4,5-T also have confirmed soft tissue sarcomas. Their employment records do not show specific assignment to 2,4,5-T or trichlorophenol departments; however, one individual worked for 10 d in the production of pentachlorophenol, which is contaminated with different isomers of dioxin. Methodological problems are discussed which must be addressed in the epidemiologic evaluation of the outcome of soft tissue sarcoma.

  4. Post-irradiation angiosarcoma of the greater omentum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westenberg, A.H.; Wiggers, T.; Henzen-Logmans, S.C.; Verweij, J.; Meerwaldt, J.A.; Geel, A.N. van (Dr Daniel den Hoed Cancer Center, Rotterdam (Netherlands))

    1989-04-01

    A case of angiosarcoma of the greater omentum is reported. This angiosarcoma developed 8 years after irradiation for cervical carcinoma and presented with an intra-abdominal hemorrhage. The authors describe her clinical course, treatment and follow-up. Although several other locations of irradiation-induced sarcomas have been published, this is the first report in literature of a postirradiation angiosarcoma in the greater omentum. (author).

  5. Post-irradiation angiosarcoma of the greater omentum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westenberg, A H; Wiggers, T; Henzen-Logmans, S C; Verweij, J; Meerwaldt, J A; van Geel, A N

    1989-04-01

    A case of angiosarcoma of the greater omentum is reported. This angiosarcoma developed 8 years after irradiation for cervical carcinoma and presented with an intra-abdominal hemorrhage. We describe her clinical course, treatment and follow-up. Although several other locations of irradiation-induced sarcomas have been published, this is the first report in literature of a postirradiation angiosarcoma in the greater omentum.

  6. A descriptive analysis of relations between parents' self-reported smoking behavior and infants' daily exposure to environmental tobacco smoke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nauck Matthias

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aims of the present study were to examine relations between parents' self-reported smoking behavior and infants' daily exposure to environmental tobacco smoke, as assessed by urinary cotinine-to-creatinine ratio (CCR, and to describe the CCR over seven days among infants at home. Methods A convenience sample of 27 households was drawn. Each household had to have at least one daily tobacco smoker and one child up to three years of age. Over a seven-day period, urine samples were obtained from the child daily. To examine relations between parents' self-reported smoking and infants' daily CCR, generalized estimating equation (GEE analysis was used. Results The data revealed that infants from households with indoor smoking had higher CCRs than infants in households with outdoor smoking. CCRs were higher in girls than in boys. Older infants had lower CCRs than younger infants. Smoking outside the home versus inside the home, infant's gender, and infants' age accounted for 68% of the variance in CCR in a GEE data analysis model. No increase or decrease of CCR over time was found. Conclusion The findings suggest that parents' self-reported smoking indoors at home versus outdoors is predictive of CCR among infants three and younger. Higher CCR concentrations in girls' urine need further examination. Furthermore, significant fluctuations in daily CCR were not apparent in infants over a seven-day time period.

  7. Validation and calibration of HeadCount, a self-report measure for quantifying heading exposure in soccer players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catenaccio, E; Caccese, J; Wakschlag, N; Fleysher, R; Kim, N; Kim, M; Buckley, T A; Stewart, W F; Lipton, R B; Kaminski, T; Lipton, M L

    2016-01-01

    The long-term effects of repetitive head impacts due to heading are an area of increasing concern, and exposure must be accurately measured; however, the validity of self-report of cumulative soccer heading is not known. In order to validate HeadCount, a 2-week recall questionnaire, the number of player-reported headers was compared to the number of headers observed by trained raters for a men's and a women's collegiate soccer teams during an entire season of competitive play using Spearman's correlations and intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs), and calibrated using a generalized estimating equation. The average Spearman's rho was 0.85 for men and 0.79 for women. The average ICC was 0.75 in men and 0.38 in women. The calibration analysis demonstrated that men tend to report heading accurately while women tend to overestimate. HeadCount is a valid instrument for tracking heading behaviour, but may have to be calibrated in women.

  8. Monitoring and research on the Bi-State Distinct Population Segment of greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) in the Pine Nut Mountains, California and Nevada—Study progress report, 2011–15

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coates, Peter S.; Andrle, Katie M.; Ziegler, Pilar T.; Casazza, Michael L.

    2016-09-29

    The Bi-State distinct population segment (DPS) of greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) that occurs along the Nevada–California border was proposed for listing as threatened under the Endangered Species Act (ESA) by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) in October 2013. However, in April 2015, the FWS determined that the Bi-State DPS no longer required protection under the ESA and withdrew the proposed rule to list the Bi-State DPS (U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, 2015). The Bi-State DPS occupies portions of Alpine, Mono, and Inyo Counties in California, and Douglas, Esmeralda, Lyon, Carson City, and Mineral Counties in Nevada. Unique threats facing this population include geographic isolation, expansion of single-leaf pinyon (Pinus monophylla) and Utah juniper (Juniperus osteosperma), anthropogenic activities, and recent changes in predator communities. Estimating population vital rates, identifying seasonal habitat, quantifying threats, and identifying movement patterns are important first steps in developing effective sage-grouse management and conservation plans. During 2011–15, we radio- and Global Positioning System (GPS)-marked (2012–14 only) 44, 47, 17, 9, and 3 sage-grouse, respectively, for a total of 120, in the Pine Nut Mountains Population Management Unit (PMU). No change in lek attendance was detected at Mill Canyon (maximum=18 males) between 2011 and 2012; however, 1 male was observed in 2014 and no males were observed in 2013 and 2015. Males were observed near Bald Mountain in 2013, making it the first year this lek was observed to be active during the study period. Males were observed at a new site in the Buckskin Range in 2014 during trapping efforts and again observed during surveys in 2015. Findings indicate that pinyon-juniper is avoided by sage-grouse during every life stage. Nesting females selected increased sagebrush cover, sagebrush height, and understory horizontal cover, and brood-rearing females selected similar areas

  9. Acute respiratory distress syndrome following cutaneous exposure to Lysol: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y Y; Lu, C C; Perng, R P

    1999-12-01

    Lysol (mixed cresols) is a brand of popular detergent commonly used to disinfect toilets and floors in Taiwan. We report a patient with acute respiratory failure immediately following chemical burns caused by skin contact with Lysol solution. On admission, chest radiography showed bilateral diffuse pulmonary infiltrates and an arterial blood gas analysis disclosed hypoxemia refractory to a high concentration of oxygen by inhalation. Under the impression of acute respiratory distress syndrome, our patient was admitted to the intensive care unit for respiratory care. Poor clinical improvement was noted, despite aggressive respiratory therapy. High-dose steroid therapy (hydrocortisone 30 mg/kg/day) was administered from the seventh day after mechanical ventilation began and the ratio of arterial partial pressure of oxygen to fractional concentration of oxygen in inspired gas improved thereafter. The amount of steroid was gradually tapered to the maintenance dose and the patient was successfully weaned from the ventilator after a 93-day course of mechanical ventilation.

  10. Grant Monitoring: Department of Education Could Improve Its Processes with Greater Focus on Assessing Risks, Acquiring Financial Skills, and Sharing Information. Report to Congressional Requesters. GAO-10-57

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashby, Cornelia M.

    2009-01-01

    The Department of Education (Education) awards about $45 billion in grants each year to school districts, states, and other entities. In addition, the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 provided an additional $97 billion in grant funding. In a series of reports from 2002 to 2009, Education's Inspector General cited a number of grantees…

  11. Self-reported exposure to pesticides and radiation related to pregnancy outcome--results from National Natality and Fetal Mortality Surveys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savitz, D.A.; Whelan, E.A.; Kleckner, R.C. (Univ. of North Carolina, Chapel Hill (USA))

    1989-09-01

    Although fetal development is known to be sensitive to environmental agents, relatively little epidemiologic research has addressed this concern. Effects on pregnancy outcome of self-reported parental exposure to pesticides and to radiation were examined using data from the National Natality and Fetal Mortality Surveys, large national probability samples of live births and stillbirths occurring in 1980. In case-control analyses, maternal exposure to pesticides at home or work was associated with increased risk of stillbirth (odds ratios (ORs) = 1.5-1.6). Paternal pesticide exposure was associated with stillbirth (ORs = 1.2-1.4) and delivery of small-for-gestational-age infants (ORs = 1.4-2.0). A small increased risk of stillbirth (OR = 1.3) was found in relation to either parent's reported exposure to radiation. In spite of limitations in the quality of exposure data and the possibility of biased recall related to pregnancy outcome, associations of reported pesticide exposure to either parent with risk of stillbirth and small-for-gestational-age infants warrant further evaluation.

  12. First report of phytochelatins in a mushroom: induction of phytochelatins by metal exposure in Boletus edulis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collin-Hansen, Christian; Pedersen, Sindre A; Andersen, Rolf A; Steinnes, Eiliv

    2007-01-01

    Some species of macromycetes (mushrooms) consistently are found to contain high concentrations of toxic metals such as cadmium (Cd) and mercury (Hg), and consumption of wild-growing mushrooms is acknowledged as a significant source for Cd and Hg in humans. Yet little is known about the speciation of Cd and Hg in mushroom tissues. Here we present the first evidence of peptides of the phytochelatin family being responsible for binding a large fraction of Cd in caps of the macromycete Boletus edulis exposed to excess metals. Concentrations of Cd, Zn, Cu and Hg, as well as cytosolic Cd-binding capacity (CCBC), glutathione (GSH) and free proline (Pro) were quantified in fruiting bodies of B. edulis differentially exposed to a wide range of metals. Metal distribution among cytosolic compounds were investigated by size exclusion chromatography (SEC), followed by metal determinations with atomic absorption chromatography (AAS) and HR-ICP-MS. Cd-binding compounds in SEC elutates were investigated further by high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS). CCBC was >90 times higher in the exposed group relative to the reference group (Mann-Whitney's P phytochelatins (PCs), a family of cystein-rich oligopeptides, was confirmed in Cd-containing SEC fractions by HPLC-MS. The appearance of more complex PCs was coupled to declining concentrations of GSH. To our knowledge this is the first report demonstrating the presence of PCs in a macromycete.

  13. Occupational exposure of healthcare and research staff to static magnetic stray fields from 1.5–7 Tesla MRI scanners is associated with reporting of transient symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaap, Kristel; Christopher-de Vries, Yvette; Mason, Catherine K; de Vocht, Frank; Portengen, Lützen; Kromhout, Hans

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Limited data is available about incidence of acute transient symptoms associated with occupational exposure to static magnetic stray fields from MRI scanners. We aimed to assess the incidence of these symptoms among healthcare and research staff working with MRI scanners, and their association with static magnetic field exposure. Methods We performed an observational study among 361 employees of 14 clinical and research MRI facilities in The Netherlands. Each participant completed a diary during one or more work shifts inside and/or outside the MRI facility, reporting work activities and symptoms (from a list of potentially MRI-related symptoms, complemented with unrelated symptoms) experienced during a working day. We analysed 633 diaries. Exposure categories were defined by strength and type of MRI scanner, using non-MRI shifts as the reference category for statistical analysis. Non-MRI shifts originated from MRI staff who also participated on MRI days, as well as CT radiographers who never worked with MRI. Results Varying per exposure category, symptoms were reported during 16–39% of the MRI work shifts. We observed a positive association between scanner strength and reported symptoms among healthcare and research staff working with closed-bore MRI scanners of 1.5 Tesla (T) and higher (1.5 T OR=1.88; 3.0 T OR=2.14; 7.0 T OR=4.17). This finding was mainly driven by reporting of vertigo and metallic taste. Conclusions The results suggest an exposure-response association between exposure to strong static magnetic fields (and associated motion-induced time-varying magnetic fields) and reporting of transient symptoms on the same day of exposure. Trial registration number 11-032/C PMID:24714654

  14. Pest and allergen exposure and abatement in inner-city asthma: a work group report of the American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology Indoor Allergy/Air Pollution Committee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheehan, William J; Rangsithienchai, Pitud A; Wood, Robert A; Rivard, Don; Chinratanapisit, Sasawan; Perzanowski, Matthew S; Chew, Ginger L; Seltzer, James M; Matsui, Elizabeth C; Phipatanakul, Wanda

    2010-03-01

    Our work group report details the importance of pest allergen exposure in inner-city asthma. We will focus specifically on mouse and cockroach exposure. We will discuss how exposure to these pests is common in the inner city and what conditions exist in urban areas that might lead to increased exposure. We will discuss how exposure is associated with allergen sensitization and asthma morbidity. Finally, we will discuss different methods of intervention and the effectiveness of these tactics.

  15. The effect of exposure misclassification in spontaneous ADR reports on the time to detection of product-specific risks for biologicals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vermeer, Niels S; Ebbers, Hans C; Straus, Sabine M J M;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The availability of accurate product-specific exposure information is essential in the pharmacovigilance of biologicals, because differences in the safety profile may emerge between products containing the same active substance. In spontaneous adverse drug reaction (ADR......) reports, drug exposure may, however, be misclassified, that is, attributed to the incorrect product. The aim of this study was to explore the effect of exposure misclassification on the time to detection of product-specific risks in spontaneous reporting systems. METHODS: We used data simulations...... reports may result in a delayed detection of product-specific risks, particularly in the detection of weak drug-event associations. Our findings can help inform the future implementation and refinement of product-specific and batch-specific signal detection procedures....

  16. Dispersion of Radionuclides and Exposure Assessment in Urban Environments: A Joint CEA and LLNL Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glascoe, Lee [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Gowardhan, Akshay [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Lennox, Kristin [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Simpson, Matthew [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Yu, Kristen [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Armand, Patrick [Alternative Energies and Atomic Energy Commission (CEA), Paris (France); Duchenne, Christophe [Alternative Energies and Atomic Energy Commission (CEA), Paris (France); Mariotte, Frederic [Alternative Energies and Atomic Energy Commission (CEA), Paris (France); Pectorin, Xavier [Alternative Energies and Atomic Energy Commission (CEA), Paris (France)

    2014-12-19

    In the interest of promoting the international exchange of technical expertise, the US Department of Energy’s Office of Emergency Operations (NA-40) and the French Commissariat à l'Energie Atomique et aux énergies alternatives (CEA) requested that the National Atmospheric Release Advisory Center (NARAC) of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) in Livermore, California host a joint table top exercise with experts in emergency management and atmospheric transport modeling. In this table top exercise, LLNL and CEA compared each other’s flow and dispersion models. The goal of the comparison is to facilitate the exchange of knowledge, capabilities, and practices, and to demonstrate the utility of modeling dispersal at different levels of computational fidelity. Two modeling approaches were examined, a regional scale modeling approach, appropriate for simple terrain and/or very large releases, and an urban scale modeling approach, appropriate for small releases in a city environment. This report is a summary of LLNL and CEA modeling efforts from this exercise. Two different types of LLNL and CEA models were employed in the analysis: urban-scale models (Aeolus CFD at LLNL/NARAC and Parallel- Micro-SWIFT-SPRAY, PMSS, at CEA) for analysis of a 5,000 Ci radiological release and Lagrangian Particle Dispersion Models (LODI at LLNL/NARAC and PSPRAY at CEA) for analysis of a much larger (500,000 Ci) regional radiological release. Two densely-populated urban locations were chosen: Chicago with its high-rise skyline and gridded street network and Paris with its more consistent, lower building height and complex unaligned street network. Each location was considered under early summer daytime and nighttime conditions. Different levels of fidelity were chosen for each scale: (1) lower fidelity mass-consistent diagnostic, intermediate fidelity Navier-Stokes RANS models, and higher fidelity Navier-Stokes LES for urban-scale analysis, and (2) lower-fidelity single

  17. Matched trauma: The role of parents' and children's shared history of childhood domestic violence exposure in parents' report of children's trauma-related symptomatology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohodes, Emily; Hagan, Melissa; Narayan, Angela; Lieberman, Alicia

    2016-01-01

    Parents' childhood experiences of trauma may influence their reports of their children's behavior, and this may be particularly true when children are also traumatized. The present study proposed and tested a matched trauma hypothesis, positing that compared to parents without a childhood history of witnessing domestic violence (DV), parents with a childhood history of witnessing DV may report their children's trauma-related symptomatology differently following children's exposure to DV. Of 137 included parents (M age = 32 years; 93% mothers), 81 reported witnessing childhood DV (matched group), whereas 56 reported no childhood DV exposure (nonmatched comparison group). All parents reported on their 3- to 6-year-old children's dissociation and posttraumatic stress symptoms following children's DV exposure. An analysis of covariance controlling for parental life stress, dissociation symptoms, and other childhood traumatic events revealed that parents who witnessed childhood DV reported significantly fewer child dissociation symptoms than comparison parents. No difference was found for parents' reports of children's posttraumatic stress symptoms. Exploratory analyses on a subsample of children with teacher reports of child dissociation symptoms (n = 75) revealed that the strength of the association between parent and teacher reports of dissociation symptoms was moderated by matched versus nonmatched group membership. Findings suggest the importance of considering a parent's history of trauma when using parents as informants for children's trauma symptoms.

  18. Revised analyses of decommissioning for the reference boiling water reactor power station. Effects of current regulatory and other considerations on the financial assurance requirements of the decommissioning rule and on estimates of occupational radiation exposure - main report. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, R.I.; Bierschbach, M.C.; Konzek, G.J.; McDuffie, P.N.

    1996-07-01

    The NRC staff is in need of updated bases documentation that will assist them in assessing the adequacy of the licensee submittals, from the viewpoint of both the planned actions, including occupational radiation exposure, and the probable costs. The purpose of this reevaluation study is to update the needed bases documentation. This report presents the results of a review and reevaluation of the PNL 1980 decommissioning study of the Washington Public Power Supply System`s Washington Nuclear Plant Two (WNP-2), which is a boiling water reactor (BWR), located at Richland, Washington, including all identifiable factors and cost assumptions which contribute significantly to the total cost of decommissioning the plant for the DECON, SAFSTOR, and ENTOMB decommissioning alternatives. These alternatives now include an initial 5-7 year period during which time the spent fuel is stored in the spent fuel pool prior to beginning major disassembly or extended safe storage of the plant. Included for information (but not part of the license termination cost) is an estimate of the cost to demolish the decontaminated and clean structures on the site and to restore the site to a {open_quotes}green field{close_quotes} condition. This report also includes consideration of the NRC requirement that decontamination and decommissioning activities leading to termination of the nuclear license be completed within 60 years of final reactor shutdown, consideration of packaging and disposal requirements for materials whose radionuclide concentrations exceed the limits for Class C low- level waste (i.e., Greater-Than-Class C), and reflects 1993 costs for labor, materials, transport, and disposal activities. Sensitivity of the total license termination cost to the disposal costs at different low-level radioactive waste disposal sites, to different depths of contaminated concrete surface removal within the facilities, and to different transport distances is also examined.

  19. The impact of an international initiative on exposures to liquid laundry detergent capsules reported to the United Kingdom National Poisons Information Service between 2008 and 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Rachael; Eddleston, Michael; Thomas, Simon H L; Thompson, John P; Vale, J Allister

    2017-03-01

    Although the majority of those exposed to liquid laundry detergent capsules remain asymptomatic or suffer only minor clinical features after exposure, a small proportion develop central nervous system depression, stridor, pulmonary aspiration and/or airway burns following ingestion or conjunctivitis and corneal ulceration following eye exposure. As a consequence, the International Association for Soaps, Detergents and Maintenance Products (AISE) established a Product Stewardship Programme in Europe, requiring that safety measures be implemented to reduce the visibility of, and restrict access to, these detergent capsules by small children. Implementation occurred in the United Kingdom over several months during the first half of 2013. This study investigated whether the AISE Programme had an impact on the number and severity of exposures reported to the United Kingdom National Poisons Information Service. Telephone enquiries to the National Poisons Information Service relating to liquid laundry detergent capsules were analysed for the period January 2008 to December 2015. While there was a significant difference (p = 0.0002) between the mean number of annual exposures (469.4) reported between 2008 and 2012 and the mean number reported between 2014 and 2015 (403.5), the number of exposures was decreasing steadily prior to implementation of the Programme in 2013, which did not impact this fall from 2013 onwards. In addition, the number of exposures per million units sold was not impacted by the Programme. There was no significant difference (p = 0.68) between the mean number of exposures (11.8) with PSS ≥2 reported between 2008 and 2012 and the mean number (13.0) reported between 2014 and 2015. Although there was a 28.7% decrease between 2010-2012 and 2014-2015 in the number of exposures with PSS ≥2 per million units sold, this decrease was not statistically significant (p = 0.18). There is no evidence that the Product Stewardship Programme had a

  20. Secondary Malignant Peritoneal Mesothelioma of the Greater Omentum after Therapy for Primary Pleural Mesothelioma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Gutzeit

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Mesothelioma is the most common malignant primary tumor of the pleura and usually associated with inhalation of asbestos fibers. In contrast, peritoneal mesothelioma is a rare entity whose pathomechanism is not yet fully understood. The coexistence of pleural mesothelioma with secondary involvement of the abdominal cavity has not been addressed in the literature. In this case report, we describe secondary malignant mesothelioma of the greater omentum. A 69-year-old man with histologically proven pleural mesothelioma on the right side and no past medical history of asbestos exposure received palliative treatment consisting of a talc pleurodesis. After a 6-month interval of stable disease, a local progressive tumor of the right pleura was seen on a CT scan. Eleven months later, during follow-up, the patient presented at our emergency department with a sudden onset of diffuse abdominal pain. Abdominal ultrasound revealed a mass within the greater omentum and the coexistence of free fluid. Subsequent abdominal CT scans demonstrated tumor infiltration from the right pleura by a transdiaphragmatic route into the abdomen, where diffuse infiltration of the greater omentum was observed. Aspiration of the ascites and the biopsy of the greater omentum confirmed the diagnosis of secondary malignant mesothelioma of the peritoneum. In conclusion, we present the extremely rare diagnosis of secondary malignant mesothelioma of the abdomen, which arose as a result of local progression from the right pleura into the abdomen.

  1. Factors associated with younger adolescents' exposure to online alcohol advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Amico, Elizabeth J; Martino, Steven C; Collins, Rebecca L; Shadel, William G; Tolpadi, Anagha; Kovalchik, Stephanie; Becker, Kirsten M

    2017-03-01

    Little is known about the extent and nature of youth exposure to online alcohol advertising, or factors that may be associated with exposure. The current study recruited middle school students who completed a paper survey and then logged each alcohol advertisement that they encountered over a 2-week period using cell phones as part of an ecological momentary assessment design. We examined the percentage of youth who reported exposure to online alcohol advertising in the past 2 weeks, average weekly rate of exposure, types of online alcohol advertisements youth reported seeing, and factors that increased youths' risk of exposure to online alcohol advertising. Analyses are based on 485 participants (47% female; 25% Hispanic, 25% White, 27% Black; 6% Asian, 16% other). Youth logged exposures to a total of 3,966 (16,018 weighted for underreporting) alcohol advertisements across the monitoring period; 154 (568 weighted) or 3.6% were online ads. Seventeen percent of youth reported seeing any online alcohol ad; the majority of online ads seen were video commercials (44.8%) and banner/side ads (26.6%). Factors associated with greater ad exposure were being older, rebellious, and Black race; greater parental monitoring and more hours spent on social media were associated with less exposure. Findings provide important information about adolescents' exposure to online alcohol advertising and what might contribute to a greater likelihood of exposure. Given that online ad exposure is linked to drinking behavior, prevention programming for younger adolescents should continue to address this issue to help youth make healthy choices regarding alcohol use. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. Greater Celandine hepatotoxicity: a clinical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teschke, Rolf; Frenzel, Christian; Glass, Xaver; Schulze, Johannes; Eickhoff, Axel

    2012-01-01

    Herbal hepatotoxicity is a rare and poorly described disease because reported cases are mostly scattered and lack an appropriate causality assessment. We now describe in detail the clinical picture of herbal hepatotoxicity by extracts of Greater Celandine (GC), syn. Chelidonium majus L. from the Papaveraceae family, which contain more than 20 ingredients including various biologically active isoquinoline alkaloids. For this purpose, we analyzed and reviewed published cases of 16 patients from various European countries. In all patients, herbal hepatotoxicity was of probable and highly probable causality for GC, using the original and updated scale of CIOMS (Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences). GC associated hepatotoxicity usually has an acute clinical course exhibiting a hepatocellular pattern of injury and is correlated to an idiosyncratic reaction with its metabolic subtype. Jaundice combined with high values of serum aminotransferases was present in virtually all cases with favourable outcome despite severe clinical course. In conclusion, GC hepatotoxicity is a typical herbal hepatotoxicity with a sound causality track for GC, but there is uncertainty regarding the respective causative compound(s). The present detailed review of GC hepatotoxicity may serve as an example for clinical causality assessments of future cases of liver injury due to other herbs.

  3. Pathophysiologic responses of sheep to brief high level nitrogen dioxide exposure. (Reannouncement with new availability information). Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Januszkiewicz, A.J.; Snapper, J.R.; Sturgis, J.W.; Rayburn, D.B.; Dodd, K.T.

    1992-12-31

    The cardiopulmonary response to short-duration, high- concentration nitrogen dioxide (N02) was examined in conscious domestic sheep (Ovis aries). Six intubated animals in each of three groups were administered or approximately 100 or 500 ppm NO2. Pulmonary and systemic hemodynamics, pulmonary mechanics, blood gases and hematologic variables were measured immediately before and after exposure and at 1, 4 and 24 h after exposure. Minute ventilation was monitored during exposure, and a pulmonary histopathologic examination was performed 24 h postexposure. Negligible effects were observed in the control group. Exposure to 100 ppm NO2 caused a modest increase in minute ventilation during exposure, and an increased number of leukocytes were found within interalveolar capillaries upon histologic examination. Exposure to 500 ppm NO2 induced immediate and profound lung irritant responses characterized by increases in lung resistance, respiratory rate and minute ventilation. The exposure was marked by a statistically significant, but small, mixed-venous methemoglobin increase. Pulmonary function progressively deteriorated in the 24-h period following exposure to 500 ppm NO2, and a significant arterial oxygen tension reducting and pulmonary artery pressure increase occurred at 24 h post exposure. Histologic examination after 500 ppm NO2 revealed patchy lobular exudation and accumulation of leukocytes in alveolar sacs and interalveolar capillaries.

  4. [Occupational noise exposure and hypertension].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santana, V S; Barberino, J L

    1995-12-01

    The hypothesis that occupational noise exposure is positively associated with hypertension was examined in a cross-sectional study carried out on a group of patients who were enrolled at the Occupational Health Unit of the Unified Health System, situated in Salvador city, the capital of Bahia state, Brazil. Data were obtained from 276 medical records, corresponding to all patients newly registered during the first six months of 1992. Data on noise exposure come from both reported occupational exposure history and clinical diagnosis of occupational noise-induced hearing loss. Hypertension diagnosis complies with World Health Organization criteria, as well as with the history of antihypertensive treatment. Stratified analysis and unconditional logistic regression modeling show results that do not support the study hypothesis: there are no differences between systolic or diastolic blood pressure or between proportion of hypertension for exposed and non exposed groups. However, statiscally significant (alpha = 0.05) increment of the effect measured was reported among workers who reported low educational level (below elementary). This could be another evidence of socially related inequalities underlying exposure distribution among workers at the workplace, which should be addressed, at greater depth, in future studies.

  5. Oral Ezatiostat HCl (TLK199) and Myelodysplastic syndrome: a case report of sustained hematologic response following an abbreviated exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quddus, Fahd; Clima, Jessica; Seedham, Helen; Sajjad, Ghulam; Galili, Naomi; Raza, Azra

    2010-04-23

    Treatment options for patients with lower risk non-del(5q) myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) who fail erythroid stimulating agents are restricted to one of the hypomethylating drugs with an expected response rate of approximately 50%. Ezatiostat HCl, an agent with the potential for producing multi-lineage responses in this population is currently in clinical investigation phase. This case report describes a 77 year old male who received less than two cycles of therapy with ezatiostat HCl which had to be aborted due to intolerable side effects, but which produced a sustained normalization of all three blood counts. This trilineage response has now lasted for more than a year. Interestingly, the patient began with a del(5q) abnormality and responded briefly to lenalidomide. Upon relapse of the anemia, a bone marrow showed the disappearance of the del(5q) but the appearance of a new clonal abnormality t(2;3). Given that the patient had a complete cytogenetic response to a truncated exposure to lenalidomide followed by a trilineage response to an even briefer course of ezatiostat HCl suggests a potential role for ezatiostat HCl in del(5q) patients who relapse following lenalidomide.

  6. Greater Trochanteric Pain Syndrome in general Practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Brinks (Tineke)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractThis thesis focuses on patients with greater trochanteric pain syndrome. These patients suffer from local pain at the lateral side of the hip. The syndrome is characterized by chronic intermittent or continuous pain at and around the greater trochanter, sometimes radiating to the lateral

  7. Caregiver Talk to Young Spanish-English Bilinguals: Comparing Direct Observation and Parent-Report Measures of Dual-Language Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchman, Virginia A.; Martínez, Lucía Z.; Hurtado, Nereyda; Grüter, Theres; Fernald, Anne

    2017-01-01

    In research on language development by bilingual children, the early language environment is commonly characterized in terms of the relative amount of exposure a child gets to each language based on parent report. Little is known about how absolute measures of child-directed speech in two languages relate to language growth. In this study of…

  8. Caregiver Talk to Young Spanish-English Bilinguals: Comparing Direct Observation and Parent-Report Measures of Dual-Language Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchman, Virginia A.; Martínez, Lucía Z.; Hurtado, Nereyda; Grüter, Theres; Fernald, Anne

    2017-01-01

    In research on language development by bilingual children, the early language environment is commonly characterized in terms of the relative amount of exposure a child gets to each language based on parent report. Little is known about how absolute measures of child-directed speech in two languages relate to language growth. In this study of…

  9. Polarised press reporting about HIV prevention: Social representations of pre-exposure prophylaxis in the UK press.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaspal, Rusi; Nerlich, Brigitte

    2016-05-22

    Pre-exposure prophylaxis is a novel biomedical HIV prevention option for individuals at high risk of HIV acquisition. Although pre-exposure prophylaxis has yielded encouraging results in various clinical trials, opponents argue that pre-exposure prophylaxis poses a number of risks to human health and to sexually transmitted infection prevention efforts. Using qualitative thematic analysis and social representation theory, this article explores coverage of pre-exposure prophylaxis in the UK print media between 2008 and 2015 in order to chart the emerging social representations of this novel HIV prevention strategy. The analysis revealed two competing social representations of pre-exposure prophylaxis: (1) as a positive development in the 'battle' against HIV (the hope representation) and (2) as a medical, social and psychological setback in this battle, particularly for gay/bisexual men (the risk representation). These social representations map onto the themes of pre-exposure prophylaxis as a superlatively positive development; pre-exposure prophylaxis as a weapon in the battle against HIV/AIDS; and risk, uncertainty and fear in relation to pre-exposure prophylaxis. The hope representation focuses on taking (individual and collective) responsibility, while the risk representation focuses on attributing (individual and collective) blame. The implications for policy and practice are discussed.

