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Sample records for reported greater alcohol

  1. Negative mood-induced alcohol-seeking is greater in young adults who report depression symptoms, drinking to cope, and subjective reactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogarth, Lee; Hardy, Lorna; Mathew, Amanda R; Hitsman, Brian

    2018-04-01

    Acute negative mood powerfully motivates alcohol-seeking behavior, but it remains unclear whether sensitivity to this effect is greater in drinkers who report depression symptoms, drinking to cope, and subjective reactivity. To examine these questions, 128 young adult alcohol drinkers (ages 18-25) completed questionnaires of alcohol use disorder symptoms, depression symptoms, and drinking to cope with negative affect. Baseline alcohol choice was measured by preference to enlarge alcohol versus food thumbnail images in two-alternative forced-choice trials. Negative mood was then induced by depressive statements and music, before alcohol choice was tested. Subjective reactivity was indexed by increased sadness pre- to post-mood induction. Baseline alcohol choice correlated with alcohol dependence symptoms (p = .001), and drinking coping motives (ps ≤ .01). Mood induction increased alcohol choice and subjective sadness overall (ps choice was associated with depression symptoms (p = .007), drinking to cope (ps ≤ .03), and subjective reactivity (p = .007). The relationship between mood-induced alcohol choice and drinking to cope remained significant after covarying for other drinking motives. Furthermore, the three predictors (depression, drinking to cope, and subjective reactivity) accounted for unique variance in mood-induced alcohol choice (ps ≥ .03), and collectively accounted for 18% of the variance (p choice task as sensitive to the relative value of alcohol and acute negative mood. The findings also accord with the core prediction of negative reinforcement theory that sensitivity to the motivational impact of negative mood on alcohol-seeking behavior may be an important mechanism that links depression and alcohol dependence. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. Alcoholic hallucinosis: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bárbara Werner Griciunas

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Case report of patient who has been an alcoholic for 40 years and, after reducing alcohol intake, developed auditory and visual hallucinations, which caused behavior change. Neurological issues, electrolyte disturbances and other organ dysfunctions were excluded as cause of said change. After intake of haloperidol and risperidone, the patient had regression of symptoms and denied having presented hallucinatory symptoms. The Manual Diagnóstico e Estatístico de Transtornos Mentais – 5ª edição (DSM-V includes alcoholic hallucinosis in the Substance-Induced Psychotic Disorder (alcohol, beginning during abstinence; however, the document is not yet very well accepted among the medical community. The difficulty of the team to confirm the diagnosis of alcoholic hallucinosis lies in the differential diagnosis, as Delirium tremens and severe withdrawal syndrome with psychotic symptoms. Thus, psychopathological differentiation is important, as well as continuity of research and collaboration of other clinical teams in the evaluation.

  3. Alcoholic hallucinosis: case report

    OpenAIRE

    Bárbara Werner Griciunas; Norton Yoshiaki Kitanishi; Patricia Motta Carvalho; Daniel Azevedo Cavalcante; Leonardo Mattiolli Marini

    2017-01-01

    Case report of patient who has been an alcoholic for 40 years and, after reducing alcohol intake, developed auditory and visual hallucinations, which caused behavior change. Neurological issues, electrolyte disturbances and other organ dysfunctions were excluded as cause of said change. After intake of haloperidol and risperidone, the patient had regression of symptoms and denied having presented hallucinatory symptoms. The Manual Diagnóstico e Estatístico de Transtornos Mentais – 5ª edição (...

  4. Nutritional status of alcoholics in Peri-urban areas of the greater ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Alcoholism is a common problem in developing countries. Epidemiological studies on the relationship among excessive alcohol consumption, malnutrition and anaemia are inconclusive. The present study examined the association between alcohol intake and nutritional status of alcoholics in the Greater Accra Region of ...

  5. Kauffman Teen Survey. An Annual Report on Teen Health Behaviors: Use of Alcohol, Tobacco, and Other Drugs among 8th-, 10th-, and 12th-Grade Students in Greater Kansas City, 1991-92 to 2000-01.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewing Marion Kauffman Foundation, Kansas City, MO.

    The Ewing Marion Kauffman Foundation began surveying Kansas City area teens during the 1984-85 school year. The Kauffman Teen Survey now addresses two sets of issues for teens. Teen Health Behaviors, addressed in this report, have been a focus of the survey since its inception. The report focuses on teen use of alcohol, tobacco, and other drugs in…

  6. Conservatives report, but liberals display, greater happiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojcik, Sean P; Hovasapian, Arpine; Graham, Jesse; Motyl, Matt; Ditto, Peter H

    2015-03-13

    Research suggesting that political conservatives are happier than political liberals has relied exclusively on self-report measures of subjective well-being. We show that this finding is fully mediated by conservatives' self-enhancing style of self-report (study 1; N = 1433) and then describe three studies drawing from "big data" sources to assess liberal-conservative differences in happiness-related behavior (studies 2 to 4; N = 4936). Relative to conservatives, liberals more frequently used positive emotional language in their speech and smiled more intensely and genuinely in photographs. Our results were consistent across large samples of online survey takers, U.S. politicians, Twitter users, and LinkedIn users. Our findings illustrate the nuanced relationship between political ideology, self-enhancement, and happiness and illuminate the contradictory ways that happiness differences can manifest across behavior and self-reports. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  7. Promoting greater Federal energy productivity [Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hopkins, Mark; Dudich, Luther

    2003-03-05

    This document is a close-out report describing the work done under this DOE grant to improve Federal Energy Productivity. Over the four years covered in this document, the Alliance To Save Energy conducted liaison with the private sector through our Federal Energy Productivity Task Force. In this time, the Alliance held several successful workshops on the uses of metering in Federal facilities and other meetings. We also conducted significant research on energy efficiency, financing, facilitated studies of potential energy savings in energy intensive agencies, and undertook other tasks outlined in this report.

  8. Current Heavy Alcohol Consumption is Associated with Greater Cognitive Impairment in Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Adam J; Porges, Eric C; Bryant, Vaughn E; Seider, Talia; Gongvatana, Assawin; Kahler, Christopher W; de la Monte, Suzanne; Monti, Peter M; Cohen, Ronald A

    2016-11-01

    The acute consumption of excessive quantities of alcohol causes well-recognized neurophysiological and cognitive alterations. As people reach advanced age, they are more prone to cognitive decline. To date, the interaction of current heavy alcohol (ethanol [EtOH]) consumption and aging remains unclear. This study tested the hypothesis that negative consequences of current heavy alcohol consumption on neurocognitive function are worse with advanced age. Further, we evaluated the relations between lifetime history of alcohol dependence and neurocognitive function METHODS: Sixty-six participants underwent a comprehensive neurocognitive battery. Current heavy EtOH drinkers were classified using National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism criteria (EtOH heavy, n = 21) based on the Timeline follow-back and a structured clinical interview and compared to nondrinkers, and moderate drinkers (EtOH low, n = 45). Of the total population, 53.3% had a lifetime history of alcohol dependence. Neurocognitive data were grouped and analyzed relative to global and domain scores assessing: global cognitive function, attention/executive function, learning, memory, motor function, verbal function, and speed of processing. Heavy current EtOH consumption in older adults was associated with poorer global cognitive function, learning, memory, and motor function (ps alcohol dependence was associated with poorer function in the same neurocognitive domains, in addition to the attention/executive domain, irrespective of age (ps alcohol consumption is associated with significant impairment in a number of neurocognitive domains, history of alcohol dependence, even in the absence of heavy current alcohol use, is associated with lasting negative consequences for neurocognitive function. Copyright © 2016 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  9. The effects of husband's alcohol consumption on married women in three low-income areas of Greater Mumbai.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Marlene J; Kremelberg, David; Dwivedi, Purva; Verma, Supriya; Schensul, Jean J; Gupta, Kamla; Chandran, Devyani; Singh, S K

    2010-08-01

    Gender-based violence rooted in norms, socialization practices, structural factors, and policies that underlie men's abusive practices against married women in India is exacerbated by alcohol. The intersection of domestic violence, childhood exposure to alcohol and frustration, which contribute to drinking and its consequences including forced sex is explored through analysis of data obtained from 486 married men living with their wives in a low-income area of Greater Mumbai. SEM shows pathways linking work-related stress, greater exposure to alcohol as a child, being a heavy drinker, and having more sexual partners (a proxy for HIV risk). In-depth ethnographic interviews with 44 married women in the study communities reveal the consequences of alcohol on women's lives showing how married women associate alcohol use and violence with different patterns of drinking. The study suggests ways alcohol use leads from physical and verbal abuse to emotional and sexual violence in marriage. Implications for gendered multi-level interventions addressing violence and HIV risk are explored.

  10. Immature psychological defense mechanisms are associated with greater personal importance of junk food, alcohol, and television.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Rui Miguel; Brody, Stuart

    2013-10-30

    Immature psychological defense mechanisms are psychological processes that play an important role in suppressing emotional awareness and contribute to psychopathology. In addition, unhealthy food, television viewing, and alcohol consumption can be among the means to escape self-awareness. In contrast, engaging in, and responding fully to specifically penile-vaginal intercourse (PVI) is associated with indices of better emotional regulation, including less use of immature defense mechanisms. There was a lack of research on the association of immature defense mechanisms with personal importance of junk food, alcohol, television, PVI, and noncoital sex. In an online survey, 334 primarily Scottish women completed the Defense Style Questionnaire (DSQ-40), and rated the personal importance of junk food, alcohol, television, PVI, and noncoital sex. Immature defense mechanisms correlated with importance of junk food, alcohol, and television. Importance of PVI correlated with mature defenses, and less use of some component immature defenses. Importance of alcohol correlated with importance of junk food, television, and noncoital sex. Importance of junk food was correlated with importance of television and noncoital sex. The findings are discussed in terms of persons with poorer self-regulatory abilities having more interest in junk food, television, and alcohol, and less interest in PVI. © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Current Heavy Alcohol Consumption is Associated with Greater Cognitive Impairment in Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Adam J.; Porges, Eric C.; Bryant, Vaughn E.; Seider, Talia; Gongvatana, Assawin; Kahler, Christopher W.; de la Monte, Suzanne; Monti, Peter M.; Cohen, Ronald A.

    2016-01-01

    Background The acute consumption of excessive quantities of alcohol causes well-recognized neurophysiological and cognitive alterations. As people reach advanced age, they are more prone to cognitive decline. To date, the interaction of current heavy alcohol (ETOH) consumption and aging remain unclear. The current paper tested the hypothesis that negative consequences of current heavy alcohol consumption on neurocognitive function are worse with advanced age. Further, we evaluated the relations between lifetime history of alcohol dependence and neurocognitive function Methods Sixty-six participants underwent a comprehensive neurocognitive battery. Current heavy ETOH drinkers were classified using NIAAA criteria (ETOH Heavy, n = 21) based on the Timeline follow-back and a structured clinical interview and compared to non-drinkers, and moderate drinkers (ETOH Low, n = 45). Fifty-three-point-three percent of the total population had a lifetime history of alcohol dependence. Neurocognitive data were grouped and analyzed relative to global and domain scores assessing: global cognitive function, attention/executive function, learning, memory, motor function, verbal function, and speed of processing. Results Heavy current ETOH consumption in older adults was associated with poorer global cognitive function, learning, memory, and motor function (p’sfunction in the same neurocognitive domains, in addition to the attention/executive domain, irrespective of age (p’sfunction. PMID:27658235

  12. Drug and alcohol testing results 2009 annual report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    This is the 15th annual report of the results of the Federal Transit Administrations (FTA) Drug and Alcohol Testing Program. This report summarizes the reporting requirements for calendar year 2009, the requirements of the overall drug and alcohol...

  13. Drug and alcohol testing results 2007 annual report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-05-01

    This is the 13th annual report of the results of the Federal Transit Administrations (FTA) Drug and Alcohol Testing Program. This report summarizes the reporting requirements for calendar year 2007, the requirements of the overall drug and alcohol...

  14. Drug and alcohol testing results 2006 annual report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-08-01

    This is the 12th annual report of the results of the Federal Transit Administration's (FTA) Drug and Alcohol Testing Program. This report summarizes the reporting requirements for calendar year 2006, the requirements of the overall drug and alcohol t...

  15. The risk of cirrhosis in non-alcohol drinkers is greater in female than male betel nut chewers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Yu-Hua; Wang, Lee; Ko, Pei-Chieh; Lan, Shou-Jen; Liaw, Yung-Po

    2018-02-02

    The association of betel nut with liver cirrhosis among alcohol drinkers has been clearly shown. However, very few studies have shown such an association among non-alcohol drinkers. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between betel nut chewing and cirrhosis among non-alcohol drinkers. This study retrospectively analyzed data retrieved from the 2012 Adult Preventive Medical Services and the National Health Insurance Research Datasets in Taiwan. Participants' information included physical examination and lifestyle, alongside laboratory tests. Betel nut chewers were grouped into three categories: never, occasional and frequent. Diseases were diagnosed using the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM). Initially, 1573024 adults aged 40 years and above who engaged in the free adult preventive medical services in 2012 were recruited. However, only 1065246 of them were included in the analysis. Chi-square test and logistic regression were used for the analyses. After multivariable adjustments, there were significant relationships between cirrhosis and betel nut chewing in both sexes (P-trend betel nut chewing and cirrhosis in both male and female non-alcohol drinkers. The risk of cirrhosis was greater in female than male chewers.

  16. Differences in reporting of perceived acute effects of alcohol use, marijuana use, and simultaneous alcohol and marijuana use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Christine M; Cadigan, Jennifer M; Patrick, Megan E

    2017-11-01

    Although there are serious negative harms associated with simultaneous alcohol and marijuana (SAM) use, little is known about the self-reported acute effects of SAM use and how they may be similar to or different than effects experienced when using alcohol or marijuana only. The current study examines the perceived acute effects of SAM use, compared to using alcohol or marijuana only, as well as demographic and substance use predictors of overall SAM effects. Participants were a community sample of young adults ages 18-23 participating in a longitudinal study on social role transitions and substance use during young adulthood. Young adults who reported SAM use at least once in their lifetime were selected for the present analyses (N=315; mean age=21.42; 58% female) and reported the effects they experienced from typical alcohol use, marijuana use, and SAM use. There were significant differences in the extent to which young adults perceived the effects depending on the substances used. Most effects (i.e., clumsy, confused, dizzy, difficulty concentrating) were rated strongest when engaging in SAM use, compared to typical alcohol or marijuana use alone. Feeling high and feeling marijuana effects were rated strongest when engaging in marijuana use alone compared to SAM use, but feeling drunk was greater during SAM use compared to alcohol use alone. Greater alcohol use and increased time spent high during typical SAM use were associated with greater overall SAM effects. When young adults engage in SAM use they report experiencing greater negative physiological and cognitive effects. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Self- and Collateral Spouse-Reported Alcohol in Malawi: Exploring ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adult (18+ years old) Malawian men and women's alcohol use and social drinking norms were examined. From 31,676 screened households, heads and spouses in 1,795 households with at least one alcohol user were interviewed. Alcohol use last 12 months was reported by 27.3% and 1.6% of all adult men and women ...

  18. Drug and Alcohol Testing Results 2008 Annual Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    This is the 14th annual report of the results of the Federal Transit Administration's (FTA) Drug and Alcohol Testing : Program. This report summarizes the reporting requirements for calendar year 2008, the requirements of the overall : drug and alcoh...

  19. Eveningness and Later Sleep Timing Are Associated with Greater Risk for Alcohol and Marijuana Use in Adolescence: Initial Findings from the National Consortium on Alcohol and Neurodevelopment in Adolescence Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasler, Brant P; Franzen, Peter L; de Zambotti, Massimiliano; Prouty, Devin; Brown, Sandra A; Tapert, Susan F; Pfefferbaum, Adolf; Pohl, Kilian M; Sullivan, Edith V; De Bellis, Michael D; Nagel, Bonnie J; Baker, Fiona C; Colrain, Ian M; Clark, Duncan B

    2017-06-01

    Abundant cross-sectional evidence links eveningness (a preference for later sleep-wake timing) and increased alcohol and drug use among adolescents and young adults. However, longitudinal studies are needed to examine whether eveningness is a risk factor for subsequent alcohol and drug use, particularly during adolescence, which is marked by parallel peaks in eveningness and risk for the onset of alcohol use disorders. This study examined whether eveningness and other sleep characteristics were associated with concurrent or subsequent substance involvement in a longitudinal study of adolescents. Participants were 729 adolescents (368 females; age 12 to 21 years) in the National Consortium on Alcohol and Neurodevelopment in Adolescence study. Associations between the sleep variables (circadian preference, sleep quality, daytime sleepiness, sleep timing, and sleep duration) and 3 categorical substance variables (at-risk alcohol use, alcohol bingeing, and past-year marijuana use [y/n]) were examined using ordinal and logistic regression with baseline age, sex, race, ethnicity, socioeconomic status, and psychiatric problems as covariates. At baseline, greater eveningness was associated with greater at-risk alcohol use, greater bingeing, and past-year use of marijuana. Later weekday and weekend bedtimes, but not weekday or weekend sleep duration, showed similar associations across the 3 substance outcomes at baseline. Greater baseline eveningness was also prospectively associated with greater bingeing and past-year use of marijuana at the 1-year follow-up, after covarying for baseline bingeing and marijuana use. Later baseline weekday and weekend bedtimes, and shorter baseline weekday sleep duration, were similarly associated with greater bingeing and past-year use of marijuana at the 1-year follow-up after covarying for baseline values. Findings suggest that eveningness and sleep timing may be under recognized risk factors and future areas of intervention for

  20. Greater sexual risk-taking in female and male recreational MDMA/ecstasy users compared with alcohol drinkers: a questionnaire study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Aimee L; Parrott, Andrew C

    2015-07-01

    Previous studies have shown increased sexual risk-taking in experienced MDMA/ecstasy users. The main objectives of this study were to compare levels of sexual risk-taking between a young student sample of predominantly heterosexual MDMA users and alcohol-drinker controls and investigate potential gender differences. Recreational drug use and sexual risk questionnaires were completed by 20 MDMA users (10 females, 10 males) and 20 non-user controls (10 females, 10 males). They were predominantly university students, aged between 20-22 years, mainly heterosexual (n = 37), with three bisexual participants. MDMA users displayed significantly greater levels of sexual risk-taking than the alcohol-drinker controls. It involved significantly higher rates of casual sex, non-condom use during sex, and penetrative sexual risks. This increase in sexual riskiness occurred to a similar extent in males and females. These findings indicate that both female and male ecstasy/MDMA users reported more risky sexual behaviours, than the non-user controls. Further research into the sexual behaviour and sexual risk-taking of heterosexual MDMA users should be conducted because much of the past literature has focused on homosexual participants. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Alcohol-Related Blackouts, Negative Alcohol-Related Consequences, and Motivations for Drinking Reported by Newly Matriculating Transgender College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tupler, Larry A; Zapp, Daniel; DeJong, William; Ali, Maryam; O'Rourke, Sarah; Looney, John; Swartzwelder, H Scott

    2017-05-01

    Many transgender college students struggle with identity formation and other emotional, social, and developmental challenges associated with emerging adulthood. A potential maladaptive coping strategy employed by such students is heavy drinking. Prior literature has suggested greater consumption and negative alcohol-related consequences (ARCs) in transgender students compared with their cisgender peers, but little is known about their differing experiences with alcohol-related blackouts (ARBs). We examined the level of alcohol consumption, the frequency of ARBs and other ARCs, and motivations for drinking reported by the largest sample of transgender college students to date. A Web survey from an alcohol-prevention program, AlcoholEdu for College™, assessed student demographics and drinking-related behaviors, experiences, and motivations of newly matriculating first-year college students. A self-reported drinking calendar was used to examine each of the following measures over the previous 14 days: number of drinking days, total number of drinks, and maximum number of drinks on any single day. A 7-point Likert scale was used to measure ARCs, ARBs, and drinking motivations. Transgender students of both sexes were compared with their cisgender peers. A total of 989 of 422,906 students (0.2%) identified as transgender. Over a 14-day period, transgender compared with cisgender students were more likely to consume alcohol over more days, more total drinks, and a greater number of maximum drinks on a single day. Transgender students (36%) were more likely to report an ARB than cisgender students (25%) as well as more negative academic, confrontation-related, social, and sexual ARCs. Transgender respondents more often cited stress reduction, social anxiety, self-esteem issues, and the inherent properties of alcohol as motivations for drinking. For nearly all measures, higher values were yielded by male-to-female than female-to-male transgender students. Transgender

  2. A review of existing studies reporting the negative effects of alcohol access and positive effects of alcohol control policies on interpersonal violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Laura Fitterer

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol consumption often leads to elevated rates of violence yet alcohol access policies continue to relax across the globe. Our review establishes the extent alcohol policy can moderate violent crime through alcohol availability restrictions. Results were informed from comprehensive selection of peer-reviewed journals from 1950 to October 2015. Our search identified 88 relevant studies on alcohol access and violence conducted across 12 countries. Seventeen studies included quasi-control design, and 23 conducted intervention analysis. Seventy-two (82% reported a significant relationship between alcohol access and violent offences. Alcohol outlet studies reported the greatest percentage of significant results (93%, with trading hours (63%, and alcohol price following (58%. Results from baseline studies indicated the effectiveness of increasing the price of commonly consumed alcohol, restricting the hours of alcohol trading, and limiting the number of alcohol outlets per region to prevent violent offences. Unclear are the effects of tax reductions, restriction of on-premises re-entry, and different outlet types on violent crime. Further, the generalization of statistics over broad areas and the low number of control/intervention studies poses some concern for confounding or correlated effects on study results, and amount of information for local level prevention of interpersonal violence. Future studies should focus on gathering longitudinal data, validating models, limiting crime data to peak drinking days and times, and wherever possible collecting the joint distribution between violent crime, intoxication, and place. A greater up take of local level analysis will benefit studies comparing the influence of multiple alcohol establishment types by relating the location of a crime to establishment proximity. Despite, some uncertainties particular studies showed that even modest policy changes such as 1% increases in alcohol price, one hour changes

  3. Effects of premature birth on the risk for alcoholism appear to be greater in males than females

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manzardo, Ann M; Madarasz, Wendy V; Penick, Elizabeth C

    2011-01-01

    A large Danish birth cohort was used to test the independent and joint effects of perinatal measures associated with premature birth as predictors of the development of alcoholism in male and female subjects.......A large Danish birth cohort was used to test the independent and joint effects of perinatal measures associated with premature birth as predictors of the development of alcoholism in male and female subjects....

  4. Acute coronary ischemia during alcohol withdrawal: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sriram Ganeshalingam

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction The potential of alcohol withdrawal to cause acute coronary events is an area that needs the urgent attention of clinicians and researchers. Case presentation We report the case of a 52-year-old heavy-alcohol-using Sri Lankan man who developed electocardiogram changes suggestive of an acute coronary event during alcohol withdrawal. Despite the patient being asymptomatic, subsequent echocardiogram showed evidence of ischemic myocardial dysfunction. We review the literature on precipitation of myocardial ischemia during alcohol withdrawal and propose possible mechanisms. Conclusions Alcohol withdrawal is a commonly observed phenomenon in hospitals. However, the number of cases reported in the literature of acute coronary events occurring during withdrawal is few. Many cases of acute ischemia or sudden cardiac deaths may be attributed to other well known complications of delirium tremens. This is an area needing the urgent attention of clinicians and epidemiologists.

  5. Do alcohol advertisements for brands popular among underage drinkers have greater appeal among youth and young adults?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, Michael; DeJong, William; Cioffi, Daryl; Leon-Chi, Lucero; Naimi, Timothy S; Padon, Alisa A; Jernigan, David H; Xuan, Ziming

    2016-01-01

    No previous study has determined whether there are differences in the youth appeal of alcohol advertisements for popular versus unpopular brands among underage drinkers. This paper provides a systematic investigation of the differential appeal of brand-level alcohol advertisements among underage youth and young adults in the United States. We examined 3 issues of 8 magazines popular among underage youth. From the advertised alcohol brands, we selected the ads for the top 10 and bottom 10 brands by prevalence of underage youth consumption, based on the results of a previous national survey. We assessed the ads' appeal using a sample of 211 students recruited from 1 graduate and 2 undergraduate courses at Boston University. Respondents rated the appeal of each advertisement on 4 dimensions: physical and social appeal, appeal to underage youth, perceived effectiveness, and liking. Using random-effects linear regression, we compared the appeal of advertisements for popular versus unpopular brands. On each dimension, the ads for popular youth alcohol brands were rated as significantly more appealing than the ads for unpopular brands. The magnitude of this difference was 0.26 standard deviation for the physical and social appeal score, 0.25 for the appeal to underage youth score, 0.21 for the perceived effectiveness score, and 0.16 for the liking score. Advertising for alcohol brands that are popular among youth contain elements that are more likely to appeal to underage youth and young adults than ads for brands that are relatively unpopular among young drinkers.

  6. Greater Occipital Nerve Treatment in the Management of Spontaneous Intracranial Hypotension Headache: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niraj, G; Critchley, Peter; Kodivalasa, Mahesh; Dorgham, Mohammed

    2017-06-01

    Clinical presentation of spontaneous intracranial hypotension headache (SIHH) has similarities with postdural puncture headache (PDPH). Recommended treatment for both conditions is an epidural blood patch. Successful outcomes following greater occipital nerve blocks have been reported in the management of PDPH. We present the first report of greater occipital nerve treatment in SIHH. A 40-year-old male presented with a 2-year history of daily postural headaches having a significant impact on quality of life. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed bilateral convexity subdural collections. Post gadolinium scan revealed pachymeningeal enhancement with reduced pontomesencephalic angle below 50 degrees. The patient was offered an epidural blood patch and greater occipital nerve block with corticosteroids. The patient chose occipital nerve block. The patient reported significant short-term benefit lasting 4 months. Thereafter, the patient underwent pulsed radiofrequency treatment to bilateral greater occipital nerves. He reported significant benefit lasting 10 months. Greater occipital nerve treatment may have a role in management of SIHH. © 2017 American Headache Society.

  7. Violence, abuse, alcohol and drug use, and sexual behaviors in street children of Greater Cairo and Alexandria, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nada, Khaled H; Suliman, El Daw A

    2010-07-01

    To measure the prevalence of HIV/AIDS risk behaviors and related factors in a large, probability-based sample of boys and girls aged 12-17 years living on the streets of Egypt's largest urban centers of Greater Cairo and Alexandria. Time-location sampling (TLS) was used to recruit a cross-sectional sample of street children. Procedures entailed using key informants and field observation to create a sampling frame of locations at predetermined time intervals of the day, where street children congregate in the two cities, selecting a random sample of time-locations from the complete list, and intercepting children in the selected time-locations to assess eligibility and conduct interviews. Interviews gathered basic demographic information, life events on the street (including violence, abuse, forced sex), sexual and drug use behaviors, and HIV/AIDS knowledge. A total of 857 street children were enrolled in the two cities, with an age, sex, and time-location composition matching the sampling frame. The majority of these children had faced harassment or abuse (93%) typically by police and other street children, had used drugs (62%), and, among the older adolescents, were sexually active (67%). Among the sexually active 15-17-year-olds, most reported multiple partners (54%) and never using condoms (52%). Most girls (53% in Greater Cairo and 90% in Alexandria) had experienced sexual abuse. The majority of street children experienced more than one of these risks. Overlaps with populations at highest risk for HIV were substantial, namely men who have sex with men, commercial sex workers, and injection drug users. Our study using a randomized TLS approach produced a rigorous, diverse, probability-based sample of street children and documented very high levels of multiple concurrent risks. Our findings strongly advocate for multiple services including those addressing HIV and STI prevention and care, substance use, shelters, and sensitization of authorities to the plight of

  8. Delusional parasitosis with alcohol dependence: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahid Dave, Austin Fernandes, Anup Bharati, Avinash De Sousa

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Delusional parasitosis is a syndrome with which most psychiatrists are familiar. However, most reports consist of case reports or small series. We present here a case report of delusional parasitosis of an extremely bizarre nature in a case of alcohol dependence that responded to pimozide, haloperidol and electroconvulsive therapy (ECT.

  9. Alcohol and Health. Fifth Special Report to the U.S. Congress from the Secretary of Health and Human Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Inst. on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (DHHS), Rockville, MD.

    This report is divided into an overview of alcohol and health, and eight chapters which deal with various aspects of alcohol use and abuse. The epidemiology of alcohol abuse and alcoholism is discussed. Data are presented on self-reported consumption of alcohol among youths and adults; alcohol consumption during pregnancy; alcohol-related…

  10. Principals' reports of adults' alcohol use in Australian secondary schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Bernadette M; Kippen, Rebecca; Buykx, Penny; Munro, Geoffrey; McBride, Nyanda; Wiggers, John

    2016-02-29

    Schools provide opportunities for parents and the wider community to connect and support the physical and emotional wellbeing of their children. Schools therefore have the potential to play a role in the socialisation of alcohol use through school policies and practices regarding consumption of alcohol by adults at school events in the presence of children. This survey was undertaken to a) compare the extent to which alcohol is used at secondary school events, when children are present, in the states of New South Wales (NSW) and Victoria (VIC), Australia; b) describe principals' level of agreement with these practices; c) their awareness of state policies on this issue; and d) the predictors of such events. A random sample of secondary schools, stratified to represent metropolitan and non-metropolitan schools were invited to participate. Bivariate and multivariate analysis were conducted with p values schools consented to participate in the study. Fifteen percent of participating NSW schools and 57% of VIC schools held at least one event in which alcohol was consumed by adults in the presence of children in the year before the survey. Of the 100 reported events, 78% were Year 12 graduation dinners, and 18% were debutante balls. Compared to NSW principals, VIC principals were significantly more likely to agree with the use of alcohol at these events; significantly less likely to be aware of their state education department policy on this issue; have a policy at their own school or support policy that prohibits alcohol use at such events; and less likely to report having enough information to make decisions about this. There is a growing focus on adults' use of alcohol at school events when children are present. Schools can play an important role in educating and socialising children about alcohol via both the curriculum and policies regarding adults' alcohol use at school events. Findings from this study suggest education department and school-based policies that

  11. Alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... because that's how many accidents occur. What Is Alcoholism? What can be confusing about alcohol is that ... develop a problem with it. Sometimes, that's called alcoholism (say: al-kuh-HOL - ism) or being an ...

  12. Alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    If you are like many Americans, you drink alcohol at least occasionally. For many people, moderate drinking ... risky. Heavy drinking can lead to alcoholism and alcohol abuse, as well as injuries, liver disease, heart ...

  13. Alcohol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Navarro Junior, L.

    1988-01-01

    The alcohol production as a secondary energy source, the participation of the alcohol in Brazilian national economic and social aspects are presented. Statistical data of alcohol demand compared with petroleum by-products and electricity are also included. (author)

  14. Torsion of the Greater Omentum Secondary to Omental Lymphangioma in a Child: A Case Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mistry, Kewal Arunkumar; Iyer, Dayashankar

    2015-01-01

    Omental cyst and omental torsion both are uncommon but important causes of acute abdomen with a difficult clinical diagnosis due to nonspecific features. Here we report a case of an eight year old child with acute abdominal pain referred for USG and CT scan which revealed two cysts in greater omentum leading to secondary omental torsion. An eight year old male child presented to casualty with severe pain abdomen since 1 day. There was no history of vomiting or altered bowel habits. The patient was febrile with tachycardia on arrival. On examination rigidity and tenderness all over abdomen were present. Serum amylase was within normal range. USG and CECT abdomen were done subsequently. USG showed two well defined cystic lesions in lower abdomen with presence of some internal echogenic debris and calcified foci in their dependent part. There was also presence of omentum with a whirl of blood vessels seen along anterior abdominal wall leading to these lesions suggesting torsion. On colour Doppler the presence of blood flow within the whirl of vessels was seen. Mild amount of free fluid was also seen in the peritoneal cavity. On CECT abdomen the findings of omental cysts and torsion of greater omentum with free fluid in abdomen were confirmed. The cysts measured 60×55 and 65×55mm on CT. The patient was taken for an emergency laparotomy for indication of acute generalized peritonitis. Two large omental cysts were found in the pelvic cavity along with torsed greater omentum along with 150 ml of hemorrhagic fluid in peritoneal cavity. The cysts and twisted necrotic part of the greater omentum were excised at surgery. No postoperative complications were observed. Histopathologic examination was suggestive of lymphangioma of omentum. Lymphangioma of the omentum is an not very uncommon however acute presentation with omental torsion and infarction is an unusual entity. Optimal utilization of preoperative imaging with USG, Doppler and contrast enhanced CT scan can provide

  15. Alcohol Consumption | Cancer Trends Progress Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Cancer Trends Progress Report, first issued in 2001, summarizes our nation's advances against cancer in relation to Healthy People targets set forth by the Department of Health and Human Services.

  16. Subacute encephalopathy with epileptic seizures in alcoholism (SESA): case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otto, F G; Kozian, R

    2001-10-01

    The case of a 66-year-old patient is reported in view of the rarity of his condition: a case of subacute encephalopathy with seizures in alcoholics (SESA syndrome), described first in 1981 by Niedermeyer, et al. Wernicke-type aphasia, epileptic seizures (generalized tonic-clonic) and PLEDs EEG pattern dominated the neurological picture, in addition to hepatomegaly and rhabdomyolysis. This condition differs from all other known CNS complications in chronic alcoholism and is withdrawal-independent. It is prognostically favorable as far as the syndrome as such is concerned.

  17. Changes in Patient-Reported Alcohol-Related Advice Following Veterans Health Administration Implementation of Brief Alcohol Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavez, Laura J; Williams, Emily C; Lapham, Gwen T; Rubinsky, Anna D; Kivlahan, Daniel R; Bradley, Katharine A

    2016-05-01

    Brief alcohol interventions are recommended for primary care patients who screen positive for alcohol misuse, but implementation is challenging. The U.S. Veterans Health Administration (Veterans Affairs [VA]) implemented brief interventions for patients with alcohol misuse in 2008, and rates of brief interventions documented in the electronic medical record increased from 24% to 78% (2008-2011). This study examined whether an independent measure of brief interventions-patient-reported alcohol-related advice-also increased among VA outpatients who screened positive for alcohol misuse on a mailed survey. This retrospective cross-sectional study included VA outpatient respondents to the VA's Survey of Healthcare Experiences of Patients (SHEP; 2007-2011) who reported past-year alcohol use and answered a question about alcohol-related advice. Alcohol-related advice was defined as a report of past-year advice from a VA clinician to abstain from or reduce drinking. The adjusted prevalence of alcoholrelated advice among patients who screened positive for alcohol misuse (SHEP AUDIT-C ≥ 5) was estimated for each year. Among patients with alcohol misuse (n = 61,843), the adjusted prevalence of alcohol-related advice increased from 40.4% (95% CI [39.3%, 41.5%]) in 2007 to 55.5% (95% CI [53.3%, 57.8%]) in 2011. Rates of alcoholrelated advice increased significantly each year except the last. The VA's efforts to implement brief interventions were associated with increased patient-reported alcohol-related advice over time, with a majority of patients with alcohol misuse reporting its receipt. Other systems considering similar approaches to implementation may benefit from collecting patient-reported measures of brief interventions for an additional perspective on implementation.

  18. Greater Prevalence of Proposed ICD-11 Alcohol and Cannabis Dependence Compared to ICD-10, DSM-IV, and DSM-5 in Treated Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Tammy; Cornelius, Jack; Clark, Duncan; Martin, Christopher

    2017-09-01

    Proposed International Classification of Diseases, 11th edition (ICD-11), criteria for substance use disorder (SUD) radically simplify the algorithm used to diagnose substance dependence. Major differences in case identification across DSM and ICD impact determinations of treatment need and conceptualizations of substance dependence. This study compared the draft algorithm for ICD-11 SUD against DSM-IV, DSM-5, and ICD-10, for alcohol and cannabis. Adolescents (n = 339, ages 14 to 18) admitted to intensive outpatient addictions treatment completed, as part of a research study, a Structured Clinical Interview for DSM SUDs adapted for use with adolescents and which has been used to assess DSM and ICD SUD diagnoses. Analyses examined prevalence across classification systems, diagnostic concordance, and sources of diagnostic disagreement. Prevalence of any past-year proposed ICD-11 alcohol or cannabis use disorder was significantly lower compared to DSM-IV and DSM-5 (ps DSM-5, and ICD-10 (ps DSM-5 SUD diagnoses showed only moderate concordance. For both alcohol and cannabis, youth typically met criteria for an ICD-11 dependence diagnosis by reporting tolerance and much time spent using or recovering from the substance, rather than symptoms indicating impaired control over use. The proposed ICD-11 dependence algorithm appears to "overdiagnose" dependence on alcohol and cannabis relative to DSM-IV and ICD-10 dependence, and DSM-5 moderate/severe use disorder, generating potential "false-positive" cases of dependence. Among youth who met criteria for proposed ICD-11 dependence, few reported impaired control over substance use, highlighting ongoing issues in the conceptualization and diagnosis of SUD. Copyright © 2017 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  19. Self-Reported Youth and Adult Exposure to Alcohol Marketing in Traditional and Digital Media: Results of a Pilot Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jernigan, David H; Padon, Alisa; Ross, Craig; Borzekowski, Dina

    2017-03-01

    Alcohol marketing is known to be a significant risk factor for underage drinking. However, little is known about youth and adult exposure to alcohol advertising in digital and social media. This study piloted a comparative assessment of youth and adult recall of exposure to online marketing of alcohol. From September to October 2013, a pilot survey of past 30-day exposure to alcohol advertising and promotional content in traditional and digital media was administered to a national sample of 1,192 youth (ages 13 to 20) and 1,124 adults (ages ≥21) using a prerecruited Internet panel maintained by GfK Custom Research. The weighted proportions of youth and adults who reported this exposure were compared by media type and by advertising and promotional content. Youth were more likely than adults to recall exposure to alcohol advertising on television (69.2% vs. 61.9%), radio (24.8% vs. 16.7%), billboards (54.8% vs. 35.4%), and the Internet (29.7% vs. 16.8%), but less likely to recall seeing advertising in magazines (35.7% vs. 36.4%). Youth were also more likely to recall seeing advertisements and pictures on the Internet of celebrities using alcohol (36.1% vs. 20.8%) or wearing clothing promoting alcohol (27.7% vs. 15.9%), and actively respond (i.e., like, share, or post) to alcohol-related content online. Youth report greater exposure to alcohol advertising and promotional content than adults in most media, including on the Internet. These findings emphasize the need to assure compliance with voluntary industry standards on the placement of alcohol advertising and the importance of developing better tools for monitoring youth exposure to alcohol marketing, particularly on the Internet. Copyright © 2017 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  20. Consistency of self-reported alcohol consumption on randomized and sequential alcohol purchase tasks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael eAmlung

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Behavioral economic demand for addictive substances is commonly assessed via purchase tasks that measure estimated drug consumption at a range of prices. Purchase tasks typically use escalating prices in sequential order, which may influence performance by providing explicit price reference points. This study investigated the consistency of value preferences on two alcohol purchase tasks (APTs that used either a randomized or sequential price order (price range: free to $30 per drink in a sample of ninety-one young adult monthly drinkers. Randomization of prices significantly reduced relative response consistency (p < .01, although absolute consistency was high for both versions (>95%. Self-reported alcohol consumption across prices and indices of demand were highly similar across versions, although a few notable exceptions were found. These results suggest generally high consistency and overlapping performance between randomized and sequential price assessment. Implications for the behavioral economics literature and priorities for future research are discussed.

  1. [Alcohol].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zima, T

    1996-07-14

    Alcohol is one of the most widely used addictive substances. It can be assumed that everybody encounters alcohol--ethanol in various forms and concentrations in the course of their lives. A global and social problem of our civilization is alcohol consumption which has a rising trend. Since 1989 the consumption of alcoholic beverages is rising and the mean annual consumption of concentrated ethanol per head is cea 10 litres. In ethanol abuse the organism is damaged not only by ethanol alone but in particular by substances formed during its metabolism. Its detailed knowledge is essential for the knowledge and investigations of the metabolic and toxic effect of ethanol on the organism. Ingested alcohol is in 90-98% eliminated from the organism by three known metabolic pathways: 1-alcohol dehydrogenase, 2-the microsomal ethanol oxidizing system and 3-catalase. Alcohol is a frequent important risk factor of serious "diseases of civilization" such as IHD, hypertension, osteoporosis, neoplastic diseases. Cirrhosis of the liver and chronic pancreatitis are the well known diseases associated with alcohol ingestion and also their most frequent cause. It is impossible to list all organs and diseases which develop as a result of alcohol consumption. It is important to realize that regular and "relatively" small amounts in the long run damage the organism and may be even fatal.

  2. Final report of the safety assessment of Alcohol Denat., including SD Alcohol 3-A, SD Alcohol 30, SD Alcohol 39, SD Alcohol 39-B, SD Alcohol 39-C, SD Alcohol 40, SD Alcohol 40-B, and SD Alcohol 40-C, and the denaturants, Quassin, Brucine Sulfate/Brucine, and Denatonium Benzoate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    animals that died, respiratory arrest was the cause. The acute i.p. LD(50) for 15 ml/kg of Brucine base was 62.0 mg/kg, with central nervous system depression prior to the onset of convulsions, just as with oral Brucine. The acute intravenous (i.v.) LD(50) was 12.0 mg/kg. Brucine was nonmutagenic in an Ames assay at levels up to 6666 mu g/plate, with and without metabolic activation. In a repeat-insult patch test, for a hair care product containing 47% SD Alcohol 40 (95%), it was reported that Brucine Sulfate may be considered a nonprimary irritant and a nonprimary sensitizer. Three different sunscreen products (35% SD Alcohol 40-B, 72.4% SD Alcohol 40, and 74.5% SD Alcohol 40) did not show any signs of photoallergy in human subjects. Also, these three formulas did not exhibit any evidence of phototoxicity in humans. Denatonium Benzoate is a bitter substance detectable at a concentration of 10 ppb, discernibly bitter at 50 ppb, and unpleasantly bitter at 10 ppm. The distribution of topically applied lidocaine, a topical anesthetic chemically related to Denatonium Benzoate demonstrated that virtually no lidocaine appears in the plasma, suggesting that the larger Denatonium Benzoate molecule also would have little or no systemic exposure. Denatonium Benzoate (0.1%) did not show adverse effects in 10 rats in an acute inhalation toxicity test and 0.005% to 0.05% was nonirritating to ocular mucosa in 6 albino rabbits. The acute oral LD(50) for the male rats was 640 mg/kg and for females, 584 mg/kg. The LD(50) for the male rabbits was 508 mg/kg and for the female rabbits, 640 mg/kg. In two chronic toxicity studies, Denatonium Benzoate was administered (by gavage) at 1.6, 8, and 16 mg/kg/day, one using cynomologus monkeys and the other rats, resulted in no compound-related toxicity. The toxicity of SD Alcohols has also been tested, with implications for the particular denaturant used. An irritation test of 55.65% SD Alcohol 40-B denatured with Denatonium Benzoate using rabbits

  3. Young adolescents who combine alcohol and energy drinks have a higher risk of reporting negative behavioural outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holubcikova, Jana; Kolarcik, Peter; Madarasova Geckova, Andrea; Joppova, Eva; van Dijk, Jitse P; Reijneveld, Sijmen A

    2017-04-01

    To explore whether young adolescents consuming alcohol and energy drinks combined were more likely to report negative behavioural outcomes than their peers who drink only one type of these beverages or are abstinent. We analysed data on a representative sample of Slovak adolescents 8502 adolescents (mean age 13.21, 49.4 % boys) from the 2014 Health Behaviour in School-aged Children cross-sectional study. We assessed the associations of alcohol and energy drinks consumption with negative outcomes and their potential synergy, as measured by the synergy index (SI). Adolescents consuming both alcohol and energy drinks were at higher risk of negative behavioural outcomes than their peers who drank only alcohol or energy drinks or were non-consumers. Consumers of alcohol and energy drinks were highly prone to be involved in fighting-the joint association of alcohol and energy drinks consumption was greater than sum of its associations separately in relation to fighting (SI 1.49; 95 % confidence interval 1.03-2.16). Preventive strategies should aim at increasing awareness of negative behavioural outcomes-especially aggressive behaviour associated with alcohol and energy drinks consumption among young adolescents.

  4. The Fetal Alcohol Syndrome Public Awareness Campaign, 1979: Progress Report Concerning the Advance Notice of Proposed Rulemaking on Warning Labels on Containers of Alcoholic Beverages and Addendum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Department of the Treasury, Washington, DC.

    This report provides expert opinion on the problems of fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) and ways to inform the public of teratogenic risk of alcohol consumption during pregnancy. In the absence of firm evidence that moderate drinking of alcoholic beverages leads to FAS and uncertainty concerning the effectiveness of labeling of alcoholic beverages, a…

  5. Binge Alcohol Use among Persons Aged 12 to 20: 2002 and 2003 Update. The NSDUH Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, 2005

    2005-01-01

    Research has shown that persons who engage in binge alcohol use as teenagers are at increased risk for binge drinking as young adults. Binge Alcohol Use among Persons Aged 12 to 20: 2002 and 2003 Update asks respondents aged 12 or older to report their frequency and quantity of alcohol use during the month before the survey. NSDUH defines binge…

  6. Alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... created when grains, fruits, or vegetables are fermented . Fermentation is a process that uses yeast or bacteria to change the sugars in the food into alcohol. Fermentation is used to produce many necessary items — everything ...

  7. Ischemic colitis complicating imipramine overdose and alcohol ingestion. Case report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Basse, Peter Neimann; Rørdam, P

    1992-01-01

    Patients on antidepressant medication are instructed to avoid alcohol because of possible additive effects on cognitive function. An unusual case of colonic gangrene following overdose of imipramine and alcohol is presented. The patient recovered.......Patients on antidepressant medication are instructed to avoid alcohol because of possible additive effects on cognitive function. An unusual case of colonic gangrene following overdose of imipramine and alcohol is presented. The patient recovered....

  8. Alcohol and Health. Seventh Special Report to the U.S. Congress from the Secretary of Health and Human Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Inst. on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (DHHS), Rockville, MD.

    This report describes recent progress in knowledge on alcohol abuse and alcoholism. These topics are covered: (1) alcohol abuse and alcoholism, including drinking patterns, etiology, and alcohol dependence as a disease; (2) epidemiology, including morbidity and deaths; (3) genetics and environment, including twin and adoption studies, animal…

  9. How much alcohol do you buy? A comparison of self-reported alcohol purchases with actual sales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramstedt, Mats

    2010-04-01

    Unrecorded alcohol has increased in the Nordic countries during recent years, above all in terms of cross-border trade. This implies that trends and levels of per capita consumption would look different without estimates of this source of alcohol, estimates that in Sweden and other countries are made through surveys. The overall aim is to analyse the validity of Swedish survey estimates of alcohol bought in the cross-border trade and possibly to develop weights that can be applied to such estimates. The analysis consists of comparing self-reported purchases of spirits, wine, cider/alcopops and beer at retail monopoly (Systembolaget) during 2008 (n = 18,000) with actual sales during the same period overall and monthly. Of the recorded amount of purchases at Systembolaget, 87% was reported in the survey, compared with the 40-60% usually found for self-reported consumption. Significant differences across beverages were revealed, showing a lower coverage rate for beer and spirits and a higher coverage rate for wine and cider. Changes in purchases of all beverages were captured fairly well, at least changes taking place from one month to another. Self-reported alcohol purchases achieve a higher coverage rate than found typically in studies based on self-reported use of alcohol. If adjustments are to be made to correct for underreporting in self-reported data on alcohol purchases, different weights should be applied to different beverages. Furthermore, at least major changes in how much alcohol is purchased in the population can be monitored using well-designed population surveys.

  10. High prevalence of unhealthy alcohol use and comparison of self-reported alcohol consumption to phosphatidylethanol among women engaged in sex work and their male clients in Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couture, Marie-Claude; Page, Kimberly; Sansothy, Neth; Stein, Ellen; Vun, Mean Chhi; Hahn, Judith A

    2016-08-01

    In Cambodia, most of the female sex workers (FSW) work in venues where unhealthy alcohol use is ubiquitous and potentially contributing to the HIV epidemic. However, no accurate data exists. We compare self-reported unhealthy alcohol consumption to a biomarker of alcohol intake in Cambodian FSW and male clients, and determine factors associated with unhealthy alcohol use. A cross-sectional study was conducted among FSW (n=100) and male clients (n=100) in entertainment and sex work venues in Cambodia. Self-reported unhealthy alcohol use (AUDIT-C) was compared to phosphatidylethanol (PEth) positive (≥50ng/ml), a biomarker of alcohol intake. Sociodemographics data was collected. Correlates of self-reported unhealthy alcohol use and PEth positive were determined. The prevalence of PEth positive in FSW was 60.0%. Self-reported unhealthy alcohol consumption was reported by 85.0% of the women. Almost all women (95.0%) testing PEth positive also reported unhealthy alcohol use. Prevalence of unhealthy alcohol consumption (self-report and PEth positive) was higher in FSW working in entertainment establishments compared to other sex work venues (psex work settings. Self-reported unhealthy alcohol use is well reported by FSW, but less by male clients. These findings highlight the urgency of using accurate measures of unhealthy alcohol consumption and integrating this health issue into HIV prevention interventions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. How report cards on physicians, physician groups, and hospitals can have greater impact on consumer choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinaiko, Anna D; Eastman, Diana; Rosenthal, Meredith B

    2012-03-01

    Public report cards with quality and cost information on physicians, physician groups, and hospital providers have proliferated in recent years. However, many of these report cards are difficult for consumers to interpret and have had little impact on the provider choices consumers are making. To gain a more focused understanding of why these reports cards have not been more successful and what improvements could be made, we interviewed experts and surveyed registrants at the March 2011 AHRQ National Summit on Public Reporting for Consumers in Health Care. We found broad agreement that public reporting has been disconnected from consumer decisions about providers because of weaknesses in report card content, design, and accessibility. Policy makers have an opportunity to change the landscape of public reporting by taking advantage of advances in measurement, data collection, and information technology to deliver a more consumer-centered report card. Overcoming the constraint of limited public funding, and achieving the acceptance of providers, is critical to realizing future success.

  12. Alcoholism and diabetes mellitus: Case report | Otieno | East African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    He was an alcoholic receiving psychiatric care for alcoholism. They both presented separately at different hospitals with decompensated diabetes following heavy alcohol consumption. The history and clinico-laboratory picture of both patients are presented and brief management programme and outcome are also given.

  13. Greater-Than-Class C Low-Level Radioactive Waste Transportation Strategy report and institutional plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmitt, R.C.; Tyacke, M.J.

    1995-01-01

    This document contains two parts. Part I, Greater-Than-Class-C Low-Level Radioactive Waste Transportation Strategy, addresses the requirements, responsibilities, and strategy to transport and receive these wastes. The strategy covers (a) transportation packaging, which includes shipping casks and waste containers; (b) transportation operations relating to the five facilities involved in transportation, i.e., waste originator, interim storage, dedicated storage, treatment, and disposal; (c) system safety and risk analysis; (d) routes; (e) emergency preparedness and response; and (o safeguards and security. A summary of strategic actions is provided at the conclusion of Part 1. Part II, Institutional Plan for Greater-Than-Class C Low-Level Radioactive Waste Packaging and Transportation, addresses the assumptions, requirements, and institutional plan elements and actions. As documented in the Strategy and Institutional Plan, the most challenging issues facing the GTCC LLW Program shipping campaign are institutional issues closely related to the strategy. How the Program addresses those issues and demonstrates to the states, local governments, and private citizens that the shipments can and will be made safely will strongly affect the success or failure of the campaign.

  14. Greater-Than-Class C Low-Level Radioactive Waste Transportation Strategy report and institutional plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmitt, R.C.; Tyacke, M.J.

    1995-01-01

    This document contains two parts. Part I, Greater-Than-Class-C Low-Level Radioactive Waste Transportation Strategy, addresses the requirements, responsibilities, and strategy to transport and receive these wastes. The strategy covers (a) transportation packaging, which includes shipping casks and waste containers; (b) transportation operations relating to the five facilities involved in transportation, i.e., waste originator, interim storage, dedicated storage, treatment, and disposal; (c) system safety and risk analysis; (d) routes; (e) emergency preparedness and response; and (o safeguards and security. A summary of strategic actions is provided at the conclusion of Part 1. Part II, Institutional Plan for Greater-Than-Class C Low-Level Radioactive Waste Packaging and Transportation, addresses the assumptions, requirements, and institutional plan elements and actions. As documented in the Strategy and Institutional Plan, the most challenging issues facing the GTCC LLW Program shipping campaign are institutional issues closely related to the strategy. How the Program addresses those issues and demonstrates to the states, local governments, and private citizens that the shipments can and will be made safely will strongly affect the success or failure of the campaign

  15. A comparison between brand-specific and traditional alcohol surveillance methods to assess underage drinkers' reported alcohol use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Sarah P; Siegel, Michael B; DeJong, William; Jernigan, David H

    2014-11-01

    Adolescent alcohol consumption remains common and is associated with many negative health outcomes. Unfortunately, common alcohol surveillance methods often underestimate consumption. Improved alcohol use measures are needed to characterize the landscape of youth drinking. We aimed to compare a standard quantity-frequency measure of youth alcohol consumption to a novel brand-specific measure. We recruited a sample of 1031 respondents across the United States to complete an online survey. Analyses included 833 male and female underage drinkers ages 13-20. Respondents reported on how many of the past 30 days they consumed alcohol, and the number of drinks consumed on an average drinking day. Using our brand-specific measure, respondents identified which brands they consumed, how many days they consumed each brand, and how many drinks per brand they usually had. Youth reported consuming significantly more alcohol (on average, 11 drinks more per month) when responding to the brand-specific versus the standard measure (p brands consumed (p brand preferences and consumption.

  16. Brand preferences of underage drinkers who report alcohol-related fights and injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Sarah P; Siegel, Michael B; DeJong, William; Naimi, Timothy S; Jernigan, David H

    2015-04-01

    A significant body of research has demonstrated an association between adolescent alcohol consumption and subsequent fights and injuries. To date, however, no research has identified which brands are associated with alcohol-related fights and injuries among underage drinkers. We aimed to: (1) report the prevalence of alcohol-related fights and injuries among a national sample of underage drinkers in the U.S. and (2) describe the relationship between specific alcohol brand consumption and these alcohol-related negative consequences. We recruited 1,031 self-reported drinkers (ages 13-20 years) via an internet panel maintained by Knowledge Networks to complete an online survey. Respondents reported their past-month overall and brand-specific alcohol consumption, risky drinking behavior, and past-year alcohol-related fights and injuries. Over one-quarter of the respondents (26.7%, N = 232) reported at least one alcohol-related fight or injury in the past year. Heavy episodic drinkers were over six times more likely to report one of these negative alcohol-related consequences (AOR: 6.4, 95% CI: 4.1-9.9). Respondents of black race and those from higher-income households were also significantly more likely to report that experience (AOR: 2.2, 95% CI: 1.3-3.7; AOR: 1.8, 95% CI: 1.1-3.0 and 1.1-3.2, respectively). We identified eight alcohol brands that were significantly associated with alcohol-related fights and injuries. CONCLUSIONS/IMPORTANCE: Alcohol-related fights and injuries were frequently reported by adolescent respondents. Eight alcohol brands were significantly more popular among drinkers who experienced these adverse consequences. These results point to the need for further research on brand-specific correlates of underage drinking and negative health outcomes.

  17. Greater Vancouver regional district air quality management plan : implementation status report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-03-01

    In December 1994, an Air Quality Management Plan (AQMP) was adopted by the Greater Vancouver Regional District. The AQMP included ways to improve air quality in the region, leading to reduced emissions from commercial and industrial operations. This Plan encourages cooperation with the various communities affected to achieve clean air lifestyles and manage emissions from human activity to enhance human health and the integrity of the environment. The reduction of total emissions of the common air contaminants sulphur and nitrogen oxides, particulate matter, carbon monoxide and volatile organic compounds by 38 per cent is the stated aim of the AQMP. Five years of planning resulted in the formulation of the AQMP. The issues addressed were assigned one of four priorities as follows: priority 1 deals with ground level ozone and fine particulate, priority 2 looks at visibility, hazardous air pollutants, and global climate change, priority 3 concerns odour, carbon monoxide, sulphur dioxide, acidic deposition, and nitrogen dioxide, and priority 4 contains total suspended particulate matter and volatile organic compounds. A total of 54 Emission Reduction Measures were established, and the document reviewed them. Progress is being made in all areas. 2 tabs., 3 figs

  18. College students who have an eveningness preference report lower self-control and greater procrastination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Digdon, Nancy L; Howell, Andrew J

    2008-11-01

    Previous research suggests a possible link between eveningness and general difficulties with self-regulation (e.g., evening types are more likely than other chronotypes to have irregular sleep schedules and social rhythms and use substances). Our study investigated the relationship between eveningness and self-regulation by using two standardized measures of self-regulation: the Self-Control Scale and the Procrastination Scale. We predicted that an eveningness preference would be associated with poorer self-control and greater procrastination than would an intermediate or morningness preference. Participants were 308 psychology students (mean age=19.92 yrs) at a small Canadian college. Students completed the self-regulation questionnaires and Morningness/Eveningness Questionnaire (MEQ) online. The mean MEQ score was 46.69 (SD=8.20), which is intermediate between morningness and eveningness. MEQ scores ranged from definite morningness to definite eveningness, but the dispersion of scores was skewed toward more eveningness. Pearson and partial correlations (controlling for age) were used to assess the relationship between MEQ score and the Self-Control Scale (global score and 5 subscale scores) and Procrastination Scale (global score). All correlations were significant. The magnitude of the effects was medium for all measures except one of the Self-Control subscales, which was small. A multiple regression analysis to predict MEQ score using the Self-Control Scale (global score), Procrastination Scale, and age as predictors indicated the Self-Control Scale was a significant predictor (accounting for 20% of the variance). A multiple regression analysis to predict MEQ scores using the five subscales of the Self-Control Scale and age as predictors showed the subscales for reliability and work ethic were significant predictors (accounting for 33% of the variance). Our study showed a relationship between eveningness and low self-control, but it did not address whether the

  19. Internet Alcohol Marketing and Underage Alcohol Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClure, Auden C; Tanski, Susanne E; Li, Zhigang; Jackson, Kristina; Morgenstern, Matthis; Li, Zhongze; Sargent, James D

    2016-02-01

    Internet alcohol marketing is not well studied despite its prevalence and potential accessibility and attractiveness to youth. The objective was to examine longitudinal associations between self-reported engagement with Internet alcohol marketing and alcohol use transitions in youth. A US sample of 2012 youths aged 15 to 20 was surveyed in 2011. An Internet alcohol marketing receptivity score was developed, based on number of positive responses to seeing alcohol advertising on the Internet, visiting alcohol brand Web sites, being an online alcohol brand fan, and cued recall of alcohol brand home page images. We assessed the association between baseline marketing receptivity and both ever drinking and binge drinking (≥6 drinks per occasion) at 1-year follow-up with multiple logistic regression, controlling for baseline drinking status, Internet use, sociodemographics, personality characteristics, and peer or parent drinking. At baseline, ever-drinking and binge-drinking prevalence was 55% and 27%, respectively. Many (59%) reported seeing Internet alcohol advertising, but few reported going to an alcohol Web site (6%) or being an online fan (3%). Higher Internet use, sensation seeking, having family or peers who drank, and past alcohol use were associated with Internet alcohol marketing receptivity, and a score of 1 or 2 was independently associated with greater adjusted odds of initiating binge drinking (odds ratio 1.77; 95% confidence interval, 1.13-2.78 and odds ratio 2.15; 95% confidence interval, 1.06-4.37 respectively) but not with initiation of ever drinking. Although high levels of engagement with Internet alcohol marketing were uncommon, most underage youths reported seeing it, and we found a prospective association between receptivity to this type of alcohol marketing and future problem drinking, making additional research and ongoing surveillance important. Copyright © 2016 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  20. Internet Alcohol Marketing and Underage Alcohol Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClure, Auden C.; Tanski, Susanne E.; Li, Zhigang; Jackson, Kristina; Morgenstern, Matthis; Li, Zhongze; Sargent, James D.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE Internet alcohol marketing is not well studied despite its prevalence and potential accessibility and attractiveness to youth. The objective was to examine longitudinal associations between self-reported engagement with Internet alcohol marketing and alcohol use transitions in youth. METHODS A US sample of 2012 youths aged 15 to 20 was surveyed in 2011. An Internet alcohol marketing receptivity score was developed, based on number of positive responses to seeing alcohol advertising on the Internet, visiting alcohol brand Web sites, being an online alcohol brand fan, and cued recall of alcohol brand home page images. We assessed the association between baseline marketing receptivity and both ever drinking and binge drinking (≥6 drinks per occasion) at 1-year follow-up with multiple logistic regression, controlling for baseline drinking status, Internet use, sociodemographics, personality characteristics, and peer or parent drinking. RESULTS At baseline, ever-drinking and binge-drinking prevalence was 55% and 27%, respectively. Many (59%) reported seeing Internet alcohol advertising, but few reported going to an alcohol Web site (6%) or being an online fan (3%). Higher Internet use, sensation seeking, having family or peers who drank, and past alcohol use were associated with Internet alcohol marketing receptivity, and a score of 1 or 2 was independently associated with greater adjusted odds of initiating binge drinking (odds ratio 1.77; 95% confidence interval, 1.13–2.78 and odds ratio 2.15; 95% confidence interval, 1.06–4.37 respectively) but not with initiation of ever drinking. CONCLUSIONS Although high levels of engagement with Internet alcohol marketing were uncommon, most underage youths reported seeing it, and we found a prospective association between receptivity to this type of alcohol marketing and future problem drinking, making additional research and ongoing surveillance important. PMID:26738886

  1. Alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to do. Wondering if adding a glass of wine or beer might help lower your blood glucose if it is high? The effects of alcohol can be unpredictable and it is not recommended as a treatment for high blood glucose. The risks likely outweigh any benefit that may be seen in blood glucose alone. ...

  2. Comparison of assessment methods for self-reported alcohol consumption in health interview surveys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekholm, O; Strandberg-Larsen, K; Christensen, K

    2008-01-01

    To select a simple method for assessing alcohol consumption and to compare how different reference periods and response categories influence the self-reported frequency of binge drinking.......To select a simple method for assessing alcohol consumption and to compare how different reference periods and response categories influence the self-reported frequency of binge drinking....

  3. Parent-child discrepancies in reports of parental monitoring and their relationship to adolescent alcohol-related behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abar, Caitlin C.; Jackson, Kristina M.; Colby, Suzanne M.; Barnett, Nancy P.

    2014-01-01

    Discrepancies between parents and adolescents regarding parenting behaviors have been hypothesized to represent a deficit in the parent-child relationship and may represent unique risk factors for poor developmental outcomes. The current study examined the predictive utility of multiple methods for characterizing discrepancies in parents’ and adolescents’ reports of parental monitoring on youth alcohol use behaviors in order to inform future study design and predictive modeling. Data for the current study came from a prospective investigation of alcohol initiation and progression. The analyzed sample consisted of 606 adolescents (6th – 8th grade; 54% female) and their parents were surveyed at baseline, with youth followed up 12 months later. A series of hierarchical logistic regressions were performed for each monitoring-related construct examined (parental knowledge, parental control, parental solicitation, and child disclosure). The results showed that adolescents’ reports were more closely related to outcomes than parents’ reports, while greater discrepancies were frequently found to be uniquely associated with greater likelihood of alcohol use behaviors. Implications for future work incorporating parents’ and adolescents’ reports are discussed. PMID:24964878

  4. Brief report: The Brief Alcohol Social Density Assessment (BASDA): convergent, criterion-related, and incremental validity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKillop, James; Acker, John D; Bollinger, Jared; Clifton, Allan; Miller, Joshua D; Campbell, W Keith; Goodie, Adam S

    2013-09-01

    Alcohol misuse is substantially influenced by social factors, but systematic assessments of social network drinking are typically lengthy. The goal of the present study was to provide further validation of a brief measure of social network alcohol use, the Brief Alcohol Social Density Assessment (BASDA), in a sample of emerging adults. Specifically, the study sought to examine the BASDA's convergent, criterion, and incremental validity in relation to well-established measures of drinking motives and problematic drinking. Participants were 354 undergraduates who were assessed using the BASDA, the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT), and the Drinking Motives Questionnaire. Significant associations were observed between the BASDA index of alcohol-related social density and alcohol misuse, social motives, and conformity motives, supporting convergent validity. Criterion-related validity was supported by evidence that significantly greater alcohol involvement was present in the social networks of individuals scoring at or above an AUDIT score of 8, a validated criterion for hazardous drinking. Finally, the BASDA index was significantly associated with alcohol misuse above and beyond drinking motives in relation to AUDIT scores, supporting incremental validity. Taken together, these findings provide further support for the BASDA as an efficient measure of drinking in an individual's social network. Methodological considerations as well as recommendations for future investigations in this area are discussed.

  5. Reporting the characteristics of the policy context for population-level alcohol interventions: a proposed 'Transparent Reporting of Alcohol Intervention ContExts' (TRAICE) checklist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, John; Meier, Petra S; Booth, Andrew; Brennan, Alan

    2014-11-01

    Effectiveness of alcohol policy interventions varies across times and places. The circumstances under which effective polices can be successfully transferred between contexts are typically unexplored with little attention given to developing reporting requirements that would facilitate systematic investigation. Using purposive sampling and expert elicitation methods, we identified context-related factors impacting on the effectiveness of population-level alcohol policies. We then drew on previous characterisations of alcohol policy contexts and methodological-reporting checklists to design a new checklist for reporting contextual information in evaluation studies. Six context factor domains were identified: (i) baseline alcohol consumption, norms and harm rates; (ii) baseline affordability and availability; (iii) social, microeconomic and demographic contexts; (iv) macroeconomic context; (v) market context; and (vi) wider policy, political and media context. The checklist specifies information, typically available in national or international reports, to be reported in each domain. The checklist can facilitate evidence synthesis by providing: (i) a mechanism for systematic and more consistent reporting of contextual data for meta-regression and realist evaluations; (ii) information for policy-makers on differences between their context and contexts of evaluations; and (iii) an evidence base for adjusting prospective policy simulation models to account for policy context. Our proposed checklist provides a tool for gaining better understanding of the influence of policy context on intervention effectiveness. Further work is required to rationalise and aggregate checklists across interventions types to make such checklists practical for use by journals and to improve reporting of important qualitative contextual data. © 2014 The Authors. Drug and Alcohol Review published by Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd on behalf of Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and

  6. Final report of the addendum to the safety assessment of n-butyl alcohol as used in cosmetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLain, Valerie C

    2008-01-01

    nonimmunological contact urticaria was negative in 105 subjects. Repeat-insult patch test (RIPT) studies of nail colors and enamels containing 3% n-Butyl Alcohol in one study produced reactions on challenge, but further study linked significant positive reactions to another solvent. In other RIPT studies, only minimal reactions were reported. A photopatch test demonstrated that a nail enamel containing 3% n-Butyl Alcohol resulted in no reactions. Workers complained of ocular irritation, disagreeable odor, slight headache and vertigo, slight irritation of nose and throat, and dermatitis of the fingers and hands when the air concentration of n-Butyl Alcohol was greater than 50 ppm, as compared to an odor threshold in air of 0.83 ppm. The available safety test data were considered adequate to support the safety of n-Butyl Alcohol in all cosmetic product categories in which it is currently used.

