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Sample records for reported greater alcohol

  1. Does Unemployment Lead to Greater Alcohol Consumption?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popovici, Ioana; French, Michael T

    2013-04-01

    Using panel data from Waves 1 and 2 of the NESARC, we estimate gender-specific effects of changes in employment status on overall alcohol consumption, binge drinking episodes, and a diagnosis of alcohol abuse and/or dependence. We employ various fixed-effects models to address potential bias from unobserved and time-invariant individual heterogeneity. All results show a positive and significant effect of unemployment on drinking behaviors and the findings are robust to numerous sensitivity tests. Perhaps macroeconomic policy decisions intended to stimulate the economy during economic downturns should also consider the avoided personal costs and externalities associated with alcohol misuse.

  2. Alcoholic hallucinosis: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bárbara Werner Griciunas

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Case report of patient who has been an alcoholic for 40 years and, after reducing alcohol intake, developed auditory and visual hallucinations, which caused behavior change. Neurological issues, electrolyte disturbances and other organ dysfunctions were excluded as cause of said change. After intake of haloperidol and risperidone, the patient had regression of symptoms and denied having presented hallucinatory symptoms. The Manual Diagnóstico e Estatístico de Transtornos Mentais – 5ª edição (DSM-V includes alcoholic hallucinosis in the Substance-Induced Psychotic Disorder (alcohol, beginning during abstinence; however, the document is not yet very well accepted among the medical community. The difficulty of the team to confirm the diagnosis of alcoholic hallucinosis lies in the differential diagnosis, as Delirium tremens and severe withdrawal syndrome with psychotic symptoms. Thus, psychopathological differentiation is important, as well as continuity of research and collaboration of other clinical teams in the evaluation.

  3. Conservatives report, but liberals display, greater happiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojcik, Sean P; Hovasapian, Arpine; Graham, Jesse; Motyl, Matt; Ditto, Peter H

    2015-03-13

    Research suggesting that political conservatives are happier than political liberals has relied exclusively on self-report measures of subjective well-being. We show that this finding is fully mediated by conservatives' self-enhancing style of self-report (study 1; N = 1433) and then describe three studies drawing from "big data" sources to assess liberal-conservative differences in happiness-related behavior (studies 2 to 4; N = 4936). Relative to conservatives, liberals more frequently used positive emotional language in their speech and smiled more intensely and genuinely in photographs. Our results were consistent across large samples of online survey takers, U.S. politicians, Twitter users, and LinkedIn users. Our findings illustrate the nuanced relationship between political ideology, self-enhancement, and happiness and illuminate the contradictory ways that happiness differences can manifest across behavior and self-reports.

  4. Promoting greater Federal energy productivity [Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hopkins, Mark; Dudich, Luther

    2003-03-05

    This document is a close-out report describing the work done under this DOE grant to improve Federal Energy Productivity. Over the four years covered in this document, the Alliance To Save Energy conducted liaison with the private sector through our Federal Energy Productivity Task Force. In this time, the Alliance held several successful workshops on the uses of metering in Federal facilities and other meetings. We also conducted significant research on energy efficiency, financing, facilitated studies of potential energy savings in energy intensive agencies, and undertook other tasks outlined in this report.

  5. The effects of husband's alcohol consumption on married women in three low-income areas of Greater Mumbai.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Marlene J; Kremelberg, David; Dwivedi, Purva; Verma, Supriya; Schensul, Jean J; Gupta, Kamla; Chandran, Devyani; Singh, S K

    2010-08-01

    Gender-based violence rooted in norms, socialization practices, structural factors, and policies that underlie men's abusive practices against married women in India is exacerbated by alcohol. The intersection of domestic violence, childhood exposure to alcohol and frustration, which contribute to drinking and its consequences including forced sex is explored through analysis of data obtained from 486 married men living with their wives in a low-income area of Greater Mumbai. SEM shows pathways linking work-related stress, greater exposure to alcohol as a child, being a heavy drinker, and having more sexual partners (a proxy for HIV risk). In-depth ethnographic interviews with 44 married women in the study communities reveal the consequences of alcohol on women's lives showing how married women associate alcohol use and violence with different patterns of drinking. The study suggests ways alcohol use leads from physical and verbal abuse to emotional and sexual violence in marriage. Implications for gendered multi-level interventions addressing violence and HIV risk are explored.

  6. Immature psychological defense mechanisms are associated with greater personal importance of junk food, alcohol, and television.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Rui Miguel; Brody, Stuart

    2013-10-30

    Immature psychological defense mechanisms are psychological processes that play an important role in suppressing emotional awareness and contribute to psychopathology. In addition, unhealthy food, television viewing, and alcohol consumption can be among the means to escape self-awareness. In contrast, engaging in, and responding fully to specifically penile-vaginal intercourse (PVI) is associated with indices of better emotional regulation, including less use of immature defense mechanisms. There was a lack of research on the association of immature defense mechanisms with personal importance of junk food, alcohol, television, PVI, and noncoital sex. In an online survey, 334 primarily Scottish women completed the Defense Style Questionnaire (DSQ-40), and rated the personal importance of junk food, alcohol, television, PVI, and noncoital sex. Immature defense mechanisms correlated with importance of junk food, alcohol, and television. Importance of PVI correlated with mature defenses, and less use of some component immature defenses. Importance of alcohol correlated with importance of junk food, television, and noncoital sex. Importance of junk food was correlated with importance of television and noncoital sex. The findings are discussed in terms of persons with poorer self-regulatory abilities having more interest in junk food, television, and alcohol, and less interest in PVI.

  7. 49 CFR 655.48 - Retesting of covered employees with an alcohol concentration of 0.02 or greater but less than 0.04.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... concentration of 0.02 or greater but less than 0.04. 655.48 Section 655.48 Transportation Other Regulations... Retesting of covered employees with an alcohol concentration of 0.02 or greater but less than 0.04. If an... alcohol test indicating an alcohol concentration of 0.02 or greater but less than 0.04, the employer shall...

  8. 49 CFR 199.229 - Reporting of alcohol testing results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... ALCOHOL TESTING Alcohol Misuse Prevention Program § 199.229 Reporting of alcohol testing results. (a) Each... 49 CFR part 40 (at § 40.25 and appendix H to part 40), not later than March 15 of each year for the...

  9. Accidental acute alcohol intoxication in infants: review and case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minera, Gabriella; Robinson, Evan

    2014-11-01

    Acute alcohol intoxication in children younger than 18 months old is both rarely documented and rarely fatal. Previous case reports suggest hypoglycemia and faster than normal rates of alcohol elimination found in children with acute alcohol intoxication compared with adults, but data are lacking. A 2-month-old infant presented with a decreased mental status after accidental ingestion of alcohol. He was diagnosed with acute alcohol intoxication, with a blood alcohol level of 330 mg/dL and was hyperglycemic (167 mg/dL). Alcohol elimination rate was calculated to be 21.6 mg/dL/h, similar to that in adults. To our knowledge, this case is the second youngest documented patient with accidental alcohol intoxication via ingestion in the United States. We present a rare case report of acute alcohol intoxication in an infant and a review of the literature. WHY SHOULD AN EMERGENCY PHYSICIAN BE AWARE OF THIS?: Although rare in the literature, poison control data suggests that alcohol poisoning in very young children is not rare. Emergency physicians should be prepared for the management of infants with alcohol poisoning. This case report and review brings attention to this subject and briefly discusses ethanol metabolism in infants. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Arthroscopic Tuberoplasty for a Malunited Greater Tuberosity Fracture: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killen, Maire-Clare; Charalambous, Charalambos P

    2015-01-01

    Superior migration and malunion of a fractured greater tuberosity can lead to mechanical subacromial impingement with resultant ongoing pain and limitation of abduction. We describe such a case successfully treated with arthroscopic excision of the protruding portion of the greater tuberosity, with marked improvement in pain and range of movement. The greater tuberosity was exposed by elevating the supraspinatus tendon, which was reattached at the end of the procedure. This case, along with outcomes of similar techniques previously reported in literature suggest that arthroscopic excision of a superiorly malunited greater tuberosity is associated with good symptomatic outcome and preservation of rotator cuff function.

  11. Why do Greater one-horned rhinoceroses (Rhinoceros unicornis) die? - An evaluation of necropsy reports

    OpenAIRE

    Wyss, F; Wenker, C; Robert, N.; Clauss, Marcus; von Houwald, F

    2012-01-01

    Many case reports about different diseases in greater one-horned rhinoceroses (Rhinoceros unicornis) have been published, but an overview of the prevalence of diseases and an evaluation of causes of death is lacking. Necropsy reports of 106 greater one-horned rhinoceroses from 38 zoos worldwide were evaluated. Half of them were from adult animals, a third from perinatal deaths/stillbirths and the rest from juveniles and sub adults. Cardiac problems (cardiomyopathy, myocarditis, heart infarct)...

  12. Alcoholism and diabetes mellitus: case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otieno, C F; Okonji, M M O; Odongo, I S O

    2002-02-01

    Two male patients with diabetes mellitus and alcohol dependence syndrome are presented. Both were married and in middle age. MI stayed alone in the city while his spouse and two children lived in the rural home. He showed no obvious underlying psychiatric morbidity. FWK was living with his family in the city. He was an alcoholic receiving psychiatric care for alcoholism. They both presented separately at different hospitals with decompensated diabetes following heavy alcohol consumption. The history and clinico-laboratory picture of both patients are presented and brief management programme and outcome are also given. Review of literature on alcoholism and its potential impact on the course and management of diabetes is presented.

  13. Effects of Premature Birth on the Risk for Alcoholism Appear to Be Greater in Males Than Females*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzardo, Ann M.; Madarasz, Wendy V.; Penick, Elizabeth C.; Knop, Joachim; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Sorensen, Holger J.; Mahnken, Jonathan D.; Becker, Ulrik; Nickel, Elizabeth J.; Gabrielli, William F.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: A large Danish birth cohort was used to test the independent and joint effects of perinatal measures associated with premature birth as predictors of the development of alcoholism in male and female subjects. Method: Subjects were born at the Copenhagen University Hospital between 1959 and 1961 (N = 9,125). A comprehensive series of measures was obtained for each of the 8,109 surviving and eligible infants before birth, during birth, shortly after birth, and at 1 year. The adult alcoholism outcome was defined as any ICD-10 F10 diagnosis (Mental and behavioral disorders due to alcohol use) or an equivalent ICD-8 diagnosis found in the Danish Psychiatric Central Research Register or the Municipal Alcohol Clinics of Copenhagen by 2007. Results: Multiple perinatal markers of premature birth independently predicted the development of an alcoholism diagnosis in male (n = 310) but not female (n = 138) subjects. Logistic regression modeling with a global prematurity score, adjusted for social status, maternal smoking, and gender, indicated a significant association of prematurity score for males (p premature birth are associated with gender-specific effects on the development of alcoholism in the male baby: small, premature, or growth-delayed male babies appear to be selectively vulnerable to alcoholic drinking years later. The findings implicate neurodevelopmental influences in alcoholism pathophysiology in males and suggest the possibility of distinct, gender-specific pathways in the etiology of severe problem drinking. PMID:21513675

  14. Effects of premature birth on the risk for alcoholism appear to be greater in males than females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzardo, Ann M; Madarasz, Wendy V; Penick, Elizabeth C; Knop, Joachim; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Sorensen, Holger J; Mahnken, Jonathan D; Becker, Ulrik; Nickel, Elizabeth J; Gabrielli, William F

    2011-05-01

    A large Danish birth cohort was used to test the independent and joint effects of perinatal measures associated with premature birth as predictors of the development of alcoholism in male and female subjects. Subjects were born at the Copenhagen University Hospital between 1959 and 1961 (N = 9,125). A comprehensive series of measures was obtained for each of the 8,109 surviving and eligible infants before birth, during birth, shortly after birth, and at 1 year. The adult alcoholism outcome was defined as any ICD-10 F10 diagnosis (Mental and behavioral disorders due to alcohol use) or an equivalent ICD-8 diagnosis found in the Danish Psychiatric Central Research Register or the Municipal Alcohol Clinics of Copenhagen by 2007. Multiple perinatal markers of premature birth independently predicted the development of an alcoholism diagnosis in male (n = 310) but not female (n = 138) subjects. Logistic regression modeling with a global prematurity score, adjusted for social status, maternal smoking, and gender, indicated a significant association of prematurity score for males (p premature birth are associated with gender-specific effects on the development of alcoholism in the male baby: small, premature, or growth-delayed male babies appear to be selectively vulnerable to alcoholic drinking years later. The findings implicate neurodevelopmental influences in alcoholism pathophysiology in males and suggest the possibility of distinct, gender-specific pathways in the etiology of severe problem drinking.

  15. Effects of premature birth on the risk for alcoholism appear to be greater in males than females

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manzardo, Ann M; Madarasz, Wendy V; Penick, Elizabeth C

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT. Objective: A large Danish birth cohort was used to test the independent and joint effects of perinatal measures associated with premature birth as predictors of the development of alcoholism in male and female subjects. Method: Subjects were born at the Copenhagen University Hospital....... Conclusions: The results suggest that neurodevelopmental sequelae of premature birth are associated with gender-specific effects on the development of alcoholism in the male baby: small, premature, or growth-delayed male babies appear to be selectively vulnerable to alcoholic drinking years later...

  16. Effects of premature birth on the risk for alcoholism appear to be greater in males than females

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manzardo, Ann M; Madarasz, Wendy V; Penick, Elizabeth C

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: A large Danish birth cohort was used to test the independent and joint effects of perinatal measures associated with premature birth as predictors of the development of alcoholism in male and female subjects. METHOD: Subjects were born at the Copenhagen University Hospital between 1959......: The results suggest that neurodevelopmental sequelae of premature birth are associated with gender-specific effects on the development of alcoholism in the male baby: small, premature, or growth-delayed male babies appear to be selectively vulnerable to alcoholic drinking years later. The findings implicate...

  17. A review of existing studies reporting the negative effects of alcohol access and positive effects of alcohol control policies on interpersonal violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Laura Fitterer

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol consumption often leads to elevated rates of violence yet alcohol access policies continue to relax across the globe. Our review establishes the extent alcohol policy can moderate violent crime through alcohol availability restrictions. Results were informed from comprehensive selection of peer-reviewed journals from 1950 to October 2015. Our search identified 88 relevant studies on alcohol access and violence conducted across 12 countries. Seventeen studies included quasi-control design, and 23 conducted intervention analysis. Seventy-two (82% reported a significant relationship between alcohol access and violent offences. Alcohol outlet studies reported the greatest percentage of significant results (93%, with trading hours (63%, and alcohol price following (58%. Results from baseline studies indicated the effectiveness of increasing the price of commonly consumed alcohol, restricting the hours of alcohol trading, and limiting the number of alcohol outlets per region to prevent violent offences. Unclear are the effects of tax reductions, restriction of on-premises re-entry, and different outlet types on violent crime. Further, the generalization of statistics over broad areas and the low number of control/intervention studies poses some concern for confounding or correlated effects on study results, and amount of information for local level prevention of interpersonal violence. Future studies should focus on gathering longitudinal data, validating models, limiting crime data to peak drinking days and times, and wherever possible collecting the joint distribution between violent crime, intoxication, and place. A greater up take of local level analysis will benefit studies comparing the influence of multiple alcohol establishment types by relating the location of a crime to establishment proximity. Despite, some uncertainties particular studies showed that even modest policy changes such as 1% increases in alcohol price, one hour changes

  18. A Review of Existing Studies Reporting the Negative Effects of Alcohol Access and Positive Effects of Alcohol Control Policies on Interpersonal Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitterer, Jessica L; Nelson, Trisalyn A; Stockwell, Timothy

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol consumption often leads to elevated rates of violence yet alcohol access policies continue to relax across the globe. Our review establishes the extent alcohol policy can moderate violent crime through alcohol availability restrictions. Results were informed from comprehensive selection of peer-reviewed journals from 1950 to October 2015. Our search identified 87 relevant studies on alcohol access and violence conducted across 12 countries. Seventeen studies included quasi-control design, and 23 conducted intervention analysis. Seventy-one (82%) reported a significant relationship between alcohol access and violent offenses. Alcohol outlet studies reported the greatest percentage of significant results (93%), with trading hours (63%), and alcohol price following (58%). Results from baseline studies indicated the effectiveness of increasing the price of commonly consumed alcohol, restricting the hours of alcohol trading, and limiting the number of alcohol outlets per region to prevent violent offenses. Unclear are the effects of tax reductions, restriction of on-premises re-entry, and different outlet types on violent crime. Further, the generalization of statistics over broad areas and the low number of control/intervention studies poses some concern for confounding or correlated effects on study results, and amount of information for local-level prevention of interpersonal violence. Future studies should focus on gathering longitudinal data, validating models, limiting crime data to peak drinking days and times, and wherever possible collecting the joint distribution between violent crime, intoxication, and place. A greater uptake of local-level analysis will benefit studies comparing the influence of multiple alcohol establishment types by relating the location of a crime to establishment proximity. Despite, some uncertainties particular studies showed that even modest policy changes, such as 1% increases in alcohol price, 1 h changes to closing times

  19. Effects of premature birth on the risk for alcoholism appear to be greater in males than females

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manzardo, Ann M; Madarasz, Wendy V; Penick, Elizabeth C

    2011-01-01

    A large Danish birth cohort was used to test the independent and joint effects of perinatal measures associated with premature birth as predictors of the development of alcoholism in male and female subjects.......A large Danish birth cohort was used to test the independent and joint effects of perinatal measures associated with premature birth as predictors of the development of alcoholism in male and female subjects....

  20. Acute coronary ischemia during alcohol withdrawal: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sriram Ganeshalingam

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction The potential of alcohol withdrawal to cause acute coronary events is an area that needs the urgent attention of clinicians and researchers. Case presentation We report the case of a 52-year-old heavy-alcohol-using Sri Lankan man who developed electocardiogram changes suggestive of an acute coronary event during alcohol withdrawal. Despite the patient being asymptomatic, subsequent echocardiogram showed evidence of ischemic myocardial dysfunction. We review the literature on precipitation of myocardial ischemia during alcohol withdrawal and propose possible mechanisms. Conclusions Alcohol withdrawal is a commonly observed phenomenon in hospitals. However, the number of cases reported in the literature of acute coronary events occurring during withdrawal is few. Many cases of acute ischemia or sudden cardiac deaths may be attributed to other well known complications of delirium tremens. This is an area needing the urgent attention of clinicians and epidemiologists.

  1. Metastasis of greater wing of sphenoid bone in bronchogenic carcinoma: a unusual case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Prashant K; Mital, Mukta; Dwivedi, Amit; Gupta, Kumkum

    2011-01-01

    Orbital metastasis in systemic cancer is known to occur and occurs in up to 7% of all systemic cancers. Orbital features typically present after the diagnosis of the primary tumor. In about 20% of cases, there is no known primary cancer at the time of presentation with orbital metastatic disease. Here we report a case of a 60-year-old male smoker, in whom proptosis, due to metastasis in greater wing of left sphenoid bone secondary to bronchogenic carcinoma, was the initial symptom. We could not find in literature metastasis to greater wing of sphenoid bone due to small cell carcinoma of lung.

  2. Do Alcohol Advertisements for Brands Popular among Underage Drinkers Have Greater Appeal among Youth and Young Adults?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, Michael; DeJong, William; Cioffi, Daryl; Leon-Chi, Lucero; Naimi, Timothy S.; Padon, Alisa A.; Jernigan, David H.; Xuan, Ziming

    2015-01-01

    Background No previous study has determined whether there are differences in the youth appeal of alcohol advertisements for popular versus unpopular brands among underage drinkers. This paper provides a systematic investigation of the differential appeal of brand-level alcohol advertisements among underage youth and young adults in the U.S. Methods We examined three issues of eight magazines popular among underage youth. From the advertised alcohol brands, we selected the ads for the top 10 and bottom 10 brands by prevalence of underage youth consumption, based on the results of a previous national survey. We assessed the ads’ appeal using a sample of 211 students recruited from one graduate and two undergraduate courses at Boston University. Respondents rated the appeal of each advertisement on four dimensions: physical and social appeal, appeal to underage youth, perceived effectiveness, and liking. Using random effects linear regression, we compared the appeal of advertisements for popular versus unpopular brands. Results On each dimension, the ads for popular youth alcohol brands were rated as significantly more appealing than the ads for unpopular brands. The magnitude of this difference was 0.26 standard deviations for the physical and social appeal score, 0.25 for the appeal to underage youth score, 0.21 for the perceived effectiveness score, and 0.16 for the liking score. Conclusions Advertising for alcohol brands that are popular among youth contain elements that are more likely to appeal to underage youth and young adults than ads for brands that are relatively unpopular among young drinkers. PMID:25961837

  3. Delusional parasitosis with alcohol dependence: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahid Dave, Austin Fernandes, Anup Bharati, Avinash De Sousa

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Delusional parasitosis is a syndrome with which most psychiatrists are familiar. However, most reports consist of case reports or small series. We present here a case report of delusional parasitosis of an extremely bizarre nature in a case of alcohol dependence that responded to pimozide, haloperidol and electroconvulsive therapy (ECT.

  4. Alcoholism with central pontine demyelination: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohit Arora

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Central pontine myelinolysis is a non-inflammatory demyelinating disease characterized by loss of myelin with relative neuron sparing, associated with rapid correction of hyponatremia and sometimes hypernatremia or chronic alcoholism. We are reporting a case of 52 year old male patient who was chronic alcoholic from past 20 years, presented to us with complaints of altered sensorium and dysarthria of 5 days duration .He was investigated and diagnosed as case of central pontine myelinosis associated with chronic alcoholism. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2014; 3(1.000: 230-232

  5. Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor arising from the greater omentum: Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tokunaga Masakazu

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNSTs are rare soft tissue tumors that arise from a peripheral nerve or exhibit nerve sheath differentiation. Most of these tumors arise on the trunk, extremities, or head and neck regions; they are very rarely located in the abdominal cavity. The patient was a 71-year-old man who was referred to our hospital for a mass and pain in the right lower abdomen. Abdominal computed tomography revealed a large (9 × 9 cm, well-circumscribed, lobulated, heterogeneously enhanced mass in the pelvis. Exploratory laparotomy revealed a large mass in the greater omentum, and the tumor was completely excised. Histopathological analysis revealed that the tumor was composed of spindle cells with high mitotic activity. On staining the tumor, positive results were obtained for S-100 but negative results were obtained for c-kit, cluster of differentiation (CD34, α-smooth muscle actin, and desmin. These findings strongly supported a diagnosis of MPNST primarily arising from the greater omentum. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of an MPNST arising from the greater omentum. In this report, we have described the case of a patient with an MPNST arising from the greater omentum and have discussed the clinical characteristics and management of MPNSTs.

  6. Variations in band reporting rate and implications for kill rate in Greater Snow Geese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillaume Souchay

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available We assessed spatial and temporal variation in reporting probability of banded Greater Snow Geese (Chen caerulescens atlantica shot by hunters in eastern North America and evaluated potential residual biases in kill rate estimation. Adult Greater Snow Geese were marked with reward (value: US$10, $20, $30, $50, and $100 and standard bands ($0, control in the Canadian Arctic from 2003 to 2005. We used a spatially explicit multinomial model based on 200 direct recoveries from 4256 banded geese to estimate reporting rate and harvest rate. We found that reporting rate for standard bands varied over time whereas harvest rate was higher in Canada than in the U.S. The reporting probability increased from 0.40 ± 0.11 in the first year of the study to 0.82 ± 0.14 and 0.84 ± 0.13 the second and third years, respectively. Overall, these reporting rates are higher than two previous estimates for this population, which leads to lower estimates of kill rate. However, the large annual differences in reporting rates found in this study lead to uncertainty in the estimation of kill rate. We suggest that the increase in reporting rate in the last two year of the study may be due to the dissemination of information among hunters regarding the presence of reward bands on birds, resulting in increased reporting rate for all bands. This raises issues about the need to adequately inform the public in such large-scale studies to avoid undesirable temporal trends over the course of the study.

  7. Hepatitis from Greater celandine (Chelidonium majus L.): review of literature and report of a new case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moro, Paola A; Cassetti, Federica; Giugliano, Gianni; Falce, Maria T; Mazzanti, Gabriela; Menniti-Ippolito, Francesca; Raschetti, Roberto; Santuccio, Carmela

    2009-07-15

    Folk medicine is a rich source of useful therapeutic tools. Nevertheless, use of medicinal plants can have unwanted, negative effects. By means of the description of an adverse reaction to a herbal remedy, we highlight the need for better efficacy-toxicity studies on these products. To report a case of possible Chelidonium majus L. (Greater celandine)-induced hepatitis and evaluate the past published cases. We outlined the main features of hepatitis associated with use of Chelidonium majus by providing a review of cases reported and analysing in detail a new one. Several cases of acute hepatitis related to Greater celandine consumption were found in the literature. The assessment for causality using Naranjo probability scale showed a probable relationship between the liver injury and the consumption of Chelidonium majus in the case we described. Our case, along with the other ones reported in the literature, increases the concern about the safety of oral use of Chelidonium majus. Plants used in traditional medicine are not necessarily harmless. Customers and prescribers should be aware of this, especially when a herbal drug is used with therapeutic purposes in absence of reliable studies of clinical efficacy and benefit-risk assessment.

  8. Childhood osteosarcoma of greater wing of sphenoid: case report and review of literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meel, Rachna; Thulkar, Sanjay; Sharma, Mehar Chand; Jagadesan, Pandjatcharan; Mohanti, Bidhu Kalyan; Sharma, Suresh Chandra; Bakhshi, Sameer

    2012-03-01

    Primary osteosarcoma of skull base is extremely rare. We present a case of primary osteosarcoma arising in greater wing of sphenoid in a child. Our patient had an incomplete excision after which he received adjuvant chemotherapy and radiotherapy. There was good response to adjuvant chemoradiotherapy and the patient is disease free at a follow-up of 18 months. Treatment of skull base osteosarcomas is difficult, as complete excision is often not possible. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of sphenoid wing osteosarcoma in childhood to be reported in literature.

  9. Testing the impact of local alcohol licencing policies on reported crime rates in England

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vocht, F; Heron, J; Campbell, R; Egan, M; Mooney, J D; Angus, C; Brennan, A; Hickman, M

    2017-01-01

    Background Excessive alcohol use contributes to public nuisance, antisocial behaviour, and domestic, interpersonal and sexual violence. We test whether licencing policies aimed at restricting its spatial and/or temporal availability, including cumulative impact zones, are associated with reductions in alcohol-related crime. Methods Reported crimes at English lower tier local authority (LTLA) level were used to calculate the rates of reported crimes including alcohol-attributable rates of sexual offences and violence against a person, and public order offences. Financial fraud was included as a control crime not directly associated with alcohol abuse. Each area was classified as to its cumulative licensing policy intensity for 2009–2015 and categorised as ‘passive’, low, medium or high. Crime rates adjusted for area deprivation, outlet density, alcohol-related hospital admissions and population size at baseline were analysed using hierarchical (log-rate) growth modelling. Results 284 of 326 LTLAs could be linked and had complete data. From 2009 to 2013 alcohol-related violent and sexual crimes and public order offences rates declined faster in areas with more ‘intense’ policies (about 1.2, 0.10 and 1.7 per 1000 people compared with 0.6, 0.01 and 1.0 per 1000 people in ‘passive’ areas, respectively). Post-2013, the recorded rates increased again. No trends were observed for financial fraud. Conclusions Local areas in England with more intense alcohol licensing policies had a stronger decline in rates of violent crimes, sexual crimes and public order offences in the period up to 2013 of the order of 4–6% greater compared with areas where these policies were not in place, but not thereafter. PMID:27514936

  10. Greater Prevalence of Proposed ICD-11 Alcohol and Cannabis Dependence Compared to ICD-10, DSM-IV, and DSM-5 in Treated Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Tammy; Cornelius, Jack; Clark, Duncan; Martin, Christopher

    2017-09-01

    Proposed International Classification of Diseases, 11th edition (ICD-11), criteria for substance use disorder (SUD) radically simplify the algorithm used to diagnose substance dependence. Major differences in case identification across DSM and ICD impact determinations of treatment need and conceptualizations of substance dependence. This study compared the draft algorithm for ICD-11 SUD against DSM-IV, DSM-5, and ICD-10, for alcohol and cannabis. Adolescents (n = 339, ages 14 to 18) admitted to intensive outpatient addictions treatment completed, as part of a research study, a Structured Clinical Interview for DSM SUDs adapted for use with adolescents and which has been used to assess DSM and ICD SUD diagnoses. Analyses examined prevalence across classification systems, diagnostic concordance, and sources of diagnostic disagreement. Prevalence of any past-year proposed ICD-11 alcohol or cannabis use disorder was significantly lower compared to DSM-IV and DSM-5 (ps DSM-5, and ICD-10 (ps DSM-5 SUD diagnoses showed only moderate concordance. For both alcohol and cannabis, youth typically met criteria for an ICD-11 dependence diagnosis by reporting tolerance and much time spent using or recovering from the substance, rather than symptoms indicating impaired control over use. The proposed ICD-11 dependence algorithm appears to "overdiagnose" dependence on alcohol and cannabis relative to DSM-IV and ICD-10 dependence, and DSM-5 moderate/severe use disorder, generating potential "false-positive" cases of dependence. Among youth who met criteria for proposed ICD-11 dependence, few reported impaired control over substance use, highlighting ongoing issues in the conceptualization and diagnosis of SUD. Copyright © 2017 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  11. Alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that's how many accidents occur. continue What Is Alcoholism? What can be confusing about alcohol is that ... develop a problem with it. Sometimes, that's called alcoholism (say: al-kuh-HOL - ism) or being an ...

  12. Alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    If you are like many Americans, you drink alcohol at least occasionally. For many people, moderate drinking ... risky. Heavy drinking can lead to alcoholism and alcohol abuse, as well as injuries, liver disease, heart ...

  13. Alcohol Consumption | Cancer Trends Progress Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Cancer Trends Progress Report, first issued in 2001, summarizes our nation's advances against cancer in relation to Healthy People targets set forth by the Department of Health and Human Services.

  14. Self-Reported Youth and Adult Exposure to Alcohol Marketing in Traditional and Digital Media: Results of a Pilot Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jernigan, David H; Padon, Alisa; Ross, Craig; Borzekowski, Dina

    2017-03-01

    Alcohol marketing is known to be a significant risk factor for underage drinking. However, little is known about youth and adult exposure to alcohol advertising in digital and social media. This study piloted a comparative assessment of youth and adult recall of exposure to online marketing of alcohol. From September to October 2013, a pilot survey of past 30-day exposure to alcohol advertising and promotional content in traditional and digital media was administered to a national sample of 1,192 youth (ages 13 to 20) and 1,124 adults (ages ≥21) using a prerecruited Internet panel maintained by GfK Custom Research. The weighted proportions of youth and adults who reported this exposure were compared by media type and by advertising and promotional content. Youth were more likely than adults to recall exposure to alcohol advertising on television (69.2% vs. 61.9%), radio (24.8% vs. 16.7%), billboards (54.8% vs. 35.4%), and the Internet (29.7% vs. 16.8%), but less likely to recall seeing advertising in magazines (35.7% vs. 36.4%). Youth were also more likely to recall seeing advertisements and pictures on the Internet of celebrities using alcohol (36.1% vs. 20.8%) or wearing clothing promoting alcohol (27.7% vs. 15.9%), and actively respond (i.e., like, share, or post) to alcohol-related content online. Youth report greater exposure to alcohol advertising and promotional content than adults in most media, including on the Internet. These findings emphasize the need to assure compliance with voluntary industry standards on the placement of alcohol advertising and the importance of developing better tools for monitoring youth exposure to alcohol marketing, particularly on the Internet. Copyright © 2017 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  15. Central Pontine Myelinolysis Induced by Alcohol Withdrawal: A Case Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Central pontine myelinolysis (CPM) is a demyelinating disorder characterized by the loss of myelin in the center of the basis pons, and is mainly caused by the rapid correction of hyponatremia. We report the case of a young woman who presented with gait disturbance and alcohol withdrawal, and who was eventually diagnosed with CPM. Generally, the cause and pathogenesis of CPM in chronic alcoholics remain unclear. In this cases, the CPM may be unrelated to hyponatremia or its correction. However, it is possible that the osmotic pressure changes due to refeeding syndrome after alcohol withdrawal was the likely cause in this case. This case illustrates the need for avoiding hasty, and possibly incomplete diagnoses, and performing more intensive test procedures to ensure a correct diagnosis.

  16. Suspected Greater Celandine hepatotoxicity: liver-specific causality evaluation of published case reports from Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teschke, Rolf; Glass, Xaver; Schulze, Johannes; Eickhoff, Axel

    2012-03-01

    In 21 published case reports, the use of the herb Greater Celandine (GC) (Chelidonium majus L.) has been causally related to liver injury, but a variety of confounding variables were evident that might have offset causality. This study reanalyses causality levels in these cases with a liver-specific causality evaluation method. All 21 cases were submitted to the liver-specific, standardized, structured, quantitative and updated scale of the Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences. This scale considers, among other items, latency period, course of alanine aminotransferase after treatment discontinuation, risk factors, comedication and alternative causes. Using this method for assessment, causality for GC was highly probable in two and probable in six cases, with lower causality grading in the remaining 13 cases. In these patients, causality for GC was possible in 10 cases and excluded in three cases. On the basis of the eight cases with highly probable and probable causality gradings, GC hepatotoxicity represents an idiosyncratic reaction of the metabolic type, whereas immunologic or obligatory hepatotoxic features are lacking. In some cases, alternative diagnoses and poor data quality were confounding variables that reduced causality levels. Confounding variables reduced causality levels for GC in reported cases of liver injury, but there is still striking evidence for herb-induced liver injury by GC with high causality gradings. GC hepatotoxicity is caused by an idiosyncratic reaction of the metabolic form, but there is uncertainty with respect to its culprit(s).

  17. Consistency of self-reported alcohol consumption on randomized and sequential alcohol purchase tasks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael eAmlung

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Behavioral economic demand for addictive substances is commonly assessed via purchase tasks that measure estimated drug consumption at a range of prices. Purchase tasks typically use escalating prices in sequential order, which may influence performance by providing explicit price reference points. This study investigated the consistency of value preferences on two alcohol purchase tasks (APTs that used either a randomized or sequential price order (price range: free to $30 per drink in a sample of ninety-one young adult monthly drinkers. Randomization of prices significantly reduced relative response consistency (p < .01, although absolute consistency was high for both versions (>95%. Self-reported alcohol consumption across prices and indices of demand were highly similar across versions, although a few notable exceptions were found. These results suggest generally high consistency and overlapping performance between randomized and sequential price assessment. Implications for the behavioral economics literature and priorities for future research are discussed.

  18. Consistency of self-reported alcohol consumption on randomized and sequential alcohol purchase tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amlung, Michael; Mackillop, James

    2012-01-01

    Behavioral economic demand for addictive substances is commonly assessed via purchase tasks that measure estimated drug consumption at a range of prices. Purchase tasks typically use escalating prices in sequential order, which may influence performance by providing explicit price reference points. This study investigated the consistency of value preferences on two alcohol purchase tasks that used either a randomized or sequential price order (price range: free to $30 per drink) in a sample of 91 young adult monthly drinkers. Randomization of prices significantly reduced relative response consistency (p 95%). Self-reported alcohol consumption across prices and indices of demand were highly similar across versions, although a few notable exceptions were found. These results suggest generally high consistency and overlapping performance between randomized and sequential price assessment. Implications for the behavioral economics literature and priorities for future research are discussed.

  19. Greater Confinement Disposal Test at the Nevada Test Site, Final Technology Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dickman, P. T.