  10. Exposure to road traffic and railway noise and associations with blood pressure and self-reported hypertension: a cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorensen, Mette; Hvidberg, Martin; Hoffmann, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    Epidemiological studies suggest that long-term exposure to transport noise increases the risk for cardiovascular disorders. The effect of transport noise on blood pressure and hypertension is uncertain.......Epidemiological studies suggest that long-term exposure to transport noise increases the risk for cardiovascular disorders. The effect of transport noise on blood pressure and hypertension is uncertain....

  11. Greater happiness for a greater number: is that possible and desirable?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Veenhoven (Ruut)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractGREATER HAPPINESS FOR A GREATER NUMBER: IS THAT POSSIBLE AND DESIRABLE? Utilitarian philosophy holds that public policy should aim at greater happiness for a greater number of people. This moral tenet meets many objections, on pragmatic grounds it is denounced as unfeasible and on ideolo

  12. Greater happiness for a greater number: is that possible and desirable?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Veenhoven (Ruut)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractGREATER HAPPINESS FOR A GREATER NUMBER: IS THAT POSSIBLE AND DESIRABLE? Utilitarian philosophy holds that public policy should aim at greater happiness for a greater number of people. This moral tenet meets many objections, on pragmatic grounds it is denounced as unfeasible and on

  13. A case report of cor pulmonale in a woman without exposure to tobacco smoke: an example of the risks of indoor wood burning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opotowsky, Alexander R; Vedanthan, Rajesh; Mamlin, Joseph J

    2008-01-29

    We present the case of a 67-year-old woman with chronic cor pulmonale. She never smoked tobacco and had no other risk factors for pulmonary disease. In developed nations, chronic obstructive lung disease and cor pulmonale are overwhelmingly associated with tobacco use. However, indoor air pollution, most commonly due to burning of solid biomass fuel such as wood, can cause similar clinical syndromes. At our teaching hospital, there is an epidemic of chronic cor pulmonale among nonsmoking women. We attribute this sex predilection to women's greater exposure to wood smoke. Physicians must be cognizant of its risks and counsel patients on prevention strategies such as improved ventilation.

  14. Ntp technical report on toxicity, reproductive, and developmental studies of 60-Hz magnetic fields, administered by whole body exposure to F344/N rats, Sprague-Dawley rats, and B6C3F1 mice. Toxicity report series

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boorman, G.A.

    1996-09-01

    Electric and magnetic fields are associated with the production, transmission, and use of electricity; thus the potential for human exposure is high. These electric and magnetic fields are predominantly of low frequency (60 Hz) and generally of low intensity. The prevailing view among physicists is that exposure to these low-frequency, low-intensity fields does not pose a health hazard. However, this view has been challenged by reports linking magnetic field exposure to the development of leukemia and other cancers. Because multiple epidemiologic studies suggested a potential for increased cancer rates with increasing exposure, and because of public concern, the effects of 60-Hz magnetic field exposure were examined in F344/N rats and B6C3F1 mice in 8-week full-body-exposure studies. Animals were evaluated for hematology and clinical chemistry (rats only) parameters, pineal gland hormone concentrations, and histopathology. Additional studies were performed in Sprague-Dawley rats to examine teratologic and reproductive effects of magnetic field exposure.

  15. Feasibility of brief intensive exposure therapy for PTSD patients with childhood sexual abuse: a brief clinical report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lotte Hendriks

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite the strong empirical support for the effectiveness of exposure-based treatments in ameliorating post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD, improvement of treatment is wanted given relatively high dropout rates and challenges of treating patients with high comorbidity and treatment-interfering stressors. The purpose of the current paper is to introduce an intensive exposure treatment program, illustrated by four case descriptions of PTSD patients, who suffered multiple (sexual traumas in childhood, had high levels of comorbidity and psychosocial stressors, and failed to improve during “regular” trauma-focused treatment programs. The program consisted of psychoeducation, prolonged imaginal exposure, exposure in vivo, exposure by drawings combined with narrative reconstructing, and writing assignments about central trauma-related cognitions. The treatment included 5 working days with individual sessions (in total 30 h of treatment provided by a team of four therapists. The PTSD symptoms of all patients decreased substantially and the effect sizes were large (Cohen's d resp. 1.5 [pre–post], 2.4 [pre-FU1 month], and 2.3 [pre-FU3 months]. Also, none of the patients showed symptom worsening or dropped out. The evaluation of these four pilot cases suggests that it is possible to intensify exposure treatment, even for multiple traumatized PTSD patients with high comorbidity. We concluded that the first results of this new, intensive exposure program for PTSD patients with childhood sexual abuse are promising.

  16. Country Report on China's Participation in Greater Mekong Subregion Cooperation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    1.Executive SummaryThe Mekong River,which originates from the Danggula Mountain Range on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau in China and runs 4,880 km southward through six countries,namely,China,Myartmar,Laos,Thailand,Cambodia and Viet Nam,is an important transnational river in Asia and even the world.The section in China is called the Lancang River.Since the 1990s,the international cooperation in the Lancang-Mekong subregiun has received wide attention from the international community.Related countries and intemational organizations have carried out extensive cooperation,which has produced good results and forcefully facilitated economic and social development of the subregion.

  17. Dominant lethal study in CD-1 mice following inhalation exposure to 1,3-butadiene: Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hackett, P.L.; Mast, T.J.; Brown, M.G.; Clark, M.L.; Evanoff, J.J.; Rowe, S.E.; McClanahan, B.J.; Buschbom, R.L.; Decker, J.R.; Rommereim, R.L.; Westerberg, R.B.

    1988-04-01

    The effects of whole-body inhalation exposures to 1,3-butadiene on the reproductive system was evaluated. The results of dominant lethality in CD-1 male mice that were exposed to 1,3-butadiene are described. Subsequent to exposure, males were mated with two unexposed females. Mating was continued for 8 weeks with replacement of two females each week. Gravid uteri were removed, and the total number, position and status of implantations were determined. The mice were weighed prior to exposure and at 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, and 8 weeks after exposure and at sacrifice. The animals were observed for mortality, morbidity and signs of toxicity throughout the study. 19 refs., 5 figs., 9 tabs.

  18. 2014 Cardiovascular Risks SRP Evidence Review Final Report. [Evidence Review For: The Risk of Orthostatic Intolerance During Re-Exposure to Gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, Susan; Ziegler, Michael; Carter, Jason; Claydon, Victoria; Krummen, David; Thomas, Gail

    2015-01-01

    The 2014 Cardiovascular Risks Standing Review Panel (from here on referred to as the SRP) met for a site visit in Houston, TX on December 17-18, 2014. The SRP reviewed the updated evidence report for The Risk of Orthostatic Intolerance During re-Exposure to Gravity (OI Risk). The SRP found the 2014 OI Evidence Report to be a well written, comprehensive overview of the OI risk; that clearly documents the key scientific evidence relevant for both mechanistic understanding and countermeasure development. The 2014 OI Evidence Report could be further strengthened by addressing the points discussed below.

  19. Hailstones across the Greater Sydney Metropolitan Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Rasuly

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This study addresses the recent climatology of hail occurrence in the Greater Metropolitan Severe Thunderstorm Warning Area (GMSTWA of New South Wales, Australia, which is a sprawling suburban area, with a population of nearly 4.7 million and one of Australia's largest metropolis. The main objective is to highlight the recent temporal-spatial fluctuations of hailstone frequencies and magnitudes for each of recognized and vastly inhabited Local Government Areas (LGAs. The relevant hail event data from 1989 to 2013 were initially derived from the severe storm archive of Australian Bureau of Meteorology. A climatologically oriented GIS technique was applied in the examining and mapping procedure of all hail events and hail days reported throughout the study area. By applying a specific criterion, all severe hails (defined as 2 cm or more in diameter were cautiously selected and then imported into the ArcGIS software for relevant analysis. Appropriate data layers were stored in a unique database to allow logical integration of the data directly into some geoprocessing functions, mainly for querying, analyzing and mapping purposes in a model-builder setting. The database includes 357 hailstones with sizes 2–11 cm and occurred in 169 hail days across the region during the past 25 years. The models have established that hailstones are neither temporally nor spatially uniform in magnitude throughout the study area. Temporal analysis indicated that most of hail events occurred predominately in the afternoons with peak time of 1–5 p.m. EST. They were particularly common in spring and summer, and reached maximum frequency in November and December. There was an average of 14.3 events each year, but a significant decreasing trend in terms of hail frequency and associated magnitude in the recent years has been identified. In turn, spatial models also established three main distribution patterns over the study area, which include the Sydney Metropolitan

  20. Neuropsychological effects of exposure to naphtha among automotive workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, R F; Robins, T G; Proctor, S; Echeverria, D; Rocskay, A S

    1994-02-01

    The association between exposure to naphtha and neurobehavioural measures was examined prospectively over one year among workers employed at an automotive plant that used naphtha to calibrate fuel injectors. The neurobehavioural tests included those that assess mood, basic intelligence, and functioning of the cerebral frontal lobes and limbic system and were designed so that acute, reversible, and chronic effects of solvent exposure could be assessed. Participants were 248 workers in June 1988, and the testing was repeated on 185 of these workers in 1989. Concentrations of naphtha at the plant ranged from six to 709 mg/m3, although exposure was greater in 1988 than in 1989. Duration of exposure for individual subjects ranged from 0.8 to 7.3 years. Cross sectional data analyses showed significant associations between level of exposure to naphtha and slower timed scores on trails A, and greater reports of negative affective symptoms on profile of mood states scales in 1988 but not 1989. Threshold model analyses of the 1989 data showed an association between score on visual reproductions immediate recall and daily exposure to naphtha at or above 1050 h x mg/m3. Models of chronic exposure showed no associations between chronic exposure and negative neurobehavioural outcome. Results suggest that naphtha produces mild acute reversible effects on function of the central nervous system at or above daily exposures of 540 h x mg/m3 (approximately 90 ppm/h).

  1. Hepatotoxicity induced by greater celandine (Chelidonium majus L.): a review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantano, F; Mannocchi, G; Marinelli, E; Gentili, S; Graziano, S; Busardò, F P; di Luca, N M

    2017-03-01

    The available literature assessing Chelidonium majus L. (CM) hepatotoxicity potential, and its risk to benefit assessment has been reviewed in this paper. Identification of significant scientific literature was performed via the following research databases: Cochrane Central, Google Scholar, EMBASE, Medline, Science Direct, Scopus, Web of Science, using the following keywords: "Chelidonium majus", "greater celandine", "Hepatotoxicity", "Liver" "Injury", "Toxicity" individually investigated and then again in association. CM named also greater celandine, swallow-wort, or bai-qu-cai (Chinese), has been used for a long time in traditional Chinese medicine and phytotherapy. Its extracts have been claimed to display a wide variety of biological activities: antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, spasmolytic, antineoplastic, hepatoprotective, and analgesic. Moreover, herbal medicine suggests this plant have numerous additional effects which have not yet been scientifically evaluated, such as antitussive, diuretic, and eye-regenerative. However, despite its claimed hepatoprotective effects, several hepatotoxicity cases have been reported to be probably or highly probably connected with CM exposure, after their evaluation through liver-targeted causality assessment methods. CM hepatotoxicity has been defined as a distinct form of herb-induced liver injury (HILI), due to an idiosyncratic reaction of the metabolic type. This evidence has to be considered in relationship with the absence of considerable benefits of CM therapy. Therefore, the risk to benefit ratio of the use of herbal products containing greater celandine can actually be considered as negative.

  2. Exposure to Domestic and Community Violence and Subjective Well-Being in Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doralúcia Gil da Silva

    Full Text Available Abstract There is major exposure to domestic and community violence during adolescence, which has been negatively related to well-being. This work aimed to identify relationships between domestic and community violence and the levels of subjective well-being perceived by adolescents, considering sex and age. The participants were 426 adolescents from public schools in the south of Brazil; 62% were girls, with a mean age of 14.91 years old ( SD = 1.65, who answered one instrument about exposure to violence and another about well-being. Results indicated greater domestic violence exposure among girls and greater community exposure among boys. The age range from 16 to 18 years old was the most exposed to domestic violence. Boys reported greater well-being and less negative affect. Differences in violence exposure may be related to roles of gender in our society. Well-being promotion is highlighted as a resource for confronting violence among adolescents.

  3. Greater physiological and behavioral effects of interrupted stress pattern compared to daily restraint stress in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Zhang

    Full Text Available Repeated stress can trigger a range of psychiatric disorders, including anxiety. The propensity to develop abnormal behaviors after repeated stress is related to the severity, frequency and number of stressors. However, the pattern of stress exposure may contribute to the impact of stress. In addition, the anxiogenic nature of repeated stress exposure can be moderated by the degree of coping that occurs, and can be reflected in homotypic habituation to the repeated stress. However, expectations are not clear when a pattern of stress presentation is utilized that diminishes habituation. The purpose of these experiments is to test whether interrupted stress exposure decreases homotypic habituation and leads to greater effects on anxiety-like behavior in adult male rats. We found that repeated interrupted restraint stress resulted in less overall homotypic habituation compared to repeated daily restraint stress. This was demonstrated by greater production of fecal boli and greater corticosterone response to restraint. Furthermore, interrupted restraint stress resulted in a lower body weight and greater adrenal gland weight than daily restraint stress, and greater anxiety-like behavior in the elevated plus maze. Control experiments demonstrated that these effects of the interrupted pattern could not be explained by differences in the total number of stress exposures, differences in the total number of days that the stress periods encompased, nor could it be explained as a result of only the stress exposures after an interruption from stress. These experiments demonstrate that the pattern of stress exposure is a significant determinant of the effects of repeated stress, and that interrupted stress exposure that decreases habituation can have larger effects than a greater number of daily stress exposures. Differences in the pattern of stress exposure are therefore an important factor to consider when predicting the severity of the effects of repeated

  4. Importance of respiratory exposure to pesticides among agricultural populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowling, Kathryn C; Seiber, James N

    2002-01-01

    In the majority of cases, respiratory exposure accounts for a small fraction of total body exposure to pesticides; however, higher volatility pesticides pose a greater risk for exposure, particularly in enclosed spaces and near application sites. In 2000, nearly 22 million pounds of active ingredients designated as toxic air contaminants (TACs) were applied as pesticides in California (combined agricultural and reportable non-agricultural uses; California Department of Pesticide Regulation, 2001a, Summary of Pesticide Use Report Data, 2000, Sacramento, CA: author). Agricultural workers and agricultural community residents are at particular risk for exposure to these compounds. The TAC program in California, and more recently the federal Clean Air Act amendments, have begun to address the exposures of these groups and have promulgated exposure guidelines that are, in general, much more stringent than the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) and American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) worker exposure guidelines. Choosing lower volatility pesticides, lower concentrations of active ingredients, and handling equipment designed to minimize exposure can often reduce worker respiratory exposures significantly. The use of personal protective equipment, which would be facilitated by the development of more ergonomic alternatives, is important in these higher respiratory exposure situations. Finally, in the case of community residents, measures taken to protect workers often translate to lower ambient air concentrations, but further study and development of buffer zones and application controls in a given area are necessary to assure community protection.

  5. Greater Somalia, the never-ending dream?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zoppi, Marco

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides an historical analysis of the concept of Greater Somalia, the nationalist project that advocates the political union of all Somali-speaking people, including those inhabiting areas in current Djibouti, Ethiopia and Kenya. The Somali territorial unification project of “lost ter...

  6. Greater trochanteric fracture with occult intertrochanteric extension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiter, Michael; O'Brien, Seth D; Bui-Mansfield, Liem T; Alderete, Joseph

    2013-10-01

    Proximal femoral fractures are frequently encountered in the emergency department (ED). Prompt diagnosis is paramount as delay will exacerbate the already poor outcomes associated with these injuries. In cases where radiography is negative but clinical suspicion remains high, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the study of choice as it has the capability to depict fractures which are occult on other imaging modalities. Awareness of a particular subset of proximal femoral fractures, namely greater trochanteric fractures, is vital for both radiologists and clinicians since it has been well documented that they invariably have an intertrochanteric component which may require surgical management. The detection of intertrochanteric or cervical extension of greater trochanteric fractures has been described utilizing MRI but is underestimated with both computed tomography (CT) and bone scan. Therefore, if MRI is unavailable or contraindicated, the diagnosis of an isolated greater trochanteric fracture should be met with caution. The importance of avoiding this potential pitfall is demonstrated in the following case of an elderly woman with hip pain and CT demonstrating an isolated greater trochanteric fracture who subsequently returned to the ED with a displaced intertrochanteric fracture.

  7. A meta-analysis on the relationship between self-reported presence and anxiety in virtual reality exposure therapy for anxiety disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Yun Ling; Nefs, Harold T.; Nexhmedin Morina; Ingrid Heynderickx; Willem-Paul Brinkman

    2014-01-01

    In virtual reality exposure therapy (VRET) for anxiety disorders, sense of presence in the virtual environment is considered the principal mechanism that enables anxiety to be felt. Existing studies on the relation between sense of presence and level of anxiety, however, have yielded mixed results on the correlation between the two. In this meta-analysis, we reviewed publications on VRET for anxiety that included self-reported presence and anxiety. The comprehensive search of the literature i...

  8. Surgical exposure and crown lengthening for management of complicated fractures of maxillary anterior teeth. A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anand, Pradeep S; Ashok, Sukumaran; Nandakumar, K; Varghese, N O; Kamath, Kavitha P

    2013-11-01

    When a tooth fracture occurs, the fracture line can extend in a variety of directions, and the direction of the fracture line often dictates the treatment plan. In cases where fracture lines extend apical to the gingival margin, exposure of fractured margins becomes necessary. And management of such tooth fractures often requires an interdisciplinary approach involving endodontic, periodontic and restorative procedures. This article describes a case in which severely traumatized maxillary anterior teeth were managed by a combined approach involving surgical exposure and crown lengthening, endodontic and restorative procedures.

  9. Self-reported Occupational Skin Exposure and Risk of Physician-certified Long-term Sick Leave

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alfonso, Jose Hernan; Tynes, Tore; Thyssen, Jacob P;

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about the contribution of occupational skin exposure as a risk factor for physician-certified long-term sick leave in the general working population of Norway. This study drew a cohort (n = 12,255; response at baseline 69.9%) randomly from the general population of Norway. Occupat......Little is known about the contribution of occupational skin exposure as a risk factor for physician-certified long-term sick leave in the general working population of Norway. This study drew a cohort (n = 12,255; response at baseline 69.9%) randomly from the general population of Norway...

  10. Measuring tobacco smoke exposure among smoking and nonsmoking bar and restaurant workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okoli, Chizimuzo T C; Hall, Lynne A; Rayens, Mary Kay; Hahn, Ellen J

    2007-07-01

    This study assesses the validity of hair nicotine as a biomarker for secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure. Although most biomarkers of tobacco-smoke exposure have a relatively short half-life, hair nicotine can measure several months of cumulative SHS exposure. A cross-sectional study of hospitality-industry workers. Hair samples were obtained from 207 bar and restaurant workers and analyzed by the reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection (HPLC-ECD) method. Self-reported tobacco use and sources of SHS exposure were assessed. Higher hair-nicotine levels were associated with more cigarettes smoked per day among smokers and a greater number of SHS-exposure sources among nonsmokers. Number of SHS exposure sources, gender, number of cigarettes smoked per day, and type of establishment predicted hair-nicotine levels. Hair nicotine is a valid measure of SHS exposure. It may be used as an alternative biomarker to measure longer term SHS exposure.

  11. Including exposure dose in radiological reports: how? why?; Inscrire la dose d'exposition dans les comtes-rendus radiologiques: pourquoi? comment?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brisse, H. [Institut Curie, Dept. d' Imagerie, 75 - Paris (France); Brisse, H.; Sirinelli, D.; Chateil, J.F.; Silberman, B.; Panuel, M.; Adamsbaum, C. [Societe Francophone d' Imagerie Pediatrique et Prenatale, 75 - Paris (France); Sirinelli, D. [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Clocheville, Service de Radiotherapie, 37 - Tours (France); Chateil, J.F. [Groupe Hospitalier Pellegrin, Unite de Radiotherapie, 33 - Bordeaux (France); Cordoliani, Y.S. [Centre Medico-Chirurgical de Parly 2, 78 - Le Chesnay (France); Aubert, B. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire (IRSN), Unite d' Expertise en Radioprotection Medicale, 92 - Fontenay aux Roses (France); Silberman, B. [Radiologie, 75 - Paris (France); Panuel, M. [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Hopital Nord, Service de Radiologie, 13 - Marseille (France); Adamsbaum, C. [Hopital Saint Vincent de Paul, Service de Radiopediatrie, 75 - Paris (France)

    2007-03-15

    A statutory text obliges henceforth to register the dose of exposure in the radiological reports. It will allow to compare the quality of the examinations protocols and practices, to verify that the delivered doses are in coherence with the levels of diagnostic references, this statement is going to simplify the step of dosimetry statement intended for the I.R.S.N., finally this step will also allow to communicate on doses with the patients. The dose must appear in the report when the area explored is head, neck, thorax, breast, abdomen, pelvis. (N.C.)

  12. 76 FR 38175 - Notice of Release of the Exposure Draft Revisions to Identifying and Reporting Earmarked Funds...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-29

    ... Funds: Amending Statement of Federal Financial Accounting Standards 27 AGENCY: Federal Accounting... Financial Accounting Standards 27. The Exposure Draft is available on the FASAB home page http://www.fasab... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL ACCOUNTING...

  13. Links between Self-Reported Media Violence Exposure and Teacher Ratings of Aggression and Prosocial Behavior among German Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krahe, Barbara; Moller, Ingrid

    2011-01-01

    The relations between adolescents' habitual usage of media violence and their tendency to engage in aggressive and prosocial behavior in a school setting were examined in a cross-sectional study with 1688 7th and 8th graders in Germany who completed measures of violent media exposure and normative acceptance of aggression. For each participant,…

  14. Feasibility Study for Evaluating Cumulative Exposure of Downstream Migrant Juvenile Salmonids to Total Dissolved Gas. Final Report 1996.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abernethy, C.Scott; Dauble, Dennis D.; Johnson, Robert L. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA (United States)

    1997-11-01

    A feasibility study was initiated to determine if downstream migrant salmonids could be monitored to determine potential relationships between total dissolved gas (TDG) exposure and signs of gas bubble trauma (GBT). The primary objectives were to: (1) establish logistical requirements for in-river monitoring of TDG exposure, including net pen design, deployment, and navigation constraints; (2) resolve uncertainties associated with effects of the net pen on fish behavior; (3) test the accuracy and precision of in-river monitoring equipment used to measure fish distribution and water quality; and (4) determine the application of hydrologic/flow models to predictions of TDG exposure. In-river measurements included water velocity, boat position, and selected water quality parameters (temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH, depth, conductivity). Fish distribution within the net pen was monitored using scanning sonar, and a split-beam echo sounder was used to evaluate vertical distribution of fish m in the river adjacent to the net pen. Three test drifts were conducted from late July through late August. The studies demonstrated that it was feasible to assemble and deploy a large net pen for mobile monitoring of TDG exposure. Accurate monitoring of vertical and lateral distribution of smolts was performed, and diel differences in behavior were documented. Further, the fish sounded in response to researcher activity on the perimeter platform. Thus, in-transit monitoring for GBT or mortality would affect fish depth distribution and exposure to TDG. Principal recommendations for future studies are directed at improving maneuverability of the net pen in adverse weather conditions and applying new acoustics technology to simultaneously collect fish distribution data from within and outside of the pen. 6 refs., 17 figs., 2 tabs.

  15. Collection of DICOM RDSR (Digital Imaging and Communication in Medicine, Radiation Dose Structured Report) Information Aimed at Reducing Patient Exposure Dose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morota, Koichi; Moritake, Takashi; Sun, Lue; Ishihara, Takahiro; Kuma, Natsuyo; Murata, Satomi; Yamada, Takahiro; Okazaki, Ryuji

    2016-01-01

    The recent progress in angiography technology bestows benefits on patients for minimally invasive than surgery, while there has been an increase in the number of cases involving stochastic effects, such as radiation dermatitis, resulting from upgrading of the procedure because of an extension of the time for fluoroscopy and the number of shots. Recent CT equipment saves the dose data along with image data about the information management for patient exposure dose, which is used for management of individual cumulative dose and the presumed effective dose, using digital imaging and communication in medicine (DICOM). We extracted detailed information about shooting conditions and dose from the DICOM radiation dose structured report (DICOM RDSR) in the angiography area, and evaluated the trend of patient exposure dose in each procedure. As a result, we found that cases exceeding 3 Gy which needed observation in the head region were 16.7% and in the heart region were 27.3%. We also found that angiography had a higher dose of shooting than did fluoroscopy, and that the diagnosis and treatment with tumor involvement required a exposure dose than did vascular lesion. In this paper, we review the shooting conditions as a root of DICOM RDSR information and consider the possibility of planning for further reduction of the exposure dose.

  16. Environmental planning and management in Greater Johannesburg.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Von Schirnding, Y E

    1996-03-01

    This article describes the actions among urban environmental, management, and development planners in Greater Johannesburg, South Africa. Initiatives, such as the Healthy Cities Project and Model Communities, are being integrated into an environmental management and development approach that attains the goals of Agenda 21. Greater Johannesburg has housing shortages and homelessness. Priority needs include the areas of housing, water, electricity, public transportation, and sanitation. Clean water and air are inequitably distributed. Other key environmental problems include illegal dumping, inadequate waste disposal, poor environmental hygiene in overcrowded inner city areas, lack of open spaces, flooding, and water scarcities. The newly formed metropolitan authority offers opportunities to improve coordination and integration of environmental problems. Stakeholders from government at all levels, politicians, nongovernmental organizations, and the business sector formed an intersectoral, interdepartmental environment management committee in 1995. Stakeholders will integrate Agenda 21 within broader urban development plans and processes. The executive committee and the full council approved a set of guiding principles on environmental policy and an administrative framework for management. Four workshops were held to ensure a participatory consultation process in 1995. The WHO Collaborating Center for Urban Health will be used to facilitate the work of the Greater Johannesburg Metropolitan Council. Changes are being made in the way local governments work.

  17. BiodosEPR-2006 consensus committee report on biodosimetric methods to evaluate radiation doses at long times after exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simon, Steven L. [Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States)], E-mail: ssimon@mail.nih.gov; Bailiff, Ian [Luminescence Dating and Dosimetry Laboratory, Durham University, Durham (United Kingdom); Bouville, Andre [Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States); Fattibene, Paola [Istituto Superiore di Sanita and Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Rome (Italy); Kleinerman, Ruth A. [Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States); Lloyd, David C. [Health Protection Agency, Radiation Protection Division, Chilton, Didcot, Oxfordshire (United Kingdom); McKeever, Stephen W.S. [Office of the Vice President for Research and Technology Transfer, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK (United States); Romanyukha, Alexander [Department of Radiology, Uniformed Services, University of the Health Sciences, Bethesda, MD (United States); Sevan' kaev, Alexander V. [Medical Radiological Research Centre, Obninsk (Russian Federation); Tucker, James D. [Department of Biological Sciences, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI (United States); Wieser, Albrecht [GSF National Research Center, Institute of Radiation Protection, Neuherberg (Germany)

    2007-07-15

    The requirements for biodosimetric techniques used at long times after exposure, i.e., 6 months to more than 50 years, are unique compared to the requirements for methods used for immediate dose estimation. In addition to the fundamental requirement that the assay measures a physical or biologic change that is proportional to the energy absorbed, the signal must be highly stable over time to enable reasonably precise determinations of the absorbed dose decades later. The primary uses of these biodosimetric methods have been to support long-term health risk (epidemiologic) studies or to support compensation (damage) claims. For these reasons, the methods must be capable of estimating individual doses, rather than group mean doses. Even when individual dose estimates can be obtained, inter-individual variability remains as one of the most difficult problems in using biodosimetry measurements to rigorously quantify individual exposures. Other important criteria for biodosimetry methods include obtaining samples with minimal invasiveness, low detection limits, and high precision. Cost and other practical limitations generally prohibit biodosimetry measurements on a large enough sample to replace analytical dose reconstruction in epidemiologic investigations. However, these measurements can be extremely valuable as a means to corroborate analytical or model-based dose estimates, to help reduce uncertainty in individual doses estimated by other methods and techniques, and to assess bias in dose reconstruction models. There has been extensive use of three biodosimetric techniques in irradiated populations: EPR (using tooth enamel), FISH (using blood lymphocytes), and GPA (also using blood); these methods have been supplemented with luminescent methods applied to building materials and artifacts. A large number of investigations have used biodosimetric methods many years after external and, to a lesser extent, internal exposure to reconstruct doses received from accidents

  18. JCCRER Project 2.3 -- Deterministic effects of occupational exposure to radiation. Phase 1: Feasibility study; Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okladnikova, N.; Pesternikova, V.; Sumina, M. [Inst. of Biophysics, Ozyorsk (Russian Federation)] [and others

    1998-12-01

    Phase 1 of Project 2.3, a short-term collaborative Feasibility Study, was funded for 12 months starting on 1 February 1996. The overall aim of the study was to determine the practical feasibility of using the dosimetric and clinical data on the MAYAK worker population to study the deterministic effects of exposure to external gamma radiation and to internal alpha radiation from inhaled plutonium. Phase 1 efforts were limited to the period of greatest worker exposure (1948--1954) and focused on collaboratively: assessing the comprehensiveness, availability, quality, and suitability of the Russian clinical and dosimetric data for the study of deterministic effects; creating an electronic data base containing complete clinical and dosimetric data on a small, representative sample of MAYAK workers; developing computer software for the testing of a currently used health risk model of hematopoietic effects; and familiarizing the US team with the Russian diagnostic criteria and techniques used in the identification of Chronic Radiation Sickness.