  7. Social and institutional evaluation report for Greater-Than-Class C Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, T.L.; Lewis, B.E.; Turner, K.H.; Rozelle, M.A.

    1993-10-01

    This report identifies and characterizes social and institutional issues that would be relevant to the siting, licensing, construction, closure, and postclosure of a Greater-Than-Class-C low-level radioactive waste (GTCC LLW) disposal facility. A historical perspective of high-level radioactive waste (HLW) and LLW disposal programs is provided as an overview of radioactive waste disposal and to support the recommendations and conclusions in the report. A characterization of each issue is provided to establish the basis for further evaluations. Where applicable, the regulatory requirements of 10 CFR 60 and 61 are incorporated in the issue characterizations. The issues are used to compare surface, intermediate depth, and deep geologic disposal alternatives. The evaluation establishes that social and institutional issues do not significantly discriminate among the disposal alternatives. Recommendations are provided for methods by which the issues could be considered throughout the lifecycle of a GTCC LLW disposal program

  8. Social and institutional evaluation report for Greater-Than-Class C Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, T.L.; Lewis, B.E.; Turner, K.H.; Rozelle, M.A. [Dames and Moore, Denver, CO (United States)

    1993-10-01

    This report identifies and characterizes social and institutional issues that would be relevant to the siting, licensing, construction, closure, and postclosure of a Greater-Than-Class-C low-level radioactive waste (GTCC LLW) disposal facility. A historical perspective of high-level radioactive waste (HLW) and LLW disposal programs is provided as an overview of radioactive waste disposal and to support the recommendations and conclusions in the report. A characterization of each issue is provided to establish the basis for further evaluations. Where applicable, the regulatory requirements of 10 CFR 60 and 61 are incorporated in the issue characterizations. The issues are used to compare surface, intermediate depth, and deep geologic disposal alternatives. The evaluation establishes that social and institutional issues do not significantly discriminate among the disposal alternatives. Recommendations are provided for methods by which the issues could be considered throughout the lifecycle of a GTCC LLW disposal program.

  9. Zinc-deficiency acrodermatitis in a patient with chronic alcoholism and gastric bypass: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dariush Shahsavari

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Acquired adult-onset zinc deficiency is occasionally reported in patients with malnutrition states, such as alcoholism, or malabsorptive states, such as post-bariatric surgery. The defining symptoms of hypozincemia include a classic triad of necrolytic dermatitis, diffuse alopecia, and diarrhea. We report a case of zinc deficiency in a 39-year-old man with history of gastric bypass surgery and alcoholism. For this patient, severe hypozincemia confirmed acrodermatitis, and zinc supplementation was met with gradual improvement.

  10. Social Desirability Bias in the Reporting of Alcohol Consumption: A Randomized Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kypri, Kypros; Wilson, Amanda; Attia, John; Sheeran, Paschal; Miller, Peter; McCambridge, Jim

    2016-05-01

    To investigate reporting of alcohol consumption, we manipulated the contexts of questions in ways designed to induce social desirability bias. We undertook a two-arm, parallel-group, individually randomized trial at an Australian public university. Students were recruited by email to a web-based "Research Project on Student Health Behavior." Respondents answered nine questions about their physical activity, diet, and smoking. They were unknowingly randomized to a group presented with either (A) three questions about their alcohol consumption or (B) seven questions about their alcohol dependence and problems (under a prominent header labeled "Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test"), followed by the same three alcohol consumption questions from (A). A total of 3,594 students (mean age = 27, SD = 10) responded and were randomized: 1,778 to Group A and 1,816 to Group B. Outcome measures were the number of days they drank alcohol, the typical number of drinks they consumed per drinking day, and the number of days they consumed six or more drinks. The primary analysis included participants with any alcohol consumption in the preceding 4 weeks (1,304 in Group A; 1,340 in Group B) using between-group, two-tailed t tests. In Groups A and B, respectively, means (and SDs) of the number of days drinking were 5.89 (5.92) versus 6.06 (6.12), p = .49; typical number of drinks per drinking day: 4.02 (3.87) versus 3.82 (3.76), p = .17; and number of days consuming six or more drinks: 1.69 (2.94) versus 1.67 (3.25), p = .56. We could not reject the null hypothesis because earlier questions about alcohol dependence and problems showed no sign of biasing the respondents' subsequent reports of alcohol consumption. These data support the validity of university students' reporting of alcohol consumption in web-based studies.

  11. Alcohol and Mortality: Combining Self-Reported (AUDIT-C) and Biomarker Detected (PEth) Alcohol Measures Among HIV Infected and Uninfected.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyawo, Oghenowede; McGinnis, Kathleen A; Justice, Amy C; Fiellin, David A; Hahn, Judith A; Williams, Emily C; Gordon, Adam J; Marshall, Brandon D L; Kraemer, Kevin L; Crystal, Stephen; Gaither, Julie R; Edelman, E Jennifer; Bryant, Kendall J; Tate, Janet P

    2018-02-01

    Unhealthy alcohol use may be particularly detrimental among individuals living with HIV and/or hepatitis C virus (HCV), and is often under-reported. Direct biomarkers of alcohol exposure may facilitate improved detection of alcohol use. We evaluated the association of alcohol exposure determined by both self-report [Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test-Consumption (AUDIT-C)] and a direct biomarker [phosphatidylethanol (PEth)], with mortality among HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected in the Veterans Aging Cohort Study-Biomarker Cohort. We considered PEth AUDIT-C scores [0, 1-3/1-2 (men/women), 4-7/3-7 (men/women), 8-12] and PEth (AUDIT-C = 0 (abstinence). Of these, 15% (149/1015) had PEth ≥8 suggesting recent alcohol exposure. Among those with AUDIT-C = 0, HCV+ individuals were more likely to have PEth ≥8. After controlling for age, sex, race, HIV, HCV, and HIV viral suppression, those with AUDIT-C = 0 but PEth ≥8 had the highest risk of mortality (adjusted hazard ratio 2.15, 95% confidence interval: 1.40 to 3.29). PEth in addition to self-report may improve detection of alcohol use in clinical settings, particularly among those at increased risk of harm from alcohol use. Individuals infected with HCV were more likely to under-report alcohol use.

  12. Waste Management Facilities Cost Information report for Greater-Than-Class C and DOE equivalent special case waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feizollahi, F.; Shropshire, D.

    1993-07-01

    This Waste Management Facility Cost Information (WMFCI) report for Greater-Than-Class C low-level waste (GTCC LLW) and DOE equivalent special case waste contains preconceptual designs and planning level life-cycle cost (PLCC) estimates for treatment, storage, and disposal facilities needed for management of GTCC LLW and DOE equivalent waste. The report contains information on 16 facilities (referred to as cost modules). These facilities are treatment facility front-end and back-end support functions (administration support, and receiving, preparation, and shipping cost modules); seven treatment concepts (incineration, metal melting, shredding/compaction, solidification, vitrification, metal sizing and decontamination, and wet/air oxidation cost modules); two storage concepts (enclosed vault and silo); disposal facility front-end functions (disposal receiving and inspection cost module); and four disposal concepts (shallow-land, engineered shallow-land, intermediate depth, and deep geological cost modules). Data in this report allow the user to develop PLCC estimates for various waste management options. A procedure to guide the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and its contractor personnel in the use of estimating data is also included in this report.

  13. Preventive maintenance basis: Volume 10 -- High voltage electric motors (5 kV and greater). Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Worledge, D.; Hinchcliffe, G.

    1997-07-01

    US nuclear plants are implementing preventive maintenance (PM) tasks with little documented basis beyond fundamental vendor information to support the tasks or their intervals. The Preventive Maintenance Basis project provides utilities with the technical basis for PM tasks and task intervals associated with 40 specific components such as valves, electric motors, pumps, and HVAC equipment. This report provides an overview of the PM Basis project and describes use of the PM Basis database. Volume 10 of the report provides a program of PM tasks suitable for application to high voltage (5kV and greater) electric motors in nuclear power plants. The PM tasks that are recommended provide a cost-effective way to intercept the causes and mechanisms that lead to degradation and failure. They can be used, in conjunction with material from other sources, to develop a complete PM program or to improve an existing program. Users of this information will be utility managers, supervisors, craft technicians, and training instructors responsible for developing, optimizing, or fine-tuning PM programs. Reactor Coolant Pumps motors (RCP's) are not excluded from this report in so far as good PM practices for motors of the appropriate class are concerned. However, the special auxiliary equipment normally associated with RCP's has not been included. Consequently, this report does not provide a complete PM program for RCP's. Industry and vendor programs for RCP's should be consulted for complete definition of RCP motor PM programs

  14. Waste Management Facilities Cost Information report for Greater-Than-Class C and DOE equivalent special case waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feizollahi, F.; Shropshire, D.

    1993-07-01

    This Waste Management Facility Cost Information (WMFCI) report for Greater-Than-Class C low-level waste (GTCC LLW) and DOE equivalent special case waste contains preconceptual designs and planning level life-cycle cost (PLCC) estimates for treatment, storage, and disposal facilities needed for management of GTCC LLW and DOE equivalent waste. The report contains information on 16 facilities (referred to as cost modules). These facilities are treatment facility front-end and back-end support functions (administration support, and receiving, preparation, and shipping cost modules); seven treatment concepts (incineration, metal melting, shredding/compaction, solidification, vitrification, metal sizing and decontamination, and wet/air oxidation cost modules); two storage concepts (enclosed vault and silo); disposal facility front-end functions (disposal receiving and inspection cost module); and four disposal concepts (shallow-land, engineered shallow-land, intermediate depth, and deep geological cost modules). Data in this report allow the user to develop PLCC estimates for various waste management options. A procedure to guide the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and its contractor personnel in the use of estimating data is also included in this report

  15. Unusual Infections Complicating the Use of Steroids with Severe Alcoholic Hepatitis: Report of 2 Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitor Arantes

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Corticosteroid therapy for acute alcoholic hepatitis has been demonstrated to enhance survival in patients who are encephalopathic, and who do not have renal failure or gastrointestinal bleeding. However, the complications of steroid therapy in such patients have been less well documented. The authors report two patients with alcoholic liver disease who developed life-threatening infections after steroid therapy was started. The first patient initially developed diabetes followed by Fournier's gangrene of the perineum, and a lung abscess following septic emboli. The second patient had established alcoholic cirrhosis rather than alcoholic hepatitis. She developed a necrotic ulcer on the arm at the site of an intravenous line, which was infected with a rhizopus species. Despite surgical debridement the lesion progressed and contributed to her death. Treatment of alcoholic hepatitis with steroids is not innocuous, and physicians should be aware of the potential for life-threatening complications.

  16. Adults with Greater Weight Satisfaction Report More Positive Health Behaviors and Have Better Health Status Regardless of BMI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine E. Blake

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Prior studies suggest that weight satisfaction may preclude changes in behavior that lead to healthier weight among individuals who are overweight or obese. Objective. To gain a better understanding of complex relationships between weight satisfaction, weight-related health behaviors, and health outcomes. Design. Cross-sectional analysis of data from the Aerobics Center Longitudinal Study (ACLS. Participants. Large mixed-gender cohort of primarily white, middle-to-upper socioeconomic status (SES adults with baseline examination between 1987 and 2002 (n=19,003. Main Outcome Variables. Weight satisfaction, weight-related health behaviors, chronic health conditions, and clinical health indicators. Statistical Analyses Performed. Chi-square test, t-tests, and linear and multivariate logistic regression. Results. Compared to men, women were more likely to be dieting (32% women; 18% men and had higher weight dissatisfaction. Men and women with greater weight dissatisfaction reported more dieting, yo-yo dieting, and snacking and consuming fewer meals, being less active, and having to eat either more or less than desired to maintain weight regardless of weight status. Those who were overweight or obese and dissatisfied with their weight had the poorest health. Conclusion. Greater satisfaction with one’s weight was associated with positive health behaviors and health outcomes in both men and women and across weight status groups.

  17. Reports of past alcohol and drug use following participation in a motivation enhancing intervention: Implications for clinical assessment and program evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosengren David B

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is significant interest in the value of motivational approaches that enhance participant readiness to change, but less is known about clients’ self-reports of problematic behavior when participating in such interventions. Methods We examined whether participants in a motivationally-based intervention for DUI offenders changed their reports of substance use at postintervention (when reporting on the same 30 days that they reported on at preintervention. Specifically, Study 1 (N = 8,387 tested whether participants in PRIME For Life (PFL changed their reports about baseline substance levels when asked at postintervention versus at preintervention. Study 2 (N = 192 compared changes in self-reported baseline drinking between PFL and intervention as usual (IAU participants. Results Many participants in Study 1 did not change their reports about how much they used substances during the 30-day period before baseline. Among those who did, the most common change was an increase in reported amounts of baseline drug use, and typical and peak alcohol use. This sample also showed changes in reports of their baseline pattern of high-risk-use (consistent versus occasional. At postintervention, participants who were younger, single, or endorsing more indicators of alcohol dependence were more likely to later report greater frequency of baseline drug use, and greater peak and typical number of baseline drinks. Gender, education, and race were also associated with reporting inconsistency on some behaviors. In Study 2, PFL participants showed greater increases in reports of peak alcohol use compared to IAU, but both conditions showed similar increases for drugs and typical alcohol use. Conclusions In both research and clinical settings, a segment of participants may initially report less substance use than they do when asked later about the same baseline period. These preliminary findings suggest clinicians and researchers may

  18. Substance use problems reported by historically Black college students: combined marijuana and alcohol use versus alcohol alone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Warren A; Peters, Ronald J; Perrino, Carrol S; Bryant, Sharronne

    2008-06-01

    Using secondary data analysis,this study compares alcohol and other drug (AOD) problems experienced by African-American students attending a historically Black university who use alcohol only versus those who use alcohol plus marijuana. Results indicate that students who used marijuana plus alcohol experienced more AOD problems than their counterparts who used alcohol only. The current findings are similar to previous research with a majority White college student population.

  19. Ecology of Greater Sage-Grouse in the Bi-State Planning Area Final Report, September 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casazza, Michael L.; Overton, Cory T.; Farinha, Melissa A.; Torregrosa, Alicia; Fleskes, Joseph P.; Miller, Michael R.; Sedinger, James S.; Kolada, Eric J.

    2009-01-01

    Conservation efforts for greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus), hereafter sage-grouse, are underway across the range of this species. Over 70 local working groups have been established and are implementing on-the-ground sage-grouse oriented conservation projects. Early on in this process, the California Department of Fish and Game (CDFG) recognized the need to join in these efforts and received funding from the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) under the Candidate Species Conservation Program to help develop a species conservation plan for sage-grouse in the Mono County area. This conservation plan covers portions of Alpine, Mono, and Inyo counties in California and Douglas, Esmeralda, Lyon, and Mineral counties in Nevada. A concurrent effort underway through the Nevada Governor's Sage-grouse Conservation Team established Local Area Working Groups across Nevada and eastern California. The Mono County populations of sage-grouse were encompassed by the Bi-State Local Planning Area, which was comprised of six population management units (PMUs). The state agencies from California (CDFG) and Nevada (Nevada Department of Wildlife; NDOW) responsible for the management of sage-grouse agreed to utilize the process that had begun with the Nevada Governor's Team in order to develop local plans for conservation planning and implementation. Resources from the USFWS were applied to several objectives in support of the development of the Bi-State Local Area Sage-grouse Conservation Plan through a grant to the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). Objectives included: (1) participate in the development of the Bi-State Conservation Plan, (2) compile and synthesize existing sage-grouse data, (3) document seasonal movements of sage-grouse, (4) identify habitats critical to sage-grouse, (5) determine survival rates and identify causal factors of mortality, (6) determine nest success and brood success of sage-grouse, and (7) identify sage-grouse lek sites. Progress reports

  20. Towards a greater understanding of the illicit tobacco trade in Europe: a review of the PMI funded 'Project Star' report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmore, Anna B; Rowell, Andy; Gallus, Silvano; Lugo, Alessandra; Joossens, Luk; Sims, Michelle

    2014-05-01

    Following a legal agreement with the European Union (EU), Philip Morris International (PMI) commissions a yearly report ('Project Star', PS) on the European illicit cigarette trade from KPMG, the global accountancy firm. Review of PS 2010 report. Comparison with data from independent sources including a 2010 pan-European survey (N=18,056). Within PS, data covering all 27 EU countries are entered into a model. While the model itself seems appropriate, concerns are identified with the methodologies underlying the data inputs and thus their quality: there is little transparency over methodologies; interview data underestimate legal non-domestic product partly by failing to account for legal cross-border sales; illicit cigarette estimates rely on tobacco industry empty pack surveys which may overestimate illicit; and there is an over-reliance on data supplied by PMI with inadequate external validation. Thus, PMI sales data are validated using PMI smoking prevalence estimates, yet PMI is unable to provide sales (shipment) data for the Greek islands and its prevalence estimates differ grossly from independent data. Consequently, comparisons with independent data suggest PS will tend to overestimate illicit cigarette levels particularly where cross-border shopping is frequent (Austria, Finland, France) and in Western compared with Eastern European countries. The model also provides data on the nature of the illicit cigarette market independent of seizure data suggesting that almost a quarter of the illicit cigarette market in 2010 comprised PMI's own brands compared with just 5% counterfeited PMI brands; a finding hidden in PMI's public representation of the data. PS overestimates illicit cigarette levels in some European countries and suggests PMI's supply chain control is inadequate. Its publication serves the interests of PMI over those of the EU and its member states. PS requires greater transparency, external scrutiny and use of independent data. Published by the BMJ

  1. Self-reported alcohol use and binge drinking in South Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    5 standard drinks on an average drinking day. Results. Current alcohol use (any amount) in 2014 - 2015 was reported by 33.1% of the population (47.7% males, 20.2% females). Of drinkers, 43.0% reported binge drinking (48.2% males, ...

  2. Associations between the phosphatidylethanol (PEth) alcohol biomarker and self-reported alcohol use in a sample of HIV-infected outpatient drinkers in western Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papas, Rebecca K.; Gakinya, Benson N.; Mwaniki, Michael M.; Keter, Alfred K.; Lee, Hana; Loxley, Michelle P.; Klein, Debra A.; Sidle, John E.; Martino, Steve; Baliddawa, Joyce B.; Schlaudt, Kathryn L.; Maisto, Stephen A.

    2016-01-01

    Background To counteract the syndemics of HIV and alcohol in sub-Saharan Africa, international collaborations have developed interventions to reduce alcohol consumption. Reliable and accurate methods are needed to estimate alcohol use outcomes. A direct alcohol biomarker called phosphatidylethanol (PEth) has been shown to validate heavy, daily drinking, but the literature indicates mixed results for moderate and non-daily drinkers, including among HIV-infected populations. This study examined the associations of the PEth biomarker with self-report alcohol use at 2 time points in 127 HIV-infected outpatient drinkers in western Kenya. Methods Participants were consecutively enrolled in a randomized clinical trial to test the efficacy of a behavioral intervention to reduce alcohol use in Eldoret, Kenya. They endorsed current alcohol use, and a minimum score of 3 on the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test-Consumption or consuming ≥ 6 drinks per occasion at least monthly in the past year. Study interviews and blood draws were conducted at baseline and at 3 months post-treatment from July 2012 through September 2013. Alcohol use was assessed using the Timeline Followback questionnaire. Blood samples were analyzed for presence of the PEth biomarker and were compared to self-reported alcohol use. We also conducted semi-structured interviews with 14 study completers in February through March 2014. Results Baseline data indicated an average of moderate-heavy alcohol use: 50% drinking days and a median of 4.5 drinks per drinking day. At baseline, 46% of women (31 of 67) and 8% of men (5 of 60) tested negative for PEth (p<.001). At the 3-month follow-up, 93% of women (25 of 27) and 97% of men (30 of 31) who reported drinking tested positive, while 70% of women (28 of 40) and 35% of men (10 of 29) who denied drinking tested negative for PEth. Interviews were consistent with self-reported alcohol use among 13 individuals with negative baseline results. Conclusions These

  3. Insecure attachment and college-age alcohol use disorders. A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotov, Kimberly M

    2006-01-01

    Teens and young adults with insecure attachment may be remarkably susceptible to alcohol and substance use disorders. Particularly in the separation process of leaving-home and entering college, an underlying insecure attachment may manifest through symptoms of alcohol or drug abuse; as these young adults engage in what is perceived to be adult drinking behavior, they become too "attached" to the alcohol as a substitute for earlier, sporadically-available objects (usually parents). That is, they enact a similar relationship to this drug that they may have learned to have with an insecure parent: too close at times, but ultimately fostering guilt, dependence and destructive action. Fear of abandonment, rejection and negative judgment may be intensified in this age group as they struggle at the cusp of independence, but these issues are particularly relevant for insecurely attached teens. In this report, attachment theory is briefly described and applied to the assessment and treatment of a college freshman diagnosed with an alcohol use disorder. By engaging the patient in evaluating her actions and motives through the attachment model, the therapy helps her to channel help-seeking behavior appropriately, to establish expectations for consistency and reliability from significant people in her life and to feel safer without turning to alcohol as a crutch. An argument is made for the general application of attachment theory to alcohol and drug use disorders in this significant phase of young adult development.

  4. Self-reported consumption of wine and other alcoholic beverages in a German wine area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fronk P

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Petra Fronk,1 Maria Blettner,2 Heinz Decker1 1Institute for Molecular Biophysics, Johannes Gutenberg University of Mainz, Mainz, Germany; 2Institute for Medical Biostatistics, Epidemiology and Informatics, Johannes Gutenberg University of Mainz, Mainz, Germany Purpose: To describe the consumption of alcoholic beverages in a German wine area, with special attention to the number of people drinking more than the tolerable upper alcohol intake level (TUAL. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted using a mailed questionnaire, to investigate the weekly consumption of wine, beer, and spirits during the preceding 12 months in Mainz, the state capital of Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany. The analysis included 948 responders aged 20–69 years. Results: A total of 948 respondents, with a mean age of 43.7 years, were included in the analysis. About 85% of the respondents consumed alcoholic beverages, with an average of about 13.5 g alcohol/day. Men drank about twice as much as women. In total, 30% of women and 24% of men reported drinking more than the TUAL, and 9.2% of women and 7.2% of men reported drinking more than twice as much as the TUAL. The highest proportion of persons drinking more than the TUAL was found among elderly people. The preferred beverage was wine, which contributed 74% (for women and 54% (for men to the total alcohol intake. On average, the respondents drank 2.8 glasses of wine per week, 1.4 bottles beer, and negligible amounts of spirits. Conclusion: Wine was the preferred alcoholic beverage in Mainz, which was expected for people living in a wine area. A rather large number of people, especially among the elderly, consumed alcohol in an amount higher than the TUAL which may be harmful to health. Keywords: beer, spirits, TUAL, Mainz

  5. Self-reported alcohol use and binge drinking in South Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    January 2018, Vol. 108, No. 1. RESEARCH. Of the 48 countries in the World Health Organization (WHO). African region, South Africa (SA) had the highest per capita alcohol .... SA, focusing primarily on demographics, labour market participation, ..... of male drinkers reported binge drinking, while 32.4% of female drinkers ...

  6. [Regulatory policies on alcohol in Spain. Experience-based public health? 2008 SESPAS Report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villalbí, Joan R; Granero, Lluís; Brugal, M Teresa

    2008-04-01

    The present article reviews the proposal for alcohol regulation made in Spain in 2006 by the Ministry of Health and Consumer Affairs and dropped a few months later as adverse positions took over the debate in the political arena and the media. The background to these regulations, as well as their components, the process, and the actors involved are analyzed, and the factors leading to this outcome are discussed. A comparison is made with the tobacco regulation initiative in 2005, which resulted in a regulatory law with a highly favorable impact on public health. The actors interested in promoting alcohol consumption and opposed to any regulation have a privileged institutional presence, generating powerful resistance. Although these regulatory proposals would have marginal impacts on their trade, wine growers and wineries have been the most visible forces against regulation and have had the greatest political and media impact. Equally, manipulated messages on the health benefits of alcohol use have fed arguments against regulation. The lack of political and media consensus in this case stands in contrast with the tobacco regulation process, in which a certain political consensus had previously been reached and the smoking prevention movement had permeated the media with preventive messages, framing the issue in terms favorable for regulation. To gain ground, the sectors interested in expanding public policies for the prevention of the harm caused by alcohol need greater cohesion and organization. Professional public health organizations can substantially contribute to this field.

  7. Intimate Partner Aggression Reporting Concordance and Correlates of Agreement among Men with Alcohol Use Disorders and Their Female Partners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panuzio, Jillian; O'Farrell, Timothy J.; Marshall, Amy D.; Murphy, Christopher M.; Murphy, Marie; Taft, Casey T.

    2006-01-01

    This study examined relationship aggression reporting concordance among 303 men with alcohol use disorders and their female partners enrolled in couples-based alcohol abuse treatment. Agreement for physical and psychological aggression was generally consistent with, or higher than, concordance rates reported among other populations. Men's…

  8. Comparison of Student Self-Reported and Administrative Data regarding Intercession into Alcohol Misuse among College Freshmen Dormitory Residents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novik, Melinda G.; Boekeloo, Bradley O.

    2013-01-01

    Intercession into collegiate alcohol misuse by the Department of Resident Life (DRL) in freshmen dormitories at one large Mid-Atlantic, diverse, public university was examined. Freshmen dormitory resident drinkers (n = 357), 71% of whom reported alcohol misuse, were surveyed. Student self-report and DRL documentation, respectively, revealed that…

  9. The case of H.S.: the ethics of reporting alcohol dependence in a bus driver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karol, David E; Schuermeyer, Isabel N; Brooker, Craig A

    2007-01-01

    The physician's duty to preserve patient confidentiality is challenged when doing so may endanger third parties. We present the case of a bus driver whose alcohol dependence raised concerns of a risk not only to his own health and safety, but to public safety as well. We first examine the legal and ethical obligations to report his alcohol use to his employer and then stress the importance of weighing the potential harm of violating patient-physician confidentiality against the severity of risk to the general public.

  10. Case Report: Anteromedial temporosphenoidal encephalocele with a clinically silent lateral bony defect in the greater wing of the sphenoid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pandey, Anoop Kumar

    2009-01-01

    Anteromedial temporosphenoidal encephalocele is the least common type of temporal encephalocele. It commonly presents with spontaneous cerebrospinal fluid rhinorrhea in adults. This article presents the CT cisternography and MRI findings of one such case, which also had an associated clinically silent defect in the greater wing of the sphenoid on the same side

  11. Case Report: Anteromedial temporosphenoidal encephalocele with a clinically silent lateral bony defect in the greater wing of the sphenoid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pandey Anoop

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Anteromedial temporosphenoidal encephalocele is the least common type of temporal encephalocele. It commonly presents with spontaneous cerebrospinal fluid rhinorrhea in adults. This article presents the CT cisternography and MRI findings of one such case, which also had an associated clinically silent defect in the greater wing of the sphenoid on the same side.

  12. Narcolepsy induced by chronic heavy alcohol consumption: a case report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xinyuan

    2012-01-01

    Summary Narcolepsy is a chronic neurological disorder, characterized by uncontrollable excessive daytime sleepiness, cataplectic episodes, sleep paralysis, hypnagogic hallucinations, and night time sleep disruption. The paper reviewed the related literature and reported a case of long-term drinking induced narcolepsy which was significantly improved after treatment with paroxetine and dexzopiclone. PMID:25328357

  13. Case report : tuberculosis liver abscess in male alcoholism patient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siahaan, W. P.; Ginting, F.

    2018-03-01

    A liver abscess often occurs in low-middle income countries such as Indonesia. Two most common liver abscesses are amoebic and pyogenic liver abscess. Data that reported tuberculosis liver abscess (TLA) is extremely rare. A diagnostic criterion for tuberculosis liver abscess is rare and remains unclear. A 52-year-old man developed a TLA which was not associated with any pulmonary or gastrointestinal tract foci of tuberculosis. An ultrasonogram and abdominal scan showed an abscess in the right lobe. We performed paracentesis, and the pus from the lesion was positive tubercular bacilli on acid-fast bacilli staining. The patient was started on systemic antitubercular therapy to which he responded favorably. This report emphasizes the fact that, although a TLA is a very rare entity, it should be included in the differential diagnosis of liver abscess especially in Indonesia where the prevalence of tuberculosis is extremely high.

  14. Relapse and Craving in Alcohol-Dependent Individuals: A Comparison of Self-Reported Determinants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snelleman, Michelle; Schoenmakers, Tim M; van de Mheen, Dike

    2018-06-07

    Negative affective states and alcohol-related stimuli increase risk of relapse in alcohol dependence. In research and in clinical practice, craving is often used as another important indicator of relapse, but this lacks a firm empirical foundation. The goal of the present study is to explore and compare determinants for relapse and craving, using Marlatt's (1996) taxonomy of high risk situations as a template. We conducted semi-structured interviews with 20 alcohol-dependent patients about their most recent relapse and craving episodes. Interview transcripts were carefully reviewed for their thematic content, and codes capturing the thematic content were formulated. In total, we formulated 42 relapse-related codes and 33 craving-related codes. Descriptions of craving episodes revealed that these episodes vary in frequency and intensity. The presence of alcohol-related stimuli (n = 11) and experiencing a negative emotional state (n = 11) were often occurring determinants of craving episodes. Both negative emotional states (n = 17) and testing personal control (n = 11) were viewed as important determinants of relapses. Craving was seldom mentioned as a determinant for relapse. Additionally, participants reported multiple determinants preceding a relapse, whereas craving episodes were preceded by only one determinant. Patient reports do not support the claim that craving by itself is an important proximal determinant for relapse. In addition, multiple determinants were present before a relapse. Therefore, future research should focus on a complexity of different determinants.

  15. Thermochemical study of deuterium exchange reactions in water-alcohol and alcohol-alcohol systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khurma, J.R.; Fenby, D.V.

    1979-01-01

    Molar excess enthalpies of water-alcohol systems have been analyzed to give equilibrium constants and enthalpies of the reactions 2ROH + D 2 O = 2ROD + H 2 O (R = CH 3 , C 2 H 5 , n-C 3 H 7 ). The equilibrium constants are significantly greater than the ''random'' value. Molar excess enthalpies of alcohol-alcohol systems have been analyzed to give enthalpies of reactions ROH + R'OD = ROD + R'OH. The enthalpies of water-alcohol and alcohol-alcohol exchange reactions form a self-consistent set and are in good agreement with values from earlier studies. Molar excess enthalpies at 298.15 K are reported for n-C 3 H 7 OH and n-C 3 H 7 OD with H 2 O, D 2 O, CH 3 OH, CH 3 OD, C 2 H 5 OH, and C 2 H 5 OD

  16. Reported beverage consumed and alcohol-related diseases among male hospital inpatients with problem drinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coder, Beate; Freyer-Adam, Jennis; Lau, Katharina; Riedel, Jeannette; Rumpf, Hans-Jürgen; Meyer, Christian; John, Ulrich; Hapke, Ulfert

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine if problem drinkers have varying risks of having alcohol-related diseases according to their reported beverage consumed. In a cross-sectional study all consecutive inpatients aged 18- 64 years from four general hospitals of one catchment area were systematically screened for alcohol use. A total of 1011 men with problem drinking were used for this study. Routine treatment diagnoses for all participants were provided by hospital physicians and were classified into three categories according to their alcohol-attributable fractions (AAF; AAF = 0; AAF spirits drinkers, 26.0% mixed beer and spirits drinkers and 6.9% individuals drinking wine exclusively or in combination with one or two other beverages (mixed wine drinkers). Compared to spirits drinkers and controlling for possible confounders (i.e. alcohol-associated characteristics, demographic variables), multinomial regressions revealed that beer drinkers, mixed beer and spirits drinkers, and mixed wine drinkers had lower odds of having diseases with AAF = 1 than spirits drinkers (e.g. for AAF = 1: beer versus spirits drinkers: OR = 0.42, CI: 0.25-0.72). Beer drinkers and mixed wine drinkers also had lower odds of having diseases with AAF spirits drinkers (e.g. mixed wine versus spirits drinkers: OR = 0.36, CI: 0.18-0.72). These data suggest an association between the reported beverage consumed and alcohol-related diseases. Among hospitalized problem drinkers, spirits drinkers had the greatest risk of having diseases with AAF < 1 and with AAF = 1.

  17. The Self-Report Habit Index: Assessing habitual marijuana, alcohol, e-cigarette, and cigarette use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morean, Meghan E; DeMartini, Kelly S; Foster, Dawn; Patock-Peckham, Julie; Garrison, Kathleen A; Corlett, Philip R; Krystal, John H; Krishan-Sarin, Suchitra; O'Malley, Stephanie S

    2018-05-01

    Substance use is partially driven by habitual processes that occur automatically in response to environmental cues and may be central to users' identities. This study was designed to validate the Self-Report Habit Index (SRHI) for assessing habitual marijuana, alcohol, cigarette, and e-cigarette use. We examined the SRHI's psychometrics in separate samples of adult marijuana (Ns = 189;170), alcohol (Ns = 100;133), cigarette (Ns = 58;371), and e-cigarette (N = 239) users. A 6-item, single-factor solution evidenced good fit across substances (CFI marijuana/alcohol/cigarettes/e-cigarettes = 0.996/0.997/0.996/0.994, RMSEA = 0.046/0.047/0.067/0.068, SRMR = 0.017/0.017/0.010/0.015) and internal consistency (α = 0.88/0.94/0.95/0.91). The SRHI was scalar invariant for sex and race. However, independent-samples t-tests indicated only that women endorsed stronger habitual e-cigarette use and that men endorsed stronger habitual marijuana use. The SRHI also was scalar invariant by product type in dual-users (cigarettes/e-cigarettes[N = 371]; alcohol/cigarettes [n = 58]), although differences in habit strength only were observed for cigarettes versus e-cigarettes, with dual-users reporting stronger habitual cigarette use. Finally, the SRHI predicted frequency of marijuana, alcohol, cigarette, and e-cigarette use (n p 2 [marijuana/alcohol/cigarettes/e-cigarettes] = 0.37/0.48/0.31/0.17) and quantity of alcohol and cigarette use (n p 2  = 0.43/0.33). The SRHI is a psychometrically sound measure of adults' habitual substance use. The SRHI detected mean differences by sex and substance type and predicted the frequency of using each substance. Future research should determine if the SRHI is appropriate for use with other substances or age groups (e.g., adolescents), how it relates to task-based, behavioral measures of habit strength, and the degree to which habit predicts the development or maintenance of addiction. Copyright © 2018

  18. EnergyWorks Final Report: A Better Buildings Neighborhood Program in the Five-County Greater Philadelphia Region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gajewski, Katherine [City of Philadelphia

    2014-03-05

    This report covers the grant performance period of July 1, 2010-September 30, 2013 and discusses of the program design, outcomes and best practices as they relate to the following six areas: 1. Institutional Design and Business Model; 2. Program Design and Customer Experience; 3. Driving Demand; 4. Workforce Development; 5. Financing and Incentives; 6. Data and Evaluation.

  19. Do older people with visual impairment and living alone in a rural developing country report greater difficulty in managing stairs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hairi, Noran N; Bulgiba, Awang; Peramalah, Devi; Mudla, Izzuna

    2013-01-01

    Managing stairs is a challenging activity of daily living (ADL) for older people. This study aims to examine the association between visual impairment and difficulty in managing stairs among older people living alone and those living with others. A population-based cross sectional study was conducted in rural Malaysia from 2007 till 2008. Seven hundred and sixty five older people aged 60 years and over underwent eye examination for visual impairment. Visual acuity criteria were used to define visual impairment. Presenting visual acuity was assessed using a standard metric Snellen Chart of E type. Difficulty in managing stairs was measured according to a question drawn from the Barthel Index which asks "do you need help in climbing stairs". Overall, the prevalence of difficulty in managing stairs among older people in our population was 135 (18.3%, 95% CI 15.7-21.2). After adjusting for important confounders the odds ratio (OR) for visual impairment and difficulty in managing stairs among older people living alone was 5.04 (95% CI 2.27, 10.62). Among older people living with others, the adjusted OR for visual impairment and difficulty in managing stairs was 3.10 (95% CI 1.52, 6.80). In a sample of older people aged 60 years and over, those living alone with visual impairment had greater difficulty in managing stairs than those living with others. Identification of these groups of older people is useful for targeting interventions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Greater autonomy at work

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houtman, I.L.D.

    2004-01-01

    In the past 10 years, workers in the Netherlands increasingly report more decision-making power in their work. This is important for an economy in recession and where workers face greater work demands. It makes work more interesting, creates a healthier work environment, and provides opportunities

  1. Petro-Canada 2004 strategic overview report : building our portfolio assets for greater profitability today and tomorrow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    Financial information from Petro-Canada was presented and a review of their 2004 operations was made available for the benefit of shareholders. Petro-Canada is focused on 5 core businesses that include: North American gas; east coast oil; oil sands development; international business; and downstream operations. Highlights from 2004 for each of these core business areas were presented. In 2003, record earnings from operations and cash flows were reported at more than $1.9 billion. Upstream production of 451,100 barrels of oil equivalent per day was reported in 2004. This surpassed planned production volumes in 2004 and more than replaced reserves. Refined petroleum product sales were 56,600 cubic metres per day. Highlights for the company for 2004 include the purchase of a coalbed methane and tight bas business in the U.S. Rockies, the acquisition of unconventional land positions in Western Canada and plans to jointly develop a liquefied natural gas re-gasification terminal in Quebec. This report summarized the company's energy resource activities and presented an operations review as well as consolidated financial statements, and common share information including the accounts of Petro-Canada and its subsidiaries and the company's proportionate share of assets, liabilities, revenues, expenses and cash flows of joint ventures. Revenue and expenditure statements were summarized by source. tabs., figs

  2. Natural Recharge to the Unconfined Aquifer System on the Hanford Site from the Greater Cold Creek Watershed: Progress Report 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waichler, Scott R.; Wigmosta, Mark S.; Coleman, Andre M.

    2004-09-14

    Movement of contaminants in groundwater at the Hanford Site is heavily dependent on recharge to the unconfined aquifer. As the effects of past artificial discharges dissipate, the water table is expected to return to more natural conditions, and natural recharge will become the driving force when evaluating future groundwater flow conditions and related contaminant transport. Previous work on the relationship of natural recharge to groundwater movement at the Hanford Site has focused on direct recharge from infiltrating rainfall and snowmelt within the area represented by the Sitewide Groundwater Model (SGM) domain. However, part of the groundwater recharge at Hanford is provided by flow from Greater Cold Creek watershed (GCC), a large drainage area on the western boundary of the Hanford Site that includes Cold Creek Valley, Dry Creek Valley, and the Hanford side of Rattlesnake Mountain. This study was undertaken to estimate the recharge from GCC, which is believed to enter the unconfined aquifer as both infiltrating streamflow and shallow subsurface flow. To estimate recharge, the Distributed Hydrology-Soil-Vegetation Model (DHSVM) was used to simulate a detailed water balance of GCC from 1956 to 2001 at a spatial resolution of 200~m and a temporal resolution of one hour. For estimating natural recharge to Hanford from watersheds along its western and southwestern boundaries, the most important aspects that need to be considered are 1)~distribution and relative magnitude of precipitation and evapotranspiration over the watershed, 2)~streamflow generation at upper elevations and infiltration at lower elevations during rare runoff events, and 3)~permeability of the basalt bedrock surface underlying the soil mantle.

  3. Primary medullary hemorrhage in a patient with coagulopathy due to alcoholic cirrhosis: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Guangxun; Gao, Yu; Lee, Kwee-Yum; Nan, Guangxian

    2018-04-01

    Mild-to-moderate alcoholic cirrhosis of the liver is related to spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). In terms of spontaneous brainstem hemorrhage, pontine is considered as the most common site in contrast to medulla oblongata where the hemorrhage is rarely seen. This rare primary medullary hemorrhage has been attributed so far to vascular malformation (VM), anticoagulants, hypertension, hemorrhagic transformation, and other undetermined factors. Herein, we describe a 53-year-old patient with 35-year history of alcohol abuse was admitted for acute-onset isolated hemianesthesia on the right side. He was normotensive on admission. A neurological examination revealed isolated hemihypoaesthesia on the right side. He had no history of hypertension, and viral hepatitis, and nil use of anticoagulants. Brain computed tomography (CT) image demonstrated hemorrhagic lesion in dorsal and medial medulla oblongata which was ruptured into the fourth ventricle. Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) demonstrated no evidence of VM. The laboratory tests implied liver dysfunction, thrombocytopenia, and coagulation disorders. Abdominal ultrasound, and CT image showed a small, and nodular liver with splenomegaly, suggestive of moderate alcoholic cirrhosis. Liver protection therapy and the management of coagulation disorders. After 14 days, he was discharged with mild hemianesthesia but with more improved parameters in laboratory tests. At the 6-month follow-up, brain MRI, MRA, and non-contrast MRI showed no significant findings except for a malacic lesion. We conclude that the patient had alcoholic cirrhosis with coagulopathy, and this may have resulted in primary medullary hemorrhage. This is a first case to report alcoholic cirrhosis as etiology of primary medullary hemorrhage.

  4. Out of sight, but not out of mind? Greater reported pain in patients who spontaneously look away during venepuncture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayan, R; Scott, G; Brownlie, W

    2015-01-01

    Various external factors can influence patients' experiences of noxious stimuli, but little is known of how patients' natural behaviour may be relevant. We ascertained how often patients spontaneously look or look away during venepuncture and associated reports of pain during a previously reported experimental randomized study. The study was conducted in the outpatient department of a U.K. district general hospital. Patients were randomized to hearing 'sharp scratch' or the verbal cue 'ready?' immediately before venepuncture. Whether patients looked or looked away during needle insertion was recorded. Patients were asked to rate their pain using a verbal numerical rating score (VNRS) and verbal response scale (VRS). One hundred ninety-two patients were included; mean age 51.7 years, 55% male. During needle insertion, 73% spontaneously looked away, whereas 27% looked. There was no significant difference in the proportion of these patients assigned to the 'sharp scratch' or 'ready?' groups, nor was there any difference in mean age or gender. For the group that looked, mean VNRS was 0.48 and VRS was 1.27, significantly less than the group that looked away (mean VNRS 0.94, p = 0.014; VRS 1.61, p = 0.002). As previously reported, pain ratings between 'sharp scratch' and 'ready?' groups were not significantly different. Almost three quarters of patients spontaneously look away during venepuncture, but their pain ratings are almost twice that of the quarter of patients who look. It is unclear why this may be, but previous experimental studies indicate that observing the body when a noxious stimulus is applied can have an analgesic effect. © 2014 European Pain Federation - EFIC®

  5. Blood alcohol concentration testing and reporting by the states : traffic tech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    Accurate and complete data on blood alcohol concentration : (BAC) levels for drivers in fatal crashes are critical in monitoring : alcohol-impaired-driving rates across the country, developing : alcohol-impaired-driving programs, and evaluating : the...

  6. Alcohol, Appetite and Loss of Restraint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caton, Samantha J; Nolan, Laurence J; Hetherington, Marion M

    2015-03-01

    Alcoholic beverages have long been associated with feasts, celebration and marking special events. Today, it is commonplace to consume alcoholic beverages before, with and/or after a meal. Alcohol provides additional pleasure to the meal and enhances appetite. However, consuming an alcoholic beverage with or before a meal is associated with poor short-term energy compensation; energy from alcohol is additive to total energy intake with the added property of stimulating further eating. Limiting alcohol intake is an obvious means to reduce total energy intake for those who wish to lose weight. However, dieters and restrained eaters drink more and report greater binge drinking than unrestrained eaters despite employing cognitive strategies to reduce their intake. Increased intake may be attributable to greater attentional bias to alcohol related cues as well as to food cues, since these are more salient to those limiting intake. Alcohol increases energy intake in dieters, in part due to abandonment of restraint (disinhibition) and consumption of forbidden items including alcohol exacerbates attempts to resist temptation. Paradoxically, links between binge drinking or increased drinking frequency to overweight and obesity may be mediated by dietary restraint. Efforts to limit food and alcohol intake for weight control appear to be unsuccessful and have the net effect of promoting overconsumption. The potential role of restrained eating in the association between alcohol, appetite and obesity has been overlooked by much of the current research and further investigation of this is therefore warranted.

  7. Reported Adverse Health Effects in Children from Ingestion of Alcohol-Based Hand Sanitizers - United States, 2011-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Cynthia; Kieszak, Stephanie; Wang, Alice; Law, Royal; Schier, Joshua; Wolkin, Amy

    2017-03-03

    Hand sanitizers are effective and inexpensive products that can reduce microorganisms on the skin, but ingestion or improper use can be associated with health risks. Many hand sanitizers contain up to 60%-95% ethanol or isopropyl alcohol by volume, and are often combined with scents that might be appealing to young children. Recent reports have identified serious consequences, including apnea, acidosis, and coma in young children who swallowed alcohol-based (alcohol) hand sanitizer (1-3). Poison control centers collect data on intentional and unintentional exposures to hand sanitizer solutions resulting from various routes of exposure, including ingestion, inhalation, and dermal and ocular exposures. To characterize exposures of children aged ≤12 years to alcohol hand sanitizers, CDC analyzed data reported to the National Poison Data System (NPDS).* The major route of exposure to both alcohol and nonalcohol-based (nonalcohol) hand sanitizers was ingestion. The majority of intentional exposures to alcohol hand sanitizers occurred in children aged 6-12 years. Alcohol hand sanitizer exposures were associated with worse outcomes than were nonalcohol hand sanitizer exposures. Caregivers and health care providers should be aware of the potential dangers associated with hand sanitizer ingestion. Children using alcohol hand sanitizers should be supervised and these products should be kept out of reach from children when not in use.

  8. Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... their drinking causes distress and harm. It includes alcoholism and alcohol abuse. Alcoholism, or alcohol dependence, is a disease that causes ... the liver, brain, and other organs. Drinking during pregnancy can harm your baby. Alcohol also increases the ...

  9. Is it time to ban alcohol advertising?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Peter

    2009-04-01

    Children and adolescents are particularly vulnerable to the harmful effects of alcohol, with heavy drinking risking impaired brain development and future alcohol dependence. Advertisements increase expectancies about alcohol, leading to a greater likelihood of drinking. A systematic review of 13 longitudinal studies of over 38,000 young people found convincing evidence of an impact of media exposure and alcohol advertising on subsequent alcohol use, including initiation of drinking and heavier drinking among existing drinkers. All European countries, with the exception of the UK, have a ban on one or more types of advertising. Since self-regulation is reported as failing to prevent marketing which has an impact on younger people, and since advertising commonly crosses country borders, there is an argument to approximate advertising rules across Europe banning alcohol advertising targeted at young people, a highly cost-effective measure to reduce harmful alcohol use, and one supported by European citizens and case law.

  10. Alcohol and cancer: a position statement from Cancer Council Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winstanley, Margaret H; Pratt, Iain S; Chapman, Kathryn; Griffin, Hayley J; Croager, Emma J; Olver, Ian N; Sinclair, Craig; Slevin, Terry J

    2011-05-02

    The Cancer Council Australia (CCA) Alcohol Working Group has prepared a position statement on alcohol use and cancer. The statement has been reviewed by external experts and endorsed by the CCA Board. Alcohol use is a cause of cancer. Any level of alcohol consumption increases the risk of developing an alcohol-related cancer; the level of risk increases in line with the level of consumption. It is estimated that 5070 cases of cancer (or 5% of all cancers) are attributable to long-term chronic use of alcohol each year in Australia. Together, smoking and alcohol have a synergistic effect on cancer risk, meaning the combined effects of use are significantly greater than the sum of individual risks. Alcohol use may contribute to weight (fat) gain, and greater body fatness is a convincing cause of cancers of the oesophagus, pancreas, bowel, endometrium, kidney and breast (in postmenopausal women). The existing evidence does not justify the promotion of alcohol use to prevent coronary heart disease, as the previously reported role of alcohol in reducing heart disease risk in light-to-moderate drinkers appears to have been overestimated. CCA recommends that to reduce their risk of cancer, people limit their consumption of alcohol, or better still avoid alcohol altogether. For individuals who choose to drink alcohol, CCA recommends that they drink only within the National Health and Medical Research Council guidelines for alcohol consumption.

  11. The Svalbard study 1988-89: a unique setting for validation of self-reported alcohol consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Høyer, G; Nilssen, O; Brenn, T; Schirmer, H

    1995-04-01

    The Norwegian island of Spitzbergen, Svalbard offers a unique setting for validation studies on self-reported alcohol consumption. No counterfeit production or illegal import exists, thus making complete registration of all sources of alcohol possible. In this study we recorded sales from all agencies selling alcohol on Svalbard over a 2-month period in 1988. During the same period all adults living permanently on Svalbard were invited to take part in a health screening. As part of the screening a self-administered questionnaire on alcohol consumption was introduced to the participants. We found that the self-reported volume accounted for approximately 40 percent of the sales volume. Because of the unique situation applying to Svalbard, the estimate made in this study is believed to be more reliable compared to other studies using sales volume to validate self-reports.

  12. Self-reported alcohol intake and risk of acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetherbee, Erin E; Niewoehner, Dennis E; Sisson, Joseph H; Lindberg, Sarah M; Connett, John E; Kunisaki, Ken M

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the relationship between alcohol consumption and the risk of acute exacerbation of COPD (AECOPD). We conducted a secondary analysis of data previously collected in a large, multicenter trial of daily azithromycin in COPD. To analyze the relationship between amount of baseline self-reported alcohol consumption in the past 12 months and subsequent AECOPD, we categorized the subjects as minimal (alcohol users (>60 drinks/month). The primary outcome was time to first AECOPD and the secondary outcome was AECOPD rate during the 1-year study period. Of the 1,142 enrolled participants, 1,082 completed baseline alcohol questionnaires and were included in this analysis. Six hundred and forty-five participants reported minimal alcohol intake, 363 reported light-to-moderate intake, and 74 reported heavy intake. There were no statistically significant differences in median time to first AECOPD among minimal (195 days), light-to-moderate (241 days), and heavy drinkers (288 days) (P=0.11). The mean crude rate of AECOPD did not significantly differ between minimal (1.62 events per year) and light-to-moderate (1.44 events per year) (P=0.095), or heavy drinkers (1.68 events per year) (P=0.796). There were no significant differences in hazard ratios for AECOPD after adjustment for multiple covariates. Among persons with COPD at high risk of exacerbation, we found no significant relationship between self-reported baseline alcohol intake and subsequent exacerbations. The number of patients reporting heavy alcohol intake was small and further study is needed to determine the effect of heavy alcohol intake on AECOPD risk.

  13. Food insecurity and alcohol use among pregnant women at alcohol-serving establishments in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, Lisa A; Pitpitan, Eileen V; Kalichman, Seth C; Sikkema, Kathleen J; Skinner, Donald; Watt, Melissa H; Pieterse, Desiree; Cain, Demetria N

    2014-06-01

    South Africa has the highest rate of fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) in the world. While efforts have been made to curb the high rate of FAS, little is known about situational factors that may contribute to alcohol use during pregnancy. In the current paper, we focus on the role of food insecurity and its relationship to alcohol use among pregnant women. Women completed computer-assisted interviews. Generalized linear modeling was used in all analyses. Women attending alcohol-serving establishments in a township in Cape Town, South Africa were recruited for the study. Five hundred sixty women were sampled and 95 women reported being pregnant. High levels of alcohol use were reported among pregnant women: 65 % of women consumed alcohol at least every month and 29 % consumed alcohol as often as two to three times per week. Thirty-four percent of the women reported having six or more drinks per occasion on at least a weekly basis. The majority (87 %) of pregnant women reported experiencing some form of food insecurity (e.g., food unavailable, eating less) in the past month. Alcohol use was significantly associated with food insecurity, even when controlling for relevant demographic variables. Intervention with pregnant women who consume alcohol is urgently needed. Future research should focus on understanding the intersection of food insecurity and alcohol, and how the experience of food insecurity may contribute to greater rates of alcohol use and abuse among pregnant women.

  14. Alcohol Ablation Therapy of an Atypically Located Symptomatic Bronchogenic Cyst: A Case Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lakadamyali, Hatice; Ergun, Tarkan; Lakadamyali, Huseyin; Oguzkurt, Levent

    2007-01-01

    Bronchogenic cyst is a rare developmental lesion. It is usually asymptomatic and most frequently located in the middle mediastinum and lung parenchyma. It can cause symptoms only when infected or pressing on neighboring structures. The MRI findings in a 34-year-old woman with an 8 months history of back pain were evaluated and revealed a cystic lesion in the left paravertebral area. The histopathologic evaluation of the material aspirated with CT guidance was reported to be bronchogenic cyst. A simultaneous alcohol ablation was accomplished. After the procedure the patient's pain disappeared and the follow-up MRI scan 1 year later revealed no relapse. Paravertebrally located bronchogenic cysts are very rare and only 3 cases were found to be reported in the medical literature prior to this one. While aspiration alone is sufficient for diagnosis, it is insufficient to treat the lesion and prevent the recurrences. This paper reports a paravertebral bronchogenic cyst which was symptomatic despite of its small size. CT-guided aspiration was accomplished and simultaneous alcohol ablation was carried out to prevent recurrences

  15. Yoga Meditation Practitioners Exhibit Greater Gray Matter Volume and Fewer Reported Cognitive Failures: Results of a Preliminary Voxel-Based Morphometric Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brett Froeliger

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Hatha yoga techniques, including physical postures (asanas, breathing exercises (pranayama, and meditation, involve the practice of mindfulness. In turn, yoga meditation practices may induce the state of mindfulness, which, when evoked recurrently through repeated practice, may accrue into trait or dispositional mindfulness. Putatively, these changes may be mediated by experience-dependent neuroplastic changes. Though prior studies have identified differences in gray matter volume (GMV between long-term mindfulness practitioners and controls, no studies to date have reported on whether yoga meditation is associated with GMV differences. The present study investigated GMV differences between yoga meditation practitioners (YMP and a matched control group (CG. The YMP group exhibited greater GM volume in frontal, limbic, temporal, occipital, and cerebellar regions; whereas the CG had no greater regional greater GMV. In addition, the YMP group reported significantly fewer cognitive failures on the Cognitive Failures Questionnaire (CFQ, the magnitude of which was positively correlated with GMV in numerous regions identified in the primary analysis. Lastly, GMV was positively correlated with the duration of yoga practice. Results from this preliminary study suggest that hatha yoga practice may be associated with the promotion of neuroplastic changes in executive brain systems, which may confer therapeutic benefits that accrue with repeated practice.

  16. Daily Reports of Positive and Negative Affect and Alcohol and Marijuana Use Among College Student and Nonstudent Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick, Megan E; Yeomans-Maldonado, Gloria; Griffin, Jamie

    2016-01-02

    Daily affect and substance use covary among college students, but little is known about these associations among young adults not in college. The current pilot study examines associations between positive and negative affect and alcohol and marijuana use, with a focus on differences between college student and nonstudent young adults. High school seniors completed a baseline survey during the spring of 2012 and were then randomly selected to participate in an intensive measurement follow-up. Participants in the follow-up (N = 72, 40.3% men, 77.8% White, 66.7% full-time college students) completed up to 14 consecutive web-based daily surveys during the fall after high school completion. Multilevel models in which days (Level 1) were nested in persons (Level 2) were estimated. Weekend days were associated with increased alcohol use among all young adults, increased marijuana use among college students, and decreased marijuana use among nonstudents. For young adults not in college, greater daily positive affect was associated with increased likelihood of binge drinking, consuming a greater number of drinks, and lower odds of marijuana use; greater daily negative affect was associated with lower odds of alcohol use and lower odds of binge drinking for non-students. For college students, greater daily negative affect was associated with lower odds of marijuana use. Daily affect and alcohol and marijuana use covary among young adults, though these associations differ between students and non-students. Results highlight the need to examine predictors of alcohol and marijuana use among young adults who do not attend college.

  17. Positive alcohol use expectancies moderate the association between anxiety sensitivity and alcohol use across adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Allison M; Lejuez, Carl W; Felton, Julia W

    2018-06-01

    Anxiety sensitivity (AS), or the fear of anxious symptoms and the belief that these symptoms may have negative physical, social, and cognitive consequences, is one personality trait that emerges in early adolescence and may be linked to alcohol use. However, findings are equivocal as to whether elevated AS during adolescence directly predicts alcohol use. Adolescents do report increases in positive alcohol use expectancies during this developmental period, and these expectancies have been found to be significantly associated with alcohol use. The current study examined whether positive alcohol use expectancies and AS in early adolescence predicted changes in alcohol use throughout adolescence. This aim was examined via secondary data analyses from a longitudinal study examining the development of risk behaviors in adolescents. Results of univariate latent growth curve modeling suggest that AS alone was not a significant predictor of baseline alcohol use or change in use over time after controlling for gender, age, and self-reported anxiety. However, AS in early adolescence was found to be a significant predictor of increases in alcohol use across adolescence for youth who reported greater positive alcohol use expectancies. These results indicate that beliefs regarding the positive effects of alcohol use are an important moderator in the relation between AS and change in alcohol use during adolescence. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Alcohol Demand, Future Orientation, and Craving Mediate the Relation Between Depressive and Stress Symptoms and Alcohol Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soltis, Kathryn E; McDevitt-Murphy, Meghan E; Murphy, James G

    2017-06-01

    Elevated depression and stress have been linked to greater levels of alcohol problems among young adults even after taking into account drinking level. This study attempts to elucidate variables that might mediate the relation between symptoms of depression and stress and alcohol problems, including alcohol demand, future time orientation, and craving. Participants were 393 undergraduates (60.8% female, 78.9% White/Caucasian) who reported at least 2 binge-drinking episodes (4/5+ drinks for women/men, respectively) in the previous month. Participants completed self-report measures of stress and depression, alcohol demand, future time orientation, craving, and alcohol problems. In separate mediation models that accounted for gender, race, and weekly alcohol consumption, future orientation and craving significantly mediated the relation between depressive symptoms and alcohol problems. Alcohol demand, future orientation, and craving significantly mediated the relation between stress symptoms and alcohol problems. Heavy-drinking young adults who experience stress or depression are likely to experience alcohol problems, and this is due in part to elevations in craving and alcohol demand, and less sensitivity to future outcomes. Interventions targeting alcohol misuse in young adults with elevated levels of depression and stress should attempt to increase future orientation and decrease craving and alcohol reward value. Copyright © 2017 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  19. The 'Outcome Reporting in Brief Intervention Trials: Alcohol' (ORBITAL) framework: protocol to determine a core outcome set for efficacy and effectiveness trials of alcohol screening and brief intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shorter, G W; Heather, N; Bray, Jeremy W; Giles, E L; Holloway, A; Barbosa, C; Berman, A H; O'Donnell, A J; Clarke, M; Stockdale, K J; Newbury-Birch, D

    2017-12-22

    The evidence base to assess the efficacy and effectiveness of alcohol brief interventions (ABI) is weakened by variation in the outcomes measured and by inconsistent reporting. The 'Outcome Reporting in Brief Intervention Trials: Alcohol' (ORBITAL) project aims to develop a core outcome set (COS) and reporting guidance for its use in future trials of ABI in a range of settings. An international Special Interest Group was convened through INEBRIA (International Network on Brief Interventions for Alcohol and Other Drugs) to inform the development of a COS for trials of ABI. ORBITAL will incorporate a systematic review to map outcomes used in efficacy and effectiveness trials of ABI and their measurement properties, using the COnsensus-based Standards for the selection of health Measurement INstruments (COSMIN) criteria. This will support a multi-round Delphi study to prioritise outcomes. Delphi panellists will be drawn from a range of settings and stakeholder groups, and the Delphi study will also be used to determine if a single COS is relevant for all settings. A consensus meeting with key stakeholder representation will determine the final COS and associated guidance for its use in trials of ABI. ORBITAL will develop a COS for alcohol screening and brief intervention trials, with outcomes stratified into domains and guidance on outcome measurement instruments. The standardisation of ABI outcomes and their measurement will support the ongoing development of ABI studies and a systematic synthesis of emerging research findings. We will track the extent to which the COS delivers on this promise through an exploration of the use of the guidance in the decade following COS publication.

  20. Rh-Based Mixed Alcohol Synthesis Catalysts: Characterization and Computational Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albrecht, Karl O.; Glezakou, Vassiliki Alexandra; Rousseau, Roger J.; Engelhard, Mark H.; Varga, Tamas; Colby, Robert J.; Jaffe, John E.; Li, Xiaohong S.; Mei, Donghai; Windisch, Charles F.; Kathmann, Shawn M.; Lemmon, Teresa L.; Gray, Michel J.; Hart, Todd R.; Thompson, Becky L.; Gerber, Mark A.

    2013-08-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy is conducting a program focused on developing a process for the conversion of biomass to bio-based fuels and co-products. Biomass-derived syngas is converted thermochemically within a temperature range of 240 to 330°C and at elevated pressure (e.g., 1200 psig) over a catalyst. Ethanol is the desired reaction product, although other side compounds are produced, including C3 to C5 alcohols; higher (i.e., greater than C1) oxygenates such as methyl acetate, ethyl acetate, acetic acid and acetaldehyde; and higher hydrocarbon gases such as methane, ethane/ethene, propane/propene, etc. Saturated hydrocarbon gases (especially methane) are undesirable because they represent a diminished yield of carbon to the desired ethanol product and represent compounds that must be steam reformed at high energy cost to reproduce CO and H2. Ethanol produced by the thermochemical reaction of syngas could be separated and blended directly with gasoline to produce a liquid transportation fuel. Additionally, higher oxygenates and unsaturated hydrocarbon side products such as olefins also could be further processed to liquid fuels. The goal of the current project is the development of a Rh-based catalyst with high activity and selectivity to C2+ oxygenates. This report chronicles an effort to characterize numerous supports and catalysts to identify particular traits that could be correlated with the most active and/or selective catalysts. Carbon and silica supports and catalysts were analyzed. Generally, analyses provided guidance in the selection of acceptable catalyst supports. For example, supports with high surface areas due to a high number of micropores were generally found to be poor at producing oxygenates, possibly because of mass transfer limitations of the products formed out of the micropores. To probe fundamental aspects of the complicated reaction network of CO with H2, a computational/ theoretical investigation using quantum mechanical and ab

  1. [Diuretics and their potential effect on breath-alcohol concentration--a case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Georg; Skopp, Gisela

    2015-01-01

    Many objections were raised to breath-alcohol analysis upon its introduction in the field of traffic law enforcement in Germany, but in the meantime this issue has become less relevant in forensic routine work. In the present case, the defending lawyer claimed that the ethanol concentration in the blood and hence in the breath of his client, which was 0.35 mg/l according to the Dräger Alcotest 7110® Evidential and thus above the legal limit of 0.25 mg/l, had been changed by diuretics taken 4 hours before the breath alcohol test, viz. 10 mg of torasemide, a loop diuretic, and 50 mg of spironolactone, a competitive aldosterone antagonist. According to the literature, the maximum urinary output in healthy subjects within the first 4 hours after 10 mg torasemide was 1450 ml. In patients suffering from heart failure, the urinary volume was reduced by a factor of 2.5-3; after chronic intake of torasemide, water loss did not differ from placebo. Spironolactone, which acts on the distal tubule, has little effect on urinary output. In a publication, the loss of water in excess within 24 hours was 90 ml. Co-administration of 100 mg spironolactone and 20 mg furosemide, which roughly compares to 10 mg torasemide, resulted in a mean urinary volume of 1566 ml within the first 4 hours. In terms of the reported case and provided that no compensatory fluid had been taken, a purely theoretical maximum shift of 0.007 mg/ may occur in the breath-alcohol concentration due to the smaller distribution volume even considering maximum urinary excretion values. On the other hand, already mild levels of dehydration may be associated with negative symptoms affecting driving ability.

  2. The interpretability of family history reports of alcoholism in general community samples: Findings in a Midwestern US twin birth cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldron, Mary; Madden, Pamela A. F.; Nelson, Elliot C.; Knopik, Valerie S.; Glowinski, Anne L.; Grant, Julia D.; Lynskey, Michael T.; Jacob, Theodore; Sher, Kenneth J.; Bucholz, Kathleen K.; Heath, Andrew C.

    2011-01-01

    Background Although there is a long tradition in alcoholism research of using family history ratings, the interpretability of family history reports of alcoholism from general community samples has yet to be established. Methods Telephone interview data obtained from a large cohort of female like-sex twins (N = 3787, median age 22) and their biological parents (N = 2928, assessed at twins’ median age 15) were analyzed to determine agreement between parent self-report, parent ratings of coparent, and twin narrow (alcohol problems) versus broad (problem or excessive drinking) ratings of each parent. Results In European ancestry (EA) families, high tetrachoric correlations were observed between twin and cotwin ratings of parental alcohol problems, between twin and parent ratings of coparent alcohol problems using symptom-based and single-item assessments, as well as moderately high correlations between twin and both mother and father self-reports. In African American (AA) families, inter-rater agreement was substantially lower than for EA families, with no cases where father ratings of maternal alcohol problems agreed with either twin ratings or mother self-report; and both cotwin agreement and mother-twin agreement were reduced. Differences between EA and AA families were not explained by differences in years of cohabitation with father or mother’s education; however, underreporting of problems by AA parents may have contributed. Conclusions Results support the use of family history ratings of parental alcoholism in general community surveys for European ancestry families, but suggest that family history assessment in African American families requires improved methods. PMID:22235921

  3. Drug and alcohol in pregnancy and stuttering - a speech-language pathology case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahyara Francini Jacob

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Drug use during pregnancy is a well-known risk factor for the manifestation of speech-language disabilities. However, the necessity of studies directed towards drug use and its influence on interventional speech process in cases of alterations of child language and fluency is observed. In this study, clinical history data are presented as well as pre and post-assessment tests (Speech and Language and the description of an interventional process of a six-year child. The main communication complaint about the child was stuttering. In addition to the child’s clinical history, there was also knowledge of alcohol and legal and illegal drug use by the mother from before the moment of conception until this intervention process was reported. The protocols Stuttering Severity Instrument (SSI, Child Language Test (ABFW: phonology, vocabulary, and fluency tests, along with the Checklist of Verbal Communication Skills were applied. Based on these assessments, the child was diagnosed with mild to moderate stuttering, phonological simplifications, vocabulary inferior to that expected for his age, difficulty maintaining communicative turns, simplified narrative skills, alterations in psycholinguistic processes, and complaints from the school about his learning. The child underwent speech therapy in the areas of fluency and Child Language (phonological approach, showing evolution in the post-intervention assessment. Thus, in the present case, it became clear that the concomitant use of alcohol with exposure to cigarettes and marijuana may trigger changes in the acquisition and development of language, fluency and, consequently, learning.