    1989-01-01

    The Greater Confinement Disposal Test (GCDT) was conducted at the Nevada Test Site to demonstrate an alternative method for management of high-specific-activity (HSA) low-level waste (LLW). The GCDT was initially conceived as a method for managing small volumes of highly concentrated tritium wastes, which, due to their environmental mobiilty, are considered unsuitable for routine shallow land disposal. Later, the scope of the GCDT was increased to address a variety of other "problem" HSA wastes including isotope sources and thermal generating wastes. The basic design for the GCDT evolved from a series of studies and assessments. Operational design objectives were to (1) emplace the wastes at a depth sufficient to minimize or eliminate routine environmental transport mechanisms and instrusion scenarios and (2) provide sufficient protection for operations personnel in the handling of HSA sources. To achieve both objectives, a large diameter borehole was selected. The GCDT consisted of a borehole 3 meters (10 feet) in diameter and 36 meters (120 feet) deep, surrounded by nine monitoring holes at varying radii. The GCDT was instrumented for the measurement of temperature, moisture, and soil-gas content. Over one million curies of HSA LLW were emplaced in GCDT. This report reviews the development of the GCDT project and presents analyses of data collected.

  20. Adrenal Rest Tumor from the Greater Omentum Mimicking Exophytic Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HCC): A Case Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Hyung Jo; Kim, Seong Hoon; Shin, Hyun Woong [Daegu Fatima Hospital, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jae Bok [Catholic University of Daegu, Gyeongsan (Korea, Republic of); Jo, Hyun Chul; Son, Mi Young; Kim, Tae Bong [Daegu Veterans Hospital, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-02-15

    Adrenal rest tumors are aberrant adrenocortical tissue which has been most commonly described in abdominal and pelvic sites. To our knowledge, there has been no previous description of an adrenal rest tumor of the greater omentum. We present a case of a pathologically confirmed adrenal rest tumor of the greater omentum in a 76-year- old man

  1. Nesting ecology of greater white-fronted geese on the Nowitna National Wildlife Refuge: 1988 progress report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report covers the nesting ecology of greater white-fronted geese on the Nowitna National Wildlife Refuge. Aerial surveys to document spring phenology and...

  2. Alcoholic ketoacidosis: a case report and review of the literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noor, Nurulamin M.; Basavaraju, Krishna; Sharpstone, Dan

    2016-01-01

    Alcoholic ketoacidosis (AKA) is a cause of severe metabolic acidosis usually occurring in malnourished patients with a history of recent alcoholic binge, often on a background of alcohol dependency. AKA can be fatal due to associated electrolyte abnormalities and subsequent development of cardiac arrhythmias. This is a diagnosis that is often delayed or missed, in patients who present with a severe lactic and ketoacidosis. Here we report the case of a 64-year-old female who presented with generalized abdominal pain, nausea and shortness of breath. Blood gas analysis showed significant acidaemia with a pH of 7.10, bicarbonate of 2.9 mmol/l, and lactate of 11.7 mmol/l. Serum ketones were raised at 5.5 mmol/l. The diagnosis of AKA was suspected, and subsequent aggressive fluid resuscitation, management and monitoring were instituted. Given the early recognition of AKA and appropriate multidisciplinary team management, our patient had a good outcome and was discharged home without any complication. PMID:26949539

  3. Young adolescents who combine alcohol and energy drinks have a higher risk of reporting negative behavioural outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holubcikova, Jana; Kolarcik, Peter; Madarasova Geckova, Andrea; Joppova, Eva; van Dijk, Jitse P; Reijneveld, Sijmen A

    2017-04-01

    To explore whether young adolescents consuming alcohol and energy drinks combined were more likely to report negative behavioural outcomes than their peers who drink only one type of these beverages or are abstinent. We analysed data on a representative sample of Slovak adolescents 8502 adolescents (mean age 13.21, 49.4 % boys) from the 2014 Health Behaviour in School-aged Children cross-sectional study. We assessed the associations of alcohol and energy drinks consumption with negative outcomes and their potential synergy, as measured by the synergy index (SI). Adolescents consuming both alcohol and energy drinks were at higher risk of negative behavioural outcomes than their peers who drank only alcohol or energy drinks or were non-consumers. Consumers of alcohol and energy drinks were highly prone to be involved in fighting-the joint association of alcohol and energy drinks consumption was greater than sum of its associations separately in relation to fighting (SI 1.49; 95 % confidence interval 1.03-2.16). Preventive strategies should aim at increasing awareness of negative behavioural outcomes-especially aggressive behaviour associated with alcohol and energy drinks consumption among young adolescents.

  4. 49 CFR 382.201 - Alcohol concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Alcohol concentration. 382.201 Section 382.201... ALCOHOL USE AND TESTING Prohibitions § 382.201 Alcohol concentration. No driver shall report for duty or... concentration of 0.04 or greater. No employer having actual knowledge that a driver has an alcohol concentration...

  5. Final report of the safety assessment of Alcohol Denat., including SD Alcohol 3-A, SD Alcohol 30, SD Alcohol 39, SD Alcohol 39-B, SD Alcohol 39-C, SD Alcohol 40, SD Alcohol 40-B, and SD Alcohol 40-C, and the denaturants, Quassin, Brucine Sulfate/Brucine, and Denatonium Benzoate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    animals that died, respiratory arrest was the cause. The acute i.p. LD(50) for 15 ml/kg of Brucine base was 62.0 mg/kg, with central nervous system depression prior to the onset of convulsions, just as with oral Brucine. The acute intravenous (i.v.) LD(50) was 12.0 mg/kg. Brucine was nonmutagenic in an Ames assay at levels up to 6666 mu g/plate, with and without metabolic activation. In a repeat-insult patch test, for a hair care product containing 47% SD Alcohol 40 (95%), it was reported that Brucine Sulfate may be considered a nonprimary irritant and a nonprimary sensitizer. Three different sunscreen products (35% SD Alcohol 40-B, 72.4% SD Alcohol 40, and 74.5% SD Alcohol 40) did not show any signs of photoallergy in human subjects. Also, these three formulas did not exhibit any evidence of phototoxicity in humans. Denatonium Benzoate is a bitter substance detectable at a concentration of 10 ppb, discernibly bitter at 50 ppb, and unpleasantly bitter at 10 ppm. The distribution of topically applied lidocaine, a topical anesthetic chemically related to Denatonium Benzoate demonstrated that virtually no lidocaine appears in the plasma, suggesting that the larger Denatonium Benzoate molecule also would have little or no systemic exposure. Denatonium Benzoate (0.1%) did not show adverse effects in 10 rats in an acute inhalation toxicity test and 0.005% to 0.05% was nonirritating to ocular mucosa in 6 albino rabbits. The acute oral LD(50) for the male rats was 640 mg/kg and for females, 584 mg/kg. The LD(50) for the male rabbits was 508 mg/kg and for the female rabbits, 640 mg/kg. In two chronic toxicity studies, Denatonium Benzoate was administered (by gavage) at 1.6, 8, and 16 mg/kg/day, one using cynomologus monkeys and the other rats, resulted in no compound-related toxicity. The toxicity of SD Alcohols has also been tested, with implications for the particular denaturant used. An irritation test of 55.65% SD Alcohol 40-B denatured with Denatonium Benzoate using rabbits

  6. Alcohol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriks, H.F.; Tol, A. van

    2005-01-01

    Alcohol consumption affects overall mortality. Light to moderate alcohol consumption reduces the risk of coronary heart disease; epidemiological, physiological and genetic data show a causal relationship. Light to moderate drinking is also associated with a reduced risk of other vascular diseases an

  7. Case report 358: Desmoid tumor of the greater wing of the right sphenoid bone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crisi, G.; Calo, M.; Mauri, C.

    1986-03-01

    In summary, a case has been presented of a 26-year-old man who on admission showed a mild right proptosis and swelling of the right temple. Roentgenograms of the skull demonstrated loss of the right innominate line. CT studies after contrast demonstrated a sharply-demarcated, destructive area of the right greater sphenoid wing with an enhancing, spindle-shaped, soft tissue mass observed around the bony defect. Increased uptake was demonstrated on a radionuclide scan. The lesion was surgically removed and proved to be a desmoid. (orig./SHA).

  8. How report cards on physicians, physician groups, and hospitals can have greater impact on consumer choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinaiko, Anna D; Eastman, Diana; Rosenthal, Meredith B

    2012-03-01

    Public report cards with quality and cost information on physicians, physician groups, and hospital providers have proliferated in recent years. However, many of these report cards are difficult for consumers to interpret and have had little impact on the provider choices consumers are making. To gain a more focused understanding of why these reports cards have not been more successful and what improvements could be made, we interviewed experts and surveyed registrants at the March 2011 AHRQ National Summit on Public Reporting for Consumers in Health Care. We found broad agreement that public reporting has been disconnected from consumer decisions about providers because of weaknesses in report card content, design, and accessibility. Policy makers have an opportunity to change the landscape of public reporting by taking advantage of advances in measurement, data collection, and information technology to deliver a more consumer-centered report card. Overcoming the constraint of limited public funding, and achieving the acceptance of providers, is critical to realizing future success.

  9. Greater-Than-Class C Low-Level Radioactive Waste Transportation Strategy report and institutional plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmitt, R.C.; Tyacke, M.J.

    1995-01-01

    This document contains two parts. Part I, Greater-Than-Class-C Low-Level Radioactive Waste Transportation Strategy, addresses the requirements, responsibilities, and strategy to transport and receive these wastes. The strategy covers (a) transportation packaging, which includes shipping casks and waste containers; (b) transportation operations relating to the five facilities involved in transportation, i.e., waste originator, interim storage, dedicated storage, treatment, and disposal; (c) system safety and risk analysis; (d) routes; (e) emergency preparedness and response; and (o safeguards and security. A summary of strategic actions is provided at the conclusion of Part 1. Part II, Institutional Plan for Greater-Than-Class C Low-Level Radioactive Waste Packaging and Transportation, addresses the assumptions, requirements, and institutional plan elements and actions. As documented in the Strategy and Institutional Plan, the most challenging issues facing the GTCC LLW Program shipping campaign are institutional issues closely related to the strategy. How the Program addresses those issues and demonstrates to the states, local governments, and private citizens that the shipments can and will be made safely will strongly affect the success or failure of the campaign.

  10. Ischemic colitis complicating imipramine overdose and alcohol ingestion. Case report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Basse, Peter Neimann; Rørdam, P

    1992-01-01

    Patients on antidepressant medication are instructed to avoid alcohol because of possible additive effects on cognitive function. An unusual case of colonic gangrene following overdose of imipramine and alcohol is presented. The patient recovered....

  11. Ischemic colitis complicating imipramine overdose and alcohol ingestion. Case report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Basse, Peter Neimann; Rørdam, P

    1992-01-01

    Patients on antidepressant medication are instructed to avoid alcohol because of possible additive effects on cognitive function. An unusual case of colonic gangrene following overdose of imipramine and alcohol is presented. The patient recovered....

  12. Capillary haemangioma of the greater omentum in a 5-month-old female infant: a case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chateil, J.F. [Hopital Pellegrin, 33 - Bordeaux (France). Service de Neuro-Radiologie; Unite de Radiopediatrie, Hopital Pellegrin, Bordeaux (France); Saragne-Feuga, C.; Brun, M.; Diard, F. [Hopital Pellegrin, 33 - Bordeaux (France). Service de Neuro-Radiologie; Perel, Y. [Service de Pediatrie A, Hopital Pellegrin, Bordeaux (France); Neuenschwander, S. [Service de Radiologie, Institut Curie, Paris (France); Vergnes, P. [Service de Chirurgie Pediatrique, Hopital Pellegrin, Bordeaux (France)

    2000-12-01

    Capillary haemangiomas are frequent benign tumours in infancy. The authors report a case of capillary haemangioma of the greater omentum, discovered in a child of 5 months of age and studied with US, CT and MRI. The localization of such a lesion in the greater omentum is exceptional. Abdominal US revealed a heterogeneous, multinodular intraperitoneal mass. Doppler study demonstrated hypervascularity of the lesion. CT localized the mass to the greater omentum. The mass was hypodense on the unenhanced scan and enhanced massively after injection. The infant suffered a reaction to contrast medium during the CT. MRI demonstrated a mass which was hypointense on T1-weighted images and hyperintense on T2-weighted images. Laparotomy confirmed the location of the mass within the greater omentum and allowed resection of the tumour. (orig.)

  13. Alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... changes that come from drinking alcohol can make people do stupid or embarrassing things, like throwing up or peeing on themselves. Drinking also gives people bad breath, and no one enjoys a hangover. ...

  14. Herbal hepatotoxicity by Greater Celandine (Chelidonium majus): causality assessment of 22 spontaneous reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teschke, Rolf; Glass, Xaver; Schulze, Johannes

    2011-12-01

    Toxic liver injury due to the herb Greater Celandine (GC) (Chelidonium majus L.) has been assumed in patients originating from various European countries and created concern. Based on regulatory and liver unspecific ad hoc causality assessments in 22 spontaneous cases of Germany, causality levels for GC were considered probable in 16 and possible in 6 cases. We now analyzed the data of these 22 cases regarding their causality levels employing the liver specific, standardized, structured and quantitative assessment method of the updated scale of CIOMS (Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences). Causality for GC was found highly probable (n=2), probable (n=6), possible (n=10), unlikely (n=1), and excluded (n=3). Thus, causality could be upgraded in 2 cases to a highly probable causality level, but had to be down graded to excluded, unlikely, or possible causality levels in 3, 1, or 9 cases, respectively. GC hepatotoxicity shows a hepatocellular pattern of liver injury with female gender predominance. On average, age of the patients was 56.4 years, treatment 36.4 days, and latency period until first symptoms and jaundice 29.8 and 35.6 days, respectively. This analysis therefore provides further evidence for the existence of GC hepatotoxicity as a distinct form of herb induced liver injury, but due to poor data quality the causal association between GC use and liver injury is less strong than hitherto assumed. We propose replacement of the regulatory organ unspecific by a liver specific causality assessment method in cases of herb induced liver injury as well as stricter pharmacovigilance strategies towards improvements of data quality. Toxicological studies are now warranted to elucidate the mechanism(s) of human GC hepatotoxicity that represents a European issue. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. College students who have an eveningness preference report lower self-control and greater procrastination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Digdon, Nancy L; Howell, Andrew J

    2008-11-01

    Previous research suggests a possible link between eveningness and general difficulties with self-regulation (e.g., evening types are more likely than other chronotypes to have irregular sleep schedules and social rhythms and use substances). Our study investigated the relationship between eveningness and self-regulation by using two standardized measures of self-regulation: the Self-Control Scale and the Procrastination Scale. We predicted that an eveningness preference would be associated with poorer self-control and greater procrastination than would an intermediate or morningness preference. Participants were 308 psychology students (mean age=19.92 yrs) at a small Canadian college. Students completed the self-regulation questionnaires and Morningness/Eveningness Questionnaire (MEQ) online. The mean MEQ score was 46.69 (SD=8.20), which is intermediate between morningness and eveningness. MEQ scores ranged from definite morningness to definite eveningness, but the dispersion of scores was skewed toward more eveningness. Pearson and partial correlations (controlling for age) were used to assess the relationship between MEQ score and the Self-Control Scale (global score and 5 subscale scores) and Procrastination Scale (global score). All correlations were significant. The magnitude of the effects was medium for all measures except one of the Self-Control subscales, which was small. A multiple regression analysis to predict MEQ score using the Self-Control Scale (global score), Procrastination Scale, and age as predictors indicated the Self-Control Scale was a significant predictor (accounting for 20% of the variance). A multiple regression analysis to predict MEQ scores using the five subscales of the Self-Control Scale and age as predictors showed the subscales for reliability and work ethic were significant predictors (accounting for 33% of the variance). Our study showed a relationship between eveningness and low self-control, but it did not address whether the

  16. Greater Green River Basin production improvement project, Phase 1: Site characterization report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeJarnett, B.B.; Krystinik, L.F.; Mead, R.H.; Poe, S.C.

    1996-05-01

    Several tight, naturally-fractured, gas-productive formations in the Greater Green River Basin (GGRB) in Wyoming have been exploited using conventional vertical well technology. Typically, hydraulic fracture treatments must be performed in completing these wells to increase gas production rates to economic levels. However, with the maturation of horizontal drilling technology hydraulic fracture treatments may not be the most effective method for improving gas production from these tight reservoirs. Two of the most prolific tight gas reservoirs in the Green River Basin, the Frontier and the Mesaverde, are candidates for the application of horizontal well completion technology. The objective of the proposed project is to apply the DOE`s technical concept to the Second Frontier Formation on the western flank of the Rock Springs Uplift. Previous industry attempts to produce in commercial quantities from the Second Frontier Formation have been hampered by lack of understanding of both the in-situ natural fracture system and lack of adequate stimulation treatments. The proposed technical approach involves drilling a vertical characterization well to the Second Frontier Formation at a depth of approximately 16,000 ft. from a site located about 18 miles northwest of Rock Springs, Wyoming. Logging, coring, and well testing information from the vertical well will be used to design a hydraulic fracturing treatment and to assess the resulting production performance. Data from the vertical drilling phase will be used to design a 2,500 to 3,000-ft lateral wellbore which will be kicked off from the vertical hole and extend into the blanket marine sandstone bench of the Second Frontier Formation. The trajectory of this wellbore will be designed to intersect the maximum number of natural fractures to maximize production rates. Production testing of the resulting completion will provide an assessment of reserve potential related to horizontal lateral completions.

  17. Self-reported posttraumatic growth predicts greater subsequent posttraumatic stress amidst war and terrorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalta, Alyson K; Gerhart, James; Hall, Brian J; Rajan, Kumar B; Vechiu, Catalina; Canetti, Daphna; Hobfoll, Stevan E

    2017-03-01

    This study tested three alternative explanations for research indicating a positive, but heterogeneous relationship between self-reported posttraumatic growth (PTG) and posttraumatic stress symptoms (PSS): (a) the third-variable hypothesis that the relationship between PTG and PSS is a spurious one driven by positive relationships with resource loss, (b) the growth over time hypothesis that the relationship between PTG and PSS is initially a positive one, but becomes negative over time, and (c) the moderator hypothesis that resource loss moderates the relationship between PTG and PSS such that PTG is associated with lower levels of PSS as loss increases. A nationally representative sample (N = 1622) of Israelis was assessed at three time points during a period of ongoing violence. PTG, resource loss, and the interaction between PTG and loss were examined as lagged predictors of PSS to test the proposed hypotheses. Results were inconsistent with all three hypotheses, showing that PTG positively predicted subsequent PSS when accounting for main and interactive effects of loss. Our results suggest that self-reported PTG is a meaningful but counterintuitive predictor of poorer mental health following trauma.

  18. [Alcohol and epilepsy: a case report between alcohol withdrawal seizures and neuroborreliosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gheorghiev, C; De Montleau, F; Defuentes, G

    2011-06-01

    This work consists in a study of the links between alcohol, a psychoactive substance and different related epileptic manifestations in order to clarify predominant factors both on conceptual, clinical and therapeutic levels. If alcohol is a frequent risk factor for seizures, its scientific evidence is less clear and ad hoc literature is rich in controversies and not firmly supported by systematic surveys. Alcohol has variable roles in the physiopathological determinism of seizures, the nosographical status of which needs to be clarified: alcohol withdrawal seizures, alcoholic epilepsy, and sometimes symptomatic epilepsy caused by coincidental disorders. A synthesis of relevant literature describing the links between alcohol and epilepsy is illustrated by a clinical case: a patient admitted in our psychiatric ward for chronic alcoholism had had two seizures questioning their nosographical status. An infectious process with protean neurological manifestations, neuroborreliosis, was diagnosed. Three distinct clinical pictures illustrate the links between alcohol and epilepsy: the first, convulsive inebriation corresponds to a seizure during severe acute alcohol intoxication. The second deals with alcohol withdrawal seizures following a partial or complete sudden withdrawal of alcohol; these are the clinical features the most documented in the literature representing, with delirium tremens, the main complication of alcohol withdrawal. The third clinical picture, alcoholic epilepsy, is characterized by repetitive seizures in patients presenting alcohol abuse without former history of epilepsy or other potentially epileptic disorder, and without relationship to alcohol withdrawal or acute alcohol intoxication. Acute and chronic effects of alcohol on central nervous system have been depicted, while a unified classification of alcohol related seizures has been recently established by Bartolomei. This classification based on the Ballenger hypothesis of kindling (1978) could

  19. The 1258 G>A polymorphism in the neuropeptide Y gene is associated with greater alcohol consumption in a Mediterranean population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francès, F; Guillen, M; Verdú, F; Portolés, O; Castelló, A; Sorlí, J V; Corella, D

    2011-03-01

    Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is a neurotransmitter widely distributed in the central nervous system. Several studies have demonstrated that increases of NPY are associated with reduced alcohol intake and anxiety manifestations. The Leu7Pro polymorphism in the NPY has been associated with alcohol consumption, but evidence is scarce. In the Spanish Mediterranean population, this variant is not polymorphic. Thus, our aim is to identify novel functional variants in the NPY and to investigate the impact of these markers and others previously described on alcohol consumption in this population. A total of 911 subjects (321 men and 590 women) from the Spanish Mediterranean population were recruited. Alcohol consumption, and demographic and lifestyle variables were measured. Nucleotide sequence determination and SNP analyses were carried out. Only one exonic SNP was detected by direct sequencing (1258 G>A or rs9785023; allele frequency 0.47). From the intronic markers chosen (483 A>G or rs13235938, 2517 A>G or rs4722342, and 7065 A>G or rs4722343), only the two latter ones were polymorphic (allele frequencies 0.46 and 0.04, respectively), and none of them were associated with alcohol consumption. However, the 1258 G>A SNP was associated (recessive pattern) with higher alcohol intake. This association was particularly relevant in men with high alcohol intake (59.1±5.0 g/day in AA as opposed to 40.6±7.5 in the G carriers, P=.022) and women with moderate alcohol intake (7.3±5.5 g/day in AA as opposed to 4.6±3.9g/day in G carriers, P=.048). The 1258 G>A polymorphism in the NPY is associated with higher alcohol consumption in the Mediterranean population. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Trypanosoma evansi in dromedary camel: with a case report of zoonosis in greater Cairo, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haridy, Fouad M; El-Metwally, Mohamed Tolba; Khalil, Hazem H M; Morsy, Tosson A

    2011-04-01

    Trypanosoma evansi (Steel, 1885) Balbiani, is the cause of trypanosomiasis (Surra) which multiples in the blood and body fluids. The incubation period varies from 7-15 days. The mortality rate was up to 20% and fatality rate may reach up to 100% in untreated camels. Three hundred randomly selected camels were 200 males 4-6 years old and 100 females 10-15 years. They were examined clinically and diagnosed by Giemsa stained blood smear, anti- trypanosomiasis-antibodies by ELISA and urine Thymol turbidity test for natural infection with T. evani (Surra). The results showed that camels were naturally infected with T. evansi as indicated by stained blood film examination and/or ELISA. Infection in males was 6.0% (stained blood smears), 8.0% (ELISA) and 5.0% (urine thymol turbidity test). In females the infection rate was 9.0%, 24.0% and 12% respectively. By correlation with suggestive clinical manifestations, ELISA proved to be more sensitive and specific (13.3%) than stained blood films (10.0%) and urine Thymol turbidity test (7.3%). Regarding humans, one out of 30 was positive as indicated by ELISA and stained blood smear but was negative by urine thymol turbidity test. The human case was successfully treated as indicated clinically, parasitologically and serologically. This is the first reported Egyptian human case of trypanosomiasis evansi, a neglected zoonosis.

  1. Comparison of assessment methods for self-reported alcohol consumption in health interview surveys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekholm, O; Strandberg-Larsen, K; Christensen, K;

    2008-01-01

    To select a simple method for assessing alcohol consumption and to compare how different reference periods and response categories influence the self-reported frequency of binge drinking.......To select a simple method for assessing alcohol consumption and to compare how different reference periods and response categories influence the self-reported frequency of binge drinking....

  2. Fighting Drugs and Alcohol in the Workplace: ILO Reports Success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    World of Work, 1998

    1998-01-01

    The economic costs of drug and alcohol abuse in the workplace are enormous. A new analysis of an International Labour Organisation (ILO) 5-year transnational program involving management and unions has shown positive results in decreasing drug and alcohol problems. (JOW)

  3. Reporting the characteristics of the policy context for population-level alcohol interventions: a proposed 'Transparent Reporting of Alcohol Intervention ContExts' (TRAICE) checklist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, John; Meier, Petra S; Booth, Andrew; Brennan, Alan

    2014-11-01

    Effectiveness of alcohol policy interventions varies across times and places. The circumstances under which effective polices can be successfully transferred between contexts are typically unexplored with little attention given to developing reporting requirements that would facilitate systematic investigation. Using purposive sampling and expert elicitation methods, we identified context-related factors impacting on the effectiveness of population-level alcohol policies. We then drew on previous characterisations of alcohol policy contexts and methodological-reporting checklists to design a new checklist for reporting contextual information in evaluation studies. Six context factor domains were identified: (i) baseline alcohol consumption, norms and harm rates; (ii) baseline affordability and availability; (iii) social, microeconomic and demographic contexts; (iv) macroeconomic context; (v) market context; and (vi) wider policy, political and media context. The checklist specifies information, typically available in national or international reports, to be reported in each domain. The checklist can facilitate evidence synthesis by providing: (i) a mechanism for systematic and more consistent reporting of contextual data for meta-regression and realist evaluations; (ii) information for policy-makers on differences between their context and contexts of evaluations; and (iii) an evidence base for adjusting prospective policy simulation models to account for policy context. Our proposed checklist provides a tool for gaining better understanding of the influence of policy context on intervention effectiveness. Further work is required to rationalise and aggregate checklists across interventions types to make such checklists practical for use by journals and to improve reporting of important qualitative contextual data. © 2014 The Authors. Drug and Alcohol Review published by Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd on behalf of Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and

  4. Social and institutional evaluation report for Greater-Than-Class C Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, T.L.; Lewis, B.E.; Turner, K.H.; Rozelle, M.A. [Dames and Moore, Denver, CO (United States)

    1993-10-01

    This report identifies and characterizes social and institutional issues that would be relevant to the siting, licensing, construction, closure, and postclosure of a Greater-Than-Class-C low-level radioactive waste (GTCC LLW) disposal facility. A historical perspective of high-level radioactive waste (HLW) and LLW disposal programs is provided as an overview of radioactive waste disposal and to support the recommendations and conclusions in the report. A characterization of each issue is provided to establish the basis for further evaluations. Where applicable, the regulatory requirements of 10 CFR 60 and 61 are incorporated in the issue characterizations. The issues are used to compare surface, intermediate depth, and deep geologic disposal alternatives. The evaluation establishes that social and institutional issues do not significantly discriminate among the disposal alternatives. Recommendations are provided for methods by which the issues could be considered throughout the lifecycle of a GTCC LLW disposal program.

  5. Alcohol elimination and simulator performance of male and female aviators: a preliminary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, J L; Dolhert, N; Friedman, L; Mumenthaler, M; Yesavage, J A

    1996-05-01

    In this preliminary study of alcohol effects on aviators' flight simulator performance, we addressed some methodological issues regarding possible gender-related differences in response to alcohol. Subjects were 11 male and 12 female general aviation pilots, ages 21-40. Subjects received 8 h of training before they were tested with alcohol. On the alcohol test day they were tested before drinking, while intoxicated (target BAC of 0.08%), and 8 h after drinking. The average, observed peak BAC readings for men and women were within 0.003% of each other. We observed faster disappearance rates for women such that women reached the FAA cutoff of 0.04% approximately 1 h before men, on average. Compared to predrink performance, there was a significant decrement in simulator performance during acute intoxication, but not 8 h after drinking. There were no significant gender differences in performance before or after drinking alcohol. Slower rates of alcohol elimination were associated with larger performance changes 8 h after drinking. This is the first report to our knowledge suggesting a possible relation between alcohol elimination rate and change in performance after drinking alcohol. A 12.5% dose reduction for women appears to be adequate for achieving comparable peak BAC's for male and female groups. Future studies using measures of circadian rhythmicity in conjunction with pharmacokinetic and performance measures could potentially shed light on differences in subjects' acute and delayed responses to alcohol.

  6. Waste Management Facilities Cost Information report for Greater-Than-Class C and DOE equivalent special case waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feizollahi, F.; Shropshire, D.

    1993-07-01

    This Waste Management Facility Cost Information (WMFCI) report for Greater-Than-Class C low-level waste (GTCC LLW) and DOE equivalent special case waste contains preconceptual designs and planning level life-cycle cost (PLCC) estimates for treatment, storage, and disposal facilities needed for management of GTCC LLW and DOE equivalent waste. The report contains information on 16 facilities (referred to as cost modules). These facilities are treatment facility front-end and back-end support functions (administration support, and receiving, preparation, and shipping cost modules); seven treatment concepts (incineration, metal melting, shredding/compaction, solidification, vitrification, metal sizing and decontamination, and wet/air oxidation cost modules); two storage concepts (enclosed vault and silo); disposal facility front-end functions (disposal receiving and inspection cost module); and four disposal concepts (shallow-land, engineered shallow-land, intermediate depth, and deep geological cost modules). Data in this report allow the user to develop PLCC estimates for various waste management options. A procedure to guide the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and its contractor personnel in the use of estimating data is also included in this report.

  7. Brief Report: Associations Between Self-Reported Paternal Relationships, Anger, Alcohol, and Intimate Partner Violence in a Prison Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardi, Jessica; Day, Andrew; Bowen, Erica

    2017-07-01

    This study investigates the association between family relationships, anger, alcohol use, and self-reported intimate partner violence (IPV). Participants were 55 male prisoners who completed a survey about their family relationships, anger, alcohol use, and aggression. Exposure to parental IPV predicted rates of self-reported perpetration of IPV, suggesting the importance of understanding more about the developmental pathways to IPV if effective prevention, intervention, and assessment strategies are to be developed for use with this high-risk population.

  8. Zinc-deficiency acrodermatitis in a patient with chronic alcoholism and gastric bypass: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dariush Shahsavari

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Acquired adult-onset zinc deficiency is occasionally reported in patients with malnutrition states, such as alcoholism, or malabsorptive states, such as post-bariatric surgery. The defining symptoms of hypozincemia include a classic triad of necrolytic dermatitis, diffuse alopecia, and diarrhea. We report a case of zinc deficiency in a 39-year-old man with history of gastric bypass surgery and alcoholism. For this patient, severe hypozincemia confirmed acrodermatitis, and zinc supplementation was met with gradual improvement.

  9. Adults with Greater Weight Satisfaction Report More Positive Health Behaviors and Have Better Health Status Regardless of BMI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine E. Blake

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Prior studies suggest that weight satisfaction may preclude changes in behavior that lead to healthier weight among individuals who are overweight or obese. Objective. To gain a better understanding of complex relationships between weight satisfaction, weight-related health behaviors, and health outcomes. Design. Cross-sectional analysis of data from the Aerobics Center Longitudinal Study (ACLS. Participants. Large mixed-gender cohort of primarily white, middle-to-upper socioeconomic status (SES adults with baseline examination between 1987 and 2002 (n=19,003. Main Outcome Variables. Weight satisfaction, weight-related health behaviors, chronic health conditions, and clinical health indicators. Statistical Analyses Performed. Chi-square test, t-tests, and linear and multivariate logistic regression. Results. Compared to men, women were more likely to be dieting (32% women; 18% men and had higher weight dissatisfaction. Men and women with greater weight dissatisfaction reported more dieting, yo-yo dieting, and snacking and consuming fewer meals, being less active, and having to eat either more or less than desired to maintain weight regardless of weight status. Those who were overweight or obese and dissatisfied with their weight had the poorest health. Conclusion. Greater satisfaction with one’s weight was associated with positive health behaviors and health outcomes in both men and women and across weight status groups.

  10. Greater Caribbean Energy and Environment Future. Ad hoc working group report, Key Biscayne, Florida, October 26-28, 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thorhaug, A. (ed.)

    1980-01-01

    This report of Workshop I (presented in outline form) by the Greater Caribbean Energy and Environment Foundation begin an intensive focus on the energy problems of the Caribbean. The process by which environmental assessments by tropical experts can be successfully integrated into energy decisions is by: (1) international loan institutions requiring or strongly recommending excellent assessments; (2) engineering awareness of total effects of energy projects; (3) governmental environmental consciousness-raising with regard to natural resource value and potential inadvertent and unnecessary resource losses during energy development; and (4) media participation. Section headings in the outline are: preamble; introduction; research tasks: today and twenty years hence; needed research, demonstration and information dissemination projects to get knowledge about Caribbean energy-environment used; summary; recommendations; generalized conclusions; and background literature. (JGB)

  11. Beyond self-reports: drinking motives predict grams of consumed alcohol in wine-tasting sessions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuntsche, Emmanuel; Kuendig, Hervé

    2012-08-01

    The link between drinking motives and alcohol-related outcomes has been investigated extensively, yet almost exclusively using retrospective self-reports that are subject to recall bias. This study overcomes this limitation using an experimental design to test whether the 4 drinking-motive dimensions (social, enhancement, coping and conformity, as measured in the baseline questionnaire) predict the quantity of alcohol actually ingested during 2 wine-tasting sessions conducted approximately 3 and 7 weeks after the baseline motive assessment. Regression modeling was based on an analog measurement of grams of pure alcohol among 123 young adults. Self-reported data at baseline concurred with the data collected during the experimental sessions, that is, alcohol consumption was high for males and enhancement drinkers and low for conformity drinkers. Coping drinkers significantly increased their consumption between the first and second sessions, while social drinkers tended to decrease theirs. Yet when separately considering data recorded during the first session, none of the drinking motives predicted the amounts of alcohol actually consumed. To conclude, this study demonstrates that motives predict actual alcohol consumption, which is consistent with evidence-based self-reports. Particularly, enhancement and coping drinkers seem to take advantage of the drinking situation probably because they usually appreciate the psychoactive properties of alcohol, either to maximize pleasurable sensations or to alleviate negative ones. However, if the setting is unusual (first tasting session), situational characteristics may "overrule" the effect of personal motives.

  12. Unusual Infections Complicating the Use of Steroids with Severe Alcoholic Hepatitis: Report of 2 Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitor Arantes

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Corticosteroid therapy for acute alcoholic hepatitis has been demonstrated to enhance survival in patients who are encephalopathic, and who do not have renal failure or gastrointestinal bleeding. However, the complications of steroid therapy in such patients have been less well documented. The authors report two patients with alcoholic liver disease who developed life-threatening infections after steroid therapy was started. The first patient initially developed diabetes followed by Fournier's gangrene of the perineum, and a lung abscess following septic emboli. The second patient had established alcoholic cirrhosis rather than alcoholic hepatitis. She developed a necrotic ulcer on the arm at the site of an intravenous line, which was infected with a rhizopus species. Despite surgical debridement the lesion progressed and contributed to her death. Treatment of alcoholic hepatitis with steroids is not innocuous, and physicians should be aware of the potential for life-threatening complications.

  13. New reports, phylogenetic analysis, and a key to Lactarius Pers. in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem informed by molecular data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward G. Barge

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem (GYE, located in the Central Rocky Mountains of western North America, is one of the largest nearly intact temperate-zone ecosystems on Earth. Here, Lactarius is an important component of ectomycorrhizal communities in many habitat types, from low elevation riparian areas to high elevation conifer forests and alpine tundra. Molecular phylogenetic analyses of ITS and RPB2 gene sequences along with detailed morphological examination confirm at least 20 Lactarius species, as well as three varieties, and one unresolved species group in the GYE. Eight taxa are reported from the GYE for the first time, and nearly every major ectomycorrhizal host plant in the GYE appears to have at least one Lactarius species associated with it. Broad intercontinental distributions are suggested for alpine Salix and Betula associates, and for certain subalpine Picea and aspen (Populus spp. associates. Some species appear to be restricted to western North America with Pinus, Pseudotsuga or Abies. The distribution and/or host affinities of others is not clear due in part to ambiguous host assignment, taxonomic problems or the relative rarity with which they have been reported.