  19. Symptoms from masked acrolein exposure suggest altered trigeminal reactivity in chemical intolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claeson, Anna-Sara; Andersson, Linus

    2017-05-01

    Chemical intolerance (CI) is a widespread occupational and public health problem characterized by symptoms that reportedly result from low-levels of chemical exposure. The mechanisms behind CI are unknown, however modifications of the chemical senses (rather than toxic processes) have been suggested as key components. The aim of this study was to investigate whether individuals with self-reported CI report more sensory irritation during masked acrolein exposure compared to controls without CI. Individuals with CI (n=18) and controls without CI (n=19) were exposed in an exposure chamber. Each participant took part in two exposure conditions - one with heptane (the masking compound), and one with heptane and acrolein at a dose below previously reported sensory irritation thresholds. The exposures lasted for 60min. Symptoms and confidence ratings were measured continuously throughout the exposure as were measurements of electrodermal activity and self-reported tear-film break-up time. Participants were blind to exposure condition. Individuals with CI, compared with controls reported greater sensory irritation in the eyes, nose and throat when exposed to acrolein masked with heptane. There was no difference during exposure to heptane. Masked exposure to acrolein at a concentration below the previously reported detection threshold is perceived as more irritating by individuals with CI compared with controls. The results indicate that there is altered trigeminal reactivity in those with CI compared to controls. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Links between self-reported media violence exposure and teacher ratings of aggression and prosocial behavior among German adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krahé, Barbara; Möller, Ingrid

    2011-04-01

    The relations between adolescents' habitual usage of media violence and their tendency to engage in aggressive and prosocial behavior in a school setting were examined in a cross-sectional study with 1688 7th and 8th graders in Germany who completed measures of violent media exposure and normative acceptance of aggression. For each participant, ratings of prosocial and aggressive behavior were obtained from their class teacher. Media violence exposure was a unique predictor of teacher-rated aggression even when relevant covariates were considered, and it predicted prosocial behavior over and above gender. Path analyses confirmed a direct positive link from media violence usage to teacher-rated aggression for girls and boys, but no direct negative link to prosocial behavior was found. Indirect pathways were identified to higher aggressive and lower prosocial behavior via the acceptance of aggression as normative. Although there were significant gender differences in media violence exposure, aggression, and prosocial behavior, similar path models were identified for boys and girls. Copyright © 2010 The Association for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Preliminary study of effects of military obscurant smokes on flora and fauna during field and laboratory exposures. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaeffer, D.J.; Lower, W.R.; Kapila, S.; Yanders, A.F.; Wang, R.

    1986-12-01

    Since continued routine use of obscurant smokes could be detrimental to the native flora and fauna of training sites, a preliminary biological and chemical study of smokes was conducted to determine whether tests could be developed to demonstrate measurable changes in organisms exposed to smokes and to evaluate whether short exposures to smokes produced measurable changes in the organisms tested. Fog oil, hexachloroethane, and tank diesel smokes were tested. Tradescantia clones were examined for mutagenic effects indicated by micronuclei induction in developing pollen and pink somatic mutations in stamen hairs. Photosynthetic perturbations were measured in Tradescantia and Ambrosia dumosa using variable fluorescence induction. Animals were examined for sister chromatid exchanges and chromosome aberrations. It was found that all of the smokes tested exerted varying degrees of physiological and mutagenic effects in one or several of the assay systems at one or more of the exposure distances. These studies indicate that exposed ecological systems, or at least components of these systems, are at a higher risk than are control organisms for several types of damage attributed to obscurant smoke exposure.

  2. Comparison of different approaches of estimating effective dose from reported exposure data in 3D imaging with interventional fluoroscopy systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svalkvist, Angelica; Hansson, Jonny; Bâth, Magnus

    2014-03-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) imaging with interventional fluoroscopy systems is today a common examination. The examination includes acquisition of two-dimensional projection images, used to reconstruct section images of the patient. The aim of the present study was to investigate the difference in resulting effective dose obtained using different levels of complexity in calculations of effective doses from these examinations. In the study the Siemens Artis Zeego interventional fluoroscopy system (Siemens Medical Solutions, Erlangen, Germany) was used. Images of anthropomorphic chest and pelvis phantoms were acquired. The exposure values obtained were used to calculate the resulting effective doses from the examinations, using the computer software PCXMC (STUK, Helsinki, Finland). The dose calculations were performed using three different methods: 1. using individual exposure values for each projection image, 2. using the mean tube voltage and the total DAP value, evenly distributed over the projection images, and 3. using the mean kV and the total DAP value, evenly distributed over smaller selection of projection images. The results revealed that the difference in resulting effective dose between the first two methods was smaller than 5%. When only a selection of projection images were used in the dose calculations the difference increased to over 10%. Given the uncertainties associated with the effective dose concept, the results indicate that dose calculations based on average exposure values distributed over a smaller selection of projection angles can provide reasonably accurate estimations of the radiation doses from 3D imaging using interventional fluoroscopy systems.

  3. Greater omentum in reconstruction of refractory wounds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈余明; 沈祖尧

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the clinical efficacy of greater omentum in reconstruction of refractory wounds. Methods: From August 1988 to May 2001, 20 patients with refractory wound underwent pedicle or microvascular free transfer of the greater omentum. Indications of surgery were electrical injury of the wrist and hand in 9 patients, electrical injury of the scalp and cranial bones in 3, avulsion injury of the scalp in 2, radiation-related ulcer of the chest wall in 2, ulcer and osteomyelitis following resection of the sternum sarcoma in 1, electrical injury of the abdomen in 1, bone and soft tissue defects following compound fracture of the leg in 1, and extensive scar and ulcer of the leg and footdrop following trauma in 1. Severe infection and extensive tissue necrosis were present prior to surgical operation in 12 patients. Eleven patients were treated with pedicled omental flaps, and 9 patients with free omental flaps. The size of the omental flaps ranged from 20 cm×12 cm to 38 cm×23 cm. Results: All the omental flaps survived. Healing at the first intention of the wounds was achieved in 17 cases. The on-top skin grafts resulted in partial necrosis of lipid liquefaction developed in the omentum and healed with dressing change in 2 cases. A sinus tract of osteomyelitis occurred in one case and healed after delayed excision of the necrosed bone. Follow-up study of all cases from 3 to 24 months showed no recurrent wounds and post-operative abdominal complication. Recovery with acceptable appearance and restoration of function was satisfactory. Conclusions: Greater omentum provides a well-vascularized tissue with lymphatic ducts for wound coverage. It has strong resistance against infection. It is very malleable and can be molded easily. Therefore it is an ideal tissue in filling cavities and repairing defects, especially in covering large and irregular defects that can not be treated with skin or muscle flaps.

  4. Greater Sage-Grouse National Research Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanser, Steven E.; Manier, Daniel J.

    2013-01-01

    The condition of the sagebrush ecosystem has been declining in the Western United States, and greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus), a sagebrush-obligate species, has experienced concurrent decreases in distribution and population numbers. This has prompted substantial research and management over the past two decades to improve the understanding of sage-grouse and its habitats and to address the observed decreases in distribution and population numbers. The amount of research and management has increased as the year 2015 approaches, which is when the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) is expected to make a final decision about whether or not to protect the species under the Endangered Species Act. In 2012, the Sage-Grouse Executive Oversight Committee (EOC) of the Western Association of Fish and Wildlife Agencies (WAFWA) requested that the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) lead the development of a Greater Sage-Grouse National Research Strategy (hereafter Research Strategy). This request was motivated by a practical need to systematically connect existing research and conservation plans with persisting or emerging information needs. Managers and researchers also wanted to reduce redundancy and help focus limited funds on the highest priority research and management issues. The USGS undertook the development of this Research Strategy, which addresses information and science relating to the greater sage-grouse and its habitat across portions of 11 Western States. This Research Strategy provides an outline of important research topics to ensure that science information gaps are identified and documented in a comprehensive manner. Further, by identifying priority topics and critical information needed for planning, research, and resource management, it provides a structure to help coordinate members of an expansive research and management community in their efforts to conduct priority research.

  5. Interspecific hybridization between greater kudu and nyala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton, Desiré L; Tordiffe, Adrian; Luther, Ilse; Duran, Assumpta; van Wyk, Anna M; Brettschneider, Helene; Oosthuizen, Almero; Modiba, Catherine; Kotzé, Antoinette

    2014-06-01

    Hybridization of wildlife species, even in the absence of introgression, is of concern due to wasted reproductive effort and a reduction in productivity. In this study we detail an accidental mating between a female nyala (Tragelaphus angasii) and a male greater kudu (T. strepsiceros). The hybrid was phenotypically nyala and was identified as such based on mitochondrial DNA. Further genetic analysis based on nine microsatellite markers, chromosome number and chromosome morphology however, confirmed its status as an F1 hybrid. Results obtained from a reproductive potential assessment indicated that this animal does not have the potential to breed successfully and can be considered as sterile.

  6. Research Outcomes of Prenatal Substance Exposure and the Need To Review Policies and Procedures Regarding Child Abuse Reporting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barth, Richard P.

    2001-01-01

    Clarifies policy options for reporting and serving children testing positive at birth for controlled substances. Advocates the strengthening of existing state policies regarding child abuse reporting and response. (JPB)

  7. The effects of exposure to muscular male models among men: exploring the moderating role of gym use and exercise motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halliwell, Emma; Dittmar, Helga; Orsborn, Amber

    2007-09-01

    This study examines the effects of exposure to the muscular male body ideal on body-focused negative affect among male gym users and non-exercisers. As hypothesized, the impact of media exposure depended on men's exercise status. Non-exercisers (n = 58) reported greater body-focused negative affect after exposure to images of muscular male models than after neutral images (no model controls), whereas gym users (n = 58) showed a tendency for less body-focused negative affect after the model images than after the control images. Furthermore, the extent to which gym users were motivated to increase strength and muscularity moderated these exposure effects; men who reported stronger strength and muscularity exercise motivation reported a greater degree of self-enhancement after exposure to the muscular ideal. The findings are interpreted with respect to likely differences in motives for social comparisons.

  8. Parental exposure to medications and hydrocarbons and ras mutations in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia: A report from the Children's Oncology Group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shu, X.O.; Perentesis, J.P.; Wen, W.Q.; Buckley, J.D.; Boyle, E.; Ross, J.A.; Robison, L.L. [Childrens Oncology Group, Arcadia, CA (United States)

    2004-07-01

    Using data from a large case-control study of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL; age < 15 years), we used a case-case comparison approach to examine whether reported parental exposure to hydrocarbons at work or use of specific medications are related to ras gene mutations in the leukemia cells of children with ALL. We examined mutations in K-ras and N-ras genes atcodons 12, 13, and 61 by PCR and allele-specific oligonucleotide hybridization and confirmed them by DNA sequencing. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were derived from logistic regression to examine the association of parental exposures with ras mutations. A total of 127 (15.2%) cases had ras mutations (K-ras 4.7% and N-ras 10.68%). Both maternal (OR 3.2,95% CI 1.7-6.1) and paternal (OR 2.0, 95% CI 1.1-3.7) reported use of mind-altering drugs were associated with N-ras mutations. Paternal use of amphetamines or diet pills was associated with N-ras mutations (OR 4.1, 95% CI 1.1-15.0). Maternal exposure to solvents (OR 3.1, 95% CI 1.0-9.7) and plastic materials (OR 6.9, 95% CI 1.2-39.7) during pregnancy and plastic materials after pregnancy (OR 8.3, 95% CI 1.4-48.8) were related to K-ras mutation. Maternal over exposure to oil and coal products before case diagnosis (OR 2.3, 95% CI 1.1-4.8) and during the postnatal period (OR 2.2, 95% CI 1.0-5.5) and paternal exposure to plastic materials before index pregnancy (OR 2.4, 95% CI 1.1-5.1) and other hydrocarbons during the postnatal period (OR 1.8, 95% CI 1.0-1.3) were associated with N-ras mutations. This study suggests that parental exposure to specific chemicals may be associated with distinct ras mutations in children who develop ALL.

  9. Greater trochanteric stippling in trisomy 7p

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilde, Justin R. [Starship Children' s Hospital, Department of Paediatrics, Auckland (New Zealand); Teele, Rita L. [Starship Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Auckland (New Zealand); Aftimos, Salim [Auckland City Hospital, Northern Regional Genetic Services, Auckland, Private Bag 92024 (New Zealand)

    2006-08-15

    Trisomy 7p is a rare condition involving partial or complete duplication of the short arm of chromosome 7. Radiological features include large fontanelles, widened sutures, dolicocephaly and asymmetrical skull. We report a new radiological finding of punctate calcifications in the region of femoral trochanters. This finding has not previously been reported with chromosome 7p duplication. (orig.)

  10. Exposure Forecaster

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Exposure Forecaster Database (ExpoCastDB) is EPA's database for aggregating chemical exposure information and can be used to help with chemical exposure...

  11. Assessing the resilience of urban areas to traffic-related air pollution: Application in Greater Paris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cariolet, Jean-Marie; Colombert, Morgane; Vuillet, Marc; Diab, Youssef

    2017-10-05

    Recent studies report that outdoor air pollution will become the main environmental cause of premature death over the next few decades (OECD, 2012; WHO, 2014; World Bank, 2016). Cities are considered hot spots and urban populations are particularly exposed. There is therefore an urgent need to adapt urban systems and urban design to tackle this issue. While most European cities have introduced measures to reduce emissions, action is still required to reduce concentrations and exposure, and a holistic approach to urban design is badly needed. The concept of urban resilience, defined by Holling (1987) as the ability of a city to absorb a disturbance while maintaining its functions and structures, may offer a new paradigm for tackling urban air pollution. We propose to adapt the concept of urban resilience to outdoor air pollution. A method has been developed to assess the resilience of an urban area to outdoor air pollution. Three "resilience capacities" have been identified: the capacity of an urban area to decrease air pollution emissions, the capacity to decrease concentrations and the capacity to decrease exposure. The calculation is based on the analysis of urban design, defined as the pattern of buildings as well as the structural elements that define an urban area (urban morphology; transport network, services and land use). For each resilience capacity, indicators are calculated using a Geographic Information System (GIS) and a grid-based approach. This method has been implemented in the Greater Paris area within a 500m grid-cell system. Greater Paris is one of the densest urban areas in Europe and experiences high air pollution levels. The proposed "quick scan" method helps to localize areas where specific action is needed. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Update to agency for toxic substances and disease registry 2012 report on assessment of biota exposure to mercury originating from Savannah River Site.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuhne, W. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States)

    2015-08-10

    The purpose of this report is to 1) update previous Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) assessment reports (Kvartek et al. 1994 and Halverson et al. 2008) on the fate of mercury in the Savannah River Site (SRS) environment and 2) address comments and recommendations from the review of SRS by the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) concerning the evaluation of exposures to contaminants in biota originating from the SRS. The ATSDR reviewed and evaluated data from SRS, South Carolina Department of Health & Environmental Control (SCDHEC) and the Georgia Department of Natural Resources (GDNR) concerning the non-radioactive contaminant mercury. This report will provide a response and update to conclusions and recommendations made by the ATSDR.

  13. The use of self-reported symptoms as a proxy for acute organophosphate poisoning after exposure to chlorpyrifos 50 % plus cypermethrin 5 % among Nepali farmers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kofod, Dea Haagensen; Jørs, Erik; Varma, Anshu

    2016-01-01

    cholinesterase (PchE) activity, in addition to the symptoms, when assessing occupational acute pesticide poisoning. This study evaluated self-reported symptoms as a proxy for acute organophosphate poisoning among Nepali farmers by examining self-reported acute organophosphate poisoning symptoms and PchE activity......%: moderately hazardous) spray session or a 2-h placebo spray session, and after 7 days' washout, the farmers were assigned to the other spray session. Before and after each spray session farmers were interviewed about acute organophosphate poisoning symptoms and PchE activity was measured. Analyses were...... symptoms among the farmers regardless of organophosphate exposure or poisoning. Thus, self-reported acute organophosphate symptoms seem to be a poor proxy for acute organophosphate poisoning as the occurrence of these symptoms is not necessarily associated with acute organophosphate poisoning. TRIAL...

  14. Greater patient confidence yields greater functional outcomes after primary total shoulder arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Styron, Joseph F; Higuera, Carlos A; Strnad, Greg; Iannotti, Joseph P

    2015-08-01

    Patient satisfaction is increasingly being tied to reimbursement rates, and patient satisfaction is often associated with improving functionality and decreasing disability postoperatively. This study sought to determine if a total shoulder arthroplasty patient's preoperative confidence in his or her ability to attain the level of activity desired would influence postoperative functional scores. Patients undergoing a primary total shoulder arthroplasty at a single institution were asked to complete a preoperative questionnaire with multiple items including baseline symptom severity measures and their confidence in reaching their level of desired functionality postoperatively (scored 0-10). Patients then completed an identical postoperative questionnaire at their follow-up visits. Associations between the patient's confidence in attaining treatment goals and functional outcomes was established by multiple linear regression models that were adjusted for gender, age, body mass index, baseline 12-Item Short Form Health Survey mental component scores, college education, smoking status, baseline functional scores, and length of follow-up. Patients had a high level of confidence that their outcome would match their expectations, with an average score of 7.8 (range, 0-10; 28.4% reported a full 10/10 confidence). For every 1-point increase in confidence, patients experienced an average increase in their function score of 2.7 points (P = .039) and improvement in their pain score of 2.0 (P = .033) according to the Penn Shoulder Score. There was no significant association with the patient's 12-Item Short Form Health Survey score postoperatively. Patients with greater preoperative confidence actually have significantly better postoperative functional outcomes than their less confident peers even with adjustment for other known risk factors. Copyright © 2015 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Trajectories of maltreatment re-reports from ages 4 to 12:: evidence for persistent risk after early exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proctor, Laura J; Aarons, Gregory A; Dubowitz, Howard; English, Diana J; Lewis, Terri; Thompson, Richard; Hussey, Jon M; Litrownik, Alan J; Roesch, Scott C

    2012-08-01

    This study identified trajectories of maltreatment re-reports between ages 4 and 12 for children first referred to Child Protective Services (CPS) for maltreatment prior to age 4 and either removed from the home or assessed by a CPS intake worker as moderately or highly likely to be abused/neglected in the future, absent intervention. Participants (n = 501) were children from the Southwest and Northwest sites of the Consortium for Longitudinal Studies of Child Abuse and Neglect (LONGSCAN). During the 8-year follow-up period, 67% of children were re-reported. Growth mixture modeling identified four trajectory classes: No re-report (33%), Continuous re-reports (10%), Intermittent re-reports (37%), and Early re-reports (20%). Membership in classes with relatively more re-reports was predicted by several factors assessed at age 4, including physical abuse; living with a biological/stepparent; caregiver alcohol abuse, depression, and lack of social support; receipt of Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC); and number of children in the home. For a subpopulation of high-risk children first reported in early childhood, risk for maltreatment re-reporting may persist longer than previously documented, continuing 8 to 12 years after the first report.

  16. The post-orgasmic prolactin increase following intercourse is greater than following masturbation and suggests greater satiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brody, Stuart; Krüger, Tillmann H C

    2006-03-01

    Research indicates that prolactin increases following orgasm are involved in a feedback loop that serves to decrease arousal through inhibitory central dopaminergic and probably peripheral processes. The magnitude of post-orgasmic prolactin increase is thus a neurohormonal index of sexual satiety. Using data from three studies of men and women engaging in masturbation or penile-vaginal intercourse to orgasm in the laboratory, we report that for both sexes (adjusted for prolactin changes in a non-sexual control condition), the magnitude of prolactin increase following intercourse is 400% greater than that following masturbation. The results are interpreted as an indication of intercourse being more physiologically satisfying than masturbation, and discussed in light of prior research reporting greater physiological and psychological benefits associated with coitus than with any other sexual activities.

  17. Respiratory function and exposure-effect relationships in wood dust-exposed and control workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holness, D L; Sass-Kortsak, A M; Pilger, C W; Nethercott, J R

    1985-07-01

    The effect of wood dust exposure on 50 cabinet makers was examined. Woodworkers reported more nasal and eye symptoms and more cough, sputum and wheezing than did 49 control workers. More irritated cells were present in the woodworkers' nasal cytological smears. In contrast to the control workers, the woodworkers had a significant decline in lung function over the workshift. An inverse correlation between baseline lung function and an exposure index (mean area dust level multiplied by length of exposure) was demonstrated in the woodworkers. Greater dust exposure was not associated with larger falls in lung function over the work shift.

  18. NASCA Report 2: Longitudinal Study of Relationship of Exposure to Space Radiation and Risk of Lens Opacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chylack, Leon T., Jr.; Peterson, Leif E.; Feiveson, Alan H.; Tung, William H.; Wear, Mary L.; Marak, Lisa J.; Hardy, Dale S.; Cucinotta, Francis A.

    2011-01-01

    The NASA Study of Cataract in Astronauts (NASCA) was a five-year longitudinal study of the effect of space radiation exposure on the severity/progression of nuclear (N), cortical (C), and posterior subcapsular (PSC) lens opacities. It began in 2003 and was completed in December, 2009. Participants included 171 consenting astronauts who flew at least one mission in space, and comparison subjects consisted of three groups, a) 53 astronauts who had not flown in space, b) 95 military aircrew personnel, and c) 99 non-aircrew, ground-based subjects.

  19. Pharmacological protection of the retina against damaging laser exposures: a feasibility study. Final report, January-December 1987

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cartledge, R.M.; Glickman, R.D.; Elliott, W.R.

    1988-09-01

    Light damage to ocular tissues may occur through at least three mechanisms -- thermal, photochemical, or mechanical (photoacoustic) stress. These stress mechanisms may act singly, or in combination, depending on the intensity, wavelength, and temporal parameters of the damaging light exposure. Because some of these mechanisms involve biochemical intermediates, the possibility exists that appropriate pharmacological therapy might limit the extent of retinal light damage. This investigation determined the degree to which pharmacological pretreatments could protect a model retina against laser light damage. Five agents were examined for protective activity: an anti-inflammatory steroid hormone (dexamethasone); three antioxidants (3-aminotyrosine, vitamins C AND E); and a chelating agent (EGTA).

  20. A comparison of peak vs cumulative physical work exposure risk factors for the reporting of low back pain in the automotive industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, R.; Wells, R.; Neumann, P.; Frank, J.; Shannon, H.; Kerr, M.

    1998-12-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the relative importance of modelled peak spine loads, hand loads, trunk kinematics and cumulative spine loads as predictors of reported low back pain (LBP). BACKGROUND: The authors have recently shown that both biomechemical and psychosocial variables are important in the reporting of LBP. In previous studies, peak spinal load risk factors have been identified and while there is in vitro evidence for adverse effects of excessive cumulative load on tissue, there is little epidemiological evidence. METHODS: Physical exposures to peak and cumulative lumbar spine moment, compression and shear forces, trunk kinematics, and forces on hands were analyzed on 130 randomly selected controls and 104 cases. Univariable and multivariable odds ratios of the risk of reporting were calculated from a backwards logistic regression analysis. Interrelationships among variables were examined by factor analysis. RESULTS: Cases showed significantly higher loading on all biomechanical variables. Four independent risk factors were identified: integrated lumbar moment (over a shift), 'usual' hand force, peak shear force at the level of L(4)/L(5) and peak trunk velocity. Substituting lumbar compression or moment for shear did not appreciably alter odds ratios because of high correlations among these variables. CONCLUSIONS: Cumulative biomechanical variables are important risk factors in the reporting of LBP. Spinal tissue loading estimates from a biomechanical model provide information not included in the trunk kinematics and hand force inputs to the model alone. Workers in the top 25% of loading exposure on all risk factors are at about six times the risk of reporting LBP when compared with those in the bottom 25%. RELEVANCE: Primary prevention, treatment, and return to work efforts for individuals reporting LBP all require understanding of risk factors. The results suggest that cumulative loading of the low back is important etiologically and highlight the need for

  1. [Case report of acute death on the 7th day due to exposure to the vapor of the insecticide chlorfenapyr].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoshiko, Michiko; Naito, Shinji; Koga, Mitsuaki; Mori, Mihoko; Hara, Kunio; Ishitake, Tatsuya

    2007-04-01

    We present the case of a 55-year-old male agricultural worker who complained of severe general fatigue and hyperperspiration after exposure to an insecticide vapor. He worked in a tea plantation and used chlorfenapyr, a broad spectrum for harmful insects, without any protective mask or clothes. After one day of insecticide spray work, he gradually began to complain of general fatigue, hyperperspiration, nausea and vomiting. At first, he was diagnosed as being dehydrated and was treated with fluid replacement therapy. Although he received this conservative therapy, there was no effect on the above mentioned symptoms. On the 7th day of the onset of his symptoms, his consciousness level deteriorated rapidly and body temperature exceeded 40 degrees C. No cerebral vascular disease or meningitis was observed. Finally, he died despite intensive care. The findings of the clinical course and laboratory data suggest a clinical diagnosis of acute pesticide poisoning due to exposure to chlorfenapyr vapor. We suggest that agricultural workers should use this insecticide with caution and sufficient protective gear.

  2. Health hazard evaluation report HETA 86-157-1678, Stag Dental Clinic, Boulder, Colorado. [Nitrous oxide exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gunter, B.J.

    1986-03-01

    Employees of the Stag Dental Clinic, Boulder, Colorado requested an evaluation of nitrous oxide exposure during dental procedures. Direct reading measurements taken in the dental operatory immediately after nitrous oxide was administered showed levels exceeding 1000 parts per million (ppm) in the breathing zone of the dentist and his assistant. The levels remained high throughout the 1-hour procedure. The level of nitrous oxide in the hallway outside the operatory was 300 ppm and that in the adjacent operatory, 150 ppm (background). General-room air in the operatory in use was 800 ppm nitrous oxide. Levels of nitrous oxide decreased to 50 ppm 1.5 hours after the gas was turned off. The current NIOSH recommended time weighted average is 25 ppm. The author concludes that a health hazard existed at the dental office due to high exposures of nitrous oxide. It was recommended that a scavenging system should be installed. Recommendations also include routine maintenance on anesthetic and suction equipment, a follow-up evaluation after the exhaust systems have been in place, advising all dentists and other personnel in the clinic of the adverse health effects due to nitrous oxide, and use of more dilution ventilation.

  3. [Inter-rater agreement on self-reported exposure to ergonomic risk factors for the upper extremities among mechanic assemblers in an automotive industry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    d'Errico, Angelo; Fontana, Dario; Merogno, Angela

    2016-01-01

    to assess reproducibility of self-reported exposure to ergonomic hazards for the upper limbs, measured through a questionnaire based on a diffused checklist for the assessment of ergonomic risk (OCRA) in a sample of mechanical assemblers of an automotive industry. cross-sectional study; reproducibility was assessed as interrater agreement of a composite index of ergonomic risk, estimated through the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). 58 mechanical assemblers, working in 29 twin areas, characterised by same work stations and tasks. composite index of ergonomic risk for the upper limbs. reproducibility of the ergonomic index was high in the overall sample (ICC: 0.81) and it was higher for the twin areas employing same-gender workers (ICC: 0.96), compared to those with workers of the opposite gender (ICC: 0.66). these results indicate that a questionnaire measuring with a great detail the exposure to the main ergonomic risk factors for the upper limbs, as the one based on the OCRA checklist used for this study, would allow to obtain a highly reproducible ergonomic index. If its validity against the corresponding observational checklist will be found elevated by future studies, this questionnaire may represent a useful tool for a preliminary assessment of workers' exposure to ergonomic hazards for the upper limbs.

  4. Sunlight exposure assessment: can we accurately assess vitamin D exposure from sunlight questionnaires?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarty, Catherine A

    2008-04-01

    The purpose of this review is to summarize the peer-reviewed literature in relation to sunlight exposure assessment and the validity of using sunlight exposure questionnaires to quantify vitamin D status. There is greater variability in personal ultraviolet (UV) light exposure as the result of personal behavior than as the result of ambient UV light exposure. Although statistically significant, the correlation coefficients for the relation between personal report of sun exposure and ambient UV light measured by dosimetry (assessment of radiation dose) are relatively low. Moreover, the few studies to assess the relation between sunlight measures and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D show low correlations. These low correlations may not be surprising given that personal factors like melanin content in skin and age also influence cutaneous synthesis of vitamin D. In summary, sunlight exposure questionnaires currently provide imprecise estimates of vitamin D status. Research should be directed to develop more objective, nonintrusive, and economical measures of sunlight exposure to quantify personal vitamin D status.

  5. OCCUPATIONAL EXPOSURE AND COPD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Würtz, Else Toft

    Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is a common disease. The main risk factor is smoking although 15% of the COPD cases are expected to be preventable if the occupational exposures from vapour, gas, dust, and fume were eliminated; the population attributable fraction (PAF). The thesis...... addresses the association between occupational exposure and COPD in a population-based cohort of Danes aged 45-84-years. 4717 participants were included at baseline and 2624 at the four year follow-up. COPD was defined by spirometry and the occupational exposure was based on specialist defined jobs...... and questionnaires. The main occupational exposure was organic dust and 49% reported no lifetime occupational exposure. The results suggest occupational exposures to be associated to COPD also in never smokers and women. We found an exposure-response relation in the cross sectional analyses. The results...

  6. On the association between building ventilation characteristics, some indoor environmental exposures, some allergic manifestations and subjective symptom reports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sundell, J. (Karolinska Institute, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Stockholm (Sweden))

    1994-05-01

    The aims of the present thesis are (1) to assess the associations between ventilation characteristics of homes, house dust mite infestation and allergy among children; (2) to assess the association between ventilation characteristics and occurrence of reported SBS-related symptoms among office workers; (3) to analyze associations between reported SBS-related symptoms and the reported sensation of dryness and associations between the reported sensation of dryness and physical air humidity, room characteristics and chemical factors; and (4) to study changes in total volatile organic compounds (TVOC) or formaldehyde concentration from outdoor air to room air and to study the associations between SBS-related symptom reports and concentrations of TVOC and formaldehyde in room air. (au) (256 refs.)