  4. ALDH2 and ADH1B interactions in retrospective reports of low-dose reactions and initial sensitivity to alcohol in Asian American college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luczak, Susan E; Pandika, Danielle; Shea, Shoshana H; Eng, Mimy Y; Liang, Tiebing; Wall, Tamara L

    2011-07-01

    A mechanistic model has been proposed for how alcohol-metabolizing gene variants protect individuals from the development of alcohol use disorders, with heightened sensitivity to alcohol being an early step (endophenotype) in this model. This study was designed to determine whether possession of 2 alcohol-metabolizing genes variations, the aldehyde dehydrogenase ALDH2*2 allele and the alcohol dehydrogenase ADH1B*2 allele, was associated with self-reported sensitivity to alcohol at low doses and at initial use. Asian-American college students (N=784) of Chinese and Korean descent were genotyped at the ALDH2 and ADH1B loci and assessed for lifetime alcohol symptoms following 1 or 2 drinks and level of response to alcohol during the first 5 lifetime drinking episodes. Participants who had an ALDH2*2 allele were more likely to report experiencing all 6 low-dose symptoms and having heightened initial response to alcohol. An interaction was found between ALDH2*2 and ADH1B*2, with ADH1B*2 being associated with heightened self-reported sensitivity to alcohol only in individuals who also possessed 1 ALDH2*2 allele. These findings suggest the effects of ADH1B*2 may be felt more strongly in Asians who already have some heightened sensitivity to alcohol from possessing 1 ALDH2*2 allele, but who are not too sensitized to alcohol from possessing 2 ALDH2*2 alleles. These results offer additional insight into the discrepant findings that have been reported in the literature for the role of ADH1B*2 in response to alcohol and the development of alcohol-related problems. Copyright © 2011 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  5. Alcohol Alert

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Alcohol Consumption Alcohol's Effects on the Body Alcohol Use Disorder Fetal Alcohol Exposure Support & Treatment Alcohol Policy Special ... 466 KB] No. 81: Exploring Treatment Options for Alcohol Use Disorders [ PDF - 539K] No. 80: Alcohol and HIV/AIDS: ...

  6. Alcohol based surgical prep solution and the risk of fire in the operating room: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta Rajiv

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A few cases of fire in the operating room are reported in the literature. The factors that may initiate these fires are many and include alcohol based surgical prep solutions, electrosurgical equipment, flammable drapes etc. We are reporting a case of fire in the operating room while operating on a patient with burst fracture C6 vertebra with quadriplegia. The cause of the fire was due to incomplete drying of the covering drapes with an alcohol based surgical prep solution. This paper discusses potential preventive measures to minimize the incidence of fire in the operating room.

  7. Alcohol Poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... than eight breaths a minute) Irregular breathing (a gap of more than 10 seconds between breaths) Blue- ... about alcohol by their parents and who report close relationships with their parents are less likely to ...

  8. Hypokalemic Paralysis Complicated by Concurrent Hyperthyroidism and Chronic Alcoholism: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Ming-Hsien; Lin, Shih-Hua; Leu, Jyh-Gang; Fang, Yu-Wei

    2015-09-01

    Thyrotoxic periodic paralysis (TPP) is characterized by the presence of muscle paralysis, hypokalemia, and hyperthyroidism. We report the case of a young man with paralysis of the lower extremities, severe hypokalemia, and concurrent hyperthyroidism. TPP was suspected; therefore, treatment consisting of judicious potassium (K+) repletion and β-blocker administration was initiated. However, urinary K+ excretion rate, as well as refractoriness to treatment, was inconsistent with TPP. Chronic alcoholism was considered as an alternative cause of hypokalemia, and serum K+ was restored through vigorous K repletion and the addition of K+ -sparing diuretics. The presence of thyrotoxicosis and hypokalemia does not always indicate a diagnosis of TPP. Exclusion of TPP can be accomplished by immediate evaluation of urinary K+ excretion, acid-base status, and the amount of potassium chloride required to correct hypokalemia at presentation.

  9. Gratitude, abstinence, and alcohol use disorders: Report of a preliminary finding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krentzman, Amy R

    2017-07-01

    Gratitude is a central component of addiction recovery for many, yet it has received scant attention in addiction research. In a sample of 67 individuals entering abstinence-based alcohol-use-disorder treatment, this study employed gratitude and abstinence variables from sequential assessments (baseline, 6months, 12months) to model theorized causal relationships: gratitude would increase pre-post treatment and gratitude after treatment would predict greater percent days abstinent 6months later. Neither hypothesis was supported. This unexpected result led to the theory that gratitude for sobriety was the construct of interest; therefore, the association between gratitude and future abstinence would be positive among those already abstinent. Thus, post-treatment abstinence was tested as a moderator of the effect of gratitude on future abstinence: this effect was statistically significant. For those who were abstinent after treatment, the relationship between gratitude and future abstinence was positive; for those drinking most frequently after treatment, the relationship between gratitude and future abstinence was negative. In this preliminary study, dispositional tendency to affirm that there is much to be thankful for appeared to perpetuate the status quo-frequent drinkers with high gratitude were drinking frequently 6months later; abstinent individuals with high gratitude were abstinent 6months later. Gratitude exercises might be contraindicated for clients who are drinking frequently and have abstinence as their treatment goal. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Relationships between self-reported unfair treatment and prescription medication use, illicit drug use, and alcohol dependence among Filipino Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gee, Gilbert C; Delva, Jorge; Takeuchi, David T

    2007-05-01

    We examined associations between self-reported unfair treatment and prescription medication use, illicit drug use, and alcohol dependence. We used data from the Filipino American Community Epidemiological Survey, a cross-sectional investigation involving 2217 Filipino Americans interviewed in 1998-1999. Multinomial logistic and negative binomial regression analyses were used in assessing associations between unfair treatment and the substance use categories. Reports of unfair treatment were associated with prescription drug use, illicit drug use, and alcohol dependence after control for age, gender, location of residence, employment status, educational level, ethnic identity level, nativity, language spoken, marital status, and several health conditions. Unfair treatment may contribute to illness and subsequent use of prescription medications. Furthermore, some individuals may use illicit drugs and alcohol to cope with the stress associated with such treatment. Addressing the antecedents of unfair treatment may be a potential intervention route.

  11. Treatment of infected bulla with alcohol sclerosis combined with percutaneous catheter drainage: a preliminary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Young Min; Lee, Jeong Min; Kim, Chong Soo; Chung, Gyung Ho; Rhee, Yang Keen; Lee, Yong Chul; Sohn, Myung Hee; Choi, Ki Chul

    1995-01-01

    To evaluate effectiveness of alcohol sclerosis combined with percutaneous catheter drainage (PCD) for treatment of infected bulla. Infected bulla in four consecutive patients were treated. In all patients, percutaneous catheter drainage of the bulla was performed. Instillation of sterile alcohol (99% ethanol) was carried out into the cavity of the bulla. Alcohol was left in the cavity for approximately 30 minutes in each session. Alcohol instillation was repeated according to the size of bulla. Patients were subsequently followed up with serial chest radiographs and CT scans. All patients showed significant improvement both clinically and radiologically. Disappearance of the bulla and reexpansion of surrounding lung parenchyma was observed in two patients and partial resolution (80% reduction in size) was seen in another two patients. Complications included mild chest pain during instillation of alcohol in all patients and delayed radiating shoulder pain in one patient. We provisionally conclude that intracavitary alcohol instillation combined with PCD is effective in the treatment of the infected bulla

  12. Screening for use of alcohol, tobacco and cannabis in pregnancy using self-report tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hotham, E; White, J; Ali, R; Robinson, J

    2012-08-01

    The World Health Organization has identified substance use in the top 20 risk factors for ill health. Risks in pregnancy are compounded, with risk to the woman's health, to pregnancy progression and on both the foetus and the newborn. Intrauterine exposure can result in negative influences on offspring development, sometimes into adulthood. With effectively two patients, there is a clear need for antenatal screening. Biomarker reliability is limited and research efforts have been directed to self-report tools, often attempting to address potential lack of veracity if women feel guilty about substance use and worried about possible stigmatization. Tools, which assume the behaviour, are likely to elicit more honest responses; querying pre-pregnancy use would likely have the same effect. Although veracity is heightened if substance use questions are embedded within health and social functioning questionnaires, such tools may be too lengthy clinically. It has been proposed that screening only for alcohol and tobacco, with focus on the month pre-pregnancy, could enable identification of all other substances. Alternatively, the Revised Fagerstrom Questionnaire could be used initially, tobacco being highly indicative of substance use generally. The ASSIST V.3.0 is readily administered and covers all substances, although the pregnancy 'risk level' cut-off for tobacco is not established. Alcohol tools - the 4Ps, TLFB and 'drug' CAGE (with E: query of use to avoid withdrawal) - have been studied with other substances and could be used. General psychosocial distress and mental ill-health often co-exist with substance use and identification of substance use needs to become legitimate practice for obstetric clinicians.

  13. Brief Report: Disposable Income, and Spending on Fast Food, Alcohol, Cigarettes, and Gambling by New Zealand Secondary School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darling, Helen; Reeder, Anthony I.; McGee, Rob; Williams, Sheila

    2006-01-01

    We describe self-reported sources of income and expenditure, and the association between part-time employment and spending on fast food, alcohol, cigarettes, and gambling for a sample of 3434 New Zealand (NZ) secondary school students (mean age 15.0 years). Disposable income was usually received from parents and guardians, but nearly 40% of…

  14. Young adolescents who combine alcohol and energy drinks have a higher risk of reporting negative behavioural outcomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holubcikova, Jana; Kolarcik, Peter; Geckova, Andrea Madarasova; Joppova, Eva; van Dijk, Jitse P.; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.

    To explore whether young adolescents consuming alcohol and energy drinks combined were more likely to report negative behavioural outcomes than their peers who drink only one type of these beverages or are abstinent. We analysed data on a representative sample of Slovak adolescents 8502 adolescents

  15. Retrospective reports of parenting received in their families of origin: relationships to adult attachment in adult children of alcoholics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Michelle L; Nair, Veena; Rawlings, Tanaya; Cash, Thomas F; Steer, Kate; Fals-Stewart, William

    2005-09-01

    The present study examined general and romantic attachment and parenting students received in their families of origin among 401 college students who resided with an alcohol-abusing parent prior to age 16 years as compared to those who did not reside with alcohol-abusing parents. Participants completed the Children's Report of Parent Behavior Instrument [Schludermann, E. and Schludermann, S. (1970). Children's Report of Parent Behavior Inventory (CRPBI). Canada: University of Manitoba], Experiences in Close Relationships--Revised [Fraley, R. C., Waller, N. G., and Brennan, K. G. (2000). An item response theory analysis of self-report measures of adult attachment. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 78, 350-365], Relationship Scale Questionnaire [Griffin, D. W. and Bartholomew, K. (1994). Models of the self and other: Fundamental dimensions underlying measures of adult attachment. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 67, 430-445], and the Children of Alcoholics Screening Test [Jones, J. W. (1983). The Children of Alcoholics Screening Test: Test manual. Chicago: Camelot]. Young adults who met criteria for ACOAs reported more anxious and avoidant behavior in romantic relationships and a more fearful style of general adult attachment. Parenting behavior in one's family of origin predicted anxious behavior in romantic relationships and a fearful overall style of attachment, whereas being an ACOA and parenting in one's family of origin predicted avoidant behavior in romantic relationships.

  16. The effects of cocaine, alcohol and cocaine/alcohol combinations in conditioned taste aversion learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busse, Gregory D; Verendeev, Andrey; Jones, Jermaine; Riley, Anthony L

    2005-09-01

    We have recently reported that alcohol attenuates cocaine place preferences. Although the basis for this effect is unknown, alcohol may attenuate cocaine reward by potentiating its aversive effects. To examine this possibility, these experiments assessed the effects of alcohol on cocaine-induced taste aversions under conditions similar to those that resulted in attenuated place preferences. Specifically, Experiments 1 and 2 assessed the effects of alcohol (0.5 g/kg) on taste aversions induced by 20, 30 and 40 mg/kg cocaine. Experiment 3 examined the role of intertrial interval in the effects of alcohol (0.5 g/kg) on cocaine (30 mg/kg) taste aversions. In Experiments 1 and 2, cocaine was effective at conditioning aversions. Alcohol produced no measurable effect. Combining cocaine and alcohol produced no greater aversion than cocaine alone (and, in fact, weakened aversions at the lowest dose of cocaine). In Experiment 3, varying the intertrial interval from 3 days (as in the case of Experiments 1 and 2) to 1 day (a procedure identical to that in which alcohol attenuated cocaine place preferences) resulted in significant alcohol- and cocaine-induced taste aversions. Nonetheless, alcohol remained ineffective in potentiating cocaine aversions. Thus, under these conditions alcohol does not potentiate cocaine's aversiveness. These results were discussed in terms of their implication for the effects of alcohol on cocaine-induced place preferences. Further, the effects of alcohol on place preferences conditioned by cocaine were discussed in relation to other assessments of the effects of alcohol on the affective properties of cocaine and the implications of these interactions for alcohol and cocaine co-use.

  17. Mixing an energy drink with an alcoholic beverage increases motivation for more alcohol in college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marczinski, Cecile A; Fillmore, Mark T; Henges, Amy L; Ramsey, Meagan A; Young, Chelsea R

    2013-02-01

    There has been a dramatic rise in the consumption of alcohol mixed with energy drinks (AmEDs) in social drinkers. It has been suggested that AmED beverages might lead individuals to drink greater quantities of alcohol. This experiment was designed to investigate whether the consumption of AmEDs would alter alcohol priming (i.e., increasing ratings of wanting another drink) compared with alcohol alone. Participants (n = 80) of equal gender attended 1 session where they were randomly assigned to receive 1 of 4 doses (0.91 ml/kg vodka, 1.82 ml/kg energy drink, 0.91 ml/kg vodka mixed with 1.82 ml/kg energy drink [AmED], or a placebo beverage). Alcohol-induced priming of the motivation to drink was assessed by self-reported ratings on the Desire for Drug questionnaire. The priming dose of alcohol increased the subjective ratings of "desire" for more alcohol, consistent with previous research that small doses of alcohol can increase the motivation to drink. Furthermore, higher desire ratings over time were observed with AmEDs compared with alcohol alone. Finally, ratings of liking the drink were similar for the alcohol and AmED conditions. An energy drink may elicit increased alcohol priming. This study provides laboratory evidence that AmED beverages may lead to greater motivation to drink versus the same amount of alcohol consumed alone. Copyright © 2012 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  18. The association of alcohol outlet density with illegal underage adolescent purchasing of alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowland, Bosco; Toumbourou, John W; Livingston, Michael

    2015-02-01

    Although previous studies have suggested that greater community densities of alcohol sales outlets are associated with greater alcohol use and problems, the mechanisms are unclear. The present study examined whether density was associated with increased purchasing of alcohol by adolescents younger than the legal purchase age of 18 in Australia. The number of alcohol outlets per 10,000 population was identified within geographic regions in Victoria, Australia. A state-representative student survey (N = 10,143) identified adolescent reports of purchasing alcohol, and multilevel modeling was then used to predict the effects for different densities of outlet types (packaged, club, on-premise, general, and overall). Each extra sales outlet per 10,000 population was associated with a significant increase in the risk of underage adolescent purchasing. The strongest effect was for club density (odds ratio = 1.22) and packaged (takeaway) outlet density (odds ratio = 1.12). Males, older children, smokers, and those with substance-using friends were more likely to purchase alcohol. One mechanism by which alcohol sales outlet density may influence population rates of alcohol use and related problems is through increasing the illegal underage purchasing of alcohol. Copyright © 2015 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Rhabdomyolysis and acute renal failure after strenuous exercise and alcohol abuse: case report and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth De Francesco Daher

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Rhabdomyolysis is a severe and life-threatening condition in which skeletal muscle is damaged. Acute renal failure due to rhabdomyolysis has been widely described and its main pathophysiological mechanisms are renal vasoconstriction, intraluminal cast formation and direct myoglobin toxicity. OBJECTIVE: To report on a case of acute renal failure (ARF induced by rhabdomyolysis due to strenuous exercise and alcohol abuse and to describe the pathophysiology of this type of ARF. CASE REPORT: A 39-year-old man arrived at the hospital emergency service with swollen legs and lower extremity compartment syndrome. He was oliguric and had serum creatinine and urea levels of 8.1 mg/dl and 195 mg/dl, respectively. The diagnosis of rhabdomyolysis was made through clinical and laboratory findings (creatine kinase activity of 26320 IU/l. The initial treatment consisted of fluid replacement and forced diuresis. The specific treatment for compartment syndrome, such as fasciotomy, was avoided in order to prevent infection. Partial recovery of renal function was recorded, after ten hemodialysis sessions. Complete recovery was observed after two months of follow-up.

  20. Reported Theory Use by Digital Interventions for Hazardous and Harmful Alcohol Consumption, and Association With Effectiveness: Meta-Regression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crane, David; Brown, Jamie; Kaner, Eileen; Beyer, Fiona; Muirhead, Colin; Hickman, Matthew; Redmore, James; de Vocht, Frank; Beard, Emma; Michie, Susan

    2018-01-01

    Background Applying theory to the design and evaluation of interventions is likely to increase effectiveness and improve the evidence base from which future interventions are developed, though few interventions report this. Objective The aim of this paper was to assess how digital interventions to reduce hazardous and harmful alcohol consumption report the use of theory in their development and evaluation, and whether reporting of theory use is associated with intervention effectiveness. Methods Randomized controlled trials were extracted from a Cochrane review on digital interventions for reducing hazardous and harmful alcohol consumption. Reporting of theory use within these digital interventions was investigated using the theory coding scheme (TCS). Reported theory use was analyzed by frequency counts and descriptive statistics. Associations were analyzed with meta-regression models. Results Of 41 trials involving 42 comparisons, half did not mention theory (50% [21/42]), and only 38% (16/42) used theory to select or develop the intervention techniques. Significant heterogeneity existed between studies in the effect of interventions on alcohol reduction (I2=77.6%, Ptheory use and intervention effectiveness in unadjusted models, though the meta-regression was underpowered to detect modest associations. Conclusions Digital interventions offer a unique opportunity to refine and develop new dynamic, temporally sensitive theories, yet none of the studies reported refining or developing theory. Clearer selection, application, and reporting of theory use is needed to accurately assess how useful theory is in this field and to advance the field of behavior change theories. PMID:29490895

  1. Combined alcohol and energy drink use: hedonistic motives, adenosine, and alcohol dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marczinski, Cecile A

    2014-07-01

    Consumption of alcohol mixed with energy drinks (AmED) has been associated with both short- and long-term risks beyond those observed with alcohol alone. AmED use has been associated with heavy episodic (binge) drinking, risky behaviors, and risk of alcohol dependence. Laboratory research has demonstrated that AmED beverages lead to greater motivation to drink versus the same amount of alcohol consumed alone. However, the reason consumers find AmED beverages particularly appealing has been unclear. A recent report by Droste and colleagues (Alcohol Clin Exp Res 2014; 38:2087-2095) is the first study to investigate motivations related to AmED consumption and to determine which motives predict AmED consumption patterns, experience of drinking-related harms, and risk of alcohol dependence. The findings of this study significantly enhance our understanding of why AmED consumption is related to the risk of alcohol dependence and change our understanding of why consumers choose AmED beverages. The authors report that hedonistic motives strongly predicted AmED use and the harms associated with use. While intoxication-reduction motives predicted self-reported accidents and injuries, these motives did not predict AmED consumption patterns and risk of dependence. The risk of alcohol dependence may arise from repeated experiences when drinking alcohol is more pleasurable when energy drinks are consumed with the alcohol. This commentary will focus on why energy drinks might increase the rewarding properties of alcohol in social drinkers. In addition, discussion is provided explaining why more research on the neurotransmitter, adenosine, may actually inform us about the mechanisms contributing to the development of alcohol dependence. Copyright © 2014 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  2. The Epidemiology of Alcohol Use and Alcohol Use Disorders among Young People in Northern Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Joel M; Weiss, Helen A; Mshana, Gerry; Baisley, Kathy; Grosskurth, Heiner; Kapiga, Saidi H

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol use is a global public health problem, including as a risk factor for HIV infection, but few data are available on the epidemiology of alcohol use and alcohol use disorders (AUD) among young people in sub-Saharan Africa. We conducted a cross-sectional survey among 4 groups of young people aged 15-24 years old (secondary school students, college/university students, employees of local industries and casual labourers) in two regions (Kilimanjaro and Mwanza) of northern Tanzania. Using a multistage stratified random sampling strategy, we collected information on demographics, alcohol use, and behavioural factors. We screened severity of alcohol use using the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT) and estimated the quantity and frequency of alcohol consumption using the timeline-follow-back-calendar (TLFB) method. A total of 1954 young people were surveyed. The prevalence of reported alcohol use was higher among males (47-70% ever users and 20-45% current users) than females (24-54% ever users and 12-47% current users). Prevalence of use was substantially higher in Kilimanjaro than Mwanza region. In both regions, participants reported high exposure to alcohol advertisements, and wide alcohol availability. College students reported the highest prevalence of current alcohol use (45% among males; 26% among females) and of heavy episodic drinking (71% among males; 27% among females) followed by casual labourers. Males were more likely to have AUD (an AUDIT score ≥8) than females, with 11-28% of males screening positive for AUD. Alcohol use was associated with male gender, being in a relationship, greater disposable income, non-Muslim religion and a higher number of sexual partners. Alcohol use is a significant problem among young people in northern Tanzania. There is an urgent need to develop, pilot and deliver interventions to help young people delay initiation and reduce levels of harmful drinking, particularly among college students and casual

  3. The Epidemiology of Alcohol Use and Alcohol Use Disorders among Young People in Northern Tanzania.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel M Francis

    Full Text Available Alcohol use is a global public health problem, including as a risk factor for HIV infection, but few data are available on the epidemiology of alcohol use and alcohol use disorders (AUD among young people in sub-Saharan Africa.We conducted a cross-sectional survey among 4 groups of young people aged 15-24 years old (secondary school students, college/university students, employees of local industries and casual labourers in two regions (Kilimanjaro and Mwanza of northern Tanzania. Using a multistage stratified random sampling strategy, we collected information on demographics, alcohol use, and behavioural factors. We screened severity of alcohol use using the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT and estimated the quantity and frequency of alcohol consumption using the timeline-follow-back-calendar (TLFB method.A total of 1954 young people were surveyed. The prevalence of reported alcohol use was higher among males (47-70% ever users and 20-45% current users than females (24-54% ever users and 12-47% current users. Prevalence of use was substantially higher in Kilimanjaro than Mwanza region. In both regions, participants reported high exposure to alcohol advertisements, and wide alcohol availability. College students reported the highest prevalence of current alcohol use (45% among males; 26% among females and of heavy episodic drinking (71% among males; 27% among females followed by casual labourers. Males were more likely to have AUD (an AUDIT score ≥8 than females, with 11-28% of males screening positive for AUD. Alcohol use was associated with male gender, being in a relationship, greater disposable income, non-Muslim religion and a higher number of sexual partners.Alcohol use is a significant problem among young people in northern Tanzania. There is an urgent need to develop, pilot and deliver interventions to help young people delay initiation and reduce levels of harmful drinking, particularly among college students and casual

  4. Drugs, Alcohol and Pregnancy: Parents and Children At Risk. Emerging Issues. A Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallon, Stacie Alexander

    The effects of drug and alcohol use by pregnant women which concern state policymakers are discussed in this booklet. Topics discussed include: (1) the effects of fetal alcohol syndrome on infants and children, as well as the effects on children of drug use by mothers during pregnancy; (2) initiatives aimed at helping these children; (3) women…

  5. Four Years of Reports of Alcohol-Related Harm to Pediatricians in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hoof, Joris Jasper; van Zanten, Eva; van der Lely, Nicolaas

    2015-01-01

    Over the four years of the study, the number of adolescents treated with alcohol-related harm increased significantly (from 297 in 2007 to 684 in 2010), up to a total of 1,616. The dominant reason for hospitalization was “alcohol intoxication” (in total 1,350; 88% of all cases). The gender ratio did

  6. The Effect of Alcohol and Private Self-Consciousness on Self-Report of Values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Ken

    Many studies have supported the finding that alcohol consumption may lead to socially inappropriate behaviors. One theory which appears promising in accounting for the effects of intoxication is Hull's (1981) self-consciousness theory which is based on the idea that alcohol consumption affects behavior indirectly as a result of its effect on…

  7. [Alcohol drinking in the time of political transition in Poland. Report of the National Health Programme ].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moskalewicz, Jacek; Zulewska-Sak, Justyna

    2003-01-01

    The National Health Programme was adopted in Poland in the mid-1990s. It consists of 18 targets including target 4 that calls for diminishing alcohol consumption and changing its structure as well as limiting health harms associated with alcohol. The programme is being monitored on bi-annual basis. The monitoring covers a level of alcohol consumption and associated harm including trends in mortality and morbidity as well as in road accidents in 1990-2001 period. During the period in point, particularly in the beginning of the transition alcohol consumption increased at least by one third reaching 10-11 litres of pure ethanol per capita, mostly due to sudden disruption of the alcohol control system and high tide of unrecorded supply. Currently, the consumption is estimated to be 9.5-10.0 litres with 30% share of the unrecorded. During last decade recorded morbidity due to mental disorders associated with alcohol increased by 80% and 60% respectively in out- and in-patient system while mortality rates almost doubled. Male mortality due to liver diseases increased by 50% while that of women remained relatively flat. In last few years, alcohol related mortality tended to decline slightly parallel to consumption trends. Significant improvement has been achieved in prevention of drunken diving. The number of deaths in alcohol related road accidents decreased two fold while a rate of drunken crashes per 1000 vehicles dropped three times.

  8. Reported Changes in Students' Alcohol Consumption Following a Brief Education of What Constitutes a Standard Drink

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergen-Cico, Dessa; Kilmer, Jason

    2010-01-01

    Intercept surveys were conducted with 149 college students each asked to record their alcohol consumption for the previous two weeks using the Timeline Follow-back (TLFB method). Immediately following completion of the pretest TLFB alcohol survey the students were presented with brief educational information defining what constitutes one standard…

  9. Communications Strategies on Alcohol and Highway Safety. Volume I. Adults 18-55. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grey Advertising, Inc., New York, NY.

    The first part of a two-part, two volume study deals with adults aged 18-55 and identifies target populations and communications strategies for encouraging personal action steps to prevent drunk driving. Fully 54% of adult Americans participate once a month in social or business situations where alcohol is served. They are termed Alcohol Related…

  10. Self-reported alcohol intake in pregnancy: comparison between four methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kesmodel, U; Olsen, S F

    2001-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE To assess the agreement between four different measures of alcohol intake in pregnancy. DESIGN AND SETTING Danish speaking pregnant women referred to the Midwife Centre in Aarhus, Denmark, for routine antenatal care were contacted at their first visit at approximately 15–16 weeks...... combining the methods. CONCLUSIONS When assessing the distribution of alcohol intake in pregnancy or when studying adverse pregnancy outcomes that are probably caused mainly by sustained exposure it seems that for pregnant women with low to moderate alcohol intake diaries or an average measure from...... gestation from October to December 1998. The women were interviewed about current average alcohol intake and intake within the previous week, and subsequently filled in a two week diary on alcohol intake. When booking for delivery at the end of the first trimester the women were also asked to complete...

  11. Alcohol use disorder severity and reported reasons not to seek treatment: a cross-sectional study in European primary care practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Probst, Charlotte; Manthey, Jakob; Martinez, Alicia; Rehm, Jürgen

    2015-08-12

    Alcohol use disorders are among the mental disorders with the lowest treatment rates. Increasing the treatment rates requires insight on the reasons why patients do not seek treatment. This study examined self-reported reasons for not seeking treatment and their association with alcohol use disorder severity among primary health care patients diagnosed with an alcohol use disorder. Alcohol use disorders, health service utilization, and reasons for not seeking treatment were assessed via interviews on regionally representative samples of primary care patients from 6 European countries (Italy, Germany, Hungary, Latvia, Poland and Spain, total N = 9,098). Additionally, general practitioners had to fill in a questionnaire assessing their patients' alcohol use and alcohol use disorders. A multinomial logistic regression was performed to investigate the association between reasons for not seeking treatment and alcohol use disorder severity. Of 1,008 patients diagnosed with an alcohol use disorder (via general practitioner or patient interview) in the past 12 months, the majority (N = 810) did not receive treatment and 251 of those gave a reason for not seeking treatment. The most frequent reason was 'lack of problem awareness' (55.3% of those who responded), the second most common response was 'stigma or shame' (28.6%), followed by 'encounter barriers' (22.8%) and 'cope alone' (20.9%). The results indicated lower probabilities of reporting 'denial' and higher probabilities to report 'encounter barriers' as alcohol use disorders severity increases. However, both trends were discontinued for patients with severe alcohol use disorders. Particularly at lower levels of alcohol use disorder severity, a lack of problem awareness prevents patients from seeking treatment. Routinely alcohol consumption monitoring in primary care practices could help primary and secondary prevention of alcohol use disorders and increase treatment coverage.

  12. A utilitarian comparison of two alcohol use biomarkers with self-reported drinking history collected in antenatal clinics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Philip A; Hasken, Julie M; De Vries, Marlene M; Marais, Anna-Susan; Stegall, Julie M; Marsden, Daniel; Parry, Charles D H; Seedat, Soraya; Tabachnick, Barbara

    2018-04-01

    Alcohol use is reported accurately among pregnant women in some populations. Self-reported alcohol use via the AUDIT and 90-day recall for 193 women from antenatal clinics was compared to biomarker results: phosphatidylethanol (PEth) from bloodspots and ethyl glucuronide (EtG) in fingernails. AUDIT was positive for 67.9% of respondents, and 65.3% directly reported drinking. Individual biomarkers detected less drinking (PEth = 57.0%, EtG = 38.9%) than self-report. But 64.8% had drinking-positive values (>8 ng) on one or both biomarkers, which was not significantly different from self-report. Biomarkers indicated that 3.1% -6.8% of drinkers denied drinking. Combined biomarker sensitivity was 95% -80% and specificity 49% -76% for drinking in the previous 7-90 days. Combined biomarker results have their best yield (89.6%) and accuracy (78.8%) when measuring 90 day drinking. Women reported their alcohol use accurately, and the combined use of PEth and EtG is supported. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. State Blood Alcohol Concentration (BAC) Testing and Reporting for Drivers Involved in Fatal Crashes : Current Practices, Results, and Strategies, 1997-2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    This report documents current State blood alcohol concentration (BAC) testing and reporting practices and results for drivers involved in fatal crashes. It summarizes known BAC results by State for the years 1997 to 2009 for both fatally injured and ...

  14. Towards a greater understanding of the illicit tobacco trade in Europe: a review of the PMI funded ‘Project Star’ report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmore, Anna B; Rowell, Andy; Gallus, Silvano; Lugo, Alessandra; Joossens, Luk; Sims, Michelle

    2014-01-01

    Background Following a legal agreement with the European Union (EU), Philip Morris International (PMI) commissions a yearly report (‘Project Star’, PS) on the European illicit cigarette trade from KPMG, the global accountancy firm. Methods Review of PS 2010 report. Comparison with data from independent sources including a 2010 pan-European survey (N=18 056). Findings Within PS, data covering all 27 EU countries are entered into a model. While the model itself seems appropriate, concerns are identified with the methodologies underlying the data inputs and thus their quality: there is little transparency over methodologies; interview data underestimate legal non-domestic product partly by failing to account for legal cross-border sales; illicit cigarette estimates rely on tobacco industry empty pack surveys which may overestimate illicit; and there is an over-reliance on data supplied by PMI with inadequate external validation. Thus, PMI sales data are validated using PMI smoking prevalence estimates, yet PMI is unable to provide sales (shipment) data for the Greek islands and its prevalence estimates differ grossly from independent data. Consequently, comparisons with independent data suggest PS will tend to overestimate illicit cigarette levels particularly where cross-border shopping is frequent (Austria, Finland, France) and in Western compared with Eastern European countries. The model also provides data on the nature of the illicit cigarette market independent of seizure data suggesting that almost a quarter of the illicit cigarette market in 2010 comprised PMI's own brands compared with just 5% counterfeited PMI brands; a finding hidden in PMI's public representation of the data. Conclusions PS overestimates illicit cigarette levels in some European countries and suggests PMI's supply chain control is inadequate. Its publication serves the interests of PMI over those of the EU and its member states. PS requires greater transparency, external scrutiny and

  15. The association between alcohol exposure and self-reported health status: the effect of separating former and current drinkers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenbin Liang

    Full Text Available To investigate the direction and degree of potential bias introducedto analyses of drinking and health status which exclude former drinkers from exposure groups.Pooled analysis of 14 waves (1997-2010 of the U.S. National Health Interview Survey (NHIS.General population-based study.404,462 participants, from 14 waves of the NHIS, who had knownself-reported health status and alcohol consumption status.Self-reported health status was used as the indicatorof health. Two approaches were used to classify alcohol consumption: (i separation of former drinkers and current drinkers, and (ii combined former and current drinkers. The prevalence of fair/poor health by alcohol use, gender and age with 95% confidence intervals was estimated. The difference in prevalence of fair/poor health status for lifetime abstainers, former drinkers, current drinkers and drinkers (former drinkers and current drinkers combined were compared using Poisson regression with robust estimations of variance.Excluding former drinkers from drinker groups exaggerates the difference in health status between abstainers and drinkers, especially for males.In cohort study analyses, former drinkers should be assigned to a drinking category based on their previous alcohol consumption patterns and not treated as a discrete exposure group.

  16. Brief report: the influence of dissociative experiences and alcohol/drugs dependence on Internet addiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Biolcati

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of this study is to investigate the influence of dissociative experiences and alcohol/drugs dependence on Internet addiction. From a clinical point of view Internet addiction, an excessive or poorly controlled preoccupation, urges, and/or behaviors regarding Internet use, lead to emotional and social problems in several life domains. Moreover, the increased prevalence of Internet addiction among adolescents and young adults is cause of concerns. Data was collected on 441 undergraduate students (285 female, aging from 18 to 36, using an assessment self-reporting set consisting of the Young’s Internet Addiction Test, the Leeds Dependence Questionnaire and the Dissociative Experience Scale. Results converging for the three psychological phenomena involved are interrelated, corroborating the hypothesis of the search for an altered state of consciousness as their common underlying mechanism. Findings show that the tendency to escape from reality, through dissociation and substance abuse, are risk factors for Internet addiction in youngsters. The implications of these results are discussed in a preventive and clinical perspective.

  17. [Autoerotic fatalities in Greater Dusseldorf].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartung, Benno; Hellen, Florence; Borchard, Nora; Huckenbeck, Wolfgang

    2011-01-01

    Autoerotic fatalities in the Greater Dusseldorf area correspond to the relevant medicolegal literature. Our results included exclusively young to middle-aged, usually single men who were found dead in their city apartments. Clothing and devices used showed a great variety. Women's or fetish clothing and complex shackling or hanging devices were disproportionately frequent. In most cases, death occurred due to hanging or ligature strangulation. There was no increased incidence of underlying psychiatric disorders. In most of the deceased no or at least no remarkable alcohol intoxication was found. Occasionally, it may be difficult to reliably differentiate autoerotic accidents, accidents occurring in connection with practices of bondage & discipline, dominance & submission (BDSM) from natural death, suicide or homicide.

  18. NEDO hydrogen, alcohol, and biomass technology subcommittee. 18th project report meeting; NEDO suiso alcohol biomass gijutsu bunkakai. Dai 18 kai jigyo hokokukai

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-09-01

    A report is delivered by Morio Murase, a NEDO (New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization) director, in which the general situation of hydrogen, alcohol, and biomass technology development is explained. Concerning the research and development of international clean energy system of hydrogen, the WE-NET (World Energy Network) project is described, in which a total system concept design and cryogenic structural materials that are the fruits of the 1st phase are mentioned. Concerning the 2nd phase, research and development to be conducted are discussed, and reports are delivered thereon. Reported concerning the development of high-efficiency refuse-fueled power generation technology are a demonstration test using a pilot plant and a superheater demonstration test. Concerning the research and development for the advanced clear energy vehicle project, a development program is reported for an energy-efficient, low-pollution vehicle which is a combination of a hybrid mechanism and clean energy. Reported also is the research and development of supercritical fluid utilization, in which the reaction of supercritical water upon addition of solvent, its oxidation and hydrogenation, and so forth, are explained. (NEDO)

  19. Alcohol-related hot-spot analysis and prediction : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-01

    This project developed methods to more accurately identify alcohol-related crash hot spots, ultimately allowing for more effective and efficient enforcement and safety campaigns. Advancements in accuracy came from improving the calculation of spatial...

  20. Injuries, negative consequences, and risk behaviors among both injured and uninjured emergency department patients who report using alcohol and marijuana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woolard Robert

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Brief intervention (BI to reduce hazardous drinking and negative consequences such as injury has been effective when given in the emergency department (ED. The effectiveness and effect of BI has varied between injured and uninjured ED patients. This study compares injured and uninjured ED patients who admit to alcohol and marijuana use to determine their need and their readiness for BI. Patients and Methods: Participants volunteered to enter a randomized controlled trial of BI to reduce hazardous alcohol and marijuana use. Adult ED patients who had had alcohol in the last month and smoked marijuana in the last year were recruited. Those patients who were admitted to hospital, were under police custody, or were seeking treatment for substance use or psychiatric disorder were excluded. Research assistants interviewed participants using a validated questionnaire. Data were analyzed using SAS (version 9.1. Binominal tests of proportions, t-test analyses, and transformations were conducted as appropriate. Results: Injured (n = 249 and uninjured (n = 266 study participants reported very high, statistically equivalent (P > 0.05, rates of binge drinking (4-5 days/month, marijuana use (13 days/month, driving under the influence of marijuana or alcohol (>49% in the last 3 months, injury (>83% in the last year, and other negative consequences (>64% in the last 3 months prior to their ED visit. These behaviors and the consequences demonstrate a need for change. Both injured and uninjured subjects were ready to change (>56% and confident they could change (>91% alcohol and marijuana use. Discussion: ED patients who admit to alcohol and marijuana use also use other hazardous substances and participate in high-risk behaviors. In both injured and uninjured patients who admit using alcohol and marijuana, the ED visit is an opportunity to deliver BI to reduce alcohol and marijuana use and associated risk behaviors and the subsequent injury and

  1. Design report small-scale fuel alcohol plant. Volume 2: Detailed construction information

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-12-01

    The objectives are to provide potential alcohol producers with a reference design and provide a complete, demonstrated design of a small scale fuel alcohol plant. The plant has the capability for feedstock preparation, cooking, saccharification, fermentation, distillation, by-product dewatering, and process steam generation. An interesting feature is an instrumentation and control system designed to allow the plant to run 24 hours per day with only four hours of operator attention.

  2. InDEx: Open Source iOS and Android Software for Self-Reporting and Monitoring of Alcohol Consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leightley, Daniel; Puddephatt, Jo-Anne; Goodwin, Laura; Rona, Roberto; Fear, Nicola T

    2018-03-23

    InDEx is a software package for reporting and monitoring alcohol consumption via a smartphone application. Consumption of alcohol is self-reported by the user, and the app provides a visual representation of drinking behaviour and offers feedback on consumption levels compared to the general population. InDEx is intended as an exemplar app, operating as a standalone smartphone application and is highly customisable for a variety of research domains. InDEx is written in JavaScript, using IONIC framework which is cross-platform and is available under the liberal GNU General Public License (v3). The software is available from GitHub (https://github.com/DrDanL/index-app-public).

  3. Assessment of ether and alcohol fuels from coal. Volume 2. Technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-03-01

    A unique route for the indirect liquefaction of coal to produce transportation fuel has been evaluated. The resultant fuel includes alkyl tertiary alkyl ethers and higher alcohols, all in the gasoline boiling range. When blended into gasoline, the ether fuel provides several advantages over the lower alcohols: (1) lower chemical oxygen content, (2) less-severe water-separation problems, and (3) reduced front-end volatility effects. The ether fuel also has high-octane quality. Further, it can be utilized as a gasoline substitute in all proportions. Production of ether fuel combines several steps, all of which are or have been practiced on an industrial scale: (1) coal gasification, (2) gas cleanup and shift to desired H/sub 2/:CO ratio, (3) conversion of synthesis gas to isobutanol, methanol, and higher alcohols, (4) separation of alcohols, (5) chemical dehydration of isobutanol to isobutylene, and (6) etherification of isobutylene with methanol. A pilot-plant investigation of the isobutanol synthesis step was performed. Estimates of ether-fuel manufacturing costs indicate this process route is significantly more costly than synthesis of methanol. However, the fuel performance features provide incentive for developing the necessary process and catalyst improvements. Co-production of higher-molecular-weight co-solvent alcohols represents a less-drastic form of methanol modification to achieve improvement in the performance of methanol-gasoline blends. Costs were estimated for producing several proportions of methanol plus higher alcohols from coal. Estimated fuel selling price increases regularly but modestly with higher alcohol content.

  4. Neural and psychological characteristics of college students with alcoholic parents differ depending on current alcohol use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown-Rice, Kathleen A; Scholl, Jamie L; Fercho, Kelene A; Pearson, Kami; Kallsen, Noah A; Davies, Gareth E; Ehli, Erik A; Olson, Seth; Schweinle, Amy; Baugh, Lee A; Forster, Gina L

    2018-02-02

    A significant proportion of college students are adult children of an alcoholic parent (ACoA), which can confer greater risk of depression, poor self-esteem, alcohol and drug problems, and greater levels of college attrition. However, some ACoA are resilient to these negative outcomes. The goal of this study was to better understand the psychobiological factors that distinguish resilient and vulnerable college-aged ACoAs. To do so, scholastic performance and psychological health were measured in ACoA college students not engaged in hazardous alcohol use (resilient) and those currently engaged in hazardous alcohol use (vulnerable). Neural activity (as measured by functional magnetic resonance imaging) in response to performing working memory and emotion-based tasks were assessed. Furthermore, the frequency of polymorphisms in candidate genes associated with substance use, risk taking and stress reactivity were compared between the two ACoA groups. College ACoAs currently engaged in hazardous alcohol use reported more anxiety, depression and posttraumatic stress symptoms, and increased risky nicotine and marijuana use as compared to ACoAs resistant to problem alcohol use. ACoA college students with current problem alcohol showed greater activity of the middle frontal gyrus and reduced activation of the posterior cingulate in response to visual working memory and emotional processing tasks, which may relate to increased anxiety and problem alcohol and drug behaviors. Furthermore, polymorphisms of cholinergic receptor and the serotonin transporter genes also appear to contribute a role in problem alcohol use in ACoAs. Overall, findings point to several important psychobiological variables that distinguish ACoAs based on their current alcohol use that may be used in the future for early intervention. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Reported Theory Use by Digital Interventions for Hazardous and Harmful Alcohol Consumption, and Association With Effectiveness: Meta-Regression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garnett, Claire; Crane, David; Brown, Jamie; Kaner, Eileen; Beyer, Fiona; Muirhead, Colin; Hickman, Matthew; Redmore, James; de Vocht, Frank; Beard, Emma; Michie, Susan

    2018-02-28

    Applying theory to the design and evaluation of interventions is likely to increase effectiveness and improve the evidence base from which future interventions are developed, though few interventions report this. The aim of this paper was to assess how digital interventions to reduce hazardous and harmful alcohol consumption report the use of theory in their development and evaluation, and whether reporting of theory use is associated with intervention effectiveness. Randomized controlled trials were extracted from a Cochrane review on digital interventions for reducing hazardous and harmful alcohol consumption. Reporting of theory use within these digital interventions was investigated using the theory coding scheme (TCS). Reported theory use was analyzed by frequency counts and descriptive statistics. Associations were analyzed with meta-regression models. Of 41 trials involving 42 comparisons, half did not mention theory (50% [21/42]), and only 38% (16/42) used theory to select or develop the intervention techniques. Significant heterogeneity existed between studies in the effect of interventions on alcohol reduction (I 2 =77.6%, Ptheory use and intervention effectiveness in unadjusted models, though the meta-regression was underpowered to detect modest associations. Digital interventions offer a unique opportunity to refine and develop new dynamic, temporally sensitive theories, yet none of the studies reported refining or developing theory. Clearer selection, application, and reporting of theory use is needed to accurately assess how useful theory is in this field and to advance the field of behavior change theories. ©Claire Garnett, David Crane, Jamie Brown, Eileen Kaner, Fiona Beyer, Colin Muirhead, Matthew Hickman, James Redmore, Frank de Vocht, Emma Beard, Susan Michie. Originally published in the Journal of Medical Internet Research (http://www.jmir.org), 28.02.2018.

  6. Validation of the alcohol use item banks from the Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilkonis, Paul A; Yu, Lan; Dodds, Nathan E; Johnston, Kelly L; Lawrence, Suzanne M; Daley, Dennis C

    2016-04-01

    The Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) includes five item banks for alcohol use. There are limited data, however, regarding their validity (e.g., convergent validity, responsiveness to change). To provide such data, we conducted a prospective study with 225 outpatients being treated for substance abuse. Assessments were completed shortly after intake and at 1-month and 3-month follow-ups. The alcohol item banks were administered as computerized adaptive tests (CATs). Fourteen CATs and one six-item short form were also administered from eight other PROMIS domains to generate a comprehensive health status profile. After modeling treatment outcome for the sample as a whole, correlates of outcome from the PROMIS health status profile were examined. For convergent validity, the largest correlation emerged between the PROMIS alcohol use score and the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (r=.79 at intake). Regarding treatment outcome, there were modest changes across the target problem of alcohol use and other domains of the PROMIS health status profile. However, significant heterogeneity was found in initial severity of drinking and in rates of change for both abstinence and severity of drinking during follow-up. This heterogeneity was associated with demographic (e.g., gender) and health-profile (e.g., emotional support, social participation) variables. The results demonstrated the validity of PROMIS CATs, which require only 4-6 items in each domain. This efficiency makes it feasible to use a comprehensive health status profile within the substance use treatment setting, providing important prognostic information regarding abstinence and severity of drinking. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Meta-Analysis of the Association of Alcohol-Related Social Media Use with Alcohol Consumption and Alcohol-Related Problems in Adolescents and Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Brenda L; Lookatch, Samantha J; Ramo, Danielle E; McKay, James R; Feinn, Richard S; Kranzler, Henry R

    2018-06-01

    studies: Greater alcohol-related social media engagement was correlated with both greater self-reported drinking and alcohol-related problems. Further research to determine the causal direction of these associations could provide opportunities for social media-based interventions with young drinkers aimed at reducing alcohol consumption and alcohol-related adverse consequences. Copyright © 2018 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  8. The effects of alcohol expectancy priming on group bonding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moltisanti, Allison J; Below, Maureen C; Brandon, Karen O; Goldman, Mark S

    2013-12-01

    According to alcohol expectancy theory, drinking-related information is stored in memory and, when cue activated, influences alcohol-related behavior. Priming of alcohol cues and expectancies has been shown to elicit both drinking and nonconsumptive behavior associated with alcohol consumption, such as willingness to meet with a stranger and aggression. These social influence effects have been shown to be moderated by individual differences in alcohol expectancies. In the present study, we tested whether an alcohol prime would facilitate social group bonding even in the absence of consumption, and whether such group bonding would be moderated by individually held social expectancies. One hundred twenty undergraduates (75% female) completed an alcohol expectancy measure prior to participation. Participants were primed with either alcohol or neutral beverage words and completed a collaborative group activity followed by questionnaires measuring perceived group cohesion. Several interactions were found between condition and expectancy reflecting that those in the alcohol prime condition with higher social alcohol expectancies reported greater cohesion on task-related, but not emotion-related, group measures. These findings underscore the complexity of the impact of expectancy and social behavior on drinking: the priming of alcohol expectancies may activate aspects of pro-social behavior, which may influence drinking, which in turn may feedback to positively reinforce social expectancies.

  9. Probe molecule studies: Active species in alcohol synthesis. Final report, July 1993--July 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blackmond, D.G.; Wender, I.; Oukaci, R.; Wang, Jian

    1994-07-01

    The objectives of this project are to investigate the role(s) of cobalt and copper in constructing the active sites for the formation of higher alcohols from CO/H{sub 2} over the Co-Cu based catalysts by using different reduction treatments and applying selected characterization tools such as TPR, TPD, XRD and XPS as well as to generate mechanistic information on the reaction pathway(s) and key intermediate(s) of higher alcohol synthesis from CO/H{sub 2} over Co-Cu/ZnO catalysts by the approach of in-situ addition of a probe molecule (nitromethane).

  10. Combined Alcohol and Energy Drink Use: Hedonistic Motives, Adenosine, and Alcohol Dependence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marczinski, Cecile A.

    2014-01-01

    Consumption of alcohol mixed with energy drinks (AmED) has been associated with both short and long-term risks beyond those observed with alcohol alone. AmED use has been associated with heavy episodic (binge) drinking, risky behaviors, and risk of alcohol dependence. Laboratory research has demonstrated that AmED beverages lead to greater motivation to drink versus the same amount of alcohol consumed alone. However, the reason consumers find AmED beverages particularly appealing has been unclear. A recent report by Droste and colleagues (2014) is the first study to investigate motivations related to AmED consumption and to determine which motives predict AmED consumption patterns, experience of drinking-related harms, and risk of alcohol dependence. The findings of this study significantly enhance our understanding of why AmED consumption is related to the risk of alcohol dependence and change our understanding of why consumers chose AmED beverages. The authors report that hedonistic motives strongly predicted AmED use and the harms associated with use. While intoxication-reduction motives predicted self-reported accidents and injuries, these motives did not predict AmED consumption patterns and risk of dependence. The risk of alcohol dependence may arise from repeated experiences when drinking alcohol is more pleasurable when energy drinks are consumed with the alcohol. This commentary will focus on why energy drinks might increase the rewarding properties of alcohol in social drinkers. In addition, discussion is provided explaining why more research on the neurotransmitter, adenosine, may actually inform us about the mechanisms contributing to the development of alcohol dependence. PMID:25040590

  11. Alcohol Use and Associations With Biological Markers and Self-Reported Indicators of Unprotected Sex in Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Positive Female Sex Workers in Mombasa, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Darcy; Wilson, Kate S; Masese, Linnet N; Wanje, George; Jaoko, Walter; Mandaliya, Kishorchandra; Richardson, Barbra A; Kinuthia, John; Simoni, Jane M; McClelland, R Scott

    2016-10-01

    Studies of alcohol use and sexual behavior in African populations have primarily been cross-sectional, used nonvalidated measures of alcohol use, or relied on self-reported sexual risk endpoints. Few have focused on human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive women. Longitudinal data were collected from a cohort of HIV-positive Kenyan female sex workers. At enrollment and annual visits, participants were asked about past-year alcohol use using the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT). The primary endpoint was detection of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) in vaginal secretions at quarterly examinations. Associations between hazardous/harmful alcohol use (AUDIT score ≥7), PSA detection, and secondary measures of sexual risk were evaluated using generalized estimating equations with a log binomial regression model. A total of 405 women contributed 2750 vaginal samples over 606 person-years of follow-up. Hazardous/harmful alcohol use was reported at 16.6% of AUDIT assessments and was associated with higher risk of PSA detection (relative risk 1.50; 95% confidence interval, 1.11-2.01) relative to no alcohol use. This association was attenuated and no longer statistically significant, after adjusting for age, work venue, intimate partner violence, depression, and partnership status (adjusted relative risk, 1.13; 95% confidence interval, 0.82-1.56). In exploratory analyses, alcohol use was associated with self-report of unprotected sex and with sexually transmitted infection acquisition. Although hazardous/harmful alcohol use was not associated with detection of PSA in adjusted analysis, associations with secondary outcomes suggest that alcohol use is at least a marker of sexual risk behavior.

  12. The Role of VET in Alcohol and Other Drugs Workforce Development: Survey Technical Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pidd, Ken; Carne, Amanda; Roche, Ann

    2010-01-01

    To examine the effectiveness of vocational education and training qualifications as a workforce development strategy in the community services and health industries, a case study was undertaken of the alcohol and other drug sector. The project comprised of two parts: (1) An online survey to gain an understanding of employer's perceptions of and…

  13. Comparing Entering Freshmen's Perceptions of Campus Marijuana and Alcohol Use to Reported Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, Gregg J.; Nguyen, Alyssa T.

    2009-01-01

    Use of marijuana and alcohol among current college students (N = 1101) was compared to the perceptions and use of entering freshmen (N = 481) surveyed before the start of classes. Entering freshmen significantly misperceived campus norms for marijuana use, over-estimating that almost every student used in the last 30 days, p less than 0.001.…

  14. Children of alcoholics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Oravecz

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available The author briefly interprets the research – results, referring to the phenomenon of children of alcoholics, especially the psychological and psychopathological characteristics of children of alcoholics in adolescence and young adulthood. The author presents a screening study of adolescents. The sample contains 200 high school students at age 18. The aim of the survey was to discover the relationship between alcohol consumption of parents, PTSD - related psychopathological symptoms and reported life quality of their children. The study confirmed the hypothesis about a substantial correlation between high alcohol consumption of parents, higher psychopathological symptom - expression and lower reported life quality score of their children. Higher PTSD-related symptomatology in children of alcoholics is probably resulted by home violence, which is very often present in family of alcoholics. The article also evaluated the results regarding suicide ideation of children of alcoholics, which is definitely more frequent and more intense than in their peers living in non alcohol – dependent families.

  15. Alcohol Policies and Alcohol-Involved Homicide Victimization in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naimi, Timothy S; Xuan, Ziming; Coleman, Sharon M; Lira, Marlene C; Hadland, Scott E; Cooper, Susanna E; Heeren, Timothy C; Swahn, Monica H

    2017-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the associations between the alcohol policy environment and alcohol involvement in homicide victims in the United States, overall and by sociodemographic groups. To characterize the alcohol policy environment, the presence, efficacy, and degree of implementation of 29 alcohol policies were used to determine Alcohol Policy Scale (APS) scores by state and year. Data about homicide victims from 17 states from 2003 to 2012 were obtained from the National Violent Death Reporting System. APS scores were used as lagged exposure variables in generalized estimating equation logistic regression models to predict the individual-level odds of alcohol involvement (i.e., blood alcohol concentration [BAC] > 0.00% vs. = 0.00% and BAC ≥ 0.08% vs. ≤ 0.079%) among homicide victims. A 10 percentage point increase in APS score (representing a more restrictive policy environment) was associated with reduced odds of alcohol-involved homicide with BAC greater than 0.00% (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 0.89, 95% CI [0.82, 0.99]) and BAC of 0.08% or more (AOR = 0.91, 95% CI [0.82, 1.02]). In stratified analyses of homicide victims, more restrictive policy environments were significantly protective of alcohol involvement at both BAC levels among those who were female, ages 21-29 years, Hispanic, unmarried, victims of firearm homicides, and victims of homicides related to intimate partner violence. More restrictive alcohol policy environments were associated with reduced odds of alcohol-involved homicide victimization overall and among groups at high risk of homicide. Strengthening alcohol policies is a promising homicide prevention strategy.

  16. Role of caregiver-reported outcomes in identification of children with prenatal alcohol exposure during the first year of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhireva, Ludmila N; Lowe, Jean; Garrison, Laura M; Cano, Sandra; Leyva, Yuridia; Qeadan, Fares; Stephen, Julia M

    2018-05-16

    BackgroundEarlier identification of children with prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) remains a challenge. The objective of this study was to identify neurobehavioral (NB) outcomes associated with PAE in infants.MethodsThis manuscript evaluates NB outcomes at 6.33±1.12 months of age in 93 infants (39 PAE and 54 No-PAE) recruited prospectively into the ENRICH cohort. PAE was assessed by prospective repeated TLFB interviews and a panel of ethanol biomarkers. NB outcomes were evaluated by the Bayley Scales of Infant Development (BSID-III), Parenting Stress Index (PSI), Infant Behavior Questionnaire (IBQ-R), and Infant Sensory Profile (ISP).ResultsMean maternal age at enrollment was 28.18±5.75, and 64.52% were Hispanic/Latina. Across three TLFB calendars, absolute alcohol per day in the PAE group was 0.44±0.72, corresponding to low-moderate alcohol consumption. While no association was observed between PAE and BSID-III (P's>0.05), PAE was associated with higher scores on the PSI difficult child scale (=13.9; P=0.015), total stress (=13.9; P=0.010), and IBQ negative affect (=8.60; P=0.008) measures after adjustment for covariates.ConclusionsCaregiver-reported assessments may provide a currently unrecognized opportunity to identify behavioral deficits, point to early interventions, and should be included in clinical assessments of infants at-risk for fetal alcohol spectrum disorder.Pediatric Research advance online publication, 16 May 2018; doi:10.1038/pr.2018.26.

  17. Voluntary temporary abstinence from alcohol during "Dry January" and subsequent alcohol use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Visser, Richard O; Robinson, Emily; Bond, Rod

    2016-03-01

    Research suggests that temporary abstinence from alcohol may convey physiological benefits and enhance well-being. The aim of this study was to address a lack of information about: (a) correlates of successful completion of a planned period of abstinence, and (b) how success or failure in planned abstinence affects subsequent alcohol consumption. 857 British adults (249 men, 608 women) participating in the "Dry January" alcohol abstinence challenge completed a baseline questionnaire, a 1-month follow-up questionnaire, and a 6-month follow-up questionnaire. Key variables assessed at baseline included measures of alcohol consumption and drink refusal self-efficacy (DRSE). In bivariate analysis, success during Dry January was predicted by measures of more moderate alcohol consumption and greater social DRSE at baseline. Multivariate analyses revealed that success during Dry January was best predicted by a lower frequency of drunkenness in the month prior to Dry January. Structural equation modeling revealed that participation in Dry January was related to reductions in alcohol consumption and increases in DRSE among all respondents at 6-month follow-up, regardless of success, but indicated that these changes were more likely among people who successfully completed the challenge. The findings suggest that participation in abstinence challenges such as Dry January may be associated with changes toward healthier drinking and greater DRSE, and is unlikely to result in undesirable "rebound effects": very few people reported increased alcohol consumption following a period of voluntary abstinence. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. Individualized exercise prescription in non-alcoholic steatohepatitis: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Ángel Sánchez-Martos

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The effect of an individualized exercise programme on a non-alcoholic steatohepatitis case is presented. Before entering the programme the patient was treated with conventional recommendations on diet plus aerobic exercise during fourteen years, without major improvements of his analytical parameters. Two years after including him in a tailored exercise programme, aimed to fulfil the recommendations of the American College of Sports Medicine, his blood markers of liver dysfunction and cardio-metabolic risk tended to improve. Consequently, our data support the idea that in non-alcoholic steatohepatitis the exercise-based therapeutic interventions should be individualized taking into account the cardio-respiratory and muscular fitness of the patient, rather than using generic behavioural recommendations.

  19. Brief report: the influence of dissociative experiences and alcohol/drugs dependence on Internet addiction

    OpenAIRE

    Roberta Biolcati; Giacomo Mancini; Elena Trombini

    2017-01-01

    The main aim of this study is to investigate the influence of dissociative experiences and alcohol/drugs dependence on Internet addiction. From a clinical point of view Internet addiction, an excessive or poorly controlled preoccupation, urges, and/or behaviors regarding Internet use, lead to emotional and social problems in several life domains. Moreover, the increased prevalence of Internet addiction among adolescents and young adults is cause of concerns. Data was collected on 441 undergra...

  20. Common late-onset subcortical cerebral hemorrhage following excessive alcohol consumption: a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Incedayi, M.; Sivrioglu, A.; Velioglu, M.; Aribal, S.; Sonmez, G.; Basekim, C.

    2012-01-01

    Full text: 50 year old male patient who was suffering from cooperation disorder and bilaterally blindness was admitted to our emergency service. He was addicted to alcohol and had excessive alcohol consumption the day before. Cranial nonenhanced CT was normal. T2 weighed MR imaging performed at 1,5 T unit showed high signal intensity in bilateral putaminal foci. In this localization diffusion-weighed images (DWI) were hyperintense due to restricted diffusion and low ADC values. After two weeks, drowsiness and confusion were appeared suddenly. Cranial nonenhanced CT was showed extensive subcortical white matter and basal ganglia abnormalities consistent with edema and hemorrhagic changes. The patient was transferred to intensive care unit and died after one day. In methanol intoxication, cerebral and intraventricular hemorrhage, cerebellar necrosis, diffuse cerebral edema, bilateral subcortical white matter necrosis and edema were defined It should also be known that 2 or 3 weeks after ingestion of methyl alcohol, the deterioration of the patient's general situation is responsible for cerebral subcortical hemorrhage. We have also thought that patients' mortality and morbidity can be reduced with radiological imaging due to early diagnosis

  1. Greater-confinement disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trevorrow, L.E.; Schubert, J.P.

    1989-01-01

    Greater-confinement disposal (GCD) is a general term for low-level waste (LLW) disposal technologies that employ natural and/or engineered barriers and provide a degree of confinement greater than that of shallow-land burial (SLB) but possibly less than that of a geologic repository. Thus GCD is associated with lower risk/hazard ratios than SLB. Although any number of disposal technologies might satisfy the definition of GCD, eight have been selected for consideration in this discussion. These technologies include: (1) earth-covered tumuli, (2) concrete structures, both above and below grade, (3) deep trenches, (4) augered shafts, (5) rock cavities, (6) abandoned mines, (7) high-integrity containers, and (8) hydrofracture. Each of these technologies employ several operations that are mature,however, some are at more advanced stages of development and demonstration than others. Each is defined and further described by information on design, advantages and disadvantages, special equipment requirements, and characteristic operations such as construction, waste emplacement, and closure

  2. Alcohol policy and taxation in South Africa: an examination of the economic burden of alcohol tax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ataguba, John Ele-Ojo

    2012-01-01

    Alcohol consumption accounts for over 4% of the global burden of disease and an even higher figure in developing countries. Several policies have been proposed to curb the negative impact of alcohol misuse. Apart from South Africa, which has witnessed a rapid development in alcohol policy, such policies are poorly developed in most African countries. South Africa uses taxation as a policy lever, in line with international evidence, to reduce alcohol consumption. However, the problem of alcohol abuse still exists. The objective of this article is to present an analysis of alcohol tax incidence for the first time in South Africa. This was done for each category of alcohol tax (wines, spirits, beer and traditional brew [sorghum beer]) and for alcohol tax as a whole. The paper also uses the results to point to the areas where a greater understanding of the issues surrounding alcohol abuse needs to be developed. Data were drawn from the 2005/06 South African Income and Expenditure Survey. Reported expenditures on alcohol beverages were used to obtain the tax component paid by households. This was done under certain assumptions relating to alcohol content and the price per litre of alcohol. Per adult equivalent consumption expenditure was used as the measure of relative living standards and concentration curves and Kakwani indices to assess relative progressivity of alcohol taxes. Statistical dominance tests were also performed. Most sorghum beer and malt beer drinkers were in the poorer quintiles. The reverse was the case for wines and spirits. Overall, alcohol tax in South Africa was regressive (Kakwani index -0.353). The individual categories were found to be regressive. The most regressive tax was that on sorghum beer (Kakwani index -1.01); the least regressive was that on spirits (Kakwani index -0.09), although this was not statistically significant at conventional levels. These results were confirmed by the test of dominance. In South Africa, there has been a

  3. Alcoholics' selective attention to alcohol stimuli: automated processing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stormark, K M; Laberg, J C; Nordby, H; Hugdahl, K

    2000-01-01

    This study investigated alcoholics' selective attention to alcohol words in a version of the Stroop color-naming task. Alcoholic subjects (n = 23) and nonalcoholic control subjects (n = 23) identified the color of Stroop versions of alcohol, emotional, neutral and color words. Manual reaction times (RTs), skin conductance responses (SCRs) and heart rate (HR) were recorded. Alcoholics showed overall longer RTs than controls while both groups were slower in responding to the incongruent color words than to the other words. Alcoholics showed longer RTs to both alcohol (1522.7 milliseconds [ms]) and emotional words (1523.7 ms) than to neutral words (1450.8 ms) which suggests that the content of these words interfered with the ability to attend to the color of the words. There was also a negative correlation (r = -.41) between RT and response accuracy to alcohol words for the alcoholics, reflecting that the longer time the alcoholics used to respond to the color of the alcohol words, the more incorrect their responses were. The alcoholics also showed significantly greater SCRs to alcohol words (0.16 microSiemens) than to any of the other words (ranging from 0.04-0.08 microSiemens), probably reflecting the emotional significance of the alcohol words. Finally, the alcoholics evidenced smaller HR acceleration to alcohol (1.9 delta bpm) compared to neutral (2.8 delta bpm), which could be related to difficulties alcoholics experience in terminating their attention to the alcohol words. These findings indicate that it is difficult for alcoholics to regulate their attention to alcohol stimuli, suggesting that alcoholics' processing of alcohol information is automated.