  14. Efficacy of High-Dose Baclofen for Alcohol Use Disorder and Comorbid Bulimia: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weibel, Sébastien; Lalanne, Laurence; Riegert, Myriam; Bertschy, Gilles

    2015-01-01

    High-dose baclofen is a promising treatment for alcohol use disorder, with a specific action on craving. A more general action on craving in other addictive disorders has been suggested based on the hypothesis of a common neurobiological pathway in addictions. We report the case of a woman with both alcohol use disorder and bulimia nervosa. There was a positive response to high-dose baclofen on alcohol craving, but no response on food craving. The case illustrates that craving could be differentially responsive to anti-craving drugs.

  15. Young adult cannabis users report greater propensity for risk-taking only in non-monetary domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilman, Jodi M; Calderon, Vanessa; Curran, Max T; Evins, A Eden

    2015-02-01

    Though substance use is often associated with elevated risk-taking in real-world scenarios, many risk-taking tasks in experimental psychology using financial gambles fail to find significant differences between individuals with substance use disorders and healthy controls. We assessed whether participants using marijuana would show a greater propensity for risk-taking in distinct domains including, but not limited to, financial risk-taking. In the current study, we assessed risk-taking in young adult (age 18-25) regular marijuana users and in non-using control participants using a domain-specific risk-taking self-report scale (DOSPERT) encompassing five domains of risk-taking (social, financial, recreational, health/safety, and ethical). We also measured behavioral risk-taking using a laboratory monetary risk-taking task. Marijuana users and controls reported significant differences on the social, health/safety, and ethical risk-taking scales, but no differences in the propensity to take recreational or financial risks. Complementing the self-report finding, there were no differences between marijuana users and controls in their performance on the laboratory risk-taking task. These findings suggest that financial risk-taking may be less sensitive than other domains of risk-taking in assessing differences in risky behavior between those who use marijuana and those who do not. In order to more consistently determine whether increased risk-taking is a factor in substance use, it may be necessary to use both monetary risk-taking tasks and complementary assessments of non-monetary-based risk-taking measures. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. A 14-year retrospective maternal report of alcohol consumption in pregnancy predicts pregnancy and teen outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannigan, John H; Chiodo, Lisa M; Sokol, Robert J; Janisse, James; Ager, Joel W; Greenwald, Mark K; Delaney-Black, Virginia

    2010-01-01

    Detecting patterns of maternal drinking that place fetuses at risk for fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs) is critical to diagnosis, treatment, and prevention but is challenging because information on antenatal drinking collected during pregnancy is often insufficient or lacking. Although retrospective assessments have been considered less favored by many researchers due to presumed poor reliability, this perception may be inaccurate because of reduced maternal denial and/or distortion. The present study hypothesized that fetal alcohol exposure, as assessed retrospectively during child adolescence, would be related significantly to prior measures of maternal drinking and would predict alcohol-related behavioral problems in teens better than antenatal measures of maternal alcohol consumption. Drinking was assessed during pregnancy, and retrospectively about the same pregnancy, at a 14-year follow-up in 288 African-American women using well-validated semistructured interviews. Regression analysis examined the predictive validity of both drinking assessments on pregnancy outcomes and on teacher-reported teen behavior outcomes. Retrospective maternal self-reported drinking assessed 14 years postpartum was significantly higher than antenatal reports of consumption. Retrospective report identified 10.8 times more women as risk drinkers (≥ one drink per day) than the antenatal report. Antenatal and retrospective reports were moderately correlated and both were correlated with the Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test. Self-reported alcohol consumption during pregnancy based on retrospective report identified significantly more teens exposed prenatally to at-risk alcohol levels than antenatal, in-pregnancy reports. Retrospective report predicted more teen behavior problems (e.g., attention problems and externalizing behaviors) than the antenatal report. Antenatal report predicted younger gestational age at birth and retrospective report predicted smaller birth size

  17. In vino silentium? Individual, situational, and alcohol-related factors in reporting violence to the police.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, Iain R

    2011-01-01

    This study identifies the individual, situational, and alcohol-related factors associated with reporting violent victimization to the police. Factors positively associated with reporting included older age and incident severity (the assailant's use of a weapon, incurring injury that required attendance at an emergency department). Factors negatively associated with reporting included higher educational qualifications, assault in the nighttime economy (NTE), and drinking more than two alcoholic drinks immediately prior to victimization. It is possible that drinkers engage in "moratorium" on reporting violence in the NTE. Recognizing and reducing the acceptability of violence in the NTE may help reduce incidence of alcohol-related violence. Organizations that use police records of violence to inform practice and policy should account for uneven distributions in reporting behavior when analyzing trends in violence.

  18. Reports of past alcohol and drug use following participation in a motivation enhancing intervention: Implications for clinical assessment and program evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosengren David B

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is significant interest in the value of motivational approaches that enhance participant readiness to change, but less is known about clients’ self-reports of problematic behavior when participating in such interventions. Methods We examined whether participants in a motivationally-based intervention for DUI offenders changed their reports of substance use at postintervention (when reporting on the same 30 days that they reported on at preintervention. Specifically, Study 1 (N = 8,387 tested whether participants in PRIME For Life (PFL changed their reports about baseline substance levels when asked at postintervention versus at preintervention. Study 2 (N = 192 compared changes in self-reported baseline drinking between PFL and intervention as usual (IAU participants. Results Many participants in Study 1 did not change their reports about how much they used substances during the 30-day period before baseline. Among those who did, the most common change was an increase in reported amounts of baseline drug use, and typical and peak alcohol use. This sample also showed changes in reports of their baseline pattern of high-risk-use (consistent versus occasional. At postintervention, participants who were younger, single, or endorsing more indicators of alcohol dependence were more likely to later report greater frequency of baseline drug use, and greater peak and typical number of baseline drinks. Gender, education, and race were also associated with reporting inconsistency on some behaviors. In Study 2, PFL participants showed greater increases in reports of peak alcohol use compared to IAU, but both conditions showed similar increases for drugs and typical alcohol use. Conclusions In both research and clinical settings, a segment of participants may initially report less substance use than they do when asked later about the same baseline period. These preliminary findings suggest clinicians and researchers may

  19. Acute alcoholic myopathy, rhabdomyolysis and acute renal failure : a case report.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh S

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available A case of middle aged male who developed swelling and weakness of muscles in the lower limbs following a heavy binge of alcohol is being reported. He had myoglobinuria and developed acute renal failure for which he was dialyzed. Acute alcoholic myopathy is not a well recognized condition and should be considered in any intoxicated patient who presents with muscle tenderness and weakness.

  20. Ecology of Greater Sage-Grouse in the Bi-State Planning Area Final Report, September 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casazza, Michael L.; Overton, Cory T.; Farinha, Melissa A.; Torregrosa, Alicia; Fleskes, Joseph P.; Miller, Michael R.; Sedinger, James S.; Kolada, Eric J.

    2009-01-01

    Conservation efforts for greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus), hereafter sage-grouse, are underway across the range of this species. Over 70 local working groups have been established and are implementing on-the-ground sage-grouse oriented conservation projects. Early on in this process, the California Department of Fish and Game (CDFG) recognized the need to join in these efforts and received funding from the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) under the Candidate Species Conservation Program to help develop a species conservation plan for sage-grouse in the Mono County area. This conservation plan covers portions of Alpine, Mono, and Inyo counties in California and Douglas, Esmeralda, Lyon, and Mineral counties in Nevada. A concurrent effort underway through the Nevada Governor's Sage-grouse Conservation Team established Local Area Working Groups across Nevada and eastern California. The Mono County populations of sage-grouse were encompassed by the Bi-State Local Planning Area, which was comprised of six population management units (PMUs). The state agencies from California (CDFG) and Nevada (Nevada Department of Wildlife; NDOW) responsible for the management of sage-grouse agreed to utilize the process that had begun with the Nevada Governor's Team in order to develop local plans for conservation planning and implementation. Resources from the USFWS were applied to several objectives in support of the development of the Bi-State Local Area Sage-grouse Conservation Plan through a grant to the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). Objectives included: (1) participate in the development of the Bi-State Conservation Plan, (2) compile and synthesize existing sage-grouse data, (3) document seasonal movements of sage-grouse, (4) identify habitats critical to sage-grouse, (5) determine survival rates and identify causal factors of mortality, (6) determine nest success and brood success of sage-grouse, and (7) identify sage-grouse lek sites. Progress reports

  1. Towards a greater understanding of the illicit tobacco trade in Europe: a review of the PMI funded 'Project Star' report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmore, Anna B; Rowell, Andy; Gallus, Silvano; Lugo, Alessandra; Joossens, Luk; Sims, Michelle

    2014-05-01

    Following a legal agreement with the European Union (EU), Philip Morris International (PMI) commissions a yearly report ('Project Star', PS) on the European illicit cigarette trade from KPMG, the global accountancy firm. Review of PS 2010 report. Comparison with data from independent sources including a 2010 pan-European survey (N=18,056). Within PS, data covering all 27 EU countries are entered into a model. While the model itself seems appropriate, concerns are identified with the methodologies underlying the data inputs and thus their quality: there is little transparency over methodologies; interview data underestimate legal non-domestic product partly by failing to account for legal cross-border sales; illicit cigarette estimates rely on tobacco industry empty pack surveys which may overestimate illicit; and there is an over-reliance on data supplied by PMI with inadequate external validation. Thus, PMI sales data are validated using PMI smoking prevalence estimates, yet PMI is unable to provide sales (shipment) data for the Greek islands and its prevalence estimates differ grossly from independent data. Consequently, comparisons with independent data suggest PS will tend to overestimate illicit cigarette levels particularly where cross-border shopping is frequent (Austria, Finland, France) and in Western compared with Eastern European countries. The model also provides data on the nature of the illicit cigarette market independent of seizure data suggesting that almost a quarter of the illicit cigarette market in 2010 comprised PMI's own brands compared with just 5% counterfeited PMI brands; a finding hidden in PMI's public representation of the data. PS overestimates illicit cigarette levels in some European countries and suggests PMI's supply chain control is inadequate. Its publication serves the interests of PMI over those of the EU and its member states. PS requires greater transparency, external scrutiny and use of independent data. Published by the BMJ

  2. CANCER PAIN MANAGEMENT: ROLE OF INTRATHECAL ALCOHOL: A CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Upendra Singh

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available A 34 year old lady was found to be in acute pain due to metastatic phaeochromocytoma following involvement of L5 , S1 & S2 vertebrae. She was treated with series of MIBG scanning and ablation and surgical option was refused by the patient. She was suffering from rapidly increasing radicular pain of the lower limbs which was being managed with oral and injectable opioids. The team of doctors treating her decided to give epidural opioids and bupivacaine initi ally but the total dose of the drug and frequency was found to be gradually increased. Therefore , continous administration of intathecal opiods and bupivacaine was given but the same problem occured after a few weeks and pain relief was minimal. Ultimately intrathecal absolute alcohol was given as there were no more options left. The patient had dramatic pain relief till her death.

  3. Progress report 1988: predator control to enhance production of Greater Sandhill Cranes on Malheur National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The nesting population of greater sandhill cranes on Malheur National Wildlife Refuge, Oregon has declined from 181 pairs in 1986 when predator control began to 137...

  4. Progress report 1989: predator control to enhance the production of Greater Sandhill Cranes on Malheur National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The nesting population of greater sandhill cranes on Malheur National Wildlife Refuge, Oregon has declined from 236 pairs in 1971 to 181 pairs in 1986 when predator...

  5. Progress report 1987: predator control to enhance the production of Greater Sandhill Cranes on Malheur National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The nesting population of greater sandhill cranes on Malheur National Wildlife Refuge, Oregon has declined from 236 pairs in 1971 to 181 pairs in 1986. Nesting...

  6. Progress Report 1986 : Predator Control to Enhance the Production of Greater Sandhill Cranes on Malheur National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The nesting population of greater sandhill cranes on Malheur National Wildlife Refuge, Oregon has declined from 236 pairs in 1971 to 181 pairs in 1986. Nesting...

  7. Progress report 1991: predator control to enhance the production of greater Sandhill Cranes on Malheur National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The nesting population of greater sandhill cranes on Malheur National Wildlife Refuge, Oregon had declined from 236 pairs in 1971 to 181 pairs in 1986 when predator...

  8. Progress Report 1990: predator control to enhance the production of Greater Sandhill Cranes on Malheur National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The nesting population of greater sandhill cranes on Malheur National Wildlife Refuge, Oregon had declined from 236 pairs in 1971 to 181 pairs in 1986 when predator...

  9. Novel materials process for alcohol based fuel cells. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hyde, K.; Smith, R.

    2005-07-01

    At present, the unit cost of producing alcohol fuel cells, in particular the cost of the ion-exchange membrane and the platinum catalyst, is limiting the sales. Since the cost of platinum cannot be reduced, an effective means of making the cells more attractive would be to increase the power output per unit area of membrane other than by operating at elevated temperatures. To replace the expensive Nafion, ITM and Cranfield University have developed a new membrane based on ionic hydrophilic polymers. Both acidic and alkaline-based membranes have been produced, the latter may well avoid the use of platinum thus gaining a further cost bonus. Conductivity of the new styrene-sulphonic acid graft membranes is more than double that of Nafion. Similarly, in cross-over tests, the new cells outperformed the Nafion cells. Palladium was investigated as a cheaper alternative to platinum. Based on this study, ITM have applied for five new patents. The study was conducted by ITM Power Plc under contract to the DTI.

  10. Case Report: Anteromedial temporosphenoidal encephalocele with a clinically silent lateral bony defect in the greater wing of the sphenoid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pandey Anoop

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Anteromedial temporosphenoidal encephalocele is the least common type of temporal encephalocele. It commonly presents with spontaneous cerebrospinal fluid rhinorrhea in adults. This article presents the CT cisternography and MRI findings of one such case, which also had an associated clinically silent defect in the greater wing of the sphenoid on the same side.

  11. Self-Reported Consumption of Alcohol and Other Drugs in a Spanish University Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaldivar, Flor; Lopez, Francisca; Garcia-Montes, Jose Manuel; Molina, Antonio

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: This study aims to explore the consumption of alcohol and other drugs in university students and to verify whether there are gender differences in the consumption of these substances. Method: A descriptive study using self-reports. Drug consumption was evaluated in 506 students from the University of Almeria (60.9% women and 34.6%…

  12. Alcohol and the American College Campus: A Report from the Harvard School of Public Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wechsler, Henry

    1996-01-01

    A Harvard School of Public Health survey of 17,592 college students concerning alcohol consumption found 84% reported drinking during the school year, with 19% frequent binge drinkers. Half of these were binge drinkers in high school. Also investigated were other drug use, dangerous behavior, secondhand binge effects, and gender effects. A 12-step…

  13. Clostridium septicum infection of hepatic metastases following alcohol injection: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh, Neam; Sohail, Muhammad R; Hashmey, Rayhan H; Al Kaabi, Mohammed

    2009-12-31

    Clostridium septicum infections are generally associated with gastrointestinal or hematologic malignancies. We report the first case of hepatic metastases infection with Clostridium septicum that followed alcohol injection of liver lesion. Clinicians should consider this possibility in patients with underlying malignancy who present with hepatic abscess, as prompt surgical drainage and empiric antibiotics may be life saving.

  14. Self-Reported Consumption of Alcohol and Other Drugs in a Spanish University Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaldivar, Flor; Lopez, Francisca; Garcia-Montes, Jose Manuel; Molina, Antonio

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: This study aims to explore the consumption of alcohol and other drugs in university students and to verify whether there are gender differences in the consumption of these substances. Method: A descriptive study using self-reports. Drug consumption was evaluated in 506 students from the University of Almeria (60.9% women and 34.6%…

  15. Intimate Partner Aggression Reporting Concordance and Correlates of Agreement among Men with Alcohol Use Disorders and Their Female Partners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panuzio, Jillian; O'Farrell, Timothy J.; Marshall, Amy D.; Murphy, Christopher M.; Murphy, Marie; Taft, Casey T.

    2006-01-01

    This study examined relationship aggression reporting concordance among 303 men with alcohol use disorders and their female partners enrolled in couples-based alcohol abuse treatment. Agreement for physical and psychological aggression was generally consistent with, or higher than, concordance rates reported among other populations. Men's…

  16. Comparison of Student Self-Reported and Administrative Data regarding Intercession into Alcohol Misuse among College Freshmen Dormitory Residents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novik, Melinda G.; Boekeloo, Bradley O.

    2013-01-01

    Intercession into collegiate alcohol misuse by the Department of Resident Life (DRL) in freshmen dormitories at one large Mid-Atlantic, diverse, public university was examined. Freshmen dormitory resident drinkers (n = 357), 71% of whom reported alcohol misuse, were surveyed. Student self-report and DRL documentation, respectively, revealed that…

  17. Comparison of Student Self-Reported and Administrative Data regarding Intercession into Alcohol Misuse among College Freshmen Dormitory Residents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novik, Melinda G.; Boekeloo, Bradley O.

    2013-01-01

    Intercession into collegiate alcohol misuse by the Department of Resident Life (DRL) in freshmen dormitories at one large Mid-Atlantic, diverse, public university was examined. Freshmen dormitory resident drinkers (n = 357), 71% of whom reported alcohol misuse, were surveyed. Student self-report and DRL documentation, respectively, revealed that…

  18. Associations of phenylthiocarbamide tasting to alcohol problems and family history of alcoholism differ by gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driscoll, Kimberly A; Perez, Marisol; Cukrowicz, Kelly C; Butler, Melanie; Joiner, Thomas E

    2006-06-30

    Past research associating phenylthiocarbamide/propylthiouracil (PTC/PROP) taste status with alcoholism has produced equivocal results. Some have found higher proportions of nontasters among those with a family history of alcoholism than controls, whereas others have not. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between PTC taste status, alcohol problems, and family history of alcoholism. A total of 244 undergraduate students participated in this study, with a gender distribution of 75% female and 25% male. We found support for our hypothesis that male supertasters would report fewer problems with alcohol and a less significant family history of alcoholism. Interestingly, we also found that female supertasters had a greater family history of alcoholism and more current problems associated with alcohol use. Implications for the genetic link between PTC taste status and alcoholism are discussed.

  19. Narcolepsy induced by chronic heavy alcohol consumption: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Xinyuan

    2012-01-01

    Summary Narcolepsy is a chronic neurological disorder, characterized by uncontrollable excessive daytime sleepiness, cataplectic episodes, sleep paralysis, hypnagogic hallucinations, and night time sleep disruption. The paper reviewed the related literature and reported a case of long-term drinking induced narcolepsy which was significantly improved after treatment with paroxetine and dexzopiclone.

  20. Reductions in drinking and alcohol-related harms reported by first-year college students taking an online alcohol education course: a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovecchio, Catherine P; Wyatt, Todd M; DeJong, William

    2010-10-01

    A randomized control trial was conducted at a midsized private university in the Northeast to evaluate the short-term impact of AlcoholEdu for College 8.0, an online alcohol course for first-year students. In September 2007, 1,620 matriculated first-year students were randomly assigned to either a treatment group or an assessment-only control group. Both groups of students completed a baseline survey and knowledge test. Treatment group students finished the course, took a second knowledge test, and 30 days later completed a postintervention survey. Control group students completed the postintervention survey and knowledge test during the same time period. Compared with the control group, treatment group students reported a significantly lower level of alcohol use, fewer negative drinking consequences, and less positive alcohol-related attitudes. AlcoholEdu 8.0 had a positive impact on the first-year students' alcohol-related attitudes, behaviors, and consequences. Additional investigations of online alcohol education courses are warranted.

  1. Complicated sternal dehiscence treated with the strasbourg thoracic osteosyntheses system (STRATOS and the transposition of greater omentum: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casablanca Giuseppe

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Sternal dehiscence is a serious complication after cardiac surgery. Sternal refixation, performed by simple rewiring or techniqual modification of rewiring as described by Robicsek, can fail, overall when the bone quality is poor or the sternum is completely destroyed. The sternal closure systems, consisting of plates, screws or rib clips and titanium bars, have been recently introduced to treat the complicated sternal dehiscence. We describe for the first time the use of the Strasbourg Thoracic Osteosyntheses System (STRATOS and the greater omentum, to treat a complicated sternal dehiscence, causing chest pain and respiratory failure.

  2. Correlates of alcohol-related regretted sex among college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orchowski, Lindsay M; Mastroleo, Nadine R; Borsari, Brian

    2012-12-01

    The prevalence of alcohol-related regretted sex in college students warrants a better understanding of the characteristics of students who report such experiences. Therefore, the present study examined correlates of regretted sexual experiences involving alcohol use among 2 specific high-risk college student samples: students mandated to alcohol intervention (n = 522) and volunteer 1st-year students transitioning to college (n = 481). Results indicated that alcohol-related regretted sex occurred at similar rates in mandated and volunteer students, with approximately 25% of the students reporting at least 1 occurrence in the past month. Women were more likely to report alcohol-related regretted sex compared with men. The belief that alcohol use would result in "liquid courage" was associated with alcohol-related regretted sex among college students, even after accounting for greater alcohol use and problem alcohol use behaviors. These findings have significant implications for intervention efforts and future research.

  3. Correlates of Alcohol-Related Regretted Sex among College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orchowski, Lindsay M.; Mastroleo, Nadine R.; Borsari, Brian

    2012-01-01

    The prevalence of alcohol-related regretted sex in college students warrants a better understanding of the characteristics of students who report such experiences. Therefore, the present study examined correlates of regretted sexual experiences involving alcohol use among two specific high-risk college student samples: Students mandated to alcohol intervention (N = 522) and volunteer first-year students transitioning to college (N = 481). Results indicated that alcohol-related regretted sex occurred in similar rates in mandated and volunteer students, with approximately 25% of the students reporting at least one occurrence in the past month. Women were more likely to report alcohol-related regretted sex compared to men. The belief that alcohol use would result in “liquid courage” was associated with alcohol-related regretted sex among college students, even after accounting for greater alcohol use and problem alcohol use behaviors. These findings have significant implications for intervention efforts and future research. PMID:22448762

  4. Rapid Death Due to Alcohol Withdrawal Syndrome: Case Report and Review of Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahul Mohanrao Band

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Alcohol withdrawal syndrome (AWS is one of the most serious complications associated with chronic alcoholism. Sudden deaths are not uncommon in AWS. In severe stages of AWS, delirium tremens (DT occurs, which is characterized with agitation, global confusion, disorientation, visual and auditory hallucinations in addition to autonomic hyperactivity. Case report: A 30-year old man, chronic and heavy alcohol drinker for 10 years, abstained from alcohol for 3 days. Consequently, he started having palpitations, sweating and tremors. A day later, he was found having hallucinations and delirium. The patient was immediately transferred to the hospital. On admission, he was stuporous and had difficulty in breathing. He developed generalized seizures later on. He was successfully intubated, but there was bleeding through it. The patient’s condition deteriorated very rapidly and he died within two hours. After death, his body was transferred to forensic department. In autopsy, gastrointestinal tract was found to be intact. Massive pulmonary hemorrhage was present on cut section. Liver was found to be with yellowish discoloration and early cirrhotic changes. In heart, left ventricular hypertrophy with narrowed lumen was present and coronary arteries were patent. Discussion: Alcoholism is associated with liver dysfunction and especially in final phases with cirrhosis. Hence and due to resultant coagulopathy, patients are vulnerable to internal bleedings. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy also occurs in chronic alcoholics. Therefore, we can speculate that our patient developed pulmonary hemorrhage as a result of combined effect of coagulopathy secondary to cirrhosis, alveolar damage (seizure and artificial ventilation and congestive heart failure. Conclusion: For a patient with delirium, convulsions, respiratory distress and coagulopathy, diagnosis of DT should be kept in mind.

  5. Moderate Alcohol Consumption and Colorectal Cancer Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klarich, DawnKylee S; Brasser, Susan M; Hong, Mee Young

    2015-08-01

    Heavy alcohol drinking is a risk factor for colorectal cancer (CRC); previous studies have shown a linear dose-dependent association between alcohol intake and CRC. However, some studies suggest that moderate alcohol consumption may have a protective effect, similar to that seen in cardiovascular disease. Other factors may interact with alcohol and contribute additional risk for CRC. We aimed to determine the association between moderate alcohol consumption, limited to 30 g of alcohol per day, by beverage type on CRC risk and to assess the effects of other factors that interact with alcohol to influence CRC risk. The PubMed database was used to find articles published between 2008 and 2014 related to alcohol and CRC. Twenty-one relevant articles were evaluated and summarized, including 11 articles reporting on CRC risk associated with moderate intake and 10 articles focusing on genetic interactions associated with alcohol and CRC risk. The association between alcohol and increased risk for CRC was found when intakes exceeded 30 g/d alcohol. Nonsignificant results were consistently reported for intakes alcohol consumers. Some significant results suggest that the development of CRC is dependent on the interaction of gene and environment. The association between the amount of alcohol consumed and the incidence of CRC was not significant at moderate intake levels. Moderate alcohol consumption was associated with a reduced CRC risk in study populations with greater adherence to a Mediterranean diet, where wine contributed substantially to the alcoholic beverage consumed. Other factors such as obesity, folate deficiency, and genetic susceptibility may contribute additional CRC risk for those consuming alcohol. To minimize CRC risk, appropriate recommendations should encourage intakes below 30 g of alcohol each day. Copyright © 2015 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  6. Farm Fuel Alcohol Project: preliminary report on facility design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pile, R S; Badger, P C; Roetheli, J C; Waddell, Jr, E L

    1979-09-01

    This report describes the design of a farm-based ethanol production system to be built by TVA at Muscle Shoals, Alabama. This facility will include cooking, fermentation, and distillation equipment to allow production of 8000 to 12,000 gallons of fuel ethanol during a three to four month period each year. Output will be about 10 gallons of 190-proof ethanol per hour. Present components are sized to allow 12 to 14 hour daily operation as a semi-continuous batch system. Intent of the project is to document equipment and energy requirements, ethanol yields, and feasibility of small farm-based ethanol plants for farm fuel self-sufficiency. Cooking and fermentation will be batch-type operations, and packed distillation columns will be used for separating ethanol from the fermented beer. Energy recovery and waste heat use are integrated when feasible. The fermented beer will be fed directly to the distillation columns without separation of solids. Although this is an area of concern, an economical method of separation could not be identified.

  7. EnergyWorks Final Report: A Better Buildings Neighborhood Program in the Five-County Greater Philadelphia Region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gajewski, Katherine [City of Philadelphia

    2014-03-05

    This report covers the grant performance period of July 1, 2010-September 30, 2013 and discusses of the program design, outcomes and best practices as they relate to the following six areas: 1. Institutional Design and Business Model; 2. Program Design and Customer Experience; 3. Driving Demand; 4. Workforce Development; 5. Financing and Incentives; 6. Data and Evaluation.

  8. Do older people with visual impairment and living alone in a rural developing country report greater difficulty in managing stairs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hairi, Noran N; Bulgiba, Awang; Peramalah, Devi; Mudla, Izzuna

    2013-01-01

    Managing stairs is a challenging activity of daily living (ADL) for older people. This study aims to examine the association between visual impairment and difficulty in managing stairs among older people living alone and those living with others. A population-based cross sectional study was conducted in rural Malaysia from 2007 till 2008. Seven hundred and sixty five older people aged 60 years and over underwent eye examination for visual impairment. Visual acuity criteria were used to define visual impairment. Presenting visual acuity was assessed using a standard metric Snellen Chart of E type. Difficulty in managing stairs was measured according to a question drawn from the Barthel Index which asks "do you need help in climbing stairs". Overall, the prevalence of difficulty in managing stairs among older people in our population was 135 (18.3%, 95% CI 15.7-21.2). After adjusting for important confounders the odds ratio (OR) for visual impairment and difficulty in managing stairs among older people living alone was 5.04 (95% CI 2.27, 10.62). Among older people living with others, the adjusted OR for visual impairment and difficulty in managing stairs was 3.10 (95% CI 1.52, 6.80). In a sample of older people aged 60 years and over, those living alone with visual impairment had greater difficulty in managing stairs than those living with others. Identification of these groups of older people is useful for targeting interventions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... their drinking causes distress and harm. It includes alcoholism and alcohol abuse. Alcoholism, or alcohol dependence, is a disease that causes ... groups. NIH: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism

  10. Plasma alcohol, smoking, hormone concentrations and self-reported aggression. A study in a social-drinking situation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dotson, L E; Robertson, L S; Tuchfeld, B

    1975-05-01

    Plasma alcohol concentrations and the number of cigarettes smoked by men during social-drinking situations were significantly related to change in testosterone levels. Age, height, plasma alcohol and smoking were related to self-reports of prior assault and verbal aggression. Agression was not related to testosterone concentration.

  11. Natural Recharge to the Unconfined Aquifer System on the Hanford Site from the Greater Cold Creek Watershed: Progress Report 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waichler, Scott R.; Wigmosta, Mark S.; Coleman, Andre M.

    2004-09-14

    Movement of contaminants in groundwater at the Hanford Site is heavily dependent on recharge to the unconfined aquifer. As the effects of past artificial discharges dissipate, the water table is expected to return to more natural conditions, and natural recharge will become the driving force when evaluating future groundwater flow conditions and related contaminant transport. Previous work on the relationship of natural recharge to groundwater movement at the Hanford Site has focused on direct recharge from infiltrating rainfall and snowmelt within the area represented by the Sitewide Groundwater Model (SGM) domain. However, part of the groundwater recharge at Hanford is provided by flow from Greater Cold Creek watershed (GCC), a large drainage area on the western boundary of the Hanford Site that includes Cold Creek Valley, Dry Creek Valley, and the Hanford side of Rattlesnake Mountain. This study was undertaken to estimate the recharge from GCC, which is believed to enter the unconfined aquifer as both infiltrating streamflow and shallow subsurface flow. To estimate recharge, the Distributed Hydrology-Soil-Vegetation Model (DHSVM) was used to simulate a detailed water balance of GCC from 1956 to 2001 at a spatial resolution of 200~m and a temporal resolution of one hour. For estimating natural recharge to Hanford from watersheds along its western and southwestern boundaries, the most important aspects that need to be considered are 1)~distribution and relative magnitude of precipitation and evapotranspiration over the watershed, 2)~streamflow generation at upper elevations and infiltration at lower elevations during rare runoff events, and 3)~permeability of the basalt bedrock surface underlying the soil mantle.

  12. The effect of alcohol priming on neural markers of alcohol cue-reactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courtney, Kelly E; Ghahremani, Dara G; Ray, Lara A

    2015-01-01

    Priming doses of alcohol are associated with increased desire to drink and disinhibitory effects on subsequent control over drinking. Despite the importance of alcohol priming in the cue-reactivity literature, the effects of priming on brain responses to alcohol cues remains unclear. Furthermore, evidence suggests this relationship may be moderated by OPRM1 genotype. Twenty individuals with alcohol dependence (six females; 90% Caucasian; mean age = 29.4) who were prospectively genotyped on the OPRM1 gene underwent two functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) sessions, before and after a priming dose of alcohol, each including a gustatory alcohol cue reactivity paradigm and self-reported craving measures. Self-reported alcohol craving generally increased and remained higher for alcohol versus water cue presentations across pre- and post-priming scans. Compared to alcohol cues delivered during the post-priming scan, alcohol cues delivered pre-priming were associated with greater activation in regions including the hippocampus, amygdala, inferior frontal gyrus, temporal cortex, and occipital cortex. Controlling for alcoholism severity increased statistical significance of activation in these regions. Follow-up analyses revealed a positive correlation between alcoholism severity and pre- versus post-priming alcohol cue-reactivity primarily in frontal regions. OPRM1 genotype was also found to moderate alcohol cue-reactivity across scans. This study provides initial evidence of alcohol cue-elicited habituation in fronto-temporal regions, despite continued craving, following a priming dose of alcohol. Further, it provides preliminary evidence for moderating roles of alcoholism severity and OPRM1 genotype on priming-related changes in cue-reactivity, adding to our understanding of the function of alcohol priming in alcohol dependence.

  13. Dexmedetomidine as an adjuvant in the treatment of alcohol withdrawal delirium: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rovasalo, Aki; Tohmo, Harri; Aantaa, Riku; Kettunen, Eija; Palojoki, Riitta

    2006-01-01

    In this case report, even a moderate dose of dexmedetomidine, a very selective alpha(2)-adrenergic agent, resulted in a rapid response to alcohol withdrawal delirium after the standard treatment. Psychiatrists should be aware of this relatively new drug that provides advantages over clonidine, heavy sedation and secondary restraints. Dexmedetomidine should be further evaluated in the treatment of specific forms of aggressive behavior and complicated withdrawal states.

  14. Prevalence of self-reported hypersensitivity symptoms following intake of alcoholic drinks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linneberg, A.; Berg, N.D.; Gonzalez-Quintela, A.;

    2008-01-01

    symptoms from the upper and lower airways were significantly more prevalent in persons with AR and asthma (odds ratios between 3.0 and 8.1, P-value self-reported hypersensitivity symptoms following the intake...... of alcoholic drinks are common. These symptoms were markedly more prevalent in persons with AR and asthma. The underlying mechanisms and the clinical significance of these symptoms remain to be elucidated Udgivelsesdato: 2008/1...

  15. Effect of alcohol consumption status and alcohol concentration on oral pain induced by alcohol-containing mouthwash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satpathy, Anurag; Ravindra, Shivamurthy; Porwal, Amit; Das, Abhaya C; Kumar, Manoj; Mukhopadhyay, Indranil

    2013-01-01

    Alcohol exposure alters oral mucosa. Patient compliance with mouthwash use may be reduced by oral pain resulting from rinsing with alcohol-containing mouthwash. However, information regarding the effects of alcohol consumption and mouthwash alcohol concentration on oral pain is limited. In this double-blind, randomized, controlled cross-over study, we investigated the effects of alcohol consumption status and mouthwash alcohol concentration on response to and perception of oral pain induced by alcohol-containing mouthwash. Fifty healthy men aged 33 to 56 years were enrolled and classified as drinkers and nondrinkers according to self-reported alcohol consumption. All subjects rinsed with two commercially available mouthwash products (which contained high and low concentrations of alcohol) and a negative control, in randomized order. Time of onset of oral pain, time of cessation of oral pain (after mouthwash expectoration), and pain duration were recorded, and oral pain intensity was recorded on a verbal rating scale. Drinkers had later oral pain onset and lower pain intensity. High-alcohol mouthwash was associated with earlier pain onset and greater pain intensity. In addition, oral pain cessation was later and pain duration was longer in nondrinkers rinsing with high-alcohol mouthwash. In conclusion, alcohol consumption status and mouthwash alcohol concentration were associated with onset and intensity of oral pain.