  7. Association of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3)levels in adult New Zealanders with ethnicity, skin color and self-reported skin sensitivity to sun exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nessvi, Sofia; Johansson, Lisa; Jopson, Jan; Stewart, Alistair; Reeder, Anthony; McKenzie, Richard; Scragg, Robert K

    2011-01-01

    The study aim was to determine the contribution of ethnicity, objectively measured skin color and skin reaction-to-sun exposure to variations in 25-hydroxyvitamin D(3) [25(OH)D(3) ]. A multiethnic sample (European, Maori, Pacific and Asian) of 503 adult volunteers aged 18-85 years, recruited from Auckland and Dunedin in New Zealand, answered a questionnaire on sun exposure and self-defined ethnicity. Skin color was measured using a spectrophotometer and the Individual Typology Angle (ITA) calculated. A blood sample was collected 4 weeks later to measure 25(OH)D(3). 25(OH)D(3) was associated with ethnicity, but not self-reported skin reaction-to-sun exposure. Amongst the ethnic groups, Asians had the lowest mean 25(OH)D level (37.0 nmol L(-1)) and Europeans with lighter colored skin had the highest (57.9 nmol L(-1)). An association also was seen between 25(OH)D(3) and skin color, with an increase of 2-3 nmol L(-1) per 10° increase in ITA value, indicating higher 25(OH)D(3) with lighter skin color; but much of this association disappeared after adjusting for ethnicity. In contrast, ethnicity remained associated with 25(OH)D(3) after adjusting for ITA skin color and skin reaction-to-sun exposure. These results indicate that self-defined ethnicity was a major determinant of variations in serum 25(OH)D(3), while objective measures of skin color explained relatively little additional variation.

  8. Risks for the development of outcomes related to occupational allergies: an application of the asthma-specific job exposure matrix compared with self-reports and investigator scores on job-training-related exposure.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suarthana, E.; Heederik, D.J.J.; Ghezzo, H.; Malo, J.L.; Kennedy, S.M.; Gautrin, D.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIM: Risks for development of occupational sensitisation, bronchial hyper-responsiveness, rhinoconjunctival and chest symptoms at work associated with continued exposure to high molecular weight (HMW) allergens were estimated with three exposure assessment methods. METHODS: A Cox regr

  9. The impact of neighborhood disadvantage and exposure to violence on self-report of antisocial behavior among girls in the juvenile justice system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauhan, Preeti; Reppucci, N Dickon

    2009-03-01

    The current study extended previous research with adults and boys to girls in the juvenile justice system (N = 122; M = 16.7; SD = 1.3). Using a longitudinal research design, neighborhood disadvantage and exposure to violence (i.e., physical abuse by parents, physical abuse by peers, and witnessing violence) were assessed during incarceration. These risk factors were used to predict violent and delinquent behavior post-release. Furthermore, race specific pathways were examined to determine if the impact of these risk factors varied among Black (n = 69) and White girls (n = 53). Results indicated that Black girls were more likely than White girls to live in disadvantaged neighborhoods, but both reported similar levels of exposure to violence and self-report of antisocial behavior. Physical abuse by parents, time at risk, and age were related to violent behavior, while witnessing violence and time at risk were related to delinquent behavior. Multiple group analyses indicated the existence of race specific pathways. Specifically, physical abuse by parents was related to violent behavior for White girls while witnessing violence was related to violent and delinquent behaviors for Black girls. Results suggest that contextual processes play an important role in predicting antisocial behavior for Black girls.

  10. F-35 Sustainment: Need for Affordable Strategy, Greater Attention to Risks, and Improved Cost Estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    F - 35 SUSTAINMENT Need for Affordable Strategy, Greater Attention to Risks, and Improved Cost Estimates Report...2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2014 to 00-00-2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE F - 35 Sustainment: Need for Affordable Strategy, Greater...House of Representatives September 2014 F - 35 SUSTAINMENT Need for Affordable Strategy, Greater Attention to Risks, and Improved Cost Estimates Why

  11. Noise exposure under hyperbaric conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-03-01

    Objective evidence exists that divers demonstrate a hearing deficit greater than would be expected from ageing effects alone. Deafness in divers may be caused by a number of factors other than exposure to excessive noise levels, eg barotrauma, ear infection etc. This review concentrates on the concern that exposure of commercial divers to noise while at work may cause a hearing deficit. Sound pressure levels recorded both underwater and in diving chambers often exceed those allowable to workers onshore. However, the sound perceived by the diver is modified both in amplitude and in frequency when he is either underwater or in pressurised chambers. Broadly the effect of this modification is to attenuate the sound and thus offer some protection from high noise levels. The degree of attentuation varies with the frequency of the sound, however it is also possible under specific conditions associated with gas density for the sensitivity to particular frequencies to be amplified above that for normal atmospheric air. The levels of sound observed from some underwater tools are of concern even after allowing for a significant de-sensitisation of the divers` hearing. Reports of tinnitus and temporary hearing loss following a dive are sure signs that the noise levels have been harmful. It is not possible at present to describe risk criteria for hearing damage due to noise exposure associated with diving. (author)

  12. Grassroots Action Research and the Greater Good

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rainey Isobel

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available

    This study examines the action research topics and topic preferences of two groups of grassroots teachers: active researchers, and potential researchers. The analysis of the topics appears to indicate that, over the past decade, action research at the teaching of English at the grassroots level to speakers of other languages has been principally understood in terms of professional development with respect to teachers’ methodologies and learners’ learning behaviours. A nascent concern for a more ample approach to professional development and issues conducive to the greater good of the profession can, it is mooted, flourish only with the collaboration of all relevant stakeholders.

    En este estudio se examinan los temas de investigación acción y los temas preferidos por dos grupos de profesores de base: uno de investigadores activos y otro de investigadores potenciales. El análisis sugiere que, durante la última década, la investigación acción en el aula de inglés para hablantes de otras lenguas se ha entendido principalmente en términos del desarrollo profesional con respecto a las metodologías de los profesores y las conductas estudiantiles de aprendizaje. Se considera que un incipiente interés por un enfoque más amplio y por asuntos conducentes al beneficio general de la profesión, solamente puede florecer con la colaboración de todos los actores más importantes.

  13. Potentials for Heat Savings in Greater Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Jørgen; Karlsson, Kenneth

    1998-01-01

    are suggested. Two scenarios for future heat savings are established, deviating in the rates of renovation, demolition, and construction of buildings, as well as in the thermal insulation standards, ventilation systems ,and in the daily behaviour. The results are that compared to the base year 1995, heat......This report describes methodologies for analysing heat saving potentials. The background for the lack of activities in that field is suggested. Various elements of heat savings are described, including changes in daily behaviour and life styles. Definition of various levels of potentials...

  14. Appeal for legislation on greater safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baillie, Jonathan

    2011-10-01

    An Essex-headquartered company which claims to manufacture the world's leading "brand" of glass vision panel, is calling for legislation to regulate the quality and design of such products. With no statutory governance currently in place, it is concerned that a rash of badly-designed, poorer quality variants, that it says have emerged in recent years, pose a significant self-harm and ligature risk to mentally unwell patients in hospitals, and a potential danger to staff when components like internal fittings and the glass itself, especially should the latter be too thin and thus easy to break, are used as "weapons". HEJ editor Jonathan Baillie reports.

  15. Workshop Report on Atomic Bomb Dosimetry--Review of Dose Related Factors for the Evaluation of Exposures to Residual Radiation at Hiroshima and Nagasaki.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, George D; Egbert, Stephen D; Al-Nabulsi, Isaf; Bailiff, Ian K; Beck, Harold L; Belukha, Irina G; Cockayne, John E; Cullings, Harry M; Eckerman, Keith F; Granovskaya, Evgeniya; Grant, Eric J; Hoshi, Masaharu; Kaul, Dean C; Kryuchkov, Victor; Mannis, Daniel; Ohtaki, Megu; Otani, Keiko; Shinkarev, Sergey; Simon, Steven L; Spriggs, Gregory D; Stepanenko, Valeriy F; Stricklin, Daniela; Weiss, Joseph F; Weitz, Ronald L; Woda, Clemens; Worthington, Patricia R; Yamamoto, Keiko; Young, Robert W

    2015-12-01

    Groups of Japanese and American scientists, supported by international collaborators, have worked for many years to ensure the accuracy of the radiation dosimetry used in studies of health effects in the Japanese atomic bomb survivors. Reliable dosimetric models and systems are especially critical to epidemiologic studies of this population because of their importance in the development of worldwide radiation protection standards. While dosimetry systems, such as Dosimetry System 1986 (DS86) and Dosimetry System 2002 (DS02), have improved, the research groups that developed them were unable to propose or confirm an additional contribution by residual radiation to the survivor's total body dose. In recognition of the need for an up-to-date review of residual radiation exposures in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, a half-day technical session was held for reports on newer studies at the 59 th Annual HPS Meeting in 2014 in Baltimore, MD. A day-and-a-half workshop was also held to provide time for detailed discussion of the newer studies and to evaluate their potential use in clarifying the residual radiation exposure to atomic bomb survivors at Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The process also involved a re-examination of very early surveys of radioisotope emissions from ground surfaces at Hiroshima and Nagasaki and early reports of health effects. New insights were reported on the potential contribution to residual radiation from neutron-activated radionuclides in the airburst's dust stem and pedestal and in unlofted soil, as well as from fission products and weapon debris from the nuclear cloud. However, disparate views remain concerning the actual residual radiation doses received by the atomic bomb survivors at different distances from the hypocenter. The workshop discussion indicated that measurements made using thermal luminescence and optically stimulated luminescence, like earlier measurements, especially in very thin layers of the samples, could be expanded to detect possible

  16. Effect of jet-fuel exposure on advanced aerospace composites, II: Mechanical properties. Final report, May-December 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curliss, D.B.; Carlin, D.M.

    1990-08-01

    The sensitivity of several advanced aerospace composite materials to military jet fuel, JP-4, was investigated in this study. The following commercially available fiber/matrix prepreg materials were used in this investigation: AS-4/3501-6; IM7/8551-7A; IM7/977-2 (1377-2T); IM7/5250-4; IM8HTA; and AS-4/PEEK(APC-2). The materials were chosen as representative state-of-the-art materials in their classes of standard epoxy, toughened epoxy, toughened BMI, and thermoplastic matrix composites respectively. The materials were processed into (+ or - 45)2S, (0)12T laminates using the manufacturer's recommended process cycle and standard quality assurance checks were performed on the panels. Standard geometry coupons were fabricated from the panels and divided into a control set and test set. The test coupons were immersed in JP-4 in a sealed pressure vessel at 180 F. The weight gain was recorded as a function of the square root of time and the jet fuel was exchanged each time the coupon weight was recorded. In general, the thermoset matrix composites did not pick-up significant levels of fuel in any lay-up examined; while the thermoplastics did absorb JP-4. The amount of JP-4 absorbed by the thermoplastic matrix composites was dependent on the lay-up. After 1680 hours of total exposure time the mechanical properties of the coupons were evaluated.

  17. Urban Jamaican children's exposure to community violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samms-Vaughan, M E; Jackson, M A; Ashley, D E

    2005-01-01

    Exposure to violence in childhood is associated with aggression in adulthood. The high level of community violence in Jamaica is likely to expose Jamaican children to violence. There has been no detailed study of the exposure of Jamaican children to violence in their daily lives. Some 1674 urban 11-12-year-old children, previously part of a national birth cohort study, completed a questionnaire detailing their exposure to violence as witnesses, victims and aggressors. Their parents completed a socio-economic questionnaire. Jamaican children had high levels of exposure to physical violence. A quarter of the children had witnessed severe acts of physical violence such as robbery, shooting and gang wars, a fifth had been victims of serious threats or robbery and one in every twelve had been stabbed. Children reported being least exposed to sexual violence and to being shot at. Robbery was an almost universal experience affecting children from all schools and socio-economic groups. The single commonest experience as a victim of violence was the loss of a family member or close friend to murder, affecting 36.8% of children. Children's experiences of witnessing violence occurred chiefly in their communities but their personal experiences of violence occurred at school. Boys and children attending primary school had greater exposure to violence as witnesses and victims. Socio-economic status discriminated exposure to physical violence as witnesses but not as victims. Intervention strategies to reduce children's exposure to violence should include community education on the impact of exposure to violence on children, particularly the loss of a significant person, and the development of a range of school-based violence prevention programmes.

  18. Medical students pursuing surgical fields have no greater innate motor dexterity than those pursuing nonsurgical fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jason Y; Kerbl, David C; McDougall, Elspeth M; Mucksavage, Phillip

    2012-01-01

    Medical students pursue different career paths based on a variety of factors. We sought to examine the impact of innate manual dexterity, both perceived and objective, on the career interests of medical students. Third-year medical students from the University of California, Irvine were recruited for this study. Subjects completed a pretest questionnaire followed by assessment of gross and fine motor dexterity using the Purdue Pegboard test. A total of 6 independent trials were performed, 3 for each hand. The scores were recorded as an integer value between 0 and 25. A statistical analysis was performed using student t tests, the Fischer exact test, or the χ(2) test, where appropriate. A total of 100 students completed the questionnaire while 58 completed the dexterity testing. Students interested in a surgical field (SF) were similar in handedness, gender, video game exposure, and learning style as those interested in a nonsurgical field (NSF). In the SF group, "personal skill set" was reported as the most common factor influencing career selection, and "interest in disease process/patient population" was reported most commonly by NSF students (p = 0.015). Although a perceived innate manual dexterity was higher among SF students compared with NSF students (p = 0.032), no significant objective differences were found in right hand, left hand, or combined dexterity scores. Perceived "personal skill set" may influence strongly a medical student's career choice. Despite greater perceived manual dexterity, students interested in an SF do not have greater objective innate manual dexterity than those interested in an NSF. Copyright © 2012 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Fetal exposure to pimozide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjarnason, Nina H; Rode, Line; Dalhoff, Kim

    2006-01-01

    Pimozide is an antidopaminergic, antipsychotic drug. Exposure during human pregnancy has not been reported previously, and recommendations on its use are based on extrapolation from other antipsychotics with antidopaminergic activity....

  20. Inferior glenohumeral joint dislocation with greater tuberosity avulsion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mohd Faizan; Latif Zafar Jilani; Mazhar Abbas; Yasir Salam Siddiqui; Aamir Bin Sabir; M.K.A.Sherwani; Saifullah Khalid

    2015-01-01

    Inferior glenohumeral dislocation is the least common type of glenohumeral dislocations.It may be associated with fractures of the adjacent bones and neurovascular compromise.It should be treated immediately by close reduction.The associated neuropraxia usually recovers with time.Traction-counter traction method is commonly used for reduction followed by immobilization of the shoulder for three weeks.Here,we report a case of inferior glenohumeral joint dislocation with greater tuberosity fracture with transient neurovascular compromise and present a brief review of the literature.

  1. Epidemiologic investigation of health effects in Air Force personnel following exposure to herbicides. Summary mortality update, 1989. Interim report 1979-1987

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolfe, W.H.; Michalek, J.E.; Miner, J.C.

    1989-04-17

    The purpose of the Air Force Health Study is to determine whether those individuals involved in the spraying of herbicides in Vietnam during the Ranch Hand operation have experienced any adverse health effects as a result of their participation in that program. The study is designed to evaluate both the mortality (death) and morbidity (disease) in these individuals over a 20-year beginning in 1982. The Baseline Mortality Report was released in June 1983, the Baseline Morbidity Report in February 1984. Follow-up mortality reports were released in 1984, 1985, and 1986. This study has not demonstrated health effects which can be conclusively attributed to herbicide or dioxin exposure. This report contains analyses of cumulative deaths occurring up to 31 December 1987. The overall cumulative mortality of the Ranch Hands remains statistically indistinguishable from that of both their matched Comparisons and the entire Comparison, population, although there is a statistically significant increasing trend in post-1983 death rates among Ranch Hand flying officers and a statistically significant increase in Ranch Hand digestive system deaths relative to the Comparison population; these findings are not suggestive of a herbicide effect. Ranch Hands are equivalent to all Comparisons in cumulative accidental, malignant neoplasm and circulatory system mortality.

  2. Severe Sweet's Syndrome with Elevated Cutaneous Interleukin-1β after Azathioprine Exposure: Case Report and Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imhof, Laurence; Meier, Barbara; Frei, Pascal; Kamarachev, Jivko; Rogler, Gerhard; Kolios, Antonios; Navarini, Alexander A; Contassot, Emmanuel; French, Lars E

    2015-01-01

    Sweet's syndrome (SS) is a dermatosis with systemic symptoms characterized by tender, red nodules or papules, occasionally covered with vesicles, pustules or bullae, usually affecting the upper limbs, face and neck. SS is frequently observed in patients with leukemia or connective tissue diseases, while it is rather seldom in patients with inflammatory bowel disease. The exact pathogenesis of SS is only partially understood. We report the case of a 50-year-old patient with indeterminate colitis, presenting with a febrile diffuse papulopustular and necrotizing skin eruption that healed with significant scarring and appeared 14 days after onset of treatment with azathioprine. Histological examination revealed the presence of features typical of SS, gene expression analysis very high levels of interleukin-1β (IL-1β) mRNA in lesional skin, and immunohistochemistry high levels of IL-1β at the protein level. SS associated with azathioprine is being increasingly reported and is reviewed herein.

  3. Revised analyses of decommissioning for the reference boiling water reactor power station. Effects of current regulatory and other considerations on the financial assurance requirements of the decommissioning rule and on estimates of occupational radiation exposure - appendices. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, R.I.; Bierschbach, M.C.; Konzek, G.J.; McDuffie, P.N.

    1996-07-01

    The NRC staff is in need of decommissioning bases documentation that will assist them in assessing the adequacy of the licensee submittals, from the viewpoint of both the planned actions, including occupational radiation exposure, and the probable costs. The purpose of this reevaluation study is to update the needed bases documentation. This report presents the results of a review and reevaluation of the PNL 1980 decommissioning study of the Washington Public Power Supply System`s Washington Nuclear Plant Two (WNP-2) located at Richland, Washington, including all identifiable factors and cost assumptions which contribute significantly to the total cost of decommissioning the plant for the DECON, SAFSTOR, and ENTOMB decommissioning alternatives. These alternatives now include an initial 5-7 year period during which time the spent fuel is stored in the spent fuel pool prior to beginning major disassembly or extended safe storage of the plant. Included for information (but not presently part of the license termination cost) is an estimate of the cost to demolish the decontaminated and clear structures on the site and to restore the site to a {open_quotes}green field{close_quotes} condition. This report also includes consideration of the NRC requirement that decontamination and decommissioning activities leading to termination of the nuclear license be completed within 60 years of final reactor shutdown, consideration of packaging and disposal requirements for materials whose radionuclide concentrations exceed the limits for Class C low-level waste (i.e., Greater-Than-Class C), and reflects 1993 costs for labor, materials, transport, and disposal activities. Sensitivity of the total license termination cost to the disposal costs at different low-level radioactive waste disposal sites, to different depths of contaminated concrete surface removal within the facilities, and to different transport distances is also examined.

  4. Revised analyses of decommissioning for the reference pressurized Water Reactor Power Station. Volume 2, Effects of current regulatory and other considerations on the financial assurance requirements of the decommissioning rule and on estimates of occupational radiation exposure: Appendices, Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konzek, G.J.; Smith, R.I.; Bierschbach, M.C.; McDuffie, P.N.

    1995-11-01

    With the issuance of the final Decommissioning Rule (July 27, 1998), owners and operators of licensed nuclear power plants are required to prepare, and submit to the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) for review, decommissioning plans and cost estimates. The NRC staff is in need of bases documentation that will assist them in assessing the adequacy of the licensee submittals, from the viewpoint of both the planned actions, including occupational radiation exposure, and the probable costs. The purpose of this reevaluation study is to provide some of the needed bases documentation. This report contains the results of a review and reevaluation of the 1978 PNL decommissioning study of the Trojan nuclear power plant (NUREG/CR-0130), including all identifiable factors and cost assumptions which contribute significantly to the total cost of decommissioning the nuclear power plant for the DECON, SAFSTOR, and ENTOMB decommissioning alternatives. These alternatives now include an initial 5--7 year period during which time the spent fuel is stored in the spent fuel pool, prior to beginning major disassembly or extended safe storage of the plant. Included for information (but not presently part of the license termination cost) is an estimate of the cost to demolish the decontaminated and clean structures on the site and to restore the site to a ``green field`` condition. This report also includes consideration of the NRC requirement that decontamination and decommissioning activities leading to termination of the nuclear license be completed within 60 years of final reactor shutdown, consideration of packaging and disposal requirements for materials whose radionuclide concentrations exceed the limits for Class C low-level waste (i.e., Greater-Than-Class C), and reflects 1993 costs for labor, materials, transport, and disposal activities.

  5. Revised analyses of decommissioning for the reference pressurized Water Reactor Power Station. Effects of current regulatory and other considerations on the financial assurance requirements of the decommissioning rule and on estimates of occupational radiation exposure, Volume 1, Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konzek, G.J.; Smith, R.I.; Bierschbach, M.C.; McDuffie, P.N. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1995-11-01

    With the issuance of the final Decommissioning Rule (July 27, 1988), owners and operators of licensed nuclear power plants are required to prepare, and submit to the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) for review, decommissioning plans and cost estimates. The NRC staff is in need of bases documentation that will assist them in assessing the adequacy of the licensee submittals, from the viewpoint of both the planned actions, including occupational radiation exposure, and the probable costs. The purpose of this reevaluation study is to provide some of the needed bases documentation. This report contains the results of a review and reevaluation of the {prime}978 PNL decommissioning study of the Trojan nuclear power plant (NUREG/CR-0130), including all identifiable factors and cost assumptions which contribute significantly to the total cost of decommissioning the nuclear power plant for the DECON, SAFSTOR, and ENTOMB decommissioning alternatives. These alternatives now include an initial 5--7 year period during which time the spent fuel is stored in the spent fuel pool, prior to beginning major disassembly or extended safe storage of the plant. Included for information (but not presently part of the license termination cost) is an estimate of the cost to demolish the decontaminated and clean structures on the site and to restore the site to a ``green field`` condition. This report also includes consideration of the NRC requirement that decontamination and decommissioning activities leading to termination of the nuclear license be completed within 60 years of final reactor shutdown, consideration of packaging and disposal requirements for materials whose radionuclide concentrations exceed the limits for Class C low-level waste (i.e., Greater-Than-Class C), and reflects 1993 costs for labor, materials, transport, and disposal activities.

  6. Community Teaching Practice for Greater Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siao-cing Guo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Field experience has been considered a vital part of teacher education. Universities have to search for ways for student teachers to gain experience in an authentic teaching environment. Several successful models incorporating service learning have been reported across fields (Brooks & Schramm, 2007; Nandan, 2010; Salas, Safaradan, & Ugarte, 2008, but there is still insufficient research found that combined English teacher preparation and service learning (Hsieh, 2002. Consequently, this researcher incorporated service learning into an English methodology course in Taiwan to engage students in higher learning experiences that take them beyond traditional teacher training. This paper describes a four-stage process of community service teaching, presenting its benefits and challenges. This study which incorporated quantitative and qualitative methodologies proved that teaching practices in collaboration with community libraries created three-way benefits: advancing the quality of college education and bringing valuable learning opportunities to the student teachers as well as the children who participated; and creating memorable experiences for the students and the communities that participated. Keywords: service learning, teacher preparation, university partnership, higher education

  7. Radiation Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... on to any children you have after the exposure. A lot of radiation over a short period, ... skin burns and reduced organ function. If the exposure is large enough, it can cause premature aging ...

  8. Investment in body image for self-definition results in greater vulnerability to the thin media than does investment in appearance management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ip, Karen; Jarry, Josée L

    2008-03-01

    This study investigated the effect of thin images according to two dimensions of body-image (BI) investment. Ninety-five females were classified as high or low investors based on the Appearance Schemas Inventory-Revised Self-Evaluative Salience (SES) and Motivational Salience (MS) subscales. Participants viewed advertisements portraying either the thin ideal or products. Results indicated that both women high in SES and MS reported lowered appearance self-esteem but greater BI importance following thin exposures. However, only the high SES group reported greater BI dissatisfaction and importance of current-ideal discrepancies after seeing thin images. Although highly invested women (regardless of their motivation for investment) are more responsive to thin media images than are women low in investment, those invested for self-definition are affected on more dimensions than are those invested for appearance management.

  9. Narrative Exposure Therapy as a treatment for child war survivors with posttraumatic stress disorder: Two case reports and a pilot study in an African refugee settlement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neuner Frank

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Little data exists on the effectiveness of psychological interventions for children with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD that has resulted from exposure to war or conflict-related violence, especially in non-industrialized countries. We created and evaluated the efficacy of KIDNET, a child-friendly version of Narrative Exposure Therapy (NET, as a short-term treatment for children. Methods Six Somali children suffering from PTSD aged 12–17 years resident in a refugee settlement in Uganda were treated with four to six individual sessions of KIDNET by expert clinicians. Symptoms of PTSD and depression were assessed pre-treatment, post-treatment and at nine months follow-up using the CIDI Sections K and E. Results Important symptom reduction was evident immediately after treatment and treatment outcomes were sustained at the 9-month follow-up. All patients completed therapy, reported functioning gains and could be helped to reconstruct their traumatic experiences into a narrative with the use of illustrative material. Conclusions NET may be safe and effective to treat children with war related PTSD in the setting of refugee settlements in developing countries.

  10. Lifetime environmental tobacco smoke exposure and the risk of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balmes John

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS, which contains potent respiratory irritants, may lead to chronic airway inflammation and obstruction. Although ETS exposure appears to cause asthma in children and adults, its role in causing COPD has received limited attention in epidemiologic studies. Methods Using data from a population-based sample of 2,113 U.S. adults aged 55 to 75 years, we examined the association between lifetime ETS exposure and the risk of developing COPD. Participants were recruited from all 48 contiguous U.S. states by random digit dialing. Lifetime ETS exposure was ascertained by structured telephone interview. We used a standard epidemiologic approach to define COPD based on a self-reported physician diagnosis of chronic bronchitis, emphysema, or COPD. Results Higher cumulative lifetime home and work exposure were associated with a greater risk of COPD. The highest quartile of lifetime home ETS exposure was associated with a greater risk of COPD, controlling for age, sex, race, personal smoking history, educational attainment, marital status, and occupational exposure to vapors, gas, dusts, or fumes during the longest held job (OR 1.55; 95% CI 1.09 to 2.21. The highest quartile of lifetime workplace ETS exposure was also related to a greater risk of COPD (OR 1.36; 95% CI 1.002 to 1.84. The population attributable fraction was 11% for the highest quartile of home ETS exposure and 7% for work exposure. Conclusion ETS exposure may be an important cause of COPD. Consequently, public policies aimed at preventing public smoking may reduce the burden of COPD-related death and disability, both by reducing direct smoking and ETS exposure.

  11. Family and individual factors associated with substance involvement and PTS symptoms among adolescents in greater New Orleans after Hurricane Katrina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Cynthia L; La Greca, Annette M; Alexandersson, Anders

    2010-12-01

    This study examined the influence of hurricane impact as well as family and individual risk factors on posttraumatic stress (PTS) symptoms and substance involvement among clinically referred adolescents affected by Hurricane Katrina. A total of 80 adolescents (87% male; 13-17 years old; mean age = 15.6 years; 38% minorities) and their parents were interviewed at the adolescent's intake into substance abuse treatment, 16 to 46 months postdisaster. Independent measures included hurricane impact variables (initial loss/disruption and perceived life threat); demographic and predisaster variables (family income, gender, predisaster adolescent substance use, predisaster trauma exposure, and parental substance abuse); postdisaster family factors (parental psychopathology, family cohesion, and parental monitoring); and postdisaster adolescent delinquency. Hierarchical multivariate regression analyses showed that adolescent substance involvement was associated with higher family income, lower parental monitoring (adolescent report), and more adolescent delinquency. Adolescent-reported PTS symptoms were associated with greater hurricane-related initial loss/disruption, lower family cohesion (adolescent report), and more adolescent delinquency, whereas parent-reported adolescent PTS symptoms were associated with greater parental psychopathology, lower parental monitoring (adolescent report), and lower family cohesion (parent report). The results suggest that hurricane impact was related only to adolescent-reported PTS. However, certain postdisaster family and individual risk factors (low family cohesion and parental monitoring, more adolescent delinquency) were associated both with adolescent substance involvement and with PTS symptoms. Identification of these factors suggests directions for future research as well as potential target areas for screening and intervention with substance-abusing adolescents after disasters. (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved.

  12. An integrated approach to radionuclide flow in semi-natural ecosystems underlying exposure pathways to man. Final report of the LANDSCAPE project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moberg, L.; Hubbard, L.; Avila, R.; Wallberg, L. [Swedish Radiation Protection Inst., Stockholm (Sweden); Feoli, E.; Scimone, M.; Milesi, C. [Trieste Univ. (Italy); Mayes, B.; Iason, G. [Macaulay Land Use Research Inst., Aberdeen (United Kingdom); Rantavaara, A.; Vetikko, V. [Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority, Helsinki (Finland); Bergman, R.; Nylen, T. [National Defence Research Establishment, Umeaa (Sweden); Palo, T.; White, N. [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Umeaa (Sweden). Faculty of Forestry; Raitio, H.; Aro, L.; Kaunisto, S. [The Finnish Forest Research Inst., Parkano (Finland); Guillitte, O. [Faculte Univ. des Sciences Agronomiques de Gembloux (Belgium)

    1999-10-01

    The general objective of the LANDSCAPE project has been to obtain a basis for reliable assessments of the radiation exposure to man under different time scales from radionuclides in plant and animal products of representative forest ecosystems in Europe. The work has been focussed on radiocaesium, {sup 134}Cs, {sup 137}Cs. In particular, the project has included (i) to quantify some major processes which influence the radiocaesium contamination of vegetation and fungi, (ii) to quantify radiocaesium intake of key herbivores, particularly free ranging moose, relative to food availability and degree of contamination, (iii) to quantify the influence of forest management on radiocaesium dynamics, and (iv) to incorporate these processes in dynamic models. The LANDSCAPE project has been the combined effort of eight research groups from five European countries, and this report describes the results obtained during 30 months of common work.

  13. Biological effects of short-term, high-concentration exposure to methyl isocyanate. I. Study objectives and inhalation exposure design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dodd, D.E.; Frank, F.R.; Fowler, E.H.; Troup, C.M.; Milton, R.M.