  4. Alcoholism: Development, Consequences, and Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estes, Nada J.; Heinemann, M. Edith

    This book is intended to contribute to the theoretical knowledge of alcoholism workers so that the needs of people with alcohol related problems may be met with greater understanding. Contributors to the book represent a variety of disciplines and address a broad spectrum of topics. Part One deals with developmental perspectives of alcoholism,…

  5. Evaluation and review of planning for greater-confinement disposal by the Independent Peer Review Committee, July 9-10, 1985. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-07-01

    This evaluation and review was performed under contract by Argonne National Laboratory in support of their role for developing the ''Planning for Greater Confinement Disposal'' Document for the Low-Level Waste Management Program Office for the Department of Energy, Office of Defense Waste and Byproducts Management. The Independent Peer Review Committee was composed of 13 well-qualified and recognized experts in their fields and pertinent disciplines, collectively representing considerable expertise and experience in waste disposal operations, waste management, environmental assessment and impact analysis, and other aspects of radioactive waste disposal. The members of the Peer Review Committee, their organizations, and thier area of expertise are given in Appendix 1. The general consensus of the Independent Review Committee was that the ''Planning for Greater-Confinement Disposal'' document was reasonably comprehensive, covering nearly all topics necessary to provide a good planning guide. There is, however, a definite need to reorganize the document into two volumes with appendices and the relationship of the GCD document to other LLWMP documents needs to be clarified in the introductory volume. Specific recommendations made by the committee on the DCD document are given in Section 3.2. Recommendations by the committee that have a somewhat broader scope than just the GCD document are given in Section 3.3

  6. Factors Associated with Younger Adolescents’ Exposure to Online Alcohol Advertising

    Science.gov (United States)

    D’Amico, Elizabeth J.; Martino, Steven C.; Collins, Rebecca L.; Shadel, William G.; Tolpadi, Anagha; Kovalchik, Stephanie; Becker, Kirsten M.

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about the extent and nature of youth exposure to online alcohol advertising, or factors that may be associated with exposure. The current study recruited middle school students who completed a paper survey and then logged each alcohol advertisement that they encountered over a two-week period using cell phones as part of an ecological momentary assessment (EMA) design. We examined the percentage of youth who reported exposure to online alcohol advertising in the past two weeks, average weekly rate of exposure, types of online alcohol advertisements youth reported seeing, and factors that increased youths’ risk of exposure to online alcohol advertising. Analyses are based on 485 participants (47% female; 25% Hispanic, 25% white, 27% black; 6% Asian, 16% other). Youth logged exposures to a total of 3,966 (16,018 weighted for under-reporting) alcohol advertisements across the monitoring period; 154 (568 weighted) or 3.6% were online ads. Seventeen percent of youth reported seeing any online alcohol ad; the majority of online ads seen were video commercials (44.8%) and banner/side ads (26.6%). Factors associated with greater ad exposure were being older, rebellious, and Black race; greater parental monitoring and more hours spent on social media were associated with less exposure. Findings provide important information about adolescents’ exposure to online alcohol advertising and what might contribute to a greater likelihood of exposure. Given that online ad exposure is linked to drinking behavior, prevention programming for younger adolescents should continue to address this issue to help youth make healthy choices regarding alcohol use. PMID:27819430

  7. Adolescent Gender Differences in Alcohol Beliefs and Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Kenneth H.; Summons, Terry G.

    1987-01-01

    Surveyed high school students on alcohol-related issues. Found that, compared to females, males drank beer, wine, and liquor more frequently and in greater quantities; reported more frequent instances of drunkenness and drunk driving; believed risks associated with drunk driving were less serious; reported own experiences as best sources of…

  8. Effects of alcohol advertising exposure on drinking among youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Leslie B; Milici, Frances Fleming; Slater, Michael; Sun, Helen; Strizhakova, Yuliya

    2006-01-01

    To test whether alcohol advertising expenditures and the degree of exposure to alcohol advertisements affect alcohol consumption by youth. Longitudinal panel using telephone surveys. Households in 24 US media markets, April 1999 to February 2001. Individuals aged 15 to 26 years were randomly sampled within households and households within media markets. Markets were systematically selected from the top 75 media markets, representing 79% of the US population. The baseline refusal rate was 24%. Sample sizes per wave were 1872, 1173, 787, and 588. Data on alcohol advertising expenditures on television, radio, billboards, and newspapers were collected. Market alcohol advertising expenditures per capita and self-reported alcohol advertising exposure in the prior month. Self-reported number of alcoholic drinks consumed in the prior month. Youth who saw more alcohol advertisements on average drank more (each additional advertisement seen increased the number of drinks consumed by 1% [event rate ratio, 1.01; 95% confidence interval, 1.01-1.02]). Youth in markets with greater alcohol advertising expenditures drank more (each additional dollar spent per capita raised the number of drinks consumed by 3% [event rate ratio, 1.03; 95% confidence interval, 1.01-1.05]). Examining only youth younger than the legal drinking age of 21 years, alcohol advertisement exposure and expenditures still related to drinking. Youth in markets with more alcohol advertisements showed increases in drinking levels into their late 20s, but drinking plateaued in the early 20s for youth in markets with fewer advertisements. Control variables included age, gender, ethnicity, high school or college enrollment, and alcohol sales. Alcohol advertising contributes to increased drinking among youth.

  9. FY 1998 annual report on the hydrogen, alcohol and biomass technology working group. 19th R and D activity report; 1998 nendo suiso alcohol biomass gijutsu bunkakai. Dai 19 kai jigyo hokokukai

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-09-01

    Summarized herein are the FY 1998 R and D activities by the hydrogen, alcohol and biomass technology working group, extracted from the 19th R and D activity report by NEDO. Mr. Murase, a NEDO's director, outlines R and D of techniques for hydrogen-utilizing international clean energy systems, high-efficiency power generation by wastes, reutilization of combustible wastes as fuels, high-efficiency clean energy vehicles and pioneer techniques for utilization of supercritical fluids, and commercialization of waste water treatment techniques for prevention of global warming, in the report entitled (General situations of the hydrogen, alcohol and biomass technology development group). The researchers presented the R and D results of development of externally circulating type fluidized bed, demonstration tests therefor by a pilot plant, phase 1 WE-NET project, phase 1 hydrogen-fueled turbine, phase 1 closed type high-efficiency gas turbine system equipped with a CO2 recovery system, and simple systems for cleaning up industrial wastes. (NEDO)

  10. More features, greater connectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Sarah

    2015-09-01

    Changes in our political infrastructure, the continuing frailties of our economy, and a stark growth in population, have greatly impacted upon the perceived stability of the NHS. Healthcare teams have had to adapt to these changes, and so too have the technologies upon which they rely to deliver first-class patient care. Here Sarah Hunt, marketing co-ordinator at Aid Call, assesses how the changing healthcare environment has affected one of its fundamental technologies - the nurse call system, argues the case for wireless such systems in terms of what the company claims is greater adaptability to changing needs, and considers the ever-wider range of features and functions available from today's nurse call equipment, particularly via connectivity with both mobile devices, and ancillaries ranging from enuresis sensors to staff attack alert 'badges'.

  11. Greater oil investment opportunities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arenas, Ismael Enrique

    1997-01-01

    Geologically speaking, Colombia is a very attractive country for the world oil community. According to this philosophy new and important steps are being taken to reinforce the oil sector: Expansion of the exploratory frontier by including a larger number of sedimentary areas, and the adoption of innovative contracting instruments. Colombia has to offer, Greater economic incentives for the exploration of new areas to expand the exploratory frontier, stimulation of exploration in areas with prospectivity for small fields. Companies may offer Ecopetrol a participation in production over and above royalties, without it's participating in the investments and costs of these fields, more favorable conditions for natural gas seeking projects, in comparison with those governing the terms for oil

  12. Alcohol consumption and self-reported (SF12) physical and mental health among working aged-men in a typical Russian city

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dissing, Nete; Gil, Artyom; Keenan, Katherine

    2013-01-01

    the associations with PCS considerably. CONCLUSION: Among working age male adults in Russia, hazardous patterns of alcohol drinking are associated with poorer self-reported physical health, and even more strongly with poorer self-reported mental health. Physical health appears to be lower in those reporting......AIM: To investigate the association between patterns of alcohol consumption and self-reported physical and mental health in a population with a high prevalence of hazardous drinking. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study of an age-stratified random sample of a population register. SETTING: The city...... of Izhevsk, The Russian Federation, 2008-9. PARTICIPANTS: 1031 men aged 25 to 60 years (68% response rate). MEASUREMENTS: Self-reported health was evaluated with the SF12 physical (PCS) and mental (MCS) component summaries. Measures of hazardous drinking (based on frequency of adverse effects of alcohol...

  13. Factors associated with younger adolescents' exposure to online alcohol advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Amico, Elizabeth J; Martino, Steven C; Collins, Rebecca L; Shadel, William G; Tolpadi, Anagha; Kovalchik, Stephanie; Becker, Kirsten M

    2017-03-01

    Little is known about the extent and nature of youth exposure to online alcohol advertising, or factors that may be associated with exposure. The current study recruited middle school students who completed a paper survey and then logged each alcohol advertisement that they encountered over a 2-week period using cell phones as part of an ecological momentary assessment design. We examined the percentage of youth who reported exposure to online alcohol advertising in the past 2 weeks, average weekly rate of exposure, types of online alcohol advertisements youth reported seeing, and factors that increased youths' risk of exposure to online alcohol advertising. Analyses are based on 485 participants (47% female; 25% Hispanic, 25% White, 27% Black; 6% Asian, 16% other). Youth logged exposures to a total of 3,966 (16,018 weighted for underreporting) alcohol advertisements across the monitoring period; 154 (568 weighted) or 3.6% were online ads. Seventeen percent of youth reported seeing any online alcohol ad; the majority of online ads seen were video commercials (44.8%) and banner/side ads (26.6%). Factors associated with greater ad exposure were being older, rebellious, and Black race; greater parental monitoring and more hours spent on social media were associated with less exposure. Findings provide important information about adolescents' exposure to online alcohol advertising and what might contribute to a greater likelihood of exposure. Given that online ad exposure is linked to drinking behavior, prevention programming for younger adolescents should continue to address this issue to help youth make healthy choices regarding alcohol use. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. Reliability of a self-report Italian version of the AUDIT-C questionnaire, used to estimate alcohol consumption by pregnant women in an obstetric setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazzo, Stefania; Battistella, Giuseppe; Riscica, Patrizia; Moino, Giuliana; Dal Pozzo, Giuseppe; Bottarel, Mery; Geromel, Mariasole; Czerwinsky, Loredana

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol consumption during pregnancy can result in a range of harmful effects on the developing foetus and newborn, called Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD). The identification of pregnant women who use alcohol enables to provide information, support and treatment for women and the surveillance of their children. The AUDIT-C (the shortened consumption version of the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test) is used for investigating risky drinking with different populations, and has been applied to estimate alcohol use and risky drinking also in antenatal clinics. The aim of the study was to investigate the reliability of a self-report Italian version of the AUDIT-C questionnaire to detect alcohol consumption during pregnancy, regardless of its use as a screening tool. The questionnaire was filled in by two independent consecutive series of pregnant women at the 38th gestation week visit in the two birth locations of the Local Health Authority of Treviso (Italy), during the years 2010 and 2011 (n=220 and n=239). Reliability analysis was performed using internal consistency, item-total score correlations, and inter-item correlations. The "discriminatory power" of the test was also evaluated. Results. Overall, about one third of women recalled alcohol consumption at least once during the current pregnancy. The questionnaire had an internal consistency of 0.565 for the group of the year 2010, of 0.516 for the year 2011, and of 0.542 for the overall group. The highest item total correlations' coefficient was 0.687 and the highest inter-item correlations' coefficient was 0.675. As for the discriminatory power of the questionnaire, the highest Ferguson's delta coefficient was 0.623. These findings suggest that the Italian self-report version of the AUDIT-C possesses unsatisfactory reliability to estimate alcohol consumption during pregnancy when used as self-report questionnaire in an obstetric setting.

  15. Relationship Quality and Alcohol-Related Social Reinforcement during Couples Interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairbairn, Catharine E; Testa, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Individuals who are unhappy in their intimate partnerships are at risk for developing alcohol problems. But little is known about the mechanisms underlying this link. One possibility is that couples with poor relationship quality gain more reinforcement from alcohol in certain contexts-a possibility that has never previously been empirically examined. In the current study, 304 individuals (152 couples) were assigned to receive alcohol (target BAC .08%) or a non-alcoholic beverage. They then engaged in a conflict-resolution interaction with their partners. Videotaped interactions were coded by trained observers. Results revealed a significant interaction between alcohol and relationship quality across multiple measures. Alcohol decreased negative behaviors, decreased negative reciprocity, and enhanced self-reported experience to a greater extent during interactions involving individuals reporting low relationship quality and had comparatively little effect among those reporting high relationship quality. Findings point to a potential mechanism underlying problem drinking among couples with poor relationship quality.

  16. Public acceptance of management actions and judgments of responsibility for the wolves of the southern Greater Yellowstone Area: Report to Grand Teton National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Jonathan G.; Johnson, S. Shea; Shelby, Lori B.

    2005-01-01

    Introduction Wolves of Grand Teton National Park and the Greater Yellowstone Area Gray wolves (Canis lupus) appeared in Grand Teton National Park (GRTE) in October of 1998, two years after being reintroduced to Yellowstone National Park (YNP). Since that time, five packs have been within the GRTE borders - Gros Ventre Pack, Nez Perce Pack, Yellowstone Delta Pack, Teton Pack, and Green River Pack (Table 1). Wolves in the Greater Yellowstone Area are increasing and spreading out geographically (USFWS and others, 2004). This dispersion was demonstrated recently by the death of a 2-year-old female wolf from the Swan Lake pack on I-70 in Colorado (June 7, 2004; http://mountain-prairie.USFWS.gov/pressrel /04-43.htm). The organization of wolf packs in the GYA is dynamic and highly structured. In 2003, for example, a wolf from the Teton Pack joined with the Green River Pack, and several young wolves left the Teton Pack and moved south (USFWS and others, 2004). Pack size (averaging five to ten members) is dependent on hunting efficiency, which depends on prey size, type, and density. Each pack defends home ranges of several hundred square miles. The social structure of the pack is based on a breeding pair (an alpha male and female). Other wolves in the pack can be categorized as betas (males and/or females second in rank to the alphas), subordinates, pups, and occasional omegas (outcasts). Because generally only the alpha pair breeds, subordinate wolves of reproductive age must disperse from their packs and form new associations in order to breed. (http://www.nps.gov/grte/wolf/biolo.htm). The reintroduced wolves are classified by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) as "nonessential experimental" under section 10(j) of the Endangered Species Act. The recovery criteria for the GYA wolves were met in 2002 for removing the wolves from the Endangered Species List (30 or more breeding pairs). Currently, the USFWS manages wolf populations in the GYA until delisting occurs

  17. Effects of caffeine on alcohol reinforcement: Beverage choice, self-administration, and subjective ratings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeney, Mary M.; Meredith, Steven E.; Evatt, Daniel P.; Griffiths, Roland R.

    2017-01-01

    Rationale Combining alcohol and caffeine is associated with increased alcohol consumption, but no prospective experimental studies have examined whether added caffeine increases alcohol consumption. Objectives This study examined how caffeine alters alcohol self-administration and subjective reinforcing effects in healthy adults. Methods Thirty-one participants completed six double-blind alcohol self-administration sessions: three sessions with alcohol only (e.g., Beverage A) and three sessions with alcohol and caffeine (e.g., Beverage B). Participants chose which beverage to consume on a subsequent session (e.g., Beverage A or B). Effects of caffeine on overall beverage choice, number of self-administered drinks, subjective ratings (e.g., Biphasic Alcohol Effects Scale), and psychomotor performance were examined. Results A majority of participants (65%) chose to drink the alcohol beverage containing caffeine on their final self-administration session. Caffeine did not increase the number of self-administered drinks. Caffeine significantly increased stimulant effects, decreased sedative effects, and attenuated decreases in psychomotor performance attributable to alcohol. Relative to nonchoosers, caffeine choosers reported overall lower stimulant ratings, and reported greater drinking behavior prior to the study. Conclusions Although caffeine did not increase the number of self-administered drinks, most participants chose the alcohol beverage containing caffeine. Given the differences in subjective ratings and pre-existing differences in self-reported alcohol consumption for caffeine choosers and nonchoosers, these data suggest decreased stimulant effects of alcohol and heavier self-reported drinking may predict subsequent choice of combined caffeine and alcohol beverages. These predictors may identify individuals who would benefit from efforts to reduce risk behaviors associated with combining alcohol and caffeine. PMID:28108773

  18. Is proximity to alcohol outlets associated with alcohol consumption and alcohol-related harm in Denmark?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kedir, Abdu; Berg-Beckhoff, Gabriele; Stock, Christiane

    2018-01-01

    Background: This study examined the associations between distance from residence to the nearest alcohol outlet with alcohol consumption as well as with alcohol-related harm. Methods: Data on alcohol consumption, alcohol-related harm and sociodemographics were obtained from the 2011 Danish Drug...... and Alcohol Survey (n=5133) with respondents aged 15–79 years. The information on distances from residence to the nearest alcohol outlets was obtained from Statistics Denmark. Multiple logistic and linear regressions were used to examine the association between distances to outlets and alcohol consumption...... whereas alcohol-related harm was analysed using negative binomial regression. Results: Among women it was found that those living closer to alcohol outlets were more likely to report alcohol-related harm (p

  19. Is proximity to alcohol outlets associated with alcohol consumption and alcohol-related harm in Denmark?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seid, Abdu K.; Berg-Beckhoff, Gabriele; Stock, Christiane

    2018-01-01

    Background: This study examined the associations between distance from residence to the nearest alcohol outlet with alcohol consumption as well as with alcohol-related harm. Methods: Data on alcohol consumption, alcohol-related harm and sociodemographics were obtained from the 2011 Danish Drug...... and Alcohol Survey (n = 5133) with respondents aged 15–79 years. The information on distances from residence to the nearest alcohol outlets was obtained from Statistics Denmark. Multiple logistic and linear regressions were used to examine the association between distances to outlets and alcohol consumption...... whereas alcohol-related harm was analysed using negative binomial regression. Results: Among women it was found that those living closer to alcohol outlets were more likely to report alcohol-related harm (p

  20. Alcohol consumption and the risk of self-reported perennial and seasonal allergic rhinitis in young adult women in a population-based cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendtsen, P; Grønbæk, M; Kjær, S. K.

    2008-01-01

    Background Alcohol consumption has been suggested to be associated with the development of allergic rhinitis (AR), but there is limited data on the topic. Objectives The objective of this study was to investigate the association between alcohol consumption and the risk of developing AR among young...... women. Methods Five thousand eight hundred and seventy Danish women aged 20-29 years participated in a prospective cohort study, and were free of seasonal and perennial AR at baseline (1991-1993). Alcohol consumption was assessed by a food frequency questionnaire. The main outcome measures were self......-reported information on seasonal and perennial AR debuting during a mean follow-up period of 7.8 years. Results During follow-up, 831 women developed seasonal AR and 523 women developed perennial AR, corresponding to 14% and 9%. Alcohol consumption was positively associated with the risk of developing perennial AR...

  1. Definition of Terms in Mental Health, Alcohol Abuse, Drug Abuse, and Mental Retardation: Methodology Reports. Mental Health Statistics Series C, No. 8.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Inst. of Mental Health (DHEW), Rockville, MD.

    This report seeks to define basic terms for use in mental health, alcoholism, drug abuse and mental retardation programs in order to achieve some progress toward a long-range goal of improved communication and exchange of information among concerned disciplines in these fields. While the report does represent the most complete and developed work…

  2. Child physical and sexual abuse: a comprehensive look at alcohol consumption patterns, consequences, and dependence from the National Alcohol Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lown, E Anne; Nayak, Madhabika B; Korcha, Rachael A; Greenfield, Thomas K

    2011-02-01

    Previous research has documented a relationship between child sexual abuse and alcohol dependence. This paper extends that work by providing a comprehensive description of past year and lifetime alcohol consumption patterns, consequences, and dependence among women reporting either physical and sexual abuse in a national sample. This study used survey data from 3,680 women who participated in the 2005 U.S. National Alcohol Survey. Information on physical and sexual child abuse and its characteristics were assessed in relation to 8 past year and lifetime alcohol consumption measures. Child physical or sexual abuse was significantly associated with past year and lifetime alcohol consumption measures. In multivariate analyses, controlling for age, marital status, employment status, education, ethnicity, and parental alcoholism or problem drinking, women reporting child sexual abuse vs. no abuse were more likely to report past year heavy episodic drinking (OR(adj) = 1.7; 95% CI 1.0 to 2.9), alcohol dependence (OR(adj) = 7.2; 95% CI 3.2 to 16.5), and alcohol consequences (OR(adj) = 3.6; 95% CI 1.8 to 7.3). Sexual abuse (vs. no abuse) was associated with a greater number of past year drinks (124 vs. 74 drinks, respectively, p = 0.002). Sexual child abuse was also associated with lifetime alcohol-related consequences (OR(adj) = 3.5; 95% CI 2.6 to 4.8) and dependence (OR(adj) = 3.7; 95% CI 2.6 to 5.3). Physical child abuse was associated with 4 of 8 alcohol measures in multivariate models. Both physical and sexual child abuse were associated with getting into fights, health, legal, work, and family alcohol-related consequences. Alcohol-related consequences and dependence were more common for women reporting sexual abuse compared to physical abuse, 2 or more physical abuse perpetrators, nonparental and nonfamily physical abuse perpetrators, and women reporting injury related to the abuse. Both child physical and sexual abuse were associated with many alcohol outcomes in

  3. Pellagroid Dermatitis in an Alcoholic and Hypothyroid Patient. A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graciela Cabrera Acea

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Pellagroid dermatitis is a condition resulting from the deficiency of niacin and/or tryptophan that causes dermatological, gastrointestinal and neurological symptoms. It is very rare in our country, a fact that motivated us to present this case. The patient was a 49-year-old white man diagnosed with pellagroid dermatitis. He also suffered from hypothyroidism, alcohol dependence and had poor eating habits due to his frequent drinking. He had a medical history of hypertension and presented cutaneous manifestations of pellagroid dermatitis. The erythematous and scaly manifestations were located on the back of both arms. They resembled scalded skin; some had an ulcerated and blistered center and were similar to those in the neck, deltoid region and other sites exposed to sunlight. The lesions were permanently cured after vitamin therapy and skin protection from solar radiation.

  4. Optimization of Rhodium-Based Catalysts for Mixed Alcohol Synthesis – 2012 Progress Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerber, Mark A.; Gray, Michel J.; Albrecht, Karl O.; Thompson, Becky L.

    2012-11-01

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory has been conducting research to investigate the feasibility of producing mixed alcohols from biomass-derived synthesis gas (syngas). In recent years, this research has primarily involved the further development of catalysts containing rhodium and manganese based on the results of earlier catalyst screening tests. Testing continued in FY 2012 to further improve the Ir-promoted RhMn catalysts on both silica and carbon supports for producing mixed oxygenates from synthesis gas. This testing re-examined selected alternative silica and carbon supports to follow up on some uncertainties in the results with previous test results. Additional tests were conducted to further optimize the total and relative concentrations of Rh, Mn, and Ir, and to examine selected promoters and promoter combinations based on earlier results. To establish optimum operating conditions, the effects of the process pressure and the feed gas composition also were evaluated.

  5. Saturday night palsy or Sunday morning hangover? A case report of alcohol-induced Crush Syndrome.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Devitt, Brian M

    2011-01-01

    Saturday night palsy is a colloquial term given to brachial plexus injuries of the arm resulting from stretching or direct pressure against a firm object, often after alcohol or drug consumption. In most circumstances, this condition gives rise to a temporary plexopathy, which generally resolves. However, if the compression is severe and prolonged, a more grave form of this condition known as \\'Crush Syndrome\\' may occur. Skeletal muscle injury, brought about by protracted immobilization, leads to muscle decay, causing rhabdomyolysis, which may in turn precipitate acute renal failure. This condition is potentially fatal and has an extremely high morbidity. The case presented below demonstrates the drastic consequences that can result following an episode of \\'binge\\' drinking in a young man. What is most concerning is that this trend is increasing across society and cases like this may not be as rare in the future.

  6. Planning for greater confinement disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilbert, T.L.; Luner, C.; Meshkov, N.K.; Trevorrow, L.E.; Yu, C.

    1985-01-01

    A report that provides guidance for planning for greater-confinement disposal (GCD) of low-level radioactive waste is being prepared. The report addresses procedures for selecting a GCD technology and provides information for implementing these procedures. The focus is on GCD; planning aspects common to GCD and shallow-land burial are covered by reference. Planning procedure topics covered include regulatory requirements, waste characterization, benefit-cost-risk assessment and pathway analysis methodologies, determination of need, waste-acceptance criteria, performance objectives, and comparative assessment of attributes that support these objectives. The major technologies covered include augered shafts, deep trenches, engineered structures, hydrofracture, improved waste forms, and high-integrity containers. Descriptive information is provided, and attributes that are relevant for risk assessment and operational requirements are given. 10 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

  7. Alcohol-crash problem in Canada, 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    This report examines: data on alcohol in fatally injured drivers and pedestrians; the number and : percent of people who died in alcohol-related crashes; and alcohol involvement in those crashes : in which someone was seriously injured but not killed...

  8. Alcohol-crash problem in Canada, 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    This report examines: data on alcohol in fatally injured drivers and pedestrians; the number and : percent of people who died in alcohol-related crashes; and alcohol involvement in those crashes : in which someone was seriously injured but not killed...

  9. Alcohol-crash problem in Canada, 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    This report examines: data on alcohol in fatally injured drivers and pedestrians; the number and : percent of people who died in alcohol-related crashes; and alcohol involvement in those crashes : in which someone was seriously injured but not killed...

  10. Alcohol marketing and youth alcohol consumption: a systematic review of longitudinal studies published since 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jernigan, David; Noel, Jonathan; Landon, Jane; Thornton, Nicole; Lobstein, Tim

    2017-01-01

    Youth alcohol consumption is a major global public health concern. Previous reviews have concluded that exposure to alcohol marketing was associated with earlier drinking initiation and higher alcohol consumption among youth. This review examined longitudinal studies published since those earlier reviews. Peer-reviewed papers were identified in medical, scientific and social science databases, supplemented by examination of reference lists. Non-peer-reviewed papers were included if they were published by organizations deemed to be authoritative, were fully referenced and contained primary data not available elsewhere. Papers were restricted to those that included measures of marketing exposure and alcohol consumption for at least 500 underage people. Multiple authors reviewed studies for inclusion and assessed their quality using the National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute's Quality Assessment Tool for Observation Cohort and Cross-Sectional Studies. Twelve studies (ranging in duration from 9 months to 8 years), following nine unique cohorts not reported on previously involving 35 219 participants from Europe, Asia and North America, met inclusion criteria. All 12 found evidence of a positive association between level of marketing exposure and level of youth alcohol consumption. Some found significant associations between youth exposure to alcohol marketing and initiation of alcohol use (odds ratios ranging from 1.00 to 1.69), and there were clear associations between exposure and subsequent binge or hazardous drinking (odds ratios ranging from 1.38 to 2.15). Mediators included marketing receptivity, brand recognition and alcohol expectancies. Levels of marketing exposure among younger adolescents were similar to those found among older adolescents and young adults. Young people who have greater exposure to alcohol marketing appear to be more likely subsequently to initiate alcohol use and engage in binge and hazardous drinking. © 2016 Society for the Study of

  11. Attenuating the alcohol allure: attentional broadening reduces rapid motivational response to alcohol pictures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryerson, Nicole C; Neal, Lauren B; Gable, Philip A

    2017-04-01

    Past research has found that exposure to alcohol cues causes a narrowing of attentional scope and enhances the neural responses associated with approach motivation. The current research sought to determine if a manipulated broadened (global) attentional scope would reduce approach-motivated neural reactivity to alcohol pictures. In the current study, participants (n = 82) were exposed to alcohol and neutral pictures following either a global or local attentional scope manipulation. Early motivated attentional processing was assessed using the N1 event-related potential (ERP), a neurophysiological marker of rapid motivated attention. A global attentional scope reduced N1 amplitudes to alcohol pictures as compared to a local attentional scope. Self-reported binge drinking related to larger N1 amplitudes to alcohol pictures, but not to neutral pictures. Individuals with greater binge drinking experience demonstrated increased rapid motivated attentional processing to alcohol pictures. These results suggest that enhancing a global (vs. local) attentional scope attenuates rapid motivated attentional processing of alcohol pictures in comparison to neutral pictures. Graphical abstract ᅟ.

  12. ALCOHOL I

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Despite the increase in alcohol marketing activities by the transnational alcohol corporations in Nigeria .... were recorded with a digital device with ..... era (i.e., before alcohol industry was es- tablished in ..... university student drinking: A na-.

  13. Anti-Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha in therapy of severe alcoholic hepatitis: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Romano

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available AIM OF THE STUDY The aim of this study is to evaluate the tolerance and effects of a single dose of infliximab combined with steroid therapy. PATIENTS AND METHODS A 44-years old man patient with chronic alcohol abuse, obesity, dyslipidemia and diabetes with AH (Maddrey’s score 32 received an association of prednisolone (80 mg/day ev and infliximab (5 mg/kg once. RESULTS At 2 weeks bilirubin decreased from 18.1 mg/dL to 6 mg/dL. At 4 weeks AST decreased from 1042 U/L to 154 U/L, ALT from 1112 U/L to 151 U/L, Maddrey’s score decreased to 17.4. Infliximab was well tolerated, but after 5 weeks the patient suffered an adverse event characterized by fever, panniculitis, septicaemia of Staphylococcus aureus treated with specific therapy. At 60 days the patient was asymptomatic and the liver function tests were normal (Maddrey’s score 10. At 6 months of follow-up: Maddrey’s score 6. CONCLUSIONS In AH, infliximab was well tolerated and associated with significant improvement in LFTs and Maddrey’s score, but these promising results should encourage large trials assessing better the strategy of therapy and criteria for enrolment of the patients.

  14. Inconsistencies between alcohol screening results based on AUDIT-C scores and reported drinking on the AUDIT-C questions: prevalence in two US national samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background The AUDIT-C is an extensively validated screen for unhealthy alcohol use (i.e. drinking above recommended limits or alcohol use disorder), which consists of three questions about alcohol consumption. AUDIT-C scores ≥4 points for men and ≥3 for women are considered positive screens based on US validation studies that compared the AUDIT-C to “gold standard” measures of unhealthy alcohol use from independent, detailed interviews. However, results of screening—positive or negative based on AUDIT-C scores—can be inconsistent with reported drinking on the AUDIT-C questions. For example, individuals can screen positive based on the AUDIT-C score while reporting drinking below US recommended limits on the same AUDIT-C. Alternatively, they can screen negative based on the AUDIT-C score while reporting drinking above US recommended limits. Such inconsistencies could complicate interpretation of screening results, but it is unclear how often they occur in practice. Methods This study used AUDIT-C data from respondents who reported past-year drinking on one of two national US surveys: a general population survey (N = 26,610) and a Veterans Health Administration (VA) outpatient survey (N = 467,416). Gender-stratified analyses estimated the prevalence of AUDIT-C screen results—positive or negative screens based on the AUDIT-C score—that were inconsistent with reported drinking (above or below US recommended limits) on the same AUDIT-C. Results Among men who reported drinking, 13.8% and 21.1% of US general population and VA samples, respectively, had screening results based on AUDIT-C scores (positive or negative) that were inconsistent with reported drinking on the AUDIT-C questions (above or below US recommended limits). Among women who reported drinking, 18.3% and 20.7% of US general population and VA samples, respectively, had screening results that were inconsistent with reported drinking. Limitations This study did not include an

  15. Under-reporting of alcohol consumption in household surveys: a comparison of quantity-frequency, graduated-frequency and recent recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockwell, Tim; Donath, Susan; Cooper-Stanbury, Mark; Chikritzhs, Tanya; Catalano, Paul; Mateo, Cid

    2004-08-01

    To compare alternative survey methods for estimating (a) levels of at risk alcohol consumption and (b) total volume of alcohol consumed per capita in comparison with estimates from sales data and to investigate reasons for under-reporting. The homes of respondents who were eligible and willing to participate. A total of 21,674 Australians aged 14 years and older. A 2001 national household survey of drug use, experiences and attitudes with weights applied for age, sex, geographic location and day of week of interview. Self-completion questionnaire using quantity-frequency (QF) and graduated-frequency (GF) methods plus two questions about consumption 'yesterday': one in standard drinks, another with empirically based estimates of drink size and strength. The highest estimate of age 14 + per capita consumption of 7.00 l of alcohol derived from recall of consumption 'yesterday' or 76.8% of the official estimate. The lowest was QF with 49.8%. When amount consumed 'yesterday' was recalled in standard drinks this estimate was 5.27 l. GF questions yielded higher estimates than did QF questions both for total volume (5.25 versus 4.54 l) and also for the proportion of the population at risk of long-term alcohol-related harm (10.6%versus 8.1%). With the detailed 'yesterday' method 61% of all consumption was on high risk drinking days. Questions about typical quantities of alcohol consumed can lead to underestimates, as do questions about drinking 'standard drinks' of alcohol. Recent recall methods encourage fuller reporting of volumes plus more accurate estimates of unrecorded consumption and the proportion of total alcohol consumption that places drinkers at risk of harm. However, they do not capture longer-term drinking patterns. It is recommended that both recent recall and measures of longer-term drinking patterns are included in national surveys.

  16. Alcohol use and alcohol/marijuana use during the most recent sexual experience differentially predict characteristics of the sexual experience among sexually active young adult drinkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairlie, Anne M; Garcia, Tracey A; Lee, Christine M; Lewis, Melissa A

    2018-07-01

    Few studies have examined associations between using alcohol only and using both alcohol and marijuana with sexual behavior on specific occasions. The current study examined alcohol and marijuana use during the most recent sexual experience in association with relationship characteristics, psychological issues, and condom use. Young adult drinkers aged 18-25 who reported not using a condom during sex in the past month were recruited nationally. An analytic subsample (N = 378) was identified based on substance use during the most recent sexual experience [53% female, 70% Caucasian; mean age = 22.42 years (SD = 1.90)]. Using logistic regression, two dummy codes compared the alcohol use only group (n = 197) and the both alcohol and marijuana group (n = 95) to the group who used neither substance (n = 86). Participant sex, drinking frequency, and number of sexual partners were included as covariates. The alcohol only group and the both alcohol and marijuana group had greater odds of being with a casual acquaintance and loss of respect compared to the group who used neither substance. The alcohol only group had greater odds of being with someone they just met and embarrassment compared to the group who used neither substance. No associations were found for condom use or emotional difficulties. Preventative interventions may need to address both alcohol and marijuana to more effectively reduce risky behaviors. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The gendered trouble with alcohol: young people managing alcohol related violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, Jo

    2012-05-01

    Alcohol related violence is a troubling backdrop to the social lives and relationships of many young people in post-industrial societies. The development of the night-time economy where young people are encouraged to drink heavily in entertainment precincts has increased the risk of violence. This paper reports on 60 individual structured in-depth interviews about the drinking biographies of young people (aged 20-24) living in Victoria, Australia. Twenty-six males and 34 females participated in the research. The participants discussed their experiences with alcohol over their life course to date. The material on alcohol related violence is analysed in this paper. Just over half of the participants (33/60) recounted negative experiences with alcohol related violence. The findings demonstrate the continuing gendered nature of experiences of perpetration and victimization. Participants reported that aggression and violence perpetrated by some men was fuelled by alcohol consumption and required ongoing management. Experiences of violence were also spatialized. Men were more likely to report managing and avoiding violence in particular public settings whilst more women than men discussed managing violence in domestic settings. The central argument of this paper is that incidents of alcohol related violence and reactions to it are specific gender performances that occur in specific socio-cultural contexts. In contrast to research which has found some young people enjoy the adventure and excitement of alcohol related violence the mainstream participants in this study saw violence as a negative force to be managed and preferably avoided. Understanding violence as a dynamic gender performance complicates the development of policy measures designed to minimize harm but also offers a more holistic approach to developing effective policy in this domain. There is a need for greater acknowledgement that alcohol related violence in public venues and in families is primarily about

  18. Black Alcoholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Thomas D.; Wright, Roosevelt

    1988-01-01

    Examines some aspects of the problem of alcoholism among Blacks, asserting that Black alcoholism can best be considered in an ecological, environmental, sociocultural, and public health context. Notes need for further research on alcoholism among Blacks and for action to reduce the problem of Black alcoholism. (NB)

  19. Drinking, abstinence, and academic motives: Relationships among multiple motivational domains and alcohol use in college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimaldi, Elizabeth M; Ladd, Benjamin O; Anderson, Kristen G

    2016-04-01

    Drinking, abstinence, and academic motives have been previously linked with alcohol consumption in high school and college students; however, little research has examined the impact of such sources of motivations concurrently. Drawing from self-determination theory (SDT; Ryan & Deci, 2000), the current study tested the hypothesis that alcohol-related and academic motives would be associated with one another along internal vs. external focused dimensions. We also examined the relative influence of these motives on alcohol consumption. College students (N=226) completed self-report measures assessing drinking motives, abstinence motives, academic motives, and alcohol-related outcomes. Findings suggest that drinking motives are related to abstinence motives but not academic motives. Both forms of alcohol-related motives were related to alcohol use and consequences; no associations between academic motives and alcohol variables were observed. The lack of associations among academic motives, alcohol-related motives, and alcohol variables departs from previous findings suggesting that academic motives impact alcohol use. The current findings indicate a greater understanding of the interplay of motivational sets related to salient issues for youth, such as academics, is needed in order to expand intervention models for alcohol use in such populations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Impulsivity in abstinent early- and late-onset alcoholics : differences in self-report measures and a discounting task

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dom, G.; D'Haene, P.; Hulstijn, W.; Sabbe, B.G.C.

    2006-01-01

    Aims: To test the hypothesis that early-onset alcoholics (EOAs) can be differentiated from late-onset alcoholics (LOAs) by more severe substance-related problems and higher levels of impulsivity and aggression. Design and measurements: A cross-sectional patient survey with a community comparison

  1. Predictors of Detection of Alcohol Use Episodes Using a Transdermal Alcohol Sensor

    OpenAIRE

    Barnett, Nancy P.; Meade, E.B.; Glynn, Tiffany R.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this investigation was to establish the ability of the Secure Continuous Remote Alcohol Monitoring (SCRAM) alcohol sensor to detect different levels of self-reported alcohol consumption, and to determine whether gender and body mass index, alcohol dependence, bracelet version, and age of bracelet influenced detection of alcohol use.

  2. A multimodal investigation of contextual effects on alcohol's emotional rewards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairbairn, Catharine E; Bresin, Konrad; Kang, Dahyeon; Rosen, I Gary; Ariss, Talia; Luczak, Susan E; Barnett, Nancy P; Eckland, Nathaniel S

    2018-05-01

    Regular alcohol consumption in unfamiliar social settings has been linked to problematic drinking. A large body of indirect evidence has accumulated to suggest that alcohol's rewarding emotional effects-both negative-mood relieving and positive-mood enhancing-will be magnified when alcohol is consumed within unfamiliar versus familiar social contexts. But empirical research has never directly examined links between contextual familiarity and alcohol reward. In the current study, we mobilized novel ambulatory technology to examine the effect of social familiarity on alcohol reward in everyday drinking contexts while also examining how alcohol reward observed in these field contexts corresponds to reward observed in the laboratory. Heavy social drinking participants (N = 48, 50% male) engaged in an intensive week of ambulatory assessment. Participants wore transdermal alcohol sensors while they reported on their mood and took photographs of their social contexts in response to random prompts. Participants also attended 2 laboratory beverage-administration sessions, during which their emotional responses were assessed and transdermal sensors were calibrated to estimate breathalyzer readings (eBrACs). Results indicated a significant interaction between social familiarity and alcohol episode in everyday drinking settings, with alcohol enhancing mood to a greater extent in relatively unfamiliar versus familiar social contexts. Findings also indicated that drinking in relatively unfamiliar social settings was associated with higher eBrACs. Finally, results indicated a correspondence between some mood effects of alcohol experienced inside and outside the laboratory. This study presents a novel methodology for examining alcohol reward and indicates social familiarity as a promising direction for research seeking to explain problematic drinking. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. Alcohol consumption and mortality: is wine different from other alcoholic beverages?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, J; Crozier, A; Lean, M E

    2001-08-01

    Alcohol has been an integral part of the diets of many cultures for thousands of years, and formed the basis of early antiseptics. However, many health professionals have been loath to recommend its moderate consumption. Fears of increased risks of cancers, strokes and coronary heart disease (CHD), as well as its role in accidents, violence, psychological and social decline (when consumed in excess) meant that alcohol was viewed as generally detrimental to health. Recent reports have examined some of these fears and suggest that the moderate consumption of alcoholic beverages, particularly red wine, may actually protect against the development of CHD. Evidence for the influence of alcoholic drinks on strokes and cancer is less clear. This review discusses the chemical differences between red wine and other alcoholic beverages and their possible effects on the development of CHD, stroke and cancer. Both clinical and experimental evidence suggest that red wine does indeed offer a greater protection to health than other alcoholic beverages. This protection has been attributed to grape-derived antioxidant polyphenolic compounds found particularly in red wine.

  4. Alcohol use among Hispanic college students along the US/Mexico border.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoya, Jared A; Wittenburg, David; Martinez, Vanessa

    2016-11-01

    The trend of alcohol use among college students has been shown to vary by ethnicity and has been linked to acculturation among Hispanics. Consistent findings indicate that males consume alcohol more frequently and in greater quantities compared to females. This study investigated the drinking habits of Hispanic college students living in the border region of South Texas. The study evaluated the influence of acculturation on alcohol consumption among Hispanic males and females. Two hundred and ninety-six Hispanic students participated in this study. The participants reported their drinking behaviors over the past 30 days and completed a measure of acculturation. Fifty-nine percent of the participants reported consuming alcohol in the past 30 days with more males than females reporting alcohol consumption. Logistic regression analysis indicated that age and gender, and not acculturation or enculturation, predicted drinking in the last 30 days. Among drinkers, the regression analyses indicated that gender and lower levels of Anglo orientation were linked to increased alcohol consumption, suggesting that Hispanics who were less oriented toward the Anglo culture consumed more alcohol than those more oriented toward the Anglo culture. Among drinkers, males and females did not differ in frequency or binge drinking, but males consumed more alcohol than females. Previous research indicates that greater acculturation is linked to greater consumption of alcohol; however, we found it to be associated with less consumption. The findings regarding gender represent some consistencies with previous research but there are some inconsistencies as well. These results suggest that less acculturated Hispanic male college students residing in the border region may be at a higher risk of alcohol abuse than Hispanic female students and more acculturated male students.

  5. Increased deep sleep in a medication-free, detoxified female offender with schizophrenia, alcoholism and a history of attempted homicide: Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sailas Eila

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Psychiatric sleep research has attempted to identify diagnostically sensitive and specific sleep patterns associated with particular disorders. Both schizophrenia and alcoholism are typically characterized by a severe sleep disturbance associated with decreased amounts of slow wave sleep, the physiologically significant, refreshing part of the sleep. Antisocial behaviour with severe aggression, on the contrary, has been reported to associate with increased deep sleep reflecting either specific brain pathology or a delay in the normal development of sleep patterns. The authors are not aware of previous sleep studies in patients with both schizophrenia and antisocial personality disorder. Case presentation The aim of the present case-study was to characterize the sleep architecture of a violent, medication-free and detoxified female offender with schizophrenia, alcoholism and features of antisocial personality disorder using polysomnography. The controls consisted of three healthy, age-matched women with no history of physical violence. The offender's sleep architecture was otherwise very typical for patients with schizophrenia and/or alcoholism, but an extremely high amount of deep sleep was observed in her sleep recording. Conclusions The finding strengthens the view that severe aggression is related to an abnormal sleep pattern with increased deep sleep. The authors were able to observe this phenomenon in an antisocially behaving, violent female offender with schizophrenia and alcohol dependence, the latter disorders previously reported to be associated with low levels of slow wave sleep. New studies are, however, needed to confirm and explain this preliminary finding.

  6. Receptivity to alcohol marketing predicts initiation of alcohol use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriksen, Lisa; Feighery, Ellen C; Schleicher, Nina C; Fortmann, Stephen P

    2008-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined the influence of alcohol advertising and promotions on the initiation of alcohol use. A measure of receptivity to alcohol marketing was developed from research about tobacco marketing. Recall and recognition of alcohol brand names were also examined. Data were obtained from in-class surveys of sixth, seventh, and eighth graders at baseline and 12-month follow-up. Participants who were classified as never drinkers at baseline (n = 1,080) comprised the analysis sample. Logistic regression models examined the association of advertising receptivity at baseline with any alcohol use and current drinking at follow-up, adjusting for multiple risk factors, including peer alcohol use, school performance, risk taking, and demographics. At baseline, 29% of never drinkers either owned or wanted to use an alcohol branded promotional item (high receptivity), 12% students named the brand of their favorite alcohol ad (moderate receptivity), and 59% were not receptive to alcohol marketing. Approximately 29% of adolescents reported any alcohol use at follow-up; 13% reported drinking at least 1 or 2 days in the past month. Never drinkers who reported high receptivity to alcohol marketing at baseline were 77% more likely to initiate drinking by follow-up than those were not receptive. Smaller increases in the odds of alcohol use at follow-up were associated with better recall and recognition of alcohol brand names at baseline. Alcohol advertising and promotions are associated with the uptake of drinking. Prevention programs may reduce adolescents' receptivity to alcohol marketing by limiting their exposure to alcohol ads and promotions and by increasing their skepticism about the sponsors' marketing tactics.

  7. Public awareness of the link between alcohol and cancer in England in 2015: a population-based survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Penny Buykx

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Public knowledge of the association between alcohol and cancer is reported to be low. We aimed to provide up-to-date evidence for England regarding awareness of the link between alcohol and different cancers and to determine whether awareness differs by demographic characteristics, alcohol use, and geographic region. Methods A representative sample of 2100 adults completed an online survey in July 2015. Respondents were asked to identify which health outcomes, including specific cancers, may be caused by alcohol consumption. Logistic regressions explored whether demographic, alcohol use, and geographic characteristics predicted correctly identifying alcohol-related cancer risk. Results Unprompted, 12.9% of respondents identified cancer as a potential health outcome of alcohol consumption. This rose to 47% when prompted (compared to 95% for liver disease and 73% for heart disease. Knowledge of the link between alcohol and specific cancers varied between 18% (breast and 80% (liver. Respondents identified the following cancers as alcohol-related where no such evidence exists: bladder (54%, brain (32%, ovarian (17%. Significant predictors of awareness of the link between alcohol and cancer were being female, more highly educated, and living in North-East England. Conclusion There is generally low awareness of the relationship between alcohol consumption and cancer, particularly breast cancer. Greater awareness of the relationship between alcohol and breast cancer in North-East England, where a mass media campaign highlighted this relationship, suggests that population awareness can be influenced by social marketing.

  8. Public awareness of the link between alcohol and cancer in England in 2015: a population-based survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buykx, Penny; Li, Jessica; Gavens, Lucy; Hooper, Lucie; Lovatt, Melanie; Gomes de Matos, Elena; Meier, Petra; Holmes, John

    2016-11-30

    Public knowledge of the association between alcohol and cancer is reported to be low. We aimed to provide up-to-date evidence for England regarding awareness of the link between alcohol and different cancers and to determine whether awareness differs by demographic characteristics, alcohol use, and geographic region. A representative sample of 2100 adults completed an online survey in July 2015. Respondents were asked to identify which health outcomes, including specific cancers, may be caused by alcohol consumption. Logistic regressions explored whether demographic, alcohol use, and geographic characteristics predicted correctly identifying alcohol-related cancer risk. Unprompted, 12.9% of respondents identified cancer as a potential health outcome of alcohol consumption. This rose to 47% when prompted (compared to 95% for liver disease and 73% for heart disease). Knowledge of the link between alcohol and specific cancers varied between 18% (breast) and 80% (liver). Respondents identified the following cancers as alcohol-related where no such evidence exists: bladder (54%), brain (32%), ovarian (17%). Significant predictors of awareness of the link between alcohol and cancer were being female, more highly educated, and living in North-East England. There is generally low awareness of the relationship between alcohol consumption and cancer, particularly breast cancer. Greater awareness of the relationship between alcohol and breast cancer in North-East England, where a mass media campaign highlighted this relationship, suggests that population awareness can be influenced by social marketing.

  9. Neighbourhood alcohol availability and gonorrhea rates: impact of social capital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine P. Theall

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Social capital and income inequality have been proposed as important mediators of the relation between the material environment and health outcomes. We determined whether indicators of social capital are (i associated with neighbourhood gonorrhea rates, and (ii mediate the relation between alcohol outlet density and gonorrhea rate. Longitudinal analyses of age- and sex-adjusted gonorrhea cases reported from 1990 to 1996 in the 445 census tracts affected by the 1992 civil unrest in Los Angeles, California was conducted. The role of alcohol outlets was assessed both as tracts with surrendered off-sale outlets due to the civil unrest and annual off-sale alcohol outlet density rates. Tract level voting rates were used as one indicator of social capital, while neighbourhood structure conducive to social organization was used as another. Neighbourhoods with greater voting over time and greater endogenous social organization experienced 1.9 and 67.2 fewer gonorrhea cases per 100,000. Results also reveal a partial mediating role of social capital on the relationship between alcohol outlet density and gonorrhea rate. The alcohol environment may have a direct or partially mediated role in infectious disease outcomes such as gonorrhea. Our findings support the importance of continuing controls and limits on off-premise alcohol outlet density, as a potential means of reducing gonorrhea rates and increasing social capital.

  10. Self-reported driving under the influence of alcohol and cannabis among Ontario students: Associations with graduated licensing, risk taking, and substance abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Steven; Shank, Danielle; Bruno, Tara; Turner, Nigel E; Mann, Robert E

    2017-07-04

    This article describes the patterns of self-reported driving under the influence of alcohol (DUIA) and driving under the influence of cannabis (DUIC) among licensed Ontario students in 2009 and examines their associations with graduated licensing, risk taking, and substance use problems for understanding DUIA and DUIC behaviors. Ontario's graduated licensing system requires new drivers to hold a G1 license for a minimum of 8 months and a G2 license for a minimum of 12 months before a full and unrestricted G license can be obtained. Among other restrictions, G1 drivers must maintain a 0 blood alcohol content (BAC), have an experienced driver in the passenger seat, not drive on any high-speed expressways, and not drive between the hours of midnight and 5 a.m. A G2 license is more similar to a G license, with fewer restrictions. This study analyzed data from the 2009 Ontario Student Drug Use and Health Survey (OSDUHS). The OSDUHS is a biennial population-based survey of students (grades 7 to 12) in Ontario, Canada. The results showed that 16.3% of licensed students in Ontario reported DUIC and 11.5% reported DUIA during the past year. After controlling for the effect of age, type of license emerged as a robust predictor for both DUIA and DUIC behavior, because students with a G2 and full license were significantly more likely to report DUIA and DUIC than drivers with a G1 license. Multivariate analyses suggested that risk-seeking behaviors were more important for understanding DUIA behavior than for DUIC behavior. Elevated problem indicators for alcohol and for cannabis were associated with DUIA and DUIC, respectively. Though much attention has been paid to drinking and driving among adolescents, this research shows that more Ontario students now report driving after cannabis use than after drinking alcohol. The results identify important correlates of both behaviors that may be useful for prevention purposes.

  11. Alcohol Advertising

    OpenAIRE

    Trkovská, Jana

    2017-01-01

    The thesis concerns itself with alcohol advertising. Alcohol is the most widespread habit-forming substance, yet its consumption is permitted in most countries all around the world, possibly restricted by the age of consumers only. Drinking alcohol cannot be either regulated or prohibited today. It has become commonplace for the majority of our lives. Being aware of its apparent risks, however, there is an effort to regulate at least alcohol advertising. The main objective of this work was to...

  12. Alcohol involvement in aggression between intimate partners in New Zealand: a national cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kypri, Kypros; Bell, Melanie L; Cousins, Kimberly

    2011-01-01

    Objectives To examine the role of alcohol at the time of aggressive incidents between intimate partners in the general population by gender, by estimating (1) prevalence and severity of aggression, and drinking at the time, (2) associations of drinking at the time of the aggression with reported severity, anger and fear, and (3) association of usual drinking patterns with partner aggression. Design A national survey of 18–70-year-olds using an electoral roll sample obtained self-reported alcohol consumption, partner's alcohol consumption and details of the most severe partner aggression by the respondent and towards the respondent in the past 2 years. The mean scores for associated severity, anger and fear were analysed by gender and alcohol involvement. Multinomial models estimated associations of drinking patterns with aggression to and from the respondent. Results The response rate was 49% (n=1925). Men and women reported similar prevalence of victimisation and perpetration of aggression (11–15%). Alcohol was involved in more than 25% of incidents, and reported more by women than by men, particularly male-only drinking when the respondent was the victim. Women reported greater severity, anger and fear with victimisation than men, and drinking was associated with greater reported severity. Heavy episodic drinking by respondents was associated with a threefold increase in victimisation and doubling of perpetration of aggression involving alcohol. Heavy episodic drinking by either partner was also associated with drinking being involved in reported aggression. Conclusions The experience of intimate-partner aggression in a cross-section of households differs by gender and the involvement of alcohol, and ‘counts’ of aggressive acts in a population-based survey do not reflect the reality of gender differences. Heavy episodic drinking patterns are associated with more aggression involving alcohol within relationships, and alcohol involvement is associated

  13. The effects of a priming dose of alcohol and drinking environment on snack food intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, A K; Hardman, C A; Christiansen, P

    2015-12-01

    Alcohol consumption is a potential risk factor for being overweight. We aimed to investigate the effects of an alcohol priming dose and an alcohol-related environment on snacking behaviour. One hundred and fourteen social drinkers completed one of four experimental sessions either receiving a priming dose of alcohol (.6 g/kg) or soft drink in a bar-lab or a sterile lab. Participants provided ratings of appetite, snack urge, and alcohol urge before and after consuming their drinks. Participants completed an ad libitum snack taste test of savoury and sweet, healthy and unhealthy foods before completing the self-reports a final time. Appetite and snack urge increased more following alcohol consumption, and decreased to a lesser extent following the taste test relative to the soft drink. Total calories (including drink calories) consumed were significantly higher in the alcohol groups. There was a marginal effect of environment; those in the bar-lab consumed a higher proportion of unhealthy foods. These effects were more pronounced in those who were disinhibited. While alcohol may not increase food consumption per se, alcohol may acutely disrupt appetite signals, perhaps via processes of reward and inhibitory control, resulting in overall greater calorie intake. Individuals who are generally disinhibited may be more vulnerable to the effects of alcohol and drinking environments on eating behaviour. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Disease burden and costs from excess alcohol consumption, obesity, and viral hepatitis: fourth report of the Lancet Standing Commission on Liver Disease in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Roger; Alexander, Graeme; Armstrong, Iain; Baker, Alastair; Bhala, Neeraj; Camps-Walsh, Ginny; Cramp, Matthew E; de Lusignan, Simon; Day, Natalie; Dhawan, Anil; Dillon, John; Drummond, Colin; Dyson, Jessica; Foster, Graham; Gilmore, Ian; Hudson, Mark; Kelly, Deirdre; Langford, Andrew; McDougall, Neil; Meier, Petra; Moriarty, Kieran; Newsome, Philip; O'Grady, John; Pryke, Rachel; Rolfe, Liz; Rice, Peter; Rutter, Harry; Sheron, Nick; Taylor, Alison; Thompson, Jeremy; Thorburn, Douglas; Verne, Julia; Wass, John; Yeoman, Andrew

    2018-03-17

    This report contains new and follow-up metric data relating to the eight main recommendations of the Lancet Standing Commission on Liver Disease in the UK, which aim to reduce the unacceptable harmful consequences of excess alcohol consumption, obesity, and viral hepatitis. For alcohol, we provide data on alcohol dependence, damage to families, and the documented increase in alcohol consumption since removal of the above-inflation alcohol duty escalator. Alcoholic liver disease will shortly overtake ischaemic heart disease with regard to years of working life lost. The rising prevalence of overweight and obesity, affecting more than 60% of adults in the UK, is leading to an increasing liver disease burden. Favourable responses by industry to the UK Government's soft drinks industry levy have been seen, but the government cannot continue to ignore the number of adults being affected by diabetes, hypertension, and liver disease. New direct-acting antiviral drugs for the treatment of chronic hepatitis C virus infection have reduced mortality and the number of patients requiring liver transplantation, but more screening campaigns are needed for identification of infected people in high-risk migrant communities, prisons, and addiction centres. Provision of care continues to be worst in regions with the greatest socioeconomic deprivation, and deficiencies exist in training programmes in hepatology for specialist registrars. Firm guidance is needed for primary care on the use of liver blood tests in detection of early disease and the need for specialist referral. This report also brings together all the evidence on costs to the National Health Service and wider society, in addition to the loss of tax revenue, with alcohol misuse in England and Wales costing £21 billion a year (possibly up to £52 billion) and obesity costing £27 billion a year (treasury estimates are as high as £46 billion). Voluntary restraints by the food and drinks industry have had little effect on

  15. Extraversion and the Rewarding Effects of Alcohol in a Social Context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairbairn, Catharine E; Sayette, Michael A; Wright, Aidan G C; Levine, John M; Cohn, Jeffrey F; Creswell, Kasey G

    2015-08-01

    The personality trait of extraversion has been linked to problematic drinking patterns. Researchers have long hypothesized that such associations are attributable to increased alcohol-reward sensitivity among extraverted individuals, and surveys suggest that individuals high in extraversion gain greater mood enhancement from alcohol than those low in extraversion. Surprisingly, however, alcohol administration studies have not found individuals high in extraversion to experience enhanced mood following alcohol consumption. Of note, prior studies have examined extraverted participants-individuals who self-identify as being highly social-consuming alcohol in isolation. In the present research, we used a group drinking paradigm to examine whether individuals high in extraversion gained greater reward from alcohol than did those low in extraversion and, further, whether a particular social mechanism (partners’ Duchenne smiling) might underlie alcohol reward sensitivity among extraverted individuals. Social drinkers (n 720) consumed a moderate dose of alcohol, placebo, or control beverage in groups of 3 over the course of 36 min. This social interaction was video-recorded, and Duchenne smiling was coded using the Facial Action Coding System. Results indicated that participants high in extraversion reported significantly more mood enhancement from alcohol than did those low in extraversion. Further, mediated moderation analyses focusing on Duchenne smiling of group members indicated that social processes fully and uniquely accounted for alcohol reward-sensitivity among individuals high in extraversion. Results provide initial experimental evidence that individuals high in extraversion experience increased mood-enhancement from alcohol and further highlight the importance of considering social processes in the etiology of alcohol use disorder. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. Extraversion and the Rewarding Effects of Alcohol in a Social Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairbairn, Catharine E.; Sayette, Michael A.; Wright, Aidan G. C.; Levine, John M.; Cohn, Jeffrey F.; Creswell, Kasey G.

    2015-01-01

    The personality trait of extraversion has been linked to problematic drinking patterns. Researchers have long hypothesized that such associations are attributable to increased alcohol-reward sensitivity among extraverted individuals, and surveys suggest that individuals high in extraversion gain greater mood enhancement from alcohol than those low in extraversion. Surprisingly, however, alcohol administration studies have not found individuals high in extraversion to experience enhanced mood following alcohol consumption. Of note, prior studies have examined extraverted participants—individuals who self-identify as being highly social—consuming alcohol in isolation. In the present research, we used a group drinking paradigm to examine whether individuals high in extraversion gained greater reward from alcohol than did those low in extraversion and, further, whether a particular social mechanism (partners’ Duchenne smiling) might underlie alcohol reward sensitivity among extraverted individuals. Social drinkers (n = 720) consumed a moderate dose of alcohol, placebo, or control beverage in groups of three over the course of 36-min. This social interaction was video-recorded, and Duchenne smiling was coded using the Facial Action Coding System. Results indicated that participants high in extraversion reported significantly more mood enhancement from alcohol than did those low in extraversion. Further, mediated moderation analyses focusing on Duchenne smiling of group members indicated that social processes fully and uniquely accounted for alcohol reward-sensitivity among individuals high in extraversion. Results provide initial experimental evidence that individuals high in extraversion experience increased mood-enhancement from alcohol and further highlight the importance of considering social processes in the etiology of Alcohol Use Disorder. PMID:25844684

  17. Alcohol during pregnancy worsens acute respiratory infections in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libster, Romina; Ferolla, Fausto M; Hijano, Diego R; Acosta, Patricio L; Erviti, Anabella; Polack, Fernando P

    2015-11-01

    This study explored whether alcohol consumption during pregnancy increased the risk of life-threatening respiratory infections in children. We prospectively evaluated children under the age of two years admitted to hospitals in Buenos Aires, Argentina, with severe acute respiratory infections during the winters of 2011 and 2012. Information on maternal alcohol consumption during the third trimester of pregnancy was collected using standardised questionnaires and categorised as never, low if it was once a week and high if it was equal or more than once a week. Of the 3423 children hospitalised with acute respiratory infection, 2089 (63.7%) had respiratory syncytial virus (RSV). Alcohol consumption during the last trimester was reported by 398 mothers (12.4%) and categorised as low (n = 210, 6.5%) or high (n = 188, 5.9%). A greater effect on life-threatening respiratory infection, defined as oxygen saturation of or up to 87%, was observed with higher alcohol intake due to all viruses and specifically RSV in the logistic regression analyses. Alcohol consumption was strongly associated with life-threatening disease, particularly in boys whose adjusted odds ratio rose from 3.67 to 13.52 when their mothers drank alcohol. Alcohol consumption during pregnancy was associated with life-threatening respiratory infections in boys. ©2015 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. The association between time perspective and alcohol consumption in university students: cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beenstock, Jane; Adams, Jean; White, Martin

    2011-08-01

    Heavy alcohol consumption is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Levels of alcohol consumption among students and young people are particularly high. Time perspective describes the varying value individuals place on outcomes in the present and future. In general, it has been found that individuals prefer to receive a gain today rather than in the future. There is evidence that time perspective is associated with addictive health behaviours, including alcoholism and cigarette smoking, but less evidence of its association with non-addictive, but hazardous, levels of alcohol consumption. The objective was to determine if there is an association between time perspective and hazardous alcohol consumption. A cross-sectional survey using a self-completion questionnaire was administered to willing undergraduate students attending a convenience sample of lectures in two university faculties. Hazardous alcohol consumption was defined as a score of ≥8 on the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) and time perspective was measured using the Consideration of Future Consequences Scale (CFCS). Participants were 322 undergraduate university students in two faculties at a university in Northern England, UK. Hazardous alcohol consumption was reported by 264 (82%) respondents. After controlling for potential confounding by socio-demographic variables, greater consideration of future consequences was associated with lower odds of reporting hazardous drinking [odds ratio = 0.28; 95% confidence interval 0.15-0.54]. Interventions aimed at increasing future orientated time perspective may be effective in decreasing hazardous alcohol consumption in students.

  19. Alcoholic fermentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colin, P

    1961-01-04

    The addition of C/sub 6-10/ alcohols to the fermenting sugar solutions, increased the yield of alcohol by 1.5 to 5%. The best additives were (additive, % additive in sugar solution, % increased in yield of alcohol): hexanol, 0.03, 2.5; heptanol, 0.05, 3; nonanol, 0.01, 3; 2-ethylbutanol, 0.05, 4; 2-ethylhexanol, 0.05, 5; a mixture of C/sub 7-9/ alcohols from the Oxo synthesis, 0.05, 4.5, and a mixture of C/sub 10/ alcohols 0.05, 3.

  20. Current Alcohol Use is Associated with Sleep Patterns in First-Year College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Reen, Eliza; Roane, Brandy M; Barker, David H; McGeary, John E; Borsari, Brian; Carskadon, Mary A

    2016-06-01

    To examine whether differences exist in self-reported sleep patterns and self-reported alcohol use for first-semester college students who do or do not report drinking during the last 6 months (mo) of high school. Participants were 878 first-year college students. Students completed a survey in late May/early June about alcohol use and consequences, during the last 6 mo of high school; they later completed a daily record of sleep behavior and alcohol use across the first 9 weeks of the first semester of college. High school drinking status (past 6 mo) was classified as positive (HS-6 mo+) or negative (HS-6mo-) based on any indication of drinking on the May/June survey. Collegiate drinking was determined from first-semester daily diary alcohol reports as non-drinkers (0 reported drinks), drinkers (one or fewer heavy episodic drinking episodes (HED)), and drinkers reporting more than one HED episode. Sleep patterns were compared for non-drinkers, drinkers, and HED with no high school drinking history (HS-6mo-/HED). In addition, a separate analysis compared sleep patterns for college HED with (HS-6mo+/HED) and without (HS-6mo-/HED) high school self-reported alcohol use. Increased alcohol consumption in the first semester of college was associated with later bedtimes and rise times. We found no association of high school alcohol use and sleep in those with collegiate HED. Later sleep timing in those with greater alcohol use, supports a connection between sleep patterns and alcohol use. Such an early appearance of this connection may herald the development of alcohol use disorder in some individuals. © 2016 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  1. The association between alcohol drinking and self-reported mental and physical functioning: a prospective cohort study among City of Helsinki employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salonsalmi, Aino; Rahkonen, Ossi; Lahelma, Eero; Laaksonen, Mikko

    2017-05-04

    Alcohol drinking is associated with ill health but less is known about its contribution to overall functioning. We aimed to examine whether alcohol drinking predicts self-reported mental and physical functioning 5-7 years later. A prospective cohort study. Helsinki, Finland. 40-year-old to 60-year-old employees of the City of Helsinki (5301 women and 1230 men) who participated in a postal survey in 2000-2002 and a follow-up survey in 2007. Mental and physical functioning measured by the Short Form 36 Health Survey. Alcohol drinking was differently associated with mental and physical functioning. Heavy average drinking, binge drinking and problem drinking were all associated with subsequent poor mental functioning except for heavy average drinking among men, whereas only problem drinking was associated with poor physical functioning. Also, non-drinking was associated with poor physical functioning. Problem drinking was the drinking habit showing most widespread and strongest associations with health functioning. The associations between problem drinking and poor mental functioning and with poor physical functioning among women remained after adjusting for baseline mental functioning, sociodemographic factors, working conditions and other health behaviours. Alcohol drinking is associated especially with poor mental functioning. Problem drinking was the drinking habit strongest associated with poor health functioning. The results call for early recognition and prevention of alcohol problems in order to improve health functioning among employees. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  2. Craving for alcohol and food during treatment for alcohol dependence: modulation by T allele of 1519T>C GABAAalpha6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Doug Hyun; Bolo, Nicholas; Daniels, Melissa A; Lyoo, In Kyoon; Min, Kyung Joon; Kim, Chang Hyun; Renshaw, Perry F

    2008-09-01

    Craving for alcohol and food has been studied in association with alcohol dependence and eating disorders, respectively. One subclass of the gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptor, 1519T>C GABA(A)alpha6 has been reported to be associated with both alcohol dependence and weight gain. In this study, we hypothesized that patients being treated for alcohol dependence would report decreased craving for alcohol, but an increased craving for food during a 4-week treatment period. We further hypothesized that the T allele of the 1519T>C GABA(A)alpha6 gene would modulate the extent of changes in craving for alcohol and food. This study included 98 male inpatients being treated for alcohol dependence. A 7-point visual analog scale was applied to evaluate relative levels of alcohol and food craving at baseline and again 4 weeks later. Body weight was also checked at the same periods. Genotyping of the 1519T>C SNP in GABA(A)alpha6 was carried out by restriction fragment length polymorphism. There were significant changes in craving for alcohol and food in all patients with alcohol dependence. During the treatment period, body weight increased in all patients with alcohol dependence. Changes in alcohol and food craving in T-allele carriers (CT + TT) of 1519T>C GABA(A)alpha6 were greater than those observed in CC homozygotes. In T-allele carriers, body weight significantly increased and the changes in weight showed a negative correlation with the change in the craving for alcohol and a positive correlation with the changes in craving for food. The current results suggest that in T-allele carriers the change in craving for alcohol during treatment for alcohol dependence is negatively associated with changes in craving for food. The T allele of the 1519T>C GABA(A)alpha6 gene may be one of the modulating factors associated with changes in craving for alcohol and food during treatment of patients with alcohol dependence.