  16. Reported Adverse Health Effects in Children from Ingestion of Alcohol-Based Hand Sanitizers - United States, 2011-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Cynthia; Kieszak, Stephanie; Wang, Alice; Law, Royal; Schier, Joshua; Wolkin, Amy

    2017-03-03

    Hand sanitizers are effective and inexpensive products that can reduce microorganisms on the skin, but ingestion or improper use can be associated with health risks. Many hand sanitizers contain up to 60%-95% ethanol or isopropyl alcohol by volume, and are often combined with scents that might be appealing to young children. Recent reports have identified serious consequences, including apnea, acidosis, and coma in young children who swallowed alcohol-based (alcohol) hand sanitizer (1-3). Poison control centers collect data on intentional and unintentional exposures to hand sanitizer solutions resulting from various routes of exposure, including ingestion, inhalation, and dermal and ocular exposures. To characterize exposures of children aged ≤12 years to alcohol hand sanitizers, CDC analyzed data reported to the National Poison Data System (NPDS).* The major route of exposure to both alcohol and nonalcohol-based (nonalcohol) hand sanitizers was ingestion. The majority of intentional exposures to alcohol hand sanitizers occurred in children aged 6-12 years. Alcohol hand sanitizer exposures were associated with worse outcomes than were nonalcohol hand sanitizer exposures. Caregivers and health care providers should be aware of the potential dangers associated with hand sanitizer ingestion. Children using alcohol hand sanitizers should be supervised and these products should be kept out of reach from children when not in use.

  17. Is it time to ban alcohol advertising?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Peter

    2009-04-01

    Children and adolescents are particularly vulnerable to the harmful effects of alcohol, with heavy drinking risking impaired brain development and future alcohol dependence. Advertisements increase expectancies about alcohol, leading to a greater likelihood of drinking. A systematic review of 13 longitudinal studies of over 38,000 young people found convincing evidence of an impact of media exposure and alcohol advertising on subsequent alcohol use, including initiation of drinking and heavier drinking among existing drinkers. All European countries, with the exception of the UK, have a ban on one or more types of advertising. Since self-regulation is reported as failing to prevent marketing which has an impact on younger people, and since advertising commonly crosses country borders, there is an argument to approximate advertising rules across Europe banning alcohol advertising targeted at young people, a highly cost-effective measure to reduce harmful alcohol use, and one supported by European citizens and case law.

  18. [Alcohol experience, alcohol knowledge, and alcohol expectancy in early adolescents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tak, Young-Ran; Yun, E-hwa; An, Ji-Yeon

    2007-02-01

    This study was to explore the prevalence of alcohol experiences and to identify the expectancy on the effects of alcohol and alcohol knowledge in early adolescents. The cross-sectional survey of 1854 students from seven middle schools in one district of Seoul was conducted by convenience sampling. Alcohol experience and early onset of alcohol use were measured by the Youth Risk Behavior Survey. Alcohol expectancy was measured by an Alcohol Effects Questionnaire. Over sixty five percent of adolescents reported that they had previous drinking experiences. The participants with no alcohol drinking experience had a lower level of alcohol knowledge than those with experience(t=2.73, p=.007). In expectancy on effects of alcohol, girls had a more positive alcohol expectation than boys(t=-2.54, p=.011). Alcohol knowledge negatively correlated with alcohol expectancy(r=-.40 p=.000). In regression of alcohol expectancy, gender and alcohol knowledge were significant predictors explaining 17%. The results support that alcohol expectancy is an important link with early drinking experiences and alcohol knowledge, focusing on the importance of gender differences. Therefore, an alcohol prevention program in early adolescence is needed and should be focused on multidimensionality of the alcohol expectancy with developmental and psychosocial factors for early adolescents.

  19. "Pseudotumoral" hepatic pattern in acute alcoholic hepatitis:A case report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Andrea Tenca; Sara Massironi; Agostino Colli; Guido Basilisco; Dario Conte

    2009-01-01

    In acute alcoholic hepatitis (AAH),a "pseudotumoral" appearance of the liver parenchyma on computed tomography (CT) scan has been reported.The main findings are hypervascularized areas closely similar to those observed in large hepatocellular carcinomas.We report a case of a patient affected by AAH with an unusual appearance of these "pseudotumoral" areas on CT scan,close resembling a metastatic cancer rather than a primary hepatocellular carcinoma.In fact,in contrast with previous reports,the picture was characterized by the presence of many inhomogeneous,hypoattenuated areas highlighted during both pre-and post-contrast phases.Moreover,we report the first description of "pseudotumoral" lesions on ultrasound scan.This patient was successfully treated with corticosteroids,even if many controversies still exist regarding their efficacy in this setting.

  20. Prenatal Alcohol Exposure Selectively Enhances Young Adult Perceived Pleasantness of Alcohol Odors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannigan, John H.; Chiodo, Lisa M.; Sokol, Robert J.; Janisse, James; Delaney-Black, Virginia

    2015-01-01

    Prenatal Alcohol Exposure (PAE) can lead to life-long neurobehavioral and social problems that can include a greater likelihood of early use and/or abuse of alcohol compared to older teens and young adults without PAE. Basic research in animals demonstrates that PAE influences later postnatal responses to chemosensory cues (i.e., odor & taste) associated with alcohol. We hypothesized that PAE would be related to poorer abilities to identify odors of alcohol-containing beverages, and would alter perceived alcohol odor intensity and pleasantness. To address this hypothesis we examined responses to alcohol and other odors in a small sample of young adults with detailed prenatal histories of exposure to alcohol and other drugs. The key finding from our controlled analyses is that higher levels of PAE were related to higher relative ratings of pleasantness for alcohol odors. As far as we are aware, this is the first published study to report the influence of PAE on responses to alcohol beverage odors in young adults. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that positive associations (i.e., “pleasantness”) to the chemosensory properties of alcohol (i.e., odor) are acquired prenatally and are retained for many years despite myriad interceding postnatal experiences. Alternate hypotheses may also be supported by the results. There are potential implications of altered alcohol odor responses for understanding individual differences in initiation of drinking, and alcohol seeking and high-risk alcohol-related behaviors in young adults. PMID:25600468

  1. Yoga Meditation Practitioners Exhibit Greater Gray Matter Volume and Fewer Reported Cognitive Failures: Results of a Preliminary Voxel-Based Morphometric Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brett Froeliger

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Hatha yoga techniques, including physical postures (asanas, breathing exercises (pranayama, and meditation, involve the practice of mindfulness. In turn, yoga meditation practices may induce the state of mindfulness, which, when evoked recurrently through repeated practice, may accrue into trait or dispositional mindfulness. Putatively, these changes may be mediated by experience-dependent neuroplastic changes. Though prior studies have identified differences in gray matter volume (GMV between long-term mindfulness practitioners and controls, no studies to date have reported on whether yoga meditation is associated with GMV differences. The present study investigated GMV differences between yoga meditation practitioners (YMP and a matched control group (CG. The YMP group exhibited greater GM volume in frontal, limbic, temporal, occipital, and cerebellar regions; whereas the CG had no greater regional greater GMV. In addition, the YMP group reported significantly fewer cognitive failures on the Cognitive Failures Questionnaire (CFQ, the magnitude of which was positively correlated with GMV in numerous regions identified in the primary analysis. Lastly, GMV was positively correlated with the duration of yoga practice. Results from this preliminary study suggest that hatha yoga practice may be associated with the promotion of neuroplastic changes in executive brain systems, which may confer therapeutic benefits that accrue with repeated practice.

  2. Alcohol industry sponsorship and alcohol-related harms in Australian university sportspeople/athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Kerry S; Lynott, Dermot; Miller, Peter G

    2013-05-01

    Although there is evidence that alcohol sponsorship in sport is related to greater drinking, there is no empirical research on whether alcohol sponsorship is associated with alcohol-related harms. We examined whether there is an association between receipt of alcohol industry sponsorship, and attendance at alcohol sponsor's drinking establishments (e.g. bars), and alcohol-related aggression and antisocial behaviour in university students who play sport. University sportspeople (n = 652) completed surveys (response rate >80%) assessing receipt of alcohol industry sponsorship, attendance at sponsor's establishments and confounders [i.e. age, gender, sport type, location and alcohol consumption measured by Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test--alcohol consumption (AUDIT-C) scores]. Participants also completed measures assessing displays and receipt of aggressive and antisocial behaviours (e.g. assaults, unwanted sexual advance, vandalism). Logistic regression models including confounders and reported attendance at alcohol sponsor's establishments showed that sportspeople receiving alcohol industry sponsorship were more likely to have been the victim of aggression (adjusted odds ratio 2.62, 95% confidence interval 1.22-5.64). Attending an alcohol sponsor's establishment was not associated with higher rates of other aggressive or antisocial behaviour. However, significant associations where found between AUDIT-C scores and having displayed and received aggression, and having damaged or had property damaged. Male sportspeople were more likely to have displayed and received aggressive and antisocial behaviour. Higher AUDIT-C scores, gender and receipt of alcohol industry sponsorship were associated with alcohol-related aggression/antisocial behaviours in university sportspeople. Sport administrators should consider action to reduce the harms associated with excessive alcohol consumption and alcohol industry sponsorship in sport. © 2012 Australasian Professional

  3. Teenage Thinking on Teenage Drinking: 15- to 16-Year Olds' Experiences of Alcohol in Northern Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKay, Michael T.; Cole, Jon C.; Sumnall, Harry

    2011-01-01

    Focus groups were conducted with 15- to 16-year olds in Northern Ireland looking at reasons for alcohol consumption and reflections on specific attitudes towards alcohol and behaviours resulting from alcohol use. Participants reported greater concern with "being caught" drinking by parents than with any negative short- or long-term health impact…

  4. Associations of ADH and ALDH2 gene variation with self report alcohol reactions, consumption and dependence: an integrated analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macgregor, Stuart; Lind, Penelope A.; Bucholz, Kathleen K.; Hansell, Narelle K.; Madden, Pamela A.F.; Richter, Melinda M.; Montgomery, Grant W.; Martin, Nicholas G.; Heath, Andrew C.; Whitfield, John B.

    2009-01-01

    Alcohol dependence (AD) is a complex disorder with environmental and genetic origins. The role of two genetic variants in ALDH2 and ADH1B in AD risk has been extensively investigated. This study tested for associations between nine polymorphisms in ALDH2 and 41 in the seven ADH genes, and alcohol-related flushing, alcohol use and dependence symptom scores in 4597 Australian twins. The vast majority (4296) had consumed alcohol in the previous year, with 547 meeting DSM-IIIR criteria for AD. There were study-wide significant associations (P < 2.3 × 10−4) between ADH1B-Arg48His (rs1229984) and flushing and consumption, but only nominally significant associations (P < 0.01) with dependence. Individuals carrying the rs1229984 G-allele (48Arg) reported a lower prevalence of flushing after alcohol (P = 8.2 × 10−7), consumed alcohol on more occasions (P = 2.7 × 10−6), had a higher maximum number of alcoholic drinks in a single day (P = 2.7 × 10−6) and a higher overall alcohol consumption (P = 8.9 × 10−8) in the previous year than those with the less common A-allele (48His). After controlling for rs1229984, an independent association was observed between rs1042026 (ADH1B) and alcohol intake (P = 4.7 × 10−5) and suggestive associations (P < 0.001) between alcohol consumption phenotypes and rs1693482 (ADH1C), rs1230165 (ADH5) and rs3762894 (ADH4). ALDH2 variation was not associated with flushing or alcohol consumption, but was weakly associated with AD measures. These results bridge the gap between DNA sequence variation and alcohol-related behavior, confirming that the ADH1B-Arg48His polymorphism affects both alcohol-related flushing in Europeans and alcohol intake. The absence of study-wide significant effects on AD results from the low P-value required when testing multiple single nucleotide polymorphisms and phenotypes. PMID:18996923

  5. Perceptions of partners' problematic alcohol use affect relationship outcomes beyond partner self-reported drinking: alcohol use in committed romantic relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Lindsey M; Øverup, Camilla S; Overup, Camilla S; Neighbors, Clayton

    2013-09-01

    Alcohol use is prevalent among college students, including those who are in committed romantic relationships. Individuals' perceptions of their partner's alcohol use may have significant effects on how they view both their partner and their relationship. The current study examines the effect of one's perception of one's romantic partner's drinking as problematic on one's relationship satisfaction and commitment, and whether this varies as a function of one's partner's drinking. Both partners in romantic heterosexual relationships (N = 78 dyads) completed an online survey assessing alcohol use and problems, relationship satisfaction and commitment, and the perception that their partner's drinking was problematic. Analyses using Actor-Partner Interdependence Models (APIMs) revealed a partner-moderated actor interaction, such that partner self-reported drinking significantly moderated the association between the actor's perception of their partner's drinking as problematic and actor relationship outcomes. Results indicated that when partners drank at higher levels, perceiving their drinking as problematic did not have an effect. These individuals were less satisfied regardless of their perceptions. However, when partners drank at lower levels, perceiving their drinking as problematic was negatively associated with relationship outcomes. Furthermore, for alcohol consumption, three-way interactions with gender emerged, indicating that this effect was stronger for males. Results extend the literature on drinking in relationships and on interpersonal perception. Implications and future directions are discussed.

  6. Hallucinogenic drugs attenuate the subjective response to alcohol in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Sean P; Archambault, Jennifer; Engelberg, Marla J; Pihl, Robert O

    2000-10-01

    This study investigated possible interactions between alcohol and hallucinogens in 22 lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) and/or psilocybin users through retrospective structured interviews. Of those who had used LSD with alcohol, 86;7 per cent reported a complete blockade of subjective alcohol effects, while the remaining cases reported a diminished response. In addition, 60 per cent of respondents who had used alcohol and psilocybin together reported a partial antagonism of subjective alcohol effects.T-test analyses revealed that LSD's antagonism of alcohol effects were significantly greater than those associated with psilocybin. It is proposed that LSD's effect on alcohol intoxication may involve interactions with various serotonergic and/or dopaminergic receptor systems. Copyright 2000 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Rh-Based Mixed Alcohol Synthesis Catalysts: Characterization and Computational Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albrecht, Karl O.; Glezakou, Vassiliki Alexandra; Rousseau, Roger J.; Engelhard, Mark H.; Varga, Tamas; Colby, Robert J.; Jaffe, John E.; Li, Xiaohong S.; Mei, Donghai; Windisch, Charles F.; Kathmann, Shawn M.; Lemmon, Teresa L.; Gray, Michel J.; Hart, Todd R.; Thompson, Becky L.; Gerber, Mark A.

    2013-08-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy is conducting a program focused on developing a process for the conversion of biomass to bio-based fuels and co-products. Biomass-derived syngas is converted thermochemically within a temperature range of 240 to 330°C and at elevated pressure (e.g., 1200 psig) over a catalyst. Ethanol is the desired reaction product, although other side compounds are produced, including C3 to C5 alcohols; higher (i.e., greater than C1) oxygenates such as methyl acetate, ethyl acetate, acetic acid and acetaldehyde; and higher hydrocarbon gases such as methane, ethane/ethene, propane/propene, etc. Saturated hydrocarbon gases (especially methane) are undesirable because they represent a diminished yield of carbon to the desired ethanol product and represent compounds that must be steam reformed at high energy cost to reproduce CO and H2. Ethanol produced by the thermochemical reaction of syngas could be separated and blended directly with gasoline to produce a liquid transportation fuel. Additionally, higher oxygenates and unsaturated hydrocarbon side products such as olefins also could be further processed to liquid fuels. The goal of the current project is the development of a Rh-based catalyst with high activity and selectivity to C2+ oxygenates. This report chronicles an effort to characterize numerous supports and catalysts to identify particular traits that could be correlated with the most active and/or selective catalysts. Carbon and silica supports and catalysts were analyzed. Generally, analyses provided guidance in the selection of acceptable catalyst supports. For example, supports with high surface areas due to a high number of micropores were generally found to be poor at producing oxygenates, possibly because of mass transfer limitations of the products formed out of the micropores. To probe fundamental aspects of the complicated reaction network of CO with H2, a computational/ theoretical investigation using quantum mechanical and ab

  8. Frequent alcohol drinking is associated with lower prevalence of self-reported common cold: a retrospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ouchi Eriko

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alcohol intake has been associated with reduced incidence of common cold symptoms in 2 European studies. However, no study has addressed the association between the frequency of alcohol intake and the incidence of common cold. This study aimed to investigate the association between the amount and frequency of alcohol drinking and the retrospective prevalence of common cold in Japanese men. Methods This retrospective study included men who participated in an annual health examination conducted in Sendai, Japan. The frequency of common cold episodes in the previous year was self-reported. The weekly frequency and amount of alcohol consumed, as well as the type of alcoholic drink, were reported by a brief-type self-administered diet history questionnaire. Logistic regression models were used to analyze the association between the amount and frequency of alcohol intake and the retrospective prevalence of common cold. Results Among 899 men, 83.4% of the subjects reported drinking alcohol, and 55.4% of the subjects reported having experienced at least one episode of common cold in the previous year. Compared with non-drinkers, the adjusted odds ratios (ORs with 95% confidence intervals (CIs for having had 1 or more episodes of common cold during the past year across categories of alcohol intake frequency of 3 or less, 4–6, and 7 days/week were 0.827 (0.541–1.266, 0.703 (0.439–1.124, and 0.621 (0.400–0.965, respectively (P for trend = 0.025; the adjusted ORs with 95% CIs for having had of 2 or more episodes of common cold across the same categories were 0.642 (0.395–1.045, 0.557 (0.319–0.973, and 0.461 (0.270–0.787, respectively (P for trend = 0.006. Compared with subjects who consumed 11.5–35.8 g of alcohol per day, the non-drinkers were significantly more likely to experience 2 or more episodes of common cold (OR, 1.843; 95% CI, 1.115–3.047. Conclusion The frequency, not the amount, of alcohol intake was

  9. Investigation of syngas interaction in alcohol synthesis catalysts. Quartery technical progress report, July 1, 1995--September 31, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akundi, M.A.

    1996-02-01

    This report presents the work done on {open_quotes}Investigation of Syngas Interaction in Alcohol Synthesis Catalysts{close_quotes} during the last three months. In this report the results of the work done on the effect of CO adsorption on the magnetic character of cobalt in the Cu/Co/Cr catalysts is discussed.

  10. Agreement between laboratory tests and self-reports of alcohol, tobacco, caffeine, marijuana and other drug use in post-partum women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, R E; Uhl, C N; Labbe, R F; Abkowitz, J L; Phillips, E L

    1986-01-01

    The agreement between self-reported consumption of several drugs and laboratory tests used to detect their use is examined. Post-partum women (N = 108) enrolled in a research study participated in a detailed interview covering alcohol and caffeine ingestion, tobacco smoking and use of marijuana and other psychoactive drugs. They also kept a 4-day record of their use of these substances. Blood and urine samples were taken and a physical exam done at the close of the record period. Laboratory tests to detect use of alcohol, tobacco, caffeine, marijuana and other drugs were carried out and the results compared to self-reported drug use in the interview and the record. The degree of agreement depended on the drug taken, the test used and the pattern of drug use in the sample. Sporadic or infrequent consumption related poorly to laboratory tests, especially those that were designed as screening tools. Regular consumption could be identified with greater accuracy. However, the group associations evident between self-reports of drug use and laboratory results were not sufficient to guarantee that subjects were correctly classified. Error in both self-report and the decision made from laboratory values must be taken into account in determining the confidence that should be placed in the data and the conclusions drawn from it.

  11. ALCOHOL AND ARTERIAL HYPERTENSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. D. Ostroumova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the questions of the relationship between the amount of the consumed alcohol, the type of alcoholic beverage, pattern of alcohol consumption and the blood pressure level. The article presents data on the positive effect of alcohol intake restrictions and recommendations for permissible limits of alcohol consumption. New possibilities of drug therapy aimed at limiting alcohol consumption are being reported.

  12. Interference of anesthetics in blood alcohol analysis by HS-GC-FID: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, C; Proença, P; Tavares, C; Castañera, A; Corte Real, F

    2016-08-01

    One of the techniques most widely used in ethanol analysis in forensic laboratories is undoubtedly the headspace gas chromatography with flame-ionization detection (HS-GC-FID) since the determination of this substance is carried out directly, without the need for additional purification procedures, which leads to increased productivity. This is a very important factor due to the high number of alcohol analysis requested to these laboratories. The presence of other volatile substances can cause a problem given the fact that they can be interferents in ethanol analysis by HS-GC-FID, which can have legal consequences related with driving under the influence of alcohol. The authors report a case of a routine analysis by HS-GC-FID for the determination of ethanol of a driver who has suffered an accident in which the use of two chromatographic columns with different polarities was essential to obtain an unequivocally identification of this substance in presence of an interfering volatile anesthetic administered in the hospital. The method was validated according to international recommendations before being introduced into routine laboratory in terms of selectivity, limits of detection (LOD), limits of quantification (LOQ), linearity, repeatability, intermediate precision, accuracy, robustness and carryover.

  13. Alcohol septal ablation in obstructive acromegalic hypertrophic cardiomyopathy - a first case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viveiros Monteiro, André; Fiarresga, António; Cacela, Duarte; de Sousa, Lídia; Ramos, Ruben; Galrinho, Ana; Branco, Luísa; Cruz Ferreira, Rui

    2016-09-01

    Acromegaly is a rare disease, mostly caused by a growth hormone (GH)-secreting benign pituitary tumor, with an increased production of GH and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1). Cardiovascular complications are common and are associated with cardiomyocyte apoptosis and concentric cardiac hypertrophy. Suppression of GH and IGF-1 appears to improve cardiac function only in the short term, with little or no decrease in left ventricular mass or improvement in cardiac function after prolonged treatment. Alcohol septal ablation (ASA) has emerged as a minimally invasive alternative to septal myectomy, with significant improvement in symptoms, gradients and left ventricular remodeling. In this report, we describe the case of a 73-year-old woman with acromegaly due to a pituitary adenoma diagnosed and treated surgically at the age of 38 but with recurrence and reoperation at the age of 50. She was referred to our cardiology department due to a three-month history of progressively worsening exercise-induced dyspnea and orthopnea under optimal medical therapy. Echocardiography and magnetic resonance imaging revealed severe basal hypertrophy of the interventricular septum (19 mm), dynamic left ventricular outflow tract obstruction with a gradient of 70 mmHg at rest and 120 mmHg with Valsalva maneuver, and systolic anterior movement (SAM). Genetic testing excluded the most frequent forms of familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. ASA was performed with injection of 2 cc of alcohol in the first septal branch of the left coronary artery, without complications. At one-year reassessment, significant clinical and echocardiographic improvement was noted, with disappearance of SAM. To our knowledge, there have been no previously reported cases of ASA in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy due to acromegaly. We report a case of successful ASA in acromegalic cardiomyopathy.

  14. Alcohol based surgical prep solution and the risk of fire in the operating room: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta Rajiv

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A few cases of fire in the operating room are reported in the literature. The factors that may initiate these fires are many and include alcohol based surgical prep solutions, electrosurgical equipment, flammable drapes etc. We are reporting a case of fire in the operating room while operating on a patient with burst fracture C6 vertebra with quadriplegia. The cause of the fire was due to incomplete drying of the covering drapes with an alcohol based surgical prep solution. This paper discusses potential preventive measures to minimize the incidence of fire in the operating room.

  15. First report of a mixed infection of Trichinella nelsoni and Trichinella T8 in a leopard (Panthera pardus from the Greater Kruger National Park, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louis J. La Grange

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available At least three Trichinella species, namely Trichinella nelsoni, Trichinella britovi and Trichinella zimbabwensis, and one genotype (Trichinella T8, have been isolated from sylvatic carnivores on the African continent. With the exception of T. britovi, the other species are known to circulate in wildlife of the Kruger National Park (KNP, South Africa, and KNP neighbouring game reserves (collectively known as the greater KNP area. Lions (Panthera leo and spotted hyenas (Crocuta crocuta appear to be the most important reservoirs of T. nelsoni and Trichinella T8 in the KNP and surrounding areas. Interspecies predation between lions and hyenas has been implicated as a primary mode of maintaining the life cycles of these two Trichinella species. This is the first report of a mixed natural infection of T. nelsoni and Trichinella T8 in a leopard (Panthera pardus from South Africa. Trichinella muscle larvae were identified to species level by multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Probable sources of infection, based on the known dietary preference and prey species’ range of leopards, are also discussed. The described occurrence of Trichinella species in a leopard from the greater KNP area raises the question of possible sources of infection for this predator species.

  16. First report of a mixed infection of Trichinella nelsoni and Trichinella T8 in a leopard (Panthera pardus) from the Greater Kruger National Park, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Grange, Louis J; Reininghaus, Björn; Mukaratirwa, Samson

    2014-11-20

    At least three Trichinella species, namely Trichinella nelsoni, Trichinella britovi and Trichinella zimbabwensis, and one genotype (Trichinella T8), have been isolated from sylvatic carnivores on the African continent. With the exception of T. britovi, the other species are known to circulate in wildlife of the Kruger National Park (KNP), South Africa, and KNP neighbouring game reserves (collectively known as the greater KNP area). Lions (Panthera leo) and spotted hyenas (Crocuta crocuta) appear to be the most important reservoirs of T. nelsoni and Trichinella T8 in the KNP and surrounding areas. Interspecies predation between lions and hyenas has been implicated as a primary mode of maintaining the life cycles of these two Trichinella species. This is the first report of a mixed natural infection of T. nelsoni and Trichinella T8 in a leopard (Panthera pardus) from South Africa. Trichinella muscle larvae were identified to species level by multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Probable sources of infection, based on the known dietary preference and prey species' range of leopards, are also discussed. The described occurrence of Trichinella species in a leopard from the greater KNP area raises the question of possible sources of infection for this predator species.

  17. Testing and evaluation of on-farm alcohol production facilities. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuby, W.; Markoja, R.; Nackord, S.

    1984-07-01

    Ethanol is the most important of biomass derived fuels in the short term. The bulk of the production will come from large (20 to 600M gallons/year) units with the remainder being produced on-farm in small (less than 6,000 gallons/year) units. The on-farm production of alcohol presents a unique problem in that the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) had no data available by which it could evaluate the possible impacts of a very large number of these facilities. This report gives the results of a sampling and analysis program conducted to characterize the air emissions, water effluents, and solid residuals from two on-farm ethanol production processes sampled in June 1980. Several recommendations, including acid neutralization and effluent ponding, are recommended to minimize the impacts.

  18. Hypokalemic Paralysis Complicated by Concurrent Hyperthyroidism and Chronic Alcoholism: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Ming-Hsien; Lin, Shih-Hua; Leu, Jyh-Gang; Fang, Yu-Wei

    2015-09-01

    Thyrotoxic periodic paralysis (TPP) is characterized by the presence of muscle paralysis, hypokalemia, and hyperthyroidism. We report the case of a young man with paralysis of the lower extremities, severe hypokalemia, and concurrent hyperthyroidism. TPP was suspected; therefore, treatment consisting of judicious potassium (K+) repletion and β-blocker administration was initiated. However, urinary K+ excretion rate, as well as refractoriness to treatment, was inconsistent with TPP. Chronic alcoholism was considered as an alternative cause of hypokalemia, and serum K+ was restored through vigorous K repletion and the addition of K+ -sparing diuretics. The presence of thyrotoxicosis and hypokalemia does not always indicate a diagnosis of TPP. Exclusion of TPP can be accomplished by immediate evaluation of urinary K+ excretion, acid-base status, and the amount of potassium chloride required to correct hypokalemia at presentation.

  19. Self-reported alcohol intake is a better estimate of 5-year change in blood pressure than biochemical markers in low resource settings: the PURE study

    OpenAIRE

    Zatu, Mandlenkosi C.; Van Rooyen, Johannes M.; Du Toit, Loots; Wentzel-Viljoen, Edelweiss; Greeff, Minrie; Schutte, Aletta E.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Despite criticism of self-reported alcohol intake, it is a valuable tool to screen for alcohol abuse as a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. We aimed to compare various self-reported estimates of alcohol use with γ-glutamyltransferase (GGT) and percentage carbohydrate deficient transferrin (%CDT) considering their relationship with blood pressure changes (%BP) over a 5-year period in black South Africans. Method: We recruited 1994 participants and collected 5-year followe...

  20. Adrenergic Inhibition with Dexmedetomidine to Treat Stress Cardiomyopathy during Alcohol Withdrawal: A Case Report and Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zachary M. Harris

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Stress (Takotsubo cardiomyopathy is a form of reversible left ventricular dysfunction with a heightened risk of ventricular arrhythmia thought to be caused by high circulating catecholamines. We report a case of stress cardiomyopathy that developed during severe alcohol withdrawal successfully treated with dexmedetomidine. The case involves a 53-year-old man with a significant history of alcohol abuse who presented to a teaching hospital with new-onset seizures. His symptoms of acute alcohol withdrawal were initially treated with benzodiazepines, but the patient later developed hypotension, and stress cardiomyopathy was suspected based on ECG and echocardiographic findings. Adjunctive treatment with the alpha-2-adrenergic agonist, dexmedetomidine, was initiated to curtail excessive sympathetic outflow of the withdrawal syndrome, thereby targeting the presumed pathophysiology of the cardiomyopathy. Significant clinical improvement was observed within one day of initiation of dexmedetomidine. These findings are consistent with other reports suggesting that sympathetic dysregulation during alcohol withdrawal produces ideal pathobiology for stress cardiomyopathy and leads to ventricular arrhythmogenicity. Stress cardiomyopathy should be recognized as a complication of alcohol withdrawal that significantly increases cardiac-related mortality. By helping to correct autonomic dysregulation of the withdrawal syndrome, dexmedetomidine may be useful in the treatment of stress-induced cardiomyopathy.

  1. Adrenergic Inhibition with Dexmedetomidine to Treat Stress Cardiomyopathy during Alcohol Withdrawal: A Case Report and Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Zachary M; Alonso, Alvaro; Kennedy, Thomas P

    2016-01-01

    Stress (Takotsubo) cardiomyopathy is a form of reversible left ventricular dysfunction with a heightened risk of ventricular arrhythmia thought to be caused by high circulating catecholamines. We report a case of stress cardiomyopathy that developed during severe alcohol withdrawal successfully treated with dexmedetomidine. The case involves a 53-year-old man with a significant history of alcohol abuse who presented to a teaching hospital with new-onset seizures. His symptoms of acute alcohol withdrawal were initially treated with benzodiazepines, but the patient later developed hypotension, and stress cardiomyopathy was suspected based on ECG and echocardiographic findings. Adjunctive treatment with the alpha-2-adrenergic agonist, dexmedetomidine, was initiated to curtail excessive sympathetic outflow of the withdrawal syndrome, thereby targeting the presumed pathophysiology of the cardiomyopathy. Significant clinical improvement was observed within one day of initiation of dexmedetomidine. These findings are consistent with other reports suggesting that sympathetic dysregulation during alcohol withdrawal produces ideal pathobiology for stress cardiomyopathy and leads to ventricular arrhythmogenicity. Stress cardiomyopathy should be recognized as a complication of alcohol withdrawal that significantly increases cardiac-related mortality. By helping to correct autonomic dysregulation of the withdrawal syndrome, dexmedetomidine may be useful in the treatment of stress-induced cardiomyopathy.

  2. Brief Report: Disposable Income, and Spending on Fast Food, Alcohol, Cigarettes, and Gambling by New Zealand Secondary School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darling, Helen; Reeder, Anthony I.; McGee, Rob; Williams, Sheila

    2006-01-01

    We describe self-reported sources of income and expenditure, and the association between part-time employment and spending on fast food, alcohol, cigarettes, and gambling for a sample of 3434 New Zealand (NZ) secondary school students (mean age 15.0 years). Disposable income was usually received from parents and guardians, but nearly 40% of…

  3. Retrospective reports of parenting received in their families of origin: relationships to adult attachment in adult children of alcoholics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Michelle L; Nair, Veena; Rawlings, Tanaya; Cash, Thomas F; Steer, Kate; Fals-Stewart, William

    2005-09-01

    The present study examined general and romantic attachment and parenting students received in their families of origin among 401 college students who resided with an alcohol-abusing parent prior to age 16 years as compared to those who did not reside with alcohol-abusing parents. Participants completed the Children's Report of Parent Behavior Instrument [Schludermann, E. and Schludermann, S. (1970). Children's Report of Parent Behavior Inventory (CRPBI). Canada: University of Manitoba], Experiences in Close Relationships--Revised [Fraley, R. C., Waller, N. G., and Brennan, K. G. (2000). An item response theory analysis of self-report measures of adult attachment. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 78, 350-365], Relationship Scale Questionnaire [Griffin, D. W. and Bartholomew, K. (1994). Models of the self and other: Fundamental dimensions underlying measures of adult attachment. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 67, 430-445], and the Children of Alcoholics Screening Test [Jones, J. W. (1983). The Children of Alcoholics Screening Test: Test manual. Chicago: Camelot]. Young adults who met criteria for ACOAs reported more anxious and avoidant behavior in romantic relationships and a more fearful style of general adult attachment. Parenting behavior in one's family of origin predicted anxious behavior in romantic relationships and a fearful overall style of attachment, whereas being an ACOA and parenting in one's family of origin predicted avoidant behavior in romantic relationships.

  4. Young adolescents who combine alcohol and energy drinks have a higher risk of reporting negative behavioural outcomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holubcikova, Jana; Kolarcik, Peter; Madarasova Geckova, Andrea; Joppova, Eva; van Dijk, Jitse P; Reijneveld, Sijmen A

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To explore whether young adolescents consuming alcohol and energy drinks combined were more likely to report negative behavioural outcomes than their peers who drink only one type of these beverages or are abstinent. METHODS: We analysed data on a representative sample of Slovak adolesce

  5. Young adolescents who combine alcohol and energy drinks have a higher risk of reporting negative behavioural outcomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holubcikova, Jana; Kolarcik, Peter; Geckova, Andrea Madarasova; Joppova, Eva; van Dijk, Jitse P.; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.

    To explore whether young adolescents consuming alcohol and energy drinks combined were more likely to report negative behavioural outcomes than their peers who drink only one type of these beverages or are abstinent. We analysed data on a representative sample of Slovak adolescents 8502 adolescents

  6. Screening for use of alcohol, tobacco and cannabis in pregnancy using self-report tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hotham, E; White, J; Ali, R; Robinson, J

    2012-08-01

    The World Health Organization has identified substance use in the top 20 risk factors for ill health. Risks in pregnancy are compounded, with risk to the woman's health, to pregnancy progression and on both the foetus and the newborn. Intrauterine exposure can result in negative influences on offspring development, sometimes into adulthood. With effectively two patients, there is a clear need for antenatal screening. Biomarker reliability is limited and research efforts have been directed to self-report tools, often attempting to address potential lack of veracity if women feel guilty about substance use and worried about possible stigmatization. Tools, which assume the behaviour, are likely to elicit more honest responses; querying pre-pregnancy use would likely have the same effect. Although veracity is heightened if substance use questions are embedded within health and social functioning questionnaires, such tools may be too lengthy clinically. It has been proposed that screening only for alcohol and tobacco, with focus on the month pre-pregnancy, could enable identification of all other substances. Alternatively, the Revised Fagerstrom Questionnaire could be used initially, tobacco being highly indicative of substance use generally. The ASSIST V.3.0 is readily administered and covers all substances, although the pregnancy 'risk level' cut-off for tobacco is not established. Alcohol tools - the 4Ps, TLFB and 'drug' CAGE (with E: query of use to avoid withdrawal) - have been studied with other substances and could be used. General psychosocial distress and mental ill-health often co-exist with substance use and identification of substance use needs to become legitimate practice for obstetric clinicians.

  7. Relation of blood pressure to reported intake of salt, saturated fats, and alcohol in healthy middle-aged population.

    OpenAIRE

    Salonen, J.T.; Tuomilehto, J; A. Tanskanen

    1983-01-01

    The association of blood pressure with reported intake of salt, saturated fats, and alcohol was studied in a sample of 8479 subjects based on a cross sectional survey in a population aged 30 to 64 years. A consistent association was found between the mean arterial pressure and the intake of alcohol (p less than 0.001) and saturated fats (p less than 0.01). There was also a weak association between blood pressure and dietary salt intake, but this association was mostly explained by the correla...