    1987-06-01

    Early reports from India indicated that humans were dying within minutes to a few hours from exposure to methyl isocyanate (MIC). Attempts to explain the cause(s) of these rapid mortalities is where Union Carbide Corporation concentrated its post-Bhopal toxicologic investigations. The MIC studies involving rats and guinea pigs focused primarily on the consequences of acute pulmonary damage. All MIC inhalation exposures were acute, of short duration (mainly 15 min), and high in concentration. MIC vapors were statically generated in a double chamber exposure design. Precautionary measures taken during exposures are discussed. Guinea pigs were more susceptible than rats to MIC exposure-related early mortality. A greater than one order of magnitude difference was observed between an MIC concentration that caused no early mortality in rats (3506 ppm) and an MIC concentration that caused partial (6%) early mortality in guinea pigs (225 ppm) for exposures of 10 to 15 min duration. For both species, the most noteworthy clinical signs during exposure were lacrimation, blepharospasm, and mouth breathing. Fifteen minute LC/sub 50/ tests with 14-day postexposure follow-up were conducted, and the LC/sub 50/ (95% confidence limit) values were 171 (114-256) ppm for rats and 112 (61-204) ppm for guinea pigs. Target exposure concentrations for the toxicologic investigations of MIC-induced early mortality were established. A short summary of pertinent results of Union Carbide Corporation's post-Bhopal toxicologic investigations is presented.

  14. Exposure-response relationship of wind turbine noise with self-reported symptoms of sleep and health problems: A nationwide socioacoustic survey in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kageyama, Takayuki; Yano, Takashi; Kuwano, Sonoko; Sueoka, Shinichi; Tachibana, Hideki

    2016-01-01

    The association of wind turbine noise (WTN) with sleep and physical/mental health has not been fully investigated. To investigate the relationship of WTN with the prevalence of self-reported symptoms of sleep and health problems, a socioacoustic survey of 1079 adult residents was conducted throughout Japan (2010-2012): 747 in 34 areas surrounding wind turbine plants and 332 in 16 control areas. During face-to-face interviews, the respondents were not informed of the purpose of the survey. Questions on symptoms such as sleeplessness and physical/mental complaints were asked without specifying reasons. Insomnia was defined as having one or any combination of the following that occurs three or more times a week and bothers a respondent: Difficulty initiating sleep, difficulty maintaining sleep, premature morning awakening, and feeling of light overnight sleep. Poor health was defined as having high scores for health complaints, as determined using the Total Health Index, exceeding the criteria proposed by the authors of the index. The noise descriptor for WTN was LAeq,n outdoor, estimated from the results of actual measurement at some locations in each site. Multiple logistic analysis was applied to the LAeq,n and insomnia or poor health. The odds ratio (OR) of insomnia was significantly higher when the noise exposure level exceeded 40 dB, whereas the self-reported sensitivity to noise and visual annoyance with wind turbines were also independently associated with insomnia. OR of poor health was not significant for noise exposure, but significant for noise sensitivity and visual annoyance. The above two moderators appear to indicate the features of respondents who are sensitive to stimuli or changes in their homeostasis.

  15. Exposure-response relationship of wind turbine noise with self-reported symptoms of sleep and health problems: A nationwide socioacoustic survey in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takayuki Kageyama

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The association of wind turbine noise (WTN with sleep and physical/mental health has not been fully investigated. To investigate the relationship of WTN with the prevalence of self-reported symptoms of sleep and health problems, a socioacoustic survey of 1079 adult residents was conducted throughout Japan (2010-2012: 747 in 34 areas surrounding wind turbine plants and 332 in 16 control areas. During face-to-face interviews, the respondents were not informed of the purpose of the survey. Questions on symptoms such as sleeplessness and physical/mental complaints were asked without specifying reasons. Insomnia was defined as having one or any combination of the following that occurs three or more times a week and bothers a respondent: Difficulty initiating sleep, difficulty maintaining sleep, premature morning awakening, and feeling of light overnight sleep. Poor health was defined as having high scores for health complaints, as determined using the Total Health Index, exceeding the criteria proposed by the authors of the index. The noise descriptor for WTN was LAeq,n outdoor, estimated from the results of actual measurement at some locations in each site. Multiple logistic analysis was applied to the LAeq,n and insomnia or poor health. The odds ratio (OR of insomnia was significantly higher when the noise exposure level exceeded 40 dB, whereas the self-reported sensitivity to noise and visual annoyance with wind turbines were also independently associated with insomnia. OR of poor health was not significant for noise exposure, but significant for noise sensitivity and visual annoyance. The above two moderators appear to indicate the features of respondents who are sensitive to stimuli or changes in their homeostasis.

  16. Childhood poverty and young adults' allostatic load: the mediating role of childhood cumulative risk exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Gary W; Kim, Pilyoung

    2012-09-01

    Childhood poverty is linked to a host of physical and psychological disorders during childhood and later in life. In the study reported here, we showed that the proportion of childhood spent in poverty from birth to age 9 was linked to elevated allostatic load, a marker of chronic physiological stress, in 17-year-olds. Furthermore, this prospective longitudinal relationship was mediated by cumulative risk exposure at age 13. The greater the duration of early life spent in poverty, the greater the exposure to cumulative risk. This, in turn, leads to elevated allostatic load. Multiple psychological, biological, and neurological pathways likely account for the social patterning of psychological and physical disease.

  17. Pedestrian self-reported use of smart phones: Positive attitudes and high exposure influence intentions to cross the road while distracted.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lennon, Alexia; Oviedo-Trespalacios, Oscar; Matthews, Sarah

    2017-01-01

    Pedestrian crashes are an important issue globally as pedestrians are a highly vulnerable road user group, accounting for approximately 35% of road deaths worldwide each year. In highly motorised countries, pedestrian distraction by hand held technological devices appears to be an increasing factor in such crashes. An online survey (N=363) was conducted to 1) obtain prevalence information regarding the extent to which people cross the road while simultaneously using mobile phones for potentially distracting activities; 2) identify whether younger adult pedestrians are more exposed to/at risk of injury due to this cause than older adults; and 3) explore whether the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) might provide insight into the factors influencing the target behaviours. Self-reported frequency of using a smart phone for three levels of distraction (visual and cognitive-texting/internet; cognitive only- voice calls; audio only-listening to music) while crossing the road was collected. Results indicated that about 20% of the sample had high exposure to smart phone use while crossing, especially 18-30year olds who were significantly more likely than other age groups to report frequent exposure. TPB constructs of Attitude, Subjective Norm, and Perceived Behavioural Control significantly predicted intentions to use a smart phone while crossing the road, accounting for 62% of variance in Intentions for the entire sample, and 54% of the variance for 18-30year olds. Additional variables of Mobile Phone Involvement and Group Norms provided an additional significant 6% of the variance explained for both groups. Attitude was by far the strongest predictor for both the whole sample and for 18-30year olds, accounting for 38% and 41% explained variance, respectively. This suggests that pedestrians with positive attitudes towards using their smart phones while crossing the road have stronger intentions to do so. Moreover, high exposure was associated with stronger intentions to

  18. Seismic hazard assessment based on the Unified Scaling Law for Earthquakes: the Greater Caucasus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nekrasova, A.; Kossobokov, V. G.

    2015-12-01

    Losses from natural disasters continue to increase mainly due to poor understanding by majority of scientific community, decision makers and public, the three components of Risk, i.e., Hazard, Exposure, and Vulnerability. Contemporary Science is responsible for not coping with challenging changes of Exposures and their Vulnerability inflicted by growing population, its concentration, etc., which result in a steady increase of Losses from Natural Hazards. Scientists owe to Society for lack of knowledge, education, and communication. In fact, Contemporary Science can do a better job in disclosing Natural Hazards, assessing Risks, and delivering such knowledge in advance catastrophic events. We continue applying the general concept of seismic risk analysis in a number of seismic regions worldwide by constructing regional seismic hazard maps based on the Unified Scaling Law for Earthquakes (USLE), i.e. log N(M,L) = A - B•(M-6) + C•log L, where N(M,L) is the expected annual number of earthquakes of a certain magnitude M within an seismically prone area of linear dimension L. The parameters A, B, and C of USLE are used to estimate, first, the expected maximum magnitude in a time interval at a seismically prone cell of a uniform grid that cover the region of interest, and then the corresponding expected ground shaking parameters including macro-seismic intensity. After a rigorous testing against the available seismic evidences in the past (e.g., the historically reported macro-seismic intensity), such a seismic hazard map is used to generate maps of specific earthquake risks (e.g., those based on the density of exposed population). The methodology of seismic hazard and risks assessment based on USLE is illustrated by application to the seismic region of Greater Caucasus.

  19. USE OF EXPOSURE RELATED DOSE ESTIMATING MODEL ( ERDEM ) TO CONSTRUCT A PBPK /MODEL FOR CARBOFURAN WITH THE REPORTED EXPERIMENTAL DATA IN THE RAT

    Science.gov (United States)

    To better understand the relationships among carbofuran exposure, dose, and effects, a physiologically-based pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic (PBPK/PD) model was developed for the rat using the Exposure Related Dose Estimating Model (ERDEM) framework.

  20. PROFILE OF CHILDREN BITTEN BY DOGS, REPORTING TO A GOVERNMENT TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL AND THEIR COMPLIANCE TO POST EXPOSURE PROPHYLAXIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sridhar

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Children make up the largest percentage of people bitten by dogs, with the highest incidence in mid-to-late childhood. There is increased severity, necessity for medical treatment and death rates in children.1Dog bites not only causes wound, bleeding & pain but also transmits diseases like rabies tetanus, etc. which are fatal. The psychological trauma that a child undergoes is also immense. OBJECTIVES: To assess the socio-demographic profile, immediate treatment and compliance to immune globulin and rabies vaccination of dog bite victims aged 15 years or less. METHODOLOGY: This cross sectional study is based on records of the year 2013 in a government tertiary care teaching hospital located in south Karnataka. The descriptive statistics have been calculated using Microsoft excel software. RESULTS: Of the 5238 animal bite victims, 1773 (33.8% were aged 15 years or less and 1727 (97.4% were exposed to dogs. Significantly large proportion of victims was rural boys aged 4 to 7 years belonging to middle & lower class. Most bites were provoked and on the leg. Most reported within the same or next day of bite. Most were category III bites with only a few doing appropriate first aid measures. All took tetanus vaccination. 39% category III victims took rabies immune globulin and 60% were compliant with the rabies vaccination schedule

  1. Effect of two prednisone exposures on mood and declarative memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, E Sherwood; Beard, Laura; Frol, Alan B; Rush, A John

    2006-07-01

    Corticosteroids are essential for life and an integral part of the stress response. However, in excess, corticosteroids can be associated with a variety of effects on the brain including hippocampal atrophy and even neuronal death, mood changes, and declarative memory impairment. The magnitude of mood change in patients receiving prednisone is reportedly associated with previous lifetime corticosteroid exposure, consistent with a sensitization or kindling process whereby greater effects are observed with repeated exposure. To our knowledge, the effect of multiple corticosteroid exposures on mood and memory has not been previously examined prospectively in animals or humans. In this study, 30 human volunteers, with no history of systemic prescription corticosteroid therapy, were given (in random order using a crossover design) two 3-day exposures of prednisone (60 mg/day) and one of identical placebo, with 11-day washouts between each medication exposure. Before and after each 3-day prednisone/placebo exposure, declarative memory was assessed using different versions of the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT) to minimize practice or learning effects, while mood was assessed with the 21-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression, Young Mania Rating Scale and Internal State Scale. No significant mood changes were found. However, a significant decrease in aspects of RAVLT performance was observed after the first prednisone exposure consistent with a decline in declarative memory performance. The decline in RAVLT performance was significantly smaller after the second prednisone exposure as compared to the initial prednisone exposure. Thus, a second prednisone exposure was associated with an attenuated prednisone-effect on declarative memory. These data suggest tolerance or habituation, rather than sensitization, to prednisone effects on declarative memory during a second exposure. Implications and possible explanations for the findings are discussed.

  2. Greater Happiness for a Greater Number: Did the Promise of Enlightenment Come True?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veenhoven, Ruut

    2017-01-01

    In the eighteenth century 'Enlightened' thinkers challenged the belief that happiness exists only in Heaven. They claimed that happiness is possible in earthly life and foresaw that greater happiness would be achieved using reason. Did this promise of greater happiness come true? Several scholars doubt that we have become any happier and some claim that happiness has declined. These critical claims are tested using the time trend data available in the World Database of Happiness, which cover the period 1950-2010 and involve 1531 data points in 67 nations yielding 199 time-series ranging for 10 to more than 40 years. The analysis reveals that happiness has risen in most nations. The average yearly rise in the 67 nations was +0.012 on scale 0-10, which equals a rise of one full point every 83 years. At this rate happiness must have improved by more than two points over the past two centuries and, together with increasing longevity, this denotes an unprecedented rise in happy life years.

  3. Incidence of cleft pathology in Greater New Orleans before and after Hurricane Katrina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goenjian, Haig A; Chiu, Ernest S; Alexander, Mary Ellen; St Hilaire, Hugo; Moses, Michael

    2011-11-01

    Reports after the 2005 Hurricane Katrina have documented an increase in stress reactions and environmental teratogens (arsenic, mold, alcohol). To assess the incidence of cleft pathology before and after the hurricane, and the distribution of cleft cases by gender and race. Retrospective chart review of cleft lip with or without cleft palate (CL/P) and cleft palate (CP) cases registered with the Cleft and Craniofacial Team at Children's Hospital of New Orleans, the surgical center that treated cleft cases in Greater New Orleans between 2004 and 2007. Live birth data were obtained from the Louisiana State Center for Health Statistics. The incidence of cleft cases, beginning 9 months after the hurricane (i.e., June 1, 2006) was significantly higher compared with the period before the hurricane (0.80 versus 1.42; p = .008). Within racial group comparisons showed a higher incidence among African Americans versus whites (0.42 versus 1.22; p = .01). The distribution of CL/P and CP cases by gender was significant (p = .05). The increase in the incidence of cleft cases after the hurricane may be attributable to increased stress and teratogenic factors associated with the hurricane. The increase among African Americans may have been due to comparatively higher exposure to environmental risk factors. These findings warrant further investigation to replicate the results elsewhere in the Gulf to determine whether there is a causal relationship between environmental risk factors and increased cleft pathology.

  4. Solitary fibrous tumor of the greater omentum mimicking an ovarian tumor in a young woman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabet Rodriguez Tarrega

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of solitary fibrous tumor (SFT of greater omentum in a young woman. SFT arising from the greater omentum can mimic a gynecologic neoplasm. SFTs are generally benign but some of them are malignant and have uncertain prognosis. An adequate follow-up is essential in these patients.

  5. Occupational radiation exposure in Germany in 2012. Report of the radiation protection register; Die berufliche Strahlenexposition in Deutschland 2012. Bericht des Strahlenschutzregisters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frasch, Gerhard; Kammerer, Lothar; Karofsky, Ralf; Mordek, Else; Schlosser, Andrea; Spiesl, Josef

    2014-04-15

    In Germany, persons who are occupationally exposed to ionising radiation are monitored by several official dosimetry services that transmit the dose records about individual radiation monitoring to the Radiation Protection Register of the Federal Office for Radiation Protection (BfS). The purpose of the Radiation Protection Register is to supervise the keeping of the dose limits and to monitor the compliance with the radiation protection principle ''Optimisation'' by performing detailed annual statistical analyses of the monitored persons and their radiation exposure. The annual report of the Radiation Protection Register provides information about status and development of occupational radiation exposure in Germany. In 2012, about 350,000 workers were monitored with dosemeters for occupational radiation exposure. The number increased continuously by totally 10 % into the past five years. 19 % of the monitored persons received measurable personal doses. The average annual dose of these exposed workers was 0.52 mSv corresponding to 2.6 % of the annual dose limit of 20 mSv for radiation workers. In total, 2 persons exceeded the annual dose limit of 20 mSv, i.e. less than one case per 100,000 monitored persons. The collective dose of the monitored persons decreased to 27.9 Person-Sv, the lowest value since the last fifty years of occupational dose monitoring. 45 airlines calculated the route doses of 40,000 aircraft crew members by using certified computer programmes for dose calculation and sent the accumulated monthly doses via the Federal Office for Civil Aviation (''Luftfahrt-Bundesamt, LBA'') to the BfS. The collective dose of the aircraft crew personnel is 78.5 person- Sv, and thus significantly higher than the total collective dose of the workers monitored with personal dosemeters. The annual average dose of aircraft crew personnel was 1.96 mSv and decreased compared to 2011 (2.12 mSv) due to solar cycle. In 2012, about

  6. Occupational radiation exposure in Germany in 2013-2014. Report of the radiation protection register; Die berufliche Strahlenexposition in Deutschland 2013-2014. Bericht des Strahlenschutzregisters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frasch, Gerhard; Kammerer, Lothar; Karofsky, Ralf; Mordek, Else; Schlosser, Andrea; Spiesl, Josef

    2015-10-15

    In Germany, persons who are occupationally exposed to ionising radiation are monitored by several official dosimetry services that transmit the dose records about individual radiation monitoring to the Radiation Protection Register of the Federal Office for Radiation Protection (BfS). The purpose of the Radiation Protection Register is to supervise the keeping of the dose limits and to monitor the compliance with the radiation protection principle ''Optimisation'' by performing detailed annual statistical analyses of the monitored persons and their radiation exposure. The annual report of the Radiation Protection Register provides information about status and development of occupational radiation exposure in Germany. In 2014, about 358,000 workers were monitored with dosemeters for occupational radiation exposure. The number increased continuously by totally 5 % into the past five years. 15 % of the monitored persons received measurable personal doses. The average annual dose of these exposed workers was 0.50 mSv corresponding to less than 3 % of the annual dose limit of 20 mSv for radiation workers. In total, two persons exceeded the annual dose limit of 20 mSv, i.e. less than one case per 100,000 monitored persons. The collective dose of the monitored persons decreased to 26.0 Person-Sv, the lowest value since the last fifty years of occupational dose monitoring. 45 airlines calculated the route doses of 39,500 aircraft crew members by using certified computer pro-grammes for dose calculation and sent the accumulated monthly doses via the Federal Office for Civil Aviation (''Luftfahrt-Bundesamt, LBA'') to the BfS. The collective dose of the aircraft crew personnel is 74.8 person-Sv, and thus significantly higher than the total collective dose of the workers monitored with personal dosemeters. The annual average dose of aircraft crew personnel was 1.89 mSv in 2014. In 2014, about 58,500 outside-workers were in possession of

  7. Risks for the development of outcomes related to occupational allergies: an application of the asthma-specific job exposure matrix compared with self-reports and investigator scores on job-training-related exposure.

    OpenAIRE

    Suarthana, E.; Heederik, D.J.J.; Ghezzo, H.; Malo, J. L.; Kennedy, S M; Gautrin, D

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIM: Risks for development of occupational sensitisation, bronchial hyper-responsiveness, rhinoconjunctival and chest symptoms at work associated with continued exposure to high molecular weight (HMW) allergens were estimated with three exposure assessment methods. METHODS: A Cox regression analysis with adjustment for atopy and smoking habit was carried out in 408 apprentices in animal health technology, pastry making, and dental hygiene technology with an 8-year follow-up aft...

  8. Linking Sleep to Hypertension: Greater Risk for Blacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Pandey

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Evidence suggests that insufficient sleep duration is associated with an increased likelihood for hypertension. Both short (8 hour sleep durations as well as hypertension are more prevalent among blacks than among whites. This study examined associations between sleep duration and hypertension, considering differential effects of race and ethnicity among black and white Americans. Methods. Data came from a cross-sectional household interview with 25,352 Americans (age range: 18–85 years. Results. Both white and black short sleepers had a greater likelihood of reporting hypertension than those who reported sleeping 6 to 8 hours. Unadjusted logistic regression analysis exploring the race/ethnicity interactions between insufficient sleep and hypertension indicated that black short (8 hours sleepers were more likely to report hypertension than their white counterparts (OR = 1.34 and 1.37, resp.; P<0.01. Significant interactions of insufficient sleep with race/ethnicity were observed even after adjusting to effects of age, sex, income, education, body mass index, alcohol use, smoking, emotional distress, diabetes, coronary heart disease, and stroke. Conclusion. Results suggest that the race/ethnicity interaction is a significant mediator in the relationship between insufficient sleep and likelihood of having a diagnosis of hypertension.

  9. Greater Sandhill Crane colt survival on the Ruby Lake National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report details Greater Sandhill Crane colt survival at Ruby lake NWR during the time period from 1984 to 2006. Management recommendations are suggested to...

  10. Chronic effects of JP-8 jet-fuel exposure on the lungs. Annual report, 1 Apr 91-1 Apr 92

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Witten, M.L.

    1992-04-23

    This research has resulted in four separate projects. The first was the exposure of Fischer 344 rats to JP-8 jet fuel for 7 or 28 days. This exposure resulted in changes in pulmonary function and lung chemical mediators, specifically Substance P, after 28 days of exposure. The second project dealt with blocking the increase in SP in these rats by a pretreatment regimen with capsaicin before jet fuel exposure. Capsaicin caused a further increase in lung permeability and a million-fold increase in airway sensitivity to histamine after the 7-day jet fuel exposure. The third project dealt with the effects of a 7-day jet fuel exposure in congenic mice who are deficient in the inducibility of the aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase enzyme. These mice are relatively resistant to the effects of jet fuel-induced lung injury. The fourth project investigated the effects of the jet fuel exposure on secondary organs, specifically the liver, spleen, and kidneys. There were pathological differences in the liver, spleen, and kidneys between the 7-day jet fuel exposure group and baseline controls. However, some of these differences were not apparent in the 28-day exposure group, possibly indicating compensatory mechanisms to the exposure.

  11. Mold exposure and health effects following hurricanes Katrina and Rita.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbeau, Deborah N; Grimsley, L Faye; White, LuAnn E; El-Dahr, Jane M; Lichtveld, Maureen

    2010-01-01

    The extensive flooding in the aftermath of Hurricanes Katrina and Rita created conditions ideal for indoor mold growth, raising concerns about the possible adverse health effects associated with indoor mold exposure. Studies evaluating the levels of indoor and outdoor molds in the months following the hurricanes found high levels of mold growth. Homes with greater flood damage, especially those with >3 feet of indoor flooding, demonstrated higher levels of mold growth compared with homes with little or no flooding. Water intrusion due to roof damage was also associated with mold growth. However, no increase in the occurrence of adverse health outcomes has been observed in published reports to date. This article considers reasons why studies of mold exposure after the hurricane do not show a greater health impact.

  12. Correlation of chromosome patterns in human leukemic cells with exposure to chemicals and/or radiation. Comprehensive progress report, July 1991--June 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rowley, J.D.

    1994-06-01

    This comprehensive progress report provides a synopsis of major research accomplishments during the years of 1991-1994, including the technical aspects of the project. The objectives and accomplishments are as follows: 1. Defining the chromosome segments associated with radiation and chemically-induced leukemogenesis (treatment-related acute myeloid leukemia, t-AML); A. Continued genetic analysis of chromosomes 5 and 7, B. Correlation of treatment with balanced and unbalanced translocations. 2. Cloning the breakpoints in balanced translocations in t-AML; A. Clone the t(9;11) and t(11;19) breakpoints, B. Clone the t(3,21)(q26,q22) breakpoint, C. Determine the relationship of these translocations to prior exposure to topoisomerase II inhibitors. 3. Compare the breakpoint junctions in patients who have the same translocations in t-AML and AML de novo. 4. Map the scaffold attachment regions in the genes that are involved in balanced translocations in t-AML. Plans for the continuation of present objectives and possible new objectives in consideration of past results are also provided.

  13. Tracing a Path to the Past: Exploring the Use of Commercial Credit Reporting Data to Construct Residential Histories for Epidemiologic Studies of Environmental Exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurley, Susan; Hertz, Andrew; Nelson, David O; Layefsky, Michael; Von Behren, Julie; Bernstein, Leslie; Deapen, Dennis; Reynolds, Peggy

    2017-02-01

    Large-scale environmental epidemiologic studies often rely on exposure estimates based on linkage to residential addresses. This approach, however, is limited by the lack of residential histories typically available for study participants. Our objective was to evaluate the feasibility of using address data from LexisNexis (a division of RELX, Inc., Dayton, Ohio), a commercially available credit reporting company, to construct residential histories for participants in the California Teachers Study (CTS), a prospective cohort study initiated in 1995-1996 to study breast cancer (n = 133,479). We evaluated the degree to which LexisNexis could provide retrospective addresses prior to study enrollment, as well as the concordance with existing prospective CTS addresses ascertained at the time of the completion of 4 self-administered questionnaires. For approximately 80% of CTS participants, LexisNexis provided at least 1 retrospective address, including nearly 25,000 addresses completely encompassed by time periods prior to enrollment. This approach more than doubled the proportion of the study population for whom we had an address of residence during the childbearing years-an important window of susceptibility for breast cancer risk. While overall concordance between the prospective addresses contained in these 2 data sources was good (85%), it was diminished among black women and women under the age of 40 years. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health.

  14. A meta-analysis on the relationship between self-reported presence and anxiety in virtual reality exposure therapy for anxiety disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Yun; Nefs, Harold T; Morina, Nexhmedin; Heynderickx, Ingrid; Brinkman, Willem-Paul

    2014-01-01

    In virtual reality exposure therapy (VRET) for anxiety disorders, sense of presence in the virtual environment is considered the principal mechanism that enables anxiety to be felt. Existing studies on the relation between sense of presence and level of anxiety, however, have yielded mixed results on the correlation between the two. In this meta-analysis, we reviewed publications on VRET for anxiety that included self-reported presence and anxiety. The comprehensive search of the literature identified 33 publications with a total of 1196 participants. The correlation between self-reported sense of presence and anxiety was extracted and meta-analyzed. Potential moderators such as technology characteristics, sample characteristics including age, gender and clinical status, disorder characteristics and study design characteristics such as measurements were also examined. The random effects analysis showed a medium effect size for the correlation between sense of presence and anxiety (r = .28; 95% CI: 0.18-0.38). Moderation analyses revealed that the effect size of the correlation differed across different anxiety disorders, with a large effect size for fear of animals (r = .50; 95% CI: 0.30-0.66) and a no to small effect size for social anxiety disorder (r = .001; 95% CI: -0.19-0.19). Further, the correlation between anxiety and presence was stronger in studies with participants who met criteria for an anxiety disorder than in studies with a non-clinical population. Trackers with six degrees of freedom and displays with a larger field of view resulted in higher effect sizes, compared to trackers with three degrees of freedom and displays with a smaller field of view. In addition, no difference in effect size was found for the type of presence measurement and the type of anxiety measurement. This meta-analysis confirms the positive relation between sense of presence and anxiety and demonstrates that this relation can be affected by various moderating factors.

  15. A meta-analysis on the relationship between self-reported presence and anxiety in virtual reality exposure therapy for anxiety disorders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Ling

    Full Text Available In virtual reality exposure therapy (VRET for anxiety disorders, sense of presence in the virtual environment is considered the principal mechanism that enables anxiety to be felt. Existing studies on the relation between sense of presence and level of anxiety, however, have yielded mixed results on the correlation between the two. In this meta-analysis, we reviewed publications on VRET for anxiety that included self-reported presence and anxiety. The comprehensive search of the literature identified 33 publications with a total of 1196 participants. The correlation between self-reported sense of presence and anxiety was extracted and meta-analyzed. Potential moderators such as technology characteristics, sample characteristics including age, gender and clinical status, disorder characteristics and study design characteristics such as measurements were also examined. The random effects analysis showed a medium effect size for the correlation between sense of presence and anxiety (r = .28; 95% CI: 0.18-0.38. Moderation analyses revealed that the effect size of the correlation differed across different anxiety disorders, with a large effect size for fear of animals (r = .50; 95% CI: 0.30-0.66 and a no to small effect size for social anxiety disorder (r = .001; 95% CI: -0.19-0.19. Further, the correlation between anxiety and presence was stronger in studies with participants who met criteria for an anxiety disorder than in studies with a non-clinical population. Trackers with six degrees of freedom and displays with a larger field of view resulted in higher effect sizes, compared to trackers with three degrees of freedom and displays with a smaller field of view. In addition, no difference in effect size was found for the type of presence measurement and the type of anxiety measurement. This meta-analysis confirms the positive relation between sense of presence and anxiety and demonstrates that this relation can be affected by various moderating

  16. Factors Contributing to Background Television Exposure in Low-Income Mexican-American Preschoolers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Darcy A; Tschann, Jeanne M

    2016-09-01

    Objective Background television (TV) exposure is harmful to young children, yet few studies have focused on predictors of exposure. This study's objectives were to elucidate demographic, environmental, and behavioral correlates of background TV exposure in low-income Mexican-American preschoolers and to explore caregiver beliefs about the impact of such exposure. Methods A convenience sample of low-income Mexican-American female primary caregivers of preschoolers (3-5 years old, n = 309), recruited in safety-net clinics, were surveyed by phone. Caregivers reported the frequency of their child's exposure to background TV and responded to questions on the home media environment, TV use, and whether they had thought about background TV exposure and its impact on their child. Results Background TV exposure was common; 43 % reported that their child was often, very often, or always exposed to background TV. More hours of TV viewing by the caregiver and greater frequency of TV viewing during meals were associated with an increased frequency of exposure to background TV. Only 49 % of participants had ever thought about the impact of background TV. Believing that background TV is not harmful was associated with higher levels of background TV exposure. Conclusions Findings suggest that background TV exposure is frequent and caregiver awareness of its potential impact is low in low-income Mexican-American families. Beliefs that background TV is not harmful may predict risk of exposure. Potential targets for interventions focused on reducing background TV exposure in this population include increasing caregiver awareness of the potential negative impact of such TV exposure.

  17. Myiasis in Dogs in the Greater Accra Region of Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Sherry A M; Gakuya, Daniel W; Mbuthia, Paul G; Mande, John D; Afakye, Kofi; Maingi, Ndichu

    2016-01-01

    Myiasis is the infestation of tissues of live vertebrate animals and humans with dipterous larvae. In sub-Saharan Africa, Cordylobia anthropohaga and Cordylobia rodhaini are known to be responsible for cutaneous myiasis in animals and humans. Human cases of myiasis, purportedly acquired in Ghana but diagnosed in other countries, have been reported; however, published data on its occurrence in animals in Ghana is unavailable. This study assessed the prevalence of canine myiasis among owned dogs in the Greater Accra region (GAR) of Ghana. A cross-sectional study was conducted in the Greater Accra region of Ghana, selected for being the region with the highest estimated population density of owned dogs. Physical examination and demographic characteristics of the study dogs were assessed. Management of the dogs was assessed through a questionnaire administered to the dog owners. A total of 392 owned dogs were sampled. Twenty-nine (7.4%) had cutaneous myiasis caused by C. rodhaini. In addition, one (0.2%) of the dogs had intestinal myiasis, with Dermatobia hominis as the offending larvae. Among the breeds of dogs with myiasis, the mongrel was most affected, with 24 (82.8%) out of the 29 cases. The mongrels, majority of which (24; 82.8%) were males, were left to roam freely in the community. Results from this study demonstrate that C. rodhaini and D. hominis are important causes of myiasis in owned dogs in the GAR of Ghana. Dogs could play a role in the spread of myiasis to humans, with its attendant public health implications.