  3. A UK student survey investigating the effects of consuming alcohol mixed with energy drinks on overall alcohol consumption and alcohol-related negative consequences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Johnson, Sean J; Alford, Chris; Stewart, Karina; Verster, Joris C

    2016-01-01

    Previous research reported positive associations between alcohol mixed with energy drink (AMED) consumption and overall alcohol consumption. However, results were largely based on between-subjects comparisons comparing AMED consumers with alcohol-only (AO) consumers, and therefore cannot

  4. Sport-related achievement motivation and alcohol outcomes: an athlete-specific risk factor among intercollegiate athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Cameron C; Martens, Matthew P; Cadigan, Jennifer M; Takamatsu, Stephanie K; Treloar, Hayley R; Pedersen, Eric R

    2013-12-01

    Intercollegiate athletes report greater alcohol consumption and more alcohol-related problems than their non-athlete peers. Although college athletes share many of the same problems faced by non-athletes, there are some consequences that are unique to athletes. Studies have demonstrated that alcohol negatively affects athletic performance including increased dehydration, impeded muscle recovery, and increased risk for injury. Beyond risk factors for alcohol misuse that may affect college students in general, research has begun to examine risk factors that are unique to collegiate athletes. For example, research has found that off-season status, the leadership role, and athlete-specific drinking motives are associated with increased alcohol use. Given these findings, it is possible that other athlete-specific variables influence alcohol misuse. One such variable may be sport achievement orientation. The purpose of the current study was to examine the relationship between sport achievement orientation and alcohol outcomes. Given previous research regarding seasonal status and gender, these variables were examined as moderators. Varsity athletes (n=263) completed the Sport Orientation Questionnaire, which assesses sport-related achievement orientation on three scales (Competitiveness, Win Orientation, and Goal Orientation). In addition, participants completed measures of alcohol use and alcohol-related problems. Results indicated that Competitiveness, Win Orientation, and Goal Orientation were all significantly associated with alcohol use, but not alcohol-related problems. Moreover, these relationships were moderated by seasonal status and gender. These interactions, clinical implications, and limitations are discussed. © 2013.

  5. Alcohol Consumption and Parkinson's Disease Risk: A Review of Recent Findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bettiol, Silvana S; Rose, Tanith C; Hughes, Clarissa J; Smith, Lesley A

    2015-01-01

    The association between Parkinson's disease and lifestyle exposures such as smoking, coffee and alcohol consumption have been the focus of research for several decades, with varying and often conflicting results. This paper reviews the key features of observational studies investigating the relationship between alcohol drinking and PD risk, to determine potential sources of variability between the results. Relevant literature from 2000-2014 was systematically retrieved using three databases. Primary research articles were included if they reported a measure of association between quantity and frequency of alcohol intake and PD risk, and adjusted at least for the potential confounding factors of smoking and age. Sixteen articles were identified. The seven case-control studies were more likely to report a weak protective association by level of alcohol consumption compared to the studies with prospective designs. Two studies reported the relationship between heavy (harmful to health) drinking and PD. There was weak evidence that associations varied by type of alcoholic beverage. Smoking may modify the association between alcohol intake and PD risk, however, the evidence does not support the theory that a confounder (such as an addiction-avoiding personality trait) produced the inverse associations between smoking, coffee and alcohol intake and PD risk. Methodological weaknesses of the studies, including selection and recall bias, residual confounding and lack of statistical power may in part account for their differences. The weak association between alcohol drinking and PD risk was found in studies at greater risk of selection and recall bias.

  6. An ecologically based model of alcohol-consumption decision making: evidence for the discriminative and predictive role of contextual reward and punishment information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogg, Tim; Finn, Peter R

    2009-05-01

    Using insights from Ecological Systems Theory and Reinforcement Sensitivity Theory, the current study assessed the utility of a series of hypothetical role-based alcohol-consumption scenarios that varied in their presentation of rewarding and punishing information. The scenarios, along with measures of impulsive sensation seeking and a self-report of weekly alcohol consumption, were administered to a sample of alcohol-dependent and non-alcohol-dependent college-age individuals (N = 170). The results showed scenario attendance decisions were largely unaffected by alcohol-dependence status and variations in contextual reward and punishment information. In contrast to the attendance findings, the results for the alcohol-consumption decisions showed alcohol-dependent individuals reported a greater frequency of deciding to drink, as well as indicating greater alcohol consumption in the contexts of complementary rewarding or nonpunishing information. Regression results provided evidence for the criterion-related validity of scenario outcomes in an account of diagnostic alcohol problems. The results are discussed in terms of the conceptual and predictive gains associated with an assessment approach to alcohol-consumption decision making that combines situational information organized and balanced through the frameworks of Ecological Systems Theory and Reinforcement Sensitivity Theory.

  7. Corneal melanosis successfully treated using topical mitomycin-C and alcohol corneal epitheliectomy: a 3-year follow-up case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Balcı

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTWe report a case of primary acquired corneal melanosis without atypia associated with corneal haze in a patient with a history of limbal malignant melanoma and the effect of mitomycin-C. A 75-year-old woman with a history of limbal malignant melanoma presented with loss of vision in right eye. Corneal examination showed a patchy melanotic pigmentation with a central haze. Topical mitomycin-C improved visual acuity and corneal haze. However, the pigmented lesions persisted, and they were removed with alcohol corneal epitheliectomy. Histopathological examination demonstrated primary acquired melanosis without atypia. The lesions were successfully removed, and there were no recurrences during the follow-up period of 36 months. The association of conjunctival and corneal melanosis without atypia is a rare condition. In addition, co-existence of central corneal haze and melanosis may decrease visual acuity. Topical mitomycin-C and alcohol corneal epitheliectomy can be useful treatments in this condition.

  8. Association of attention-deficit hyperkinetic disorder with alcohol use disorders in fishermen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoj Kumar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Alcohol use is a widely prevalent problem and poses hazard during work for certain groups such as fishermen. Disorders such as Attention-Deficit/Hyperkinetic Disorder (ADHD correlate with early onset and greater severity of alcohol use disorders. Aims: We planned to study the frequency of ADHD among fishermen in a fishing hamlet of southern India using adult ADHD self-reported scale (ASRS and correlated with the severity of alcohol use disorder as evidenced by age at initiation of alcohol use, presence of harmful use, or dependence use as defined by Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT. Subjects and Methods: This was a community-based interview using AUDIT questionnaire for severity of alcohol use and the ASRS to detect ADHD. Results: The prevalence of adult ADHD among fishermen in this study was 25.7% using the critical items of the ASRS. ADHD was about twice as likely in participants with dependence as those without dependence (odds ratio = 2.10. ADHD was also more likely in participants with onset of use before 30 years of age than others (25.1% vs. 15.4% (P = 0.27. Discussion: We found a high frequency of alcohol use among fishermen (79.8%. However, only 9.9% had alcohol dependence which is higher than the general population (2.3% in the region. Fishermen with alcohol dependence were twice as likely to have ADHD as those without alcohol dependence. Conclusion: In a community-based survey of fishermen, the prevalence of alcohol dependence was about 10%. The presence of alcohol dependence predicted a two times higher likelihood of ADHD among fishermen than those without alcohol dependence.

  9. Pathophysiology of alcoholic pancreatitis: An overview

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Parimal Chowdhury; Priya Gupta

    2006-01-01

    Use of alcohol is a worldwide habit regardless of socioeconomic background. Heavy alcohol consumption is a potential risk factor for induction of pancreatitis. The current review cites the updated literature on the alcohol metabolism, its effects on gastrointestinal and pancreatic function and in causing pancreatic injury, genetic predisposition of alcohol induced pancreatitis. Reports describing prospective mechanisms of action of alcohol activating the signal transduction pathways, induction of oxidative stress parameters through the development of animal models are being presented.

  10. The economic impact of alcohol abuse and alcoholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, T R

    1988-01-01

    The economic effects of alcohol abuse are as damaging to the nation as the health effects, affecting the family, the community, and persons of all ages. Underaged drinking is interfering with children's development, affecting the nation's ability to respond to economic challenge in the future. The college aged may be the most difficult to educate about alcohol abuse because of drinking patterns established at an early age and susceptibility to advertising inducements. Health care costs for families with an alcoholic member are twice those for families without one, and up to half of all emergency room admissions are alcohol related. Fetal alcohol syndrome is one of the top three known causes of birth defects, and is totally preventable. Alcohol abuse and alcoholism are estimated to have cost the nation $117 billion in 1983, while nonalcoholic drug abuse that year cost $60 billion. Costs of alcohol abuse are expected to be $136 billion a year by 1990, mostly from lost productivity and employment. Between 6 and 7 million workers are alcoholic, with an undetermined loss of productivity, profits, and competitiveness of American business. Alcohol abuse contributes to the high health care costs of the elderly beneficiaries of Federal health financing programs. Heavily affected minorities include blacks, Hispanics, and Native Americans. Society tends to treat the medical and social consequences of alcohol abuse, rather than its causes. Although our experience with the consequences of alcohol abuse is greater than that for any other drug, public concern for its prevention and treatment is less than for other major illnesses or abuse of other drugs. Alcohol abuse is a problem being given high priority within the Department in an effort to create a national agenda on the issue and to try to impart a greater sense of urgency about the problems. Ways are being explored to integrate alcoholism activities into more Departmental programs. Employee assistance programs for alcohol

  11. Alcohol service provision for older people in an area experiencing high alcohol use and health inequalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCabe, Karen E; Ling, Jonathan; Wilson, Graeme B; Crosland, Ann; Kaner, Eileen F S; Haighton, Catherine A

    2016-03-01

    UK society is ageing. Older people who drink alcohol, drink more than those from previous generations, drink more frequently than other age groups and are more likely to drink at home and alone. Alcohol problems in later life however are often under-detected and under-reported meaning older people experiencing alcohol problems have high levels of unmet need. This study sought to identify existing services within South of Tyne, North East England to capture the extent of service provision for older drinkers and identify any gaps. The Age UK definition of 'older people' (aged 50 and over) was used. Services were contacted by telephone, managers or their deputy took part in semi-structured interviews. Forty six service providers were identified. Only one provided a specific intervention for older drinkers. Others typically provided services for age 18+. Among providers, there was no definitive definition of an older person. Data collection procedures within many organisations did not enable them to confirm whether older people were accessing services. Where alcohol was used alongside other drugs, alcohol use could remain unrecorded. To enable alcohol services to meet the needs of older people, greater understanding is needed of the patterns of drinking in later life, the experiences of older people, the scale and scope of the issue and guidance as to the most appropriate action to take. An awareness of the issues related to alcohol use in later life also needs to be integrated into commissioning of other services that impact upon older people. © Royal Society for Public Health 2015.

  12. Methanol and ethanol from lignocellulosic Swedish wood fuels - Main report. Comparison of the costs of alcohols from biomass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elam, N.; Ekstroem, C.; Oestman, A.; Rensfelt, E.

    1994-06-01

    Swedish wood fuel has a considerable volume and, apart from the utilization today, its use in year 2010 is estimated to amount to 75 TWh/year. Wood fuel can be converted to the alcohols methanol or ethanol and, as such, can be utilized as fuels or components capable of replacing petrol or diesel. This comparison of costs in producing methanol or ethanol from 250 000 tonnes DM of wood fuel using technology available today, or similar levels of technology, shows that methanol can be produced for about 2 SEK/1 (about 450 SEK/MWh) and ethanol for about 4,85 SEK/1 (825 SEK/MWh). The world market price today is around 1 SEK/1 for methanol and 2.60-2.80 SEK/1 for ethanol. Investment and production costs for the two types of production plants do not differ to any particular extent. The investment cost in the methanol plant is about 20 per cent higher, whereas production and maintenance costs are more than 20 per cent higher for ethanol. The explanation of considerable difference in production costs is, instead, primarily the difference in alcohol yield and secondarily the difference in the total efficiency. The valuation of secondary products, particularly lignin fuel from the ethanol process, is also important. The alcohols can be used as propellant fuels in several different ways as admixture components or as pure fuels. It is concluded that there are quality differences between the alcohols that can influence the driving capacity, emissions and which also affect the value of the alcohols. Among the uncertainties that particularly require more penetrating studies are questions dealing with health aspects related to the higher emissions of formaldehyde when used as an engine fuel, total environmental and health influence of ethanol emission, and the contents of polluting substances in lignin fuel that affect its range of use and its value. 25 figs, 29 tabs

  13. Trade and health: how World Trade Organization (WTO) law affects alcohol and public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumberg, Ben; Anderson, Peter

    2008-12-01

    The alcohol field is becoming more aware of the consequences of world trade law for alcohol policies. However, there is a need for greater clarity about the different effects of trade on alcohol-related harm. A comprehensive review of all literature on alcohol and world trade [including World Trade Organization (WTO) disputes on alcohol], supported by a more selective review of other relevant cases, academic reports and the grey literature on trade and health. The burden of WTO law on alcohol policies depends upon the type of policy in question. Purely protectionist policies are likely to be struck down, which may lead to increases in alcohol-related harm. Partly protectionist and partly health-motivated policies are also at risk of being struck down. However, purely health-motivated policies are likely to be defended by the WTO-and to the extent that policy makers misunderstand this, they are needlessly avoiding effective ways of reducing alcohol-related harm. WTO agreements contain genuine and substantial risks to alcohol policies, and various ways of minimizing future risks are suggested. However, the 'chilling effect' of mistakenly overestimating these constraints should be avoided. Health policy makers should decide on which policies to pursue based primarily on considerations of effectiveness, ethics and politics rather than legality. As long as any effect of these policies on trade is minimized, they are overwhelmingly likely to win any challenges at the WTO.

  14. Expectancies related to thinness, dietary restriction, eating, and alcohol consumption in women with bulimia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce, Kenneth; Mansour, Sandra; Steiger, Howard

    2009-04-01

    To investigate behavior-outcome expectancies relating to thinness, dietary restriction, eating, and alcohol consumption in women with bulimia nervosa (BN). Women with BN (N = 29), women with BN and a co-morbid lifetime alcohol use disorder (AUD; N = 18), and control women (N = 24), completed interviews and questionnaires assessing eating- and alcohol-related symptoms, as well as questionnaires measuring expectancies relating to thinness, dietary restriction, eating, and alcohol consumption. Compared with the control group, both bulimic groups reported greater positive expectancies relating to thinness, dietary restriction and eating; expectancy endorsements were also predictive of the severity of eating-related symptoms. Compared with the other groups, the bulimic group with comorbid lifetime AUD had elevated positive alcohol-related expectancies, and alcohol expectancy endorsements predicted severity of alcohol-related symptoms. Women with BN endorsed more positive expectancies relating to thinness, dietary restriction, and eating, whereas women with BN and a lifetime comorbid AUD endorsed more positive alcohol expectancies. The results are consistent with expectancy theory in that positive expectancy endorsements were associated with symptom severity in a syndrome-specific manner. Expectancies related to thinness, dietary restriction, eating, and alcohol consumption in women with BN. (c) 2008 by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Demographic Predictors of Event-Level Associations between Alcohol Consumption and Sexual Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Brooke E; Rendina, H Jonathon; Kelly, Brian C; Golub, Sarit A; Parsons, Jeffrey T

    2016-02-01

    Alcohol consumption is associated with sexual behavior and outcomes, though research indicates a variety of moderating factors, including demographic characteristics. To better target interventions aimed at alcohol-related sexual risk behavior, our analyses simultaneously examine demographic predictors of both day- and event-level associations between alcohol consumption and sexual behavior in a sample of young adults (N = 301) who are sexually active and consume alcohol. Young adults (aged 18-29) recruited using time-space sampling and incentivized snowball sampling completed a survey and a timeline follow-back calendar reporting alcohol consumption and sexual behavior in the past 30 days. On a given day, a greater number of drinks consumed was associated with higher likelihood of sex occurring, particularly for women and single participants. During a given sexual event, number of drinks consumed was not associated with condom use, nor did any demographic predictors predict that association. Findings highlight associations between alcohol and sexual behavior, though not between alcohol and sexual risk behavior, highlighting the need for additional research exploring the complex role of alcohol in sexual risk behavior and the need to develop prevention efforts to minimize the role of alcohol in the initiation of sexual encounters.

  16. Emissions characteristics of higher alcohol/gasoline blends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gautam, M.; Martin, D.W.; Carder, D.

    2000-01-01

    An experimental investigation was conducted to determine the emissions characteristics of higher alcohols and gasoline (UTG96) blends. While lower alcohols (methanol and ethanol) have been used in blends with gasoline, very little work has been done or reported on higher alcohols (propanol, butanol and pentanol). Comparisons of emissions and fuel characteristics between higher alcohol/gasoline blends and neat gasoline were made to determine the advantages and disadvantages of blending higher alcohols with gasoline. All tests were conducted on a single-cylinder Waukesha Cooperative Fuel Research engine operating at steady state conditions and stoichiometric air-fuel (A/F) ratio. Emissions test were conducted at the optimum spark timing-knock limiting compression ratio combination for the particular blend being tested. The cycle emission [mass per unit time (g/h)] of CO, CO 2 and organic matter hydrocarbon equivalent (OMHCE) from the higher alcohol/gasoline blends were very similar to those from neat gasoline. Cycle emissions of NO x from the blends were higher than those from neat gasoline. However, for all the emissions species considered, the brake specific emissions (g/kW h) were significantly lower for the higher alcohol/gasoline blends than for neat gasoline. This was because the blends had greater resistance to knock and allowed higher compression ratios, which increased engine power output. The contribution of alcohols and aldehydes to the overall OMHCE emissions was found to be minimal. Cycle fuel consumption (g/h) of higher alcohol/gasoline blends was slightly higher than with neat gasoline due to the lower stoichiometric A/F ratios required by the blends. However, the brake specific fuel consumption (g/kW h) for the blends was significantly lower than that for neat gasoline. (Author)

  17. The impact of sexual enhancement alcohol expectancies and risky behavior on alcohol-involved rape among college women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messman-Moore, Terri L; Ward, Rose Marie; DeNardi, Kathleen A

    2013-04-01

    A structural equation model examined sexual enhancement alcohol expectancies, heavy episodic drinking (HED), and risky sexual behavior as correlates of alcohol-involved rape in a sample of 353 college women. Prevalence of alcohol-involved rape was 15.6%. Sexual enhancement alcohol expectancies were indirectly associated with alcohol-involved rape via increased levels of HED, greater likelihood of sex while intoxicated, and number of sex partners. All forms of risky behavior were associated with alcohol-involved rape although HED had the strongest relationship. Findings suggest continued focus on women's positive alcohol expectancies and HED as risk factors for alcohol-involved rape. Implications for intervention will be discussed.

  18. Treatment of Anxiety Disorders and Comorbid Alcohol Abuse with Buspirone in a Patient with Antidepressant-Induced Platelet Dysfunction: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mir Mazhar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The risk of abnormal bleeding with serotonin reuptake inhibitors has been known, but there is insufficient evidence base to guide pharmacological treatment of anxiety in patients with underlying haematological conditions. The following case report is about a 50-year-old female with generalized anxiety disorder, social phobia, obsessive compulsive disorder, and alcohol abuse where pharmacological treatment of anxiety symptoms has been difficult as it would lead to bruising due to the patient’s underlying qualitative platelet dysfunction. Treatment with venlafaxine, citalopram, escitalopram, and clomipramine resulted in improvement and anxiety symptoms, as well as reduction in alcohol use, but pharmacological treatment has to be discontinued because of bruising and hematomas. In view of an active substance use disorder, benzodiazepines were avoided as a treatment option. The patient’s anxiety symptoms and comorbid alcohol abuse responded well to pharmacological treatment with buspirone which gradually titrated up to a dose of 30 mg BID. Patient was followed for around a six-month period while she was on buspirone before being discharged to family doctor’s care. Buspirone is unlikely to have a significant effect on platelet serotonin transponder and could be an effective alternative for pharmacological treatment of anxiety in patients with a bleeding diathesis.

  19. The Myriad Influences of Alcohol Advertising on Adolescent Drinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berey, Benjamin L; Loparco, Cassidy; Leeman, Robert F; Grube, Joel W

    2017-06-01

    This review investigates effects of alcohol advertising on adolescent drinking. Prior reviews focused on behavioral outcomes and long-term effects. In contrast, the present review focuses on subgroups with greater exposure to alcohol advertising, research methods to study alcohol advertising, potential mechanisms underlying relationships between adolescent exposure to alcohol advertising and increased drinking and points to prevention/intervention strategies that may reduce effects of alcohol advertising. Alcohol advertising influences current and future drinking. Further, evidence suggests adolescents may be targeted specifically. Alcohol advertisements may influence behavior by shifting alcohol expectancies, norms regarding alcohol use, and positive attitudes. Media literacy programs may be an effective intervention strategy. Adolescents are exposed to large quantities of alcohol advertisements, which violates guidelines set by the alcohol industry. However, media literacy programs may be a promising strategy for adolescents to increase critical thinking and create more realistic expectations regarding alcohol.

  20. Alcohol and Suicide: Neurobiological and Clinical Aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leo Sher

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol, primarily in the form of ethyl alcohol (ethanol, has occupied an important place in the history of humankind for at least 8,000 years. In most Western societies, at least 90% of people consume alcohol at some time during their lives, and 30% or more of drinkers develop alcohol-related problems. Severe alcohol-related life impairment, alcohol dependence (alcoholism, is observed at some time during their lives in about 10% of men and 3—5% of women. An additional 5—10% of each sex develops persistent, but less intense, problems that are diagnosed as alcohol abuse. It this review, neurobiological aspects of suicidal behavior in alcoholism is discussed. In individuals with comorbid depression and alcoholism, greater serotonergic impairment may be associated with higher risk of completed suicide. Dopaminergic dysfunction may play an important role in the pathophysiology of suicidal behavior in alcoholism. Brain damage and neurobehavioral deficits are associated with alcohol use disorders and may contribute to suicidal behavior in persons with alcohol dependence or abuse. Aggression/impulsivity and alcoholism severity affect risk for suicide among individuals with alcoholism. Major depressive episodes and stressful life events particularly, partner-relationship disruptions, may precipitate suicidal behavior in individuals with alcohol use disorders. Alcohol misuse and psychosocial adversity can combine to increase stress on the person, and, thereby, potentially, increase the risk for suicidal behavior. The management of suicidal patients with alcohol use disorders is also discussed. It is to be hoped that the efforts of clinicians will reduce morbidity and mortality associated with alcohol misuse.

  1. Enhancing the efficacy of computerized feedback interventions for college alcohol misuse: An exploratory randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Mary Beth; Leavens, Eleanor L; Meier, Ellen; Lombardi, Nathaniel; Leffingwell, Thad R

    2016-02-01

    Personalized feedback interventions (PFIs) have been associated with decreased alcohol consumption and related problems among college students; however, the necessary and sufficient components responsible for efficacy remain unclear. The present study investigated the relative efficacy of 3 computerized PFIs with differing content, the content-specific mechanisms of change within PFIs, and the moderating roles of comparison orientation and baseline risk in intervention outcomes. College students (N = 212) reporting alcohol use in a typical week completed an assessment prior to randomization (norms PFI, enhanced PFI, choice PFI, assessment only) and 1 month postintervention. Participants who received a PFI reported greater decreases in alcohol use, peak blood alcohol concentration (BAC), related problems, and perceptions of typical students' drinking than those in the control group. Neither tendency to compare oneself with others nor baseline risk moderated outcomes. PFIs influenced weekly alcohol use indirectly through changes in descriptive normative perceptions and alcohol-related consequences indirectly through changes in peak BAC. Computerized PFIs are more effective than assessment alone in decreasing alcohol use and related problems among college students. Normative comparisons may be sufficient to elicit behavior change, and inclusion of select additional components may not yield significant improvements in outcomes. However, the consistent benefit of including feedback on physical and monetary costs of drinking and moderation strategies, although nonsignificant, may warrant the negligible increase in time and money required to provide such information electronically. Computerized PFIs seem to be an ideal first step to the prevention and treatment of college alcohol misuse. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. Brief report: Using global positioning system (GPS) enabled cell phones to examine adolescent travel patterns and time in proximity to alcohol outlets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrnes, Hilary F; Miller, Brenda A; Morrison, Christopher N; Wiebe, Douglas J; Remer, Lillian G; Wiehe, Sarah E

    2016-07-01

    As adolescents gain freedom to explore new environments unsupervised, more time in proximity to alcohol outlets may increase risks for alcohol and marijuana use. This pilot study: 1) Describes variations in adolescents' proximity to outlets by time of day and day of the week, 2) Examines variations in outlet proximity by drinking and marijuana use status, and 3) Tests feasibility of obtaining real-time data to study adolescent proximity to outlets. U.S. adolescents (N = 18) aged 16-17 (50% female) carried GPS-enabled smartphones for one week with their locations tracked. The geographic areas where adolescents spend time, activity spaces, were created by connecting GPS points sequentially and adding spatial buffers around routes. Proximity to outlets was greater during after school and evening hours. Drinkers and marijuana users were in proximity to outlets 1½ to 2 times more than non-users. Findings provide information about where adolescents spend time and times of greatest risk, informing prevention efforts. Copyright © 2016 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Alcohol and the young child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradford, D E

    1984-01-01

    With the increasing availability of alcohol in modern times, the child neglect and abuse portrayed in Hogarth's engraving Gin Lane may once again be witnessed. Reports occur occasionally of alcohol being given deliberately to infants to quieten them, but alcohol poisoning in the slightly older child is not uncommon. The introduction of child-proof containers has altered poisoning figures recently. However, alcohol poisoning tends to occur at ages 3 and 4, that is, about 2 years after the peak of all poisonings in children. This difference may be an indication that alcohol is taken in imitation of parents' drinking, a suggestion which has some support from reported cases of mouthwash poisoning. Holidays and high days where children and alcohol mix, are potentially dangerous periods. Since alcohol poisoning can be fatal, yet if recognised is relatively easily managed, every child with the slightest degree of drowsiness should be suspect until proven or not by blood alcohol. The prevention of alcohol poisoning in the young child consists in protecting the alcohol by lock and key, not setting an example by drinking or gargling in front of children. Many substances such as mouthwash and perfume should also be under supervision. Once actual poisoning has occurred blood sugar is probably more important than the level of blood ethanol and blood sugar levels should be monitored frequently and the child treated with glucose, preferably intravenously.

  4. Alcohol Consumption among College Students: Chief Student Affairs Officers' Perspectives on Evidence-Based Alcohol Consumption Reduction Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stender, David F., III

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol consumption among college students can lead to negative consequences for those consuming alcohol as well as for their classmates. The 2002 report from the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) Task Force on College Drinking described a "three-in-one" evidence-based approach for alcohol consumption reduction…

  5. Vital Signs-Alcohol Poisoning Deaths

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This podcast is based on the January 2015 CDC Vital Signs report. In the United States, an average of six people die every day from alcohol poisoning. Learn what you can do to prevent binge drinking and alcohol poisoning.

  6. The Cognitive and Behavioural Impact of Alcohol Promoting and Alcohol Warning Advertisements: An Experimental Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Kyle G.; Stautz, Kaidy; Hollands, Gareth J.; Winpenny, Eleanor M.; Marteau, Theresa M.

    2016-01-01

    Aims To assess the immediate effect of alcohol promoting and alcohol warning advertisements on implicit and explicit attitudes towards alcohol and on alcohol seeking behaviour. Methods We conducted a between-participants online experiment in which participants were randomly assigned to view one of three sets of advertisements: (a) alcohol promoting, (b) alcohol warning, or (c) unrelated to alcohol. A total of 373 participants (59.5% female) aged 18–40 (M = 28.03) living in the UK were recruited online through a research agency. Positive and negative implicit attitudes and explicit attitudes towards alcohol were assessed before and after advertisements were viewed. Alcohol seeking behaviour was measured by participants' choice of either an alcohol-related or non-alcohol-related voucher offered ostensibly as a reward for participation. Self-reported past week alcohol consumption was also recorded. Results There were no main effects on any of the outcome measures. In heavier drinkers, viewing alcohol promoting advertisements increased positive implicit attitudes (standardized beta = 0.15, P = 0.04) and decreased negative implicit attitudes (standardized beta = −0.17, P = 0.02). In heavier drinkers, viewing alcohol warning advertisements decreased negative implicit attitudes (standardized beta = −0.19, P = 0.01). Conclusions Viewing alcohol promoting advertisements has a cognitive impact on heavier drinkers, increasing positive and reducing negative implicit attitudes towards alcohol. Viewing alcohol warning advertisements reduces negative implicit attitudes towards alcohol in heavier drinkers, suggestive of a reactance effect. PMID:26391367

  7. Impulsivity in abstinent early- and late-onset alcoholics: differences in self-report measures and a discounting task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dom, G; D'haene, P; Hulstijn, W; Sabbe, B

    2006-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that early-onset alcoholics (EOAs) can be differentiated from late-onset alcoholics (LOAs) by more severe substance-related problems and higher levels of impulsivity and aggression. A cross-sectional patient survey with a community comparison group. The European Addiction Severity Index was used to assess substance-related problems and the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale, the Dutch version of the Zuckermann Sensation Seeking Scale and the Buss-Durkee Hostility Inventory were used to assess impulsive and aggressive traits. Impulsive decision making was assessed using a delay discounting task (DDT) with hypothetical monetary rewards. Participants were EOAs (n = 42) and LOAs (n = 46) recruited from an addiction treatment centre and an unmatched, non-substance-abusing comparison group (n = 54). Findings The EOAs had higher levels of impulsive decision making than both the LOAs and the comparison group. The EOAs had higher scores than the LOAs on measures of impulsiveness, aggressiveness and the severity of substance-related problems. This study provides evidence that EOAs are more impulsive and aggressive than LOAs. Further identification of alcoholism subtypes based on dimensions of impulsivity should be considered in the light of their relationship with pharmacological and behavioural treatment interventions.

  8. Sporadic Retinoblastoma and Parental Smoking and Alcohol Consumption before and after Conception: A Report from the Children's Oncology Group.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeedeh Azary

    Full Text Available Retinoblastoma is the most frequent tumor of the eye in children and very little is known about the etiology of non-familial (sporadic retinoblastoma. In this study we examined whether parental tobacco smoking or alcohol consumption (pre- or post-conception contribute to the two phenotypes (bilateral or unilateral of sporadic retinoblastoma.Two large multicenter case-control studies identified 488 cases through eye referral centers in the United States and Canada or through the Children's Oncology Group. Controls (n = 424 were selected from among friends and relatives of cases and matched by age. Risk factor information was obtained via telephone interview. We employed multivariable logistic regression to estimate the effects of parental tobacco smoking and alcohol consumption on retinoblastoma.Maternal smoking before and during pregnancy contributed to unilateral retinoblastoma risk in the child: year before pregnancy conditional Odds Ratio (OR, 8.9; 95% confidence interval (CI 1.5-51, and unconditional OR, 2.4; 95% CI, 1.3-4.7; month before or during pregnancy, conditional OR, 3.3; 95% CI, 0.5-20.8, and unconditional OR, 2.8; 95% CI, 1.1-7.0. No association was found for maternal or paternal alcohol consumption.The results of this study indicate that maternal active smoking during pregnancy may be a risk factor for sporadic retinoblastoma. Our study supports a role for tobacco exposures in embryonal tumors.

  9. Adult Separation Anxiety and TCI-R Personality Dimensions in Patients with Anxiety, Alcohol Use, and Gambling: A Preliminary Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gino Pozzi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Nowadays, adult separation anxiety disorder (ASAD is an established diagnostic category but is little investigated in subjects with addictive behaviours. Objective. To assess the presence of ASAD among patients with addictive disorders in comparison with anxiety patients and measure the personality correlates in all these groups. Methods. 103 outpatients, meeting DSM-IV-TR criteria for anxiety disorders (38 patients, alcohol dependence (30 patients, or pathological gambling (35 patients, were assessed by the Structured Clinical Interview for Separation Anxiety Symptoms (SCI-SAS and the Adult Separation Anxiety Checklist (ASA-27 for separation anxiety and by the Temperament and Character Inventory-Revised (TCI-R for personality characteristics. Results. ASAD is detected in 34.2% of anxiety patients, 13.3% of alcoholics, and 11.4% of gamblers. Separation anxiety scores correlate positively with harm avoidance and negatively with self-directedness in all groups; further correlations are seen among addictive patients only, that is, self-transcendence for gamblers and cooperativeness for both alcoholics and gamblers. Conclusions. The prevalence of ASAD is lower among addictive patients than in those with anxiety disorders; correlations are found between separation anxiety and specific TCI-R dimensions, with some matching across the three diagnostic groups.

  10. Simultaneous bilateral isolated greater trochanter fracture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maruti Kambali

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A 48-year-old woman sustained simultaneous isolated bilateral greater trochanteric fracture, following a road traffic accident. The patient presented to us 1 month after the injury. She presented with complaints of pain in the left hip and inability to walk. Roentgenograms revealed displaced comminuted bilateral greater trochanter fractures. The fracture of the left greater trochanter was reduced and fixed internally using the tension band wiring technique. The greater trochanter fracture on the right side was asymptomatic and was managed conservatively. The patient regained full range of motion and use of her hips after a postoperative follow-up of 6 months. Isolated fractures of the greater trochanter are unusual injuries. Because of their relative rarity and the unsettled controversy regarding their etiology and pathogenesis, several methods of treatment have been advocated. Furthermore, the reports of this particular type of injury are not plentiful and the average textbook coverage afforded to this entity is limited. In our study we discuss the mechanism of injury and the various treatment options available.

  11. Drinking Refusal Self-Efficacy and Intended Alcohol Consumption During a Mass-Attended Youth Event.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jongenelis, Michelle I; Pettigrew, Simone; Biagioni, Nicole

    2018-04-16

    Mass-attended youth events represent a substantial public health challenge due to high levels of alcohol consumption and corresponding high rates of alcohol-related harm. Although previous research has documented the protective effect of high drinking refusal self-efficacy (DRSE) on alcohol consumption in general, there is a lack of research examining the role of DRSE in reducing consumption during mass-attended youth events and the factors associated with DRSE in these contexts. This study aimed to identify potentially modifiable factors that influence DRSE and drinking intentions to inform interventions designed to reduce alcohol-related harm during mass-attended events. Australian secondary school students (n = 586; 70% female) in their final two years of high school completed an online survey assessing their alcohol consumption intentions for Schoolies, their perceived degree of DRSE, and other individual and environmental factors. Path analysis was used to assess a mediational model examining factors associated with DRSE and alcohol consumption intentions. DRSE was found to be significantly associated with intended alcohol consumption during Schoolies. Specifically, leavers who believed they would not be able to refuse others' offers of alcoholic drinks reported significantly greater alcohol consumption intentions. Results also revealed that DRSE was enhanced in those respondents who believed there would be a variety of non-drinking activities and non-alcoholic beverages available to them during Schoolies. Results suggest the need to increase leavers' confidence in their ability to refuse unwanted alcoholic beverages and highlight the importance of providing celebration options that do not involve alcohol consumption.

  12. Change in Psychiatric Symptomatology after Benfotiamine Treatment in Males is a Function of Lifetime Alcoholism Severity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzardo, Ann M.; Pendleton, Tiffany; Poje, Albert; Penick, Elizabeth C.; Butler, Merlin G.

    2015-01-01

    Background Severe alcoholism can be associated with significant nutritional and vitamin deficiency, especially vitamin B1 (thiamine) which is associated with serious illness and neurological deficits that influence mood and cognition. We previously reported reduced alcohol consumption among female but not male alcoholics after supplementation with the high potency thiamine analog benfotiamine (BF). As a follow-up, we have examined the relationship between lifetime alcoholism severity and psychiatric symptoms among the alcohol dependent men from this cohort and their response to BF treatment. Methods Eighty-five adult men (mean age = 48 ± 8 yrs) meeting DSM-IV-TR criteria for current alcohol dependence participated in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of 600 mg BF vs placebo (PL) for 6 months. Psychometric testing included a derived Lifetime Alcoholism Severity Score (AS), Symptom Checklist 90R (SCL-90R), and the Barratt Impulsivity Scale (BIS) at baseline and at 6 months with data analyzed using ANOVA and MANOVA modeling. Results Baseline SCL-90-R scale scores for men with high alcoholism severity (AS ≥ 24; N=46 HAS) were significantly greater than for men with low alcoholism severity (AS < 24; N=39 LAS), but BIS scores did not differ. MANOVA modeling identified a significant treatment effect (F=2.5, df=10, p<0.03) and treatment x alcoholism severity level interaction (F=2.5, dfnum=10, dfden=30, p<0.03) with SCL-90-R scores showing a reduction in symptoms among BF treated, high severity males. Conclustion BF appears to reduce psychiatric distress and may facilitate recovery in severely affected males with lifetime alcohol dependence and should be considered for adjuvant therapy in alcohol rehabilitation. PMID:25908323

  13. Divergent drinking patterns and factors affecting homemade alcohol consumption (the case of Russia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radaev, Vadim

    2016-08-01

    Unrecorded homemade alcohol consumption has been less examined in the literature. Previous studies of homemade alcohol in Russia have almost entirely focused upon the use of samogon (moonshine) attributed to the northern style of drinking. No systematic analysis is available regarding the production and consumption of homemade wine. This paper explores the drinking patterns demonstrated by consumers of samogon and homemade wine in Russia. The main factors affecting the consumption of these beverages are investigated. Data were collected from a 2014 nationwide survey of 14,986 respondents aged 15+ years. Beverage preferences, volume of consumed alcohol, drinking habits, and alcohol availability were the main measures reported. Demographic, socio-economic, spatial, and policy-related factors affecting homemade alcohol consumption are examined using logistic regression. The percentages of samogon and homemade wine consumers were similar, although a greater volume of samogon in pure alcohol was consumed compared to homemade wine. The groups of samogon and homemade wine consumers showed very little overlap. Unlike homemade wine consumers, samogon drinkers consumed larger amounts of alcohol and were more engaged in frequent and excessive drinking, drinking without meals and drinking in marginal public settings. Gender, education, regional affiliation, and type of residence showed opposite associations with regard to the consumption of samogon and homemade wine. Availability of homemade alcohol in the neighbourhood was the most influential predictor due to respondents' own production, presence of homemade alcohol in friendship networks and at illegal market. The prices of manufactured alcohol and the consumption of homemade alcohol did not show significant relationships. Consumers of samogon and homemade wine demonstrate contrasting drinking patterns that are largely driven by different factors. Samogon is consumed in a more hazardous manner, whereas homemade wine is

  14. Oxidation reaction of ferrocytochrome C by ferricyanide as a probe to effects of alcohols on structure and reactivity of the protein. Technical progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ilan, Y.; Shafferman, A.

    1977-05-01

    Results are reported on the effect of ethanol on the oxidation of ferrocytochrome c by ferricyanide and its cumulative effect with pH and temperature, on structure and spectra of cytochrome c. It is concluded that low concentrations of alcohols which do not change dramatically the structure and physical properties of cytochrome c, but produce changes in the structure of water, cause small changes in the structure of the protein. This is manifested by the shift in the pKa, and also in the retardation of the redox reactions. This indicates that water molecules participate in the reaction complex of cytochrome c with its redox substrates. (DLC)

  15. Self-poisoning with baclofen in alcohol-dependent patients: national reports to French Poison Control Centers, 2008-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelissier, Fanny; de Haro, Luc; Cardona, Florence; Picot, Cyndie; Puskarczyk, Emmanuel; Sapori, Jean-Marc; Tournoud, Christine; Franchitto, Nicolas

    2017-04-01

    Alcohol use disorders are frequently associated with self-intoxication in attempted suicide. In France since 2008, the off-label use of baclofen for treatment of alcohol dependence has greatly increased, leading to temporary regulation of use of the drug. At the request of the national authorities, the French Poison Control Centers carried out a retrospective survey to give an overview of baclofen exposure in this population. A retrospective study was carried out from January 2008 to December 2013, focusing on baclofen exposures in alcohol-dependent patients managed by the nine national French Poison Control Centers. 294 observations of baclofen exposures in alcohol-dependent patients were identified in our database. Of these, 220 were suicide attempts by self-poisoning and 74 were unintentional. The mean age of patients was 41.7 years, with a sex-ratio of 1.6. Patients attempting suicide with baclofen were younger than those with unintentional exposures, and 43.6% of them were women (vs 22.9%, p < 0.01). The mean supposed ingested dose was higher (480.7 mg) in patients who attempted suicide (vs 192.5 mg, p < 0.0001). 21.8% of intentional exposures involved baclofen alone. Psychiatric comorbidity (50.4%) was more frequent in the group of self-poisoning (p < 0.001). 132 patients were coded as severely exposed (60.0%). Nine victims died, but the causal link between self-poisoning with baclofen and fatal outcome should be interpreted with particular caution. Baclofen self-poisoning by alcohol-dependent patients is a serious concern for the French health authorities. Our results are similar to those previously published, suggesting that most patients with baclofen overdose should be admitted to an intermediate or intensive care unit as the clinical course requires close monitoring. Because suicidal ideation and suicide attempts are more prevalent in people with substance use disorders than in the general population, and because of the lack of

  16. Isopropanol alcohol poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubbing alcohol poisoning; Isopropyl alcohol poisoning ... Isopropyl alcohol can be harmful if it is swallowed or gets in the eyes. ... These products contain isopropanol: Alcohol swabs Cleaning supplies ... Rubbing alcohol Other products may also contain isopropanol.

  17. Alcohol Energy Drinks

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home / About Addiction / Alcohol / Alcohol Energy Drinks Alcohol Energy Drinks Read 33960 times font size decrease font size increase font size Print Email Alcohol energy drinks (AEDs) or Caffeinated alcoholic beverages (CABs) are ...

  18. Alcohol and pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drinking alcohol during pregnancy; Fetal alcohol syndrome - pregnancy; FAS - fetal alcohol syndrome ... lead to lifelong damage. DANGERS OF ALCOHOL DURING PREGNANCY Drinking a lot of alcohol during pregnancy can ...

  19. NIAAA Alcohol Treatment Navigator

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... What to Know About Alcohol Treatment What Is Alcohol Use Disorder (AUD)? What Types of Alcohol Treatment Are Available? ... What to Know About Alcohol Treatment What is alcohol use disorder (AUD)? A health condition that can improve with ...

  20. The Effects of as-Needed Nalmefene on Patient-Reported Outcomes and Quality of Life in Relation to a Reduction in Alcohol Consumption in Alcohol-Dependent Patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clément François

    Full Text Available The objective of this article was to investigate the effect of as-needed nalmefene on health-related quality of life (HRQoL in patients with alcohol dependence, and to relate changes in drinking behavior and status to HRQoL outcomes.This post hoc analysis was conducted on a pooled subgroup of patients with at least a high drinking risk level (men: >60 g/day; women: >40 g/day who participated in one of two randomized controlled 6-month studies, ESENSE 1 and ESENSE 2. Patients received nalmefene 18 mg or placebo on an as-needed basis, in addition to a motivational and adherence-enhancing intervention (BRENDA. At baseline and after 12 and 24 weeks questionnaires for the Medical Outcomes Study (MOS 36-item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36, European Quality of life-5 Dimensions (EQ-5D and the Drinker Inventory of Consequences (DrInC-2R were completed.The pooled population consisted of 667 patients (nalmefene: 335; placebo: 332, with no notable between-group differences in baseline patient demographics/characteristics. At week 24, nalmefene had a superior effect compared to placebo in improving SF-36 mental component summary scores (mean difference [95% CI], p-value: 3.09 [1.29, 4.89]; p=0.0008, SF-36 physical component summary scores (1.23 [0.15, 2.31]; p=0.026, EQ-5D utility index scores (0.03 [0.00, 0.06]; p=0.045, EQ-5D health state scores (3.46 [0.75, 6.17]; p=0.012, and DrInC-2R scores (-3.22 [-6.12, 0.33]; p=0.029. The improvements in SF-36 mental component summary scores at week 24, and the DrInC-2R total score change from baseline to week 24, were significantly correlated to reductions in heavy drinking days and total alcohol consumption at week 24.As-needed nalmefene significantly improved almost all patient-reported HRQoL measures included in SF-36 and EQ-5D compared with placebo. These HRQoL gains were significantly correlated to reduced drinking behavior, as determined by reductions in heavy drinking days and total alcohol consumption.

  1. Fetal alcohol-spectrum disorders: identifying at-risk mothers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montag AC

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Annika C Montag Department of Pediatrics, Division of Dysmorphology and Teratology, University of California San Diego, San Diego, CA, USA Abstract: Fetal alcohol-spectrum disorders (FASDs are a collection of physical and neuro­behavioral disabilities caused by prenatal exposure to alcohol. To prevent or mitigate the costly effects of FASD, we must identify mothers at risk for having a child with FASD, so that we may reach them with interventions. Identifying mothers at risk is beneficial at all time points, whether prior to pregnancy, during pregnancy, or following the birth of the child. In this review, three approaches to identifying mothers at risk are explored: using characteristics of the mother and her pregnancy, using laboratory biomarkers, and using self-report assessment of alcohol-consumption risk. At present, all approaches have serious limitations. Research is needed to improve the sensitivity and specificity of biomarkers and screening instruments, and to link them to outcomes as opposed to exposure. Universal self-report screening of all women of childbearing potential should ideally be incorporated into routine obstetric and gynecologic care, followed by brief interventions, including education and personalized feedback for all who consume alcohol, and referral to treatment as indicated. Effective biomarkers or combinations of biomarkers may be used during pregnancy and at birth to determine maternal and fetal alcohol exposure. The combination of self-report and biomarker screening may help identify a greater proportion of women at risk for having a child with FASD, allowing them to access information and treatment, and empowering them to make decisions that benefit their children. Keywords: fetal alcohol-spectrum disorder (FASD, alcohol, pregnancy, screening, biomarkers, SBIRT

  2. The diuretic action of weak and strong alcoholic beverages in elderly men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Polhuis, Kristel C.M.M.; Wijnen, Annemarthe H.C.; Sierksma, Aafje; Calame, Wim; Tieland, Michael

    2017-01-01

    With ageing, there is a greater risk of dehydration. This study investigated the diuretic effect of alcoholic beverages varying in alcohol concentration in elderly men. Three alcoholic beverages (beer (AB), wine (AW), and spirits (S)) and their non-alcoholic counterparts (non-alcoholic beer (NAB),

  3. Uneven acute non-alcoholic fatty change of the liver after percutaneous transhepatic portal vein embolization in a patient with hilar cholangiocarcinoma - a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Chun-Yi; Nojiri, Motoi; Yokoyama, Yukihiro; Ebata, Tomoki; Mizuno, Takashi; Nagino, Masato

    2017-12-06

    Portal vein embolization is essential for patients with biliary cancer who undergo extended hepatectomy to induce hypertrophy of the future remnant liver. Over 830 patients have undergone the portal vein embolization at our institution since 1990. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is an entity of hepatic disease characterized by fat deposition in hepatocytes. It has a higher prevalence among persons with morbid obesity, type 2 diabetes, and hyperlipidemia. Neither the mechanism of hepatic hypertrophy after portal vein embolization nor the pathophysiology of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease has been fully elucidated. Some researchers integrated the evident insults leading to progression of fatty liver disease into the multiple-hit hypothesis. Among these recognized insults, the change of hemodynamic status of the liver was never mentioned. We present the case of a woman with perihilar cholangiocarcinoma who received endoscopic biliary drainage and presented to our institute for surgical consultation. A left trisectionectomy with caudate lobectomy and extrahepatic bile duct resection was indicated for curative treatment. To safely undergo left trisectionectomy, she underwent selective portal vein embolization of the liver, in which uneven acute fatty change subsequently developed. The undrained left medial sector of the liver with dilated biliary tracts was spared the fatty change. The patient underwent planned surgery without any major complications 6 weeks after the event and has since resumed a normal life. The discrepancies in fatty deposition in the different sectors of the liver were confirmed by pathologic interpretations. This is the first report of acute fatty change of the liver after portal vein embolization. The sparing of the undrained medial sector is unique and extraordinary. The images and pathologic interpretations presented in this report may inspire further research on how the change of hepatic total inflow after portal vein embolization can be

  4. The effects of chronic alcohol consumption and exercise on the skeleton of adult male rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Adam H.; McCarty, Heidi L.; Evans, Glenda L.; Turner, Russell T.; Westerlind, Kim C.

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Lifestyle factors are known to affect skeletal development and integrity. Specifically, running has been reported to increase risk of fatigue fractures, whereas chronic alcohol consumption has been shown to reduce bone formation and bone mass. The combined effect of exercise and alcohol on the skeleton has yet to be explored, although alcohol consumption is common among certain physically active populations (e.g., military recruits, college athletes). It was hypothesized that chronic alcohol consumption would accentuate the inherent risk associated with endurance running exercise. METHODS: Six-month-old male Sprague Dawley rats were assigned to one of five groups: baseline, exercise-alcohol diet, exercise-normal diet, sham-alcohol diet, and sham-normal diet. Alcohol-fed rats (35% caloric intake) received a liquid diet ad libitum. Normal animals were pair-fed the identical diet with a maltose dextrin caloric substitute. Exercise was conducted on a motorized treadmill 5 days/wk for 16 weeks. Sham rats were placed on a stationary treadmill for matching time periods. Fluorochrome labels were administered 3 days before baseline and at 10 and 2 days before animals were killed. Heart, soleus, and rectus femoris muscles were wet weighed to assess the effects of training. Tibiae were collected for static and dynamic histomorphometric measurements on cancellous and cortical bone. RESULTS: Muscle weights were larger in the exercised rats versus the sham rats. Alcohol had no significant effect on skeletal muscle weight but did result in larger heart weights in both alcohol-treated groups. Cancellous and periosteal bone formation rates were significantly decreased in the alcohol-fed rats versus rats on the normal diet and were associated with a significant reduction in trabecular thickness in the tibial metaphysis. Cortical and cross-sectional areas were also significantly lower in the alcohol-fed groups compared with the non-alcohol-fed groups. Exercise had no

  5. Alcohol, Athletic Performance and Recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Cameron-Smith

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol consumption within elite sport has been continually reported both anecdotally within the media and quantitatively in the literature. The detrimental effects of alcohol on human physiology have been well documented, adversely influencing neural function, metabolism, cardiovascular physiology, thermoregulation and skeletal muscle myopathy. Remarkably, the downstream effects of alcohol consumption on exercise performance and recovery, has received less attention and as such is not well understood. The focus of this review is to identify the acute effects of alcohol on exercise performance and give a brief insight into explanatory factors.

  6. On monitoring unrecorded alcohol consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jürgen Rehm

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Unrecorded alcohol consumption is a global problem, with about 25% of all alcohol consumption concerning this category. There are different forms of unrecorded alcohol, legally produced versus illegally produced, artisanal vs industrially produced, and then surrogate alcohol, which is officially not intended for human consumption. Monitoring and surveillance of unrecorded consumption is not well developed. The World Health Organization has developed a monitoring system, using the Nominal Group Technique, a variant of the Delphi methodology. Experiences with this methodology over the past two years are reported. Finally, conclusions for the monitoring and surveillance at the national level are given.

  7. Heterogeneous catalytic process for alcohol fuels from syngas. Fifteenth quarterly technical progress report, July--September 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-31

    The principal objectives of this project are to discover and evaluate novel heterogeneous catalysts for conversion of syngas to oxygenates having use as fuel enhancers, to explore novel reactor and process concepts applicable in this process, and to develop the best total process for converting syngas to liquid fuels. The previous best catalysts consisted of potassium-promoted Pd on a Zn/Cr spinel oxide prepared via controlled pH precipitation. The authors have now examined the effect of cesium addition to the Zn/Cr spinel oxide support. Surprisingly, cesium levels required for optimum performance are similar to those for potassium on a wt% basis. The addition of 3 wt% cesium gives isobutanol rates > 170 g/kg-hr at 440 C and 1,500 psi with selectivity to total alcohols of 77% and with a methanol/isobutanol mole ratio of 1.4: this performance is as good as their best Pd/K catalyst. The addition of both cesium and palladium to a Zn/Cr spinel oxide support gives further performance improvements. The 5 wt% cesium, 5.9 wt% Pd formulation gives isobutanol rates > 150 g/kg-hr at 440 C and only 1,000 psi with a selectivity to total alcohols of 88% and with a methanol/isobutanol mole ratio of 0.58: this is their best overall performance to date. The addition of both cesium and palladium to a Zn/Cr/Mn spinel oxide support that contains excess Zn has also been examined. This spinel was the support used in the synthesis of 10-DAN-54, the benchmark catalyst. Formulations made on this support show a lower overall total alcohol rate than those using the spinel without Mn present, and require less cesium for optimal performance.

  8. A Young Man with Non-alcoholic Steatohepatitis and Serum Anti-mitochondrial Antibody Positivity: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seike, Takuya; Komura, Takuya; Shimizu, Yoshiaki; Omura, Hitoshi; Kumai, Tatsuo; Kagaya, Takashi; Ohta, Hajime; Kawashima, Atsuhiro; Harada, Kenichi; Kaneko, Shuichi; Unoura, Masashi

    2018-06-06

    A 37-year-old obese man who was a social drinker was admitted to our hospital to undergo a detailed examination for liver injury with anti-mitochondrial antibody positivity. Abdominal ultrasonography revealed moderate fatty liver. A histological analysis showed steatosis of approximately 30% of the hepatocytes, focal necrosis, a few ballooning hepatocytes and lobular inflammation suggestive of steatohepatitis, epithelioid granuloma and irregularity of the sequence of the bile duct epithelium accompanied by lymphocyte infiltration suggestive of chronic cholangitis. He was diagnosed with non-alcoholic steatohepatitis complicated with primary biliary cholangitis. His liver injury was improved by weight loss and high-dose ursodeoxycholic acid treatment.

  9. Alcoholism and alcohol drinking habits predicted from alcohol dehydrogenase genes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tolstrup, J.S.; Nordestgaard, Børge; Rasmussen, S.

    2008-01-01

    Alcohol is degraded primarily by alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) wherein genetic variation that affects the rate of alcohol degradation is found in ADH1B and ADH1C. It is biologically plausible that these variations may be associated with alcohol drinking habits and alcoholism. By genotyping 9080 whi...

  10. Alcohol Poisoning Deaths PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This 60 second Public Service Announcement is based on the January 2015 CDC Vital Signs report. In the United States, an average of six people die every day from alcohol poisoning. Learn what you can do to prevent binge drinking and alcohol poisoning.

  11. Alcohol Intolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ingredients commonly found in alcoholic beverages, especially in beer or wine, can cause intolerance reactions. These include: Sulfites or other preservatives Chemicals, grains or other ingredients Histamine, a byproduct of fermentation or brewing In some cases, reactions can be ...

  12. Alcoholic neuropathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Frequently inspecting the feet and shoes to reduce injury caused by pressure or objects in the shoes Guarding the extremities to prevent injury from pressure Alcohol must be stopped to prevent ...

  13. Anxiety, Anxiety Sensitivity, and Perceived Stress as Predictors of Recent Drinking, Alcohol Craving, and Social Stress Response in Heavy Drinkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCaul, Mary E; Hutton, Heidi E; Stephens, Mary Ann C; Xu, Xiaoqiang; Wand, Gary S

    2017-04-01

    Stress and anxiety are widely considered to be causally related to alcohol craving and consumption, as well as development and maintenance of alcohol use disorder (AUD). However, numerous preclinical and human studies examining effects of stress or anxiety on alcohol use and alcohol-related problems have been equivocal. This study examined relationships between scores on self-report anxiety, anxiety sensitivity, and stress measures and frequency and intensity of recent drinking, alcohol craving during early withdrawal, as well as laboratory measures of alcohol craving and stress reactivity among heavy drinkers with AUD. Media-recruited, heavy drinkers with AUD (N = 87) were assessed for recent alcohol consumption. Anxiety and stress levels were characterized using paper-and-pencil measures, including the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI), the Anxiety Sensitivity Index-3 (ASI-3), and the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS). Eligible subjects (N = 30) underwent alcohol abstinence on the Clinical Research Unit; twice daily measures of alcohol craving were collected. On day 4, subjects participated in the Trier Social Stress Test; measures of cortisol and alcohol craving were collected. In multivariate analyses, higher BAI scores were associated with lower drinking frequency and reduced drinks/drinking day; in contrast, higher ASI-3 scores were associated with higher drinking frequency. BAI anxiety symptom and ASI-3 scores also were positively related to Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test total scores and AUD symptom and problem subscale measures. Higher BAI and ASI-3 scores but not PSS scores were related to greater self-reported alcohol craving during early alcohol abstinence. Finally, BAI scores were positively related to laboratory stress-induced cortisol and alcohol craving. In contrast, the PSS showed no relationship with most measures of alcohol craving or stress reactivity. Overall, clinically oriented measures of anxiety compared with perceived stress were more

  14. Alcohol Alert: Genetics of Alcoholism

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... daily rhythm for various functions (e.g., body temperature or blood pressure) that is controlled by certain “ ... A special section delves more deeply into specific classes of genes and their relationship to alcoholism. The ...

  15. The role of early life experience and species differences in alcohol intake in microtine rodents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allison M J Anacker

    Full Text Available Social relationships have important effects on alcohol drinking. There are conflicting reports, however, about whether early-life family structure plays an important role in moderating alcohol use in humans. We have previously modeled social facilitation of alcohol drinking in peers in socially monogamous prairie voles. We have also modeled the effects of family structure on the development of adult social and emotional behaviors. Here we assessed whether alcohol intake would differ in prairie voles reared by both parents compared to those reared by a single mother. We also assessed whether meadow voles, a closely related species that do not form lasting reproductive partnerships, would differ in alcohol drinking or in the effect of social influence on drinking. Prairie voles were reared either bi-parentally (BP or by a single mother (SM. BP- and SM-reared adult prairie voles and BP-reared adult meadow voles were given limited access to a choice between alcohol (10% and water over four days and assessed for drinking behavior in social and non-social drinking environments. While alcohol preference was not different between species, meadow voles drank significantly lower doses than prairie voles. Meadow voles also had significantly higher blood ethanol concentrations than prairie voles after receiving the same dose, suggesting differences in ethanol metabolism. Both species, regardless of rearing condition, consumed more alcohol in the social drinking condition than the non-social condition. Early life family structure did not significantly affect any measure. Greater drinking in the social condition indicates that alcohol intake is influenced similarly in both species by the presence of a peer. While the ability of prairie voles to model humans may be limited, the lack of differences in alcohol drinking in BP- and SM-reared prairie voles lends biological support to human studies demonstrating no effect of single-parenting on alcohol abuse.

  16. Industry self-regulation of alcohol marketing: a systematic review of content and exposure research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noel, Jonathan K; Babor, Thomas F; Robaina, Katherine

    2017-01-01

    With governments relying increasingly upon the alcohol industry's self-regulated marketing codes to restrict alcohol marketing activity, there is a need to summarize the findings of research relevant to alcohol marketing controls. This paper provides a systematic review of studies investigating the content of, and exposure to, alcohol marketing in relation to self-regulated guidelines. Peer-reviewed papers were identified through four literature search engines: SCOPUS, Web of Science, PubMed and PsychINFO. Non-peer-reviewed reports produced by public health agencies, alcohol research centers, non-governmental organizations and government research centers were also identified. Ninety-six publications met the inclusion criteria. Of the 19 studies evaluating a specific marketing code and 25 content analysis studies reviewed, all detected content that could be considered potentially harmful to children and adolescents, including themes that appeal strongly to young men. Of the 57 studies of alcohol advertising exposure, high levels of youth exposure and high awareness of alcohol advertising were found for television, radio, print, digital and outdoor advertisements. Youth exposure to alcohol advertising has increased over time, even as greater compliance with exposure thresholds has been documented. Violations of the content guidelines within self-regulated alcohol marketing codes are highly prevalent in certain media. Exposure to alcohol marketing, particularly among youth, is also prevalent. Taken together, the findings suggest that the current self-regulatory systems that govern alcohol marketing practices are not meeting their intended goal of protecting vulnerable populations. © 2016 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  17. Methodology for determining motorcycle operator crash risk and alcohol impairment. Vol. 1, Synthesis report on alternative approaches with priorities for research

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-04-01

    Alcohol-involvement continues to be a prominent factor in motorcycle crashes. Automobile-driver drinking and driving has been researched extensively, and the relationship between drivers' blood alcohol concentrations (BAC) and crash risk is well-unde...

  18. Explaining Counterfeit Alcohol Purchases in Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotelnikova, Zoya

    2017-04-01

    Alcohol is a common target of counterfeiting in Russia. Counterfeit alcohol is defined here as the manufacture, distribution, unauthorized placement (forgery) of protected commodity trademarks, and infringement of the exclusive rights of the registered trademark holders of alcoholic beverages. It is often argued that the expansion of the counterfeit product market is due to the steady demand of economically disadvantaged people for low-priced goods. The situation becomes more complicated once deceptive and nondeceptive forms of counterfeiting are taken into account. This study aimed to identify markers of risky behavior associated with the purchase of counterfeit alcohol in Russia. The analysis relied on consumer self-reports of alcohol use and purchase collected nationwide by the Russia Longitudinal Monitoring Survey (RLMS-HSE) in 2012 to 2014. I used a generalized linear mixed-model logistic regression to identify predictors of risky behavior by consumers who purchased counterfeit alcohol, either knowingly or unknowingly, during the 30 days preceding the survey. Purchases of counterfeit alcohol declined slightly from 2012 to 2014, mainly due to a decrease in consumers mistakenly purchasing counterfeit products. Predictors of counterfeit alcohol purchases differed between consumers who knowingly and unknowingly purchased counterfeit products. Nondeceptive purchase of counterfeit alcohol was related primarily to an indifference to alcohol brands. Consumers with social networks that include drinkers of nonbeverage alcohol and producers of homemade alcohol were highly likely to consume counterfeit alcohol deliberately. Problem drinking was significantly associated with a higher risk of both deceptive and nondeceptive purchases of counterfeit alcohol. Poverty largely contributed to nondeceptive counterfeiting. The literature has overestimated the impact of low prices on counterfeit alcohol consumption. Problem drinking and membership in social networks of consumers

  19. The Alcohol Environment Protocol: A new tool for alcohol policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casswell, Sally; Morojele, Neo; Williams, Petal Petersen; Chaiyasong, Surasak; Gordon, Ross; Gray-Philip, Gaile; Viet Cuong, Pham; MacKintosh, Anne-Marie; Halliday, Sharon; Railton, Renee; Randerson, Steve; Parry, Charles D H

    2018-01-04

    To report data on the implementation of alcohol policies regarding availability and marketing, and drink driving, along with ratings of enforcement from two small high-income to three high-middle income countries, and one low-middle income country. This study uses the Alcohol Environment Protocol, an International Alcohol Control study research tool, which documents the alcohol policy environment by standardised collection of data from administrative sources, observational studies and interviews with key informants to allow for cross-country comparison and change over time. All countries showed adoption to varying extents of key effective policy approaches outlined in the World Health Organization Global Strategy to Reduce the Harmful Use of Alcohol (2010). High-income countries were more likely to allocate resources to enforcement. However, where enforcement and implementation were high, policy on availability was fairly liberal. Key Informants judged alcohol to be very available in both high- and middle-income countries, reflecting liberal policy in the former and less implementation and enforcement and informal (unlicensed) sale of alcohol in the latter. Marketing was largely unrestricted in all countries and while drink-driving legislation was in place, it was less well enforced in middle-income countries. In countries with fewer resources, alcohol policies are less effective because of lack of implementation and enforcement and, in the case of marketing, lack of regulation. This has implications for the increase in consumption taking place as a result of the expanding distribution and marketing of commercial alcohol and consequent increases in alcohol-related harm. © 2018 The Authors Drug and Alcohol Review published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  20. Waste management in Greater Vancouver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carrusca, K. [Greater Vancouver Regional District, Burnaby, BC (Canada); Richter, R. [Montenay Inc., Vancouver, BC (Canada)]|[Veolia Environmental Services, Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    An outline of the Greater Vancouver Regional District (GVRD) waste-to-energy program was presented. The GVRD has an annual budget for solid waste management of $90 million. Energy recovery revenues from solid waste currently exceed $10 million. Over 1,660,00 tonnes of GVRD waste is recycled, and another 280,000 tonnes is converted from waste to energy. The GVRD waste-to-energy facility combines state-of-the-art combustion and air pollution control, and has processed over 5 million tonnes of municipal solid waste since it opened in 1988. Its central location minimizes haul distance, and it was originally sited to utilize steam through sales to a recycle paper mill. The facility has won several awards, including the Solid Waste Association of North America award for best facility in 1990. The facility focuses on continual improvement, and has installed a carbon injection system; an ammonia injection system; a flyash stabilization system; and heat capacity upgrades in addition to conducting continuous waste composition studies. Continuous air emissions monitoring is also conducted at the plant, which produces a very small percentage of the total air emissions in metropolitan Vancouver. The GVRD is now seeking options for the management of a further 500,000 tonnes per year of solid waste, and has received 23 submissions from a range of waste energy technologies which are now being evaluated. It was concluded that waste-to-energy plants can be located in densely populated metropolitan areas and provide a local disposal solution as well as a source of renewable energy. Other GVRD waste reduction policies were also reviewed. refs., tabs., figs.