  8. Associations between oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR) polymorphisms and self-reported aggressive behavior and anger: Interactions with alcohol consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Ada; Westberg, Lars; Sandnabba, Kenneth; Jern, Patrick; Salo, Benny; Santtila, Pekka

    2012-09-01

    Oxytocin has been implicated in the regulation of social as well as aggressive behaviors, and in a recent study we found that the effect of alcohol on aggressive behavior was moderated by the individual's genotype on an oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR) polymorphism (Johansson et al., 2012). In this study we wanted to deepen and expand the analysis by exploring associations between three (rs1488467, rs4564970, rs1042778) OXTR polymorphisms and aggressive behavior, trait anger as well as anger control in a population-based sample of Finnish men and women (N=3577) aged between 18 and 49 years (M=26.45 years, SD=5.02). A specific aim was to investigate if the polymorphisms would show interactive effects with alcohol consumption on aggressive behavior and trait anger, as well as to explore whether these polymorphisms affect differences in anger control between self-reported sober and intoxicated states. The results showed no main effects of the polymorphisms, however, three interactions between the polymorphisms and alcohol consumption were found. The effect of alcohol consumption on aggressive behavior was moderated by the genotype of the individual on the rs4564970 polymorphism, in line with previous results (Johansson et al., 2012). For trait anger, both the rs1488467 and the rs4564970 polymorphisms interacted with alcohol consumption. It appears that the region of the OXTR gene including both the rs4564970 and the rs1488467 polymorphisms may be involved in the regulation of the relationship between alcohol and aggressive behavior as well as between alcohol and the propensity to react to situations with elevated levels of anger.

  9. The Epidemiology of Alcohol Use and Alcohol Use Disorders among Young People in Northern Tanzania.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel M Francis

    Full Text Available Alcohol use is a global public health problem, including as a risk factor for HIV infection, but few data are available on the epidemiology of alcohol use and alcohol use disorders (AUD among young people in sub-Saharan Africa.We conducted a cross-sectional survey among 4 groups of young people aged 15-24 years old (secondary school students, college/university students, employees of local industries and casual labourers in two regions (Kilimanjaro and Mwanza of northern Tanzania. Using a multistage stratified random sampling strategy, we collected information on demographics, alcohol use, and behavioural factors. We screened severity of alcohol use using the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT and estimated the quantity and frequency of alcohol consumption using the timeline-follow-back-calendar (TLFB method.A total of 1954 young people were surveyed. The prevalence of reported alcohol use was higher among males (47-70% ever users and 20-45% current users than females (24-54% ever users and 12-47% current users. Prevalence of use was substantially higher in Kilimanjaro than Mwanza region. In both regions, participants reported high exposure to alcohol advertisements, and wide alcohol availability. College students reported the highest prevalence of current alcohol use (45% among males; 26% among females and of heavy episodic drinking (71% among males; 27% among females followed by casual labourers. Males were more likely to have AUD (an AUDIT score ≥8 than females, with 11-28% of males screening positive for AUD. Alcohol use was associated with male gender, being in a relationship, greater disposable income, non-Muslim religion and a higher number of sexual partners.Alcohol use is a significant problem among young people in northern Tanzania. There is an urgent need to develop, pilot and deliver interventions to help young people delay initiation and reduce levels of harmful drinking, particularly among college students and casual

  10. Rhabdomyolysis and acute renal failure after strenuous exercise and alcohol abuse: case report and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth De Francesco Daher

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Rhabdomyolysis is a severe and life-threatening condition in which skeletal muscle is damaged. Acute renal failure due to rhabdomyolysis has been widely described and its main pathophysiological mechanisms are renal vasoconstriction, intraluminal cast formation and direct myoglobin toxicity. OBJECTIVE: To report on a case of acute renal failure (ARF induced by rhabdomyolysis due to strenuous exercise and alcohol abuse and to describe the pathophysiology of this type of ARF. CASE REPORT: A 39-year-old man arrived at the hospital emergency service with swollen legs and lower extremity compartment syndrome. He was oliguric and had serum creatinine and urea levels of 8.1 mg/dl and 195 mg/dl, respectively. The diagnosis of rhabdomyolysis was made through clinical and laboratory findings (creatine kinase activity of 26320 IU/l. The initial treatment consisted of fluid replacement and forced diuresis. The specific treatment for compartment syndrome, such as fasciotomy, was avoided in order to prevent infection. Partial recovery of renal function was recorded, after ten hemodialysis sessions. Complete recovery was observed after two months of follow-up.

  11. High octane ethers from synthesis gas-derived alcohols. Quarterly technical progress report, July--September 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klier, K.; Herman, R.G.; Feeley, O.C.; Johansson, M.A.

    1993-11-01

    The objective of the proposed research is to synthesize oxygenated fuel ethers, primarily methyl isobutyl ether (MIBE) and methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE), directly from coal-derived H{sub 2}/CO/CO{sub 2} synthesis via alcohol mixtures that are rich in methanol and 2-methyl-1-proanol (isobutanol). The overall scheme involves gasification of coal, purification and shifting of the synthesis gas, higher alcohol synthesis, and direct synthesis of ethers. Both organic and inorganic catalysts will be investigated, and the better catalysts will be subjected to long term performance studies. The project is divided into the following three tasks: (1) synthesis of high octane ethers from alcohol mixtures containing predominantly methanol and 2-methyl-1-propanol over superacid resins, (2) inorganic catalysts for the synthesis of high octane ethers form alcohols, and (3) long term performance and reaction engineering for scale-up of the alcohols-to-ether process. A summary of technical progress is provided in this report.

  12. Expectancies and evaluations of alcohol effects among college students: self-determination as a moderator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neighbors, Clayton; Walker, Denise D; Larimer, Mary E

    2003-03-01

    This research examined individual differences in self-determination as moderators of both alcohol expectancies and of subjective evaluations of alcohol effects in college students. Previous work has shown lower levels of self-determination to be linked with drinking for more extrinsic reasons and as a means of regulating affect and social approval. We proposed that alcohol expectancies and subjective evaluations of alcohol effects would be more strongly linked to alcohol consumption and alcohol-related problems among students who were more controlled and/or less autonomous. Self-reported alcohol expectancies and subjective evaluations of alcohol effects and self-determination were assessed among 560 (347 women) college students, along with self-reported alcohol consumption and alcohol-related negative consequences. Alcohol expectancies and subjective evaluation of alcohol effects were examined separately. A series of hierarchical multiple regressions revealed that positive alcohol expectancies were more strongly associated with greater alcohol consumption and alcohol-related problems among students who were lower in autonomy orientation, and among male students who were higher in controlled orientation. Similarly, more favorable evaluations of positive alcohol effects were associated with greater alcohol consumption among students who were lower in autonomy orientation and students, particularly men, who were higher in controlled orientation. Expectancy theories implicitly assume that individuals who believe alcohol has positive effects and who evaluate alcohol effects favorably are more likely to engage in problematic drinking. This research reveals this assumption is more appropriate among individuals who are generally less self-determined. Implications for interventions are discussed.

  13. Reported Changes in Students' Alcohol Consumption Following a Brief Education of What Constitutes a Standard Drink

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergen-Cico, Dessa; Kilmer, Jason

    2010-01-01

    Intercept surveys were conducted with 149 college students each asked to record their alcohol consumption for the previous two weeks using the Timeline Follow-back (TLFB method). Immediately following completion of the pretest TLFB alcohol survey the students were presented with brief educational information defining what constitutes one standard…

  14. Towards a greater understanding of the illicit tobacco trade in Europe: a review of the PMI funded ‘Project Star’ report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmore, Anna B; Rowell, Andy; Gallus, Silvano; Lugo, Alessandra; Joossens, Luk; Sims, Michelle

    2014-01-01

    Background Following a legal agreement with the European Union (EU), Philip Morris International (PMI) commissions a yearly report (‘Project Star’, PS) on the European illicit cigarette trade from KPMG, the global accountancy firm. Methods Review of PS 2010 report. Comparison with data from independent sources including a 2010 pan-European survey (N=18 056). Findings Within PS, data covering all 27 EU countries are entered into a model. While the model itself seems appropriate, concerns are identified with the methodologies underlying the data inputs and thus their quality: there is little transparency over methodologies; interview data underestimate legal non-domestic product partly by failing to account for legal cross-border sales; illicit cigarette estimates rely on tobacco industry empty pack surveys which may overestimate illicit; and there is an over-reliance on data supplied by PMI with inadequate external validation. Thus, PMI sales data are validated using PMI smoking prevalence estimates, yet PMI is unable to provide sales (shipment) data for the Greek islands and its prevalence estimates differ grossly from independent data. Consequently, comparisons with independent data suggest PS will tend to overestimate illicit cigarette levels particularly where cross-border shopping is frequent (Austria, Finland, France) and in Western compared with Eastern European countries. The model also provides data on the nature of the illicit cigarette market independent of seizure data suggesting that almost a quarter of the illicit cigarette market in 2010 comprised PMI's own brands compared with just 5% counterfeited PMI brands; a finding hidden in PMI's public representation of the data. Conclusions PS overestimates illicit cigarette levels in some European countries and suggests PMI's supply chain control is inadequate. Its publication serves the interests of PMI over those of the EU and its member states. PS requires greater transparency, external scrutiny and

  15. Alcohol dementia and thermal dysregulation: a case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanev, Kaloyan S; Roether, Melissa; Yang, Clifford

    Wernicke's encephalopathy and Korsakoff's psychosis in alcoholics are thought to be due to thiamine deficiency. When the process goes untreated, patients may develop alcohol-induced persisting dementia. We review the literature on thermal dysregulation and the place of thiamine treatment in Wernicke's encephalopathy, Korsakoff's psychosis, and alcohol-induced persisting dementia. We describe a patient with alcohol-induced persisting dementia who showed thermal dysregulation which responded to parenteral but not oral thiamine. Subsequently, he developed aspiration pneumonia with associated fever reaction and expired. We describe the neuroimaging findings--diffuse cortical atrophy, ventricular dilatation, atrophy of the corpus callosum, hypothalamus, and medulla, and a probable arachnoid cyst in the left temporal tip. We conclude that thermal dysregulation was likely related to dysfunction of temperature regulatory brain centers, that thermal dysregulation was stabilized with parenteral but not oral thiamine, and that parenteral thiamine may have a role even in chronic cases of alcohol-induced persisting dementia.

  16. A decrease in the size of the basal ganglia following prenatal alcohol exposure: a preliminary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattson, S N; Riley, E P; Jernigan, T L; Garcia, A; Kaneko, W M; Ehlers, C L; Jones, K L

    1994-01-01

    Prenatal alcohol exposure is known to cause damage to the central nervous system. This study sought to further elucidate the structural brain damage that occurs following prenatal alcohol exposure in both children and rats. Two children with histories of maternal alcohol abuse but who did not qualify for a diagnosis of Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS), based on established criteria, underwent magnetic resonance imaging. Reduced volumes were found for the cerebrum and cerebellum. In addition, the proportional volume of the basal ganglia was reduced, although the proportional volumes of cortical and subcortical fluid, cortical gray matter, limbic and nonlimbic cortex, and diencephalic structures were unaffected. These findings are compared with our recent MRI findings in two cases of FAS. In addition, the caudate-putamen and ventricular areas were assessed in rats exposed to alcohol prenatally. Whereas the overall brain section area was not reduced in size, the area of the caudate-putamen was reduced and that of the ventricles was enlarged.

  17. [Autoerotic fatalities in Greater Dusseldorf].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartung, Benno; Hellen, Florence; Borchard, Nora; Huckenbeck, Wolfgang

    2011-01-01

    Autoerotic fatalities in the Greater Dusseldorf area correspond to the relevant medicolegal literature. Our results included exclusively young to middle-aged, usually single men who were found dead in their city apartments. Clothing and devices used showed a great variety. Women's or fetish clothing and complex shackling or hanging devices were disproportionately frequent. In most cases, death occurred due to hanging or ligature strangulation. There was no increased incidence of underlying psychiatric disorders. In most of the deceased no or at least no remarkable alcohol intoxication was found. Occasionally, it may be difficult to reliably differentiate autoerotic accidents, accidents occurring in connection with practices of bondage & discipline, dominance & submission (BDSM) from natural death, suicide or homicide.

  18. Is adolescent alcohol use associated with self-reported hypomanic symptoms in adulthood? - Findings from a prospective birth cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fasteau, Melissa; Mackay, Daniel; Smith, Daniel J; Meyer, Thomas D

    2017-09-01

    High rates of alcohol use disorder (AUD) are reported in people with major depression (MD) and bipolar disorder (BD). Substance abuse problems in adolescence may also indicate risk for future onset of mood disorders, especially BD. Data collected from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC), a large UK birth cohort, allowed information to be collected over several different time points and to test whether problematic alcohol use at age 16 was predictive of vulnerability to hypomanic symptoms at age 23. Controlling for a participant's gender, SES, marital status of the mother, a likely history of maternal depression, and adolescents' level of depressive symptoms at age 16, a hierarchical linear regression revealed that self-reported alcohol use in adolescence predicted the future onset of hypomanic/manic symptoms. Limitations include attrition and relying solely on self-ratings. Despite these limitations, the results suggest problematic alcohol use in adolescence predicts a vulnerability to hypomanic or manic symptoms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Sport-Related Achievement Motivation and Alcohol Outcomes: An Athlete-Specific Risk Factor among Intercollegiate Athletes

    OpenAIRE

    Weaver, Cameron C.; Martens, Matthew P.; Cadigan, Jennifer M.; Takamatsu, Stephanie K.; Treloar, Hayley R.; Pedersen, Eric R.

    2013-01-01

    Intercollegiate athletes report greater alcohol consumption and more alcohol-related problems than their non-athlete peers. Although college athletes share many of the same problems faced by non-athletes, there are some consequences that are unique to athletes. Studies have demonstrated that alcohol negatively affects athletic performance including increased dehydration, impeded muscle recovery, and increased risk for injury. Beyond risk factors for alcohol misuse that may affect college stud...

  20. Quarterly Technical Progress Report - Investigation of Syngas Interaction in Alcohol Synthesis Catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murty A. Akundi

    1998-11-10

    This report presents the work done on " Investigation of Syngas Interaction in Alcohol Synthesis Catalysts" during the last quarter. The major activity during this period is on FTIR absorption studies of Co/Cr catalysts using CO as a probe molecule. Transition metals cobalt and copper play significant roles in the conversion of syngas (CO + H2 ) to liquid fuels. With a view to examine the nature of interaction between CO and metal, the FTIR spectra of CO adsorbed on Co-Cr2 O3 composites were investigated. The results indicate that as cobalt loading increases, the intensity of the CO adsorption bands increase and several vibrational modes seem to be promoted. Heat treatment of the sample revealed two distinct processes of adsorption. Bands due to physisorption disappeared while bands due to chemisorption not only increased in intensity but persisted even after desorption. It seems that the physisorption process is more active when the catalyst is fresh and is hindered when carbidic/carbonyl formations occur on the metal surfaces.

  1. INSOMNIA, SELF-MEDICATION, AND RELAPSE TO ALCOHOLISM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brower, Kirk J.; Aldrich, Michael S.; Robinson, Elizabeth A. R.; Zucker, Robert A.; Greden, John F.

    2009-01-01

    Objective This study investigated the frequencies of insomnia and its self-medication with alcohol in a sample of alcoholic patients, as well as the relationship of these variables to alcoholic relapse. Method Subjects were 172 men and women receiving treatment for alcohol dependence. They completed a sleep questionnaire, measures of alcohol problem severity and depression severity, and polysomnograpy after at least two weeks of abstinence. Results Using eight items from the Sleep Disorders Questionnaire, >60% of subjects were classified as having symptomatic insomnia during the six months prior to treatment entry. Compared to patients without insomnia, patients with insomnia were more likely to report frequent alcohol use for sleep (55% vs. 28%; χ2=12.03, df=1, p=0.001), had significantly worse polysomnographic measures of sleep continuity, and had greater severity scores for both alcohol dependence and depression. Among 74 alcoholics who were followed a mean of five months after treatment, 60% with baseline insomnia vs. 30% without baseline insomnia relapsed to any use of alcohol (χ2=6.16, df=1, p=0.02). Insomnia remained a robust predictor of relapse after applying logistic regression analysis to control for other variables. A history of self-medicating insomnia with alcohol did not significantly predict subsequent relapse. Conclusions The majority of alcoholic patients entering treatment reported insomnia symptoms. Given the potential link between insomnia and relapse, routine questions about sleep in clinical and research settings are warranted. PMID:11229980

  2. Injuries, negative consequences, and risk behaviors among both injured and uninjured emergency department patients who report using alcohol and marijuana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woolard Robert

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Brief intervention (BI to reduce hazardous drinking and negative consequences such as injury has been effective when given in the emergency department (ED. The effectiveness and effect of BI has varied between injured and uninjured ED patients. This study compares injured and uninjured ED patients who admit to alcohol and marijuana use to determine their need and their readiness for BI. Patients and Methods: Participants volunteered to enter a randomized controlled trial of BI to reduce hazardous alcohol and marijuana use. Adult ED patients who had had alcohol in the last month and smoked marijuana in the last year were recruited. Those patients who were admitted to hospital, were under police custody, or were seeking treatment for substance use or psychiatric disorder were excluded. Research assistants interviewed participants using a validated questionnaire. Data were analyzed using SAS (version 9.1. Binominal tests of proportions, t-test analyses, and transformations were conducted as appropriate. Results: Injured (n = 249 and uninjured (n = 266 study participants reported very high, statistically equivalent (P > 0.05, rates of binge drinking (4-5 days/month, marijuana use (13 days/month, driving under the influence of marijuana or alcohol (>49% in the last 3 months, injury (>83% in the last year, and other negative consequences (>64% in the last 3 months prior to their ED visit. These behaviors and the consequences demonstrate a need for change. Both injured and uninjured subjects were ready to change (>56% and confident they could change (>91% alcohol and marijuana use. Discussion: ED patients who admit to alcohol and marijuana use also use other hazardous substances and participate in high-risk behaviors. In both injured and uninjured patients who admit using alcohol and marijuana, the ED visit is an opportunity to deliver BI to reduce alcohol and marijuana use and associated risk behaviors and the subsequent injury and

  3. Brief Report: Tailgating as a unique context for parental modeling on college student alcohol use

    OpenAIRE

    Abar, Caitlin; Turrisi, Rob; Abar, Beau

    2010-01-01

    Little attention has been directed toward potential differential effects of the various contexts in which parents model alcohol use. The present study examined college football tailgating as a potential context in which parental modeling may be more or less risky. 290 college freshmen were assessed for perceptions of their parents’ drinking and tailgating behaviors, individual alcohol use and consequences. Hierarchical multiple regressions were performed and results revealed that parental tai...

  4. Screening, testing, and reporting for drug and alcohol use on labor and delivery: a survey of Maryland birthing hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Catherine; Lanham, Amy; Welsh, Christopher; Ramanadhan, Shaalini; Terplan, Mishka

    2014-01-01

    Recent amendments to the Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act tie the receipt of federal block grants to mandatory reporting of substance-exposed newborns. To determine rates of screening, testing, and reporting of drug and alcohol use at the time of delivery, we administered a telephone survey of nursing managers and perinatal social workers at Maryland birthing hospitals. Of the 34 hospitals, 31 responded (response rate 91%). Although 97% of hospitals reported universal screening, only 6% used a validated instrument. Testing was reported by 94% with 45% reporting universal maternal testing and 7% universal newborn testing. Only 32% reported obtaining maternal consent prior to testing. There is significant heterogeneity in screening and testing for substance use in birthing hospitals. Given federal reporting mandates, state-level practices need to be standardized.

  5. Lodging Update: Greater Boston

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Roginsky

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Pinnacle Advisory Group provides an update of lodging industry performance in New England and Boston for the first half of 2012. While the New England region outpaced the nation, the specific story varies from state to state. Only Massachusetts and Vermont achieved REVPAR performance better than the national average. A review of the Greater Boston lodging market reveals that a healthy local economy and strong convention calendar, combined with a number of one-time events and limited new supply, boosted the local market in 2012. The outlook for 2013 in Greater Boston remains positive, with expectations of a 4.7% growth in REVPAR.

  6. Assessment of ether and alcohol fuels from coal. Volume 2. Technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-03-01

    A unique route for the indirect liquefaction of coal to produce transportation fuel has been evaluated. The resultant fuel includes alkyl tertiary alkyl ethers and higher alcohols, all in the gasoline boiling range. When blended into gasoline, the ether fuel provides several advantages over the lower alcohols: (1) lower chemical oxygen content, (2) less-severe water-separation problems, and (3) reduced front-end volatility effects. The ether fuel also has high-octane quality. Further, it can be utilized as a gasoline substitute in all proportions. Production of ether fuel combines several steps, all of which are or have been practiced on an industrial scale: (1) coal gasification, (2) gas cleanup and shift to desired H/sub 2/:CO ratio, (3) conversion of synthesis gas to isobutanol, methanol, and higher alcohols, (4) separation of alcohols, (5) chemical dehydration of isobutanol to isobutylene, and (6) etherification of isobutylene with methanol. A pilot-plant investigation of the isobutanol synthesis step was performed. Estimates of ether-fuel manufacturing costs indicate this process route is significantly more costly than synthesis of methanol. However, the fuel performance features provide incentive for developing the necessary process and catalyst improvements. Co-production of higher-molecular-weight co-solvent alcohols represents a less-drastic form of methanol modification to achieve improvement in the performance of methanol-gasoline blends. Costs were estimated for producing several proportions of methanol plus higher alcohols from coal. Estimated fuel selling price increases regularly but modestly with higher alcohol content.

  7. Alcohol Alert

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... main content National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) Main Menu Search Search form Search Alcohol & ... on a single aspect of alcohol abuse and alcoholism. Please click on the desired publication for full ...

  8. Reactivity to alcohol cues: isolating the role of perceived availability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKillop, James; Lisman, Stephen A

    2005-08-01

    Perceived availability of a substance has been proposed to play a role in cue reactivity by both traditional classical conditioning models and S. T. Tiffany's (1990) cognitive processing model (CPM) of substance use. This study investigated the role of availability information on alcohol cue reactivity. Subjects were 134 heavy drinkers in a 2 x 2 between-subjects design, crossing cues (alcohol vs. neutral) and availability information (availability vs. unavailability). The results indicated significant main effects for cue type, with alcohol cues eliciting greater reactivity on multiple measures, and an interaction effect on the Alcohol Urge Questionnaire (M. J. Bohn, D. D. Krahn, & B. B. Staehler, 1995), such that exposure to alcohol cues in conjunction with unavailability information elicited a greater urge. This was largely a result of changes in self-reported craving and was interpreted as consistent with the CPM. Alternative methodologies and limitations are discussed.

  9. Habitus of home and traditional drinking: a qualitative analysis of reported middle-class alcohol use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brierley-Jones, Lyn; Ling, Jonathan; McCabe, Karen E; Wilson, Graeme B; Crosland, Ann; Kaner, Eileen F S; Haighton, Catherine A

    2014-09-01

    There is evidence that alcohol consumption among those in middle-class occupations consistently exceeds safe levels, yet there has been little research into why this occurs. This article explores the meanings associated with alcohol use among professional, managerial and clerical workers. Qualitative data were collected from five focus groups of male and female employees aged 21-55 (N =49: 32 male, 17 female). Each focus group was conducted on the premises of a medium-scale or large-scale employer, four public sector and one private sector, in the north-east of England. Using Bourdieu's concepts of 'habitus', 'capitals' and 'fields' we found that, among these middle-class occupational groups, alcohol use was associated with two habitus: a 'home drinking' habitus and a 'traditional drinking' habitus. Those of the home drinking habitus particularly used wine as a source of cultural capital and a means of distinction, whereas those in the traditional habitus consumed lager, beer and spirits to have fun in social settings. A small minority appeared to belong to a third, omnivorous, habitus where a wide range of alcoholic drinks were consumed in a variety of contexts. Existing public health initiatives to reduce alcohol consumption may require modification to accommodate a range of drinking cultures. © 2014 The Authors. Sociology of Health & Illness © 2014 Foundation for the Sociology of Health & Illness/John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. The effects of alcohol expectancy priming on group bonding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moltisanti, Allison J; Below, Maureen C; Brandon, Karen O; Goldman, Mark S

    2013-12-01

    According to alcohol expectancy theory, drinking-related information is stored in memory and, when cue activated, influences alcohol-related behavior. Priming of alcohol cues and expectancies has been shown to elicit both drinking and nonconsumptive behavior associated with alcohol consumption, such as willingness to meet with a stranger and aggression. These social influence effects have been shown to be moderated by individual differences in alcohol expectancies. In the present study, we tested whether an alcohol prime would facilitate social group bonding even in the absence of consumption, and whether such group bonding would be moderated by individually held social expectancies. One hundred twenty undergraduates (75% female) completed an alcohol expectancy measure prior to participation. Participants were primed with either alcohol or neutral beverage words and completed a collaborative group activity followed by questionnaires measuring perceived group cohesion. Several interactions were found between condition and expectancy reflecting that those in the alcohol prime condition with higher social alcohol expectancies reported greater cohesion on task-related, but not emotion-related, group measures. These findings underscore the complexity of the impact of expectancy and social behavior on drinking: the priming of alcohol expectancies may activate aspects of pro-social behavior, which may influence drinking, which in turn may feedback to positively reinforce social expectancies.

  11. Probe molecule studies: Active species in alcohol synthesis. Final report, July 1993--July 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blackmond, D.G.; Wender, I.; Oukaci, R.; Wang, Jian

    1994-07-01

    The objectives of this project are to investigate the role(s) of cobalt and copper in constructing the active sites for the formation of higher alcohols from CO/H{sub 2} over the Co-Cu based catalysts by using different reduction treatments and applying selected characterization tools such as TPR, TPD, XRD and XPS as well as to generate mechanistic information on the reaction pathway(s) and key intermediate(s) of higher alcohol synthesis from CO/H{sub 2} over Co-Cu/ZnO catalysts by the approach of in-situ addition of a probe molecule (nitromethane).

  12. Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders and childhood cancer: a concise review of case reports and future research considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burd, Larry; Peterson, Leah; Kobrinsky, Nathan

    2014-05-01

    We reviewed the published literature on the relationship between childhood cancer and fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). A Pub Med search identified 12 subjects with the co-occurrence of FASD and cancer. We included an additional case from the author's institution. Neuroblastomas comprised 6 of the 13 (46%) case reports, yet neuroblastomas comprise only about 10% of childhood cancers (z = 4.1; P cancer was reported more than once. Few cases of childhood cancer associated with FASD were identified likely due to under ascertainment of FASD.

  13. [Greater trochanteric pain syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gollwitzer, H; Opitz, G; Gerdesmeyer, L; Hauschild, M

    2014-01-01

    Greater trochanteric pain is one of the common complaints in orthopedics. Frequent diagnoses include myofascial pain, trochanteric bursitis, tendinosis and rupture of the gluteus medius and minimus tendon, and external snapping hip. Furthermore, nerve entrapment like the piriformis syndrome must be considered in the differential diagnosis. This article summarizes essential diagnostic and therapeutic steps in greater trochanteric pain syndrome. Careful clinical evaluation, complemented with specific imaging studies and diagnostic infiltrations allows determination of the underlying pathology in most cases. Thereafter, specific nonsurgical treatment is indicated, with success rates of more than 90 %. Resistant cases and tendon ruptures may require surgical intervention, which can provide significant pain relief and functional improvement in most cases.

  14. Menstrual disturbances and fertility in chronic alcoholic women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Becker, U; Tønnesen, H; Kaas-Claesson, N

    1989-01-01

    of both menstrual cycle and menstrual flow was recorded in the chronic alcoholic women during active alcoholism. A higher frequency (P less than 0.05) of menstrual disturbances (70% vs. 55%) and uterine curettages (38% vs. 16%) were found in the alcoholic women. The latter reported more abortions (63% vs......Data on menstrual pattern, gynecological disorders and infertility were obtained from 51 chronic alcoholic women aged 20--42 years attending an outpatient clinic for alcoholics, using 51 randomly drawn age-matched healthy women as controls. A higher variability (P less than 0.05) in the duration...... conception. Social classification had no independent influence on the results. The study shows that chronic alcoholic women are more prone to menstrual abnormalities and are at greater risk of gynecological interventions, while they do not seem to have reduced fertility....

  15. Long-term misuse of zopiclone in an alcohol dependent woman with a history of anorexia nervosa: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keaney Francis

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction The Z-drugs, zaleplon, zopiclone and zolpidem, are short-acting hypnotics which act at the same receptor as the benzodiazepines, but seemingly without the potential for misuse and the development of dependence of the older benzodiazepines. However, with increased prescribing of Z-drugs, reports of misuse and possible dependence began to appear in the literature, particularly in people with a history of substance misuse and comorbid psychiatric illness. Here we report the case of a woman with a history of chronic zopiclone use and anorexia nervosa, admitted for alcohol detoxification. Case presentation A 31-year old Caucasian British woman with a history of long-term zopiclone use and anorexia nervosa was admitted as an inpatient for a ten-day alcohol detoxification. Her weekly (four days out of seven intake of alcohol was 180 units and her daily intake of zopiclone, 30 mg. Apart from a short period five years ago, she had been taking zopiclone for 13 years at daily doses of up to 90 mg. She admitted to using 'on top' of her prescribed medication, purchasing extra tablets from friends or receiving them gratis from her partner. After detoxification from alcohol and zopiclone, she was prescribed diazepam which she found ineffectual and voiced her intention of returning to zopiclone on leaving the hospital. Conclusion Zopiclone is generally regarded as safer than benzodiazepines, however, this particular individual, who was using high doses of zopiclone over many years, may provide further evidence of a risk of dependency when this drug is prescribed for substance users with a comorbid psychiatric illness.

  16. Comparing Entering Freshmen's Perceptions of Campus Marijuana and Alcohol Use to Reported Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, Gregg J.; Nguyen, Alyssa T.

    2009-01-01

    Use of marijuana and alcohol among current college students (N = 1101) was compared to the perceptions and use of entering freshmen (N = 481) surveyed before the start of classes. Entering freshmen significantly misperceived campus norms for marijuana use, over-estimating that almost every student used in the last 30 days, p less than 0.001.…

  17. Prevalence of alcohol and other psychoactive substances in drivers in general traffic. Part II: Country reports

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Houwing, Sjoerd; Hagenzieker, Marjan; Mathijssen, René

    2011-01-01

    DRUID (Driving under the Influence of Drugs, Alcohol and Medicines) aimed to combat the problem of driving under the influence of psychoactive substances by providing a solid scientific base for European policy makers. It brought together experienced organisations in Europe to assemble a coordina...

  18. Assessment of Benzodiazepine dependence in alcohol and drug dependent outpatients: A research report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kan, C.C.; Breteler, M.H.M.; Ven, A.H.G.S. van der; Timmermans, M.A.Y.; Zitman, F.G.

    2001-01-01

    In this study on 99 outpatients who were being treated for alcohol and/or drug dependence and also using benzodiazepines (BZDs), prevalence rates of DSM-III-R and ICD-10 substance dependence diagnoses were ascertained and scalability, reliability and validity of the scales of the Benzodiazepine Depe

  19. Comparing Entering Freshmen's Perceptions of Campus Marijuana and Alcohol Use to Reported Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, Gregg J.; Nguyen, Alyssa T.

    2009-01-01

    Use of marijuana and alcohol among current college students (N = 1101) was compared to the perceptions and use of entering freshmen (N = 481) surveyed before the start of classes. Entering freshmen significantly misperceived campus norms for marijuana use, over-estimating that almost every student used in the last 30 days, p less than 0.001.…

  20. Self-reported alcohol intake in pregnancy: comparison between four methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kesmodel, U; Olsen, S F

    2001-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE To assess the agreement between four different measures of alcohol intake in pregnancy. DESIGN AND SETTING Danish speaking pregnant women referred to the Midwife Centre in Aarhus, Denmark, for routine antenatal care were contacted at their first visit at approximately 15–16 weeks...

  1. Children of alcoholics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Oravecz

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available The author briefly interprets the research – results, referring to the phenomenon of children of alcoholics, especially the psychological and psychopathological characteristics of children of alcoholics in adolescence and young adulthood. The author presents a screening study of adolescents. The sample contains 200 high school students at age 18. The aim of the survey was to discover the relationship between alcohol consumption of parents, PTSD - related psychopathological symptoms and reported life quality of their children. The study confirmed the hypothesis about a substantial correlation between high alcohol consumption of parents, higher psychopathological symptom - expression and lower reported life quality score of their children. Higher PTSD-related symptomatology in children of alcoholics is probably resulted by home violence, which is very often present in family of alcoholics. The article also evaluated the results regarding suicide ideation of children of alcoholics, which is definitely more frequent and more intense than in their peers living in non alcohol – dependent families.

  2. Effect of rosuvastatin on non-alcoholic steatohepatitis in patients with metabolic syndrome and hypercholesterolaemia: a preliminary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kargiotis, Konstantinos; Katsiki, Niki; Athyros, Vasilios G; Giouleme, Olga; Patsiaoura, Kalliopi; Katsiki, Evangelia; Mikhailidis, Dimitri P; Karagiannis, Asterios

    2014-05-01

    There is no widely accepted treatment for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) or its advanced form, non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). We administered rosuvastatin (10 mg/day) for 1 year in patients with metabolic syndrome (MetS), NASH on liver biopsy and dyslipidaemia (but without diabetes or arterial hypertension). Patients also received lifestyle advice. We report preliminary results for 6 patients. The second biopsy (at the end of the study) showed complete resolution of NASH in 5 patients, while the 6(th), which had no improvement, developed arterial hypertension and substantial rise in triglyceride levels during the study. We suspect alcohol abuse despite advice to abstain. Serum alanine transaminase (ALT) and aspartate transaminase (AST) activities were reduced by 76 and 61%, respectively (p < 0.001 for both), during treatment, while γ-glutamyl transpeptidase (γ-GT), and alkaline phosphatase (AP) showed smaller non significant reductions. Fasting plasma glucose and glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) were significantly reduced (p<0.05). Lipid values were totally normalised and liver ultrasonography showed a complete resolution of NASH in 5 patients. Body mass index and waist circumference remained unchanged during the study. Thus, changes in liver pathology and function should be attributed to treatment with rosuvastatin. A substantial limitation of the study is the small number of patients. These preliminary findings suggest that rosuvastatin could ameliorate NASH within a year of treatment in MetS patients with dyslipidaemia.

  3. The usefulness of biomarkers of alcohol abuse in hair and serum carbohydrate-deficient transferrin: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Giovanni, Nadia; Cittadini, Francesca; Martello, Simona

    2015-08-01

    The detection of carbohydrate-deficient transferrin (CDT) in serum is widely accepted to identify chronic alcohol consumption over the previous two weeks, but minor ethanol metabolites detected in hair often complete the information obtained. In particular, ethylglucuronide and cocaethylene (a marker of simultaneous intake of cocaine and alcohol) allow correct interpretation of data obtained in forensic cases. We refer to a negative CDT value obtained from a serum sample collected during hospitalization of a man admitted for cardiac arrest who died about 14 h later. Clinical analysis performed on admission showed a high ethanol level and a positive urinary screening for cocaine. The toxicological analyses of post-mortem samples found cocaine metabolites in his urine and blood. The negative CDT level suggested the ethanol concentration at admission to be an acute episode. Cocaine and cocaethylene well above the cut-off suggested by the literature were found in hair analyzed for the entire length (about 1 cm). Ethylglucuronide detected on the same hair sample confirmed chronic abuse of ethanol in the previous month, at least. The present report suggests caution in the interpretation of biomarkers of alcohol abuse, encouraging the detection of more than one marker to avoid misinterpretation.