  18. Enzootic reticuloendotheliosis in the endangered Attwater's and greater prairie chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavala, Guillermo; Cheng, Sunny; Barbosa, Taylor; Haefele, Holly

    2006-12-01

    Reticuloendotheliosis (RE) in captive greater prairie chickens (GPC, Tympanuchus cupido pinnatus) and Attwater's prairie chickens (APC, Tympanuchus cupido attwateri) was first reported in 1998. RE is caused by avian reticuloendotheliosis virus (REV), an oncogenic and immunosuppressive retrovirus infecting multiple species of wild and domestic birds. During August 2004 through May 2006 a captive population of prairie chickens was affected simultaneously with a neoplastic condition and also avian pox, the latter being detected in 7.4% (2 of 27) of all birds submitted for histopathology. A survey for REV was conducted in order to examine its possible role in mortality observed primarily in juvenile and adult specimens of prairie chickens. The investigative procedures included postmortem examinations, histopathology, molecular detection, and virus isolation. In total, 57 Attwater's prairie chickens and two greater prairie chickens were included in the study. REV infection was diagnosed using virus isolation or polymerase chain reaction (PCR) or both in 59.5% (28 of 47) of blood samples and/or tumors from suspect birds. Lymphosarcomas were detected in the tissues of 37% (10 of 27) of the birds submitted for histopathology. Such lymphosarcomas suggestive of RE represented the most frequent morphologic diagnosis on histopathology among 27 separate submissions of naturally dead prairie chickens. Overall, REV was detected or RE diagnosed in 34 of 59 prairie chickens (57.62%). The average death age of all birds diagnosed with lymphosarcomas on histopathology was 2.2 yr, ranging from birds of undetermined gender). Reticuloendotheliosis virus was confirmed as a significant cause of mortality in captive prairie chickens.

  19. Guidance on Compatibility of UST Systems with Ethanol Blends Greater Than 10 Percent and Biodiesel Blends Greater Than 20 Percent

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA guidance on complying with the federal compatibility requirement for underground storage tank (UST) systems storing gasoline containing greater than 10 percent ethanol or diesel containing greater than 20 percent biodiesel.

  20. How reproducible is self-reported information on exposure to smoking, drinking, and dietary patterns? Evidence among Brazilian adults in the Pró-Saúde Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dóra Chor

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Epidemiological studies of the validity and reliability of self-reported information on important risk factors for non-communicable chronic diseases are scarce in Brazil. OBJECTIVE: We evaluated the test-retest reliability of information overall and stratified by gender, age and education on active and passive smoking, alcohol intake and aspects of dietary habits. TYPE OF STUDY: Test-retest reliability. SETTING: Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. PARTICIPANTS: 192 University employees. PROCEDURES: Self-administered questionnaires were completed on two occasions, two weeks apart. MAIN MEASUREMENTS: Kappa Statistics; Intraclass Correlation Coefficient. RESULTS: Information on smoking status and pack-years smoked had almost perfect levels of agreement, respectively, kappa = 0.97 (95% CI, 0.92-1.00, and intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.93 (CI 95%, 0.89-0.96. Characteristics of alcohol intake yielded substantial levels of agreement (kappa ranging from 0.62 to 0.69. The reproducibility of the information on dietary habits varied from 0.67 to 0.79 (kappa. No clear-cut patterns could be identified comparing information by age or gender. There was a slight tendency towards greater reliability among people with higher levels of education. CONCLUSION: The reproducibility of information on smoking, drinking, and dietary patterns ranged from substantial to excellent, as investigated in the Pró-Saúde Study, a longitudinal investigation recently launched in Rio de Janeiro.

  1. Gestational exposure to maternal obesity decreases mitochondrial SIRT3 and components of oxidative phosphorylation in offspring liver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exposure to maternal overweight (OW) during development influences the risk of obesity in adult-life. We reported that by postnatal day (PND) 120 male offspring from OW rat dams have greater body weight and fat mass (p<0.005), and develop insulin resistance when fed high-fat diets (HFD, 45% fat). OW...

  2. Socio-demographic Correlates of Self-reported Exposure to E-Cigarette Communications and its Association with Public Support for Smoke-Free and Vape-Free Policies: Results From a National Survey of U.S. Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Andy SL; Bigman, Cabral A.; Sanders-Jackson, Ashley

    2014-01-01

    Background Exposure to e-cigarette communications (e.g., advertisements, news and entertainment media, and interpersonal discussion) may influence support for smoke-free or vape-free policies. This study examined the socio-demographic correlates of self-reported exposure to e-cigarette communications and their relationships with support for restricting vaping and smoking in public venues. Method Online survey data was collected from a representative sample of U.S. adults (n=1,449) between October and December 2013 (mean age=50 years, 51% female, 8% African-American, 10% Hispanic, 6% other races) and weighted to match the U.S. adult population. We fitted multiple regression models, adjusting for demographic variables, to examine associations between support for policies to restrict vaping and smoking in public venues and self-reported frequency of exposure to e-cigarette communications in the preceding month. We fitted separate models to assess associations between policy support and frequency of exposures weighted by whether each category of e-cigarette communications was perceived as positive or negative. Results Higher self-reported exposure to advertising (B=-.022, p=.006), other media (B=-.022, p=.043), and interpersonal discussion (B=-.071, pExposure to e-cigarette communications was associated with lower support for smoking restrictions in bivariate analyses but was not significant after adjusting for covariates. Conclusion Further research is needed to assess whether messages portraying e-cigarettes as a way to circumvent smoking restrictions from advertisements and other media are influencing public support for vape-free policies. These findings provide empirical evidence to inform the policy debate over regulating specific e-cigarette advertising claims. PMID:25015372

  3. Sociodemographic correlates of self-reported exposure to e-cigarette communications and its association with public support for smoke-free and vape-free policies: results from a national survey of US adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Andy S L; Bigman, Cabral A; Sanders-Jackson, Ashley

    2015-11-01

    Exposure to e-cigarette communications (eg, advertisements, news and entertainment media, and interpersonal discussion) may influence support for smoke-free or vape-free policies. This study examined the sociodemographic correlates of self-reported exposure to e-cigarette communications and their relationships with support for restricting vaping and smoking in public venues. Online survey data was collected from a representative sample of US adults (n=1449) between October and December 2013 (mean age=50 years, 51% female, 8% African-American, 10% Hispanic, 6% other races) and weighted to match the US adult population. We fitted multiple regression models, adjusting for demographic variables, to examine associations between support for policies to restrict vaping and smoking in public venues and self-reported frequency of exposure to e-cigarette communications in the preceding month. We fitted separate models to assess associations between policy support and frequency of exposures weighted by whether each category of e-cigarette communications was perceived as positive or negative. Higher self-reported exposure to advertising (B=-0.022, p=0.006), other media (B=-0.022, p=0.043) and interpersonal discussion (B=-0.071, pExposure to e-cigarette communications was associated with lower support for smoking restrictions in bivariate analyses but was not significant after adjusting for covariates. Further research is needed to assess whether messages portraying e-cigarettes as a way to circumvent smoking restrictions from advertisements and other media are influencing public support for vape-free policies. These findings provide empirical evidence to inform the policy debate over regulating specific e-cigarette advertising claims. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  4. Exposure to Violence and Children's Desensitization Attitudes in Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarabah, Asma; Badr, Lina Kurdahi; Usta, Jinan; Doyle, John

    2016-11-01

    Children exposed to multiple sources of violence may become desensitized, increasing the possibility of them imitating the aggressive behaviors they watch and considering such behavior as normal. The purpose of this article is to assess the association between exposure to various types of violence (including war) and desensitization in Lebanese children. A cross-sectional design with 207 school-aged children assessed exposure to violence using three surveys: (a) violence in the media (the Media Preference survey), (b) exposure to violence (the KID-SAVE survey), and (c) desensitization attitudes (the Attitude Toward Violence-Child Version). Children were between 8 and 12 years old, 56% were males, and 70%were from middle socioeconomic status (SES) backgrounds. Seventy-six percent of children reported being exposed to violence, with more exposure in males and in the lower SES group. Impact, however, was greater on girls. The predictors of attitude toward violence were "Frequency" of exposure, "Impact" of exposure, and the amount of violence viewed on television. Children are massively exposed to violence in Lebanon resulting in desensitization, which may habituate them to accept violence as normal and put them at risk for imitating violent behaviors. © The Author(s) 2015.

  5. Greater Phoenix Forward: Sustaining and Enhancing the Human-Services Infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison Institute for Public Policy, Arizona State University, 2008

    2008-01-01

    This report provides descriptive data for understanding the status of human services in Greater Phoenix, describes provocative issues that certain populations and providers face, and offers a starting point for determining Maricopa Valley's aspirations for tomorrow's human-services infrastructure. This report describes an array of populations that…

  6. Giant solitary fibrous tumor arising from greater omentum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liang Zong; Ping Chen; Guang-Yao Wang; Qun-Shan Zhu

    2012-01-01

    Extrathoracic solitary fibrous tumors (SFTs) have been described at almost every anatomic location of human body,but reports of SFT in the abdominal cavity are rare.We herein present a rare case of SFT originating from greater omentum.Computed tomography revealed a 15.8 cm x 21.0 cm solid mass located at superior aspect of stomach.Open laparotomy confirmed its mesenchymal origin.Microscopically,its tissue was composed of non-organized and spindle-shaped cells exhibiting atypical nuclei,which were divided up by branching vessel and collagen bundles.Immunohistochemical staining showed that this tumor was negative for CD117,CD99,CD68,cytokeratin,calretinin,desmin,epithelial membrane antigen,F8 and S-100,but positive for CD34,bcl-2,α-smooth muscle actin and vimentin.The patient presented no evidence of recurrence during follow-up.SFT arising from abdominal cavity can be diagnosed by histological findings and immunohistochemical markers,especially for CD34 and bcl-2 positive cases.

  7. Evaluation and management of greater trochanter pain syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulligan, Edward P; Middleton, Emily F; Brunette, Meredith

    2015-08-01

    Greater trochanteric pain syndrome is an enigmatic but common cause of lateral hip symptoms in middle-aged active women. The most common manifestation of this syndrome is a degenerative tendinopathy of the hip abductors similar to the intrinsic changes seen with rotator cuff pathology in the shoulder. There are no definitive tests to isolate the underlying pathology and palpation is a non-specific means by which to differentiate the source of the pain generator. The physical examination must comprehensively evaluate for a cluster of potential impairments and contributing factors that will need to be addressed to effectively manage the likely functional limitations and activity challenges the syndrome presents to the patient. Compressive forces through increased tension in the iliotibial band should be avoided. Intervention strategies should include education regarding postural avoidance, activity modifications, improvement of lumbopelvic control, and a patient approach to resolving hip joint restrictions and restoring the tensile capabilities of the deep rotators and abductors of the hip. A number of reliable and validated hip-specific self-report outcome tools are available to baseline a patient's status and monitor their progress. Further investigations to identify the epidemiological risk factors, establish effective treatment strategies, and predict prognosis are warranted.

  8. Assessing hazardous risks of human exposure to temple airborne polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Kuo-Chih; Chio, Chia-Pin; Chiang, Yu-Hui; Liao, Chung-Min

    2009-07-30

    We proposed an integrated probabilistic risk assessment framework based on reported data to quantify human health risks of temple goers/workers to airborne polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from incense burning in typical Taiwanese temples. The framework probabilistically integrates exposure, human respiratory tract, and incremental lifetime cancer risk (ILCR) models to quantitatively estimate size-dependent PAHs exposure in human lung regions and cancer risks for temple goers (moderate and high exposures) and temple workers (extreme exposure). Our results show that the ILCRs are greater than the acceptable level of 10(-6) for extreme and high exposure groups through inhalation route. The result also indicates that the higher ILCRs (10(-6) to 10(-4)) are found in ingestion and dermal contact routes for temple goers/workers. For personal extreme exposure to carcinogenic PAH in the temple, 95% probability total ILCR (TILCR) (9.87 x 10(-4) to 1.13 x 10(-3)) is much greater than the range of 10(-6) to 10(-4), indicating high potential health risk to temple workers. For temple goers with high and moderate exposure groups, however, the 95% probability TILCRs were estimated from 6.44 x 10(-5) to 7.50 x 10(-5) and 5.75 x 10(-6) to 6.99 x 10(-6), respectively. This study successfully offers a scientific basis for risk analysis due to incense burning to enhance broad risk management strategies for temple indoor air quality.

  9. Heart disease attributed to occupational noise, vibration and other co-exposure: Self-reported population-based survey among Bulgarian workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angel M. Dzhambov

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cardiovascular disease (CVD is the main mortality cause worldwide. Noise and vibration are considered to be occupational risk factors, but little is known about their cardiovascular effects in Bulgaria in terms of gender and various professional groups. The aim of this study has been to investigate the risk of prevalent CVD, associated with occupational noise and vibration exposure. Material and Methods: We conducted a secondary analysis of the data from 3 waves of the European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS 2001–2010 – a nationally-representative cross-sectional questionnaire survey covering 3149 workers aged ≥ 15 years in Bulgaria. Data on self-reported heart disease were linked to self-reported occupational noise and vibration, adjusting for other factors. Results from the 3 waves were pooled together using the inverse variance heterogeneity (IVhet meta-analysis. Results: For noise, the risk was elevated among women (relative risk (RR = 1.26, 95% confidence interval (CI: 0.53–3.01, but not men (RR = 0.49, 95% CI: 0.14–1.65. Long-term workers had RR = 1.01, 95% CI: 0.60–1.69. For vibration, the risk was increased in all participants. It was higher among men (RR = 2.56, 95% CI: 1.60–4.09 than it was among women (RR = 1.32, 95% CI: 0.77–2.27. Among long-term, industrial, and service workers it was RR = 1.56, 95% CI: 1.02–2.40; RR = 1.10, 95% CI: 0.61–1.98, and RR = 1.18, 95% CI: 0.57–2.46, respectively. Conclusions: Occupational vibration was a risk factor for prevalent heart disease in Bulgaria. Noise was an alleged risk factor only among long-term workers and women. Med Pr 2016;67(4:435–445

  10. Modeling Cadmium Exposures in Low- and High-Exposure Areas in Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Satarug, Soisungwan; Swaddiwudhipong, Witaya; Ruangyuttikarn, Werawan; Nishijo, Muneko; Ruiz, Patricia

    2013-01-01

    Background: Previous U.S. population modeling studies have reported that urinary cadmium (Cd) excretion patterns differ with age, sex, and dietary exposure; associations between Cd exposures and health outcomes also have differed by age and sex. Therefore, it is important to test models used to estimate Cd exposures across an expanded Cd-exposure range. Objectives: We estimated relative Cd exposures from both diet and smoking in low- and high-exposure scenarios to provide data for improving r...

  11. Actual and perceived exposure to electromagnetic fields and non-specific physical symptoms: an epidemiological study based on self-reported data and electronic medical records.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baliatsas, C.; Bolte, J.; Yzermans, J.; Kelfkens, G.; Hooiveld, M.; Lebret, E.; Kamp, I. van

    2015-01-01

    Background: There is continuing scientific debate and increasing public concern regarding the possible effects of electromagnetic fields (EMF) on general population's health. To date, no epidemiological study has investigated the possible association between actual and perceived EMF exposure and non

  12. New applications of biological monitoring for environmental exposure and susceptibility monitoring. Report of the 7th International Symposium on Biological Monitoring in Occupational and Environmental Health.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheepers, P.T.J.; Heussen, G.A.

    2008-01-01

    Validated biological monitoring methods are used in large-scale monitoring programmes involving determination of ubiquitous environmental pollutants such as metals and pesticides. Some programmes focus on children's exposure, and policies to prevent adverse health effects. Most of these initiatives

  13. New applications of biological monitoring for environmental exposure and susceptibility monitoring. Report of the 7th International Symposium on Biological Monitoring in Occupational and Environmental Health.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheepers, P.T.J.; Heussen, G.A.

    2008-01-01

    Validated biological monitoring methods are used in large-scale monitoring programmes involving determination of ubiquitous environmental pollutants such as metals and pesticides. Some programmes focus on children's exposure, and policies to prevent adverse health effects. Most of these initiatives

  14. Actual and perceived exposure to electromagnetic fields and non-specific physical symptoms: an epidemiological study based on self-reported data and electronic medical records

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baliatsas, Christos; Bolte, John; Yzermans, Joris; Kelfkens, Gert; Hooiveld, Mariette; Lebret, Erik; van Kamp, Irene

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There is continuing scientific debate and increasing public concern regarding the possible effects of electromagnetic fields (EMF) on general population's health. To date, no epidemiological study has investigated the possible association between actual and perceived EMF exposure and non

  15. Industry-wide studies report of an industrial-hygiene survey of Riverside Manor Nursing and Rehabilitation Center, Newcomerstown, Ohio. [Ethylene oxide exposures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ringenburg, V.L.; Molina, D.; Elliott, L.J.

    1986-08-01

    Occupational exposure of workers to ethylene oxide (EtO) was examined. Two of six side-by-side short-term personal breathing-zone (BZ) exposure levels, determined while the sterilizer operator unloaded the EtO sterilizer unit, exceeded NIOSH recommended short term levels of 5 parts per million (ppm) for any 10-minute period per workday. Three of 12 personal BZ exposure levels exceeded the NIOSH recommended standard of less than 0.1ppm for an 8-hour time-weighted average. Measurable levels of EtO, ranging from 0.18 to 14.5ppm were detected in the storage room where the EtO sterilized items were aerated. The authors conclude that EtO exposure potential at the nursing and rehabilitation center could be reduced by improving administrative controls, work practices, and engineering controls. Recommended improvements were given.

  16. Are passive smoking, air pollution and obesity a greater mortality risk than major radiation incidents?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith Jim T

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Following a nuclear incident, the communication and perception of radiation risk becomes a (perhaps the major public health issue. In response to such incidents it is therefore crucial to communicate radiation health risks in the context of other more common environmental and lifestyle risk factors. This study compares the risk of mortality from past radiation exposures (to people who survived the Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bombs and those exposed after the Chernobyl accident with risks arising from air pollution, obesity and passive and active smoking. Methods A comparative assessment of mortality risks from ionising radiation was carried out by estimating radiation risks for realistic exposure scenarios and assessing those risks in comparison with risks from air pollution, obesity and passive and active smoking. Results The mortality risk to populations exposed to radiation from the Chernobyl accident may be no higher than that for other more common risk factors such as air pollution or passive smoking. Radiation exposures experienced by the most exposed group of survivors of Hiroshima and Nagasaki led to an average loss of life expectancy significantly lower than that caused by severe obesity or active smoking. Conclusion Population-averaged risks from exposures following major radiation incidents are clearly significant, but may be no greater than those from other much more common environmental and lifestyle factors. This comparative analysis, whilst highlighting inevitable uncertainties in risk quantification and comparison, helps place the potential consequences of radiation exposures in the context of other public health risks.

  17. Diets of greater prairie chickens on the Sheyenne National Grasslands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark A. Rumble; Jay A. Newell; John E. Toepfer

    1988-01-01

    Diets of greater prairie chickens on the Sheyenne National Grassland of North Dakota were examined. During the winter months agricultural crops (primarily corn) were the predominant food items. Green vegetation was consumed in greater quantities as spring progressed. Dandelion flowers and alfalfa/sweetclover were the major vegetative food items through the summer. Both...

  18. Strategies for Talent Management: Greater Philadelphia Companies in Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Council for Adult and Experiential Learning (NJ1), 2008

    2008-01-01

    Human capital is one of the critical issues that impacts the Greater Philadelphia region's ability to grow and prosper. The CEO Council for Growth (CEO Council) is committed to ensuring a steady and talented supply of quality workers for this region. "Strategies for Talent Management: Greater Philadelphia Companies in Action" provides…

  19. 5 CFR 630.1210 - Greater leave entitlements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Greater leave entitlements. 630.1210 Section 630.1210 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS ABSENCE AND LEAVE Family and Medical Leave § 630.1210 Greater leave entitlements. (a) An agency shall...

  20. Work safety among Polish health care workers in respect of exposure to bloodborne pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin Rybacki

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Viral hepatitis is the second most often identified infectious illness acquired at work and it is mostly registered among health care personnel. This group of workers is at greater risk of exposure to blood and bloodborne pathogens, including hepatitis B and C viruses. The aims of this study were to evaluate the efficacy of methods promoting work safety in healthcare settings, to assess the frequency of exposures in the last 12 months prior to the study and to determine a rate of reporting them to appropriate authorities. Methods: A total of 1138 Polish healthcare workers were interviewed during the study period (between 2009 and 2010. Results: Sustaining accidental occupational percutaneous exposure during last 12 months was declared by 242 workers (21% of the whole group. Only in 146 cases these incidents were reported to authorities. Exposure incidents were associated with self-perception of high risk of exposure (OR = 3.69, p = 0.0027, employment in out-patient (vs. hospital-based healthcare setting (OR = 1.71, p = 0.0089, conviction that the level of information about bloodborne infections conveyed at work was insufficient, lack of both exposure reporting system and knowledge about the ways of reporting. Conclusions: Despite the different established proposals of the post-exposure procedures, it turns out that particularly in small, not providing 24 hours service healthcare settings these procedures are not known or are not respected. More attention should be given to education, especially in regard to the risk of infection, advantages of post-exposure prophylaxis and reporting exposure incidents. Med Pr 2013;64(1:1–10

  1. Quantification of Health Effects Related to SO{sub 2}, NO{sub 2}, O{sub 3} and Particulate Matter Exposure. Report from the Nordic Expert Meeting Oslo, 15-17 October, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clench-Aas, J.; Krzyzanowski, M. [eds.

    1996-12-31

    The Nordic Council of Ministers founded a workshop of European and Nordic experts to assess the current literature and develop dose-response functions for the criteria air quality indicators of SO{sub 2}, NO{sub 2}, O{sub 3} and particulate matter. This is the report from the workshop held in Oslo on October 15-17, 1995. Estimates of exposure-response relationships are needed to assess the health impact of environmental factors. Based on available research evidence, the relationships for the common air pollutants - particulate matter, sulphur dioxide, ozone and nitrogen dioxide - were reviewed. The Meeting concluded by quantifying exposure-response relationships for particulate matter, SO{sub 2} and ozone; the relationship for NO{sub 2} was not quantified. The Meeting also identified other exposure-response relationships considered to be substantiated, but for which the available data did not provide sufficient background to quantify the risk. The reported concentration-response associations relate to short-term changes in risk due to changes in levels of pollutants. For chronic effects of prolonged exposures the data were judged to be insufficient for quantification. 211 refs., 3 figs., 7 tabs.

  2. Biological characterization of radiation exposure and dose estimates for inhaled uranium milling effluents. Annual progress report April 1, 1982-March 31, 1983

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eidson, A.F.

    1984-05-01

    The problems addressed are the protection of uranium mill workers from occupational exposure to uranium through routine bioassay programs and the assessment of accidental worker exposures. Comparisons of chemical properties and the biological behavior of refined uranium ore (yellowcake) are made to identify important properties that influence uranium distribution patterns among organs. These studies will facilitate calculations of organ doses for specific exposures and associated health risk estimates and will identify important bioassay procedures to improve evaluations of human exposures. A quantitative analytical method for yellowcake was developed based on the infrared absorption of ammonium diuranate and U/sub 3/O/sub 8/ mixtures in KBr. The method was applied to yellowcake samples obtained from six operating mills. The composition of yellowcake from the six mills ranged from nearly pure ammonium diuranate to nearly pure U/sub 3/O/sub 8/. The composition of yellowcake samples taken from lots from the same mill was only somewhat less variable. Because uranium mill workers might be exposed to yellowcake either by contamination of a wound or by inhalation, a study of retention and translocation of uranium after subcutaneous implantation in rats was done. The results showed that 49% of the implanted yellowcake cleared from the body with a half-time (T sub 1/2) in the body of 0.3 days, and the remainder was cleared with a T sub 1/2 of 11 to 30 days. Exposures of Beagle dogs by nose-only inhalation to aerosols of commercial yellowcake were completed. Biochemical indicators of kidney dysfunction that appeared in blood and urine 4 to 8 days after exposure to the more soluble yellowcake showed significant changes in dogs, but levels returned to normal by 16 days after exposure. No biochemical evidence of kidney dysfunction was observed in dogs exposed to the less soluble yellowcake form. 18 figures, 9 tables.

  3. CRADA with Teledyne Electronic Technologies and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNL-096): The Exposure-to-Risk monitoring system. Final letter report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thrall, K.D.

    1996-10-01

    The purpose of this project was to demonstrate the ``Exposure-to- Risk`` monitoring system in an actual occupational environment. The system is a unique combination of existing hardware with proprietary software to create an integrated means of assessing occupational exposures to volatile organic compounds. One component of this system utilizes a portable mass spectrometer developed by Teledyne Electronic Technologies. Integration of the system was accomplished under Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) funding. Commercialization of the system will take place following demonstration in an actual occupational environment, and will include, in part, Teledyne Electronic Technologies. The Exposure-to-Risk monitoring system will benefit DOE by overcoming present-day limitations in worker health protection monitoring. There are numerous sites within the` DOE complex where many different hazardous chemicals are used on a routine basis. These chemicals range from paint stripers and cleaning solvents to chemical warfare agents, each having its own degree of potential adverse health risk to a worker. Thus, a real concern for DOE is to ensure that a worker is properly monitored to assess any adverse health risk from exposure to potentially hazardous chemicals. With current industrial hygiene technologies, this is an arduous task. The Exposure-to-Risk monitoring system integrates a patented breath-inlet device connecting a subject`s exhaled breath directly with a field-portable mass spectrometer with physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modeling to estimate the target tissue dose following a chemical exposure. Estimation of the adverse health risk prediction follows from the exposure/dose calculation based on currently accepted methodologies. This new system can determine, in the field, the possible adverse health risks on a daily basis to an individual worker.

  4. Interspecific nest parasitism by chukar on greater sage-grouse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fearon, Michelle L.; Coates, Peter S.

    2014-01-01

    Nest parasitism occurs when a female bird lays eggs in the nest of another and the host incubates the eggs and may provide some form of parental care for the offspring (Lyon and Eadie 1991). Precocial birds (e.g., Galliformes and Anseriformes) are typically facultative nest parasites of both their own and other species (Lyon and Eadie 1991). This behavior increases a female’s reproductive success when she parasitizes other nests while simultaneously raising her own offspring. Both interspecific and conspecific nest parasitism have been well documented in several families of the order Galliformes, particularly the Phasianidae (Lyon and Eadie 1991, Geffen and Yom-Tov 2001, Krakauer and Kimball 2009). The Chukar (Alectoris chukar) has been widely introduced as a game bird to western North America from Eurasia and is now well established within the Great Basin from northeastern California east to Utah and north to Idaho and Oregon (Christensen 1996). Over much of this range the Chukar occurs with other phasianids, including the native Greater Sage-Grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus), within sagebrush (Artemisia spp.) steppe (Christensen 1996, Schroeder et al. 1999, Connelly et al. 2000). Chukar typically exploit a broader range of habitats than do sage-grouse, but both species use the same species of sagebrush and other shrubs for nesting cover (Christensen 1996, Schroeder et al. 1999). Chukar are known to parasitize nests of other individuals of their own species (Geffen and Yom-Tov 2001), but we are unaware of reported evidence that Chukar may parasitize nests of sage-grouse. Here we describe a case of a Chukar parasitizing a sage-grouse nest in the sagebrush steppe of western Nevada.

  5. Influence of Delhi Pollution on Aerosol Properties Over Greater Noida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, M.; Singh, R. P.; Kumar, R.

    2015-12-01

    Influence of Delhi Pollution on Aerosol Properties over Greater NoidaManish Sharma1, Ramesh P. Singh2 and Rajesh Kumar3 1Research and Technology Development Centre, Sharda University, Greater Noida, India. 2School of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Schmid College of Science, Chapman University, Orange 92866, USA 3School of Basic Sciences and Research, Sharda University, Greater Noida, India. Delhi capital of India is highly polluted during winter and summer seasons. Due to dominant westerly winds the air mass influence its neighboring city Greater Noida which is located 60 km south east of Delhi. Detailed analysis of multi satellite data and ground observations have been carried out during 2001-2015. The ground observation and satellite data show dynamic aerosol optical parameters over Greater Noida. During winter and summer seasons, dominant westerly wind outflow pollutants of Delhi that mix with the local anthropogenic emissions of Greater Noida influencing aerosol properties at different pressure levels. The characteristics of trace gases and aerosol parameters over Delhi and Greater Noida will be presented. The air quality is severely affected from the outflow of pollutants from Delhi which is threat to people living in the area. Due to dominant winds the air mass further transported towards eastern parts of Indo-Gangetic plains affecting weather conditions of the major cities.

  6. Hard metal exposures. Part 2: Prospective exposure assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simcox, N J; Stebbins, A; Guffey, S; Atallah, R; Hibbard, R; Camp, J

    2000-04-01

    Hard metal exposures may precipitate lung disease in exposed workers. This article reports on a project investigating the relationship between local exhaust hood air flow levels and workplace hard metal exposures. Airborne cobalt, chromium, and cadmium exposure concentrations, and ventilation system function were monitored for three consecutive days prior to installation of three new ventilation systems, and then were followed monthly for one year. Work activities included wet and dry grinding of saw blades, brazing, welding, and setup. Work task exposures were highly variable over the period of the study. Ventilation air flows failed to meet design goals due to low total air volume and poor distribution; however, worker exposures to metals were controlled in most cases. Hood design, worker acceptance, and use of the hoods were as important in controlling exposures as were exhaust hood air flow levels.