  1. Effects of alcohol-induced working memory decline on alcohol consumption and adverse consequences of use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lechner, William V; Day, Anne M; Metrik, Jane; Leventhal, Adam M; Kahler, Christopher W

    2016-01-01

    Alcohol use appears to decrease executive function acutely in a dose-dependent manner, and lower baseline executive function appears to contribute to problematic alcohol use. However, no studies, to our knowledge, have examined the relationship between individual differences in working memory (a subcomponent of executive function) after alcohol consumption and drinking behaviors and consequences. The current study assessed the relationship between drinking behavior, alcohol-related consequences, and alcohol-induced changes in working memory (as assessed by Trail Making Test-B). Participants recruited from the community (n = 41), 57.3 % male, mean age 39.2, took part in a three-session, within-subjects, repeated-measures design. Participants were administered a placebo, 0.4 g/kg, or 0.8 g/kg dose of alcohol. Working memory, past 30-day alcohol consumption, and consequences of alcohol use were measured at baseline; working memory was measured again after each beverage administration. Poorer working memory after alcohol administration (controlling for baseline working memory) was significantly associated with a greater number of drinks consumed per drinking day. Additionally, we observed a significant indirect relationship between the degree of alcohol-induced working memory decline and adverse consequences of alcohol use, which was mediated through greater average drinks per drinking day. It is possible that greater individual susceptibility to alcohol-induced working memory decline may limit one's ability to moderate alcohol consumption as evidenced by greater drinks per drinking day and that this results in more adverse consequences of alcohol use.

  2. Alcohol abuse and involvement in traffic accidents in the Brazilian population, 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damacena, Giseli Nogueira; Malta, Deborah Carvalho; Boccolini, Cristiano Siqueira; Souza, Paulo Roberto Borges de; Almeida, Wanessa da Silva de; Ribeiro, Lucas Sisinno; Szwarcwald, Célia Landmann

    2016-12-01

    Abstract This article aims to analyze alcohol abuse and frequent consumption according to sociodemographic characteristics and investigate the risk of greater involvement in traffic accidents, using data from the National Health Survey (PNS), 2013, Brazil. Events investigated were alcohol abuse and frequent consumption and if the individual was involved in a traffic accident and sustained an injury in the last 12 months. We investigated both events according to sociodemographic characteristics and assessed the association among them through multivariate logistic regression. The prevalence of alcohol abuse and frequent consumption was 6.1% for the population aged 18 years and over, 8.9% among men and 3.6% among women. The prevalence of involvement in traffic accidents was 3.1% in the general population and 6.1% among those who reported alcohol abuse. After controlling for sociodemographic factors, alcohol abuse and frequent consumption was significantly associated with traffic accidents. Considering a higher risk of involvement in traffic accidents among individuals who reported alcohol abuse and frequent consumption, monitoring blood alcohol concentration of drivers becomes a strategic possibility of intervention.

  3. Alcohol effects on simulated driving performance and self-perceptions of impairment in DUI offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Dyke, Nicholas; Fillmore, Mark T

    2014-12-01

    Drivers with a history of driving under the influence (DUI) of alcohol self-report heightened impulsivity and display reckless driving behaviors as indicated by increased rates of vehicle crashes, moving violations, and traffic tickets. Such poor behavioral self-regulation could also increase sensitivity to the disruptive effects of alcohol on driving performance. The present study examined the degree to which DUI drivers display an increased sensitivity to the acute impairing effects of alcohol on simulated driving performance and overestimate their driving fitness following alcohol consumption. Adult drivers with a history of DUI and a demographically matched group of drivers with no history of DUI (controls) were tested following a 0.65 g/kg alcohol and a placebo. Results indicated that alcohol impaired several measures of driving performance, and there was no difference between DUI offenders and controls in these impairments. However, following alcohol, DUI drivers self-reported a greater ability and willingness to drive compared with controls. These findings indicate that drivers with a history of DUI might perceive themselves as more fit to drive after drinking, which could play an important role in their decisions to drink and drive. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  4. Relationship of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptom severity with severity of alcohol-related problems in a sample of inpatients with alcohol use disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bozkurt M

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Muge Bozkurt,1 Cuneyt Evren,1 Gokhan Umut,1 Bilge Evren2 1Research, Treatment and Training Center for Alcohol and Substance Dependence, Bakirkoy Prof Dr Mazhar Osman Training and Research Hospital for Psychiatry, Neurology and Neurosurgery, 2Department of Psychiatry, Baltalimani State Hospital for Muskuloskeletal Disorders, Istanbul, Turkey Purpose: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD has been shown to be related to a higher risk of developing psychiatric problems such as depressive disorders, substance use disorder, and impulsivity. Adults who have comorbid ADHD and alcohol use disorder (AUD are at greater risk of negative outcomes. Thus, it is important to evaluate the relationship of ADHD symptoms and the severity of alcohol-related problems among patients with AUD. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of ADHD symptoms on severity of alcohol-related problems, while controlling the effects of depression and impulsivity in a sample of inpatients with AUD. Patients and methods: Participants (n=190 were evaluated with the Beck Depression Inventory, the Short Form Barratt Impulsiveness Scale, the Michigan Alcohol Screening Test, and the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale. Results: Severity of the scale scores was positively correlated with each other. Although severity of depression and impulsivity (particularly non-planning impulsivity predicted the severity of alcohol-related problems in a linear regression model, when severity of ADHD symptoms was included in the analysis, the inattentive subscale score, in particular, predicted the severity of alcohol-related problems together with non-planning impulsivity, whereas depression was no longer a predictor. Conclusion: These findings suggest that, together with non-planning impulsivity, symptoms of ADHD (particularly inattentive factor are an important factor that predict alcohol-related problems, while controlling the severity of depressive symptoms among inpatients

  5. 2007 national roadside survey of alcohol and drug use by drivers : alcohol results

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-01

    This report presents the prevalence estimates for alcohol-involved driving derived from the recently completed U.S. : national field survey of alcohol- and drug-involved driving (primarily of nighttime weekend drivers, but also daytime : Friday drive...

  6. Improving the implementation of responsible alcohol management practices by community sporting clubs: A randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingsland, Melanie; Wolfenden, Luke; Tindall, Jennifer; Rowland, Bosco; Sidey, Maree; McElduff, Patrick; Wiggers, John H

    2015-07-01

    Despite an increased prevalence of risky alcohol consumption and alcohol-related harm among members of sporting groups and at sporting venues, sporting clubs frequently fail to implement alcohol management practices consistent with liquor legislation and best practice guidelines. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of a multi-strategy intervention in improving the implementation of responsible alcohol management practices by sports clubs. A randomised controlled trial was conducted with 87 football clubs, with half randomised to receive a multi-strategy intervention to support clubs to implement responsible alcohol management practices. The 2-year intervention, which was based on implementation and capacity building theory and frameworks, included project officer support, funding, accreditation rewards, printed resources, observational audit feedback, newsletters, training and support from state sporting organisations. Interviews were undertaken with club presidents at baseline and post-intervention to assess alcohol management practice implementation. Post-intervention, 88% of intervention clubs reported implementing '13 or more' of 16 responsible alcohol management practices, which was significantly greater than the proportion of control groups reporting this level of implementation (65%) [odds ratio: 3.7 (95% confidence interval: 1.1-13.2); P = 0.04]. All intervention components were considered highly useful and three-quarters or more of clubs rated the amount of implementation support to be sufficient. The multi-strategy intervention was successful in improving alcohol management practices in community sports clubs. Further research is required to better understand implementation barriers and to assess the long-term sustainability of the change in club alcohol management practices. © 2015 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  7. Paradoxical effects of alcohol information on alcohol outcome expectancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krank, Marvin D; Ames, Susan L; Grenard, Jerry L; Schoenfeld, Tara; Stacy, Alan W

    2010-07-01

    Cognitive associations with alcohol predict both current and future use in youth and young adults. Much cognitive and social cognitive research suggests that exposure to information may have unconscious influences on thinking and behavior. The present study assessed the impact of information statements on the accessibility of alcohol outcome expectancies. The 2 studies reported here investigated the effects of exposure to alcohol statements typical of informational approaches to prevention on the accessibility of alcohol outcome expectancies. High school and university students were presented with information statements about the effects of alcohol and other commercial products. The alcohol statements were taken from expectancy questionnaires. Some of these statements were presented as facts and others as myths. The retention of detailed information about these statements was manipulated by (i) divided attention versus focused attention or (ii) immediate versus delayed testing. Accessibility of personal alcohol outcome expectancies was subsequently measured using an open-ended question about the expected effects of alcohol. Participants reported more alcohol outcomes seen during the information task as personal expectations about the effects of alcohol use than similar unseen items. Paradoxically, myth statements were also more likely to be reported as expectancies than unseen items in all conditions. Additionally, myth statements were generated less often than fact statements only under the condition of immediate testing with strong content processing instructions. These observations are consistent with findings from cognitive research where familiarity in the absence of explicit memory can have an unconscious influence on performance. In particular, the exposure to these items in an informational format increases accessibility of the seen items even when the participants were told that they were myths. The findings have implications for the development of

  8. Alcohol and Public Health: Frequently Asked Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... influenced by many factors, such as: Age. Sex. Race or ethnicity. Physical condition (e.g. weight, fitness ... which are all skills needed to drive a car safely. 2 The more alcohol consumed, the greater ...

  9. Alcohol use, anxiety, and insomnia in older adults with generalized anxiety disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivan, M. Cristina; Amspoker, Amber B.; Nadorff, Michael R.; Kunik, Mark E.; Cully, Jeffrey A.; Wilson, Nancy; Calleo, Jessica; Kraus-Schuman, Cynthia; Stanley, Melinda A.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives We examined the presence and frequency of alcohol consumption among older primary care patients with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) and their relation to demographic variables, insomnia, worry, and anxiety. We expected alcohol-use distribution to be similar to previous reports and alcohol use to be associated with higher anxiety and insomnia. A third aim was to examine the moderating role of alcohol use on the relation between anxiety and insomnia. We expected alcohol use to worsen the relation between anxiety and insomnia. Design Baseline data from a randomized controlled trial Sample 223 patients, age 60 and older, with DSM-IV GAD diagnoses Setting Patients were recruited through internal medicine, family practice, and geriatric clinics at 2 diverse healthcare settings: Michael E. DeBakey Veterans Administration Medical Center and Baylor College of Medicine. Measurements Measures addressed alcohol use (presence and frequency); insomnia (Insomnia Severity Index); self-reported worry severity (Penn State Worry Questionnaire − Abbreviated); clinician-rated worry severity (Generalized Anxiety Disorder Severity Scale); self-reported anxiety severity (State-Trait Anxiety Inventory - Trait); and clinician-rated anxiety (Structured Interview Guidelines for the Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale). Results Most patients endorsed alcohol use in the past month, but overall weekly frequency was low. Presence and frequency of use among patients with GAD were greater than in prior reports of primary care samples. Alcohol use among patients with GAD was associated with higher education and female gender. Higher education also was associated with more drinks per week, and Caucasians reported more drinks per week than African Americans. Alcohol use was associated with less severe insomnia, lower self-reported anxiety, and less clinician-rated worry and anxiety. More drinks per week were associated with lower clinician-rated anxiety. Moderation analyses revealed lower

  10. The relationship between concussion and alcohol consumption among university athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bradey Alcock

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: This study investigated concussion as a potential risk factor for increased alcohol consumption in university athletes. Methods: Using a cross-sectional design, 41 university students (37% with a history of concussion completed self-report measures, while electrodermal activation (EDA was recorded for each participant to capture baseline physiological arousal. Results: As expected, concussion status significantly predicted alcohol consumption over and above athletic status, b = 0.34, p = 0.034, 95% CI [0.195, 4.832], such that those with a prior concussion history engaged in greater alcohol consumption. Importantly, concussion status also significantly predicted baseline physiological arousal, b = −0.39, p = 0.014, 95% CI [−0.979, −0.120], such that those with a history of concussion exhibited lower EDA. Conclusions: Elevated alcohol consumption among athletes is a pronounced associate of concussion in sports and may be a behavioral reflection of disruption to the orbitofrontal cortex – an area implicated in inhibition. Keywords: Concussion, Arousal, Risk taking, Alcohol consumption, Athletes

  11. Perceptions of Family Alcohol Use in a Young Adult Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serafini, Kelly A; Stewart, David G

    2015-09-01

    Perceptions of family alcohol use have been linked to adolescent alcohol use behaviors, yet there have been no studies that have assessed this relationship in young adults. This study examined perceptions of family alcohol use and their association with participants' self-reported alcohol use. Participants included 171 undergraduate students (mean age = 21.67, 71.9 percent female, 75.4 percent Caucasian). Participants completed measures assessing quantity and frequency of alcohol use, negative consequences of use, and sibling relationship quality. They also reported their perceptions of alcohol use for siblings and parents during a typical week. Perceptions of siblings' quantity of weekly alcohol use were significantly associated with participants' quantity of alcohol use (r = .21, p = .006) and frequency of alcohol use (r = .23, p = .002). Perceptions of parental alcohol use were not related to the participants' alcohol use patterns.

  12. Mortality from alcohol consumption and alcohol use disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundin, Andreas; Mortensen, Laust Hvas

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To examine the relationship of alcohol consumption, alcohol use disorder and mortality. METHOD: A cohort of 4316 male former Vietnam-era US army personnel participating in telephone survey and medical examination in middle age (mean age 38.3 years) in 1985-1986 was used. Alcohol...... consumption was reported in face-to-face interview on medical history and information on DSM-III alcohol use disorder was obtained from structured psychiatric interview (using the Diagnostic Interview Schedule). Mortality hazard during 15 years of follow-up was assessed with Cox proportional hazard regression...... modeling. RESULT: A total of 4251 individuals participated in the psychiatric interview and the medical history interview. Of these 998 were abstainers, and for the remaining 3253 we calculated weekly average consumption and monthly frequency of binge drinking. A total of 1988 had alcohol dependence, abuse...

  13. Impact of a new alcohol policy on homemade alcohol consumption and sales in Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radaev, Vadim

    2015-05-01

    To describe the effects of Russian policy since 2006 affecting price and availability on the consumption of recorded and unrecorded alcohol, with specific reference to homemade alcohol, and to investigate other factors affecting homemade alcohol consumption and purchasing. Consumption and preferred beverage data were collected from RLMS-HSE nationwide panel surveys from 1994 to 2013, with a detailed analysis of 2012 data (18,221 respondents aged 16+ years). Official statistics on manufactured alcohol sales, regional price increase and real disposable income were used. Homemade distilled spirits (samogon) consumption decreased together with that of recorded and unrecorded manufactured spirits since 2000. The consumption of spirits was partially replaced by the consumption of beer and wine. These trends in alcohol consumption were interrupted in 2008-2013. The interruption was more likely affected by the economic crisis and recession than by the new alcohol policy. Social networks and availability of unrecorded alcohol were more important predictors of homemade alcohol consumption and purchasing than was a recorded alcohol price increase. Homemade alcohol consumption does not replace the declining market for recorded spirits in Russia. The effects of economic and social factors on homemade alcohol consumption are greater than are the short-term effects of the new alcohol policy. The very recent (2015) reduction of the minimum unit price of vodka may be premature. © The Author 2015. Medical Council on Alcohol and Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.

  14. Role of general and specific competence skills in protecting inner-city adolescents from alcohol use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, J A; Griffin, K W; Botvin, G J

    2000-05-01

    The purpose of this longitudinal investigation was to test whether higher levels of general competence are linked to greater refusal assertiveness that is, in turn, related to less subsequent alcohol use among inner-city adolescents. A large sample of students attending 22 middle and junior high schools in New York City participated. Students completed surveys at baseline, at 1-year follow-up and at 2-year follow-up (N = 1,459; 54% female). The students self-reported alcohol use. decision-making skills, self-efficacy and refusal assertiveness. Teams of three to five data collectors administered the questionnaire following a standardized protocol. The data were collected in school during a regular 40-minute class period. According to the tested structural equation model, Decision Making (beta = .07, p Assertiveness and this greater assertiveness predicted less drinking at the 2-year follow-up (beta = -.21, p assertiveness within adolescent alcohol prevention programs.

  15. Fatal motorcycle accidents and alcohol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, C F; Hardt-Madsen, M

    1987-01-01

    A series of fatal motorcycle accidents from a 7-year period (1977-1983) has been analyzed. Of the fatalities 30 were operators of the motorcycle, 11 pillion passengers and 8 counterparts. Of 41 operators 37% were sober at the time of accident, 66% had measurable blood alcohol concentration (BAC......); 59% above 0.08%. In all cases where a pillion passenger was killed, the operator of the motorcycle had a BAC greater than 0.08%. Of the killed counterparts 2 were non-intoxicated, 2 had a BAC greater than 0.08%, and 4 were not tested. The results advocate that the law should restrict alcohol...... consumption by pillion passengers as well as by the motorcycle operator. Suggestions made to extend the data base needed for developing appropriate alcohol countermeasures by collecting sociodemographic data on drivers killed or seriously injured should be supported....

  16. Planning for greater-confinement disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilbert, T.L.; Luner, C.; Meshkov, N.K.; Trevorrow, L.E.; Yu, C.

    1984-01-01

    This contribution is a progress report for preparation of a document that will summarize procedures and technical information needed to plan for and implement greater-confinement disposal (GCD) of low-level radioactive waste. Selection of a site and a facility design (Phase I), and construction, operation, and extended care (Phase II) will be covered in the document. This progress report is limited to Phase I. Phase I includes determination of the need for GCD, design alternatives, and selection of a site and facility design. Alternative designs considered are augered shafts, deep trenches, engineered structures, high-integrity containers, hydrofracture, and improved waste form. Design considerations and specifications, performance elements, cost elements, and comparative advantages and disadvantages of the different designs are covered. Procedures are discussed for establishing overall performance objectives and waste-acceptance criteria, and for comparative assessment of the performance and cost of the different alternatives. 16 references

  17. Planning for greater-confinement disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilbert, T.L.; Luner, C.; Meshkov, N.K.; Trevorrow, L.E.; Yu, C.

    1984-01-01

    This contribution is a progress report for preparation of a document that will summarize procedures and technical information needed to plan for and implement greater-confinement disposal (GCD) of low-level radioactive waste. Selection of a site and a facility design (Phase I), and construction, operation, and extended care (Phase II) will be covered in the document. This progress report is limited to Phase I. Phase I includes determination of the need for GCD, design alternatives, and selection of a site and facility design. Alternative designs considered are augered shafts, deep trenches, engineered structures, high-integrity containers, hydrofracture, and improved waste form. Design considerations and specifications, performance elements, cost elements, and comparative advantages and disadvantages of the different designs are covered. Procedures are discussed for establishing overall performance objecties and waste-acceptance criteria, and for comparative assessment of the performance and cost of the different alternatives. 16 refs

  18. Anticonvulsants for alcohol withdrawal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minozzi, Silvia; Amato, Laura; Vecchi, Simona; Davoli, Marina

    2010-03-17

    from one study, 72 participants, favour paraldehyde plus chloral hydrate versus chlordiazepoxide, for the severe-life threatening side effects, RR 0.12 (0.03 to 0.44). Results of this review do not provide sufficient evidence in favour of anticonvulsants for the treatment of AWS. There are some suggestions that carbamazepine may actually be more effective in treating some aspects of alcohol withdrawal when compared to benzodiazepines, the current first-line regimen for alcohol withdrawal syndrome. Anticonvulsants seem to have limited side effects, although adverse effects are not rigorously reported in the analysed trials.

  19. Alcohol combustion chemistry

    KAUST Repository

    Sarathy, Mani

    2014-10-01

    , also emphasizing advanced engine concepts. Research results addressing combustion reaction mechanisms have been reported based on results from pyrolysis and oxidation reactors, shock tubes, rapid compression machines, and research engines. This work is complemented by the development of detailed combustion models with the support of chemical kinetics and quantum chemistry. This paper seeks to provide an introduction to and overview of recent results on alcohol combustion by highlighting pertinent aspects of this rich and rapidly increasing body of information. As such, this paper provides an initial source of references and guidance regarding the present status of combustion experiments on alcohols and models of alcohol combustion. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Effect of Heavy Consumption of Alcoholic Beverages on the Perception of Sweet and Salty Taste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Camile S; Dias, Vaneria R; Almeida, Juliane A Regis; Brazil, Jamile M; Santos, Ramon A; Milagres, Maria P

    2016-05-01

    To determine the threshold index of sweet and salty tastes in alcoholics undergoing treatment. Taste threshold was assessed using type 3-Alternative Forced Choice in a control group (92 non-alcoholic volunteers) and a test group (92 alcoholics in therapy). The test group completed a structured questionnaire on lifestyle and habits. Significant difference were found between the threshold rates found in the test (3.78) and control groups (1.39). In the salty stimulus, no significant difference was noted in the threshold detection between the control (0.17) and test groups (0.30). A significant correlation was observed between the index Pearson's threshold to sweet taste in the test group and their reported alcohol consumption. The test group reported characteristics such as loss of appetite (93%), weight loss during consumption (62%) and weight gain after quitting drinking (72%). That the alcoholic group reported less sensitivity to sweet taste suggests that drinking habits may influence choice of foods, with a greater preference for foods with higher sucrose concentration. This contribute to poor health, because excess consumption of sugar raises risk for several diseases. No conclusive results were found for the salty stimulus. © The Author 2015. Medical Council on Alcohol and Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.

  1. Alcohol abuse and postoperative morbidity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tønnesen, Hanne

    2003-01-01

    Patients who drink too much have more complications after surgery. The aim of this thesis was to evaluate the evidence, possible mechanisms, and prevention of the increased postoperative morbidity in alcohol abusers, defined by a consumption of at least five drinks per day. The literature could...... be criticised for several methodological flaws. Nevertheless, the results are in agreement showing moderate to strong evidence of increased postoperative morbidity after surgical procedures on alcohol abusers. There is weak to moderate evidence of increased postoperative mortality, hospital stay, and re......-operation. The personal and economic consequences are tremendous. The incidence of alcohol abusers undergoing surgery was 7% to 49%, according to gender and diagnosis. They have been identified by a self-reported alcohol intake, which implies the possibility of underestimation. Alcohol markers could be used for a more...

  2. Overview of Alcohol Consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Alcohol Consumption Alcohol's Effects on the Body Alcohol Use Disorder Fetal Alcohol Exposure Support & Treatment Alcohol Policy Special ... experience alcohol’s longer-term effects, which can include: Alcohol use disorder Health problems Increased risk for certain cancers In ...

  3. Gender differences in alcohol impairment of simulated driving performance and driving-related skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Melissa A; Weafer, Jessica; Fillmore, Mark T

    2009-01-01

    Considerable laboratory research indicates that moderate doses of alcohol impair a broad range of skilled activities related to driving performance in young adults. Although laboratory studies show that the intensity of impairment is generally dependent on the blood alcohol concentration, some reviews of this literature suggest that women might be more sensitive to the impairing effects of alcohol than men. The present study tested this hypothesis. Drawing on data from previous experiments in our laboratory, we compared men and women in terms of the degree to which a challenge dose of alcohol (0.65 g/kg) impaired their simulated driving performance and measures of three separate behavioral and cognitive functions important to driving performance: motor coordination, speed of information processing and information-processing capacity. Alcohol significantly impaired all aspects of performance. Moreover, women displayed greater impairment than men on all behavioral tests and also reported higher levels of subjective intoxication compared with men. Both biological and social-cultural factors have been implicated in gender differences in the behavioral responses to alcohol. The current evidence of heightened sensitivity to alcohol in women highlights the need for better understanding the biological and environmental factors underlying this gender difference.

  4. Alcohol policy in South Africa: a review of policy development processes between 1994 and 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parry, Charles D H

    2010-08-01

    Implementation of effective policies to reduce harmful alcohol consumption requires both a good understanding of the policy development process and which strategies are likely to work. To contribute to this understanding by reviewing four specific policy development initiatives that have taken place in South Africa between 1994 and 2009: restrictions on alcohol advertising and counter-advertising, regulation of retail sales of alcohol, alcohol taxation and controls on alcohol packaging. Material was drawn from a record of meetings and conferences held between 1994 and 2009 and a database of reports, newspaper clippings and policy documentation. When the policy process resulted in a concrete outcome there was always a clear recognition of the problem and policy alternatives, but success was more likely if there was an alignment of 'political' forces and/or when there was a determined bureaucracy. The impact of the other factors such as the media, community mobilization, non-governmental organizations (NGOs), the liquor industry and research are also discussed. Future avenues for policy research are identified, including the need for more systematic studies that give greater consideration to economic factors. Alcohol policy development in South Africa takes place in a piecemeal fashion and is the product of various competing influences. Having a comprehensive national alcohol strategy cutting across different sectors may be a better way for other developing countries to proceed.

  5. Commercial Integrated Heat Pump with Thermal Storage --Demonstrate Greater than 50% Average Annual Energy Savings, Compared with Baseline Heat Pump and Water Heater (Go/No-Go) FY16 4th Quarter Milestone Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Bo [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Baxter, Van D. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Rice, C. Keith [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Abu-Heiba, Ahmad [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-03-01

    For this study, we authored a new air source integrated heat pump (AS-IHP) model in EnergyPlus, and conducted building energy simulations to demonstrate greater than 50% average energy savings, in comparison to a baseline heat pump with electric water heater, over 10 US cities, based on the EnergyPlus quick-service restaurant template building. We also assessed water heating energy saving potentials using ASIHP versus gas heating, and pointed out climate zones where AS-IHPs are promising.

  6. Monetary discounting and ventral striatal dopamine receptor availability in nontreatment-seeking alcoholics and social drinkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberlin, Brandon G; Albrecht, Daniel S; Herring, Christine M; Walters, James W; Hile, Karen L; Kareken, David A; Yoder, Karmen K

    2015-06-01

    Dopamine (DA) in the ventral striatum (VST) has long been implicated in addiction pathologies, yet its role in temporal decision-making is not well-understood. To determine if VST DA D2 receptor availability corresponds with greater impulsive choice in both nontreatment-seeking alcoholics (NTS) and social drinkers (SD). NTS subjects (n = 10) and SD (n = 13) received PET scans at baseline with the D2/D3 radioligand [(11)C]raclopride (RAC). Outside the scanner, subjects performed a delay discounting procedure with monetary rewards. RAC binding potential (BPND) was estimated voxelwise, and correlations were performed to test for relationships between VST BPND and delay discounting performance. Self-reported impulsivity was also tested for correlations with BPND. Across all subjects, greater impulsive choice for $20 correlated with lower BPND in the right VST. NTS showed greater impulsive choice than SD and were more impulsive by self-report. Across all subjects, the capacity of larger rewards to reduce impulsive choice (the magnitude effect) correlated negatively (p = 0.028) with problematic alcohol use (AUDIT) scores. Self-reported impulsivity did not correlate with BPND in VST. Preference for immediate reinforcement may reflect greater endogenous striatal DA or lower D2 number, or both. Alcoholic status did not mediate significant effects on VST BPND, suggesting minimal effects from alcohol exposure. The apparent lack of BPND correlation with self-reported impulsivity highlights the need for objective behavioral assays in the study of the neurochemical substrates of behavior. Finally, our results suggest that the magnitude effect may be more sensitive to alcohol-induced problems than single discounting measures.

  7. The diuretic action of weak and strong alcoholic beverages in elderly men : a randomized diet-controlled crossover trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Polhuis, Kristel C M M; Wijnen, Annemarthe H C; Sierksma, Aafje; Calame, Wim; Tieland, Michael

    2017-01-01

    With ageing, there is a greater risk of dehydration. This study investigated the diuretic effect of alcoholic beverages varying in alcohol concentration in elderly men. Three alcoholic beverages (beer (AB), wine (AW), and spirits (S)) and their non-alcoholic counterparts (non-alcoholic beer (NAB),

  8. Association of Alcohol Misuse With Sexual Identity and Sexual Behavior in Women Veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehavot, Keren; Williams, Emily C; Millard, Steven P; Bradley, Katharine A; Simpson, Tracy L

    2016-01-28

    Sexual minority women report greater alcohol misuse than heterosexual women in the general population, with more pronounced differences found among younger age groups. It is unknown whether these differences exist among women veterans. We evaluated differences in alcohol misuse across two dimensions of sexual orientation (identity and behavior) among women veterans, and examined whether these differences were modified by age. Women veterans were recruited via the internet to participate in an online survey. Participants provided information on their self-reported sexual identity and behavior and responded to the validated 3-item Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test-Consumption questionnaire (AUDIT-C). Regression models were used to compare the prevalence of alcohol misuse (AUDIT-C ≥ 3) and severity (AUDIT-C scores) across sexual identity and behavior and to test effect modification by age. Among the 702 participants (36% lesbian/bisexual), prevalence and severity of alcohol misuse varied by both sexual identity and behavior, but there were significant interactions with age. Prevalence and severity of alcohol misuse were higher among relatively younger self-identified lesbians compared to heterosexual women. Similarly, both prevalence and severity of alcohol misuse were generally higher among younger women who had any sex with women compared to those who had sex only with men. In this online study of women veterans, younger sexual minority women were more likely to screen positive for alcohol misuse, and they had more severe alcohol misuse, than their heterosexual counterparts. Prevention and treatment efforts focused specifically on sexual minority women veterans may be needed.

  9. Alcohol consumption and household expenditure on alcohol in a rural district in Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Allebeck

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Alcohol use and alcohol-related problems are on the rise in low- and middle-income countries. Expenditure on alcohol is an important problem for families and communities and needs to be assessed. Aim: This study examines level of alcohol consumption and expenditure on alcohol in a district in Vietnam. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted in a rural district in northern Vietnam. Multi-stage sampling was employed to randomly select participants from 20 communities and a town in the same district. One thousand five hundred and sixty-four adults (765 males and 799 females aged 18–60 years were interviewed. Information about alcohol use as well as expenditure on alcohol consumption four weeks prior to the interview was gathered. Non-parametric tests and log-linear regression were employed to compare expenditure on alcohol consumption across socioeconomic groups. Results: The prevalence of alcohol use one month prior to interview was 35% (66% among men and 5% among women. The median alcohol consumption among those who reported use of alcohol in the week prior to the interview was 7.9 standard drinks. Excessive drinking (more than 14 standard drinks per week for men and more than seven standard drinks per week for women occurred among 35% of those who used alcohol. Median expenditure for alcohol consumption during one month by those who drank alcohol was USD 3.5, accounting for 4.6% of household food expenditure, 2.7% of total household expenditure, and 1.8% of household income. The differences in alcohol consumption and expenditure between sexes and between socioeconomic groups are also presented. Conclusion: Our study confirms that alcohol consumption and alcohol-related problems are common among men in Vietnam. The share of alcohol expenditure in total household expenditure is substantial, especially among poor households. This should be considered an important public health issue, which needs to be taken into account in

  10. Alcohol consumption and household expenditure on alcohol in a rural district in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giang, Kim Bao; Van Minh, Hoang; Allebeck, Peter

    2013-01-28

    Alcohol use and alcohol-related problems are on the rise in low- and middle-income countries. Expenditure on alcohol is an important problem for families and communities and needs to be assessed. This study examines level of alcohol consumption and expenditure on alcohol in a district in Vietnam. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in a rural district in northern Vietnam. Multi-stage sampling was employed to randomly select participants from 20 communities and a town in the same district. One thousand five hundred and sixty-four adults (765 males and 799 females) aged 18-60 years were interviewed. Information about alcohol use as well as expenditure on alcohol consumption four weeks prior to the interview was gathered. Non-parametric tests and log-linear regression were employed to compare expenditure on alcohol consumption across socioeconomic groups. The prevalence of alcohol use one month prior to interview was 35% (66% among men and 5% among women). The median alcohol consumption among those who reported use of alcohol in the week prior to the interview was 7.9 standard drinks. Excessive drinking (more than 14 standard drinks per week for men and more than seven standard drinks per week for women) occurred among 35% of those who used alcohol. Median expenditure for alcohol consumption during one month by those who drank alcohol was USD 3.5, accounting for 4.6% of household food expenditure, 2.7% of total household expenditure, and 1.8% of household income. The differences in alcohol consumption and expenditure between sexes and between socioeconomic groups are also presented. Our study confirms that alcohol consumption and alcohol-related problems are common among men in Vietnam. The share of alcohol expenditure in total household expenditure is substantial, especially among poor households. This should be considered an important public health issue, which needs to be taken into account in the alcohol policy debate.

  11. Mechanisms of Association between Paternal Alcoholism and Abuse of Alcohol and Other Illicit Drugs among Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peleg-Oren, Neta; Hospital, Michelle; Morris, Staci Leon; Wagner, Eric F.

    2013-01-01

    The current study examines the effect of paternal alcohol problems on adolescent use of alcohol and other illicit drugs as a function of maternal communication, as well as adolescent social and coping skills (N = 145). Structural equation modeling (SEM) analyses indicated that adolescents with a paternal history of alcohol problems reported higher…

  12. There's alcohol in my soap: Portrayal and effects of alcohol use in a popular television series.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hoof, Joris Jasper; de Jong, Menno D.T.; Fennis, B.M.; Gosselt, Jordi Franciscus

    2009-01-01

    Two studies are reported addressing the media influences on adolescents’ alcohol-related attitudes and behaviours. A content analysis was conducted to investigate the prevalence of alcohol portrayal in a Dutch soap series. The coding scheme covered the alcohol consumption per soap character,

  13. Alcohol Prevention Strategies on College Campuses and Student Alcohol Abuse and Related Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ringwalt, Christopher L.; Paschall, Mallie J.; Gitelman, Amy M.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between colleges' alcohol abuse prevention strategies and students' alcohol abuse and related problems. Alcohol prevention coordinators and first year students in 22 colleges reported whether their schools were implementing 48 strategies in six domains, and students (N = 2041) completed another survey…

  14. Alcoholic epilepsy. A definition and a description of other convulsions related to alcoholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamane, H; Katoh, N

    1981-01-01

    The role of alcohol intake and withdrawal in so-called alcoholic epilepsy is discussed and illustrated by case reports. A classification is made which includes definitions of withdrawal convulsions, tetany-like withdrawal convulsions and alcohol-induced epileptic fits, with or without predisposing features.

  15. Daily affect variability and context-specific alcohol consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohr, Cynthia D; Arpin, Sarah; McCabe, Cameron T

    2015-11-01

    Research explored the effects of variability in negative and positive affect on alcohol consumption, specifying daily fluctuation in affect as a critical form of emotion dysregulation. Using daily process methodology allows for a more objective calculation of affect variability relative to traditional self-reports. The present study models within-person negative and positive affect variabilities as predictors of context-specific consumption (i.e. solitary vs. social drinking), controlling for mean levels of affect. A community sample of moderate-to-heavy drinkers (n = 47; 49% women) from a US metropolitan area reported on affect and alcohol consumption thrice daily for 30 days via a handheld electronic interviewer. Within-person affect variability was calculated using daily standard deviations in positive and negative affect. Within person, greater negative and positive variabilities are related to greater daily solitary and social consumption. Across study days, mean levels of negative and positive affect variabilities related to greater social consumption between persons; yet, aggregated negative affect variability was related to less solitary consumption. Results affirm affect variability as a unique predictor of alcohol consumption, independent of mean affect levels. Yet, it is important to differentiate social context of consumption, as well as type of affect variability, particularly at the between-person level. These distinctions help clarify inconsistencies in the self-medication literature regarding associations between average levels of affect and consumption. Importantly, consistent within-person relationships for both variabilities support arguments that both negative and positive affect variabilities are detrimental and reflect an inability to regulate emotional experience. © 2015 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  16. The effect of alcohol price on dependent drinkers' alcohol consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falkner, Carolyn; Christie, Grant; Zhou, Lifeng; King, Julian

    2015-12-18

    To investigate the current purchasing behaviours of a group of dependent drinkers and their potential response to future increases in the price of alcohol. 115 clients undergoing medical detoxification completed an anonymous survey about their daily alcohol consumption, its cost, their response to potential price increases and strategies previously used when unable to afford alcohol. Mean and median number of standard drinks consumed per day was 24, at a median cost of $25 NZD (95%CI $22, $30). Thirty-six per cent (95%CI 26%, 46%) of the group bought alcohol at $1 or less per standard drink, and the median number of drinks consumed per day (30) by this group was significantly higher (p=0.0028) than the rest of the sample (22.5). The most common strategy used if no money was available to purchase alcohol was to forgo essentials. If facing a potential price rise, 77% (95%CI 69%, 85%) would switch wholly or partially to a cheaper product and 13% (95%CI 8%, 21%) would cut down their drinking. Although the majority of our group would be financially impacted by an increase in the minimum price per standard drink, any potential impacts would be most significant in those buying the cheapest alcohol (who also drink the most), suggesting that minimum pricing may be an important harm minimisation strategy in this group. A minimum price per standard drink would limit the possibility of switching to an alternate cheaper product and likely result in an overall reduction in alcohol consumption in this group. Stealing alcohol, or the use of non-beverage alcohol, were seldom reported as previous strategies used in response to unaffordable alcohol and fears of such are not valid reasons for rejecting minimum pricing to reduce general population consumption.

  17. Rapid spontaneous resolution and redistribution of acute subdural hematoma in a patient with chronic alcoholism: a case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsui, Edmund Yik Kong. E-mail: yktsui@hongkong.com; Fai Ma, Ka; Cheung, Yu Keung; Chan, Jimmy Hon Mo; Yuen, Ming Keung

    2000-10-01

    We report a case of a 54-year-old man who had documented traumatic acute subdural hematoma. He suffered from a transient episode of confusion and a follow-up CT scan of brain 6 h after the initial scan showed resolution and redistribution of the subdural hematoma. In this case report, we review the literature for the underlying pathophysiology of this uncommon phenomenon.

  18. Rapid spontaneous resolution and redistribution of acute subdural hematoma in a patient with chronic alcoholism: a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsui, Edmund Yik Kong.; Fai Ma, Ka; Cheung, Yu Keung; Chan, Jimmy Hon Mo; Yuen, Ming Keung

    2000-01-01

    We report a case of a 54-year-old man who had documented traumatic acute subdural hematoma. He suffered from a transient episode of confusion and a follow-up CT scan of brain 6 h after the initial scan showed resolution and redistribution of the subdural hematoma. In this case report, we review the literature for the underlying pathophysiology of this uncommon phenomenon

  19. Energy Drinks, Alcohol, Sports and Traumatic Brain Injuries among Adolescents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Ilie

    Full Text Available The high prevalence of traumatic brain injuries (TBI among adolescents has brought much focus to this area in recent years. Sports injuries have been identified as a main mechanism. Although energy drinks, including those mixed with alcohol, are often used by young athletes and other adolescents they have not been examined in relation to TBI.We report on the prevalence of adolescent TBI and its associations with energy drinks, alcohol and energy drink mixed in with alcohol consumption.Data were derived from the Centre for Addiction and Mental Health's 2013 Ontario Student Drug Use and Health Survey (OSDUHS. This population-based cross-sectional school survey included 10,272 7th to 12th graders (ages 11-20 who completed anonymous self-administered questionnaires in classrooms.Mild to severe TBI were defined as those resulting in a loss of consciousness for at least five minutes, or being hospitalized for at least one night. Mechanism of TBI, prevalence estimates of TBI, and odds of energy drink consumption, alcohol use, and consumption of energy drinks mixed with alcohol are assessed.Among all students, 22.4% (95% CI: 20.7, 24.1 reported a history of TBI. Sports injuries remain the main mechanism of a recent (past year TBI (45.5%, 95% CI: 41.0, 50.1. Multinomial logistic regression showed that relative to adolescents who never sustained a TBI, the odds of sustaining a recent TBI were greater for those consuming alcohol, energy drinks, and energy drinks mixed in with alcohol than abstainers. Odds ratios were higher for these behaviors among students who sustained a recent TBI than those who sustained a former TBI (lifetime but not past 12 months. Relative to recent TBI due to other causes of injury, adolescents who sustained a recent TBI while playing sports had higher odds of recent energy drinks consumption than abstainers.TBI remains a disabling and common condition among adolescents and the consumption of alcohol, energy drinks, and alcohol

  20. Energy Drinks, Alcohol, Sports and Traumatic Brain Injuries among Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilie, Gabriela; Boak, Angela; Mann, Robert E; Adlaf, Edward M; Hamilton, Hayley; Asbridge, Mark; Rehm, Jürgen; Cusimano, Michael D

    2015-01-01

    The high prevalence of traumatic brain injuries (TBI) among adolescents has brought much focus to this area in recent years. Sports injuries have been identified as a main mechanism. Although energy drinks, including those mixed with alcohol, are often used by young athletes and other adolescents they have not been examined in relation to TBI. We report on the prevalence of adolescent TBI and its associations with energy drinks, alcohol and energy drink mixed in with alcohol consumption. Data were derived from the Centre for Addiction and Mental Health's 2013 Ontario Student Drug Use and Health Survey (OSDUHS). This population-based cross-sectional school survey included 10,272 7th to 12th graders (ages 11-20) who completed anonymous self-administered questionnaires in classrooms. Mild to severe TBI were defined as those resulting in a loss of consciousness for at least five minutes, or being hospitalized for at least one night. Mechanism of TBI, prevalence estimates of TBI, and odds of energy drink consumption, alcohol use, and consumption of energy drinks mixed with alcohol are assessed. Among all students, 22.4% (95% CI: 20.7, 24.1) reported a history of TBI. Sports injuries remain the main mechanism of a recent (past year) TBI (45.5%, 95% CI: 41.0, 50.1). Multinomial logistic regression showed that relative to adolescents who never sustained a TBI, the odds of sustaining a recent TBI were greater for those consuming alcohol, energy drinks, and energy drinks mixed in with alcohol than abstainers. Odds ratios were higher for these behaviors among students who sustained a recent TBI than those who sustained a former TBI (lifetime but not past 12 months). Relative to recent TBI due to other causes of injury, adolescents who sustained a recent TBI while playing sports had higher odds of recent energy drinks consumption than abstainers. TBI remains a disabling and common condition among adolescents and the consumption of alcohol, energy drinks, and alcohol mixed with

  1. A Multidimensional Model of Mothers’ Perceptions of Parent Alcohol Socialization and Adolescent Alcohol Misuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ennett, Susan T.; Jackson, Christine; Cole, Veronica T.; Haws, Susan; Foshee, Vangie A.; Reyes, Heathe Luz McNaughton; Burns, Alison Reimuller; Cox, Melissa J.; Cai, Li

    2015-01-01

    We assessed a multidimensional model of parent alcohol socialization in which key socialization factors were considered simultaneously to identify combinations of factors that increase or decrease risk for development of adolescent alcohol misuse. Of interest was the interplay between putative risk and protective factors, such as whether the typically detrimental effects on youth drinking of parenting practices tolerant of some adolescent alcohol use are mitigated by an effective overall approach to parenting and parental modeling of modest alcohol use. The sample included 1,530 adolescents and their mothers; adolescents’ mean age was 13.0 (SD = .99) at the initial assessment. Latent profile analysis was conducted of mothers’ reports of their attitude toward teen drinking, alcohol-specific parenting practices, parental alcohol use and problem use, and overall approach to parenting. The profiles were used to predict trajectories of adolescent alcohol misuse from early to middle adolescence. Four profiles were identified: two profiles reflected conservative alcohol-specific parenting practices and two reflected alcohol-tolerant practices, all in the context of other attributes. Alcohol misuse accelerated more rapidly from grade 6 through 10 in the two alcohol-tolerant compared with conservative profiles. Results suggest that maternal tolerance of some youth alcohol use, even in the presence of dimensions of an effective parenting style and low parental alcohol use and problem use, is not an effective strategy for reducing risky adolescent alcohol use. PMID:26415053

  2. A multidimensional model of mothers' perceptions of parent alcohol socialization and adolescent alcohol misuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ennett, Susan T; Jackson, Christine; Cole, Veronica T; Haws, Susan; Foshee, Vangie A; Reyes, Heathe Luz McNaughton; Burns, Alison Reimuller; Cox, Melissa J; Cai, Li

    2016-02-01

    We assessed a multidimensional model of parent alcohol socialization in which key socialization factors were considered simultaneously to identify combinations of factors that increase or decrease risk for development of adolescent alcohol misuse. Of interest was the interplay between putative risk and protective factors, such as whether the typically detrimental effects on youth drinking of parenting practices tolerant of some adolescent alcohol use are mitigated by an effective overall approach to parenting and parental modeling of modest alcohol use. The sample included 1,530 adolescents and their mothers; adolescents' mean age was 13.0 (SD = .99) at the initial assessment. Latent profile analysis was conducted of mothers' reports of their attitude toward teen drinking, alcohol-specific parenting practices, parental alcohol use and problem use, and overall approach to parenting. The profiles were used to predict trajectories of adolescent alcohol misuse from early to middle adolescence. Four profiles were identified: 2 profiles reflected conservative alcohol-specific parenting practices and 2 reflected alcohol-tolerant practices, all in the context of other attributes. Alcohol misuse accelerated more rapidly from Grade 6 through 10 in the 2 alcohol-tolerant compared with conservative profiles. Results suggest that maternal tolerance of some youth alcohol use, even in the presence of dimensions of an effective parenting style and low parental alcohol use and problem use, is not an effective strategy for reducing risky adolescent alcohol use. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. Impact of Maryland's 2011 alcohol sales tax increase on alcoholic beverage sales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esser, Marissa B; Waters, Hugh; Smart, Mieka; Jernigan, David H

    2016-07-01

    Increasing alcohol taxes has proven effective in reducing alcohol consumption, but the effects of alcohol sales taxes on sales of specific alcoholic beverages have received little research attention. Data on sales are generally less subject to reporting biases than self-reported patterns of alcohol consumption. We aimed to assess the effects of Maryland's July 1, 2011 three percentage point increase in the alcohol sales tax (6-9%) on beverage-specific and total alcohol sales. Using county-level data on Maryland's monthly alcohol sales in gallons for 2010-2012, by beverage type, multilevel mixed effects multiple linear regression models estimated the effects of the tax increase on alcohol sales. We controlled for seasonality, county characteristics, and national unemployment rates in the main analyses. In the 18 months after the tax increase, average per capita sales of spirits were 5.1% lower (p sales were 3.2% lower (p sales were 2.5% lower (p sales trends in the 18 months prior to the tax increase. Overall, the alcohol sales tax increase was associated with a 3.8% decline in total alcohol sold relative to what would have been expected based on sales in the prior 18 months (p increased alcohol sales taxes may be as effective as excise taxes in reducing alcohol consumption and related problems. Sales taxes also have the added advantages of rising with inflation and taxing the highest priced beverages most heavily.

  4. The links between ethnicity, cultural identity and alcohol use, abuse and dependence in a New Zealand birth cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marie, Dannette; Fergusson, David M; Boden, Joseph M

    2012-01-01

    To examine the role of ethnicity and cultural identity in alcohol use and misuse in a birth cohort of over 1000 young people. Data on ethnicity, cultural identification, alcohol use, alcohol abuse/dependence (AAD), socio-economic factors and childhood adversity were gathered as part of a longitudinal study of a New Zealand birth cohort (the Christchurch Health and Development Study). Those reporting Māori ethnicity had rates of alcohol use and AAD that were 1.47-1.63 times higher than the rates found in the non-Māori people. However, there was little evidence to suggest that rates of alcohol use and AAD differed according to Māori cultural identity. Generalized estimating equation regression analyses adjusting for socio-economic disadvantage and childhood adversity slightly reduced the magnitude of these associations, but they remained statistically significant [AAD: odds ratio = 1.52; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.11-2.10; consumption: incidence rate ratio = 1.31; 95% CI: 1.13-1.52]. (a) Māori ethnicity was found to be associated with modestly increased risks of alcohol use and AAD (b) the higher rates of alcohol use and AAD among the Māori members of the cohort could not be explained by a combination of socio-economic factors and greater exposure to environmental factors known to influence the risk of alcohol use and misuse.

  5. 27 CFR 24.242 - Authority to use greater quantities of decolorizing material in juice or wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... quantities of decolorizing material in juice or wine. 24.242 Section 24.242 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Storage, Treatment and Finishing of Wine § 24.242 Authority to use greater quantities of decolorizing material in...

  6. Adolescent Counterarguing of TV Beer Advertisements: Evidence for Effectiveness of Alcohol Education and Critical Viewing Discussions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, Michael D.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Examines the efficacy of alcohol education programs. This study (N=83) found that recency of exposure to alcohol education classes and discussion of alcohol advertising in those classes predicts adolescent cognitive resistance (counterarguing) to persuasive alcohol advertising for months or even years. Suggests greater attention to critical…

  7. Alcohol Poisoning Deaths PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-01-06

    This 60 second Public Service Announcement is based on the January 2015 CDC Vital Signs report. In the United States, an average of six people die every day from alcohol poisoning. Learn what you can do to prevent binge drinking and alcohol poisoning.  Created: 1/6/2015 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 1/6/2015.

  8. Alcohol Consumption and Parkinson’s Disease Risk: A Review of Recent Findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bettiol, Silvana S.; Rose, Tanith C.; Hughes, Clarissa J.; Smith, Lesley A.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background: The association between Parkinson’s disease and lifestyle exposures such as smoking, coffee and alcohol consumption have been the focus of research for several decades, with varying and often conflicting results. Objective: This paper reviews the key features of observational studies investigating the relationship between alcohol drinking and PD risk, to determine potential sources of variability between the results. Methods: Relevant literature from 2000–2014 was systematically retrieved using three databases. Primary research articles were included if they reported a measure of association between quantity and frequency of alcohol intake and PD risk, and adjusted at least for the potential confounding factors of smoking and age. Results: Sixteen articles were identified. The seven case-control studies were more likely to report a weak protective association by level of alcohol consumption compared to the studies with prospective designs. Two studies reported the relationship between heavy (harmful to health) drinking and PD. There was weak evidence that associations varied by type of alcoholic beverage. Smoking may modify the association between alcohol intake and PD risk, however, the evidence does not support the theory that a confounder (such as an addiction-avoiding personality trait) produced the inverse associations between smoking, coffee and alcohol intake and PD risk. Methodological weaknesses of the studies, including selection and recall bias, residual confounding and lack of statistical power may in part account for their differences. Conclusion: The weak association between alcohol drinking and PD risk was found in studies at greater risk of selection and recall bias. PMID:26406123

  9. Self-Reported Drug and Alcohol Use and Attitudes toward Drug Testing in High Schools with Random Student Drug Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    DuPont, Robert L.; Campbell, Michael D.; Campbell, Teresa G.; Shea, Corinne L.; DuPont, Helen S.

    2013-01-01

    Many schools implement random student drug testing (RSDT) programs as a drug prevention strategy. This study analyzes self-report surveys of students in eight secondary schools with well-established RSDT programs, comparing students who understood they were subject to testing and students who understood they were not subject to testing. Students…

  10. Monitoring and research on the Bi-State Distinct Population Segment of greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) in the Pine Nut Mountains, California and Nevada—Study progress report, 2011–15

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coates, Peter S.; Andrle, Katie M.; Ziegler, Pilar T.; Casazza, Michael L.

    2016-09-29

    The Bi-State distinct population segment (DPS) of greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) that occurs along the Nevada–California border was proposed for listing as threatened under the Endangered Species Act (ESA) by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) in October 2013. However, in April 2015, the FWS determined that the Bi-State DPS no longer required protection under the ESA and withdrew the proposed rule to list the Bi-State DPS (U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, 2015). The Bi-State DPS occupies portions of Alpine, Mono, and Inyo Counties in California, and Douglas, Esmeralda, Lyon, Carson City, and Mineral Counties in Nevada. Unique threats facing this population include geographic isolation, expansion of single-leaf pinyon (Pinus monophylla) and Utah juniper (Juniperus osteosperma), anthropogenic activities, and recent changes in predator communities. Estimating population vital rates, identifying seasonal habitat, quantifying threats, and identifying movement patterns are important first steps in developing effective sage-grouse management and conservation plans. During 2011–15, we radio- and Global Positioning System (GPS)-marked (2012–14 only) 44, 47, 17, 9, and 3 sage-grouse, respectively, for a total of 120, in the Pine Nut Mountains Population Management Unit (PMU). No change in lek attendance was detected at Mill Canyon (maximum=18 males) between 2011 and 2012; however, 1 male was observed in 2014 and no males were observed in 2013 and 2015. Males were observed near Bald Mountain in 2013, making it the first year this lek was observed to be active during the study period. Males were observed at a new site in the Buckskin Range in 2014 during trapping efforts and again observed during surveys in 2015. Findings indicate that pinyon-juniper is avoided by sage-grouse during every life stage. Nesting females selected increased sagebrush cover, sagebrush height, and understory horizontal cover, and brood-rearing females selected similar areas

  11. Perceptions of Family Alcohol Use in a Young Adult Sample

    OpenAIRE

    Serafini, Kelly A.; Stewart, David G.

    2015-01-01

    Perceptions of family alcohol use have been linked to adolescent alcohol use behaviors, yet there have been no studies that have assessed this relationship in young adults. This study examined perceptions of family alcohol use and their association with participants’ self-reported alcohol use. Participants included 171 undergraduate students (mean age = 21.67, 71.9 percent female, 75.4 percent Caucasian). Participants completed measures assessing quantity and frequency of alcohol use, negativ...

  12. Effects of moderate alcohol consumption on gene expression related to colonic inflammation and antioxidant enzymes in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klarich, DawnKylee S; Penprase, Jerrold; Cintora, Patricia; Medrano, Octavio; Erwin, Danielle; Brasser, Susan M; Hong, Mee Young

    2017-06-01

    Excessive alcohol consumption is a risk factor associated with colorectal cancer; however, some studies have reported that moderate alcohol consumption may not contribute additional risk for developing colorectal cancer while others suggest that moderate alcohol consumption provides a protective effect that reduces colorectal cancer risk. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of moderate voluntary alcohol (20% ethanol) intake on alternate days for 3 months in outbred Wistar rats on risk factors associated with colorectal cancer development. Colonic gene expression of cyclooxygenase-2, RelA, 8-oxoguanine DNA glycosylase 1, superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, glutathione-S-transferase M1, and aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 were determined. Blood alcohol content, liver function enzyme activities, and 8-oxo-deoxyguanosine DNA adducts were also assessed. Alcohol-treated rats were found to have significantly lower 8-oxo-deoxyguanosine levels in blood, a marker of DNA damage. Alanine aminotransferase and lactate dehydrogenase were both significantly lower in the alcohol group. Moderate alcohol significantly decreased cyclooxygenase-2 gene expression, an inflammatory marker associated with colorectal cancer risk. The alcohol group had significantly increased glutathione-S-transferase M1 expression, an antioxidant enzyme that helps detoxify carcinogens, such as acetaldehyde, and significantly increased aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 expression, which allows for greater acetaldehyde clearance. Increased expression of glutathione-S-transferase M1 and aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 likely contributed to reduce mucosal damage that is caused by acetaldehyde accumulation. These results indicate that moderate alcohol may reduce the risk for colorectal cancer development, which was evidenced by reduced inflammation activity and lower DNA damage after alcohol exposure. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Greater saphenous vein anomaly and aneurysm with subsequent pulmonary embolism

    OpenAIRE

    Ma, Truong; Kornbau, Craig

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Venous aneurysms often present as painful masses. They can present either in the deep or superficial venous system. Deep venous system aneurysms have a greater risk of thromboembolism. Though rare, there have been case reports of superficial aneurysms and thrombus causing significant morbidity such as pulmonary embolism. We present a case of an anomalous greater saphenous vein connection with an aneurysm and thrombus resulting in a pulmonary embolism. This is the only reported case o...

  14. Alcoholism and Suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Alec; Linnoila, Markku

    1986-01-01

    Reviews knowledge about suicide in alcoholism: how commonly suicide among alcoholics occurs; which alcoholics commit suicide and why; suicide among alcoholic women and alcoholic physicians; possible predisposing biological factors; possible linkages with depression, adverse life events, and personality disorder; and future research and directions.…

  15. Between- and within-person associations between negative life events and alcohol outcomes in adolescents with ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Kevin M; Pedersen, Sarah L; Louie, Kristine T; Pelham, William E; Molina, Brooke S G

    2017-09-01

    Escalations in alcohol use during adolescence may be linked with exposure to negative life events, but most of this research has focused on between-person associations. Moreover, adolescents with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) may be an especially vulnerable population, reporting more life events and alcohol involvement and may even be more sensitive to the effects of life events on alcohol outcomes compared with those without ADHD. We tested the between- and within-person effects of the number and perceptions of negative life events on the development of alcohol use outcomes from age 14 to 17 years in 259 adolescents with and without ADHD using generalized estimating equations. Between-person differences in exposure to negative life events across adolescence, but not the perception of those events, were associated with a higher likelihood of alcohol use and drunkenness at age 17 years. Within-person differences in life events were associated with alcohol use above and beyond that predicted by an adolescents' typical trajectory over time. Parent- and teacher-reported ADHD symptoms were associated with more negative perceptions of life events and with greater alcohol use and drunkenness at age 17 years, but symptoms did not moderate the life event-alcohol association. Interventions should consider the variables that produce vulnerability to life events as well as the immediate impact of life events. That the accumulation of life events, rather than their perceived negativity, was associated with alcohol outcomes indicates that interventions targeting the reduction of negative events, rather than emotional response, may be more protective against alcohol use in adolescence. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. Alcohol and drug involvement in motorcycle driver injuries in the city of Sao Paulo, Brazil: Analysis of crash culpability and other associated factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Carvalho, Heraclito Barbosa; Andreuccetti, Gabriel; Rezende, Marcelo Rosa; Bernini, Celso; Silva, Jorge Santos; Leyton, Vilma; D'Andréa Greve, Julia Maria

    2016-05-01

    Earlier studies have already identified that a greater proportion of injured drivers are under the effects of illicit drugs than alcohol in Brazil, but the crash risk attributable to each substance is still unknown. Injured motorcycle drivers who were involved in traffic accidents in the West Zone of the city of Sao Paulo were recruited for a cross-sectional study based on crash culpability analysis. Alcohol and drug positivity among drivers was evaluated according to their responsibility for the crash. Culpability ratios were generated based on the proportion of drivers who were deemed culpable in relation to those considered not culpable according to the use of drugs and alcohol. Of the 273 drivers recruited, 10.6% tested positive for alcohol. Among those who were also tested for drugs (n=232), 20.3% had consumed either alcohol and/or other drugs, 15.5% of whom were positive only for drugs other than alcohol, specifically cannabis and cocaine. Drivers who tested positive for alcohol were significantly less likely to possess a valid driver's license and to report driving professionally, whereas those who had consumed only drugs were more likely to drive professionally. The culpability ratio estimated for alcohol-positive drivers was three times higher than that for alcohol-free drivers, showing a superior ratio than drivers who had consumed only drugs other than alcohol, who presented a 1.7 times higher culpability ratio than drug-free drivers. Substance use was overrepresented among culpable motorcycle drivers, with alcohol showing a greater contribution to crash culpability than other drugs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Effects of consuming alcohol mixed with energy drinks versus consuming alcohol only on overall alcohol consumption and negative alcohol-related consequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Haan L

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Lydia de Haan,1 Hein A de Haan,2,3 Job van der Palen,4,5 Berend Olivier,1 Joris C Verster11Utrecht University, Utrecht Institute for Pharmaceutical Sciences, Division of Pharmacology, Utrecht, 2Tactus Addiction Treatment, Deventer, 3Nijmegen Institute for Scientist-Practitioners in Addiction, Nijmegen, 4Medical School Twente, Medisch Spectrum Twente, Enschede, 5Department of Research Methodology, Measurement, and Data Analysis, University of Twente, Enschede, The NetherlandsBackground: The aim of this study was to examine differences in alcohol consumption and its consequences when consumed alone and when mixed with energy drinks.Methods: A survey was conducted among Dutch students at Utrecht University and the College of Utrecht. We collected data on alcohol consumption and alcohol-related consequences of alcohol consumed alone and/or alcohol mixed with energy drinks (AMED. The data were analyzed using a retrospective within-subject design, comparing occasions when subjects consumed AMED with those when they consumed alcohol only in the past 30 days.Results: A representative sample of 6002 students completed the survey, including 1239 who consumed AMED. Compared with consuming alcohol only, when consuming AMED, students consumed significantly fewer alcoholic drinks on an average drinking day (6.0 versus 5.4, respectively, and reported significantly fewer drinking days in the previous month (9.2 versus 1.4, significantly fewer days being drunk (1.9 versus 0.5, and significantly fewer occasions of consuming more than four (female/five (male alcoholic drinks (4.7 versus 0.9. The maximum number of mixed alcoholic drinks (4.5 in the previous month was significantly lower when compared with occasions when they consumed alcohol only (10.7. Accordingly, the mean duration of a drinking session was significantly shorter when mixing alcoholic drinks (4.0 versus 6.0 hours. Finally, when consuming AMED, significantly fewer alcohol-related consequences were

  18. Trauma activation patients: evidence for routine alcohol and illicit drug screening.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Michael Dunham

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Statistics from the National Trauma Data Bank imply that discretionary blood alcohol and urine drug testing is common. However, there is little evidence to determine which patients are appropriate for routine testing, based on information available at trauma center arrival. In 2002, Langdorf reported alcohol and illicit drug rates in Trauma Activation Patients. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: This is a retrospective investigation of alcohol and illicit drug rates in consecutive St. Elizabeth Health Center (SEHC trauma patients. SEHC Trauma Activation Patients are compared with the Langdorf Activation Patients and with the SEHC Trauma Nonactivation Patients. Minimum Rates are positive tests divided by total patients (tested and not tested. Activation patients: The minimum alcohol rates were: SEHC 23.1%, Langdorf 28.2%, combined 24.8%. The minimum illicit drug rates were: SEHC 15.7%, Langdorf 23.5, combined 18.3%. The minimum alcohol and/or illicit drug rates were: SEHC 33.4%, Langdorf 41.8%, combined 36.2%. Nonactivation patients: The SEHC minimum alcohol rate was 4.7% and the minimum illicit drug rate was 6.0%. CONCLUSIONS: Alcohol and illicit drug rates were significantly greater for Trauma Activation Patients, when compared to Nonactivation Patients. At minimum, Trauma Activation Patients are likely to have a 1-in-3 positive test for alcohol and/or an illicit drug. This substantial rate suggests that Trauma Activation Patients, a readily discernible group at trauma center arrival, are appropriate for routine alcohol and illicit drug testing. However, discretionary testing is more reasonable for Trauma Nonactivation Patients, because minimum rates are low.

  19. Alcohol industry sponsorship and hazardous drinking in UK university students who play sport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Kerry S; Ferris, Jason; Greenlees, Ian; Jowett, Sophia; Rhind, Daniel; Cook, Penny A; Kypri, Kypros

    2014-10-01

    To examine whether receipt of alcohol industry sponsorship is associated with problematic drinking in UK university students who play sport. University students (n = 2450) participating in sports were invited to complete a pen-and-paper questionnaire by research staff approaching them at sporting facilities and in university settings. Respondents were asked whether they, personally, their team and/or their club were currently in receipt of sponsorship (e.g. money, free or subsidized travel or sporting products) from an alcohol-related industry (e.g. bars, liquor stores, wholesalers), and whether they had solicited the sponsorship. Drinking was assessed using the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT). Questionnaires were completed by 2048 of those approached (response rate = 83%). Alcohol industry sponsorship was reported by 36% of the sample. After accounting for confounders (age, gender, disposable income and location) in multivariable models, receipt of alcohol sponsorship by a team (adjusted βadj  = 0.41, P = 0.013), club (βadj  = 0.73, P = 0.017), team and club (βadj  = 0.79, P = 0.002) and combinations of individual and team or club sponsorships (βadj  = 1.27, P 8). Respondents who sought out sponsorship were not at greater risk than respondents, or whose teams or clubs, had been approached by the alcohol industry. University students in the United Kingdom who play sport and who personally receive alcohol industry sponsorship or whose club or team receives alcohol industry sponsorship appear to have more problematic drinking behaviour than UK university students who play sport and receive no alcohol industry sponsorship. Policy to reduce or cease such sponsorship should be considered. © 2014 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  20. Interrelationship between family history of alcoholism and generational status in the prediction of alcohol dependence in US Hispanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chartier, K G; Thomas, N S; Kendler, K S

    2017-01-01

    Both a family history of alcoholism and migration-related factors like US v. foreign nativity increase the risk for developing alcohol use disorders in Hispanic Americans. For this study, we integrated these two lines of research to test whether the relationship between familial alcoholism and alcohol dependence changes with successive generations in the United States. Data were from the waves 1 and 2 National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC). Subjects self-identified Hispanic ethnicity (N = 4122; n = 1784 first, n = 1169 second, and n = 1169 third or later generation) and reported ever consuming ⩾12 drinks in a 1-year period. A family history of alcoholism was assessed in first- and second-degree relatives. Analyses predicting the number of alcohol dependence symptoms were path models. Alcohol dependence symptoms were associated with a stronger family history of alcoholism and later generational status. There was a significant interaction effect between familial alcoholism and generational status; the relationship of familial alcoholism with alcohol dependence symptoms increased significantly with successive generations in the United States, more strongly in women than men. Acculturation partially mediated the interaction effect between familial alcoholism and generational status on alcohol dependence, although not in the expected direction. Familial alcoholism interacted with generational status in predicting alcohol dependence symptoms in US Hispanic drinkers. This relationship suggests that heritability for alcoholism is influenced by a higher-order environmental factor, likely characterized by a relaxing of social restrictions on drinking.