  4. Functional significance of subjective response to alcohol across levels of alcohol exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bujarski, Spencer; Hutchison, Kent E; Prause, Nicole; Ray, Lara A

    2017-01-01

    Pre-clinical neurobiological models of addiction etiology including both the allostatic model and incentive sensitization theory suggest that alcohol consumption among alcohol-dependent (AD) individuals will be dissociated from hedonic reward as positive reinforcement mechanisms wane in later stage dependence. The aims of this study are to test this claim in humans by examining the relationship between dimensions of subjective responses to alcohol (SR) and alcohol craving across levels of alcohol exposure. Non-treatment-seeking drinkers (n = 205) completed an i.v. alcohol challenge (final target breath alcohol concentration = 0.06 g/dl) and reported on SR and craving. Participants were classified as light-to-moderate drinkers (LMD), heavy drinkers (HD) or AD. Analyses examined group differences in SR and craving response magnitude, as well as concurrent and predictive associations between SR domains and craving. At baseline, LMD and AD reported greater stimulation than HD, which carried over post-alcohol administration. However, stimulation was dose-dependently associated with alcohol craving in HD only. Furthermore, lagged models found that stimulation preceded craving among HD only, whereas this hypothesized pattern of results was not observed for craving preceding stimulation. Sedation was also positively associated with craving, yet no group differences were observed. In agreement with the prediction of diminished positive reinforcement in alcohol dependence, this study showed that stimulation/hedonic reward from alcohol did not precede craving in AD, whereas stimulation was dose-dependently associated with and preceded craving among non-dependent HD.

  5. Ethanol-induced autonomic responses and risk taking increase in young adults with a positive family history of alcohol problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caneto, Florencia; Pautassi, Ricardo Marcos; Pilatti, Angelina

    2018-01-01

    The mechanisms that underlie the greater prevalence of alcohol use disorders in individuals with a positive family history (FH+) of alcohol abuse are still under investigation. These subjects may exhibit differential sensitivity to alcohol's effects on psychomotor stimulation and impulsivity. Alcohol-induced psychomotor stimulation, measured as the heart rate (HR) response, is a proxy for the positive rewarding effects of the drug. We analyzed alcohol-induced effects on time perception (Time Production Task), risk taking (Balloon Analogue Risk Task [BART]), and HR in FH+ and FH- participants. In the FH+ and FH- groups, women and men received 0.6 and 0.7g/kg alcohol, respectively. The alcohol dose yielded a breath alcohol concentration of 0.08% throughout the experiment. The control groups received placebo, and the subjective perception of alcohol intoxication was assessed. Alcohol intoxication significantly increased HR and the adjusted average number of pumps on the BART (a measure of risk taking) in FH+ men and women but not in FH- participants. Behavioral impulsivity was unaffected by alcohol or a FH of alcohol abuse. FH- but not FH+ participants who received alcohol reported significantly greater subjective perception of alcohol's effects than their placebo counterparts. These results indicate that FH+ individuals presented heightened sensitivity to alcohol-induced HR stimulation and alcohol-induced risk taking compared with their FH- counterparts. FH+ subjects, however, were insensitive to the subjective effects of alcohol. This idiosyncratic response pattern may be a likely pathway by which a FH of alcohol problems promotes alcohol drinking. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Individualized exercise prescription in non-alcoholic steatohepatitis: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Ángel Sánchez-Martos

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The effect of an individualized exercise programme on a non-alcoholic steatohepatitis case is presented. Before entering the programme the patient was treated with conventional recommendations on diet plus aerobic exercise during fourteen years, without major improvements of his analytical parameters. Two years after including him in a tailored exercise programme, aimed to fulfil the recommendations of the American College of Sports Medicine, his blood markers of liver dysfunction and cardio-metabolic risk tended to improve. Consequently, our data support the idea that in non-alcoholic steatohepatitis the exercise-based therapeutic interventions should be individualized taking into account the cardio-respiratory and muscular fitness of the patient, rather than using generic behavioural recommendations.

  7. Clinical and psychopatological features of organic depressive disorder in the individual abusing alcohol (case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spirina I.D.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The article describes a clinical case of organic depressive disorder in the personality who sustained a traumatic brain injury and who abused alcohol, with distinguishing number of clinical and psychopathological features. Depressed mood, slowed thinking process, sleep disturbances, low self-esteem, hypochondriacal tendencies allowed to diagnose depressive disorder. Clinical history on sustained brain concussion, as well as inertness of nervous and mental processes revealed in psychodiagnostic study testified to organic genesis of the disease. Alcohol abuse by the person having an adverse organic background contributed to appearance of psychotic symptoms in clinical picture. Hallucinatory and delusional inclusions relatively quickly stopped on a background of antipsychotic treatment; this testified that they are secondary to the affective (depressive symptoms.

  8. The effect of tobacco smoking and alcohol consumption on the prevalence of self-reported hand eczema: a cross-sectional population-based study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thyssen, J P; Linneberg, A; Menné, T

    2010-01-01

    . It has been debated whether life-style factors such as tobacco smoking and alcohol consumption are associated with hand eczema. OBJECTIVES: The current study aimed to investigate whether self-reported hand eczema was associated with smoking and alcohol consumption in the general population. METHODS...... heavy smokers (OR = 1.38; CI = 0.99-1.92) compared with never-smokers. CONCLUSIONS: Tobacco smoking was positively associated with hand eczema among adults from the general population in Denmark. Apparently, current light smokers (... smokers (> 15 g daily) but this needs to be reconfirmed. Alcohol consumption was not associated with hand eczema....

  9. Alcohol Intolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... beer-alcohol.aspx. Accessed Jan. 16, 2015. Alcohol angioedema and uticaria. American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. http://www.aaaai.org/ask-the-expert/alcohol-angioedema-urticaria.aspx. Accessed Jan. 16, 2015. Alcohol and ...

  10. Public acceptance of management actions and judgments of responsibility for the wolves of the southern Greater Yellowstone Area: Report to Grand Teton National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Jonathan G.; Johnson, S. Shea; Shelby, Lori B.

    2005-01-01

    Introduction Wolves of Grand Teton National Park and the Greater Yellowstone Area Gray wolves (Canis lupus) appeared in Grand Teton National Park (GRTE) in October of 1998, two years after being reintroduced to Yellowstone National Park (YNP). Since that time, five packs have been within the GRTE borders - Gros Ventre Pack, Nez Perce Pack, Yellowstone Delta Pack, Teton Pack, and Green River Pack (Table 1). Wolves in the Greater Yellowstone Area are increasing and spreading out geographically (USFWS and others, 2004). This dispersion was demonstrated recently by the death of a 2-year-old female wolf from the Swan Lake pack on I-70 in Colorado (June 7, 2004; http://mountain-prairie.USFWS.gov/pressrel /04-43.htm). The organization of wolf packs in the GYA is dynamic and highly structured. In 2003, for example, a wolf from the Teton Pack joined with the Green River Pack, and several young wolves left the Teton Pack and moved south (USFWS and others, 2004). Pack size (averaging five to ten members) is dependent on hunting efficiency, which depends on prey size, type, and density. Each pack defends home ranges of several hundred square miles. The social structure of the pack is based on a breeding pair (an alpha male and female). Other wolves in the pack can be categorized as betas (males and/or females second in rank to the alphas), subordinates, pups, and occasional omegas (outcasts). Because generally only the alpha pair breeds, subordinate wolves of reproductive age must disperse from their packs and form new associations in order to breed. (http://www.nps.gov/grte/wolf/biolo.htm). The reintroduced wolves are classified by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) as "nonessential experimental" under section 10(j) of the Endangered Species Act. The recovery criteria for the GYA wolves were met in 2002 for removing the wolves from the Endangered Species List (30 or more breeding pairs). Currently, the USFWS manages wolf populations in the GYA until delisting occurs

  11. Factors associated with younger adolescents' exposure to online alcohol advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Amico, Elizabeth J; Martino, Steven C; Collins, Rebecca L; Shadel, William G; Tolpadi, Anagha; Kovalchik, Stephanie; Becker, Kirsten M

    2017-03-01

    Little is known about the extent and nature of youth exposure to online alcohol advertising, or factors that may be associated with exposure. The current study recruited middle school students who completed a paper survey and then logged each alcohol advertisement that they encountered over a 2-week period using cell phones as part of an ecological momentary assessment design. We examined the percentage of youth who reported exposure to online alcohol advertising in the past 2 weeks, average weekly rate of exposure, types of online alcohol advertisements youth reported seeing, and factors that increased youths' risk of exposure to online alcohol advertising. Analyses are based on 485 participants (47% female; 25% Hispanic, 25% White, 27% Black; 6% Asian, 16% other). Youth logged exposures to a total of 3,966 (16,018 weighted for underreporting) alcohol advertisements across the monitoring period; 154 (568 weighted) or 3.6% were online ads. Seventeen percent of youth reported seeing any online alcohol ad; the majority of online ads seen were video commercials (44.8%) and banner/side ads (26.6%). Factors associated with greater ad exposure were being older, rebellious, and Black race; greater parental monitoring and more hours spent on social media were associated with less exposure. Findings provide important information about adolescents' exposure to online alcohol advertising and what might contribute to a greater likelihood of exposure. Given that online ad exposure is linked to drinking behavior, prevention programming for younger adolescents should continue to address this issue to help youth make healthy choices regarding alcohol use. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. Optimum catalytic process for alcohol fuels from syngas: Seventh quarterly technical progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1988-10-29

    The objectives of this contract are to discover and evaluate the catalytic properties of novel homogeneous, heterogeneous, or combination catalytic systems for the production of alcohol fuel extenders from syngas, to evaluate analytically and on the bench scale novel reactor concepts for use in converting syngas to liquid fuel products, and to develop on the bench scale the best combination of chemistry, reactor, and total process configuration to achieve the minimum product cost for conversion of syngas to liquid fuel products. Catalysts investigated include: ruthenium and molybdenum sulfides impregnated with cobalt. 7 figs., 9 tabs.

  13. Emotional scenes elicit more pronounced self-reported emotional experience and greater EPN and LPP modulation when compared to emotional faces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thom, Nathaniel; Knight, Justin; Dishman, Rod; Sabatinelli, Dean; Johnson, Douglas C; Clementz, Brett

    2014-06-01

    Emotional faces and scenes carry a wealth of overlapping and distinct perceptual information. Despite widespread use in the investigation of emotional perception, expressive face and evocative scene stimuli are rarely assessed in the same experiment. Here, we evaluated self-reports of arousal and pleasantness, as well as early and late event-related potentials (e.g., N170, early posterior negativity [EPN], late positive potential [LPP]) as subjects viewed neutral and emotional faces and scenes, including contents representing anger, fear, and joy. Results demonstrate that emotional scenes were rated as more evocative than emotional faces, as only scenes produced elevated self-reports of arousal. In addition, viewing scenes resulted in more extreme ratings of pleasantness (and unpleasantness) than did faces. EEG results indicate that both expressive faces and emotional scenes evoke enhanced negativity in the N170 component, while the EPN and LPP components show significantly enhanced modulation only by scene, relative to face stimuli. These data suggest that viewing emotional scenes results in a more pronounced emotional experience that is associated with reliable modulation of visual event-related potentials that are implicated in emotional circuits in the brain.

  14. A comparison of blood alcohol concentration using non-alcohol- and alcohol-containing skin antiseptics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldfinger, T M; Schaber, D

    1982-12-01

    We simultaneously obtained blood samples in emergency patients for ethanol content from both antecubital fossae using an alcohol prep pad on one arm and a non-alcohol-containing germicidal solution on the other. Fifty patients with ethanol concentrations greater than zero were statistically analyzed. Twenty patients surveyed had no measurable alcohol level by either technique. There was no significant difference in the blood alcohol concentration obtained by either method of skin preparation in both groups (P less than .01). Blood alcohol concentration incidentally obtained in the emergency department by routine isopropyl alcohol skin preparation is an accurate laboratory parameter.

  15. Perceptions of Partners’ Problematic Alcohol Use Affect Relationship Outcomes Beyond Partner Self-Reported Drinking: Alcohol Use in Committed Romantic Relationships

    OpenAIRE

    Rodriguez, Lindsey M.; Overup, Camilla S.; Neighbors, Clayton

    2013-01-01

    Alcohol use is prevalent among college students, including those who are in committed romantic relationships. Individuals’ perceptions of their partner’s alcohol use may have significant effects on how they view both their partner and their relationship. The current study examines the effect of one’s perception of one’s romantic partner’s drinking as problematic on one’s relationship satisfaction and commitment, and whether this varies as a function of one’s partner’s drinking. Both partners ...

  16. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome a Global Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_163096.html Fetal Alcohol Syndrome a Global Problem: Report Countries with highest alcohol use during pregnancy include Belarus, Britain, Denmark, Ireland ...

  17. Saturday night palsy or Sunday morning hangover? A case report of alcohol-induced Crush Syndrome.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Devitt, Brian M

    2011-01-01

    Saturday night palsy is a colloquial term given to brachial plexus injuries of the arm resulting from stretching or direct pressure against a firm object, often after alcohol or drug consumption. In most circumstances, this condition gives rise to a temporary plexopathy, which generally resolves. However, if the compression is severe and prolonged, a more grave form of this condition known as \\'Crush Syndrome\\' may occur. Skeletal muscle injury, brought about by protracted immobilization, leads to muscle decay, causing rhabdomyolysis, which may in turn precipitate acute renal failure. This condition is potentially fatal and has an extremely high morbidity. The case presented below demonstrates the drastic consequences that can result following an episode of \\'binge\\' drinking in a young man. What is most concerning is that this trend is increasing across society and cases like this may not be as rare in the future.

  18. Pellagroid Dermatitis in an Alcoholic and Hypothyroid Patient. A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graciela Cabrera Acea

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Pellagroid dermatitis is a condition resulting from the deficiency of niacin and/or tryptophan that causes dermatological, gastrointestinal and neurological symptoms. It is very rare in our country, a fact that motivated us to present this case. The patient was a 49-year-old white man diagnosed with pellagroid dermatitis. He also suffered from hypothyroidism, alcohol dependence and had poor eating habits due to his frequent drinking. He had a medical history of hypertension and presented cutaneous manifestations of pellagroid dermatitis. The erythematous and scaly manifestations were located on the back of both arms. They resembled scalded skin; some had an ulcerated and blistered center and were similar to those in the neck, deltoid region and other sites exposed to sunlight. The lesions were permanently cured after vitamin therapy and skin protection from solar radiation.

  19. Optimization of Rhodium-Based Catalysts for Mixed Alcohol Synthesis -- 2011 Progress Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerber, Mark A.; Gray, Michel J.; Albrecht, Karl O.; Rummel, Becky L.

    2011-10-01

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory has been conducting research to investigate the feasibility of producing mixed alcohols from biomass-derived synthesis gas (syngas). In recent years, this research has primarily involved the further development of catalysts containing rhodium and manganese based on the results of earlier catalyst screening tests. Research during FY 2011 continued to examine the performance of RhMn catalysts on alternative supports including selected zeolite, silica, and carbon supports. Catalyst optimization continued using both the Davisil 645 and Merck Grade 7734 silica supports. Research also was initiated in FY 2011, using the both Davisil 645 silica and Hyperion CS-02C-063 carbon supports, to evaluate the potential for further improving catalyst performance, through the addition of one or two additional metals as promoters to the catalysts containing Rh, Mn, and Ir.

  20. Dimensions Underlying Student Perceptions of Religion, Sex, and Alcohol: Male and Female Differences. Research Report No. 5-83.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Aldrich M., Jr.; Sedlacek, William E.

    Identifying the variables which influence student attitudes, perceptions, and behavior patterns in regard to religion, sex, and alcohol has been a major source of investigation. To determine the dimensions underlying the relationship among religion, sex, alcohol use, and alcohol knowledge among university students, 376 University of Maryland…

  1. A Longitudinal Evaluation of the "Here's Looking at You" Alcohol Education Program 1978-1981. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauss, Armand L.; And Others

    "Here's Looking at You" (HLAY) is a creative prevention curriculum designed to cultivate a commitment among young people to deal in responsible ways with alcohol in their environment. The model, developed as a demonstration project for the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, consists of self-contained teaching units for grades…

  2. Hand antiseptics: rubs versus scrubs, alcoholic solutions versus alcoholic gels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietsch, H

    2001-08-01

    This report describes three different investigations undertaken to demonstrate the advantage of fluid alcoholic hand disinfectants. In the first study, the skin compatibility of Sterillium, a liquid alcoholic rub-in hand disinfectant was compared with that of Hibiscrub, a water-based handwashing antiseptic. Using various parameters such as image analysis of removed squames (D-squames), skin roughness or transepidermal water loss, Hibiscrub was found to be significantly inferior to Sterillium. Hibiscrub caused skin irritation in 15 volunteers who could not complete the test. In a second study, the microbicidal efficacy of Sterillium and Hibiscrub was tested in surgical hand disinfection. The microbial reduction by Sterillium was significantly greater than that of Hibiscrub, immediately after application as well as after the surgical procedure. In a third study, certain alcoholic gels were tested according to the EN 1500 'hygienic hand disinfection'. None of the gels tested passed the EN 1500 within 30s. However, Sterillium met the EN 1500 requirement within 30s. We conclude that Sterillium is superior to Hibiscrub in terms of skin tolerance and microbicidal efficacy in surgical hand disinfection. It is also superior to alcoholic gels.

  3. Alcohol problems in young adults transitioning from adolescence to adulthood: The association with race and gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chartier, Karen G; Hesselbrock, Michie N; Hesselbrock, Victor M

    2011-03-01

    Race and gender may be important considerations for recognizing alcohol related problems in Black and White young adults. This study examined the prevalence and age of onset of individual alcohol problems and alcohol problem severity across race and gender subgroups from a longitudinal study of a community sample of adolescents followed into young adulthood (N=166; 23-29 yrs. old who were drinkers). All alcohol problems examined first occurred when subjects were in their late teens and early 20s. Drinking in hazardous situations, blackouts, and tolerance were the most common reported alcohol problems. In race and gender comparisons, more males than females experienced alcohol problems. Blacks generally had a later age of onset of alcohol problems. Multivariate regressions showed greater alcohol problem severity in males compared to females, but no significant differences between Blacks and Whites. Education, family environment and earlier alcohol use behaviors and expectancies were reliable predictors of alcohol problem severity in young adulthood. White males were at particular risk for experiencing more severe alcohol problems. Findings may inform the design of more targeted interventions for alcohol problems in different populations. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Alcohol marketing and youth alcohol consumption: a systematic review of longitudinal studies published since 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jernigan, David; Noel, Jonathan; Landon, Jane; Thornton, Nicole; Lobstein, Tim

    2017-01-01

    Youth alcohol consumption is a major global public health concern. Previous reviews have concluded that exposure to alcohol marketing was associated with earlier drinking initiation and higher alcohol consumption among youth. This review examined longitudinal studies published since those earlier reviews. Peer-reviewed papers were identified in medical, scientific and social science databases, supplemented by examination of reference lists. Non-peer-reviewed papers were included if they were published by organizations deemed to be authoritative, were fully referenced and contained primary data not available elsewhere. Papers were restricted to those that included measures of marketing exposure and alcohol consumption for at least 500 underage people. Multiple authors reviewed studies for inclusion and assessed their quality using the National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute's Quality Assessment Tool for Observation Cohort and Cross-Sectional Studies. Twelve studies (ranging in duration from 9 months to 8 years), following nine unique cohorts not reported on previously involving 35 219 participants from Europe, Asia and North America, met inclusion criteria. All 12 found evidence of a positive association between level of marketing exposure and level of youth alcohol consumption. Some found significant associations between youth exposure to alcohol marketing and initiation of alcohol use (odds ratios ranging from 1.00 to 1.69), and there were clear associations between exposure and subsequent binge or hazardous drinking (odds ratios ranging from 1.38 to 2.15). Mediators included marketing receptivity, brand recognition and alcohol expectancies. Levels of marketing exposure among younger adolescents were similar to those found among older adolescents and young adults. Young people who have greater exposure to alcohol marketing appear to be more likely subsequently to initiate alcohol use and engage in binge and hazardous drinking. © 2016 Society for the Study of

  5. Fluorinated porphyrin tweezer: a powerful reporter of absolute configuration for erythro and threo diols, amino alcohols, and diamines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaoyong; Tanasova, Marina; Vasileiou, Chrysoula; Borhan, Babak

    2008-02-13

    A general and sensitive nonempirical protocol to determine the absolute configurations of erythro and threo diols, amino alcohols, and diamines is reported. Binding of diols to the porphyrin tweezer system is greatly enhanced by increasing the Lewis acidity of the metalloporphyrin. Supramolecular complexes formed between the porphyrin tweezer host and chiral substrates exhibited exciton-coupled bisignate CD spectra with predictable signs based on the substituents on the chiral center. The working model suggests that the observed helicity of the porphyrin tweezer is dictated via steric differentiation experienced by the porphyrin ring bound to each chiral center. A variety of erythro and threo substrates were investigated to verify this chiroptical method. Their absolute configurations were unequivocally determined, and thus a general mnemonic is provided for the assignment of chirality.

  6. Pediatric non-alcoholic steatohepatitis: the first report on the ultrastructure of hepatocyte mitochondria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotowska, Joanna M; Sobaniec-Lotowska, Maria E; Bockowska, Sylwia B; Lebensztejn, Dariusz M

    2014-04-21

    To investigate the ultrastructure of abnormal hepatocyte mitochondria, including their cellular and hepatic zonal distribution, in bioptates in pediatric non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Ultrastructural investigations were conducted on biopsy liver specimens obtained from 10 children (6 boys and 4 girls) aged 2-14 years with previously clinicopathologically diagnosed NASH. The disease was diagnosed if liver biopsy revealed steatosis, inflammation, ballooned hepatocytes, Mallory hyaline, or focal necrosis, varying degrees of fibrosis in the absence of clinical, serological, or histological findings of infectious liver diseases, autoimmune hepatitis, metabolic liver diseases, or celiac disease. For ultrastructural analysis, fresh small liver blocks (1 mm(3) volume) were fixed in a solution containing 2% paraformaldehyde and 2.5% glutaraldehyde in 0.1 mol/L cacodylate buffer. The specimens were postfixed in osmium tetroxide, subsequently dehydrated through a graded series of ethanols and propylene oxide, and embedded in Epon 812. The material was sectioned on a Reichert ultramicrotome to obtain semithin sections, which were stained with methylene blue in sodium borate. Ultrathin sections were contrasted with uranyl acetate and lead citrate, and examined using an Opton EM 900 transmission electron microscope. Ultrastructural analysis of bioptates obtained from children with non-alcoholic steatohepatitis revealed characteristic repetitive mitochondrial abnormalities within hepatocytes; mainly mitochondrial polymorphisms such as megamitochondria, loss of mitochondrial cristae, and the presence of linear crystalline inclusions within the mitochondrial matrix of an increased electron density. The crystalline inclusions were particularly evident within megamitochondria (MMC), which seemed to be distributed randomly both within the hepatic parenchymal cell and the zones of hepatic lobule, without special variations in abundance. The inclusions appeared as bundles viewed

  7. Parentification, Parental Alcoholism, and Academic Status among Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chase, Nancy D.; Wells, Marolyn C.; Deming, Mary P.

    1998-01-01

    Examines young adults (N=360) in terms of their perceptions of having assumed a parentified role in their family of origin as a function of academic status and classification as children of alcoholics or nonalcoholics. Low academic status participants reported having greater caretaking responsibilities and worries in their families. Children of…

  8. User characteristics of a smartphone app to reduce alcohol consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garnett, Claire; Crane, David; West, Robert; Michie, Susan; Brown, Jamie; Winstock, Adam

    2017-03-17

    Digital interventions are available to help people reduce their alcohol consumption, but it is not known who uses these interventions and how this treatment-seeking group compares with the general population of drinkers. The study objective was to compare the socio-demographic and drinking characteristics of users of the 'Drinks Meter' smartphone app with the general population of drinkers in England and website users of the same intervention. Data were used from the Drinks Meter app and website, and a nationally representative cross-sectional survey in England (Alcohol Toolkit Study). Participants were drinkers aged 16+ in England. Data were collected on participants' age, gender, region, sexual orientation, social grade and AUDIT score. Regression analyses were conducted to assess differences in socio-demographic and drinking characteristics between samples. Drinks Meter app users, compared with drinkers of the general population, were younger, more likely to be from the South, not heterosexual, less likely to be of a lower social grade and had a higher mean AUDIT score. Drinks Meter app users were younger than website users and reported greater alcohol consumption and related harms. Drinkers using the Drinks Meter app are more likely to be younger and report greater alcohol consumption and related harms compared with the general population of drinkers in England and website users of the same intervention. Apps that provide feedback on drinking appear to be reaching those who report greater alcohol consumption and related harms.

  9. The economical production of alcohol fuels from coal-derived synthesis gas. Quarterly technical progress report number 12, July 1--September 30, 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-10-01

    Both plug-flow microreactor systems at WVU are now functioning. Screening runs on these systems were started using carbide and nitride catalysts first, to avoid any question of contamination of the system with sulfur. The carbide and nitride catalysts are characterized by high activity but low selectivity towards alcohols. The Chevrel-phase catalysts tested have much lower activities but may be more selective to alcohols. Catalyst synthesis procedures are attempting to offset this tendency, and also to characterize and prepare sulfide catalyst by other approaches. At UCC and P, test runs on the reactor system have commenced. Higher alcohols up to butanol were observed and identified at high temperatures. Modeling studies have concentrated on the catalytic membrane reactor. The topical report, originally submitted last quarter, was revised after some errors were found. This report includes the design and economics for the seven cases discussed in previous quarterly reports. In the topical report, it is shown that a judicious choice of coal:natural gas feed ratio to the alcohol synthesis process allows the Shell Gasifier to be nearly competitive with natural gas priced at of $3.00/MMBtu. The advantage of the Shell Gasifier over the Texaco Gasifier is that the former produces a syngas with a lower H{sub 2}:CO ratio. When the feed to the process is coal only, there is no difference in the projected economics that would favor one gasifier over the other. The potential of co-generation of electric power with high alcohol fuel additives has been investigated. Preliminary results have revealed that a once-through alcohol synthesis process with minimal gas clean-up may provide an attractive alternative to current designs given the prevailing economic status of IGCC units.

  10. Spatial panel analyses of alcohol outlets and motor vehicle crashes in California: 1999-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponicki, William R; Gruenewald, Paul J; Remer, Lillian G

    2013-06-01

    Although past research has linked alcohol outlet density to higher rates of drinking and many related social problems, there is conflicting evidence of density's association with traffic crashes. An abundance of local alcohol outlets simultaneously encourages drinking and reduces driving distances required to obtain alcohol, leading to an indeterminate expected impact on alcohol-involved crash risk. This study separately investigates the effects of outlet density on (1) the risk of injury crashes relative to population and (2) the likelihood that any given crash is alcohol-involved, as indicated by police reports and single-vehicle nighttime status of crashes. Alcohol outlet density effects are estimated using Bayesian misalignment Poisson analyses of all California ZIP codes over the years 1999-2008. These misalignment models allow panel analysis of ZIP-code data despite frequent redefinition of postal-code boundaries, while also controlling for overdispersion and the effects of spatial autocorrelation. Because models control for overall retail density, estimated alcohol-outlet associations represent the extra effect of retail establishments selling alcohol. The results indicate a number of statistically well-supported associations between retail density and crash behavior, but the implied effects on crash risks are relatively small. Alcohol-serving restaurants have a greater impact on overall crash risks than on the likelihood that those crashes involve alcohol, whereas bars primarily affect the odds that crashes are alcohol-involved. Off-premise outlet density is negatively associated with risks of both crashes and alcohol involvement, while the presence of a tribal casino in a ZIP code is linked to higher odds of police-reported drinking involvement. Alcohol outlets in a given area are found to influence crash risks both locally and in adjacent ZIP codes, and significant spatial autocorrelation also suggests important relationships across geographical units

  11. [A review of the neuroimaging studies of alcoholism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsushita, Sachio; Higuchi, Susumu

    2007-12-01

    In this article, we reviewed brain damage seen in patients with alcohol dependence briefly focusing on neuroimaging studies. In uncomplicated alcoholic patients, a high incidence of cortical shrinkage and ventricular dilatation were reported using brain CT scans. In older alcoholics, prefrontal gray matter deficits were especially marked when compared with younger alcoholics. Reversibility of brain shrinkage is a common neuroimaging finding in patients with alcohol dependence and a study by Gazdinski et al. reported more rapid brain tissue gain during the first month of sobriety than in the following months. Another MRI study using deformation-based morphometry revealed significant shrinkage in the frontal and temporal lobes within 1 week of abstinence of alcoholic patients. This study followed participants for 8 months longitudinally and revealed that abstaining alcoholics recovered tissue volumes significantly faster than nonalcoholic controls in the parietal and frontal lobes and this study also revealed that when abstaining alcoholics were compared with relapsed alcoholics, additional regions with significantly greater recovery in abstainers were the temporal lobes, thalamus, brainstem, cerebellum, corpus callosum, anterior cingulate, insula, and subcortical white matter. Finally we introduced a MR spectroscopy (MRS) study on alcoholic patients. This study using proton MRS indicated that with short-term abstinence, cerebellar choline and frontomesial N-acetylaspartate (NAA) were significantly increased. Findings showing that a cerebellar choline increase and a frontomesial NAA increase were detected at stable water integrals and creatine concentrations, serum electrolytes and red blood cell indices suggest that early brain recovery through abstinence does not simply reflect rehydration. This might indicate that even the adult brain has capacities for regrowth and further understanding of the mechanisms of recovery of alcoholics' brains may result in a valuable

  12. The gendered trouble with alcohol: young people managing alcohol related violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, Jo

    2012-05-01

    Alcohol related violence is a troubling backdrop to the social lives and relationships of many young people in post-industrial societies. The development of the night-time economy where young people are encouraged to drink heavily in entertainment precincts has increased the risk of violence. This paper reports on 60 individual structured in-depth interviews about the drinking biographies of young people (aged 20-24) living in Victoria, Australia. Twenty-six males and 34 females participated in the research. The participants discussed their experiences with alcohol over their life course to date. The material on alcohol related violence is analysed in this paper. Just over half of the participants (33/60) recounted negative experiences with alcohol related violence. The findings demonstrate the continuing gendered nature of experiences of perpetration and victimization. Participants reported that aggression and violence perpetrated by some men was fuelled by alcohol consumption and required ongoing management. Experiences of violence were also spatialized. Men were more likely to report managing and avoiding violence in particular public settings whilst more women than men discussed managing violence in domestic settings. The central argument of this paper is that incidents of alcohol related violence and reactions to it are specific gender performances that occur in specific socio-cultural contexts. In contrast to research which has found some young people enjoy the adventure and excitement of alcohol related violence the mainstream participants in this study saw violence as a negative force to be managed and preferably avoided. Understanding violence as a dynamic gender performance complicates the development of policy measures designed to minimize harm but also offers a more holistic approach to developing effective policy in this domain. There is a need for greater acknowledgement that alcohol related violence in public venues and in families is primarily about

  13. TVA/DOE integrated onfarm alcohol production system. Phase II. Progress report, October 1981-February 1982. Circular Z-134

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Badger, P.C.; Pile, R.S.; Burch, D.W.; Mays, D.A.; Lewis, J.M.

    1982-03-01

    Equipment and procedures necessary for using a grain (corn) feedstock for onfarm alcohol production were refined and documented to provide benchmark data. Also, significant progress was made in developing technology to convert other agricultural crops into 190-proof alcohol with the farm-sized alcohol production facility. This was achieved by modifying the base alcohol-from-grain facility to process the nongrain feedstocks (Irish potatoes, sweet sorghum, sweet potatoes, sugar beets, fodder beets, and Jerusalem artichokes) being evaluated in field production trials by TVA. Alcohol production capacities of cull potatoes, water chestnuts, and cull apples were also tested. A computerized investment model was refined to predict rapidly the economic implications for alcohol production levels, feedstocks, and various system components.

  14. Alcohol Dependence in Adult Children of Alcoholics: Longitudinal Evidence of Early Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennison, Karen M.; Johnson, Kenneth A.

    1998-01-01

    Investigates familial alcoholism effects and the comparative probability of risk that adult children of alcoholics have for alcohol dependence. Results, based on a national survey of 12,686 young adults over a five-year period, show that the risk for alcoholism is relatively greater for males than females. (MKA)

  15. Self-awareness of cognitive dysfunction: Self-reported complaints and cognitive performance in patients with alcohol-induced mild or major neurocognitive disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walvoort, S.J.; Heijden, P.T. Van der; Wester, A.J.; Kessels, R.P.C.; Egger, J.I.

    2016-01-01

    Patients with Korsakoff's syndrome (KS) typically have difficulties in recognizing the impact of their alcohol-related cognitive deficits on daily-life functioning. In this study, mean scores on self-reported complaints (measured with Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2-Restructured Form;

  16. Does the Computer Make a Difference? Computerized versus Face-to-Face versus Self-Report Assessment of Alcohol, Drug and Tobacco Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, Harvey A.; Allen, Barbara A.

    1983-01-01

    Compared histories of alcohol, drug, and tobacco use obtained by computerized interview, face-to-face interview, and self-report in clients (N=150) from an addiction treatment center. Multivariate analyses revealed no important differences. The computerized interview was rated less friendly but faster and more interesting. (Author/JAC)

  17. Sale of alcohol in pharmacies: results and implications of an empirical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotecki, Jerome E

    2003-02-01

    Alcohol misuse continues to be a major concern in the health care community. Within this community, pharmacists are ideally positioned to play a major role in preventive efforts in dealing with alcohol misuse. The objective of the study was to follow-up on important findings from a 1996 statewide survey of Indiana pharmacists regarding their opinions and practices related to the sale of alcohol in pharmacies. Of the 1,280 registered Indiana pharmacies, one-half were chosen using a systematic random selection process. From the 640 pharmacies contacted, 476 pharmacists responded completely to the questionnaire, providing a 74.4% response rate. Findings reveal that independent pharmacies had significantly reduced their sale of alcohol since 1996 while there was no significant change among retail chain pharmacies. Pharmacies that generated a greater share of their business from prescription drugs were less likely to sell alcohol products. Compared to five years ago, significantly more pharmacists in 2001 believed that pharmacies should not sell alcohol. In addition, more than half of pharmacists who worked in pharmacies that sold alcohol felt it differed from their professional values. Twenty-three percent of pharmacists reported inquiring about their patients' alcohol habits, a significant increase over 1996. More pharmacists thought alcohol was an important contributing factor to morbidity in 2001 compared with 1996. The data also revealed that pharmacists were more likely to ask patients about their alcohol habits if they considered alcohol use to be a more important cause of morbidity.

  18. Pellagra In An Alcoholic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thappa Devinder Mohan

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Pellagra is a nutritional disorder that occurs due to niacin deficiency. In the present day context, in western world, pellagra is confined to individuals who have improper food intake, such as psychiatry patients, alcoholics and recluses. Here with we report a case of pellagra occurring in a 60 year old male who was a chronic alcoholic.

  19. Alcohol-related massive eyelid swelling: case report Edema palpebral maciço relacionado ao uso de álcool: relato de caso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitorino Modesto dos Santos

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol-related massive eyelid edema has been rarely reported. The differential diagnosis includes local and systemic conditions. Alcohol itself can be associated with dermatological hypersensitivity reactions, appearing soon after alcoholic drinks. Massive bilateral eyelid swelling can constitute diagnostic pitfalls and therapeutic challenges to general practitioners with a placebo.Edema palpebral maciço relacionado ao uso de álcool tem sido raramente descrito. O diagnóstico diferencial inclui condições locais e sistêmicas. O próprio álcool pode estar associado com reações dermatológicas de hipersensibilidade, surgindo logo após uso de bebidas alcoólicas. Edema palpebral bilateral maciço pode constituir embaraços diagnósticos e desafios terapêuticos para os clínicos.