  7. Sunlight exposure and photoprotection behaviour of white Caucasian adolescents in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, M; Farrar, M D; Kift, R; Berry, J L; Mughal, M Z; Bundy, C; Vail, A; Webb, A R; Rhodes, L E

    2015-04-01

    Sun exposure has positive and negative effects on health, yet little is known about the sun exposure behaviour of UK adolescents, including those more prone or less prone to sunburn. To examine sun exposure behaviour of UK white Caucasian adolescents including time spent outdoors, holiday behaviour, use of sunscreen and clothing, with assessment for differences between sun-reactive skin type groups. White Caucasian adolescents (12-15 years) attending schools in Greater Manchester completed a two-page questionnaire to assess sun exposure and photoprotective behaviour. A total of 133 adolescents (median age 13.4 years; 39% skin type I/II, 61% skin type III/IV) completed the questionnaire. In summer, adolescents spent significantly longer outdoors at weekends (median 4 h/day, range 0.25-10) than on weekdays (2, 0.25-6; P exposure behaviour/protection between males and females. The greater sun-protective measures reported by adolescents of sun-reactive skin type group I/II than III/IV suggest those who burn more easily are aware of the greater need to protect their skin. However, use of sunscreen during the UK summer is low and may need more effective promotion in adolescents. © 2014 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  8. IFPA Meeting 2012 Workshop Report II: epigenetics and imprinting in the placenta, growth factors and villous trophoblast differentiation, role of the placenta in regulating fetal exposure to xenobiotics during pregnancy, infection and the placenta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, M S; Aleksunes, L M; Boeuf, P; Chung, M K; Daoud, G; Desoye, G; Díaz, P; Golos, T G; Illsley, N P; Kikuchi, K; Komatsu, R; Lao, T; Morales-Prieto, D M; Nanovskaya, T; Nobuzane, T; Roberts, C T; Saffery, R; Tamura, I; Tamura, K; Than, N G; Tomi, M; Umbers, A; Wang, B; Weedon-Fekjaer, M S; Yamada, S; Yamazaki, K; Yoshie, M; Lash, G E

    2013-03-01

    Workshops are an important part of the IFPA annual meeting as they allow for discussion of specialized topics. At IFPA meeting 2012 there were twelve themed workshops, four of which are summarized in this report. These workshops related to various aspects of placental biology: 1) epigenetics and imprinting in the placenta; 2) growth factors and villous trophoblast differentiation; 3) role of the placenta in regulating fetal exposure to xenobiotics during pregnancy; 4) infection and the placenta.

  9. DOE 2008 occupational radiation exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2009-10-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Corporate Safety Analysis (HS-30) within the Office of Health, Safety and Security (HSS) publishes the annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report to provide an overview of the status of radiation protection practices at DOE. The DOE 2008 Occupational Radiation Exposure Report provides an evaluation of DOE-wide performance regarding compliance with DOE Part 835 dose limits and as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) process requirements. In addition, the report provides data to DOE organizations responsible for developing policies for protection of individuals from the effects of radiation. This report provides a summary and an analysis of occupational radiation exposure information from the monitoring of individuals involved in DOE activities. The occupational radiation exposure information is analyzed in terms of aggregate data, dose to individuals, and dose by site over the past 5 years.

  10. DOE 2009 occupational radiation exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2010-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Corporate Safety Analysis (HS-30) within the Office of Health, Safety and Security (HSS) publishes the annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report to provide an overview of the status of radiation protection practices at DOE.* The DOE 2009 Occupational Radiation Exposure Report provides an evaluation of DOE-wide performance regarding compliance with DOE Part 835 dose limits and as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) process requirements. In addition, the report provides data to DOE organizations responsible for developing policies for protection of individuals from the effects of radiation. The report provides a summary and an analysis of occupational radiation exposure information from the monitoring of individuals involved in DOE activities. The occupational radiation exposure information is analyzed in terms of aggregate data, dose to individuals, and dose by site over the past 5 years.

  11. DOE 2012 occupational radiation exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2013-10-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Analysis within the Office of Health, Safety and Security (HSS) publishes the annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report to provide an overview of the status of radiation protection practices at DOE (including the National Nuclear Security Administration [NNSA]). The DOE 2012 Occupational Radiation Exposure Report provides an evaluation of DOE-wide performance regarding compliance with Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations (C.F.R.), Part 835, Occupational Radiation Protection dose limits and as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) process requirements. In addition, the report provides data to DOE organizations responsible for developing policies for protection of individuals from the adverse health effects of radiation. The report provides a summary and an analysis of occupational radiation exposure information from the monitoring of individuals involved in DOE activities. Over the past 5-year period, the occupational radiation exposure information is analyzed in terms of aggregate data, dose to individuals, and dose by site.

  12. DOE 2011 occupational radiation exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2012-12-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Analysis within the Office of Health, Safety and Security (HSS) publishes the annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report to provide an overview of the status of radiation protection practices at DOE (including the National Nuclear Security Administration [NNSA]). The DOE 2011 Occupational Radiation Exposure Report provides an evaluation of DOE-wide performance regarding compliance with Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations (C.F.R.), Part 835, Occupational Radiation Protection dose limits and as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) process requirements. In addition, the report provides data to DOE organizations responsible for developing policies for protection of individuals from the adverse health effects of radiation. The report provides a summary and an analysis of occupational radiation exposure information from the monitoring of individuals involved in DOE activities. The occupational radiation exposure information is analyzed in terms of aggregate data, dose to individuals, and dose by site over the past five years.

  13. DOE 2010 occupational radiation exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2011-11-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Analysis within the Office of Health, Safety and Security (HSS) publishes the annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report to provide an overview of the status of radiation protection practices at DOE.* The DOE 2010 Occupational Radiation Exposure Report provides an evaluation of DOE-wide performance regarding compliance with DOE Part 835 dose limits and as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) process requirements. In addition, the report provides data to DOE organizations responsible for developing policies for protection of individuals from the effects of radiation. The report provides a summary and an analysis of occupational radiation exposure information from the monitoring of individuals involved in DOE activities. The occupational radiation exposure information is analyzed in terms of aggregate data, dose to individuals, and dose by site over the past 5 years.

  14. Calculations of internal and external radiation exposure based on voxel models. Final report; Berechnungen der internen und externen Strahlenexposition auf Grundlage von Voxel-Modellen. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zankl, M. [Helmholtz Zentrum Muenchen - Deutsches Forschungszentrum fuer Gesundheit und Umwelt, Muenchen (Germany). Inst fuer Strahlenschutz; Becker, J.; Petoussi-Henss, N.; Schlattl, H.

    2012-02-15

    Dose estimations of internal and external radiation exposure were based so far on mathematical phantoms with rather simple geometrical descriptions of the human body and teh organs. Recently the mathematical phantoms are replaced by more realistic voxel models that allow a more realistic dose estimation for professional radiation exposed personnel, individuals and patients. The projects is aimed to calculate organ doses for exposure to environmental radiation, organ doses for patients during computed tomography and to develop a voxel model for pregnant (24th week of pregnancy) woman for the estimation of radiation doses for the unborn child.

  15. Part 1. Biologic responses in rats and mice to subchronic inhalation of diesel exhaust from U.S. 2007-compliant engines: report on 1-, 3-, and 12-month exposures in the ACES bioassay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcdonald, Jacob D; Doyle-Eisele, Melanie; Gigliotti, Andrew; Miller, Rodney A; Seilkop, Steve; Mauderly, Joe L; Seagrave, JeanClare; Chow, Judith; Zielinska, Barbara

    2012-09-01

    The Health Effects Institute and its partners conceived and funded a program to characterize the emissions from heavy-duty diesel engines compliant with the 2007 and 2010 on-road emissions standards in the United States and to evaluate indicators of lung toxicity in rats and mice exposed repeatedly to diesel exhaust (DE*) from 2007-compliant engines. The preliminary hypothesis of this Advanced Collaborative Emissions Study (ACES) was that 2007-compliant on-road diesel emissions ". . . will not cause an increase in tumor formation or substantial toxic effects in rats and mice at the highest concentration of exhaust that can be used . . . although some biological effects may occur." This hypothesis is being tested at the Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute (LRRI) by exposing rats by chronic inhalation as a carcinogenicity bioassay, measuring indicators of pulmonary toxicity in rats after 1, 3, 12, and 24-30 months of exposure (final time point depends on the survival of animals), and measuring similar indicators of pulmonary toxicity in mice after 1 and 3 months of exposure. This report provides results of exposures through 3 months in rats and mice. Emissions from a 2007-compliant, 500-horsepower-class engine and aftertreatment system operated on a variable-duty cycle were used to generate the animal inhalation test atmospheres. Four treatment groups were exposed to one of three concentrations (dilutions) of exhaust combined with crankcase emissions, or to clean air as a negative control. Dilutions of exhaust were set to yield average integrated concentrations of 4.2, 0.8, and 0.1 ppm nitrogen dioxide (NO2). Exposure atmospheres were analyzed by daily measurements of key components and periodic detailed physical-chemical characterizations. Exposures were conducted 16 hr/dy (overnight), 5 dy/wk. Rats were evaluated for hematology, serum chemistry, bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL), lung cell proliferation, and histopathology after 1 month of exposure, and the same

  16. Surgical Treatment of Displaced Greater Tuberosity Fractures of the Humerus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouleau, Dominique M; Mutch, Jennifer; Laflamme, Georges-Yves

    2016-01-01

    Greater tuberosity fractures of the humerus can be successfully treated nonsurgically in most patients. However, as little as 3 to 5 mm of superior greater tuberosity displacement may adversely affect rotator cuff biomechanics and lead to subacromial impingement in patients who are active. In these cases, surgical treatment is recommended. Multiple surgical techniques include open and arthroscopic options tailored to fracture morphology, and strategies for repair include the use of suture anchors, transosseous sutures, tension bands, and plates/screws. Three classification systems are commonly used to describe greater tuberosity fractures: the AO, Neer, and morphologic classifications. Several hypotheses have been discussed for the mechanism of greater tuberosity fractures and the deforming forces of the rotator cuff, and the use of advanced imaging is being explored.

  17. Management plan for Midcontinent greater white-fronted geese

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this plan is to provide guidelines for management decisions affecting the Midcontinent Population of Greater White-fronted Geese (Anser albifrons...

  18. Greater Sage-grouse Telemetry - Mono Co. [ds68

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — Combined telemetry locations for sage grouse in Mono County which were fitted with radio-transmitters for the USGS Greater sage-grouse project. Contains spatial and...

  19. THE GREATER CENTRAL ASIA PROJECT: PRESENT STATE AND EVOLUTION

    OpenAIRE

    Tulepbergenova, Gulsana

    2009-01-01

    The Greater Central Asia (GCA) project initiated in 2005 confirmed that the United States treated the region as a foreign policy and security priority. The project was primarily promoted by the changed balance of forces in favor of Russia and partly China, which called for an adequate strategic and geopolitical response. At the same time, the Greater Central Asia idea can be viewed as a conceptual and ideological substantiation of what the United States is trying to accomplish in the region. ...

  20. Sources of greater fetal vulnerability to airborne polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons among African Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hyunok; Perera, Frederica P

    2012-02-01

    This study attempted to clarify the household and mother's lifestyle factors that contribute to the greater fetal vulnerability of African-American individuals to airborne polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). Non-smoking pregnant women with no known risks of adverse birth outcome were monitored for their personal exposure to airborne PAH. Birth outcomes were collected from the hospital medical record. Modification of the airborne PAH effects was statistically examined. In linear regression analyses, modification of PAH effect by demographic, socioeconomic and behavioural traits on birth weight and fetal growth ratio were respectively tested, adjusting for the gestational age, gender, parity, delivery season, maternal body mass index and weight gained during the present pregnancy. Maternal obesity exacerbated the airborne PAH risk by -491 g per 25th to 80th percentile unit exposure (95% CI -197 to -786 g; pfood items posed an independent risk on the reduced birth weight among African Americans.

  1. Exposures series

    OpenAIRE

    Stimson, Blake

    2011-01-01

    Reaktion Books’ Exposures series, edited by Peter Hamilton and Mark Haworth-Booth, is comprised of 13 volumes and counting, each less than 200 pages with 80 high-quality illustrations in color and black and white. Currently available titles include Photography and Australia, Photography and Spirit, Photography and Cinema, Photography and Literature, Photography and Flight, Photography and Egypt, Photography and Science, Photography and Africa, Photography and Italy, Photography and the USA, P...

  2. Lead exposures and biological responses in military weapons systems: Aerosol characteristics and acute lead effects among US Army artillerymen: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhattacharyya, M.H.; Stebbings, J.H.; Peterson, D.P.; Johnson, S.A.; Kumar, R.; Goun, B.D.; Janssen, I.; Trier, J.E.

    1993-03-01

    This study was to determine the concentration and chemical nature of lead (Pb) aerosols produced during the firing of artillery and to determine the exposures and biological responses of crew members exposed to lead aerosols during such firing. The concentrations of lead-containing aerosols at crew positions depended on wind conditions, with higher concentrations when firing into a head wind. Aerosol concentrations were highest in the muzzle blast zone. Concentrations of lead in the blood of crew members rose during the first 12 days of exposure to elevated airborne lead concentrations and then leveled off. There was no rapid decrease in blood lead concentrations after completion of firing. Small decreases in hematocrit and small increases in free erythrocyte porphyrin were correlated with increasing exposure to airborne lead. These changes were reversed by seven weeks after firing. Changes in nerve conduction velocity had borderline statistical significance to airborne lead exposure. In measuring nerve conduction velocity, differences in skin temperature must be taken into account.

  3. A meta-analysis on the relationship between self-reported presence and anxiety in virtual reality exposure therapy for anxiety disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ling, Y.; Nefs, H.T.; Morina, N.; Heynderickx, I.; Brinkman, W.P.

    2014-01-01

    In virtual reality exposure therapy (VRET) for anxiety disorders, sense of presence in the virtual environment is considered the principal mechanism that enables anxiety to be felt. Existing studies on the relation between sense of presence and level of anxiety, however, have yielded mixed results o

  4. A Meta-Analysis on the Relationship between Self-Reported Presence and Anxiety in Virtual Reality Exposure Therapy for Anxiety Disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ling, Y.; Nefs, H.T.; Nexhmedin, M.; Heynderickx, I.; Brinkman, W.P.

    2014-01-01

    In virtual reality exposure therapy (VRET) for anxiety disorders, sense of presence in the virtual environment is considered the principal mechanism that enables anxiety to be felt. Existing studies on the relation between sense of presence and level of anxiety, however, have yielded mixed results o

  5. Associations between Blocking, Monitoring, and Filtering Software on the Home Computer and Youth-Reported Unwanted Exposure to Sexual Material Online

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ybarra, Michele L.; Finkelhor, David; Mitchell, Kimberly J.; Wolak, Janis

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To examine the relationship between the use of preventive software on the home computer and unwanted exposure to sexual material online. Methods: The Youth Internet Safety Survey-2 was a national, RDD telephone survey conducted in March-June 2005. Eight hundred households (one caregiver and one child between the ages of 10 and 17 years)…

  6. Occupational exposure of healthcare and research staff to static magnetic stray fields from 1.5-7 Tesla MRI scanners is associated with reporting of transient symptoms.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaap, Kristel; Christopher-de Vries, Yvette; Mason, Catherine K; de Vocht, Frank; Portengen, Lützen; Kromhout, Hans

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Limited data is available about incidence of acute transient symptoms associated with occupational exposure to static magnetic stray fields from MRI scanners. We aimed to assess the incidence of these symptoms among healthcare and research staff working with MRI scanners, and their assoc

  7. Review of the Institute of Medicine Report: Long-term Health Consequences of Exposure to Burn Pits in Iraq and Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    lupus, and rheumatoid arthritis . Continued follow-up of these cohorts will provide information regarding de- ployment related exposures in addition to...study evaluated birth outcomes in in- fants whose mothers and fathers had been exposed be- fore and during pregnancy , chronic multisystem illness

  8. Associations between Blocking, Monitoring, and Filtering Software on the Home Computer and Youth-Reported Unwanted Exposure to Sexual Material Online

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ybarra, Michele L.; Finkelhor, David; Mitchell, Kimberly J.; Wolak, Janis

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To examine the relationship between the use of preventive software on the home computer and unwanted exposure to sexual material online. Methods: The Youth Internet Safety Survey-2 was a national, RDD telephone survey conducted in March-June 2005. Eight hundred households (one caregiver and one child between the ages of 10 and 17 years)…

  9. The effect of exposure misclassification in spontaneous ADR reports on the time to detection of product-specific risks for biologicals : A simulation study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeer, Niels S.; Ebbers, Hans C.; Straus, Sabine M J M; Leufkens, Hubert G M; Egberts, Toine C G; De Bruin, Marie L.

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objective: The availability of accurate product-specific exposure information is essential in the pharmacovigilance of biologicals, because differences in the safety profile may emerge between products containing the same active substance. In spontaneous adverse drug reaction (ADR) re

  10. Lead exposures and biological responses in military weapons systems: Aerosol characteristics and acute lead effects among US Army artillerymen: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhattacharyya, M.H.; Stebbings, J.H.; Peterson, D.P.; Johnson, S.A.; Kumar, R.; Goun, B.D.; Janssen, I.; Trier, J.E.

    1993-03-01

    This study was to determine the concentration and chemical nature of lead (Pb) aerosols produced during the firing of artillery and to determine the exposures and biological responses of crew members exposed to lead aerosols during such firing. The concentrations of lead-containing aerosols at crew positions depended on wind conditions, with higher concentrations when firing into a head wind. Aerosol concentrations were highest in the muzzle blast zone. Concentrations of lead in the blood of crew members rose during the first 12 days of exposure to elevated airborne lead concentrations and then leveled off. There was no rapid decrease in blood lead concentrations after completion of firing. Small decreases in hematocrit and small increases in free erythrocyte porphyrin were correlated with increasing exposure to airborne lead. These changes were reversed by seven weeks after firing. Changes in nerve conduction velocity had borderline statistical significance to airborne lead exposure. In measuring nerve conduction velocity, differences in skin temperature must be taken into account.

  11. Targeting clinician concerns about exposure therapy: A pilot study comparing standard vs. enhanced training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, Nicholas R; Kemp, Joshua J; Blakey, Shannon M; Meyer, Johanna M; Deacon, Brett J

    2016-10-01

    Owing to concerns about the safety and tolerability of exposure therapy, many clinicians deliver the treatment in an overly cautious manner, which may limit its effectiveness. Although didactic training in exposure reduces clinician concerns about the treatment to a moderate extent, improved training strategies are needed to minimize these concerns and improve exposure delivery. The present study compared the effectiveness of a standard (i.e., didactic) exposure therapy training model to an "enhanced" training paradigm encompassing strategies derived from social-cognitive theory on attitude change. Clinicians (N = 49) were assigned to one of the two training approaches. Relative to standard training, clinicians who received enhanced training showed: (a) significantly greater reductions in concerns about exposure from pre- to post-training, and (b) superior self-reported delivery of the treatment. Reduction in concerns during training mediated the effects of training condition on clinicians' self-reported exposure delivery. These findings underscore the importance of addressing clinician concerns about exposure therapy in training contexts. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Glucocorticoids enhance in vivo exposure-based therapy of spider phobia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soravia, Leila M; Heinrichs, Markus; Winzeler, Livia; Fisler, Melanie; Schmitt, Wolfgang; Horn, Helge; Dierks, Thomas; Strik, Werner; Hofmann, Stefan G; de Quervain, Dominique J-F

    2014-05-01

    Preclinical and clinical studies indicate that the administration of glucocorticoids may promote fear extinction processes. In particular, it has been shown that glucocorticoids enhance virtual reality based exposure therapy of fear of heights. Here, we investigate whether glucocorticoids enhance the outcome of in vivo exposure-based group therapy of spider phobia. In a double blind, block-randomized, placebo-controlled, between-subject study design, 22 patients with specific phobia of spiders were treated with two sessions of in vivo exposure-based group therapy. Cortisol (20 mg) or placebo was orally administered 1 hr before each therapy session. Patients returned for a follow-up assessment one month after therapy. Exposure-based group therapy led to a significant decrease in phobic symptoms as assessed with the Fear of Spiders Questionnaire (FSQ) from pretreatment to immediate posttreatment and to follow-up. The administration of cortisol to exposure therapy resulted in increased salivary cortisol concentrations and a significantly greater reduction in fear of spiders (FSQ) as compared to placebo at follow-up, but not immediately posttreatment. Furthermore, cortisol-treated patients reported significantly less anxiety during standardized exposure to living spiders at follow-up than placebo-treated subjects. Notably, groups did not differ in phobia-unrelated state-anxiety before and after the exposure sessions and at follow-up. These findings indicate that adding cortisol to in vivo exposure-based group therapy of spider phobia enhances treatment outcome. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. CONSEXPO 3.0, consumer exposure and uptake models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veen MP van; LBM

    2001-01-01

    The report provides a modelling approach to consumer exposure to chemicals, based on mathematical contact, exposure and uptake models. For each route of exposure, a number of exposure and uptake models are included. A general framework joins the exposure and uptake models selected by the user. By c

  14. Security considerations in blinded exposure experiments using electromagnetic waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Christian

    2008-12-01

    Whether exposure to electromagnetic fields well below accepted exposure limits has a cytogenetic effect on human cells has long been debated. It is widely published and generally accepted that the exposure unit invariably used in these experiments is capable of providing blinded exposure conditions. The following short report illustrates, however, that exposure conditions might not always be as effectively masked as is generally assumed.

  15. Greater tibial bone strength in male tennis players than controls in the absence of greater muscle output

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Ireland

    2015-07-01

    Conclusion: Results suggest that sports with quick turning movements are highly osteogenic, even in the absence of greater muscular output. This may be related to the large torsional stresses produced during turning movements.

  16. Data requirements of GREAT-ER: Modelling and validation using LAS in four UK catchments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price, Oliver R., E-mail: oliver.price@unilever.co [Safety and Environmental Assurance Centre, Unilever, Colworth Science Park, Sharnbrook, Bedfordshire MK44 1LQ (United Kingdom); Munday, Dawn K. [Safety and Environmental Assurance Centre, Unilever, Colworth Science Park, Sharnbrook, Bedfordshire MK44 1LQ (United Kingdom); Whelan, Mick J. [Department of Natural Resources, School of Applied Sciences, Cranfield University, College Road, Cranfield, Bedfordshire MK43 0AL (United Kingdom); Holt, Martin S. [ECETOC, Ave van Nieuwenhuyse 4, Box 6, B-1160 Brussels (Belgium); Fox, Katharine K. [85 Park Road West, Birkenhead, Merseyside CH43 8SQ (United Kingdom); Morris, Gerard [Environment Agency, Phoenix House, Global Avenue, Leeds LS11 8PG (United Kingdom); Young, Andrew R. [Wallingford HydroSolutions Ltd, Maclean building, Crowmarsh Gifford, Wallingford, Oxon OX10 8BB (United Kingdom)

    2009-10-15

    Higher-tier environmental risk assessments on 'down-the-drain' chemicals in river networks can be conducted using models such as GREAT-ER (Geography-referenced Regional Exposure Assessment Tool for European Rivers). It is important these models are evaluated and their sensitivities to input variables understood. This study had two primary objectives: evaluate GREAT-ER model performance, comparing simulated modelled predictions for LAS (linear alkylbenzene sulphonate) with measured concentrations, for four rivers in the UK, and investigate model sensitivity to input variables. We demonstrate that the GREAT-ER model is very sensitive to variability in river discharges. However it is insensitive to the form of distributions used to describe chemical usage and removal rate in sewage treatment plants (STPs). It is concluded that more effort should be directed towards improving empirical estimates of effluent load and reducing uncertainty associated with usage and removal rates in STPs. Simulations could be improved by incorporating the effect of river depth on dissipation rates. - Validation of GREAT-ER.

  17. Opportunistic Screening for Exposure to Bullying in the Pediatric Emergency Department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seltzer, Marlene; Menoch, Margaret; Chen, Charity

    2017-01-01

    To assess opportunistic screening for exposure to bullying in the pediatric emergency department (ED), an anonymous survey inquiring about exposure to physical, verbal, social, and cyber bullying behaviors was given to ED patients 5 to 18 years old. The survey asked about being the recipient, perpetrator, and/or witness of bullying; the frequency of exposure; liking school; missing school; and presenting complaint. Either the child or parent could complete the survey. A total of 909 surveys were analyzed. Exposure was 78.7%. A greater proportion of females reported being victims and witnesses. Youth who reported being both victims and witnesses represented the largest group, with witness-only the second largest. Parents reported less cyber-bullying and witness status to all types of bullying. For children who did not like school, there was a significant difference in exposure versus nonexposure. There was no association with presenting complaint. Opportunistic screening for bullying exposure in pediatric ED patients warrants consideration as it may increase detection of preclinical status and clinical sequelae.

  18. Environmental Impacts of Wind Power Development on the Population Biology of Greater Prairie-Chickens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandercock, Brett K. [Kansas State Univ., Manhattan, KS (United States)

    2013-05-22

    This report summarizes the results of a seven-year, DOE-funded research project, conducted by researchers from Kansas State University and the National Wind Coordinating Collaborative, to assess the effects of wind energy development in Kansas on the population and reproduction of greater prairie chickens.

  19. The protective role of general self-determination against 'thin ideal' media exposure on women's body image and eating-related concerns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mask, Lisa; Blanchard, Céline M

    2011-04-01

    Women's responses to 'thin ideal' media pending their level of general self-determination (GSD) were examined. High and low GSD women (N = 99) viewed a 'thin physique salient' (TPS) video or a 'thin physique non-salient' (TPNS) video. Following exposure to the TPS video, perceptions of pressure from the media to be thin, body dissatisfaction, and concerns over quantity of food were greater for low but not high GSD women. However, high GSD women reported greater concerns over the quality of food they eat following exposure to the TPNS video. Prevention efforts aimed at enhancing GSD are discussed.

  20. Aspartame intake is associated with greater glucose intolerance in individuals with obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuk, Jennifer L; Brown, Ruth E

    2016-07-01

    This study examined whether sucrose, fructose, aspartame, and saccharin influences the association between obesity and glucose tolerance in 2856 adults from the NHANES III survey. Aspartame intake significantly influenced the association between body mass index (BMI) and glucose tolerance (interaction: P = 0.004), wherein only those reporting aspartame intake had a steeper positive association between BMI and glucose tolerance than those reporting no aspartame intake. Therefore, consumption of aspartame is associated with greater obesity-related impairments in glucose tolerance.

  1. Lead Exposures and Biological Responses in Military Weapons Systems: Aerosol Characteristics and Acute Lead Effects among U.S. Army Artilleryman - Final Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-03-01

    in I vih FiA W indi wa4 from t?(q a’jbf’foer1~~ ,e w~f-fl a! I .. ’ ’h ’h " ,not 28 lia" 0 0a~ 16a" 1 so* DaY. Tune 41 14V7: 13 ise. Day. Tlni 41 S4:5...humans by Rabinowitz after oral exposure to lead (Ra73, Ra74). Chamberlain et al. found that 30-50% of the inspired lead was deposited in the lungs...Vol. II (Griffin, T.B., and J.H. Knelson, eds.), Academic Press, New York, pp. 221-240 (1975). Gr8l Gross, S.B. Human oral and inhalation exposures

  2. Radiation exposure and risk estimates for inhaled airborne radioactive pollutants including hot particles. Annual report 1 July 1976--30 June 1977

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mewhinney, J.A.

    1978-03-01

    Contents: Mixed-oxide fuel fabrication; Generation of aerosols of mixed uranium-plutonium oxides from dry powders for animal inhalation exposures; Analytical radiochemical determination of U, Pu and Am in biological samples; Physical chemical characterization of mixed uranium-plutonium oxide nuclear fuel as samples during animal inhalation exposure; Pilot studies of deposition and retention of industrial mixed-oxide aerosols in the laboratory rat; Extended radiation dose pattern studies of aerosols of mixed uranium-plutonium oxides treated at 750C inhaled by Fishcer-344 rats, beagle dogs and cynomolgus monkeys; Extended radiation dose pattern studies of aerosols of plutonium dioxide, treated at 850C and inhaled by Fischer-344 rats, beagle dogs and cynomolgus monkeys.

  3. Exposure to secondhand smoke and asthma severity among children in Connecticut

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schifano, Elizabeth D.; Hammel, Christopher; Cloutier, Michelle M.

    2017-01-01

    Objective To determine whether secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure is associated with greater asthma severity in children with physician-diagnosed asthma living in CT, and to examine whether area of residence, race/ethnicity or poverty moderate the association. Methods A large childhood asthma database in CT (Easy Breathing) was linked by participant zip code to census data to classify participants by area of residence. Multinomial logistic regression models, adjusted for enrollment date, sex, age, race/ethnicity, area of residence, insurance type, family history of asthma, eczema, and exposure to dogs, cats, gas stove, rodents and cockroaches were used to examine the association between self-reported exposure to SHS and clinician-determined asthma severity (mild, moderate, and severe persistent vs. intermittent asthma). Results Of the 30,163 children with asthma enrolled in Easy Breathing, between 6 months and 18 years old, living in 161 different towns in CT, exposure to SHS was associated with greater asthma severity (adjusted relative risk ratio (aRRR): 1.07 [1.00, 1.15] and aRRR: 1.11 [1.02, 1.22] for mild and moderate persistent asthma, respectively). The odds of Black and Puerto Rican/Hispanic children with asthma being exposed to SHS were twice that of Caucasian children. Though the odds of SHS exposure for publicly insured children with asthma were three times greater than the odds for privately insured children (OR: 3.02 [2.84,3,21]), SHS exposure was associated with persistent asthma only among privately insured children (adjusted odds ratio (aOR): 1.23 [1.11,1.37]). Conclusion This is the first large-scale pragmatic study to demonstrate that children exposed to SHS in Connecticut have greater asthma severity, clinically determined using a systematic approach, and varies by insurance status. PMID:28362801

  4. Exposure to secondhand smoke and asthma severity among children in Connecticut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollenbach, Jessica P; Schifano, Elizabeth D; Hammel, Christopher; Cloutier, Michelle M

    2017-01-01

    To determine whether secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure is associated with greater asthma severity in children with physician-diagnosed asthma living in CT, and to examine whether area of residence, race/ethnicity or poverty moderate the association. A large childhood asthma database in CT (Easy Breathing) was linked by participant zip code to census data to classify participants by area of residence. Multinomial logistic regression models, adjusted for enrollment date, sex, age, race/ethnicity, area of residence, insurance type, family history of asthma, eczema, and exposure to dogs, cats, gas stove, rodents and cockroaches were used to examine the association between self-reported exposure to SHS and clinician-determined asthma severity (mild, moderate, and severe persistent vs. intermittent asthma). Of the 30,163 children with asthma enrolled in Easy Breathing, between 6 months and 18 years old, living in 161 different towns in CT, exposure to SHS was associated with greater asthma severity (adjusted relative risk ratio (aRRR): 1.07 [1.00, 1.15] and aRRR: 1.11 [1.02, 1.22] for mild and moderate persistent asthma, respectively). The odds of Black and Puerto Rican/Hispanic children with asthma being exposed to SHS were twice that of Caucasian children. Though the odds of SHS exposure for publicly insured children with asthma were three times greater than the odds for privately insured children (OR: 3.02 [2.84,3,21]), SHS exposure was associated with persistent asthma only among privately insured children (adjusted odds ratio (aOR): 1.23 [1.11,1.37]). This is the first large-scale pragmatic study to demonstrate that children exposed to SHS in Connecticut have greater asthma severity, clinically determined using a systematic approach, and varies by insurance status.