  1. A systematic review of the epidemiology of unrecorded alcohol consumption and the chemical composition of unrecorded alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehm, Jürgen; Kailasapillai, Shalini; Larsen, Elisabeth; Rehm, Maximilien X; Samokhvalov, Andriy V; Shield, Kevin D; Roerecke, Michael; Lachenmeier, Dirk W

    2014-06-01

    Unrecorded alcohol constitutes about 30% of all alcohol consumed globally. The aims of this systematic review were to determine the epidemiology (occurrence, types, prevalence) of unrecorded alcohol consumption in different countries/regions, analyse the chemical composition of unrecorded alcohol and examine health outcomes caused by the consumption of unrecorded alcohol, based on either epidemiology or toxicology. A systematic search for, and qualitative analysis of, papers with empirical results on the different categories of unrecorded alcohol, based on Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. Unrecorded alcohol was widespread in all regions of the world. Artisanal fermented beverages and spirits were the most common categories of unrecorded alcohol globally, and were available on all continents. In India, industrially produced spirits (country spirits) were most prevalent. In Russia and countries of the former Soviet Union, surrogate alcohols complemented artisanal spirits. Cross-border shopping was the most prevalent method of obtaining unrecorded alcohol in parts of Europe. Ethanol was the most harmful ingredient of unrecorded alcohol, and health consequences due to other ingredients found in unrecorded alcohol were scarce. However, as unrecorded alcohol is usually the least expensive form of alcohol available in many countries, it may contribute to higher rates of chronic and irregular heavy drinking. Very large amounts of alcohol are produced globally that go unrecorded. The primary harm from this kind of alcohol arises from the fact that it is typically much cheaper than licit alcohol. © 2014 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  2. The reliability of alcoholism history in patients with alcohol-related cirrhosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yates, W R; Labrecque, D R; Pfab, D

    1998-01-01

    Alcoholic liver disease is considered an indication for liver transplantation when a candidate is felt to have a high likelihood of abstinence following transplantation. Historical variables such as duration of sobriety, duration and quantity of drinking, and treatment history are commonly used to estimate alcoholism prognosis, yet their reliability and validity in patients with alcoholic cirrhosis has received limited study. Fifty subjects (9 women and 41 men) with alcoholic cirrhosis underwent an alcoholism history interview. Each subject had a collateral source (usually a spouse) who was interviewed by a second interviewer blind to the subject's alcoholism history. The two histories were compared for duration of abstinence in months and estimated alcoholism relapse risk was calculated using the High-risk Alcoholism Relapse scale (HRAR). Duration of sobriety correlated highly between subject and collateral source (Spearman r= 0.96, P = 0.0001) as did HRAR total score (Spearman r = 0.72, P = 0.0001). Categorical assignments also showed high correlations with duration of sobriety (kappa = 0.97) and HRAR category (kappa = 0.63). When disagreements were present, collateral sources tended to underestimate severity of alcoholism. We conclude that patients with alcoholic liver disease provide a reliable history for alcoholism variables when compared with a collateral source, and that, when disagreements are present, subjects tend to report a more acute or severe alcohol problem. The results support the clinical use of patient history information in making decisions about medical interventions for alcoholic liver disease.

  3. Alcohol consumption and sport: a cross-sectional study of alcohol management practices associated with at-risk alcohol consumption at community football clubs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingsland, Melanie; Wolfenden, Luke; Rowland, Bosco C; Gillham, Karen E; Kennedy, Vanessa J; Ramsden, Robyn L; Colbran, Richard W; Weir, Sarah; Wiggers, John H

    2013-08-16

    Excessive alcohol consumption is responsible for considerable harm from chronic disease and injury. Within most developed countries, members of sporting clubs participate in at-risk alcohol consumption at levels above that of communities generally. There has been limited research investigating the predictors of at-risk alcohol consumption in sporting settings, particularly at the non-elite level. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between the alcohol management practices and characteristics of community football clubs and at-risk alcohol consumption by club members. A cross sectional survey of community football club management representatives and members was conducted. Logistic regression analysis (adjusting for clustering by club) was used to determine the association between the alcohol management practices (including alcohol management policy, alcohol-related sponsorship, availability of low- and non-alcoholic drinks, and alcohol-related promotions, awards and prizes) and characteristics (football code, size and location) of sporting clubs and at-risk alcohol consumption by club members. Members of clubs that served alcohol to intoxicated people [OR: 2.23 (95% CI: 1.26-3.93)], conducted 'happy hour' promotions [OR: 2.84 (95% CI: 1.84-4.38)] or provided alcohol-only awards and prizes [OR: 1.80 (95% CI: 1.16-2.80)] were at significantly greater odds of consuming alcohol at risky levels than members of clubs that did not have such alcohol management practices. At-risk alcohol consumption was also more likely among members of clubs with less than 150 players compared with larger clubs [OR:1.45 (95% CI: 1.02-2.05)] and amongst members of particular football codes. The findings of this study suggest a need and opportunity for the implementation of alcohol harm reduction strategies targeting specific alcohol management practices at community football clubs.

  4. Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) in patients with polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Noreen; Stepanova, Maria; Afendy, Arian; Nader, Fatema; Younossi, Youssef; Rafiq, Nila; Goodman, Zachary; Younossi, Zobair M

    2011-04-01

    Both non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) are associated with metabolic syndrome (MS) and insulin resistance (IR). Except for a few case reports, there are no systematic assessments of NASH in PCOS patients. To determine the prevalence of NASH and independent factors associated with NASH in a cohort of patients with documented PCOS. Patients with established diagnosis of PCOS and matched controls (matched for gender, age, and body mass index (BMI)) were included in the study. Causes of other liver diseases were systematically excluded by clinical and laboratory tests. Excessive alcohol use was defined as alcohol consumption of greater than 10 g/day. All liver biopsies were read by a single pathologist blinded to the clinical data. Histologic NASH was defined as steatosis with lobular inflammation and ballooning degeneration of hepatocytes with or without Mallory-Denk bodies or pericellular fibrosis. Univariate and multivariate analyses with logistic regression were performed to compare PCOS to matched controls. Sixty-six patients were included in the study (34 PCOS and 32 matched controls). Of PCOS patients, 73% had a liver biopsy while 78% of the matched controls had a liver biopsy. In comparing PCOS patients to the matched controls, clinical (BMI, waist circumference, type 2 diabetes, MS, or its components, any alcohol consumption in the prior year, ethnic background, age, gender, etc.) and laboratory data (aminotransferases, ferritin, glucose, etc.) were not significantly different (p > 0.05). However, PCOS patients tended to have more histologic NASH on their liver biopsies (44.0% vs. 20.8%, p = 0.08). Independent predictors of histologic NASH in PCOS patients were elevated aspartate aminotransferase (AST), high triglycerides and small amounts of alcohol consumption (p = 0.019, 10-fold cross-validated AUC = 0.80, 95% CI = 0.56-0.94). Although about half of PCOS patients did not report any alcohol consumption, 50% did report

  5. A cross sectional evaluation of an alcohol intervention targeting young university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Sharyn; Jancey, Jonine; Crawford, Gemma; Hallett, Jonathan; Portsmouth, Linda; Longo, Janelle

    2016-07-20

    Hazardous drinking has been found to be higher among young university students compared to their non-university peers. Although young university students are exposed to new and exciting experiences, including greater availability and emphasis on social functions involving alcohol there are few multi strategy comprehensive interventions aimed at reducing alcohol-related harms. Random cross sectional online surveys were administered to 18-24 year old students studying at the main campus of a large metropolitan university in Perth, Western Australia. Prior to the completion of the second survey an alcohol intervention was implemented on campus. Completed surveys were received from 2465 (Baseline; T1) and 2422 (Post Year 1: T2) students. Students who consumed alcohol in the past 12 months were categorised as low risk or hazardous drinkers using the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT). Due to the cross sectional nature of the two samples two-tailed two-proportion z-test and two sample t-tests were employed to determine statistical significance between the two time periods for categorical and continuous variables respectively. At T1 and T2 89.1 % and 87.2 % of the total sample reported drinking alcohol in the past month respectively. Hazardous levels of alcohol consumption reduced slightly between T1 (39.7 %) and T2 (38 %). In both time periods hazardous drinkers reported significantly higher mean scores for experienced harm, second-hand harm and witnessed harm scores compared to low risk drinkers (p alcohol consumption and to report more positive alcohol expectations than low risk drinkers at both time periods (p students who report hazardous drinking are of concern and efforts should be made to ensure integrated and targeted strategies reach higher risk students and focus on specific issues such as driving while intoxicated and alcohol related unplanned sexual activity. However there is also a need for universal strategies targeting all students and

  6. Correlates of Alcohol and Marijuana Use within a College Freshman Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dull, R. Thomas

    1992-01-01

    Studied correlations between self-reported alcohol and marijuana use by college students (n=557) and peer and parental alcohol use, family alcohol abuse, and legalization attitudes. Major predictors for alcohol use were maternal alcohol use followed by peer use. Major predictors for marijuana use were desire for legalization followed by peer use…

  7. Public attitudes towards alcohol control policies in Scotland and England: Results from a mixed-methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jessica; Lovatt, Melanie; Eadie, Douglas; Dobbie, Fiona; Meier, Petra; Holmes, John; Hastings, Gerard; MacKintosh, Anne Marie

    2017-03-01

    The harmful effects of heavy drinking on health have been widely reported, yet public opinion on governmental responsibility for alcohol control remains divided. This study examines UK public attitudes towards alcohol policies, identifies underlying dimensions that inform these, and relationships with perceived effectiveness. A cross-sectional mixed methods study involving a telephone survey of 3477 adult drinkers aged 16-65 and sixteen focus groups with 89 adult drinkers in Scotland and England was conducted between September 2012 and February 2013. Principal components analysis (PCA) was used to reduce twelve policy statements into underlying dimensions. These dimensions were used in linear regression models examining alcohol policy support by demographics, drinking behaviour and perceptions of UK drinking and government responsibility. Findings were supplemented with a thematic analysis of focus group transcripts. A majority of survey respondents supported all alcohol policies, although the level of support varied by type of policy. Greater enforcement of laws on under-age sales and more police patrolling the streets were strongly supported while support for pricing policies and restricting access to alcohol was more divided. PCA identified four main dimensions underlying support on policies: alcohol availability, provision of health information and treatment services, alcohol pricing, and greater law enforcement. Being female, older, a moderate drinker, and holding a belief that government should do more to reduce alcohol harms were associated with higher support on all policy dimensions. Focus group data revealed findings from the survey may have presented an overly positive level of support on all policies due to differences in perceived policy effectiveness. Perceived effectiveness can help inform underlying patterns of policy support and should be considered in conjunction with standard measures of support in future research on alcohol control policies

  8. Cross-lagged associations between substance use-related media exposure and alcohol use during middle school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Joan S; Miles, Jeremy N V; D'Amico, Elizabeth J

    2013-10-01

    This study examines the reciprocal longitudinal associations between alcohol or other drug (AOD)-related media exposure and alcohol use among middle school students, and explores whether these associations differ by ethnicity or gender. The analytic sample is 7th grade students who were recruited from 16 California middle schools and surveyed in the spring semester of two academic years. Students reported on their background characteristics, exposure to seven types of AOD-related media content (Internet videos, social networking sites, movies, television, magazine advertisements, songs, and video games) in the past 3 months, and alcohol use in the past 30 days. Structural equation modeling was used to examine cross-lagged associations between media exposure and alcohol use. Greater AOD-related media exposure in 7th grade was significantly associated with a higher probability of alcohol use in 8th grade (p = .02), and alcohol use in 7th grade was marginally associated with greater AOD-related media exposure in 8th grade (p = .07). These cross-lagged associations did not statistically differ by ethnicity (Hispanic vs. non-Hispanic white) or gender. Further, there was no evidence that certain types of media exposure were more strongly associated with alcohol use than others. Results from this study suggest that AOD-related media effects and media selectively form a reciprocal, mutually influencing process that may escalate adolescent alcohol use over time. Addressing adolescents' exposure to AOD-related media content and its effects on behavior, such as through media literacy education, may hold promise for improving the efficacy of alcohol prevention efforts for middle school students. Copyright © 2013 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Gender dimorphism of brain reward system volumes in alcoholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawyer, Kayle S; Oscar-Berman, Marlene; Barthelemy, Olivier J; Papadimitriou, George M; Harris, Gordon J; Makris, Nikos

    2017-05-30

    The brain's reward network has been reported to be smaller in alcoholic men compared to nonalcoholic men, but little is known about the volumes of reward regions in alcoholic women. Morphometric analyses were performed on magnetic resonance brain scans of 60 long-term chronic alcoholics (ALC; 30 men) and 60 nonalcoholic controls (NC; 29 men). We derived volumes of total brain, and cortical and subcortical reward-related structures including the dorsolateral prefrontal (DLPFC), orbitofrontal, and cingulate cortices, and the temporal pole, insula, amygdala, hippocampus, nucleus accumbens septi (NAc), and ventral diencephalon (VDC). We examined the relationships of the volumetric findings to drinking history. Analyses revealed a significant gender interaction for the association between alcoholism and total reward network volumes, with ALC men having smaller reward volumes than NC men and ALC women having larger reward volumes than NC women. Analyses of a priori subregions revealed a similar pattern of reward volume differences with significant gender interactions for DLPFC and VDC. Overall, the volume of the cerebral ventricles in ALC participants was negatively associated with duration of abstinence, suggesting decline in atrophy with greater length of sobriety. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Attempts to reduce alcohol intake and treatment needs among people with probable alcohol dependence in England: a general population survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunne, Jacklyn; Kimergård, Andreas; Brown, Jamie; Beard, Emma; Buykx, Penny; Michie, Susan; Drummond, Colin

    2018-03-25

    To compare the proportion of people in England with probable alcohol dependence [Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) score ≥ 20] with those with other drinking patterns (categorized by AUDIT scores) in terms of motivation to reduce drinking and use of alcohol support resources. A combination of random probability and simple quota sampling to conduct monthly cross-sectional household computer-assisted interviews between March 2014 and August 2017. The general population in all nine regions of England. Participants in the Alcohol Toolkit Study (ATS), a monthly household survey of alcohol consumption among people aged 16 years and over in England (n = 69 826). The mean age was 47 years [standard deviation (SD) = 18.78; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 46.8-47] and 51% (n = 35 560) were female. χ 2 tests were used to investigate associations with demographic variables, motivation to quit drinking, attempts to quit drinking, general practitioner (GP) engagement and types of support accessed in the last 12 months across AUDIT risk zones. A total of 0.6% were classified as people with probable alcohol dependence (95% CI = 0.5-0.7). Motivation to quit (χ 2  = 1692.27, P AUDIT risk zone. People with probable dependence were more likely than other ATS participants to have a past-year attempt to cut down or quit (51.8%) and have received a specialist referral from their GP about drinking (13.7%), and less likely to report no motivation to reduce their drinking (26.2%). Those with probable dependence had higher use of self-help books and mobile applications (apps) than other ATS participants; however, 27.7% did not access any resources during their most recent attempt to cut down. Adults in England with probable alcohol dependence, measured through the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test, demonstrate higher motivation to quit drinking and greater use of both specialist treatment and self-driven support compared with those in other

  11. The relation between alcohol use and psychological, physical, and sexual dating violence perpetration among male college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shorey, Ryan C; Brasfield, Hope; Zapor, Heather Zucosky; Zapor, Heather Zuckosky; Febres, Jeniimarie; Stuart, Gregory L

    2015-02-01

    The prevalence of alcohol use and dating violence are shockingly high among male college students, making this a particularly high-risk group for alcohol-related aggression. Expanding upon previous research, the current study examined the relations between three indicators of alcohol use and three types of dating violence among 204 male college students. We also examined whether hazardous drinkers reported more violence perpetration than non-hazardous drinkers. Results demonstrated that alcohol use was related to all types of aggression, and hazardous drinkers are at greater risk of violence perpetration than non-hazardous drinkers. Implications for dating violence prevention programs and future research are discussed. © The Author(s) 2014.

  12. Neural Correlates of Impulsivity in Healthy Males and Females with Family Histories of Alcoholism

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVito, Elise E; Meda, Shashwath A; Jiantonio, Rachel; Potenza, Marc N; Krystal, John H; Pearlson, Godfrey D

    2013-01-01

    Individuals family-history positive (FHP) for alcoholism have increased risk for the disorder, which may be mediated by intermediate behavioral traits such as impulsivity. Given the sex differences in the risk for and clinical presentation of addictive disorders, risk for addiction may be differentially mediated by impulsivity within FHP males and females. FHP (N=28) and family-history negative (FHN, N=31) healthy, non-substance-abusing adults completed an fMRI Go/No-Go task and were assessed on impulsivity and alcohol use. Effects of family history and sex were investigated as were associations between neural correlates of impulse control and out-of-scanner measures of impulsivity and alcohol use. FHP individuals showed greater activation in the left anterior insula and inferior frontal gyrus during successful inhibitions, an effect that was driven primarily by FHP males. Higher self-reported impulsivity and behavioral discounting impulsivity, but not alcohol use measures, were associated with greater BOLD signal in the region that differentiated the FHP and FHN groups. Impulsivity factors were associated with alcohol use measures across the FHP and FHN groups. These findings are consistent with increased risk for addiction among FHP individuals being conferred through disrupted function within neural systems important for impulse control. PMID:23584260

  13. The role of intolerance of uncertainty in terms of alcohol use motives among college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraemer, Kristen M; McLeish, Alison C; O'Bryan, Emily M

    2015-03-01

    Hazardous drinking rates among college students are exceedingly high. Despite the link between worry and alcohol use problems, there has been a dearth of empirical work examining worry-related risk factors in terms of motivations for alcohol use. Therefore, the aim of the present investigation was to examine the unique predictive ability of intolerance of uncertainty in terms of alcohol use motives. Participants were 389 college students (72.2% female, Mage=19.92, SD=3.87, Range=18-58 years) who completed self-report measures for course credit. As hypothesized, after controlling for the effects of gender, smoking status, marijuana use status, alcohol consumption, negative affect, and anxiety sensitivity, greater levels of intolerance of uncertainty were significantly predictive of greater coping (1.5% unique variance) and conformity (4.7% unique variance) drinking motives, but not social or enhancement drinking motives. These results suggest that intolerance of uncertainty is associated with drinking to manage or avoid negative emotions, and interventions aimed at reducing intolerance of uncertainty may be helpful in reducing problematic alcohol consumption among college students. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Underage college students' alcohol displays on Facebook and real-time alcohol behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Megan A; Cox, Elizabeth D; Young, Henry N; Haaland, Wren

    2015-06-01

    College is often a time of alcohol use initiation and displayed Facebook alcohol references. The purpose of this longitudinal study was to determine associations between initial references to alcohol on social media and college students' self-reported recent drinking, binge drinking, and excessive drinking. First-year students from two U.S. public universities were randomly selected from registrar lists for recruitment. Data collection included 2 years of monthly Facebook evaluation. When an initial displayed Facebook alcohol reference was identified, these "New Alcohol Displayers" were contacted for phone interviews. Phone interviews used the validated timeline followback method to evaluate recent alcohol use, binge episodes, and excessive drinking. Analyses included calculation of positive predictive value and Poisson regression. A total of 338 participants were enrolled; 56.1% participants were female, 74.8% were Caucasian, and 58.8% were from the Midwestern University. A total of 167 (49.4%) participants became new alcohol displayers during the first 2 years of college. Among new alcohol displayers, 78.5% reported past 28-day alcohol use. Among new alcohol displayers who reported recent alcohol use, 84.9% reported at least one binge episode. Posting an initial Facebook alcohol reference as a profile picture or cover photo was positively associated with excessive drinking (risk ratio = 2.34; 95% confidence interval, 1.54-3.58). Findings suggest positive associations between references to alcohol on social media and self-reported recent alcohol use. Location of initial reference as a profile picture or cover photo was associated with problematic drinking and may suggest that a student would benefit from clinical investigation or resources. Copyright © 2015 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Energy drinks and alcohol-related risk among young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caviness, Celeste M; Anderson, Bradley J; Stein, Michael D

    2017-01-01

    Energy drink consumption, with or without concurrent alcohol use, is common among young adults. This study sought to clarify risk for negative alcohol outcomes related to the timing of energy drink use. The authors interviewed a community sample of 481 young adults, aged 18-25, who drank alcohol in the last month. Past-30-day energy drink use was operationalized as no-use, use without concurrent alcohol, and concurrent use of energy drinks with alcohol ("within a couple of hours"). Negative alcohol outcomes included past-30-day binge drinking, past-30-day alcohol use disorder, and drinking-related consequences. Just over half (50.5%) reported no use of energy drinks,18.3% reported using energy drinks without concurrent alcohol use, and 31.2% reported concurrent use of energy drinks and alcohol. Relative to those who reported concurrent use of energy drinks with alcohol, and controlling for background characteristics and frequency of alcohol consumption, those who didn't use energy drinks and those who used without concurrent alcohol use had significantly lower binge drinking, negative consequences, and rates of alcohol use disorder (P energy drink without concurrent alcohol groups on any alcohol-related measure (P > .10 for all outcomes). Concurrent energy drink and alcohol use is associated with increased risk for negative alcohol consequences in young adults. Clinicians providing care to young adults could consider asking patients about concurrent energy drink and alcohol use as a way to begin a conversation about risky alcohol consumption while addressing 2 substances commonly used by this population.

  16. Alcohol fuels program technical review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1981-07-01

    The last issue of the Alcohol Fuels Process R/D Newsletter contained a work breakdown structure (WBS) of the SERI Alcohol Fuels Program that stressed the subcontracted portion of the program and discussed the SERI biotechnology in-house program. This issue shows the WBS for the in-house programs and contains highlights for the remaining in-house tasks, that is, methanol production research, alcohol utilization research, and membrane research. The methanol production research activity consists of two elements: development of a pressurized oxygen gasifier and synthesis of catalytic materials to more efficiently convert synthesis gas to methanol and higher alcohols. A report is included (Finegold et al. 1981) that details the experimental apparatus and recent results obtained from the gasifier. The catalysis research is principally directed toward producing novel organometallic compounds for use as a homogeneous catalyst. The utilization research is directed toward the development of novel engine systems that use pure alcohol for fuel. Reforming methanol and ethanol catalytically to produce H/sub 2/ and CO gas for use as a fuel offers performance and efficiency advantages over burning alcohol directly as fuel in an engine. An application of this approach is also detailed at the end of this section. Another area of utilization is the use of fuel cells in transportation. In-house researchers investigating alternate electrolyte systems are exploring the direct and indirect use of alcohols in fuel cells. A workshop is being organized to explore potential applications of fuel cells in the transportation sector. The membrane research group is equipping to evaluate alcohol/water separation membranes and is also establishing cost estimation and energy utilization figures for use in alcohol plant design.

  17. Alcoholic Liver Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... may be increased in women because their digestive system may be less able to process alcohol, thus increasing the amount of alcohol reaching the liver. Genetic makeup Genetic makeup is thought to be involved because alcoholic liver disease often ...

  18. Alcohol Use Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Depression Screening Substance Abuse Screening Alcohol Use Screening Alcohol Use Screening (AUDIT-C) - Instructions The following questions ... this tool, there is also text-only version . Alcohol Use Screening (AUDIT-C) - Manual Instructions The following ...

  19. Alcohol Use Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... alcohol use disorder” or AUD. AUD is a chronic relapsing brain disease characterized by compulsive alcohol use, loss of control over alcohol intake, and a negative emotional state when not using. ...

  20. Neurobiological Basis of Alcohol Addiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milagros Lisset León Regal

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Alcoholism is a serious social problem due to its impact on individual and collective health. In order to provide an update on the latest findings that explain the development and symptoms of alcohol addiction, the short and long term changes that this disorder causes in the central nervous system are shown in this paper. A total of 52 information sources were consulted, including 43 journal articles, 4 books and statistical reports. The main network managers were used. The interaction of ethanol with various structures of the neuronal membrane affects the cytoarchitecture and brain function associated with the reward system, motor processing, learning and memory, resulting in the development of alcohol dependence. In addition, ethanol-induced changes in excitation/inhibition explain the phenomena of alcohol tolerance and withdrawal.

  1. Increased alcohol consumption as a cause of alcoholism, without similar evidence for depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wium-Andersen, Marie Kim; Orsted, David Dynnes; Tolstrup, Janne Schurmann

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Increased alcohol consumption has been associated with depression and alcoholism, but whether these associations are causal remains unclear. We tested whether alcohol consumption is causally associated with depression and alcoholism. METHODS: We included 78 154 men and women aged 20...... randomization design with antidepressant medication use and hospitalization/death, with depression and alcoholism as outcomes. RESULTS: In prospective analyses, the multifactorially adjusted hazard ratio for participants reporting >6 drinks/day vs participants reporting 0.1-1 drinks/day was 1.28 (95% confidence...... interval, 1.00-1.65) for prescription antidepressant use, with a corresponding hazard ratio of 0.80 (0.45-1.45) for hospitalization/death with depression and of 11.7 (8.77-15.6) for hospitalization/death with alcoholism. For hospitalization/death with alcoholism, instrumental variable analysis yielded...

  2. Alcohol advertising and youth: a measured approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jernigan, David H; Ostroff, Joshua; Ross, Craig

    2005-09-01

    Where alcohol industry self-regulation is the primary protection against youth exposure to alcohol advertising, independent, systematic monitoring of youth exposure can promote public awareness of and greater accountability in the industry's practices. Using commercially available databases, the Center on Alcohol Marketing and Youth has combined occurrence and audience data to calculate youth (aged 12-20 years) and adult (above the United States legal drinking age of 21 years) exposure to alcohol advertising on television and radio, in magazines and on the Internet. This research in the United States shows that alcohol companies have placed significant amounts of advertising where youth are more likely per capita to be exposed to it than adults. Further analyses by the Center have demonstrated that much of this excess exposure of youth to alcohol advertising in the United States could be eliminated if alcohol companies would adopt a threshold of 15% (roughly the proportion of 12-20-years-old in the population 12 and above) as the maximum youth audience composition for their advertising. Although adoption of such a threshold would still leave much youth exposure to alcohol marketing in such "unmeasured" activities as sponsorships, on-premise promotions and campus marketing, it would assist alcohol companies in reaching their intended audiences more efficiently while reducing overall youth exposure to their advertising.

  3. Energy drinks and alcohol: links to alcohol behaviors and consequences across 56 days.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick, Megan E; Maggs, Jennifer L

    2014-04-01

    To examine short-term consequences associated with consuming alcohol and energy drinks compared with consuming alcohol without energy drinks. A longitudinal measurement-burst design (14-day bursts of daily surveys in four consecutive college semesters) captured both within-person variation across occasions and between-person differences across individuals. The analytic sample of late adolescent alcohol users included 4,203 days with alcohol use across up to four semesters per person from 508 college students. Adding energy drink use to a given day with alcohol use was associated with an increase in number of alcoholic drinks, a trend toward more hours spent drinking, elevated estimated blood alcohol content (eBAC), a greater likelihood of subjective intoxication, and more negative consequences of drinking that day. After controlling for eBAC, energy drink use no longer predicted subjective intoxication but was still associated with a greater number of negative consequences. The consumption of energy drinks may lead to increases in alcohol consumption and, after controlling for eBAC, negative consequences. Use of energy drinks plus alcohol represents an emerging threat to public health. Copyright © 2014 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Alcohol Use and Alcohol-Related Seizures in Patients With Epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Hamerle

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This study aimed to assess alcohol consumption and the occurrence of alcohol-related seizures in patients with epilepsy within the last 12 months.Methods: In an epilepsy outpatient clinic, a standardized questionnaire was used to collect data retrospectively from consecutive adult epilepsy patients who had been suffering from the disease for at least 1 year. Logistic regression analyses were performed to identify independent predictors.Results: A total of 310 patients with epilepsy were included. Of these, 204 subjects (65.8% consumed alcohol within the last 12 months. Independent predictors for alcohol use were antiepileptic drug monotherapy (OR 1.901 and physicians' advice that a light alcohol intake is harmless (OR 4.102. Seizure worsening related to alcohol consumption was reported by 37 of the 204 patients (18.1% who had used alcohol. All 37 subjects had consumed large quantities of alcohol prior to the occurrence of alcohol-related seizures regardless of their usual alcohol-drinking behavior. The amount of alcohol intake prior to alcohol-related seizures was at least 7 standard drinks, which is equivalent to 1.4 L of beer or 0.7 L of wine. In 95% of cases, alcohol-related seizures occurred within 12 h after cessation of alcohol intake. Independent predictors for alcohol-related seizures were generalized genetic epilepsy (OR 5.792 and chronic heavier alcohol use (OR 8.955.Conclusions: Two-thirds of interviewed subjects had consumed alcohol within the last 12 months. This finding may be an underestimate due to patients' self-reporting and recall error. In all cases, the occurrence of alcohol related-seizures was associated with timely consumption of considerably large amounts of alcohol. Thus, a responsible alcohol intake seems to be safe for most patients with epilepsy. However, subjects with epilepsy and especially those with generalized genetic epilepsy should be made aware of an increased risk for seizures related to heavy

  5. Prejuízos neurocognitivos na dependência alcoólica: um estudo de caso Neurocognitive impairments in alcohol dependence: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Maria Tedeschi Vieira

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXTO: A alta prevalência de indivíduos dependentes de álcool estimula a realização de estudos que ampliem o entendimento de seus efeitos sobre o organismo. OBJETIVO: O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a preservação e prejuí­zo de funções neuropsicológicas em um caso de dependência alcoólica. Trata-se de estudo de caso de um alcoolista em tratamento medicamentoso no Hospital das Clínicas da Universidade de São Paulo, que declarava encontrar-se abstêmio desde o início do tratamento há cerca de um ano. MÉTODOS: Os instrumentos utilizados neste estudo foram entrevistas e testes neuropsicológicos (WAIS-III, Figura de Rey e WRAML-II. RESULTADOS: Os resultados das funções visuomotoras, praxia construtiva, memórias visual e verbal e capacidade de aprendizagem apresentaram graves prejuízos. O paciente teve um desempenho ligeiramente melhor, embora ainda rebaixado, em linguagem, aritmética e memória para sentenças curtas. A atenção imediata teve resultado dentro da normalidade, dado consistente com achados anteriores. O resultado no Subteste Semelhanças reforça evidências da capacidade de generalização em indivíduos dependentes de álcool. CONCLUSÃO: Conclui-se que os dados obtidos são consistentes com a literatura atual que apontam graves prejuízos na memória e funções visuomotoras paralelamente a manutenção da atenção e capacidade de generalização.BACKGROUND: The high prevalence of alcohol dependence asks for a better comprehension of its effects on the organism. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate prejudice and preservation of neuropsychological functions of alcohol dependence. It is presented a case report of a patient under drug treatment in Hospital das Clínicas da Universidade de São Paulo. The patient declared abstinence since the beginning of the treatment, about one year ago. METHODS: Interviews and neuropsycological tests (WAIS-III, Figure of Rey and WRAML-II. RESULTS: The

  6. Neighborhood Alcohol Outlet Density and Rates of Child Abuse and Neglect: Moderating Effects of Access to Substance Abuse Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, Cory M.; Simmel, Cassandra; Peterson, N. Andrew

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the relationship between concentrations of on- and off-premises alcohol outlets and rates of child abuse and neglect. Additionally, the study seeks to locate protective features of a neighborhood's built environment by investigating the potentially moderating role that access to substance abuse treatment and prevention services plays in the relationship between alcohol outlet density and child maltreatment. Using a cross-sectional design, this ecological study utilized data from 163 census tracts in Bergen County, New Jersey, on reports of child abuse and neglect, alcohol outlets, substance abuse treatment and prevention facilities, and the United States Census to investigate the linkages between socioeconomic structure, alcohol availability, and access to substance abuse service facilities on rates of child abuse and neglect. Findings indicate areas with a greater concentration of on-premises alcohol outlets (i.e., bars) had higher rates of child neglect, and those with easier access to substance abuse services had lower rates of neglect, controlling for neighborhood demographic and socioeconomic structure. Additionally, the relationship between on-premises alcohol outlet density and rates of child neglect was moderated by the presence of substance abuse service facilities. A greater concentration of off-premises outlets (i.e., liquor stores) was associated with lower rates of physical abuse. Findings suggest that the built environment and socioeconomic structure of neighborhoods have important consequences for child well-being. The implications for future research on the structural features of neighborhoods that are associated with child well-being are discussed. PMID:24529493

  7. Drug and alcohol task force

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gordey, T [ConocoPhillips Canada Resources Corp., Calgary, AB (Canada); Sunstrum, M [Enform, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    Worker absenteeism due to substance abuse costs the Alberta economy approximately $720 million a year. It is estimated that 20 per cent of all drivers in fatal crashes were using alcohol, and the use of cannabis and cocaine in Alberta has more than doubled over the last 15 years. In addition, 1 in 10 Alberta workers have reported using alcohol while at work and 4 per cent have reported using alcohol 4 hours prior to coming to work during the previous 12 months. In an effort to ensure appropriate health and safety for workers in the Canadian petroleum industry, 6 trade associations in the sector have joined together as the Enform Alcohol and Drug Initiative and are now working to develop a common approach to drug and alcohol guidelines and workplace rules. The task group will determine if existing policies and guidelines are sufficient to ensure a safe workplace and will consider standardizing the testing, application and rehabilitation of workers with respect to the use of drugs and alcohol. In the past, disciplinary actions have often been reversed because employers have not been consistent or did not follow established alcohol and drug policies or test to specific standards. Various work rules for inappropriate alcohol and drug use were reviewed, as well as education and communication strategies regarding policy content. Standards for testing criteria were discussed, as well as issues concerning duty-to-accommodate circumstances. An excerpt of concentration standards was presented. It was concluded that a matrix for companies to assess and determine safety sensitive positions is needed. refs., tabs., figs.

  8. Drug and alcohol task force

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gordey, T.; Sunstrum, M.

    2006-01-01

    Worker absenteeism due to substance abuse costs the Alberta economy approximately $720 million a year. It is estimated that 20 per cent of all drivers in fatal crashes were using alcohol, and the use of cannabis and cocaine in Alberta has more than doubled over the last 15 years. In addition, 1 in 10 Alberta workers have reported using alcohol while at work and 4 per cent have reported using alcohol 4 hours prior to coming to work during the previous 12 months. In an effort to ensure appropriate health and safety for workers in the Canadian petroleum industry, 6 trade associations in the sector have joined together as the Enform Alcohol and Drug Initiative and are now working to develop a common approach to drug and alcohol guidelines and workplace rules. The task group will determine if existing policies and guidelines are sufficient to ensure a safe workplace and will consider standardizing the testing, application and rehabilitation of workers with respect to the use of drugs and alcohol. In the past, disciplinary actions have often been reversed because employers have not been consistent or did not follow established alcohol and drug policies or test to specific standards. Various work rules for inappropriate alcohol and drug use were reviewed, as well as education and communication strategies regarding policy content. Standards for testing criteria were discussed, as well as issues concerning duty-to-accommodate circumstances. An excerpt of concentration standards was presented. It was concluded that a matrix for companies to assess and determine safety sensitive positions is needed. refs., tabs., figs

  9. The 2008-2009 recession and alcohol outcomes: differential exposure and vulnerability for Black and Latino populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zemore, Sarah E; Mulia, Nina; Jones-Webb, Rhonda J; Liu, Huiguo; Schmidt, Laura

    2013-01-01

    We examined whether race/ethnicity was related to exposure to acute economic losses in the 2008-2009 recession, even accounting for individual-level and geographic variables, and whether it influenced associations between economic losses and drinking patterns and problems. Data were from the 2010 National Alcohol Survey (N = 5,382). Surveys assessed both severe losses (i.e., job and housing loss) and moderate losses (i.e., reduced hours/pay and trouble paying the rent/mortgage) attributed to the 2008-2009 recession. Alcohol outcomes included total annual volume, monthly drunkenness, drinking consequences, and alcohol dependence (based on criteria from the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition). Compared with Whites, Blacks reported significantly greater exposure to job loss and trouble paying the rent/mortgage, and Latinos reported greater exposure to all economic losses. However, only Black-White differences were robust in multivariate analyses. Interaction tests suggested that associations between exposure to economic loss and alcohol problems were stronger among Blacks than Whites. Given severe (vs. no) loss, Blacks had about 13 times the odds of both two or more drinking consequences and alcohol dependence, whereas the corresponding odds ratios for Whites were less than 3. Conversely, associations between economic loss and alcohol outcomes were weak and ambiguous among Latinos. Results suggest greater exposure to economic loss for both Blacks and Latinos (vs. Whites) and that the Black population may be particularly vulnerable to the negative effects of economic hardship on the development and/or maintenance of alcohol problems. Findings extend the economic literature and signal policy makers and service providers that Blacks and Latinos may be at special risk during economic downturns.

  10. The impact of price policy on demand for alcohol in rural India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramanian, Arjunan; Kumar, Parmod

    2017-10-01

    Whether raising the price of addictive goods can reduce its burden is widely debated in many countries, largely due to lack of appropriate data and robust methods. Three key concerns frequently raised in the literature are: unobserved heterogeneity; omitted variables; identification problem. Addressing these concerns, using robust instrument and employing unique individual-level panel data from Indian Punjab, this paper investigates two related propositions (i) will increase in alcohol price reduce its burden (ii) since greater incomes raise the costs of inebriation, will higher incomes affect consumption of alcohol negatively. Distinct from previous studies, the key variable of interest is the budget share of alcohol that allows studying the burden of alcohol consumption on drinker's and also on other family members. Results presented show that an increase in alcohol price is likely to be regressive, especially on the bottom quartile, with a rise in the budget share of alcohol given budget constraint. This outcome is robust to different econometric specifications. Preliminary explorations suggest that higher per capita income increases the odds of quitting drinking. Results reported have wider implications for the effective design of addiction related health policies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Introduction to special issue 'Gender, Culture and Alcohol Problems: a Multi-national Study'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomfield, Kim; Gmel, Gerhard; Wilsnack, Sharon

    2006-01-01

    This paper provides an introduction to a series of articles reporting results from the EU concerted action "Gender, Culture and Alcohol Problems: A Multi-national Study" which examined differences in drinking among women and men in 13 European and two non-European countries. The gender gap in alcohol drinking is one of the few universal gender differences in human social behavior. However, the size of these differences varies greatly from one society to another. The papers in this issue examine, across countries, (1) men's and women's drinking patterns, (2) the prevalence of men's and women's experience of alcohol-related problems, (3) gender differences in social inequalities in alcohol use and abuse, (4) gender differences in the influence of combinations of social roles on heavy alcohol use, and (5) how societal-level factors predict women's and men's alcohol use and problems on a regional and global level. Country surveys were independently conducted and then centralized at one institution for further data standardization and processing. Several results indicated that the greater the societal gender equality in a country, the smaller the gender differences in drinking behavior. In most analyses the smallest gender differences in drinking behaviour were found in Nordic countries, followed by western and central European countries, with the largest gender differences in countries with developing economies.

  12. Perceived legitimacy of parental authority and tobacco and alcohol use during early adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Christine

    2002-11-01

    To assess the likelihood that young adolescents perceive that parents have legitimate authority regarding cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption; to test whether perceived parental authority predicts adolescents' use of tobacco and alcohol, and to test the association between parenting style and the legitimacy of parental authority regarding tobacco and alcohol. Survey data were obtained in 1997 from 1220 sixth and eighth grade adolescents enrolled in a central North Carolina school district. The sample comprised 72.3% of 1687 eligible students and 92.3% of 1321 students with parental consent; 83.8% of the sample was European-American and 16.2% African-American. Students completed self-report questionnaires administered in classrooms. Logistic regression models were used to test the study hypotheses. Adolescents were significantly more likely to legitimize parental authority regarding tobacco and alcohol than parental authority regarding conventional or contemporary issues. Failure to legitimize parental authority was associated with significantly greater odds of current smoking (OR = 4.06; p parental authority regarding tobacco and alcohol varied significantly by parenting style. The results discredit the myth that adolescents uniformly disregard parental values and rules regarding tobacco and alcohol. The results also showed that general parenting style covaried strongly with adolescents' perceptions of parental authority regarding substance use. Additional research is warranted to test for causal relations between general parenting style, adolescents' perceptions of parental authority regarding substance use, and adolescents' risk of substance use.

  13. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASDs): Alcohol Use Quiz

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Links to Other Websites About Us More CDC Alcohol Topics CDC Alcohol Portal Excessive Alcohol Use Binge ... of alcohol screening and counseling for all women Alcohol Use Quiz Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ...

  14. Caffeine dependence in combination with a family history of alcoholism as a predictor of continued use of caffeine during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svikis, Dace S; Berger, Nathan; Haug, Nancy A; Griffiths, Roland R

    2005-12-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine whether caffeine dependence and a family history of alcoholism are associated with continued use of caffeine during pregnancy. Forty-four women seeking obstetrical care in an office-based practice completed questionnaires and provided saliva samples at three prenatal visits occurring 2-3, 3-4, and 7 months postconception. On visit 1, the patients received the physician's instructions to stop using caffeine. Structured interviews were used to assign a diagnosis of caffeine dependence (lifetime) and to identify family history of alcoholism. Outcome measures included self-reported levels of caffeine use and saliva caffeine levels at the three prenatal visits. Although most women eliminated or substantially reduced their caffeine consumption between pregnancy awareness and prenatal visit 1, those with a lifetime diagnosis of caffeine dependence and a family history of alcoholism had higher levels of caffeine use and lower rates of abstinence throughout pregnancy. Saliva caffeine levels confirmed these effects. Withdrawal symptoms, functional impairment, and craving were cited as reasons they failed to eliminate or cut back on caffeine use. Fifty percent of the women with both a lifetime diagnosis of caffeine dependence and a family history of alcoholism continued to use caffeine in amounts (>300 mg/day) greater than those considered safe during pregnancy, compared to none of the women without caffeine dependence and a family history of alcoholism. Women with a lifetime diagnosis of caffeine dependence and a family history of alcoholism also reported higher rates of past cigarette smoking and problematic alcohol use. Caffeine-dependent women with a family history of alcoholism were not able to follow their physician's advice to reduce or eliminate caffeine consumption during pregnancy, despite their wanting to do so. This subgroup may require more intensive intervention to ensure caffeine abstinence and may be at greater risk for

  15. Self-reported hand hygiene practices, and feasibility and acceptability of alcohol-based hand rubs among village healthcare workers in Inner Mongolia, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y; Wang, Y; Yan, D; Rao, C Y

    2015-08-01

    Good hand hygiene is critical to reduce the risk of healthcare-associated infections. Limited data are available on hand hygiene practices from rural healthcare systems in China. To assess the feasibility and acceptability of sanitizing hands with alcohol-based hand rubs (ABHRs) among Chinese village healthcare workers, and to assess their hand hygiene practice. Five hundred bottles of ABHR were given to village healthcare workers in Inner Mongolia, China. Standardized questionnaires collected information on their work load, availability, and usage of hand hygiene facilities, and knowledge, attitudes, and practices of hand hygiene. In all, 369 (64.2%) participants completed the questionnaire. Although 84.5% of the ABHR recipients believed that receiving the ABHR improved their hand hygiene practice, 78.8% of recipients would pay no more than US$1.5 out of their own pocket (actual cost US$4). The majority (77.2%) who provided medical care at patients' homes never carried hand rubs with them outside their clinics. In general, self-reported hand hygiene compliance was suboptimal, and the lowest compliance was 'before touching a patient'. Reported top three complaints with using ABHR were skin irritation, splashing, and unpleasant residual. Village doctors with less experience practised less hand hygiene. The overall acceptance of ABHR among the village healthcare workers is high as long as it is provided to them for free/low cost, but their overall hand hygiene practice is suboptimal. Hand hygiene education and training is needed in settings outside of traditional healthcare facilities. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Relationship between bone mineral density and alcohol intake: A nationwide health survey analysis of postmenopausal women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hae-Dong Jang

    Full Text Available Among a variety of relevant factors of osteoporosis, the association between alcohol intake and postmenopausal women's bone mineral density (BMD by using data from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey was evaluated in this study.Among a total of 31,596 subjects, males, premenopausal women, participants without BMD data were excluded. Finally, a total number of subjects in the study was 3,312. The frequency and amount of alcohol intake were determined by self-reported questionnaires, and BMD was measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry.Mean femoral BMD for light drinkers was statistically significantly greater than that for heavy drinkers and non-drinkers. We observed the characteristic trends for BMD by drinking frequency; the mean BMD gradually increased from non-drinkers to the participants who drank 2-3 times per week; these participants exhibited the highest BMD. Participants who drank alcohol greater than 4 times per week showed a lower BMD. In the risk factor analysis, the adjusted odds ratio for osteoporosis (at femoral neck was 1.68 in non-drinkers and 1.70 in heavy drinkers compared with light drinkers.Light alcohol intake (2-3 times per week and 1-2 or 5-6 glasses per occasion in South Korean postmenopausal women was related to high femoral BMD. Non-drinkers and heavy drinkers had approximately a 1.7-times greater risk for osteoporosis than light drinkers.

  17. Genetic influences on alcohol use behaviors have diverging developmental trajectories: a prospective study among male and female twins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyers, Jacquelyn L; Salvatore, Jessica E; Vuoksimaa, Eero; Korhonen, Tellervo; Pulkkinen, Lea; Rose, Richard J; Kaprio, Jaakko; Dick, Danielle M

    2014-11-01

    Both alcohol-specific genetic factors and genetic factors related to externalizing behavior influence problematic alcohol use. Little is known, however, about the etiologic role of these 2 components of genetic risk on alcohol-related behaviors across development. Prior studies conducted in a male cohort of twins suggest that externalizing genetic factors are important for predicting heavy alcohol use in adolescence, whereas alcohol-specific genetic factors increase in importance during the transition to adulthood. In this report, we studied twin brothers and sisters and brother-sister twin pairs to examine such developmental trajectories and investigate whether sex and cotwin sex effects modify these genetic influences. We used prospective, longitudinal twin data collected between ages 12 and 22 within the population-based FinnTwin12 cohort study (analytic n = 1,864). Our dependent measures of alcohol use behaviors included alcohol initiation (age 12), intoxication frequency (ages 14 and 17), and alcohol dependence criteria (age 22). Each individual's genetic risk of alcohol use disorders (AUD-GR) was indexed by his/her parents' and cotwin's DSM-IV Alcohol Dependence (AD) criterion counts. Likewise, each individual's genetic risk of externalizing disorders (EXT-GR) was indexed with a composite measure of parents' and cotwin's DSM-IV Conduct Disorder and Antisocial Personality Disorder criterion counts. EXT-GR was most strongly related to alcohol use behaviors during adolescence, while AUD-GR was most strongly related to alcohol problems in young adulthood. Further, sex of the twin and sex of the cotwin significantly moderated the associations between genetic risk and alcohol use behaviors across development: AUD-GR influenced early adolescent alcohol use behaviors in females more than in males, and EXT-GR influenced age 22 AD more in males than in females. In addition, the associations of AUD-GR and EXT-GR with intoxication frequency were greater among 14- and

  18. Alcohol Misuse and Multiple Sexual Partners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahrzad Bazargan-Hejazi, PhD

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: We examine the association between self-reported alcohol misuse and alcohol usewithin 2 hours of having sex and the number of sexual partners among a sample of African-Americanand Latino emergency department (ED patients.Methods: Cross-sectional data were collected prospectively from a randomized sample of all EDpatients during a 5-week period. In face-to-face interviews, subjects were asked to report their alcoholuse and number of sexual partners in the past 12 months. Data were analyzed using multiple variablenegative binomial regression models, and effect modification was assessed through inclusion ofinteraction terms.Results: The 395 study participants reported an average of 1.4 (standard error¼0.11 sexual partnersin the past 12 months, 23% reported misusing alcohol, and 28% reported consuming alcohol beforesex. There was no statistically significant association between alcohol misuse and the number ofsexual partners; however, alcohol before sex was associated with a larger number of sexual partners inthe past year. Moreover, among those who misused alcohol, participants who reported alcohol beforesex were 3 times more likely to report a higher number of sexual partners (risk ratio¼3.2; confidenceinterval [CI]¼1.9–5.6. The association between alcohol use before sex and number of sexual partnersis dependent upon whether a person has attributes of harmful drinking over the past 12 months.Overall, alcohol use before sex increases the number of sexual partners, but the magnitude of thiseffect is significantly increased among alcohol misusers.Conclusion: Alcohol misusers and those who reported having more than 1 sexual partner were morelikely to cluster in the same group, ie, those who used alcohol before sex. Efforts to reduce the burdenof sexually transmitted diseases, including human immunodeficiency virus, and other consequences ofrisky sexual behavior in the ED population should be cognizant of the interplay of alcohol and

  19. Propensity for obtaining alcohol through shoulder tapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toomey, Traci L; Fabian, Lindsey E A; Erickson, Darin J; Lenk, Kathleen M

    2007-07-01

    Underage youth often obtain alcohol from adults who illegally provide the alcohol. One method for obtaining alcohol from adults is shoulder tapping, where youth approach an adult outside an alcohol establishment and ask the adult to purchase alcohol for them. The goal of this study was to assess what percentage of the general and youth-targeted adult population approached outside of a convenience/liquor store will agree to purchase and then provide alcohol to individuals who appear under age 21. We conducted 2 waves of pseudo-underage shoulder tap request attempts, using requesters who were age 21 or older but appeared 18 to 20 years old. In both waves, requests were conducted at randomly selected liquor and convenience stores, requesters explained that the reason they were asking the adult was because they did not have their identification with them, and requesters asked the adults to purchase a 6-pack of beer. During wave 1, we conducted 102 attempts, with the requester approaching the first adult entering the store alone. During wave 2, we conducted 102 attempts where the requester approached the first casually dressed male entering the store alone who appeared to be 21 to 30 years old. During wave 1, 8% of the general sample of approached adults provided alcohol to the pseudo-underage requesters. The odds of adults providing alcohol in urban areas were 9.4 times greater than in suburban areas. During wave 2, 19% of the approached young men provided alcohol to the requesters. No requester, request attempt, establishment, or community characteristics were associated with request attempt outcomes during wave 2. A small percentage of the general population of adults will agree to provide alcohol to underage youth when approached outside an alcohol establishment. The likelihood of underage youth obtaining alcohol through shoulder tapping increases substantially if the youth approach young men.

  20. A review of factors associated with greater likelihood of suicide attempts and suicide deaths in bipolar disorder: Part II of a report of the International Society for Bipolar Disorders Task Force on Suicide in Bipolar Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaffer, Ayal; Isometsä, Erkki T; Azorin, Jean-Michel; Cassidy, Frederick; Goldstein, Tina; Rihmer, Zoltán; Sinyor, Mark; Tondo, Leonardo; Moreno, Doris H; Turecki, Gustavo; Reis, Catherine; Kessing, Lars Vedel; Ha, Kyooseob; Weizman, Abraham; Beautrais, Annette; Chou, Yuan-Hwa; Diazgranados, Nancy; Levitt, Anthony J; Zarate, Carlos A; Yatham, Lakshmi

    2015-11-01

    Many factors influence the likelihood of suicide attempts or deaths in persons with bipolar disorder. One key aim of the International Society for Bipolar Disorders Task Force on Suicide was to summarize the available literature on the presence and magnitude of effect of these factors. A systematic review of studies published from 1 January 1980 to 30 May 2014 identified using keywords 'bipolar disorder' and 'suicide attempts or suicide'. This specific paper examined all reports on factors putatively associated with suicide attempts or suicide deaths in bipolar disorder samples. Factors were subcategorized into: (1) sociodemographics, (2) clinical characteristics of bipolar disorder, (3) comorbidities, and (4) other clinical variables. We identified 141 studies that examined how 20 specific factors influenced the likelihood of suicide attempts or deaths. While the level of evidence and degree of confluence varied across factors, there was at least one study that found an effect for each of the following factors: sex, age, race, marital status, religious affiliation, age of illness onset, duration of illness, bipolar disorder subtype, polarity of first episode, polarity of current/recent episode, predominant polarity, mood episode characteristics, psychosis, psychiatric comorbidity, personality characteristics, sexual dysfunction, first-degree family history of suicide or mood disorders, past suicide attempts, early life trauma, and psychosocial precipitants. There is a wealth of data on factors that influence the likelihood of suicide attempts and suicide deaths in people with bipolar disorder. Given the heterogeneity of study samples and designs, further research is needed to replicate and determine the magnitude of effect of most of these factors. This approach can ultimately lead to enhanced risk stratification for patients with bipolar disorder. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2015.

  1. A review of factors associated with greater likelihood of suicide attempts and suicide deaths in bipolar disorder: Part II of a report of the International Society for Bipolar Disorders Task Force on Suicide in Bipolar Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaffer, Ayal; Isometsä, Erkki T; Azorin, Jean-Michel; Cassidy, Frederick; Goldstein, Tina; Rihmer, Zoltán; Sinyor, Mark; Tondo, Leonardo; Moreno, Doris H; Turecki, Gustavo; Reis, Catherine; Kessing, Lars Vedel; Ha, Kyooseob; Weizman, Abraham; Beautrais, Annette; Chou, Yuan-Hwa; Diazgranados, Nancy; Levitt, Anthony J; Zarate, Carlos A; Yatham, Lakshmi

    2018-01-01

    Objectives Many factors influence the likelihood of suicide attempts or deaths in persons with bipolar disorder. One key aim of the International Society for Bipolar Disorders Task Force on Suicide was to summarize the available literature on the presence and magnitude of effect of these factors. Methods A systematic review of studies published from 1 January 1980 to 30 May 2014 identified using keywords ‘bipolar disorder’ and ‘suicide attempts or suicide’. This specific paper examined all reports on factors putatively associated with suicide attempts or suicide deaths in bipolar disorder samples. Factors were subcategorized into: (1) sociodemographics, (2) clinical characteristics of bipolar disorder, (3) comorbidities, and (4) other clinical variables. Results We identified 141 studies that examined how 20 specific factors influenced the likelihood of suicide attempts or deaths. While the level of evidence and degree of confluence varied across factors, there was at least one study that found an effect for each of the following factors: sex, age, race, marital status, religious affiliation, age of illness onset, duration of illness, bipolar disorder subtype, polarity of first episode, polarity of current/recent episode, predominant polarity, mood episode characteristics, psychosis, psychiatric comorbidity, personality characteristics, sexual dysfunction, first-degree family history of suicide or mood disorders, past suicide attempts, early life trauma, and psychosocial precipitants. Conclusion There is a wealth of data on factors that influence the likelihood of suicide attempts and suicide deaths in people with bipolar disorder. Given the heterogeneity of study samples and designs, further research is needed to replicate and determine the magnitude of effect of most of these factors. This approach can ultimately lead to enhanced risk stratification for patients with bipolar disorder. PMID:26175498

  2. Concurrent and Simultaneous Drug and Alcohol Use: Results of the 2000 National Alcohol Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Midanik, Lorraine T.; Tam, Tammy W.; Weisner, Constance

    2007-01-01

    This study estimates the prevalence, assesses predictors and evaluates factors associated with concurrent and simultaneous use of drugs and alcohol in the United States population. Using data from the 2000 National Alcohol Survey (n = 7,612), respondents were asked if they used specific drugs in the last 12 months. Current drinkers who reported using each type of drug were asked if they used alcohol and the drug at the same time. Approximately 10% reported using marijuana in the last 12 month...

  3. If you're high status and you know it: Teasing apart the within- and between-person effects of peer- and self-reported status in the drinking group on alcohol-related outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumas, Tara M; Davis, Jordan P; Merrin, Gabriel J; Puccia, Maria; Blustein, Dayna

    2018-05-01

    In this longitudinal study, we disentangled within- and between-persons effects in the relationship between university students' status in their drinking group and alcohol-related behavior. We further examined the role of self-perceived and peer-reported status, with the hypothesis that only when students' peers reported them as of a higher status, and they were aware of their high status (via self-report), would they experience increased heavy episodic drinking (HED). University students (N = 118; Mage = 19.40, SD = 1.49; 60.2% women) were recruited in their natural drinking groups (N = 27). All group members completed surveys at 3 time points during the school year, each 2 months apart. We fitted a taxonomy of multilevel growth curve models predicting students' self-reported HED and the extent to which they encouraged other group members to consume alcohol (peer-reported). Between-persons results demonstrated that students who reported higher status compared to their group members experienced more HED on average and students who were peer-reported as of a higher status relative to their group members played a more salient role in encouraging others to drink. Notably, and consistent with hypotheses, a within-person interaction revealed that at time points when students were higher in peer-reported status relative to their average, and they were aware of their increase in status (via self-reports), they also engaged in more HED. Results emphasize the importance of considering within-person effects and highlight the need for university alcohol-prevention programming to focus on students' status-related motives and concerns. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. School commitment and alcohol use: The moderating role of race and ethnicity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamela McNulty Eitle

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Research indicates that lower levels of school commitment may be one potential outcome of policy initiatives such as high-stakes testing and exit exams. Such outcomes may lead these policy initiatives to have unintended consequences for students, particularly racial or ethnic minority students. This study examines whether race or ethnicity moderate the relationship between school commitment and alcohol use or binge drinking among a sample of Florida public middle and high-school students who were surveyed as part of the 2002 Florida Youth Substance Abuse Survey. Low school commitment was found to be associated with a greater likelihood of alcohol use in the past 30 days and a greater likelihood of binge drinking during the past two weeks for Black, Hispanic, and White students. Both the higher average levels of school commitment among Black and Hispanic than among white students and the greater association between low school commitment and the two alcohol use outcomes for Black and Hispanic students compared to White students account for some of the difference in alcohol use and binge drinking among the different groups.


    1 Financial assistance for this study was provided by the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (grant number R01 AA13167 and the National Institute of Drug Abuse (grant number R01 DA018645-01A1. We gratefully acknowledge Michael French and members of the Health Economics Research Group (HERG for their research suggestions and William Russell for editorial assistance. The authors are entirely responsible for the research and results reported in this paper, and their position or opinions do not necessarily represent those of NIAAA or NIDA.

  5. Alcohol use behaviors among pharmacy students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Wesley; McGuffey, Grant; Westrick, Salisa C; Jungnickel, Paul W; Correia, Christopher J

    2014-03-12

    To identify reasons for drinking, determine the patterns of alcohol abuse, and explore relationships between drinking motives and alcohol abuse patterns in pharmacy students. A cross-sectional anonymous, voluntary, self-administered paper survey instrument was administered to first-year (P1) through third-year (P3) pharmacy students as part of a professional seminar. Survey instruments were completed by 349 pharmacy students (95.9% cooperation rate). Using the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test criteria, 23.2% of students reported hazardous or harmful use and 67.2% of students reported consuming alcohol at hazardous levels during the past year. Students who were male (37.0%), single (25.3%), and attended the main campus (26.2%) were more likely than their counterparts to report hazardous or harmful alcohol use. Pharmacy students reported social motives as the most common reason for drinking; however, coping and enhancement motives were more predictive of harmful or hazardous alcohol use. Approximately 1 in 4 pharmacy students (23%) reported hazardous or harmful alcohol use. Education about the dangers of alcohol abuse and intervention programs from colleges and schools of pharmacy are recommended to help address this issue.

  6. Greater trochanteric pain syndrome diagnosis and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallow, Michael; Nazarian, Levon N

    2014-05-01

    Lateral hip pain, or greater trochanteric pain syndrome, is a commonly seen condition; in this article, the relevant anatomy, epidemiology, and evaluation strategies of greater trochanteric pain syndrome are reviewed. Specific attention is focused on imaging of this syndrome and treatment techniques, including ultrasound-guided interventions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Contingency management for alcohol use reduction: a pilot study using a transdermal alcohol sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Nancy P; Tidey, Jennifer; Murphy, James G; Swift, Robert; Colby, Suzanne M

    2011-11-01

    Contingency management (CM) has not been thoroughly evaluated as a treatment for alcohol abuse or dependence, in part because verification of alcohol use reduction requires frequent in-person breath tests. Transdermal alcohol sensors detect alcohol regularly throughout the day, providing remote monitoring and allowing for rapid reinforcement of reductions in use. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of CM for reduction in alcohol use, using a transdermal alcohol sensor to provide a continuous measure of alcohol use. Participants were 13 heavy drinking adults who wore the Secure Continuous Remote Alcohol Monitoring (SCRAM) bracelet for three weeks and provided reports of alcohol and drug use using daily web-based surveys. In Week 1, participants were asked to drink as usual; in Weeks 2 and 3, they were reinforced on an escalating schedule with values ranging from $5 to $17 per day on days when alcohol use was not reported or detected by the SCRAM. Self-reports of percent days abstinent and drinks per week, and transdermal measures of average and peak transdermal alcohol concentration and area under the curve declined significantly in Weeks 2-3. A nonsignificant but large effect size for reduction in days of tobacco use also was found. An adjustment to the SCRAM criteria for detecting alcohol use provided an accurate but less conservative method for use with non-mandated clients. Results support the efficacy of CM for alcohol use reductions and the feasibility of using transdermal monitoring of alcohol use for clinical purposes. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Contingency Management for Alcohol Use Reduction: A Pilot Study using a Transdermal Alcohol Sensor*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Nancy P.; Tidey, Jennifer; Murphy, James G.; Swift, Robert; Colby, Suzanne M.

    2011-01-01

    Background Contingency management (CM) has not been thoroughly evaluated as a treatment for alcohol abuse or dependence, in part because verification of alcohol use reduction requires frequent in-person breath tests. Transdermal alcohol sensors detect alcohol regularly throughout the day, providing remote monitoring and allowing for rapid reinforcement of reductions in use. Methods The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of CM for reduction in alcohol use, using a transdermal alcohol sensor to provide a continuous measure of alcohol use. Participants were 13 heavy drinking adults who wore the Secure Continuous Remote Alcohol Monitoring (SCRAM) bracelet for three weeks and provided reports of alcohol and drug use using daily web-based surveys. In Week 1, participants were asked to drink as usual; in Weeks 2 and 3, they were reinforced on an escalating schedule with values ranging from $5-$17 per day on days when alcohol use was not reported or detected by the SCRAM. Results Self-reports of percent days abstinent and drinks per week, and transdermal measures of average and peak transdermal alcohol concentration and area under the curve declined significantly in Weeks 2-3. A nonsignificant but large effect size for reduction in days of tobacco use also was found. An adjustment to the SCRAM criteria for detecting alcohol use provided an accurate but less conservative method for use with non-mandated clients. Conclusion Results support the efficacy of CM for alcohol use reductions and the feasibility of using transdermal monitoring of alcohol use for clinical purposes. PMID:21665385

  9. The economical production of alcohol fuels from coal-derived synthesis gas. Quarterly technical progress report Number 8, 1 July, 1993--30 September, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-10-01

    Task 1, the preparation of catalyst materials, is proceeding actively. At WVU, catalysts based on Mo are being prepared using a variety of approaches to alter the oxidation state and environment of the Mo. At UCC and P, copper-based zinc chromite spinel catalysts will be prepared and tested. The modeling of the alcohol-synthesis reaction in a membrane reactor is proceeding actively. Under standard conditions, pressure drop in the membrane reactor has been shown to be negligible. In Task 2, base case designs had previously been completed with a Texaco gasifier. Now, similar designs have been completed using the Shell gasifier. A comparison of the payback periods or production cost of these plants shows significant differences among the base cases. However, a natural gas only design, prepared for comparison purposes, gives a lower payback period or production cost. Since the alcohol synthesis portion of the above processes is the same, the best way to make coal-derived higher alcohols more attractive economically than natural gas-derived higher alcohols is by making coal-derived syngas less expensive than natural gas-derived syngas. The maximum economically feasible capacity for a higher alcohol plant from coal-derived syngas appears to be 32 MM bbl/yr. This is based on consideration of regional coal supply in the eastern US, coal transportation, and regional product demand. The benefits of economics of scale are illustrated for the base case designs. A value for higher alcohol blends has been determined by appropriate combination of RVP, octane number, and oxygen content, using MTBE as a reference. This analysis suggests that the high RVP of methanol in combination with its higher water solubility make higher alcohols more valuable than methanol.

  10. A visual test based on a freeware software for quantifying and displaying night-vision disturbances: study in subjects after alcohol consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, José J; Ortiz, Carolina; Pozo, Antonio M; Anera, Rosario G; Soler, Margarita

    2014-05-07

    In this work, we propose the Halo test, a simple visual test based on a freeware software for quantifying and displaying night-vision disturbances perceived by subjects under different experimental conditions, more precisely studying the influence of the alcohol consumption on visual function. In the Halo test, viewed on a monitor, the subject's task consists of detecting luminous peripheral stimuli around a central high-luminance stimulus over a dark background. The test, performed by subjects before and after consuming alcoholic drinks, which deteriorate visual performance, evaluates the influence that alcohol consumption exerts on the visual-discrimination capacity under low illumination conditions. Measurements were made monocularly and binocularly. Pupil size was also measured in both conditions (pre/post). Additionally, we used a double-pass device to measure objectively the optical-quality of the eye and corroborate the results from the Halo test. We found a significant deterioration of the discrimination capacity after alcohol consumption, indicating that the higher the breath-alcohol content, the greater the deterioration of the visual-discrimination capacity. After alcohol intake, the graphical results showed a greater area of undetected peripheral stimuli around the central high-luminance stimulus. An enlargement of the pupil was also observed and the optical quality of the eye was deteriorated after alcohol consumption. A greater influence of halos and other night-vision disturbances were reported with the Halo test after alcohol consumption. The Halo freeware software constitutes a positive contribution for evaluating nighttime visual performance in clinical applications, such as reported here, but also in patients after refractive surgery (where halos are present) or for monitoring (time course) some ocular pathologies under pharmacological treatment.

  11. Fetal alcohol syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a baby when a mother drinks alcohol during pregnancy. Causes Using alcohol during pregnancy can cause the same risks as using alcohol in general. But it poses extra risks to the unborn baby. When a pregnant woman drinks ... use during pregnancy. Larger amounts of alcohol appear to increase the ...

  12. Turning to alcohol?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reiboro, S.K.

    1998-01-01

    Brazil is examining whether turning to alcohol could solve its problems. The fuel alcohol producers are lobbying hard for the government to increase the use of alcohol to fuel the country's cars. Not only does using alcohol reduce CO 2 , runs the argument, but the Kyoto agreement might just attract international financing for the project. (author)

  13. Clearinghouse: alcohol and poppers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-03-01

    Ten articles from magazines and journals are referenced on the subjects of alcohol and poppers. Topics include alcohol consumption and HIV/AIDS-related risky sexual behavior, alcohol and drug abuse, and self-esteem, gender, and alcohol use. Contact information is provided.

  14. Children of Alcoholics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krois, Deborah Helen

    Although alcoholism has long been considered a serious problem, the impact of parental alcoholism on children has only recently begun to receive attention from researchers and clinicians. A review of the empirical literature on children of alcoholics was conducted and it was concluded that children raised in an alcoholic family are at increased…

  15. Fetal Alcohol Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... categories: 4 » Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) » Partial FAS (pFAS) » Alcohol-Related Neurodevelopmental Disorder (ARND) » Alcohol-Related Birth ... either prenatally, after birth, or both Partial FAS (pFAS) Partial FAS (pFAS) involves prenatal alcohol exposure, and ...

  16. Alcohol consumption and Helicobacter pylori infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brenner, H; Berg, Gabriele; Lappus, N

    1999-01-01

    Alcohol has strong antimicrobial activity and stimulates gastric acid secretion. Alcohol consumption may therefore compromise the living conditions of Helicobacter pylori in the stomach. We assessed the relation of alcohol consumption with H. pylori infection among 1,785 participants ages 18...... prevalence of H. pylori infection was 39.2%. There was a clear inverse dose-response-relation between reported alcohol consumption and H. pylori infection. The relation persisted after control for potential confounding factors. The adjusted prevalence ratios (95% confidence intervals) for H. pylori infection...... among persons who consumed up to 10, 10 to 20, and more than 20 gm of alcohol per day compared with non-drinkers were 0.93 (0.77-1.13), 0.82 (0.65-1.04), and 0.71 (0.55-0.92). The inverse relation between alcohol consumption and H. pylori infection was even stronger when individuals with an indication...