  20. Reported levels of alcohol consumption and binge drinking within the UK undergraduate student population over the last 25 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Jan S

    2002-01-01

    Results of a literature review of 18 studies investigating the drinking behaviour of undergraduate students at UK universities over a period of 25 years are presented. While comparison between studies is complicated by inconsistencies in the terms employed to describe drinking behaviour, it is concluded that significant numbers of both male and female students are reported to exceed sensible weekly consumption guidelines. Recorded levels of binge drinking among both female and male students are extremely variable between studies. Further research is needed to clarify this position. However, if the most recent research evidence is substantiated, female and male binge drinking levels may exceed those of their peers in the general population and their US counterparts. The reported ramifications of harmful drinking for the health and well-being of students are reviewed. A possible link between poor academic performance and alcohol consumption appears tenuous and merits further investigation. Evidence relevant to the view that the drinking behaviour of female students is changing is considered.

  1. Pharmacologically induced alcohol craving in treatment seeking alcoholics correlates with alcoholism severity, but is insensitive to acamprosate

    OpenAIRE

    Umhau, John C.; Schwandt, Melanie L.; Usala, Julie; Geyer, Christopher; Singley, Erick; George, David T.; Heilig, Markus

    2011-01-01

    Modulation of alcohol craving induced by challenge stimuli may predict the efficacy of new pharmacotherapies for alcoholism. We evaluated two pharmacological challenges, the α2-adrenergic antagonist yohimbine, which reinstates alcohol seeking in rats, and the serotonergic compound meta-chlorophenylpiperazine (mCPP), previously reported to increase alcohol craving in alcoholics. To assess the predictive validity of this approach, the approved alcoholism medication acamprosate was evaluated for...

  2. ADH1B and ADH1C Genotype, Alcohol Consumption and Biomarkers of Liver Function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lawlor, Debbie A; Benn, Marianne; Zuccolo, Luisa;

    2014-01-01

    1C genes as instrumental variables (IV) to estimate the causal effect of long-term alcohol consumption on alanine aminotransferase (ALT), γ-glutamyl-transferase (γ-GT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), bilirubin and prothrombin action. Analyses were undertaken on 58,313 Danes (mean age 56). RESULTS......BACKGROUND: The effect of alcohol consumption on liver function is difficult to determine because of reporting bias and potential residual confounding. Our aim was to determine this effect using genetic variants to proxy for the unbiased effect of alcohol. METHODS: We used variants in ADH1B and ADH......: In both confounder adjusted multivariable and genetic-IV analyses greater alcohol consumption, amongst those who drank any alcohol, was associated with higher ALT [mean difference per doubling of alcohol consumption: 3.4% (95% CI: 3.1, 3.7) from multivariable analyses and 3.7% (-4.5, 11.9) from genetic...

  3. Design of a high activity and selectivity alcohol catalyst. Final status report and summary of accomplishments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foley, H.C.; Mills, G.A.

    1994-07-15

    This final DOE report for grant award number DE-FG22-90PC 90291 presents the results of our efforts to better understand the Rh-Mo/{gamma}-Al{sub 2}O3 catalytic system for the hydrogenation of carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide to selectively form oxygenated products. The content of this report is divided into three major sections and a fourth, concluding section which addresses our major research accomplishments, as well as documents the most significant publications and presentations associated with this grant. The three main sections which make up the body of this report are presented in the in form of manuscripts which, in turn, summarize our progress in three areas of this project. The three body sections are organized as follows: Section I--Evidence for site isolation in Rh-Mo bimetallic catalysts derived from organometallic clusters; Section II--Surface Chemistry of Rh-Mo/{gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}: An analysis of surface acidity; and Section III--Comparative study of Rh/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Rh-Mo/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} Catalysts. Section IV summarizes major accomplishments. The content of this final report is meant to generally highlight our progress in both characterizing the nature of the Rh-Mo/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} system and probing its reactivity for insight on the oxygenate synergy present in this class of catalysts.

  4. National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip to main content National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) Main Menu Search Search form Search Alcohol & Your Health Overview of Alcohol Consumption Alcohol's Effects on the Body Alcohol Use ...

  5. Alcohol health literacy in young adults with type 1 diabetes and its impact on diabetes management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnard, K D; Dyson, P; Sinclair, J M A; Lawton, J; Anthony, D; Cranston, M; Holt, R I G

    2014-12-01

    To investigate the knowledge of alcohol and carbohydrate content of commonly consumed alcoholic drinks among young adults with Type 1 diabetes and to explore alcohol consumption while identifying diabetes self-management strategies used to minimize alcohol-associated risk. We conducted an open-access, multiple-choice web survey to investigate knowledge of alcohol and carbohydrate content of typical alcoholic drinks using images. Respondents to the survey also recorded their current alcohol consumption and diabetes self-management strategies when drinking. A total of 547 people aged 18-30 years responded to the survey (341 women; 192 men; mean (sd) age 24.5 (3.7) years), of whom 365 (66.7%) drank alcohol. In all, 84 (32.9%) women and 31 (22.6%) men scored higher than the cut-off score for increased-risk drinking. Knowledge accuracy of alcohol units was poor: only 7.3% (n = 40) correctly identified the alcohol content of six or more out of 10 drinks. Knowledge of carbohydrate content was also poor: no respondent correctly identified the carbohydrate content of six or more out of 10 drinks. Various and inconsistent strategies to minimize alcohol-associated risk were reported. Alcohol consumption was common among the survey respondents, but knowledge of alcohol and carbohydrate content was poor. Greater alcohol-related health literacy is required to minimize alcohol-associated risk. Further research should help develop effective strategies to improve health literacy and support safe drinking for young adults with Type 1 diabetes. © 2014 The Authors. Diabetic Medicine © 2014 Diabetes UK.

  6. Poor body image and alcohol use in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzhauer, Cathryn Glanton; Zenner, Ashley; Wulfert, Edelgard

    2016-02-01

    Two studies were conducted to examine the association between body image and alcohol use. Of interest was the extent to which alcohol outcome expectancies act as a moderator in this relationship, particularly in women. In Study 1, 421 college students (175 men, 246 women) provided self-report data on body image, social expressiveness expectancies, and average weekly alcohol use; the data were examined using a moderation model. Results showed that women with poor body image and high social expressiveness expectancies reported a significantly greater amount of average weekly alcohol consumption, whereas no such interaction was observed for men. Study 2 tested the same moderation model with 67 female participants; however, this second study utilized an in-lab behavioral measure of alcohol consumption as the outcome variable. The second study replicated results from Study 1, showing that women with overweight body image and alcohol-related high social expressiveness expectancies consumed significantly more beer during a taste rating task than women with other combinations of these variables. Taken together, the results of Studies 1 and 2 indicate that, specifically for women, an overweight body image and positive expectancies about the social, confidence-enhancing benefits of alcohol act as risk factors for excessive drinking. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. Correlates of alcohol use among methadone-maintained adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyamathi, Adeline; Cohen, Allan; Marfisee, Mary; Shoptaw, Steven; Greengold, Barbara; de Castro, Viviane; George, Daniel; Leake, Barbara

    2009-04-01

    This prospective study (n=190) examined correlates of alcohol use from baseline data of a longitudinal trial conducted among moderate and heavy alcohol users receiving methadone maintenance therapy (MMT). The sample included MMT clients who were 18-55 years of age, and were receiving MMT from five large methadone maintenance clinics in the Los Angeles area. Half of the sample was heavy drinkers and nearly half (46%) reported heroin use. Using a structured questionnaire, correlates of heavy alcohol use included White and Hispanic ethnicity, and fair or poor physical health combined with older age (> or =50 years). We also found that MMT clients who were younger than 50 years, regardless of health status, were more likely to be heavy drinkers. Compared with moderate alcohol consumers, a greater number of heavy alcohol users also experienced recent victimization. To optimize MMT, alcohol screening should be part of routine assessment and alcohol treatment should be made available within MMT programs. Moreover, special consideration should be provided to the most vulnerable clients, such as the younger user, those with a long-term and current history of heavy drug use, and those victimized and reporting fair or poor health. In addition, promoting attention to general physical and mental health problems within MMT programs may be beneficial in enhancing health outcomes of this population.

  8. Longitudinal Effects of Acculturation on Alcohol Use among Vietnamese and Cambodian Immigrant Women in the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Jeremy C; Johnson, Renee M; Robinson, Courtland; Jernigan, David H; Harachi, Tracy W; Bass, Judith K

    2016-11-01

    Recent studies indicate that alcohol use is increasing among Asian American populations and that acculturation impacts alcohol use among immigrants in the USA. We investigated the longitudinal relationship between three domains of acculturation (traditionalism, biculturalism, assimilation) and alcohol use among 302 Vietnamese and Cambodian women in Washington State. Data were obtained from the Cross Cultural Families Project (CCF), a 5-year longitudinal investigation of a random sample of Vietnamese and Cambodian immigrant families living in Washington State. Alcohol use was measured with a three item scale assessing frequency and quantity of use, and binge drinking. Acculturation was measured with the Suinn-Lew Asian Self-Identity Acculturation Scale. Linear mixed effects regression models were estimated to assess the impact of acculturation on alcohol use among the overall sample and among a sub-sample of only women who consumed any alcohol. A majority of the sample, 73.2%, reported no alcohol use. In the overall sample, none of the three acculturation domains were significantly associated with drinking. Among a sub-sample of only those who reported any alcohol use, however, a greater degree of traditional cultural identification (β = -0.94, SE= 0.44, P= 0.03) and a greater degree of biculturalism (β = -1.33, SE= 0.53, P =0.01) were associated with lower levels of use. Our findings suggest that acculturation did not impact alcohol use prevalence but that it did affect the drinking pattern among alcohol consumers. Clinicians should be cognizant that certain aspects of cultural identification are important contributors to drinking behavior among alcohol consumers in these populations. © The Author 2016. Medical Council on Alcohol and Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.

  9. Report on Investigation of Alcohol Combustion Associated Wear in Spark Ignition Engines, Mechanisms and Lubricant Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-12-01

    Combustion Associated Wear in Spark-Ignition Enzines 12. PERSONAL AUTHORISI INaegeli, David N. and Owens, Edwin C. 131. TYPE OF REPORT 13b. TIME COVERED 114...READINESS CMD ATTN: STEYP-MLS-M (MR DOEBBLER) I -. ATTN: AMSAR-LEM 1 YUMA AZ 85364 ROCK ISLAND ARSENAL IL 61299 PROJ MGR, BRADELY FIGHTING - CDR...CHIEF OF NAVAL RESEARCH CDR ATTN: CODE 473 1 DAVID TAYLOR NAVAL SHIP R&D CTR ARLINGTON VA 22217 ATTN: CODE 2830 (MR G BOSMAJIAN) 1 CODE 2705.1 (MR

  10. Public awareness of the link between alcohol and cancer in England in 2015: a population-based survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buykx, Penny; Li, Jessica; Gavens, Lucy; Hooper, Lucie; Lovatt, Melanie; Gomes de Matos, Elena; Meier, Petra; Holmes, John

    2016-11-30

    Public knowledge of the association between alcohol and cancer is reported to be low. We aimed to provide up-to-date evidence for England regarding awareness of the link between alcohol and different cancers and to determine whether awareness differs by demographic characteristics, alcohol use, and geographic region. A representative sample of 2100 adults completed an online survey in July 2015. Respondents were asked to identify which health outcomes, including specific cancers, may be caused by alcohol consumption. Logistic regressions explored whether demographic, alcohol use, and geographic characteristics predicted correctly identifying alcohol-related cancer risk. Unprompted, 12.9% of respondents identified cancer as a potential health outcome of alcohol consumption. This rose to 47% when prompted (compared to 95% for liver disease and 73% for heart disease). Knowledge of the link between alcohol and specific cancers varied between 18% (breast) and 80% (liver). Respondents identified the following cancers as alcohol-related where no such evidence exists: bladder (54%), brain (32%), ovarian (17%). Significant predictors of awareness of the link between alcohol and cancer were being female, more highly educated, and living in North-East England. There is generally low awareness of the relationship between alcohol consumption and cancer, particularly breast cancer. Greater awareness of the relationship between alcohol and breast cancer in North-East England, where a mass media campaign highlighted this relationship, suggests that population awareness can be influenced by social marketing.

  11. The relation between alcohol use and psychological, physical, and sexual dating violence perpetration among male college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shorey, Ryan C; Brasfield, Hope; Zapor, Heather Zucosky; Zapor, Heather Zuckosky; Febres, Jeniimarie; Stuart, Gregory L

    2015-02-01

    The prevalence of alcohol use and dating violence are shockingly high among male college students, making this a particularly high-risk group for alcohol-related aggression. Expanding upon previous research, the current study examined the relations between three indicators of alcohol use and three types of dating violence among 204 male college students. We also examined whether hazardous drinkers reported more violence perpetration than non-hazardous drinkers. Results demonstrated that alcohol use was related to all types of aggression, and hazardous drinkers are at greater risk of violence perpetration than non-hazardous drinkers. Implications for dating violence prevention programs and future research are discussed.

  12. Conscientiousness predicts greater recovery from negative emotion

    OpenAIRE

    Kristin N Javaras; Schaefer, Stacey M.; van Reekum, Carien M.; Lapate, Regina C.; Greischar, Lawrence L.; Bachuber, David R.; Love, Gale; Ryff, Carol D.; Richard J Davidson

    2012-01-01

    Greater levels of conscientiousness have been associated with lower levels of negative affect. We focus on one mechanism through which conscientiousness may decrease\\ud negative affect: effective emotion regulation, as reflected by greater recovery from negative stimuli. In 273 adults who were 35 - 85 years old, we collected self-report measures of personality including conscientiousness and its self-control facet, followed\\ud on average 2 years later by psychophysiological measures of emotio...

  13. Linking Sleep to Hypertension: Greater Risk for Blacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Pandey

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Evidence suggests that insufficient sleep duration is associated with an increased likelihood for hypertension. Both short (8 hour sleep durations as well as hypertension are more prevalent among blacks than among whites. This study examined associations between sleep duration and hypertension, considering differential effects of race and ethnicity among black and white Americans. Methods. Data came from a cross-sectional household interview with 25,352 Americans (age range: 18–85 years. Results. Both white and black short sleepers had a greater likelihood of reporting hypertension than those who reported sleeping 6 to 8 hours. Unadjusted logistic regression analysis exploring the race/ethnicity interactions between insufficient sleep and hypertension indicated that black short (8 hours sleepers were more likely to report hypertension than their white counterparts (OR = 1.34 and 1.37, resp.; P<0.01. Significant interactions of insufficient sleep with race/ethnicity were observed even after adjusting to effects of age, sex, income, education, body mass index, alcohol use, smoking, emotional distress, diabetes, coronary heart disease, and stroke. Conclusion. Results suggest that the race/ethnicity interaction is a significant mediator in the relationship between insufficient sleep and likelihood of having a diagnosis of hypertension.

  14. Alcohol and Women. Pamphlet Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomberg, Edith S. Lisansky

    Reasonable and moderate drinking is considered acceptable by the major portion of the population. Although women consume less alcohol than men, alcohol has a greater intoxicating effect for women than for men because of the differences in body water content and proportion of fatty tissue. The prevalence rate of drinking is virtually identical for…

  15. Effects of energy drinks mixed with alcohol on information processing, motor coordination and subjective reports of intoxication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marczinski, Cecile A; Fillmore, Mark T; Henges, Amy L; Ramsey, Meagan A; Young, Chelsea R

    2012-04-01

    The consumption of alcohol mixed with energy drinks (AmED) has become a popular and controversial practice among young people. Increased rates of impaired driving and injuries have been associated with AmED consumption. The purpose of this study was to examine if the consumption of AmED alters cognitive processing and subjective measures of intoxication compared with the consumption of alcohol alone. Eighteen participants (nine men and nine women) attended four test sessions where they received one of four doses in random order (0.65 g/kg alcohol, 3.57 ml/kg energy drink, AmED, or a placebo beverage). Performance on a psychological refractory period (PRP) task was used to measure dual-task information processing and performance on the Purdue pegboard task was used to measure simple and complex motor coordination following dose administration. In addition, various subjective measures of stimulation, sedation, impairment, and level of intoxication were recorded. The results indicated that alcohol slowed dual-task information processing and impaired simple and complex motor coordination. The coadministration of the energy drink with alcohol did not alter the alcohol-induced impairment on these objective measures. For subjective effects, alcohol increased various ratings indicative of feelings of intoxication. More importantly, coadministration of the energy drink with alcohol reduced perceptions of mental fatigue and enhanced feelings of stimulation compared to alcohol alone. In conclusion, AmED may contribute to a high-risk scenario for a drinker. The mix of behavioral impairment with reduced fatigue and enhanced stimulation may lead AmED consumers to erroneously perceive themselves as better able to function than is actually the case.

  16. Receptivity to alcohol marketing predicts initiation of alcohol use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriksen, Lisa; Feighery, Ellen C; Schleicher, Nina C; Fortmann, Stephen P

    2008-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined the influence of alcohol advertising and promotions on the initiation of alcohol use. A measure of receptivity to alcohol marketing was developed from research about tobacco marketing. Recall and recognition of alcohol brand names were also examined. Data were obtained from in-class surveys of sixth, seventh, and eighth graders at baseline and 12-month follow-up. Participants who were classified as never drinkers at baseline (n = 1,080) comprised the analysis sample. Logistic regression models examined the association of advertising receptivity at baseline with any alcohol use and current drinking at follow-up, adjusting for multiple risk factors, including peer alcohol use, school performance, risk taking, and demographics. At baseline, 29% of never drinkers either owned or wanted to use an alcohol branded promotional item (high receptivity), 12% students named the brand of their favorite alcohol ad (moderate receptivity), and 59% were not receptive to alcohol marketing. Approximately 29% of adolescents reported any alcohol use at follow-up; 13% reported drinking at least 1 or 2 days in the past month. Never drinkers who reported high receptivity to alcohol marketing at baseline were 77% more likely to initiate drinking by follow-up than those were not receptive. Smaller increases in the odds of alcohol use at follow-up were associated with better recall and recognition of alcohol brand names at baseline. Alcohol advertising and promotions are associated with the uptake of drinking. Prevention programs may reduce adolescents' receptivity to alcohol marketing by limiting their exposure to alcohol ads and promotions and by increasing their skepticism about the sponsors' marketing tactics.

  17. Alcohol and marijuana effects on ocular tracking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flom, M C; Brown, B; Adams, A J; Jones, R T

    1976-12-01

    Experienced alcohol and marijuana users were instructed to track with their eyes a small spot that moved horizontally back and forth in pendular (sinusoidal) motion across a 7.5-degree field. The frequency of spot oscillation was gradually increased from 0.5 to 3.0 Hz in 40 sec. Eye movement recordings showed the frequency at which smooth tracking and, soon thereafter, saccadic tracking broke down. These smooth and saccadic cutoff frequencies were reduced after administration of alcohol, but not after marijuana or placebo. For low alcohol doses, smooth tracking was impaired and saccadic tracking was unaffected, much like an effect previously reported for barbiturates. Alcohol seems to affect smooth tracking by increasing the central processing time required to generate the appropriate eye movement. It affects saccadic tracking by slightly decreasing saccadic velocity and to a greater extent by increasing latency time, part of which may be devoted to central processing. The site of action of alcohol appears to be central to both the paramedian pontine reticular formation and the flocculus of the cerebellum.

  18. Immigrant Arab Americans and alcohol use: longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arfken, Cynthia L; Broadbridge, Carissa L; Jamil, Hikmet; Arnetz, Bengt B

    2014-12-01

    English proficiency is associated with alcohol use in some immigrants groups, but little is known about its association among Arab Americans. Ethnographic work suggests gender, religion, education, and age influence prevalence of alcohol use among Arab Americans. Two years prospective study of recent Iraqi refugees and non-Iraqi Arab immigrants in Michigan using bilingual surveys and interviewers. At Time 1, prevalence of lifetime alcohol use was 20.5 % with males, Christians, better educated, older, and those with greater proficiency in English more likely to report ever drank. At Time 2, lifetime prevalence of drinking had increased to 34.0 %. In analysis of male new drinkers, risk factors were Christian, older age and greater proficiency in English. This study confirms drinking among recent immigrant Arab Americans varies by subgroups and suggests English proficiency may contribute to the increase in prevalence over time.

  19. Risks of alcoholic energy drinks for youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weldy, David L

    2010-01-01

    Ingesting alcohol and energy drinks together is associated with a decreased awareness of the physical and mental impairment caused by the alcohol without reducing the actual impairment. This is of particular concern for youth who have a baseline of less mature judgment. Adding energy drinks to alcohol tends to increase the rate of absorption through its carbonation and dilution of the alcohol, and keep a person awake longer allowing ingestion of a greater volume of alcohol. At low blood alcohol levels, caffeine appears to decrease some of the impairment from the alcohol, but at higher blood alcohol levels, caffeine does not appear to have a modifying effect on either the physical or mental impairment induced by the alcohol. Obtaining this combination is made easier and more affordable for under aged persons by manufacturers of premixed alcoholic energy drink combination beverages. Awareness by medical and educational personnel and parents of this activity and its potential for harm is unknown.

  20. Neighbourhood alcohol availability and gonorrhea rates: impact of social capital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine P. Theall

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Social capital and income inequality have been proposed as important mediators of the relation between the material environment and health outcomes. We determined whether indicators of social capital are (i associated with neighbourhood gonorrhea rates, and (ii mediate the relation between alcohol outlet density and gonorrhea rate. Longitudinal analyses of age- and sex-adjusted gonorrhea cases reported from 1990 to 1996 in the 445 census tracts affected by the 1992 civil unrest in Los Angeles, California was conducted. The role of alcohol outlets was assessed both as tracts with surrendered off-sale outlets due to the civil unrest and annual off-sale alcohol outlet density rates. Tract level voting rates were used as one indicator of social capital, while neighbourhood structure conducive to social organization was used as another. Neighbourhoods with greater voting over time and greater endogenous social organization experienced 1.9 and 67.2 fewer gonorrhea cases per 100,000. Results also reveal a partial mediating role of social capital on the relationship between alcohol outlet density and gonorrhea rate. The alcohol environment may have a direct or partially mediated role in infectious disease outcomes such as gonorrhea. Our findings support the importance of continuing controls and limits on off-premise alcohol outlet density, as a potential means of reducing gonorrhea rates and increasing social capital.

  1. Self-awareness of cognitive dysfunction: Self-reported complaints and cognitive performance in patients with alcohol-induced mild or major neurocognitive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walvoort, Serge J W; van der Heijden, Paul T; Wester, Arie J; Kessels, Roy P C; Egger, Jos I M

    2016-11-30

    Patients with Korsakoff's syndrome (KS) typically have difficulties in recognizing the impact of their alcohol-related cognitive deficits on daily-life functioning. In this study, mean scores on self-reported complaints (measured with Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2-Restructured Form; MMPI-2-RF) and cognitive performance (measured with the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Third edition; WAIS-III; and the California Verbal Learning Test; CVLT) are compared between two matched patient groups with severe (KS) and mild alcohol-related cognitive disorders or non KS (NKS). KS patients demonstrate significantly lower scores on the WAIS-III indices and on the CVLT than the matched NKS group, and significantly higher scores on MMPI-2-RF validity scales that indicate denial of psychological complaints. Both groups are in the normal range on MMPI-2-RF Cognitive Complaints (COG) and Neurological Complaints (NUC) scales compared with the normative sample. Finally, self-reported complaints and cognitive performance are not correlated significantly in both groups. Despite their alcohol-related cognitive impairments, both groups report no cognitive complaints at all indicating self-awareness impairment. In addition to KS patients, also NKS patients are at risk that their apparently "without cognitive complaints" appearance on self-report questionnaires can be easily overlooked. These findings may have important clinical implications for diagnostic and treatment purposes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Alcohol consumption among Chilean adolescents: Examining individual, peer, parenting and environmental factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanhueza, Guillermo E.; Delva, Jorge; Bares, Cristina B.; Grogan-Kaylor, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    Aims This study examined whether adolescents from Santiago, Chile who had never drunk alcohol differed from those who had drunk alcohol but who had never experienced an alcohol-related problem, as well as from those who had drunk and who had experienced at least one alcohol-related problem on a number of variables from four domains - individual, peers, parenting, and environmental. Design Cross-sectional. Setting Community based sample. Participants 909 adolescents from Santiago, Chile. Measurements Data were analyzed with multinomial logistic regression to compare adolescents who had never drunk alcohol (non-drinkers) with i) those that had drunk but who had experienced no alcohol-related problems (non-problematic drinkers) and ii) those who had drunk alcohol and had experienced at least one alcohol-related problem (problematic drinkers). The analyses included individual, peer, parenting, and environmental factors while controlling for age, sex, and socioeconomic status. Findings Compared to non-drinkers, both non-problematic and problematic drinkers were older, reported having more friends who drank alcohol, greater exposure to alcohol ads, lower levels of parental monitoring, and more risk-taking behaviors. In addition, problematic drinkers placed less importance on religious faith to make daily life decisions and had higher perceptions of neighborhood crime than non-drinkers. Conclusions Prevention programs aimed at decreasing problematic drinking could benefit from drawing upon adolescents’ spiritual sources of strength, reinforcing parental tools to monitor their adolescents, and improving environmental and neighborhood conditions. PMID:24465290

  3. Suicidal thoughts in persons treated for alcohol dependence: The role of selected demographic and clinical factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziółkowski, Marcin; Czarnecki, Damian; Chodkiewicz, Jan; Gąsior, Krzysztof; Juczyński, Artur; Biedrzycka, Agata; Gruszczyńska, Ewa; Nowakowska-Domagała, Katarzyna

    2017-09-01

    Greater knowledge is needed of potential predictive factors for suicide in cases of alcohol addiction. Therefore, the aim of the study was to identify the socio-demographic variables and clinical factors associated with alcohol dependence which may have an influence on the occurrence of suicidal thoughts in alcohol-dependent patients. A group of 510 patients (396 male and 114 female) diagnosed with alcohol dependence syndrome were interviewed during the third week of therapy according to the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), the Penn Alcohol Craving Scale (PACS) and the Short Alcohol Dependence Data Questionnaire (SADD). Socio-demographic data was also collected. The results of a binary logistic regression with suicidal thoughts as a dependent variable show that 63 out of the 510 participants (12% of the sample) reported the presence of suicidal thoughts. Alcohol dependence and alcohol craving appear to increase the likelihood of suicidal thoughts, and participants presenting psychiatric disorders were twice as likely to demonstrate suicidal ideation as those who did not. Alcohol dependence, alcohol craving and psychiatric comorbidity may be regarded as risk factors for suicidal ideation in the studied sample, with the only protective factor being living in a relationship. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Dynamical properties of alcohol + 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium ionic liquid mixtures: a computer simulation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Méndez-Morales, Trinidad; Carrete, Jesús; García, Manuel; Cabeza, Oscar; Gallego, Luis J; Varela, Luis M

    2011-12-29

    In this work, extensive molecular dynamics simulations of the dynamics of mixtures of ionic liquids (ILs) composed of the cation 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium and several anions of different hydrophobicity degrees (Cl(-), BF(4)(-), PF(6)(-)) with alcohols of different chain lengths (methanol and ethanol) are reported. We evaluated the influence of the nature of the anion, the length of the molecular chain of the alcohol, and the alcohol concentration on some dynamical properties of the mixtures, such as self-diffusion coefficients of all the species, mean square displacements (with an analysis of both ballistic and diffusive regimes), and velocity autocorrelation functions of alcohol molecules. The diffusivity of the mixtures was found to be highly dependent on the nature of the anion since the interaction between chloride and alcohols is greater than that with fluorinated anions and leads to slower dynamics. Additionally, our results show that self-diffusion coefficients increase with alcohol concentration. On the other hand, a subdiffusive regime over thousands of picoseconds was detected at intermediate times through analysis of the center-of-mass mean square displacements of alcohol molecules, a region that becomes narrower as alcohol concentration increases. Finally, the study of the role of the anion and of solvent concentration on velocity autocorrelation functions reflects an increase in mean collision times as the amount of alcohol increases until the value of pure alcohols is reached. These collision times are smaller in mixtures with halogenated ILs. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  5. The effects of a priming dose of alcohol and drinking environment on snack food intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, A K; Hardman, C A; Christiansen, P

    2015-12-01

    Alcohol consumption is a potential risk factor for being overweight. We aimed to investigate the effects of an alcohol priming dose and an alcohol-related environment on snacking behaviour. One hundred and fourteen social drinkers completed one of four experimental sessions either receiving a priming dose of alcohol (.6 g/kg) or soft drink in a bar-lab or a sterile lab. Participants provided ratings of appetite, snack urge, and alcohol urge before and after consuming their drinks. Participants completed an ad libitum snack taste test of savoury and sweet, healthy and unhealthy foods before completing the self-reports a final time. Appetite and snack urge increased more following alcohol consumption, and decreased to a lesser extent following the taste test relative to the soft drink. Total calories (including drink calories) consumed were significantly higher in the alcohol groups. There was a marginal effect of environment; those in the bar-lab consumed a higher proportion of unhealthy foods. These effects were more pronounced in those who were disinhibited. While alcohol may not increase food consumption per se, alcohol may acutely disrupt appetite signals, perhaps via processes of reward and inhibitory control, resulting in overall greater calorie intake. Individuals who are generally disinhibited may be more vulnerable to the effects of alcohol and drinking environments on eating behaviour.

  6. 49 CFR 199.215 - Alcohol concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Alcohol concentration. 199.215 Section 199.215... Prevention Program § 199.215 Alcohol concentration. Each operator shall prohibit a covered employee from... alcohol concentration of 0.04 or greater. No operator having actual knowledge that a covered employee has...

  7. Comparing media and family predictors of alcohol use: a cohort study of US adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoolmiller, Mike; Wills, Thomas A; McClure, Auden C; Tanski, Susanne E; Worth, Keilah A; Gerrard, Meg

    2012-01-01

    Objective To compare media/marketing exposures and family factors in predicting adolescent alcohol use. Design Cohort study. Setting Confidential telephone survey of adolescents in their homes. Participants Representative sample of 6522 US adolescents, aged 10–14 years at baseline and surveyed four times over 2 years. Primary outcome measure Time to alcohol onset and progression to binge drinking were assessed with two survival models. Predictors were movie alcohol exposure (MAE), ownership of alcohol-branded merchandise and characteristics of the family (parental alcohol use, home availability of alcohol and parenting). Covariates included sociodemographics, peer drinking and personality factors. Results Over the study period, the prevalence of adolescent ever use and binge drinking increased from 11% to 25% and from 4% to 13%, respectively. At baseline, the median estimated MAE from a population of 532 movies was 4.5 h and 11% owned alcohol-branded merchandise at time 2. Parental alcohol use (greater than or equal to weekly) was reported by 23% and 29% of adolescents could obtain alcohol from home. Peer drinking, MAE, alcohol-branded merchandise, age and rebelliousness were associated with both alcohol onset and progression to binge drinking. The adjusted hazard ratios for alcohol onset and binge drinking transition for high versus low MAE exposure were 2.13 (95% CI 1.76 to 2.57) and 1.63 (1.20 to 2.21), respectively, and MAE accounted for 28% and 20% of these transitions, respectively. Characteristics of the family were associated with alcohol onset but not with progression. Conclusion The results suggest that family focused interventions would have a larger impact on alcohol onset while limiting media and marketing exposure could help prevent both onset and progression. PMID:22349939

  8. Children at the Front: A Different View of the War on Alcohol and Drugs. The CWLA North American Commission on Chemical Dependency and Child Welfare. Final Report and Recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Child Welfare League of America, Inc., Washington, DC.

    This report explores the impact of alcohol and drug problems on the children and families served by the child welfare system and outlines a comprehensive strategy to better respond to their needs. It contains more than 100 policy and action recommendations to enhance services to children and families affected by alcohol and other drugs (AOD), to…

  9. Alcohol Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... even small amounts of alcohol may hurt an unborn child)Drink alcohol while you are looking after ... shakes, being very suspicious), and can even include death. This is why you need your doctor’s care ...

  10. Self-Reported Alcohol Consumption and Sexual Behavior in Males and Females: Using the Unmatched-Count Technique to Examine Reporting Practices of Socially Sensitive Subjects in a Sample of University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Jeffrey A.; Braithwaite, Jeremy

    2008-01-01

    This work, drawing on the literature on alcohol consumption, sexual behavior, and researching sensitive topics, tests the efficacy of the unmatched-count technique (UCT) in establishing higher rates of truthful self-reporting when compared to traditional survey techniques. Traditional techniques grossly underestimate the scope of problems…

  11. Extraversion and the Rewarding Effects of Alcohol in a Social Context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairbairn, Catharine E; Sayette, Michael A; Wright, Aidan G C; Levine, John M; Cohn, Jeffrey F; Creswell, Kasey G

    2015-08-01

    The personality trait of extraversion has been linked to problematic drinking patterns. Researchers have long hypothesized that such associations are attributable to increased alcohol-reward sensitivity among extraverted individuals, and surveys suggest that individuals high in extraversion gain greater mood enhancement from alcohol than those low in extraversion. Surprisingly, however, alcohol administration studies have not found individuals high in extraversion to experience enhanced mood following alcohol consumption. Of note, prior studies have examined extraverted participants-individuals who self-identify as being highly social-consuming alcohol in isolation. In the present research, we used a group drinking paradigm to examine whether individuals high in extraversion gained greater reward from alcohol than did those low in extraversion and, further, whether a particular social mechanism (partners’ Duchenne smiling) might underlie alcohol reward sensitivity among extraverted individuals. Social drinkers (n 720) consumed a moderate dose of alcohol, placebo, or control beverage in groups of 3 over the course of 36 min. This social interaction was video-recorded, and Duchenne smiling was coded using the Facial Action Coding System. Results indicated that participants high in extraversion reported significantly more mood enhancement from alcohol than did those low in extraversion. Further, mediated moderation analyses focusing on Duchenne smiling of group members indicated that social processes fully and uniquely accounted for alcohol reward-sensitivity among individuals high in extraversion. Results provide initial experimental evidence that individuals high in extraversion experience increased mood-enhancement from alcohol and further highlight the importance of considering social processes in the etiology of alcohol use disorder. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. Extraversion and the Rewarding Effects of Alcohol in a Social Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairbairn, Catharine E.; Sayette, Michael A.; Wright, Aidan G. C.; Levine, John M.; Cohn, Jeffrey F.; Creswell, Kasey G.

    2015-01-01

    The personality trait of extraversion has been linked to problematic drinking patterns. Researchers have long hypothesized that such associations are attributable to increased alcohol-reward sensitivity among extraverted individuals, and surveys suggest that individuals high in extraversion gain greater mood enhancement from alcohol than those low in extraversion. Surprisingly, however, alcohol administration studies have not found individuals high in extraversion to experience enhanced mood following alcohol consumption. Of note, prior studies have examined extraverted participants—individuals who self-identify as being highly social—consuming alcohol in isolation. In the present research, we used a group drinking paradigm to examine whether individuals high in extraversion gained greater reward from alcohol than did those low in extraversion and, further, whether a particular social mechanism (partners’ Duchenne smiling) might underlie alcohol reward sensitivity among extraverted individuals. Social drinkers (n = 720) consumed a moderate dose of alcohol, placebo, or control beverage in groups of three over the course of 36-min. This social interaction was video-recorded, and Duchenne smiling was coded using the Facial Action Coding System. Results indicated that participants high in extraversion reported significantly more mood enhancement from alcohol than did those low in extraversion. Further, mediated moderation analyses focusing on Duchenne smiling of group members indicated that social processes fully and uniquely accounted for alcohol reward-sensitivity among individuals high in extraversion. Results provide initial experimental evidence that individuals high in extraversion experience increased mood-enhancement from alcohol and further highlight the importance of considering social processes in the etiology of Alcohol Use Disorder. PMID:25844684

  13. Alcohol consumption in adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilona Plevová

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To determine the level of alcohol consumption in a selected group of adolescents. Design: A descriptive cross-sectional study. Methods: The data were obtained using a part of the standardized ESPAD questionnaire for assessing consumption of alcoholic beverages. The sample comprised 422 students from seven secondary schools of different types in the city of Ostrava. For statistical analysis, the chi-squared test and Fisher's exact test (for n ≤ 5 were used. The data were processed using Stata v. 10. Results: More than half of respondents first tried alcohol before the age of 15. The most frequent alcohol-related problems were unprotected sex, decreased school performance and problems with parents or friends. Incomplete families were found to be an important factor in adolescents preferring and more frequently drinking beer. Conclusion: The study confirmed results reported by the Europe-wide survey ESPAD, namely that adolescents start to drink alcohol as early as before they turn fifteen.