  5. Adjustment of Business Expatriates in Greater China: A Strategic Perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selmer, Jan

    2006-01-01

    Research has found that due to similarities, firms which have gained business experience elsewhere in Greater China may exhibit relatively better performance in mainland China. Hence, the experience of business expatriates could be of strategic importance for the expansion path of their firms....... Based on data collected by a survey, this study compares how business expatriates adjust to life and work in different locations in Greater China. Results show that expatriates assigned to Singapore had a higher degree of general adjustment and interaction adjustment than their counterparts elsewhere...... longer both in Hong Kong and mainland China than in Singapore. Implications of these results for business firms contemplating to enter Greater China and specifically mainland China are discussed in detail....

  6. Self-reported occupational exposure to HIV and factors influencing its management practice: a study of healthcare workers in Tumbi and Dodoma Hospitals, Tanzania

    OpenAIRE

    Mashoto, Kijakazi O; Mubyazi, Godfrey M; Mohamed, Hussein; Malebo, Hamisi M

    2013-01-01

    Background Blood borne infectious agents such as hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV) and human immune deficiency virus (HIV) constitute a major occupational hazard for healthcare workers (HCWs). To some degree it is inevitable that HCWs sustain injuries from sharp objects such as needles, scalpels and splintered bone during execution of their duties. However, in Tanzania, there is little or no information on factors that influence the practice of managing occupational exposure to...

  7. From dermal exposure to internal dose

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sandt, J.J.M. van de; Dellarco, M.; Hemmen, J.J. van

    2007-01-01

    Exposure scenarios form an essential basis for chemical risk assessment reports under the new EU chemicals regulation REACH (Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and restriction of Chemicals). In case the dermal route of exposure is predominant, information on both exposure and dermal bioavailabi

  8. Mycotoxin Contamination in Sugarcane Grass and Juice: First Report on Detection of Multiple Mycotoxins and Exposure Assessment for Aflatoxins B₁ and G₁ in Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdallah, Mohamed F; Krska, Rudolf; Sulyok, Michael

    2016-11-18

    This study was conducted to investigate the natural co-occurrence of multiple toxic fungal and bacterial metabolites in sugarcane grass and juice intended for human consumption in Upper Egypt. Quantification of the target analytes has been done using the "dilute and shoot" approach followed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). A total number of 29 and 33 different metabolites were detected in 21 sugarcane grass and 40 juice samples, respectively, with a trend of concentrations being higher in grass than in juice. Among the regulated mycotoxins, only aflatoxin B₁ (AFB₁) and aflatoxin G₁ (AFG₁) were detected. The prevalence of AFB₁ was in 48% of grass samples and in 58% of juice with a maximum concentration of 30.6 μg/kg and 2.10 μg/kg, respectively. AFG₁ was detected in 10% of grass samples (7.76 μg/kg) and 18% of juice samples (34 μg/kg). Dietary exposure was assessed using a juice frequency questionnaire of adult inhabitants in Assiut City. The assessment revealed different levels of exposure to AFB₁ between males and females in winter and summer seasons. The estimated seasonal exposure ranged from 0.20 to 0.40 ng/kg b.w./day in winter and from 0.38 to 0.90 ng/kg b.w./day in summer.

  9. Studying DDT Susceptibility at Discriminating Time Intervals Focusing on Maximum Limit of Exposure Time Survived by DDT Resistant Phlebotomus argentipes (Diptera: Psychodidae): an Investigative Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rama, Aarti; Kesari, Shreekant; Das, Pradeep; Kumar, Vijay

    2017-07-24

    Extensive application of routine insecticide i.e., dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) to control Phlebotomus argentipes (Diptera: Psychodidae), the proven vector of visceral leishmaniasis in India, had evoked the problem of resistance/tolerance against DDT, eventually nullifying the DDT dependent strategies to control this vector. Because tolerating an hour-long exposure to DDT is not challenging enough for the resistant P. argentipes, estimating susceptibility by exposing sand flies to insecticide for just an hour becomes a trivial and futile task.Therefore, this bioassay study was carried out to investigate the maximum limit of exposure time to which DDT resistant P. argentipes can endure the effect of DDT for their survival. The mortality rate of laboratory-reared DDT resistant strain P. argentipes exposed to DDT was studied at discriminating time intervals of 60 min and it was concluded that highly resistant sand flies could withstand up to 420 min of exposure to this insecticide. Additionally, the lethal time for female P. argentipes was observed to be higher than for males suggesting that they are highly resistant to DDT's toxicity. Our results support the monitoring of tolerance limit with respect to time and hence points towards an urgent need to change the World Health Organization's protocol for susceptibility identification in resistant P. argentipes.

  10. DOE 2011 Occupational Radiation Exposure report, _Prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security. December 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Derek Hagemeyer, Yolanda McCormick

    2012-12-12

    This report discusses radiation protection and dose reporting requirements, presents the 2011 occupational radiation dose data along with trends over the past 5 years, and provides instructions to submit successful as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) projects.

  11. CHRONIC DIETARY EXPOSURE WITH INTERMITTENT SPIKE DOSES OF CHLORPYRIFOS FAILS TO ALTER FLASH OR PATTERN REVERSAL EVOKED POTENTIALS IN RATS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human exposure to pesticides is often characterized by chronic low level exposure with intermittent spiked higher exposures. Visual disturbances are often reported following exposure to xenobiotics, and cholinesterase-inhibiting compounds have been reported to alter visual functi...

  12. Psychobiology of cumulative trauma: hair cortisol as a risk marker for stress exposure in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Matthew C; Abelson, James L; Mielock, Alyssa S; Rao, Uma

    2017-07-01

    Childhood trauma (CT) is associated with long-lasting alterations of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and elevated risk for stress exposure in adulthood. Although HPA alterations are present in the early aftermath of trauma, it remains unclear how initial HPA activity is associated with subsequent stress exposure and whether CT exposure influences the strength and direction of this association. The present study examined prospective associations between hair cortisol content (HCC) and stress exposure from baseline to 3-month follow-up in young adult women with recent (i.e. past 3 months) exposure to interpersonal violence (IPV; i.e. physical or sexual assault) and non-traumatized controls. History of significant CT abuse or neglect was determined based on clinical cutoffs for a self-report CT measure: 12 women had abuse or neglect and recent IPV exposure (CT + IPV); 7 women had abuse or neglect but no IPV exposure (CT); 15 women had no history of trauma (NTC). HCC was computed for 3 cm sections reflecting cortisol secretion during the 3 months preceding the baseline assessment. The interaction of cumulative trauma and HCC predicted stress exposure over 3-month follow-up, controlling for baseline stress exposure and depressive symptoms. Simple slopes analyses revealed that lower baseline HCC predicted greater stress exposure in the CT + IPV group compared to the CT group; HCC was not associated with stress exposure in the NTC group. The present findings highlight the potential utility of HCC as a predictor of stress exposure for women with a history of childhood abuse or neglect, particularly in the context of recent IPV. Lay summary Adults with a history of CT show long-lasting alterations in major stress response systems, including the HPA axis. They are also more likely to experience stressful life events in adulthood. However, it is not clear how altered HPA activity influences risk for stress exposure and whether CT affects their

  13. Preventing exposure to second-hand smoke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Sophia; Lam, Tai Hing

    2003-11-01

    To report the effectiveness of a health education intervention provided by nurses to prevent second-hand smoke exposure in sick children in Hong Kong. A clinical trial, international and national government reports, and research studies. Exposure to second-hand smoke is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Nursing interventions to reduce exposure are critical and need further study. Nurses are in a vital position to carry out health education about the health risks associated with second-hand smoke exposure and to protect the child from such exposure.

  14. Mercury exposure and Alzheimer's disease in India - An imminent threat?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Parthasarathi

    2017-03-02

    India is an industrial giant with one of the fastest growing major economies in the world. Primary energy consumption in India is third after China and the USA. Greater energy production brings the burden of increasing emissions of mercury (Hg). India ranks second for Hg emissions. Rising atmospheric Hg release, high Hg evasion processes, and increasing monomethylmercury (highly neurotoxin) accumulations in marine food products increase the potential for human and ecosystem Hg exposure. Hg has been identified to increase the risk of getting Alzheimer's disease (AD). There are increasing reports of AD and dementia in different age groups in India. The relationship between increasing Hg exposure and increasing neurodegenerative disorder in India is not known. This commentary points to the need for better understanding of the relationship between Hg release and AD in India, and other countries, and how to protect human health and the environment from the adverse effects of Hg.

  15. Salicylate Toxicity from Genital Exposure to a Methylsalicylate-Containing Rubefacient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trevonne M. Thompson, MD

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Methylsalicylate-containing rubefacients have been reported to cause salicylate poisoning after ingestion, topical application to abnormal skin, and inappropriate topical application to normal skin. Many over-the-counter products contain methylsalicylate. Topical salicylates rarely produce systemic toxicity when used appropriately; however, methylsaliclyate can be absorbed through intact skin. Scrotal skin can have up to 40-fold greater absorption compared to other dermal regions. We report a unique case of salicylate poisoning resulting from the use of a methylsalicylate-containing rubefacient to facilitate masturbation in a male teenager. Saliclyate toxicity has not previously been reported from the genital exposure to methylsaliclyate.

  16. The Educational Afterlife of Greater Britain, 1903-1914

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Philip

    2012-01-01

    Following its late nineteenth-century emergence as an important element within federalist thinking across the British Empire, the idea of Greater Britain lost much of its political force in the years following the Boer War. The concept however continued to retain considerable residual currency in other fields of Imperial debate, including those…

  17. On Dalai Lama's “Greater Tibet”

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BYOURCOMMENTATOR

    2004-01-01

    Referring to the point of the “middle road” made by the 14th Dalai Lama, there is a concept of “Greater Tibet” which covers the existing Tibet Autonomous Region, the entire area of Qinghai Province, one-fifth of Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, two-thirds of Gansu Province, two-thirds of Sichuan Province and half of Yunnan Province.

  18. An ovarian adenocarcinoma in a greater flamingo (Phoenicopterus ruber roseus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadsworth, P F; Jones, D M

    1981-01-01

    An ovarian adenocarcinoma was diagnosed in a greater flamingo (Phoenicopterus ruber roseus) which had been maintained in captivity for over 32 years. Neoplastic epithelial cells showed both solid and tubular patterns of growth. Metastases were found in the lung, liver and on the peritoneal surface of the pancreas.

  19. Adjustment of Business Expatriates in Greater China: A Strategic Perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selmer, Jan

    2006-01-01

    Research has found that due to similarities, firms which have gained business experience elsewhere in Greater China may exhibit relatively better performance in mainland China. Hence, the experience of business expatriates could be of strategic importance for the expansion path of their firms...

  20. Surgical treatment of high-standing greater trochanter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takata, K; Maniwa, S; Ochi, M

    1999-01-01

    Eleven patients with high-standing greater trochanter (13 joints) aged 13-36 years underwent surgery. Distal transfer of the greater trochanter (group T) was performed in 4 patients (5 joints) and lateral displacement osteotomy (group L) in 7 (8 joints). The average follow-up duration was 13.4 years in group T and 5.9 years in group L. Clinical results were evaluated by the hip score according to Merle d'Aubigne. The mean hip score in group T was 13.4 points before operation and 15.4 points after operation, and in group L, 12.8 and 17.4 points, respectively. The postoperative clinical results of group L were significantly better than those of group T (P = 0.0494). In radiological evaluation, although the articulo-trochanteric distance (ATD) increased in both groups in group L it improved remarkably from 9.8 to 24.3, indicating a large descending distance of the greater trochanter. The lever arm ratio (LAR) did not change significantly in group T, but it decreased from 1.97 to 1.60 in group L (P = 0.004). This means that the lever arm of the abductors can certainly be extended by lateral displacement osteotomy. Lateral displacement osteotomy is the most effective procedure for high-standing greater trochanter.

  1. assessing human impacts on the greater akaki river, ethiopia using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

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    proceeded from the upper reaches to the lower reaches along the Greater Akaki River. The upper ... measures of biological and chemical oxygen demand. Among the ... level, are good indicators of localized conditions and integrate the ... collected in 1L polyethylene bottles and were taken to the .... Tamiru Ale- mayehu et al ...

  2. The Educational Afterlife of Greater Britain, 1903-1914

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Philip

    2012-01-01

    Following its late nineteenth-century emergence as an important element within federalist thinking across the British Empire, the idea of Greater Britain lost much of its political force in the years following the Boer War. The concept however continued to retain considerable residual currency in other fields of Imperial debate, including those…

  3. On the Occurrence of Standardized Regression Coefficients Greater than One.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deegan, John, Jr.

    1978-01-01

    It is demonstrated here that standardized regression coefficients greater than one can legitimately occur. Furthermore, the relationship between the occurrence of such coefficients and the extent of multicollinearity present among the set of predictor variables in an equation is examined. Comments on the interpretation of these coefficients are…

  4. Radiographic features of tuberculous osteitis in greater trochanter and lschium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hahm, So Hee; Lee, Ye Ri [Hanil Hospital Affiliated to KEPCO, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Dong Jin; Sung, Ki Jun [Yonsei Univ. Wonju College of Medicine, Wonju (Korea, Republic of); Lim, Jong Nam [Konkuk Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-11-01

    To evaluate, if possible, the radiographic features of tuberculous osteitis in the greater trochanter and ischium, and to determine the cause of the lesions. We reterospectively reviewed the plain radiographic findings of 14 ptients with histologically proven tuberculous osteitis involving the greater trochanter and ischium. In each case, the following were analyzed:morphology of bone destruction, including cortical erosion;periosteal reaction;presence or abscence of calcific shadows in adjacent soft tissue. On the basis of an analysis of radiographic features and correlation of the anatomy with adjacent structures we attempted to determine causes. Of the 14 cases evaluated, 12 showed varrious degrees of extrinsic erosion on the outer cortical bone of the greater trochanter and ischium ; in two cases, bone destruction was so severe that the radiographic features of advanced perforated osteomyelitis were simulated. In addition to findings of bone destruction, in these twelve cases, the presence of sequestrum or calcific shadows was seen in adjacent soft tissue. Tuberculous osteitis in the greater trochanter and ischium showed the characteristic findings of chronic extrinsic erosion. On the basis of these findings we can suggest that these lesions result from an extrinsic pathophysiologic cause such as adjacent bursitis.

  5. College Students with ADHD at Greater Risk for Sleep Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaultney, Jane F.

    2014-01-01

    The pediatric literature indicates that children with ADHD are at greater risk for sleep problems, daytime sleepiness, and some sleep disorders than children with no diagnosed disability. It has not been determined whether this pattern holds true among emerging adults, and whether comorbid sleep disorders with ADHD predict GPA. The present study…

  6. 163 COUNTER-TERRORISM IN THE GREATER HORN OF AFRICA ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2010-07-11

    Jul 11, 2010 ... serous signals to the defence and national security formations in the Greater Horn of ... provoke a state of terror in the general public, a group of persons or particular persons. ... others using the environment of the Somali collapsed state as a safe haven to ..... They don't know any other way of life but war.

  7. Assessing Climate Vulnerabilities of Food Distribution Center Sites in Greater Boston and Their Regional Implications: Climate Adaptation Planning in Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teferra, A.; Watson, C.; Douglas, E. M.

    2016-12-01

    The Metro Boston region, an area whose civic leaders have been at the forefront of climate resilience initiatives in recent years, is finalizing a flood vulnerability assessment of food distribution center sites located north of Boston, with the support of the University of Massachusetts Boston and the American Geophysical Union's Thriving Earth Exchange program. The community-scientist collaboration emerged because of the need for more local analyses of the area to inform climate resiliency policy and planning actions for the region. A significant amount of the metro region's food supply passes through two major distribution centers in the cities of Everett and Chelsea, just north of the Mystic River. The Metropolitan Area Planning Council (MAPC), on behalf of the Metro Boston Climate Preparedness Taskforce, is working with Chris Watson and Ellen Douglas of UMass Boston to build on existing analyses of the region's food system and climate vulnerabilities and to develop a report identifying flood risk exposure to the sites. The analysis brings in dynamic modeling techniques that incorporate storm surge and sea level rise projections under different climate scenarios, and aims to align methodologies with those of other regional analyses, such as Climate Ready Boston and the City of Cambridge's Vulnerability Assessment. The study is helping to inform MAPC's and the Metro Boston Climate Preparedness Taskforce's understanding of this critical food distribution infrastructure, illustrate the larger regional implications of climate impacts on food distribution in the Greater Boston area, and guide the development of site-specific strategies for addressing identified vulnerabilities.

  8. Association between food marketing exposure and adolescents' food choices and eating behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scully, Maree; Wakefield, Melanie; Niven, Philippa; Chapman, Kathy; Crawford, David; Pratt, Iain S; Baur, Louise A; Flood, Victoria; Morley, Belinda

    2012-02-01

    The present study examined associations between food marketing exposure and adolescents' food choices and reported consumption of energy-dense and nutrient-poor (EDNP) foods. A cross-sectional survey of 12,188 Australian secondary students aged 12-17 years was conducted, using a web-based self-report questionnaire. Measures included students' level of exposure to commercial television and non-broadcast types of food marketing, whether they had tried a new product or requested a product they had seen advertised, and their reported consumption of fast food, sugary drinks and sweet and salty snacks. Results indicated greater exposure to commercial television, print/transport/school food marketing and digital food marketing were all independently associated with students' food choices. High commercial television viewers (>2h/day) were more likely to report higher consumption of EDNP foods (ORs ranged from 1.31 for fast food to 1.91 for sweet snacks). Some associations between digital food marketing exposure and students' eating behaviors were found; however, print/transport/school food marketing was only related to sweet snack consumption. These study results suggest that cumulative exposure to television food advertising and other food marketing sources are positively linked to adolescents' food choices and eating behaviors. Policy changes to restrict food marketing to young people should include both television and non-broadcast media. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Lifetime exposure to traumatic and other stressful life events and hair cortisol in a multi-racial/ethnic sample of pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreier, Hannah M C; Enlow, Michelle Bosquet; Ritz, Thomas; Coull, Brent A; Gennings, Chris; Wright, Robert O; Wright, Rosalind J

    2016-01-01

    We examined whether lifetime exposure to stressful and traumatic events alters hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis functioning, as indexed by hair cortisol, regardless of associated psychopathology, among pregnant women of different racial/ethnic backgrounds. 180 women provided hair samples for measurement of integrated cortisol levels throughout pregnancy and information regarding their lifetime exposure to stressful and traumatic life events. Results indicate that increased lifetime exposure to traumatic events was associated with significantly greater hair cortisol over the course of pregnancy. Similarly, greater lifetime exposure to stressful and traumatic events weighted by reported negative impact (over the previous 12 months) was associated with significantly greater hair cortisol during pregnancy. All analyses controlled for maternal age, education, body mass index (BMI), use of inhaled corticosteroids, race/ethnicity, and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depressive symptoms. Following stratification by race/ethnicity, associations between stressful and traumatic life events and hair cortisol were found among Black women only. This is the first study to consider associations between lifetime stress exposures and hair cortisol in a sociodemographically diverse sample of pregnant women. Increased exposure to stressful and traumatic events, independent of PTSD and depressive symptoms, was associated with higher cortisol production, particularly in Black women. Future research should investigate the influence of such increased cortisol exposure on developmental outcomes among offspring.

  10. Dumb-bell shaped tuberculous abscess across the greater sciatic notch compressing both sciatic nerves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baba, H; Okumura, Y; Furusawa, N; Omori, H; Kawahara, H; Fujita, T; Katayama, K; Noriki, S

    1998-08-01

    We report an instructive case of a 65-year-old man who presented with a dumb-bell shaped tuberculous abscess across the greater sciatic notch bilaterally compressing both sciatic nerves. Clinical symptoms progressed slowly and mimicked lumbar radiculopathy, thus delaying an accurate diagnosis. Anterolateral retroperitoneal and posterolateral gluteal approaches of the greater sciatic notch as well as the acetabulum on both sides were followed in order to provide safe viewing and resection of the abscess. The abscess wall was adherent to the sciatic nerve and surrounding blood vessels. The symptoms completely disappeared after resection of the abscess.

  11. BILATERAL ANTERIOR DISLOCATION OF SHOULDER WITH GREATER TUBEROSITY FRACTURE DUE TO HYPONATREMIA : A RARE PRESENTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sivananda

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We here report a rare presentation of bilateral anterior dislocation of shoulder with associated fracture of greater tuberosity in a 38 year old male due to minor trauma which he sustained secondary to hyponatremia induced irritability. There was no associ ated rotator cuff tear which is often associated with BADS which makes this presentation unique. Unilateral dislocation of shoulder is a common condition which is frequently encountered in emergency trauma department. Anterior dislocation is more common th an posterior dislocation. However, simultaneous bilateral shoulder dislocations are usually posterior. Bilateral anterior dislocations with fractures of the greater tuberosity are even rarer and are usually associated with trauma or seizures

  12. [Impact of the Spanish smoking laws on the exposure to environmental tobacco smoke in Galicia (2005-2011)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Ríos, Mónica; Santiago-Pérez, María Isolina; Malvar, Alberto; Jesús García, María; Seoane, Bernardo; Suanzes, Jorge; Hervada, Xurxo

    2014-01-01

    Prevalence of exposure to environmental tobacco smoke is a valuable index to assess the impact of the laws for tobacco control. The objective of this work is to analyse variations in the prevalence of exposure to environmental tobacco smoke in Galicia (Spain) between 2005, before the Law 28/2005, and 2011, after the law 42/2010. Data were obtained from five population-based independent cross-sectional studies, telephone surveys, developed in Galicia between 2005 and 2011 among population aged 16 to 74 (n=34.419). Self-reported exposure among population aged between 16 and 74 was analysed by setting and tobacco consumption by prevalence with 95% confidence intervals. Environmental tobacco smoke exposure decreased dramatically in Galicia between 2005 and 2011. In 2005, before the Law 28/2005, 95% of the population reported exposure to environmental tobacco smoke compared to 28% in 2011, after the Law 42/2010. Decrease was greater in workplaces in 2006 and in leisure time venues in 2011. After an initial decrease in 2006, exposure at home remains unchanged. An important reduction in self-reported exposure to environmental tobacco smoke occurred in Galicia in the period 2005-2011, specially after the introduction of Laws 28/2005 and 42/2010. Nevertheless, one in four of the population aged 16 to 74 remained exposed in 2011. Copyright © 2013 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  13. Use of international data sets to evaluate and validate pathway assessment models applicable to exposure and dose reconstruction at DOE facilities. Progress report, August 1993--January 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendrickson, S.M. [ed.] [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Hoffman, F.O. [Senes Oak Ridge, Inc., TN (United States). Center for Risk Analysis

    1994-03-01

    This project, ``Use of International Data Sets to Evaluate and Validate Pathway Assessment Models Applicable to Exposure and Dose Reconstruction at DOE Facilities,`` grew out of several activities being conducted by the Principal Investigator Dr. F Owen Hoffman. One activity was originally part of the Chernobyl Studies Project and began as Task 7.1D, ``Internal Dose From Direct Contamination of Terrestrial Food Sources.`` The objective of Task 7.1D was to (1) establish a collaborative US USSR effort to improve and validate our methods of forecasting doses and dose commitments from the direct contamination of food sources, and (2) perform experiments and validation studies to improve our ability to predict rapidly and accurately the long-term internal dose from the contamination of agricultural soil. The latter was to include the consideration of remedial measures to block contamination of food grown on contaminated soil. The current objective of this project is to evaluate and validate pathway-assessment models applicable to exposure and dose reconstruction at DOE facilities through use of international data sets. This project incorporates the activity of Task 7.1D into a multinational effort to evaluate data used for the prediction of radionuclide transfer through agricultural and aquatic systems to humans. It also includes participation in two multinational studies, BIOMOVS (BIOspheric MOdel Validation Study) with the Swedish National Institute for Radiation Protection and VAMP (VAlidation of Model Predictions) with the International Atomic Energy Agency, that address testing the performance of models of radionuclide transport through foodchains.

  14. Meeting report of the EC/US workshop on genetic risk assessment: "human genetic risks from exposure to chemicals, focusing on the feasibility of a parallelogram approach".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, M D; Nolan, C

    1994-05-01

    This workshop was the concept of Professor Frits Sobels who passed away on the 6th of July 1993. The underlying idea of the Sobels' parallelogram approach is that an estimate (corrected by DNA-adduct dosimetry) of the genetic damage in human germ cells can be obtained by measuring a common endpoint in human and mouse somatic cells (such as gene mutation in lymphocytes) and in germ cells of mice, the desired target tissue inaccessible in humans. The main objective of the workshop was to identify the methodology, data requirements and mechanistic research to understand the human health impact of germ-cell mutagens. 4 chemicals were selected for review at the meeting: ethylene oxide, 1,3-butadiene, acrylamide and cyclophosphamide. The first 3 are important industrial chemicals with substantial use worldwide and, therefore, considerable potential human exposure. The 4th, cyclophosphamide, is a commonly used cancer chemotherapeutic agent. This first EC/US workshop on risk assessment was highly focused on the feasibility of the parallelogram concept to estimate potential germ-cell effects in humans. It represented an evaluation of current knowledge and the identification of future research needs for a more precise assessment of human genetic risks from exposure to mutagenic chemicals.

  15. Co-administration of cyclosporine and ticagrelor may lead to a higher exposure to cyclosporine: a case report of a 49-year old man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Sloten, T T; de Klaver, P A G; van den Wall Bake, A W L

    2017-09-11

    A drug interaction leading to higher exposure to cyclosporine DRUGS IMPLICATED: Cyclosporine and ticagrelor THE PATIENT: A 49-year old man with a stable renal graft, managed with cyclosporine with stable trough blood concentrations for several years, was treated with ticagrelor for unstable angina pectoris EVIDENCE THAT LINKS THE DRUG TO THE EVENT: The timeline was consistent with the appearance of an interaction, the interaction was confirmed by an increase in trough concentration of cyclosporine, and there were no alternative causes that by themselves could have caused the increase in cyclosporine exposure MANAGEMENT: Cessation of ticagrelor MECHANISM: Inhibition of CYP3A4 and P-glycoprotein by ticagrelor IMPLICATIONS FOR THERAPY: Clinicians should be aware of this potential interaction as ticagrelor is frequently prescribed in individuals using cyclosporine. Close monitoring of cyclosporine serum concentrations is warranted to avoid overdosing of cyclosporine. A pharmacokinetic study is needed to further examine the probable interaction between cyclosporine and ticagrelor. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  16. Greater temperature sensitivity of plant phenology at colder sites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prevey, Janet; Vellend, Mark; Ruger, Nadja

    2017-01-01

    Warmer temperatures are accelerating the phenology of organisms around the world. Temperature sensitivity of phenology might be greater in colder, higher latitude sites than in warmer regions, in part because small changes in temperature constitute greater relative changes in thermal balance...... at colder sites. To test this hypothesis, we examined up to 20 years of phenology data for 47 tundra plant species at 18 high-latitude sites along a climatic gradient. Across all species, the timing of leaf emergence and flowering was more sensitive to a given increase in summer temperature at colder than...... warmer high-latitude locations. A similar pattern was seen over time for the flowering phenology of a widespread species, Cassiope tetragona. These are among the first results highlighting differential phenological responses of plants across a climatic gradient and suggest the possibility of convergence...

  17. Trafficking in persons and development: towards greater policy coherence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danailova-Trainor, Gergana; Laczko, Frank

    2010-01-01

    Poverty is often regarded as the "root cause" of trafficking, but the linkages between poverty, a lack of development and trafficking are complex. For example, there is some evidence to suggest that victims of cross-border trafficking are more likely to originate from middle-income rather than lower-income countries. Trafficking and development have tended to be treated as very separate policy areas and the assessment of the development impact of counter-trafficking programmes is still at an early stage. This paper outlines a possible framework for a more evidence-based approach to understanding the linkages between trafficking, trafficking policy and human development. The paper argues that the human development gains from greater mobility could be significantly enhanced if there was greater coherence between policies to combat trafficking and policies to promote development.

  18. Taxonomy of Greater White-fronted Geese (Aves: Anatidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, Richard C.

    2011-01-01

    Five subspecies of the Greater White-fronted Goose, Anser albifrons (Scopoli, 1769), have been named, all on the basis of wintering birds, and up to six subspecies have been recognized. There has been confusion over the application of some names, particularly in North America, because of lack of knowledge of the breeding ranges and type localities, and incorrect taxonomic decisions. There is one clinally varying subspecies in Eurasia, one that breeds in Greenland, and three in North America, one newly named herein.

  19. Age and Expatriate Job Performance in Greater China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selmer, Jan; Lauring, Jakob; Feng, Yunxia

    2009-01-01

    , companies should not discriminate against older candidatesin expatriate selection for Greater China. Furthermore, older expatriates destined for a Chinesecultural context could be trained how to exploit their age advantage. Originality/value - In contrast to previous studies, this investigation attempts...... to match a certain personal characteristic of expatriates with a specific host culture. The results have implications for and contribute to the literature on expatriate selection as well as to the body of research on crosscultural training....

  20. Gaining a greater share of the healthcare dollar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, R N

    1986-01-01

    Are physicians being left out as hospitals rush to form outpatient surgery centers, diagnostic imaging centers, home health agencies, and other new financial ventures? Joint ventures and revenue diversification offer an often unexplored means for medical group practice to profit from the many financial opportunities created by the changing reimbursement system. Out-lined here are the considerations involved in the formation of an alternative health delivery system to help medical group practices gain a greater share of the healthcare dollar.