  17. Alcohol misuse, depressive symptoms, and HIV/STI risks of US Hispanic women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCabe, Brian E; Schaefer Solle, Natasha; Peragallo Montano, Nilda; Mitrani, Victoria B

    2017-10-01

    Alcohol misuse and depressive symptoms have been linked to HIV/STI risk, but studies have rarely included Hispanic women, who have over four times greater HIV incidence than white, non-Hispanic women. Understanding the connections among alcohol misuse, depressive symptoms, and HIV/STI risks may suggest ways to meet specific needs of Hispanic women. This study's objective is to examine the relationships among alcohol misuse, depressive symptoms, and seven HIV/STI risk factors. Five hundred forty-eight US Hispanic women with intake data from a randomized trial were assessed for alcohol misuse (CAGE) and depressive symptoms (CES-D). GZLM and path analyses tested relationships between alcohol misuse or depressive symptoms and HIV/STI risk factors. Self-efficacy and condom use were not related to alcohol misuse or depressive symptoms, but only 15% of women reported consistent condom use. After controlling for demographics, women with alcohol misuse had significantly more perceived HIV/STI risk (OR = 2.15) and better HIV/STI knowledge (β = -.54); and women with depressive symptoms had significantly more perceived HIV/STI risk (OR = 1.76) and worse HIV/STI knowledge (β = .37). Interventions to increase condom use for Hispanic women are needed, regardless of mental disorders. Working with Hispanic women with alcohol misuse or depressive symptoms presents a need (and opportunity) to address issues directly related to HIV/STI risk. Women's health practitioners have an excellent opportunity to reach women by implementing regular screening programs in clinics that serve Hispanic women. For women with high depressive symptoms, poor HIV/STI knowledge should also be addressed. Future studies should test whether integrated and tailored risk reduction interventions affect these factors and lower HIV/STI risk for Hispanic women.

  18. Local Support for Alcohol Control Policies and Perceptions of Neighborhood Issues in Two College Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairlie, Anne M; DeJong, William; Wood, Mark D

    2015-01-01

    Although valuable, national opinion surveys on alcohol policy may be less informative for policy development at the local level. Using samples of adult residents in 2 college communities, the present study: (1) measured public support for local alcohol control policies to stem underage drinking and alcohol overservice in on-premise outlets, (2) assessed residents' opinions regarding neighborhood problems, and (3) identified factors associated with strong policy support. We administered random-sample telephone surveys to residents aged 21 years and older in college communities located in Community 1 (N = 501; mean age = 57.4 years, SD = 14.7) and Community 2 (N = 505; mean age = 56.0 years, SD = 15.2). The response rates were typical of telephone surveys (Community 1: 33.5%; Community 2: 29.9%). We assessed support for 16 alcohol control policies and the occurrence of specific types of neighborhood incidents (e.g., witnessing intoxicated people). We used multiple regression analyses to determine factors associated with policy support. Residents in Community 1 reported significantly higher weekly alcohol use, a greater number of witnessed neighborhood incidents, and a higher level of perceived neighborhood problems than did residents in Community 2. Residents in Community 1 perceived local alcohol control policies and their enforcement to be significantly stricter. Overall, policy support was high and did not differ between the communities. In both communities, higher policy support was significantly associated with being female, being older, less weekly alcohol use, and lower perceived strictness of alcohol control policies and enforcement. It is important for campus officials and community leaders to be aware of and publicize favorable public opinion when advocating for policy change, especially at the local level. Information on residents' perceptions of the neighborhood issues they face can also inform local policy and enforcement efforts.

  19. Craving as a DSM-5 Symptom of Alcohol Use Disorder in Non-Treatment Seekers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartwell, Emily E; Ray, Lara A

    2018-05-01

    DSM-5 has added craving as a new criterion and changed the diagnostic structure of alcohol use disorder (AUD). Though craving has long been a target of intervention, less is known about the impact this addition will have on prevalence and factor structure of AUD, particularly in non-treatment seeker with alcohol problems. Non-treatment seeking individuals reporting alcohol-related problems (N = 296) completed a structured clinical interview and the Penn Alcohol Craving Scale (PACS). PACS scores greater than 20 were considered to meet diagnostic criteria for the alcohol craving symptom. This study examined DSM-IV to DSM-5 diagnostic conversion and conducted an exploratory factor analysis to test the factor structure of the DSM-5 symptoms, including craving. The mean PACS score was 13.1 and alcohol craving was strongly correlated with other measures of alcohol use. Using the proposed cut-off score of PACS > 20, 46 participants (16.2%) met criteria for alcohol craving. Craving loaded moderately (0.47) onto the retained DSM symptoms and produced a unidimensional factor structure. The majority of participants who met for a DSM-IV AUD also met for a DSM-5 AUD (98.8%). Craving prevalence using the PACS was relatively low compared to the remaining 10 DSM-5 symptoms, possibly due to the non-treatment seeking nature of the sample. Conversion of DSM-IV to DSM-5 in this sample led to a small increase in overall AUD prevalence. Craving loaded well onto a single factor structure for AUD.

  20. Alcohol Consumption and Health among Elders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balsa, Ana I.; Homer, Jenny F.; Fleming, Michael F.; French, Michael T.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This article estimates the effects of alcohol consumption on self-reported overall health status, injuries, heart problems, emergency room use, and hospitalizations among persons older than the age of 65. Design and Methods: We analyzed data from the first wave of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions, a…

  1. Alcohol and Breastfeeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haastrup, Maija Bruun; Pottegård, Anton; Damkier, Per

    2014-01-01

    While the harmful effects of alcohol during pregnancy are well-established, the consequences of alcohol intake during lactation have been far less examined. We reviewed available data on the prevalence of alcohol intake during lactation, the influence of alcohol on breastfeeding......, the pharmacokinetics of alcohol in lactating women and nursing infants and the effects of alcohol intake on nursing infants. A systematic search was performed in PubMed from origin to May 2013, and 41 publications were included in the review. Approximately half of all lactating women in Western countries consume...... alcohol while breastfeeding. Alcohol intake inhibits the milk ejection reflex, causing a temporary decrease in milk yield. The alcohol concentrations in breast milk closely resemble those in maternal blood. The amount of alcohol presented to nursing infants through breast milk is approximately 5...

  2. Exploring the relationships among food insecurity, alcohol use, and sexual risk taking among men and women living in South African townships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, Lisa A; Cain, Demetria N; Pitpitan, Eileen V; Carey, Kate B; Carey, Michael P; Mehlomakulu, Vuyelwa; Simbayi, Leickness C; Mwaba, Kelvin; Kalichman, Seth C

    2014-08-01

    South African townships have among the highest rates of HIV infection in the world. Considerable research on understanding the high rates of HIV transmission in this country has identified alcohol use as a critical factor in driving the HIV epidemic. Although the relationship between alcohol use and sexual risk-taking is well documented, less is known about how other factors, such as food insecurity, might be important in understanding alcohol's role in sexual risk-taking. Furthermore, prior research has highlighted how patterns of alcohol use and sexual risk-taking tend to vary by gender. We examined how food insecurity is related to both alcohol use and sexual risk-taking. We administered anonymous community surveys to men (n = 1,137) and women (n = 458) residing within four contiguous Black African townships outside of Cape Town, South Africa. In multivariate linear regression, we found that food insecurity was related to having higher numbers of male sex partners and condom-protected sex acts among women only. These relationships, however, were fully mediated by women's alcohol use. Among men, we found that food insecurity was negatively related to unprotected sex; that is, men with greater food security reported more unprotected sex acts. Unlike the results found among women, this relationship was not mediated by alcohol use. Food insecurity appears to be an important factor in understanding patterns of sexual risk-taking in regards to gender and alcohol use, and may serve as an important point of intervention for reducing HIV transmission rates.

  3. Ethnic Differences in Drinking Motives and Alcohol Use among College Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doumas, Diana M.; Midgett, Aida

    2015-01-01

    This study examined drinking motives, alcohol use, and alcohol-related problems among White college athletes and college athletes of color (N = 113). Results indicated no differences in drinking motives between the 2 groups. White athletes reported higher levels of alcohol use, whereas athletes of color reported higher levels of alcohol-related…

  4. [Alcohol dependence in homeless men. Incidence, development and determinants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufeu, P; Podschus, J; Schmidt, L G

    1996-11-01

    Against the background of the complex relationship of alcoholism and homelessness, we investigated the question of whether homeless alcoholics and those with homes differed regarding biographical and clinical variables. Therefore, 49 of 72 (68.1%) homeless male visitors to a city kitchen in the center of Berlin, who had fulfilled the ICD-10 criteria for the alcohol-dependence syndrome, were compared with 141 outpatients of the addiction research unit of the Department of Psychiatry of the Free University of Berlin. It was found that homeless alcoholics had more psychosocial disadvantages than other alcoholics. They had been raised more frequently in families with an alcoholic father or mother and a higher number of children. The level of education and job qualification was lower in the homeless alcoholics. Early homelessness was predicted by a lack of sexual behavior (no partnership experienced) and a family history of alcoholism. In the interview, homeless alcoholics reported fewer symptoms of alcohol-dependence syndrome than other alcoholics; however, the first symptoms had been experienced earlier. Alcohol-related somatic and psychological consequences were reported more frequently in alcoholics with homes, whereas social problems were more common in the homeless subjects. The results are discussed in the light of methodological limitations and other reports on the topic.

  5. Alcohol outlet densities and alcohol price: the British Columbia experiment in the partial privatization of alcohol sales off-premise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treno, Andrew J; Ponicki, William R; Stockwell, Tim; Macdonald, Scott; Gruenewald, Paul J; Zhao, Jinhui; Martin, Gina; Greer, Alissa

    2013-05-01

    Alcohol beverage prices or taxes have been shown to be related to alcohol sales and use and related problems. What is not clear are the mechanisms underlying these relationships. This study examines the relationship between alcohol outlet density under conditions of the partial privatization of off-premise consumption in British Columbia (BC) occurring over the past decade. Two hypotheses are tested. First, reflecting basic supply-demand principles, greater geographic densities of alcohol outlets will be directly related to reductions in beverage prices in response to greater competition. Second, reflecting the effects of niche marketing and resulting market stratification, increased densities of private liquor stores will be especially related to reductions in beverage prices within this outlet category. Data were collected from: (i) a survey of BC private store prices and practices, (ii) alcohol outlet location information, and (iii) data on demographic characteristics. Multilevel models examine the relationships between prices at individual private liquor stores and the densities of government liquor stores, private liquor stores, bars, and restaurants, controlling for background demographics and geographic unit level effects. Spatial dependencies were also examined. Increased densities of private liquor stores were associated with lower mean prices of beer and all alcohol aggregated across brands at the store level. There appeared to be no outlet level effect on discounting patterns, however, with the mean price differences apparently reflecting differences in the quality of brands carried rather than unequal prices for any given brand. Increased densities of private off-sale alcohol outlets appear to result in lower prices charged at said establishments independently of other types of alcohol outlets suggesting that they represent an emerging marketing niche in the context of off-sale outlet privatization. Copyright © 2012 by the Research Society on

  6. Ectopic decidua of the greater omentum: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biserka Pigac

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Ectopic decidua is defined as extrauterine deposits of decidual stromal cells. It occurs in 85-100% of pregnancies. Focal sites can be present in various locations, yet a peritoneal location is rare. A 24- year- old woman underwent a cesarean section in 39th week of her first pregnancy, during which adhesions of the omentum to the fundus, entire left side of the uterus, and a part of the right front abdominal wall were found. An operative specimen was taken for a pathohistological analysis under the assumption of being fibrous adhesive tissue. The analysis revealed ectopic decidual tissue composed of large, polygonal cells with eosinophilic cytoplasm, and large nuclei with conspicuous nucleoli infiltrated with mature fatty cells and lymphocytes. Strong staining for vimentin was observed in the decidual cell cytoplasm and for a progesterone- receptor in the cell nuclei, medium staining was detected for S-100, and negative staining for CK 5/ 6, HMB-45, desmin, smooth muscle actin, estrogen and androgen- receptors. We present this case in order to educate clinicians and pathologists about the phenomenon of ectopic deciduosis. Although it can exist as asymptomatic condition, we point out the importance of considering this condition since it can result in serious pathology, like intraperitoneal hemorrhage and labour obstruction, if remains unrecognized. Another pitfall is possible confusion of this entity with other conditions. A resemblance to adhesions of the omentum and malignant neoplastic lesions, like squamous cell and metastatic carcinoma, metastatic melanoma, malignant decidual mesothelioma, metastatic mucin -producing adenocarcinoma, can be deceiving. These obstacles may present a pitfall to clinicians and pathologists, with a negative impact on patient treatment and outcome.

  7. Acute alcohol effects on explicit and implicit motivation to drink alcohol in socially drinking adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jünger, Elisabeth; Javadi, Amir-Homayoun; Wiers, Corinde E; Sommer, Christian; Garbusow, Maria; Bernhardt, Nadine; Kuitunen-Paul, Sören; Smolka, Michael N; Zimmermann, Ulrich S

    2017-07-01

    Alcohol-related cues can evoke explicit and implicit motivation to drink alcohol. Concerning the links between explicit and implicit motivation, there are mixed findings. Therefore, we investigated both concepts in 51 healthy 18- to 19-year-old males, who are less affected by neuropsychological deficits in decision-making that are attributed to previous alcohol exposure than older participants. In a randomized crossover design, adolescents were infused with either alcohol or placebo. Self-ratings of alcohol desire, thirst, well-being and alcohol effects comprised our explicit measures of motivation. To measure implicit motivation, we used money and drink stimuli in a Pavlovian conditioning (Pc) task and an Approach-Avoidance Task (AAT). Alcohol administration increased explicit motivation to drink alcohol, reduced Pc choices of alcoholic drink-conditioned stimuli, but had no effect on the AAT. This combination of results might be explained by differences between goal-directed and habitual behavior or a temporary reduction in rewarding outcome expectancies. Further, there was no association between our measures of motivation to drink alcohol, indicating that both self-reported motivation to drink and implicit approach tendencies may independently contribute to adolescents' actual alcohol intake. Correlations between Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) scores and our measures of motivation to drink alcohol suggest that interventions should target high-risk adolescents after alcohol intake. Clinical trials: Project 4: Acute Effects of Alcohol on Learning and Habitization in Healthy Young Adults (LeAD_P4); NCT01858818; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01858818.

  8. Suicidal behavior and haplotypes of the dopamine receptor gene (DRD2 and ANKK1 gene polymorphisms in patients with alcohol dependence--preliminary report.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Jasiewicz

    Full Text Available Suicide is a significant public health issue and a major cause of death throughout the world. According to WHO it accounts for almost 2% of deaths worldwide. The etiology of suicidal behavior is complex but the results of many studies suggest that genetic determinants are of significant importance. In our study,--we have analyzed selected SNPs polymorphisms in the DRD2 and ANKK1 genes in patients with alcohol dependence syndrome (169 Caucasian subjects including a subgroup of individuals (n = 61 who have experienced at least one suicide attempt. The aim of the study was to verify if various haplotypes of selected genes, comprising Taq1A, Taq1B, and Taq1D single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP, play any role in the development of alcohol dependence and suicidal behavior. The control group comprised 157 unrelated individuals matched for ethnicity, gender,- and age and included no individuals with mental disorders. All subjects were recruited in the North West region of Poland. The study showed that alcohol dependent subjects with a history of at least one suicidal attempt were characterized by a significantly higher frequency of the T-G-A2 haplotype when compared to individuals in whom alcohol dependence was not associated with suicidal behavior (p = 0.006. It appears that studies based on identifying correlation between SNPs is the future for research on genetic risk factors that contribute to the development of alcohol addiction and other associated disorders. To sum up, there is a necessity to perform further research to explain dependencies between the dopaminergic system, alcohol use disorders and suicidal behavior.

  9. Prevalence of alcohol and cannabis use and reported knowledge, attitudes and practice regarding its relationship with health and safety on mines in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Pick, W

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available is one of the most significant public health concerns facing South Africa today. Globally, cannabis is the most widely used illicit drug, with an estimated 144 million people using it annually (1). It constitutes the main drug of abuse in Africa (2... research on alcohol and cannabis use among mineworkers is limited. 1.1 Prevalence of substance use It is estimated that 6% to 16% of the average workforce is likely to be alcohol dependent and that a further 20% is likely to experience drug...

  10. Alcohol consumption and attitudes towards banning alcohol sales on campus among European university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stock, C; Mikolajczyk, R; Bloomfield, K; Maxwell, A E; Ozcebe, H; Petkeviciene, J; Naydenova, V; Marin-Fernandez, B; El-Ansari, W; Krämer, A

    2009-02-01

    The European Commission's new health strategy for improving health at the European Union (EU) level includes tackling alcohol consumption. This study aimed to assess the prevalence of alcohol consumption and problem drinking, as well as students' attitudes towards banning the sale of alcohol on campus. In total, 5826 students from universities in seven European countries (Denmark, Germany, Spain, Lithuania, Poland, Bulgaria and Turkey) took part in this cross-sectional study. A self-administered questionnaire assessed sociodemographic information, frequency of alcohol consumption, problem drinking and attitudes towards banning the sale of alcohol on campus. The highest prevalence of drinking alcohol more than once per week was reported in Bulgarian (males 46%, females 64%) and Spanish students (males 59%, females 64%). Among those students who drank alcohol (n=3170), problem drinking (CAGE score >1) was found in 24% of males and 13% of females. Male gender, depressive moods and a low importance of good grades at university were risk factors for drinking alcohol more than once per week as well as for problem drinking. There were substantial country differences in the proportion of students who would support a ban of alcohol sales on campus (23% in Denmark, 88% in Poland). Support for a ban was higher among female students and among students who drank alcohol once or less per week. Problem drinking is a concern among students in many European countries, especially among males. Students' support for banning the sale of alcohol on campus varies between countries and should be considered in developing EU policy.

  11. Prenatal alcohol use: the role of lifetime problems with alcohol, drugs, depression, and violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Heather A; Chermack, Stephen T

    2008-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine a broader array of lifetime factors that theoretically may be associated with prenatal alcohol use than have previously been studied together, including family history of alcohol-use problems, history of physical or sexual abuse, lifetime major depressive disorder, alcohol-use disorder, illicit-drug-use problems, and partner violence. A total of 186 pregnant women, all of whom used alcohol in the year before pregnancy, were initially recruited in prenatal care settings. Women who reported no prenatal alcohol use (n = 96) were compared with women who drank 1-10 standard drinks during pregnancy (n = 75) and with women who drank more than 10 standard drinks during pregnancy (n = 13), considered to be a higher risk group, on the lifetime risk variables. Because of the public health implications, secondary analyses compared women who abstained during pregnancy with those who used any alcohol. Significant intercorrelations were found among most of the lifetime risk factors studied. Multivariate analyses showed that drug-use problems and partner violence were most strongly associated with prenatal alcohol use than any other variable studied. Consistent with a life span risk framework for alcohol-use problems, results of this study show that childhood abuse, familial alcoholism, lifetime major depressive disorder, and alcohol- and drug-use problems are interrelated. However, when considered together, only lifetime partner violence and drug use are significantly related to various levels of prenatal alcohol use. Identification, assessment, and intervention efforts should integrate these important factors.

  12. Alcohol consumption, hazardous drinking, and alcohol dependency among the population of Andaman and Nicobar Islands, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manimunda, Sathya Prakash; Sugunan, Attayuru Purushottaman; Thennarasu, Kandavelu; Pandian, Dhanasekara; Pesala, Kasturi S; Benegal, Vivek

    2017-01-01

    Harmful use of alcohol is one of the globally recognized causes of health hazards. There are no data on alcohol consumption from Andaman and Nicobar Islands. The objective of the study was to assess the prevalence and pattern of alcohol use among the population of Andaman and Nicobar Islands, India. A representative sample of 18,018 individuals aged ≥14 years were chosen by multistage random sampling and administered a structured instrument, a modified version of the Gender, Alcohol, and Culture: An International Study (GENACIS) which included sociodemographic details and Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT). The overall prevalence of alcohol consumption was 35% among males and over 6.0% in females, aged 14 and above. Two out of every five alcohol users fit into a category of hazardous drinkers. One-fourth of the total users (23%) are alcohol dependents. Both the hazardous drinking and dependent use are high among males compared to females. Almost 18.0% of male drinkers and 12.0% of female drinkers reported heavy drinking on typical drinking occasions. The predominant beverages consumed were in the category of homebrews such as toddy and handia. The present study highlights the magnitude of hazardous drinking and alcohol dependence in Andaman and Nicobar Islands, India and the complex sociocultural differences in the pattern of alcohol use. Based on the AUDIT data, among the population of Andaman and Nicobar Islands (aged 14 and above), one out of ten requires active interventions to manage the harmful impact of alcohol misuse.

  13. A profile of concurrent alcohol and alcohol-interactive prescription drug use in the US population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalbert, Jessica J; Quilliam, Brian J; Lapane, Kate L

    2008-09-01

    The risk of adverse events among alcohol-interactive medication users can occur with one standard alcoholic drink. Research on the extent to which this occurs is scant. To examine the prevalence and correlates of concurrent alcohol and alcohol-interactive (AI) medication use across different levels of risk for an alcohol-related adverse event in a nationally representative sample of American adults. Cross-sectional analysis of past year, self-reported drinking history as well as past month, self-reported and visually inspected prescription drug use data from the 1999-2000 and 2001-2002 NHANES questionnaire section (n = 8,246). Medications were considered AI if concurrent use of alcohol and the prescription drug could intensify the effects of alcohol, resulting in increased sedation, drowsiness, or dizziness. Weighted prevalence estimates and polytomous logistic regression accounted for the complex survey design. Overall, 13.5% took prescription AI medications, of which 5.6% reported alcohol consumption of three or more drinks on each drinking occasion. Correlates of such use were being a man [adjusted odds ratio (AOR): 4.37; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.84-10.35], between the ages of 20 and 54 (AOR=12.28; 95% CI: 3.12-48.25), and currently smoking (AOR: 2.61; 95% CI: 1.28-5.29), with alcohol-abstaining AI users as the referent group. Combining alcohol and AI medications is a common phenomenon, and the risk of alcohol-related adverse drug events may be nontrivial. Screening for alcohol use before prescribing AI medications would be prudent. Better communication regarding the dangers of mixing alcohol with AI medications is warranted.

  14. Alcohol Use among Students with and without Hearing Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinquart, Martin; Pfeiffer, Jens P.

    2015-01-01

    We compared alcohol use among adolescents with and without hearing loss. Adolescents with hearing loss reported consuming less alcohol, less binge drinking, fewer episodes of drunkenness, and a higher age at first drunkenness than their hearing peers. Alcohol use did not vary between students who were deaf or hard of hearing or between students…

  15. Magnitude and predictors of excessive alcohol use in Ethiopia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Magnitude and predictors of excessive alcohol use in Ethiopia: Findings from the 2015 national non-communicable diseases STEPS survey. ... overall prevalence of lifetime alcohol consumption was 49.3%, and 40.7% of the study participants reported consumption of alcohol in the past 30 days, defined as current drinkers.

  16. Factors associated with alcohol consumption among medical cannabis patients with chronic pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Alan K; Walton, Maureen A; Bohnert, Kipling M; Bourque, Carrie; Ilgen, Mark A

    2018-02-01

    Chronic pain is the most common reason for medical cannabis certification. Data regarding alcohol use and risky drinking among medical cannabis patients with pain is largely unknown. Therefore, we examined the prevalence and correlates of alcohol use and risky drinking in this population. Participants completed surveys regarding demographics, pain-related variables, anxiety, cannabis use, and past six-month alcohol consumption. Alcohol use groups were defined using the AUDIT-C [i.e., non-drinkers, low-risk drinkers, and high-risk drinkers (≥4 for men and ≥3 for women)] and compared on demographic characteristics, pain measures, anxiety, and cannabis use. Overall, 42% (n=330/780) were non-drinkers, 32% (n=251/780) were low-risk drinkers, and 26% (n=199/780) were high-risk drinkers. Compared to non-drinkers, low- and high-risk drinkers were significantly younger whereas a larger proportion of low-risk drinkers reported being African-American compared to non- or high-risk drinkers. High-risk drinkers reported significantly lower pain severity/interference compared to the other groups; high-risk drinkers were also less likely to be on disability compared to other groups. A multinomial logistic regression showed that patients reporting lower pain severity and less disability had greater odds of being classified a high-risk drinker. High-risk drinking appears common among medical cannabis patients. Future research should examine whether such use is concurrent or consecutive, and the relationship of such co-use patterns to consequences. Nevertheless, individuals treating patients reporting medical cannabis use for pain should consider alcohol consumption, with data needed regarding the efficacy of brief alcohol interventions among medical cannabis patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Prevalence of alcohol use in pregnant women with substance use disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhireva, Ludmila N; Shrestha, Shikhar; Garrison, Laura; Leeman, Lawrence; Rayburn, William F; Stephen, Julia M

    2018-06-01

    Prenatal care programs for women with opioid use disorder (OUD) often focus treatment/counseling plans around illicit substances, while concurrent use of alcohol might present an equal or greater risk to the fetus. This study evaluated self-reported prevalence of alcohol use in patients participating in a comprehensive prenatal care program for women with substance use disorder (SUD; n = 295), of which 95% are treated for OUD, and pregnant women being served through general obstetrical clinics at the University of New Mexico (n = 365). During the screening phase of a prospective study, patients were asked to report alcohol use in the periconceptional period, and between the last menstrual period and pregnancy recognition. The screening interview was conducted at 22.3 (median = 22; Q1 = 16; Q3 = 29) gestational weeks. Among patients screened at the SUD clinic, 28.8% and 24.1% reported at least one binge drinking episode in the periconceptional period and in early pregnancy, respectively. The prevalence of binge drinking was similar in the general obstetrics population (24.7% and 24.4%, respectively). Among those who reported drinking in early pregnancy, median number of binge drinking episodes was higher among patients screened at the SUD clinic (median = 3; Q1 = 1; Q3 = 10) compared to the general obstetrics group (median = 1; Q1 = 1; Q3 = 3; p < 0.001). This study demonstrates a high prevalence of prenatal alcohol use in early pregnancy in both groups, while patients with SUD/OUD consume more alcohol. These findings underscore the need for targeted screening and intervention for alcohol use in all pregnant women, especially those with SUD/OUD. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Doubly illegal: Qualitative accounts of underage alcohol access through theft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Vanessa K.; Friese, Bettina; Moore, Roland S.; Grube, Joel W.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated sources of alcohol for underage drinkers. In-depth, semi-structured interviews were individually conducted with 47 youths, ages 15–18, who reported drinking within the last 12 months, to explore alcohol access. Theft was one method that some youths reported using to obtain alcohol. In addition to 9% of respondents who reported stealing alcohol from commercial outlets themselves, a total of 26% respondents reported occasions when their close friends stole alcohol. Our findings unveiled that teens had a body of knowledge that some drew upon for stealing alcohol. Youths revealed detailed knowledge about store layout, theft protection devices and store policies. In particular, respondents disclosed knowledge about which aisles have blind spots, how to remove security tops on bottles, and no-chase policies. Theft of alcohol from commercial sources may be reduced by examining the weaknesses of existing theft prevention practices, and revising store policies. PMID:22303285

  19. College Men and Alcohol Use: Positive Alcohol Expectancies as a Mediator Between Distinct Masculine Norms and Alcohol Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwamoto, Derek Kenji; Corbin, William; Lejuez, Carl; MacPherson, Laura

    2014-01-01

    College men are more likely to engage in health-compromising behaviors including risky drinking behavior, and experience more alcohol-related problems, including violence and arrest, as compared to women. The study of masculine norms or societal expectations, defined as beliefs and values about what it means to be a man, is one promising area of investigation that may help explain within-group differences and differential rates of alcohol use among men. Using the gender social learning model, we investigated the role of positive alcohol expectancies as an underlying mediator between masculine norms and alcohol use among college men. Data from 804 college adult men ( Mean age = 20.43) were collected through a web-based assessment. Participants completed a self-report measure of binge drinking, frequency of drinking, quantity of drinks, conformity to masculine norms, and positive alcohol expectancies measures. Structural equation modeling was used to examine relations between masculine norms, alcohol expectancies and alcohol use. The masculine norms of "Playboy" and Risk-Taking were positively related to heavy alcohol use, while Emotional Control and Heterosexual Presentation were both negatively associated with alcohol use, after controlling for fraternity Greek status and positive expectancies. Playboy and Winning norms were positively associated with positive expectancies while Power Over Women was inversely related to positive expectancies which, in turn, were associated with heavier alcohol use. This study was a novel exploration into the multiple pathways and mediators through which positive alcohol expectancies may help explain and provide specificity to the masculinity and alcohol use relationship among college men.

  20. Job strain and alcohol intake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heikkilä, Katriina; Nyberg, Solja T; Fransson, Eleonor I

    2012-01-01

    The relationship between work-related stress and alcohol intake is uncertain. In order to add to the thus far inconsistent evidence from relatively small studies, we conducted individual-participant meta-analyses of the association between work-related stress (operationalised as self-reported job...

  1. Viewing alcohol warning advertising reduces urges to drink in young adults: an online experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stautz, Kaidy; Marteau, Theresa M

    2016-07-08

    Tobacco counter-advertising is effective at promoting smoking cessation. Few studies have evaluated the impact of alcohol warning advertising on alcohol consumption and possible mechanisms of effect. This pilot study aimed to assess whether alcohol warning advertising is effective in reducing urges to drink alcohol, if emotional responses to advertising explain any such effect or perceived effectiveness, and whether effects differ among heavier drinkers. One hundred fifty-two young adult (aged 18-25) alcohol users completed an online experiment in which they were randomly assigned to view one of three sets of six advertisements: (i) alcohol warning; (ii) alcohol promoting; or (iii) advertisements for non-alcohol products. Urges to drink alcohol were self-reported post-exposure. Affective responses (pleasure and arousal) to each advertisement and perceived effectiveness of each advertisement were recorded. Typical level of alcohol consumption was measured as a potential effect modifier. Participants exposed to alcohol warning advertisements reported significantly lower urges to drink alcohol than those who viewed either alcohol promoting or non-alcohol advertisements. This effect was fully mediated by negative affective responses (displeasure) to the alcohol warning advertisements. Perceived effectiveness of alcohol warning advertisements was associated with high arousal responses. Impact of the advertisements was unaffected by typical level of alcohol consumption, although the study was not powered to detect anything other than large effects. In line with findings from the tobacco literature, alcohol warning advertisements that elicit negative affect reduce urges to drink alcohol. Their impact upon actual consumption awaits investigation.

  2. Alcohol consumption among patients with diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Mathilde L; Larsen, Julie R; Glümer, Charlotte

    2016-01-01

    AIMS: To estimate alcohol consumption among Danish adults with diabetes and to investigate whether certain comorbidities are related to a high alcohol intake. METHODS: A total of 162,283 participants responded to the Danish National Health Survey 2013 (questionnaire study, response rate 54.......0%). Variables on the participants were extracted from the survey and 6.5% of respondents reported having diabetes. High alcohol consumption was defined as >21 (men) or >14 (women) standard drinks per week. RESULTS: High alcohol consumption was reported by 11.2 % of men and 4.3% of women with diabetes...... a problematic alcohol intake (men OR 0.80, 95% CI 0.75-0.86, palcohol within the last year (men 13.5%; women 28.2%) compared with participants...

  3. Alcohol use among amateur sportsmen in Ireland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenny Susan C

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective of this study was to establish baseline data on alcohol consumption patterns, behaviours and harms among amateur sportsmen in the Republic of Ireland. Findings The study presents findings from the baseline survey for a cluster randomised controlled trial to evaluate the effectiveness of a community intervention programme to reduce problem alcohol use among a representative sample of Gaelic Athletic Association (GAA clubs in two counties in the Republic of Ireland. Self reported alcohol use, prevalence of binge drinking, AUDIT scores and alcohol-related harms were assessed in amateur GAA sportsmen aged 16 years and over. Nine hundred and sixty (960 players completed questionnaires (72% response rate. Mean age was 24.0 years (S.D. 5.2. Of those aged 18 years or over, 75% had post-primary education; most (864, 90% were current drinkers and 8.2% were regular smokers. The self-reported average yearly alcohol consumption was 12.5 litres. Almost one third (31% of current drinkers reported drinking over the recommended limit of 21 standard drinks per week and just over half (54.3% reported drinking 6 or more standard drinks in a row at least once a week (regular binge drinking. Of those who (self completed the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT questionnaire, three-quarters (74.7% had a score of 8 or more; 11.5% had a score of 20 or above warranting referral for diagnostic evaluation and treatment. Almost all (87.6% of the 864 drinkers reported experiencing at least one harm due to their drinking. These alcohol misuse outcomes were higher than those found in a nationally representative sample of males of a similar age. There were strong associations between regular binge drinking and reporting harms such as being in a fight (adjusted odds ratio (OR 2.02, p Conclusions These male amateur sportsmen reported high rates of alcohol consumption and alcohol-related harm.

  4. Alcohol attributable hospitalisations and costs in Ireland, 2000-2004.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Martin, J

    2011-05-01

    The aim of this study was to calculate the number and costs of hospital bed-days due to alcohol use in Ireland over the five year period 2000 to 2004. Age and sex specific Irish alcohol-attributable-fractions (AAFs) were developed by combining international risk estimates with Irish consumption data where available; where not available international AAFs were used. These were applied to national datasets to count the number and costs of bed-days wholly caused and prevented by alcohol and that proportion of bed-days that were partially caused and prevented by alcohol. Between 2000 and 2004, alcohol was estimated to have caused 3,428,973 (10.3%) and prevented 529,239 (1.6%) of hospital bed-days, giving a net number of bed-days due to alcohol of 2,899,734 (8.7%). Over this period the hospital inpatient costs attributed to the negative effects of alcohol were 953,126,381 euros, the costs attributed to hospitalisations prevented were 147,968,164 euros; giving net costs of alcohol-attributed bed-days of 805,158,217 euros. Chronic conditions accounted for 3,262,408 (95%) hospital bed-days due to the harmful effects of alcohol. Conditions not wholly due to alcohol accounted for 2,297,412 (67%) hospital bed-days due to the harmful effects of alcohol. The negative impacts of alcohol were greater than previously thought and spread across the whole population.

  5. Acute alcohol intoxication in a child following ingestion of an ethyl-alcohol-based hand sanitizer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertzog, James H; Radwick, Allison

    2015-07-01

    While uncommon, ingestion of ethanol-based hand sanitizers by children may be associated with significant intoxication. We report the case of a 7-year-old with acute alcohol intoxication following hand sanitizer ingestion. Alcohol elimination in this patient followed zero-order kinetics with a clearance rate of 22.5 mg/kg/h, consistent with the limited pharmacokinetic information available for children who experience alcohol intoxication from more traditional sources.

  6. The Effects of Boys & Girls Clubs on Alcohol and Other Drug Use and Related Problems in Public Housing. Final Research Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schinke, Steven P.; And Others

    This comparative study evaluates the effects of Boys and Girls Clubs and related SMART Moves drug prevention programs on children and adolescents living in public housing and on the quality of life in public housing. The study involves 15 public housing developments in a representative sample of American cities and focuses on alcohol and other…

  7. The relationship between exposure to alcohol-related content on Facebook and predictors of alcohol consumption among female emerging adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Joseph; Prichard, Ivanka; Hutchinson, Amanda; Wilson, Carlene

    2014-12-01

    Consuming an unhealthy level of alcohol is a significant problem for some young women. Potential determinants of excess consumption include perceptions of usual consumption among peers-perceptions of what is "normal." The present study examined whether perceptions of social normative endorsement of drinking, operationalized by measures of perceived alcohol consumption of close friends (proximal norms), the consumption of the "average student" (distal norms), and the extent of alcohol-related content posted by peers on Facebook were related to alcohol-related attitudes and self-reported consumption. Female university students (n=129; Mage=21.48 years, SD=3.00) completed an online questionnaire assessing Facebook use, perceived alcohol-related norms, and self-reported alcohol attitudes and consumption. Perceptions of the consumption of the average female student were a negative predictor of attitudes. Positive alcohol attitudes, extent of own alcohol-related photographic posts on Facebook, average female student alcohol consumption, and report of male close friend consumption predicted self-report of own alcohol consumption. Interestingly, female close friend norms failed to predict consumption, whereas male close friend norms predicted consumption but not attitudes, suggesting the possibility of separate cognitive pathways for alcohol-related attitudes and behavior. This study builds on existing research by casting new light on predictors of alcohol-related attitudes, as well as describing the potential role of social networking sites such as Facebook in the formation of social norms and the modulation of drinking behavior.

  8. Description and predictors of positive and negative alcohol-related consequences in the first year of college.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Nancy P; Clerkin, Elise M; Wood, Mark; Monti, Peter M; O'Leary Tevyaw, Tracy; Corriveau, Donald; Fingeret, Allan; Kahler, Christopher W

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to establish the frequency of positive and negative alcohol-related consequences during the first year of college and to evaluate gender, race/ethnicity, time of year, alcohol use, and intoxication as predictors of consequences using frequent assessments. Participants (N = 1,053; 57.5% female) completed biweekly assessments of alcohol use and positive and negative alcohol-related consequences throughout the year. The majority of drinkers reported both positive and negative consequences. Having a good time and feeling less stressed were the most commonly reported positive consequences. Blackouts and getting physically sick were the most commonly endorsed negative consequences. At the weekly level, number of drinking days, drinks per drinking day, and estimated blood alcohol concentration (eBAC, reflecting intoxication) were significantly related to all consequences after controlling for demographics and time of year. Negative consequences had stronger associations with number of drinks and eBAC than positive consequences did. With each additional drink consumed on a drinking day, the incidence of negative consequences more than doubled (incidence rate ratio [IRR] = 2.34, 95% CI [2.19, 2.50]), whereas the incidence of positive consequences increased by about half (IRR = 1.51, 95% CI [1.47, 1.56]). The consequence with the largest gender difference was regretted sex, with women reporting it more often. Few racial/ethnic differences were found in report of negative consequences. Greater positive and negative consequences were endorsed at the beginning of both academic semesters. As number of drinks and eBAC increase, the relative odds of a negative consequence are higher than that of a positive consequence. Alcohol interventions could promote greater awareness of the likelihood of specific consequences and could highlight that positive consequences are associated with lower levels of drinking.

  9. National Alcohol Survey of households in Trinidad and Tobago (NASHTT: Alcohol use in households

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.G. Maharaj

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To determine the patterns of alcohol use among households in Trinidad and Tobago (T&T and to estimate the association between alcohol use and negative psychological, social, or physical events experienced by the household. Methods A convenience sample of 1837 households across T&T. We identified bivariate correlates of alcohol use, and heavy episodic drinking using chi-square and t-test analyses and used multivariable logistic regression to estimate adjusted associations between household alcohol use and experiences within the past 12 months adjusted for sociodemographic covariates. Results One thousand five hundred two households had complete data for all variables (82% response rate. Nearly two thirds (64% of households included alcohol users; 57% of household that consumed alcohol also reported heavy episodic drinking. Households that reported alcohol consumption were significantly more likely to report illnesses within the households, relationship problems, and behavioral and antisocial problems with children. Among households where a member was employed, those who consumed alcohol were nearly twice as likely (OR = 1.98; 95% confidence interval (CI 1.03, 3.82 to have a household member call in sick to work and 2.9 times as likely (OR = 2.9; CI 1.19, 7.04 to have a household member suffer work related problems compared with households who reported not consuming alcohol. Conclusions Approximately two thirds of households in T&T reported using alcohol. These households were more likely to report psychological, physical, and social problems. These findings would support efforts to enforce current policies, laws, and regulations as well as new strategies to reduce the impact of harmful alcohol consumption on households in T&T.

  10. Effect of monohydric alcohols on structural properties of macromolecular solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giordano, R.; Wanderlingh, F.; Cordone, L.; Cupane, A.

    1983-01-01

    A report on the effects of monohydric alcohols on the thixotropic properties of a 1% (by weight) BSA solution is given. The presence of alcohols in the solution medium, even in a very small amount, weakens the structure responsible for the thixotropic properties: this effect increases with increasing alcohol concentration and alkyl group size. Indirect evidence relating the observed effects to the alteration, in the presence of alcohol, of protein-solvent hydrophobic interactions is also presented

  11. Global alcohol policy and the alcohol industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Peter

    2009-05-01

    The WHO is preparing its global strategy on alcohol, and, in so doing, has been asked to consult with the alcohol industry on ways it could contribute in reducing the harm done by alcohol. This review asks which is more effective in reducing harm: the regulatory approaches that the industry does not favour; or the educational approaches that it does favour. The current literature overwhelmingly finds that regulatory approaches (including those that manage the price, availability, and marketing of alcohol) reduce the risk of and the experience of alcohol-related harm, whereas educational approaches (including school-based education and public education campaigns) do not, with industry-funded education actually increasing the risk of harm. The alcohol industry should not be involved in making alcohol policy. Its involvement in implementing policy should be restricted to its role as a producer, distributor, and marketer of alcohol. In particular, the alcohol industry should not be involved in educational programmes, as such involvement could actually lead to an increase in harm.

  12. Alcoholic ingestion and alcohol abuse in university students at Jequié-BA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Henrique Fernandes

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Epidemiologic researches about psychoactive substance use have shown an up-and-coming situation to abusive consumption of alcohol in adolescent and young-adult groups. This consumption over come the knowledge about damage caused by abusive of these substances, especially for the population part who is in the “top of life experiences”; the university students. Aim: To estimate the prevalence of the alcoholic ingestion and alcohol abuse in university students at Jequié-BA, and to verify the association between the alcoholic ingestion and alcohol abuse with the gender, race, smoking and graduation area. Methods: Prevalence study with probabilistic randomized sample (n = 129 of a population of 3,644 university students, registered in three universities. It was used a Questionnaire contends socio-demographic data, asking for the alcoholic ingestion and test CAGE to abuse. Results: It has been found prevalence of 63.6% to alcohol ingestion, 21.7% of high risk in abuse, and 8.5% of alcohol abuse. Although they have not been gotten association statistics between these variable and gender, race, graduation area and smoking; the data had demonstrated highest rates of alcohol abuse, and high risk in developing in students of masculine gender, medium brown race, who attend a graduation course in the health area. Those who have used of the tobacco had presented percentile greater of high risk in becoming alcohol consumer abusive. Conclusions: Intent for data found, as much alcohol ingestion as abuse, since they reflect the necessity of prevention politics to the alcoholic abusive ingestion in this population

  13. Correlates of reasons for not reporting rape to police: results from a national telephone household probability sample of women with forcible or drug-or-alcohol facilitated/incapacitated rape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohn, Amy M; Zinzow, Heidi M; Resnick, Heidi S; Kilpatrick, Dean G

    2013-02-01

    Rape tactics, rape incident characteristics, and mental health problems (lifetime depression, PTSD, and substance abuse) were investigated as correlates of eight different reasons for not reporting a rape to police among women who had experienced but did not report a rape to police (n = 441) within a national telephone household probability sample. Rape tactics (nonmutually exclusive) included drug or alcohol-facilitated or incapacitated rape (DAFR/IR; n = 119) and forcible rape (FR; n = 376). Principal Components Analysis (PCA) was conducted to extract a dominant set of patterns among the eight reasons for not reporting, and to reduce the set of dependent variables. PCA results indicated three unique factors: Not Wanting Others to Know, Nonacknowledgment of Rape, and Criminal Justice Concerns. Hierarchical regression analyses showed DAFR/IR and FR were both positively and significantly associated with Criminal Justice Concerns, whereas DAFR/IR, but not FR, was associated with Nonacknowledgment as a reason for not reporting to police. Neither DAFR/IR nor FR emerged as significant predictors of Others Knowing after controlling for fear of death or injury at the time of the incident. Correlations among variables showed that the Criminal Justice Concerns factor was positively related to lifetime depression and PTSD and the Nonacknowledgement factor was negatively related to lifetime PTSD. Findings suggest prevention programs should educate women about the definition of rape, which may include incapacitation due to alcohol or drugs, to increase acknowledgement and decrease barriers to police reporting.

  14. Children of Alcoholics/Addicts: Children at Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gover, F. Jill

    Children of alcoholics/addicts (COAs) are at a greater risk to develop alcohol and drug dependency, eating disorders, attention deficit disorders, stress-related illness, and suicidal behavior. Children become part of a conspiracy of silence by being told not to talk about the drug problem. The family members assume different roles which…

  15. European longitudinal study on the relationship between adolescents' alcohol marketing exposure and alcohol use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bruijn, Avalon; Tanghe, Jacqueline; de Leeuw, Rebecca; Engels, Rutger; Anderson, Peter; Beccaria, Franca; Bujalski, Michał; Celata, Corrado; Gosselt, Jordy; Schreckenberg, Dirk; Słodownik, Luiza; Wothge, Jördis; van Dalen, Wim

    2016-10-01

    This is the first study to examine the effect of alcohol marketing exposure on adolescents' drinking in a cross-national context. The aim was to examine reciprocal processes between exposure to a wide range of alcohol marketing types and adolescent drinking, controlled for non-alcohol branded media exposure. Prospective observational study (11-12- and 14-17-month intervals), using a three-wave autoregressive cross-lagged model. School-based sample in 181 state-funded schools in Germany, Italy, Netherlands, Poland. A total of 9075 eligible respondents participated in the survey (mean age 14 years, 49.5% male. Adolescents reported their frequency of past-month drinking and binge drinking. Alcohol marketing exposure was measured by a latent variable with 13 items measuring exposure to online alcohol marketing, televised alcohol advertising, alcohol sport sponsorship, music event/festival sponsorship, ownership alcohol-branded promotional items, reception of free samples and exposure to price offers. Confounders were age, gender, education, country, internet use, exposure to non-alcohol sponsored football championships and television programmes without alcohol commercials. The analyses showed one-directional long-term effects of alcohol marketing exposure on drinking (exposure T1 on drinking T2: β = 0.420 (0.058), P  0.05). Similar results were found in the binge drinking model (exposure T1 on binge T2: β = 0.409 (0.054), P  0.05). There appears to be a one-way effect of alcohol marketing exposure on adolescents' alcohol use over time, which cannot be explained by either previous drinking or exposure to non-alcohol-branded marketing. © 2016 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  16. Consumo de alcohol alcoholismo

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez Páez, Pablo E.; Fundación Valle de Lili

    1999-01-01

    ¿Qué es el alcohol?/¿Cómo actual el alcohol en el organismo?/¿Qué efectos causa?/Efectos por el consumo crónico/¿El consumo de alcohol durante el embarazo afecta el embrión?/¿Qué otras consecuencias tiene el consumo de alcohol?/¿Cuándo se considera que una persona tiene problemas con su consumo de alcohol?/¿Cuándo se debe sospechar que alguien tiene problemas con el consumo de alcohol?/Características del saber beber adecuadamente?/¿Cuales son las alternativas de tratamiento para este problem...

  17. Visual attention to alcohol cues and responsible drinking statements within alcohol advertisements and public health campaigns: Relationships with drinking intentions and alcohol consumption in the laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kersbergen, Inge; Field, Matt

    2017-06-01

    Both alcohol advertising and public health campaigns increase alcohol consumption in the short term, and this may be attributable to attentional capture by alcohol-related cues in both types of media. The present studies investigated the association between (a) visual attention to alcohol cues and responsible drinking statements in alcohol advertising and public health campaigns, and (b) next-week drinking intentions (Study 1) and drinking behavior in the lab (Study 2). In Study 1, 90 male participants viewed 1 of 3 TV alcohol adverts (conventional advert; advert that emphasized responsible drinking; or public health campaign; between-subjects manipulation) while their visual attention to alcohol cues and responsible drinking statements was recorded, before reporting their drinking intentions. Study 2 used a within-subjects design in which 62 participants (27% male) viewed alcohol and soda advertisements while their attention to alcohol/soda cues and responsible drinking statements was recorded, before completing a bogus taste test with different alcoholic and nonalcoholic drinks. In both studies, alcohol cues attracted more attention than responsible drinking statements, except when viewing a public health TV campaign. Attention to responsible drinking statements was not associated with intentions to drink alcohol over the next week (Study 1) or alcohol consumption in the lab (Study 2). However, attention to alcohol portrayal cues within alcohol advertisements was associated with ad lib alcohol consumption in Study 2, although attention to other types of alcohol cues (brand logos, glassware, and packaging) was not associated. Future studies should investigate how responsible drinking statements might be improved to attract more attention. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. Changes in coping and social motives for drinking and alcohol consumption across the menstrual cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyce, Kayla M; Hudson, Amanda; O'Connor, Roisin; Thompson, Kara; Hodgin, Megan; Perrot, Tara; Stewart, Sherry H

    2018-04-01

    Alcohol use has been reported to fluctuate over women's menstrual cycles (MCs), with increased intake occurring premenstrually/menstrually (phases characterized by heightened negative affect) and during the ovulatory phase (a phase characterized by positive affect). This suggests women may drink for particular emotion-focused reasons at specific points in their cycles. However, no research had yet examined MC variability in drinking motives, or links between cycle-related changes in drinking motives and alcohol consumption. Ninety-four normally cycling women (M age  = 22.9 years old, SD age  = 4.7) completed daily diary measures (via Smartphone surveys), with questions pertaining to state drinking motives and quantity of alcohol consumed for the course of a full MC. Drinking motives differed by cycle phase. Women reported a slight increase in drinking to self-medicate for negative affect premenstrually, with drinking to cope peaking in the menstrual phase and declining mid-cycle. Women reported a slight increasing trend across the cycle in social motives for drinking, while enhancement motives remained relatively stable across the cycle. Cycle-related changes in drinking motives predicted increases in the quantity of alcohol consumed. Drinking to cope with negative affect predicted a greater number of drinks menstrually (days 1-5). While social motives predicted a greater number of drinks during the follicular and ovulatory phases (days 5-16), enhancement motives were unrelated to drinking quantity across cycle phase. Clinicians should be attentive to cycle phase when treating reproductive-aged women with alcohol disorders (e.g., encouraging the use of healthier means of coping with negative affect during menses). © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Assessing the impacts of Saskatchewan's minimum alcohol pricing regulations on alcohol-related crime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockwell, Tim; Zhao, Jinhui; Sherk, Adam; Callaghan, Russell C; Macdonald, Scott; Gatley, Jodi

    2017-07-01

    Saskatchewan's introduction in April 2010 of minimum prices graded by alcohol strength led to an average minimum price increase of 9.1% per Canadian standard drink (=13.45 g ethanol). This increase was shown to be associated with reduced consumption and switching to lower alcohol content beverages. Police also informally reported marked reductions in night-time alcohol-related crime. This study aims to assess the impacts of changes to Saskatchewan's minimum alcohol-pricing regulations between 2008 and 2012 on selected crime events often related to alcohol use. Data were obtained from Canada's Uniform Crime Reporting Survey. Auto-regressive integrated moving average time series models were used to test immediate and lagged associations between minimum price increases and rates of night-time and police identified alcohol-related crimes. Controls were included for simultaneous crime rates in the neighbouring province of Alberta, economic variables, linear trend, seasonality and autoregressive and/or moving-average effects. The introduction of increased minimum-alcohol prices was associated with an abrupt decrease in night-time alcohol-related traffic offences for men (-8.0%, P prices may contribute to reductions in alcohol-related traffic-related and violent crimes perpetrated by men. Observed lagged effects for violent incidents may be due to a delay in bars passing on increased prices to their customers, perhaps because of inventory stockpiling. [Stockwell T, Zhao J, Sherk A, Callaghan RC, Macdonald S, Gatley J. Assessing the impacts of Saskatchewan's minimum alcohol pricing regulations on alcohol-related crime. Drug Alcohol Rev 2017;36:492-501]. © 2016 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  20. Alcoholic hepatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damgaard Sandahl, Thomas

    2014-10-01

    Alcoholic hepatitis (AH) is an acute inflammatory syndrome causing significant morbidity and mortality. The prognosis is strongly dependent on disease severity, as assessed by clinical scoring systems. Reliable epidemiological data as well as knowledge of the clinical course of AH are essential for planning and resource allocation within the health care system. Likewise, individual evaluation of risk is desirable in the clinical handling of patients with AH as it can guide treatment, improve patient information, and serve as strata in clinical trials. The present PhD thesis is based on three studies using a cohort of nearly 2000 patients diagnosed with AH in Denmark from 1999 to 2008 as a cohort, in a population-based study design. The aims of this thesis were as follows. (1) To describe the incidence and short- and long-term mortality, of AH in Denmark (Study I). (2) To validate and compare the ability of the currently available prognostic scores to predict mortality in AH (Study II). (3) To investigate the short- and long-term causes of death of patients with AH (Study III). During the study decade, the annual incidence rate in the Danish population rose from 37 to 46 per 106 for men and from 24 to 34 per 106 for women. Both short- and long-term mortality rose for men and women, and the increase in short-term mortality was attributable to increasing patient age and prevalence of cirrhosis. Our evaluation of the most commonly used prognostic scores for predicting the mortality of patients with AH showed that all scores performed similarly, with Area under the Receiver Operator Characteristics curves giving values between 0.74 and 0.78 for 28-day mortality assessed on admission. Our study on causes of death showed that in the short-term (thesis provides novel warranted epidemiological information about AH that shows increasing incidence and mortality rates. Consequently, it reiterates the fact that AH is a life-threatening disease and suggests that AH is an

  1. Personality and alcohol metacognitions as predictors of weekly levels of alcohol use in binge drinking university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Ailsa; Tran, Cathy; Weiss, Alexander; Caselli, Gabriele; Nikčević, Ana V; Spada, Marcantonio M

    2012-04-01

    This study investigated the relative contribution of the Big 5 personality factors and alcohol metacognitions in predicting weekly levels of alcohol use in binge drinking university students. No research to date has investigated whether either of these constructs predicts levels of weekly alcohol use in binge drinkers. A sample of university students (n=142) who were classified as binge drinkers were administered the following self-report instruments: NEO-Five Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI; Costa & McCrae, 1992), Positive Alcohol Metacognitions Scale (PAMS; Spada & Wells, 2008), Negative Alcohol Metacognitions Scale (NAMS; Spada & Wells, 2008), and Khavari Alcohol Test (KAT; Khavari & Farber, 1978). Pearson product-moment correlations showed that weekly levels of alcohol use were negatively correlated with agreeableness and conscientiousness and positively correlated with positive alcohol metacognitions about cognitive self-regulation, negative alcohol metacognitions about uncontrollability and negative alcohol metacognitions about cognitive harm. A hierarchical regression analysis revealed that conscientiousness and positive alcohol metacognitions about cognitive self-regulation were the only two significant predictors of weekly levels of alcohol use when controlling for gender. These findings show that being male, low on conscientiousness and high on positive alcohol metacognitions about cognitive self-regulation raises the risk for increased weekly levels of alcohol use in binge drinking university students. The implications of these findings are discussed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Prevalence and predictors of problematic alcohol use, risky sexual practices and other negative consequences associated with alcohol use among safety and security employees in the Western Cape, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harker Burnhams, Nadine; Parry, Charles; Laubscher, Ria; London, Leslie

    2014-03-04

    Harmful alcohol use can compromise worker health and productivity. Persons employed in safety-sensitive occupations are particularly vulnerable to hazardous alcohol use and its associated risks. This study describes the patterns of harmful alcohol use, related HIV risks and risk factors for the harmful use of alcohol among a sample of employees in South Africa working in the safety and security sector. A cross-sectional study that formed the baseline for a clustered randomized control trial was undertaken in 2011. A random sample of 325 employees employed within a safety and security sector of a local municipality in the Western Cape Province of South Africa participated in the study. Data were collected by means of an 18-page self-administered structured questionnaire and analyzed using SAS/STAT software version 9.2. For all significance testing, the F-statistic and p-values are reported. Three hundred and twenty-five employees were surveyed. Findings suggest that more than half (76.1%) of the 78.9% of participants who consumed alcohol engaged in binge drinking, with close to a quarter reporting a CAGE score greater than the cut-off of 2, indicating potentially hazardous drinking patterns. The study further found that employees who use alcohol are more likely to engage in risky sexual practices when under the influence. A favorable drinking climate (p safety-sensitive occupations at the workplace. It suggests that persons employed within such positions are at high risk for developing alcohol-related disorders and for contracting HIV. This study highlights the need for testing a comprehensive package of services designed to prevent hazardous alcohol use among safety and security employees.

  3. The effects of purchasing alcohol and marijuana among adolescents at-risk for future substance use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osilla, Karen Chan; Pedersen, Eric R; Ewing, Brett A; Miles, Jeremy N V; Ramchand, Rajeev; D'Amico, Elizabeth J

    2014-09-18

    Among high-risk youth, those who may be at increased risk for adverse alcohol and other drug (AOD) use outcomes may benefit from targeted prevention efforts; how youth acquire AOD may provide an objective means of identifying youth at elevated risk. We assessed how youth acquired alcohol and marijuana (purchasing vs. other means), demographics, AOD behaviors/consequences, and environment among adolescents referred to a diversion program called Teen Court (N = 180) at two time points (prior to the program and 180 days from baseline). Participants were predominantly White and Hispanic/Latino(a). In cross-sectional analyses among alcohol and marijuana users, purchasing marijuana was associated with more frequent marijuana use and consequences, time spent around teens who use marijuana, higher likelihood of substance use disorders, and lower resistance self-efficacy compared to non-purchasers. Teens who purchased both alcohol and marijuana experienced similar outcomes to those who purchased only marijuana, and also reported more frequent and higher quantity of drinking, greater alcohol-related consequences, time spent around teens who use other drugs, and prescription drug misuse. Longitudinally, purchasing alcohol and marijuana at baseline was associated with more frequent and higher quantity of drinking compared to non-purchasers at follow-up. Marijuana only purchasers had a greater likelihood of substance use disorders at follow-up compared to non-purchasers. In an era where drinking is commonplace and attitudes towards marijuana use are becoming more tolerant, it is essential to evaluate how accessibility to AOD and subsequent purchasing behaviors affect youth consumption and intervene accordingly to prevent future consequences.

  4. Socioeconomic determinants of exposure to alcohol outlets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Christopher; Gruenewald, Paul J; Ponicki, William R

    2015-05-01

    Alcohol outlets tend to be located in lower income areas, exposing lower income populations to excess risks associated with alcohol sales through these establishments. The objective of this study was to test two hypotheses about the etiology of these differential exposures based on theories of the economic geography of retail markets: (a) outlets will locate within or near areas of high alcohol demand, and (b) outlets will be excluded from areas with high land and structure rents. Data from the 2010 National Drug Strategy Household Survey were used to develop a surrogate for alcohol demand (i.e., market potential) at two census geographies for the city of Melbourne, Australia. Bayesian conditional autoregressive Poisson models estimated multilevel spatial relationships between counts of bars, restaurants, and off-premise outlets and market potential, income, and zoning ordinances (Level 1: n = 8,914). Market potentials were greatest in areas with larger older age, male, English-speaking, high-income populations. Independent of zoning characteristics, greater numbers of outlets appeared in areas with greater market potentials and the immediately surrounding areas. Greater income excluded outlets in local and surrounding areas. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that alcohol outlets are located in areas with high demand and are excluded from high-income areas. These processes appear to take place at relatively small geographic scales, encourage the concentration of outlets in specific low-income areas, and represent a very general economic process likely to take place in communities throughout the world.

  5. Blood-alcohol proficiency test program

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    A preliminary survey has been performed to ascertain the validity of the blood alcohol analysis performed by a number of laboratories on a voluntary basis. Values of accuracy and precision of the tests are presented. /Abstract from report summary pag...

  6. Alcohol Screening and Counseling PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This 60 second public service announcement is based on the January 2014 CDC Vital Signs report. Millions of Americans drink too much, a dangerous behavior that can lead to serious health problems. Alcohol screening and counseling can help.

  7. Past racial discrimination exacerbates the effects of racial exclusion on negative affect, perceived control, and alcohol-risk cognitions among Black young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stock, Michelle L; Peterson, Laurel M; Molloy, Brianne K; Lambert, Sharon F

    2017-06-01

    Racial discrimination is associated with alcohol use and risky sex cognitions and behaviors, which are risk factors for negative health outcomes, including human immunodeficiency virus infection. The current study investigated the causal impact of racial discrimination on alcohol and sexual-risk cognitions while exploring potential mediators that might help explain this relation: negative affect, perceived control, and meaningful existence. We also examined if past discrimination impacts the strength of (moderates) these effects. Participants were 287 Black/African American young adults aged 18-25. They were randomly assigned to be excluded or included by White peers via the game Cyberball. Racial exclusion (vs. inclusion) predicted greater: perceived racial discrimination, negative affect, alcohol use willingness, and reduced perceived control and meaningful existence. Furthermore, excluded participants who experienced more past racial discrimination reported the lowest perceived control, and greatest negative affect and alcohol-risk cognitions. The findings suggest that past racial discrimination exacerbates the harmful health effects of immediate experiences of discrimination.

  8. Moderation of Genetic Influences on Alcohol Involvement by Rural Residency among Adolescents: Results from the 1962 National Merit Twin Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Christal N; Natta, Shanaliz S; Slutske, Wendy S

    2017-11-01

    Adolescents in rural and urban areas may experience different levels of environmental restrictions on alcohol use, with those in rural areas experiencing greater monitoring and less access to alcohol. Such restrictions may limit expression of genetic vulnerability for alcohol use, resulting in a gene-environment interaction (G × E). This phenomenon has previously been reported in Finnish and Minnesota adolescents. The current study used data from 839 same-sex twin pairs from the 1962 National Merit Scholarship Qualifying Test to determine whether the G × E interaction would be evident in this earlier time period. We also assessed whether the G × E interaction would be moderated by sex, and whether family socioeconomic status (SES; income and parental education) may mediate the G × E interaction. Findings showed the expected interaction among females, with a weaker contribution of genes (2 vs. 44%) and greater contribution of shared environment (62 vs. 29%) to variation in alcohol involvement among rural as compared to urban residents. The G × E interaction was not observed among males, and operated independently from differences in family SES among rural and urban adolescents. This study represents a partial replication in a novel setting of the moderation of the genetic contribution to alcohol use by rural/urban residency, and suggests that SES differences may not explain this effect.

  9. Impact of alcohol-promoting and alcohol-warning advertisements on alcohol consumption, affect, and implicit cognition in heavy-drinking young adults: A laboratory-based randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stautz, Kaidy; Frings, Daniel; Albery, Ian P; Moss, Antony C; Marteau, Theresa M

    2017-02-01

    There is sparse evidence regarding the effect of alcohol-advertising exposure on alcohol consumption among heavy drinkers. This study aimed to assess the immediate effects of alcohol-promoting and alcohol-warning video advertising on objective alcohol consumption in heavy-drinking young adults, and to examine underlying processes. Between-participants randomized controlled trial with three conditions. Two hundred and four young adults (aged 18-25) who self-reported as heavy drinkers were randomized to view one of three sets of 10 video advertisements that included either (1) alcohol-promoting, (2) alcohol-warning, or (3) non-alcohol advertisements. The primary outcome was the proportion of alcoholic beverages consumed in a sham taste test. Affective responses to advertisements, implicit alcohol approach bias, and alcohol attentional bias were assessed as secondary outcomes and possible mediators. Typical alcohol consumption, Internet use, and television use were measured as covariates. There was no main effect of condition on alcohol consumption. Participants exposed to alcohol-promoting advertisements showed increased positive affect and an increased approach/reduced avoidance bias towards alcohol relative to those exposed to non-alcohol advertisements. There was an indirect effect of exposure to alcohol-warning advertisements on reduced alcohol consumption via negative affect experienced in response to these advertisements. Restricting alcohol-promoting advertising could remove a potential influence on positive alcohol-related emotions and cognitions among heavy-drinking young adults. Producing alcohol-warning advertising that generates negative emotion may be an effective strategy to reduce alcohol consumption. Statement of contribution What is already known on this subject? Exposure to alcohol advertising has immediate and distal effects on alcohol consumption. There is some evidence that effects may be larger in heavy drinkers. Alcohol-warning advertising has

  10. Alcohol use, sexual activity, and perceived risk in high school athletes and non-athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetherill, Reagan R; Fromme, Kim

    2007-09-01

    The current study examined one's sense of personal invincibility as a contributing factor to high school athletes' more frequent behavioral risks compared to those of non-athletes. Perceived risk was assessed as a mediator of sports participation and alcohol use, and sports participation and sexual activity among high school athletes. Prior to leaving home, college-bound high school graduates (n = 2,247) completed web-based surveys assessing alcohol use, sexual activity, sports participation, and perceived risk. The mediational models were analyzed using generalized linear modeling and the procedures of Baron and Kenny (1986). Relative to non-athletes, athletes reported greater alcohol use, more sexual partners, and lower perceived risk. Perceived risk mediated the association between sports participation and alcohol use for both young men and women. Perceived risk also mediated the association between sports participation and number of sexual partners for women and partially mediated this association for men. Perceived risk partially mediated the association between sports participation and episodes of unsafe sexual activity in both men and women. These findings suggest a potential cognitive mechanism which may account for differences in alcohol use and sexual activity between athletes and non-athletes during late adolescence.

  11. The interplay of trait anger, childhood physical abuse, and alcohol consumption in predicting intimate partner aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldonado, Rosalita C; Watkins, Laura E; DiLillo, David

    2015-04-01

    The current study examined three well-established risk factors for intimate partner aggression (IPA) within Finkel and Eckhardt's I(3) model, including two impellance factors-trait anger and childhood physical abuse history-and the disinhibiting factor of alcohol consumption. Participants were 236 male and female college students in a committed heterosexual dating relationship who completed a battery of self-report measures assessing childhood physical abuse, trait anger, alcohol consumption, and IPA perpetration. Results revealed a significant three-way interaction showing that as the disinhibition factor alcohol consumption increased, the interaction of the two impelling factors, trait anger and childhood physical abuse, became increasingly more positive. Individuals who had high levels of childhood physical abuse and alcohol consumption were at greater risk of IPA perpetration when trait anger was high. Consistent with the I(3) model, these findings suggest that trait anger and a history of childhood physical abuse may increase tendencies to aggress against one's partner, whereas alcohol consumption may reduce individuals' abilities to manage these aggressive tendencies. The importance of interplay among these risk factors in elevating IPA risk is discussed, as are the implications for clinicians working with male and female IPA perpetrators. © The Author(s) 2014.

  12. Gender differences in alcohol-induced neurotoxicity and brain damage.

    Science.gov (United States)