  14. Alcohol cues impair learning inhibitory signals in beer drinkers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laude, Jennifer R.; Fillmore, Mark T.

    2015-01-01

    Background Models of drug addiction emphasize the reciprocal influence of incentive-motivational properties of drug-related cues and poor impulse control resulting in drug use. Recent studies have shown that alcohol-related cues can impair response inhibition. What is unknown is whether these cues also disrupt learning of inhibitory associations. Methods Participants performed a Conditioned Inhibition (CI) task and were required to learn that a neutral image was a conditioned inhibitor when presented in the context of either an alcohol image intended to draw their attention away from the to-be-trained inhibitor, or a control condition in which the alcohol image was absent. After training, subjects in each condition rated the likelihood that the neutral image would signal the outcome. Eye tracking was used to verify that attention to the neutral image was in fact reduced when the alcohol image was present. Results Compared with controls those trained in the alcohol image condition reported a greater likelihood that the presence of the inhibitor would be followed by the outcome and thus were less able to acquire CI. Measures of eye-tracking verified that attention to the alcohol cue was associated with this maladaptive behavior. Conclusions When alcohol cues are present, there is a reduced ability to learn that such information is irrelevant to an outcome, and this impairs ones’ ability to inhibit perseveration of a response. This has implications for persistence of a drinking episode. PMID:25872597

  15. Conscientiousness predicts greater recovery from negative emotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javaras, Kristin N; Schaefer, Stacey M; van Reekum, Carien M; Lapate, Regina C; Greischar, Lawrence L; Bachhuber, David R; Love, Gayle Dienberg; Ryff, Carol D; Davidson, Richard J

    2012-10-01

    Greater levels of conscientiousness have been associated with lower levels of negative affect. We focus on one mechanism through which conscientiousness may decrease negative affect: effective emotion regulation, as reflected by greater recovery from negative stimuli. In 273 adults who were 35-85 years old, we collected self-report measures of personality including conscientiousness and its self-control facet, followed on average 2 years later by psychophysiological measures of emotional reactivity and recovery. Among middle-aged adults (35-65 years old), the measures of conscientiousness and self-control predicted greater recovery from, but not reactivity to, negative emotional stimuli. The effect of conscientiousness and self-control on recovery was not driven by other personality variables or by greater task adherence on the part of high conscientiousness individuals. In addition, the effect was specific to negative emotional stimuli and did not hold for neutral or positive emotional stimuli.

  16. Alcohol Test

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    The recent alcohol tax increase poses a challenge to China’s white spirits makers Alcohol, rather than wine, is an in-dispensable component to Chinese table culture. The financial crisis has failed to affect white spirits sales, but an alcohol tax increase might.

  17. Alcohol Poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... t be awakened is at risk of dying. Alcohol poisoning is an emergency If you suspect that someone has alcohol poisoning — even if you don't see the ... immediately. Never assume the person will sleep off alcohol poisoning. Be prepared to provide information. If you ...

  18. Current Alcohol Use is Associated with Sleep Patterns in First-Year College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Reen, Eliza; Roane, Brandy M; Barker, David H; McGeary, John E; Borsari, Brian; Carskadon, Mary A

    2016-06-01

    To examine whether differences exist in self-reported sleep patterns and self-reported alcohol use for first-semester college students who do or do not report drinking during the last 6 months (mo) of high school. Participants were 878 first-year college students. Students completed a survey in late May/early June about alcohol use and consequences, during the last 6 mo of high school; they later completed a daily record of sleep behavior and alcohol use across the first 9 weeks of the first semester of college. High school drinking status (past 6 mo) was classified as positive (HS-6 mo+) or negative (HS-6mo-) based on any indication of drinking on the May/June survey. Collegiate drinking was determined from first-semester daily diary alcohol reports as non-drinkers (0 reported drinks), drinkers (one or fewer heavy episodic drinking episodes (HED)), and drinkers reporting more than one HED episode. Sleep patterns were compared for non-drinkers, drinkers, and HED with no high school drinking history (HS-6mo-/HED). In addition, a separate analysis compared sleep patterns for college HED with (HS-6mo+/HED) and without (HS-6mo-/HED) high school self-reported alcohol use. Increased alcohol consumption in the first semester of college was associated with later bedtimes and rise times. We found no association of high school alcohol use and sleep in those with collegiate HED. Later sleep timing in those with greater alcohol use, supports a connection between sleep patterns and alcohol use. Such an early appearance of this connection may herald the development of alcohol use disorder in some individuals. © 2016 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  19. Enzymatic hydrolysis of whey lactose to glucose for alcohol production. Final report, September 1, 1979-August 31, 1981

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirasuna, T.J.

    1981-09-15

    This report covers the initial phase of a whey-to-glucose-to-alcohol process via an immobilized beta-galactosidase reactor in series with a fermentor. The first stage takes pure lactose and its hydrolysis with a soluble enzyme system. This stage involves the development of an assay to assess conversion in the hydrolysis reaction and the selections of the best reaction conditions for the enzyme selected. For the Embiozyme Lactase enzyme, the best conditions are 45/sup 0/C and pH 6.5. Thus, this enzyme would be more applicable to sweet whey systems rather than to acid whey. In the range of 1.0 to 3.0 g/l enzyme concentration, increased conversion is seen with increased enzyme concentration; however, the economics need to be studied to determine the optimum enzyme level taking into account cost and yield considerations. Some substrate or product inhibition is seen and is especially apparent above 50 g/l substrate concentration. Inhibition needs to be studied in more detail. Stability seems to be a problem with the Embiozyme Lactase enzyme. This may lead to problems in the future immobilization. Alternate processing conditions may have to be determined giving stability considerations the highest priority. Alternate suppliers of lactase can also be investigated. Acid denaturation seems to be more reliable than heat denaturation. Whether buffer or water is used in enzyme reconstitution makes little short-term difference in conversion. However, there may be an effect on long-term stability. 33 refs., 8 figs., 13 tabs.

  20. DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF 'SURE': A PATIENT REPORTED OUTCOME MEASURE (PROM) FOR RECOVERY FROM DRUG AND ALCOHOL DEPENDENCE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neale, Joanne; Vitoratou, Silia; Finch, Emily; Lennon, Paul; Mitcheson, Luke; Panebianco, Daria; Rose, Diana; Strang, John; Wykes, Til; Marsden, John

    2016-08-01

    Patient Reported Outcome Measures (PROMs) assess health status and health-related quality of life from the patient/service user perspective. Our study aimed to: i. develop a PROM for recovery from drug and alcohol dependence that has good face and content validity, acceptability and usability for people in recovery; ii. evaluate the psychometric properties and factorial structure of the new PROM ('SURE'). Item development included Delphi groups, focus groups, and service user feedback on draft versions of the new measure. A 30-item beta version was completed by 575 service users (461 in person [IP] and 114 online [OL]). Analyses comprised rating scale evaluation, assessment of psychometric properties, factorial structure, and differential item functioning. The beta measure had good face and content validity. Nine items were removed due to low stability, low factor loading, low construct validity or high complexity. The remaining 21 items were re-scaled (Rasch model analyses). Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses revealed 5 factors: substance use, material resources, outlook on life, self-care, and relationships. The MIMIC model indicated 95% metric invariance across the IP and OL samples, and 100% metric invariance for gender. Internal consistency and test-retest reliability were granted. The 5 factors correlated positively with the corresponding WHOQOL-BREF and ARC subscales and score differences between participant sub-groups confirmed discriminative validity. 'SURE' is a psychometrically valid, quick and easy-to-complete outcome measure, developed with unprecedented input from people in recovery. It can be used alongside, or instead of, existing outcome tools. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  1. The economical production of alcohol fuels from coal-derived synthesis gas. Quarterly technical progress report No. 5, October 1, 1992--December 31, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-01-01

    Two base case flow sheets have now been prepared. In the first, which was originally presented in TPR4, a Texaco gasifier is used. Natural gas is also burned in sufficient quantity to increase the hydrogen to carbon monoxide ratio of the synthesis gas to the required value of 1. 1 for alcohol synthesis. Acid gas clean up and sulfur removal are accomplished using the Rectisol process followed by the Claus and Beavon processes. About 10% of the synthesis gas is sent to a power generation unit in order to produce electric power, with the remaining 90% used for alcohol synthesis. For this process, the estimated installed cost is $474.2 mm. The estimated annual operating costs are $64.5 MM. At a price of alcohol fuels in the vicinity of $1. 00/gal, the pay back period for construction of this plant is about four years. The details of this case, called Base Case 1, are presented in Appendix 1. The second base case, called Base Case 2, also has a detailed description and explanation in Appendix 1. In Base Case 2, a Lurgi Gasifier is used. The motivation for using a Lurgi Gasifier is that it runs at a lower temperature and pressure and, therefore, produces by-products such as coal liquids which can be sold. Based upon the economics of joint production, discussed in Technical Progress Report 4, this is a necessity. Since synthesis gas from natural gas is always less expensive to produce than from coal, then alcohol fuels will always be less expensive to produce from natural gas than from coal. Therefore, the only way to make coal- derived alcohol fuels economically competitive is to decrease the cost of production of coal-derived synthesis gas. one method for accomplishing this is to sell the by-products from the gasification step. The details of this strategy are discussed in Appendix 3.

  2. Sport-related achievement motivation and alcohol outcomes: an athlete-specific risk factor among intercollegiate athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Cameron C; Martens, Matthew P; Cadigan, Jennifer M; Takamatsu, Stephanie K; Treloar, Hayley R; Pedersen, Eric R

    2013-12-01

    Intercollegiate athletes report greater alcohol consumption and more alcohol-related problems than their non-athlete peers. Although college athletes share many of the same problems faced by non-athletes, there are some consequences that are unique to athletes. Studies have demonstrated that alcohol negatively affects athletic performance including increased dehydration, impeded muscle recovery, and increased risk for injury. Beyond risk factors for alcohol misuse that may affect college students in general, research has begun to examine risk factors that are unique to collegiate athletes. For example, research has found that off-season status, the leadership role, and athlete-specific drinking motives are associated with increased alcohol use. Given these findings, it is possible that other athlete-specific variables influence alcohol misuse. One such variable may be sport achievement orientation. The purpose of the current study was to examine the relationship between sport achievement orientation and alcohol outcomes. Given previous research regarding seasonal status and gender, these variables were examined as moderators. Varsity athletes (n=263) completed the Sport Orientation Questionnaire, which assesses sport-related achievement orientation on three scales (Competitiveness, Win Orientation, and Goal Orientation). In addition, participants completed measures of alcohol use and alcohol-related problems. Results indicated that Competitiveness, Win Orientation, and Goal Orientation were all significantly associated with alcohol use, but not alcohol-related problems. Moreover, these relationships were moderated by seasonal status and gender. These interactions, clinical implications, and limitations are discussed.

  3. Comparison of cage and mast with the alcohol markers CDT, gamma-GT, ALAT, ASAT and MCV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetterling, T; Kanitz, R D; Rumpf, H J; Hapke, U; Fischer, D

    1998-01-01

    Many alcoholics deny abuse. To screen greater samples for alcohol dependence, short questionnaires, e.g. the CAGE or MAST are often applied. Frequently laboratory parameters [i.e. 'alcohol markers', such as carbohydrate-deficient transferrin (CDT), gamma-glutamyl transferase or mean corpuscular volume of erythrocytes] are used to support the diagnosis of long-standing heavy alcohol consumption. In this study, the self-ratings (CAGE and MAST) were compared with the above laboratory parameters in an unselected sample of 204 patients admitted to a general hospital. The sensitivities, specificities, and positive (PPV) as well as negative predictive values of the CAGE, the MAST, and the alcohol markers were calculated along with the reported alcohol consumption or the ICD-10 diagnosis as standard. According to recent harmful alcohol consumption levels (women >225 g/week: men >350 g/week), the sensitivities and the PPVs were rather low in all tests (sensitivity 95%) and PPV (about 90%). CDT revealed the best PPV of all alcohol markers (60%). However, the sensitivity of the CAGE, MAST, and the alcohol markers for the ICD-10 diagnosis was rather poor (<60%). This low sensitivity impedes the usefulness of these questionnaires and alcohol markers as screening tests for alcoholism in general hospitals.

  4. Facts about Alcohol and Alcoholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Leonard C.

    Recognition of alcoholism as a treatable illness is a result of public education based on scientific facts. This publication, a digest of a more detailed survey of research about drinking and alcoholism, presents information about alcohol and its effects on individuals and society. It provides facts about the short-term and long-term effects of…

  5. Alcoholic cardiomyopathy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gonzalo; Guzzo-Merello; Marta; Cobo-Marcos; Maria; Gallego-Delgado; Pablo; Garcia-Pavia

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol is the most frequently consumed toxic substance in the world. Low to moderate daily intake of alcohol has been shown to have beneficial effects on the cardiovascular system. In contrast, exposure to high levels of alcohol for a long period could lead to progressive cardiac dysfunction and heart failure. Cardiac dysfunction associated with chronic and excessive alcohol intake is a specific cardiac disease known as alcoholic cardiomyopathy(ACM). In spite of its clinical importance, data on ACM and how alcohol damages the heart are limited. In this review, we evaluate available evidence linking excessive alcohol consumption with heart failure and dilated cardiomyopathy. Additionally, we discuss the clinical presentation, prognosis and treatment of ACM.

  6. A UK student survey investigating the effects of consuming alcohol mixed with energy drinks on overall alcohol consumption and alcohol-related negative consequences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Johnson, Sean J; Alford, Chris; Stewart, Karina; Verster, Joris C

    2016-01-01

    Previous research reported positive associations between alcohol mixed with energy drink (AMED) consumption and overall alcohol consumption. However, results were largely based on between-subjects comparisons comparing AMED consumers with alcohol-only (AO) consumers, and therefore cannot sufficientl

  7. A UK student survey investigating the effects of consuming alcohol mixed with energy drinks on overall alcohol consumption and alcohol-related negative consequences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Johnson, Sean J; Alford, Chris; Stewart, Karina; Verster, Joris C

    2016-01-01

    Previous research reported positive associations between alcohol mixed with energy drink (AMED) consumption and overall alcohol consumption. However, results were largely based on between-subjects comparisons comparing AMED consumers with alcohol-only (AO) consumers, and therefore cannot

  8. High octane ethers from synthesis gas-derived alcohols. Quarterly technical progress report, April--June 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klier, K.; Herman, R.G.; Menszak, J.; Johansson, M.A.; Feeley, O.C.; Kim, D.

    1993-07-01

    The results shown in Figures 10 and 11 demonstrate that the formation of butenes was very sensitive to the alcohol partial pressure. A small elevation of the alcohol pressure suppressed the formation of butenes rather drastically at both 90 and 117{degree}C. The synthesis rates of DME, MIBE, and MTBE ethers were not significantly affected at 90{degree}C, although there was a trend to increase the space time yield of DME as the alcohol pressure was increased. At the reaction temperature of 117{degree}C, all of the ethers showed increasing productivities as the pressure of the reactants was increased (Figure 11). An isotope labelling experiment was carried out to provide mechanistic insight into the manner in which methanol and isobutanol react together to form DME, MIBE, and MTBE ethers and to determine if MTBE were derived from MIBE.

  9. Association of attention-deficit hyperkinetic disorder with alcohol use disorders in fishermen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoj Kumar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Alcohol use is a widely prevalent problem and poses hazard during work for certain groups such as fishermen. Disorders such as Attention-Deficit/Hyperkinetic Disorder (ADHD correlate with early onset and greater severity of alcohol use disorders. Aims: We planned to study the frequency of ADHD among fishermen in a fishing hamlet of southern India using adult ADHD self-reported scale (ASRS and correlated with the severity of alcohol use disorder as evidenced by age at initiation of alcohol use, presence of harmful use, or dependence use as defined by Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT. Subjects and Methods: This was a community-based interview using AUDIT questionnaire for severity of alcohol use and the ASRS to detect ADHD. Results: The prevalence of adult ADHD among fishermen in this study was 25.7% using the critical items of the ASRS. ADHD was about twice as likely in participants with dependence as those without dependence (odds ratio = 2.10. ADHD was also more likely in participants with onset of use before 30 years of age than others (25.1% vs. 15.4% (P = 0.27. Discussion: We found a high frequency of alcohol use among fishermen (79.8%. However, only 9.9% had alcohol dependence which is higher than the general population (2.3% in the region. Fishermen with alcohol dependence were twice as likely to have ADHD as those without alcohol dependence. Conclusion: In a community-based survey of fishermen, the prevalence of alcohol dependence was about 10%. The presence of alcohol dependence predicted a two times higher likelihood of ADHD among fishermen than those without alcohol dependence.

  10. Corneal melanosis successfully treated using topical mitomycin-C and alcohol corneal epitheliectomy: a 3-year follow-up case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Balcı

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTWe report a case of primary acquired corneal melanosis without atypia associated with corneal haze in a patient with a history of limbal malignant melanoma and the effect of mitomycin-C. A 75-year-old woman with a history of limbal malignant melanoma presented with loss of vision in right eye. Corneal examination showed a patchy melanotic pigmentation with a central haze. Topical mitomycin-C improved visual acuity and corneal haze. However, the pigmented lesions persisted, and they were removed with alcohol corneal epitheliectomy. Histopathological examination demonstrated primary acquired melanosis without atypia. The lesions were successfully removed, and there were no recurrences during the follow-up period of 36 months. The association of conjunctival and corneal melanosis without atypia is a rare condition. In addition, co-existence of central corneal haze and melanosis may decrease visual acuity. Topical mitomycin-C and alcohol corneal epitheliectomy can be useful treatments in this condition.

  11. Corneal melanosis successfully treated using topical mitomycin-C and alcohol corneal epitheliectomy: a 3-year follow-up case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balcı, Mehmet; Yağcı, Ramazan; Güler, Emre; Haltaş, Hacer; Duman, Rahmi; Hepşen, İbrahim F

    2015-01-01

    We report a case of primary acquired corneal melanosis without atypia associated with corneal haze in a patient with a history of limbal malignant melanoma and the effect of mitomycin-C. A 75-year-old woman with a history of limbal malignant melanoma presented with loss of vision in right eye. Corneal examination showed a patchy melanotic pigmentation with a central haze. Topical mitomycin-C improved visual acuity and corneal haze. However, the pigmented lesions persisted, and they were removed with alcohol corneal epitheliectomy. Histopathological examination demonstrated primary acquired melanosis without atypia. The lesions were successfully removed, and there were no recurrences during the follow-up period of 36 months. The association of conjunctival and corneal melanosis without atypia is a rare condition. In addition, co-existence of central corneal haze and melanosis may decrease visual acuity. Topical mitomycin-C and alcohol corneal epitheliectomy can be useful treatments in this condition.

  12. Alcohol use, alcohol problems, and problem behavior engagement among students at two schools in northern Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancha, Brent E; Rojas, Vanessa C; Latimer, William W

    2012-11-01

    This study examined the association between alcohol-use problem severity, defined by number of DSM-IV alcohol Abuse and Dependence symptoms and frequency of alcohol use, and problem behavior engagement among Mexican students. A confidential survey was administered to 1229 students in grades 7-12 at two schools in a northern border city in Mexico. Youths were categorized into five groups based on their alcohol use frequency and symptoms of DSM-IV alcohol Abuse and Dependence, specifically: no lifetime alcohol use, lifetime alcohol use but none in the past year, past year alcohol use, one or two alcohol Abuse or Dependence symptoms, and three or more alcohol Abuse or Dependence symptoms. The association between five levels of alcohol-use problem severity and three problem behaviors, lifetime marijuana use, lifetime sexual intercourse, and past year arrest/law trouble, was examined using chi-square or Fisher's exact tests. Several alcohol-use problem severity categories were significantly different with respect to rates of lifetime marijuana use, lifetime sexual intercourse, and past year arrest/law trouble. Higher alcohol-use problem severity was associated with greater endorsement of problem behaviors. Knowing about variations in adolescent alcohol use and alcohol problems may be instrumental in determining if youths are also engaging in a range of other risk behaviors. Considering varying levels of alcohol use and alcohol problems is important for effective targeted prevention and treatment interventions.

  13. Pathophysiology of alcoholic pancreatitis: An overview

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Parimal Chowdhury; Priya Gupta

    2006-01-01

    Use of alcohol is a worldwide habit regardless of socioeconomic background. Heavy alcohol consumption is a potential risk factor for induction of pancreatitis. The current review cites the updated literature on the alcohol metabolism, its effects on gastrointestinal and pancreatic function and in causing pancreatic injury, genetic predisposition of alcohol induced pancreatitis. Reports describing prospective mechanisms of action of alcohol activating the signal transduction pathways, induction of oxidative stress parameters through the development of animal models are being presented.

  14. Relationships among Alcohol Outlet Density, Alcohol Use, and Intimate Partner Violence Victimization among Young Women in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waller, Martha W.; Iritani, Bonita J.; Christ, Sharon L.; Clark, Heddy Kovach; Moracco, Kathryn E.; Halpern, Carolyn Tucker; Flewelling, Robert L.

    2012-01-01

    Greater access to alcohol has been widely found to be associated with many negative outcomes including violence perpetration. This study examines the relationship between alcohol outlet density, alcohol use, and intimate partner violence (IPV) victimization among young women in the United States. A direct association between alcohol outlet density…

  15. Personality traits of problem gamblers with and without alcohol dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lister, Jamey J; Milosevic, Aleks; Ledgerwood, David M

    2015-08-01

    A large proportion of individuals with gambling disorder also present with a history of alcohol dependence, but few studies have directly examined the relationship between these two conditions. This study's primary and secondary aims were to 1) examine the relationship of personality traits to co-occurring lifetime (current/past) alcohol dependence status, while 2) accounting for differences in gambling characteristics and co-occurring psychiatric disorders among problem/pathological gamblers recruited from the community. Problem/pathological gamblers (N=150) completed measures of personality traits and gambling characteristics (e.g., gambling severity, gambling involvement, delayed discounting of monetary rewards), and were clinically interviewed for co-occurring psychiatric disorders. A co-occurring lifetime diagnosis of alcohol dependence (n=61, 40.7%) was associated with lower personality scores for Control, Well-Being, Achievement, Traditionalism, and Harm Avoidance, as well as higher scores for Alienation (Tellegen & Waller, 1994) in bivariate analyses. Problem/pathological gamblers with lifetime alcohol dependence reported greater lifetime gambling severity, greater past-year gambling involvement, steeper delayed discounting, and a greater likelihood of current and lifetime substance dependence, lifetime antisocial personality disorder, and current unipolar mood disorders. Multivariate analyses indicated that lower Control, Traditionalism, and Well-Being and a co-occurring lifetime substance dependence diagnosis best accounted for a co-occurring lifetime alcohol dependence diagnosis in problem/pathological gamblers. Problem/pathological gamblers with co-occurring lifetime alcohol dependence demonstrate addictive behavior across multiple domains and report a personality style characterized by hopelessness, impaired control, and resistance to externally-motivated treatment approaches. Implications for the treatment of these complex cases are discussed

  16. Caffeinated and non-caffeinated alcohol use and indirect aggression: The impact of self-regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheehan, Brynn E; Linden-Carmichael, Ashley N; Lau-Barraco, Cathy

    2016-07-01

    Research shows that heavier alcohol use is associated with physical aggression. Scant research has examined the way in which alcohol relates to other forms of aggression, such as indirect aggression (e.g., malicious humor, social exclusion). Given the possible negative consequences of indirect aggression and the limited evidence suggesting alcohol use can elicit indirectly aggressive responses, research is needed to further investigate the association between drinking behavior and indirect aggression. Additionally, specific alcoholic beverages, such as caffeinated alcoholic beverages (CABs; e.g., Red Bull and vodka), may potentiate aggression above the influence of typical use, and thus warrant examination with regard to indirect aggression. One factor that may impact the strength of the alcohol-indirect aggression and CAB-indirect aggression relationships is one's level of self-regulation. Consequently, our study examined the relationships between (1) alcohol use and indirect aggression, (2) CAB use and indirect aggression, and (3) self-regulation as a moderator. Participants were 733 (67.6% female) undergraduate students who reported their CAB and alcohol use, self-regulation, and aggressive behaviors. Results revealed that heavier alcohol use was associated with more frequent indirect aggression after controlling for dispositional aggression. Heavier CAB use was related to more frequent indirect aggression after accounting for typical use and dispositional aggression. Self-regulation moderated these associations such that for those with lower self-regulation, greater alcohol and CAB consumption was associated with greater indirect aggression. Our findings suggest that heavier alcohol and CAB consumption may be risk factors for engaging in indirect aggression and this risk is impacted by one's regulatory control.

  17. Naltrexone for Alcoholism

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Prescription Medicines, Your Health ResourcesTags: alcohol abuse, alcohol addiction, alcohol dependence, alcoholism, craving, Depade, drunk, hepatoxicity, intoxication, naltrexone, narcotic antagonist, opiate ...

  18. Technology and economics of conversion of cellulose (wood) and corn starch to sugars, alcohol and yeast. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolnak, B.

    1978-08-01

    The present status of the technology and economics for the production of glucose, alcohol, and yeast from cellulose (wood), corn starch, and molasses is analyzed. The basic processes for producing glucose and the factors affecting the economics of its production are reviewed. The costs of producing ethanol and yeast from the glucose are derived. Market availability of glucose, ethanol, and yeast is surveyed. (JSR)

  19. Demographic Predictors of Event-Level Associations between Alcohol Consumption and Sexual Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Brooke E; Rendina, H Jonathon; Kelly, Brian C; Golub, Sarit A; Parsons, Jeffrey T

    2016-02-01

    Alcohol consumption is associated with sexual behavior and outcomes, though research indicates a variety of moderating factors, including demographic characteristics. To better target interventions aimed at alcohol-related sexual risk behavior, our analyses simultaneously examine demographic predictors of both day- and event-level associations between alcohol consumption and sexual behavior in a sample of young adults (N = 301) who are sexually active and consume alcohol. Young adults (aged 18-29) recruited using time-space sampling and incentivized snowball sampling completed a survey and a timeline follow-back calendar reporting alcohol consumption and sexual behavior in the past 30 days. On a given day, a greater number of drinks consumed was associated with higher likelihood of sex occurring, particularly for women and single participants. During a given sexual event, number of drinks consumed was not associated with condom use, nor did any demographic predictors predict that association. Findings highlight associations between alcohol and sexual behavior, though not between alcohol and sexual risk behavior, highlighting the need for additional research exploring the complex role of alcohol in sexual risk behavior and the need to develop prevention efforts to minimize the role of alcohol in the initiation of sexual encounters.

  20. Beer flavor provokes striatal dopamine release in male drinkers: mediation by family history of alcoholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberlin, Brandon G; Dzemidzic, Mario; Tran, Stella M; Soeurt, Christina M; Albrecht, Daniel S; Yoder, Karmen K; Kareken, David A

    2013-08-01

    Striatal dopamine (DA) is increased by virtually all drugs of abuse, including alcohol. However, drug-associated cues are also known to provoke striatal DA transmission- a phenomenon linked to the motivated behaviors associated with addiction. To our knowledge, no one has tested if alcohol's classically conditioned flavor cues, in the absence of a significant pharmacologic effect, are capable of eliciting striatal DA release in humans. Employing positron emission tomography (PET), we hypothesized that beer's flavor alone can reduce the binding potential (BP) of [(11)C]raclopride (RAC; a reflection of striatal DA release) in the ventral striatum, relative to an appetitive flavor control. Forty-nine men, ranging from social to heavy drinking, mean age 25, with a varied family history of alcoholism underwent two [(11)C]RAC PET scans: one while tasting beer, and one while tasting Gatorade. Relative to the control flavor of Gatorade, beer flavor significantly increased self-reported desire to drink, and reduced [(11)C]RAC BP, indicating that the alcohol-associated flavor cues induced DA release. BP reductions were strongest in subjects with first-degree alcoholic relatives. These results demonstrate that alcohol-conditioned flavor cues can provoke ventral striatal DA release, absent significant pharmacologic effects, and that the response is strongest in subjects with a greater genetic risk for alcoholism. Striatal DA responses to salient alcohol cues may thus be an inherited risk factor for alcoholism.

  1. Beer Flavor Provokes Striatal Dopamine Release in Male Drinkers: Mediation by Family History of Alcoholism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberlin, Brandon G; Dzemidzic, Mario; Tran, Stella M; Soeurt, Christina M; Albrecht, Daniel S; Yoder, Karmen K; Kareken, David A

    2013-01-01

    Striatal dopamine (DA) is increased by virtually all drugs of abuse, including alcohol. However, drug-associated cues are also known to provoke striatal DA transmission- a phenomenon linked to the motivated behaviors associated with addiction. To our knowledge, no one has tested if alcohol's classically conditioned flavor cues, in the absence of a significant pharmacologic effect, are capable of eliciting striatal DA release in humans. Employing positron emission tomography (PET), we hypothesized that beer's flavor alone can reduce the binding potential (BP) of [11C]raclopride (RAC; a reflection of striatal DA release) in the ventral striatum, relative to an appetitive flavor control. Forty-nine men, ranging from social to heavy drinking, mean age 25, with a varied family history of alcoholism underwent two [11C]RAC PET scans: one while tasting beer, and one while tasting Gatorade. Relative to the control flavor of Gatorade, beer flavor significantly increased self-reported desire to drink, and reduced [11C]RAC BP, indicating that the alcohol-associated flavor cues induced DA release. BP reductions were strongest in subjects with first-degree alcoholic relatives. These results demonstrate that alcohol-conditioned flavor cues can provoke ventral striatal DA release, absent significant pharmacologic effects, and that the response is strongest in subjects with a greater genetic risk for alcoholism. Striatal DA responses to salient alcohol cues may thus be an inherited risk factor for alcoholism. PMID:23588036

  2. The Cognitive and Behavioural Impact of Alcohol Promoting and Alcohol Warning Advertisements: An Experimental Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Kyle G; Stautz, Kaidy; Hollands, Gareth J; Winpenny, Eleanor M; Marteau, Theresa M

    2016-05-01

    To assess the immediate effect of alcohol promoting and alcohol warning advertisements on implicit and explicit attitudes towards alcohol and on alcohol seeking behaviour. We conducted a between-participants online experiment in which participants were randomly assigned to view one of three sets of advertisements: (a) alcohol promoting, (b) alcohol warning, or (c) unrelated to alcohol. A total of 373 participants (59.5% female) aged 18-40 (M = 28.03) living in the UK were recruited online through a research agency. Positive and negative implicit attitudes and explicit attitudes towards alcohol were assessed before and after advertisements were viewed. Alcohol seeking behaviour was measured by participants' choice of either an alcohol-related or non-alcohol-related voucher offered ostensibly as a reward for participation. Self-reported past week alcohol consumption was also recorded. There were no main effects on any of the outcome measures. In heavier drinkers, viewing alcohol promoting advertisements increased positive implicit attitudes (standardized beta = 0.15, P = 0.04) and decreased negative implicit attitudes (standardized beta = -0.17, P = 0.02). In heavier drinkers, viewing alcohol warning advertisements decreased negative implicit attitudes (standardized beta = -0.19, P = 0.01). Viewing alcohol promoting advertisements has a cognitive impact on heavier drinkers, increasing positive and reducing negative implicit attitudes towards alcohol. Viewing alcohol warning advertisements reduces negative implicit attitudes towards alcohol in heavier drinkers, suggestive of a reactance effect. © The Author 2015. Medical Council on Alcohol and Oxford University Press.

  3. Associations of OPRM1 A118G and alcohol sensitivity with intravenous alcohol self-administration in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendershot, Christian S; Claus, Eric D; Ramchandani, Vijay A

    2016-01-01

    Human laboratory and animal models implicate variation in the μ-opioid receptor gene (OPRM1) as relevant for alcohol-related reward. OPRM1 is associated with alcohol self-administration in non-human primate studies, but the relevance of this finding to human models is unclear. This study used computer-assisted self-infusion of ethanol (CASE) to examine associations among OPRM1 A118G genotype, subjective responses to alcohol and intravenous alcohol self-administration in young heavy drinkers (n = 40, mean age = 19.95 years, SD = 0.82). Participants completed a 2-hour CASE session comprising a priming phase followed by ad libitum self-administration in a free-access paradigm. Participants achieved a mean peak breath alcohol concentration (BrAC) of 81.18 mg% (SD = 24.96). Those with the OPRM1 118G variant (GA or GG genotypes) achieved significantly higher peak BrAC (M = 94.90 mg%, SD = 16.56) than those with the AA genotype (M = 74.46 mg%, SD = 25.36), reflecting a significantly greater number of alcohol requests among GA/GG participants. Eighty percent of GA/GG participants surpassed a threshold defining a laboratory analog of heavy alcohol exposure (80 mg%) compared with 46 percent of AA participants. Results indicated significant associations between subjective measures of alcohol sensitivity and CASE outcomes, although the pattern of findings differed across self-report measures. Subjective responses did not differ by OPRM1 status. These results offer further support for the feasibility of the CASE paradigm and provide initial evidence for an association of OPRM1 with alcohol self-administration in a human laboratory context. © 2014 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  4. Validation of the World Health Organization Alcohol, Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test (ASSIST): report of results from the Australian site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newcombe, David Al; Humeniuk, Rachel E; Ali, Robert

    2005-05-01

    The concurrent, construct, discriminative and predictive validity of the World Health Organization's Alcohol Substance Involvement Screening Test (ASSIST) were examined in an Australian sample. One hundred and fifty participants, recruited from drug treatment (n = 50) and primary health care (PHC) settings (n = 100), were administered a battery of instruments at baseline and a modified battery at 3 months. Measures included the ASSIST; the Addiction Severity Index-Lite (ASI-Lite); the Severity of Dependence Scale (SDS); the MINI International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI-Plus); the Rating of Injection Site Condition (RISC); the Drug Abuse Screening Test (DAST); the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT); the Revised Fagerstrom Tolerance Questionnaire (RTQ); and the Maudsely Addiction Profile (MAP). Concurrent validity was demonstrated by significant correlations between ASSIST scores and scores from the ASI-lite, SDS, AUDIT and DAST; and significantly greater ASSIST scores for those with diagnoses of abuse or dependence. Construct validity was established by significant correlations between ASSIST scores and measures of risk factors for the development of drug and alcohol problems. Participants diagnosed with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder or antisocial personality disorder had significantly higher ASSIST scores than those not diagnosed as such. Discriminative validity was established by the capacity of the ASSIST to discriminate between substance use, abuse and dependence. ROC analysis was able to establish cut-off scores for an Australian sample, with suitable specificities and sensitivities for most substances. Predictive validity was demonstrated by similarity in ASSIST scores obtained at baseline and at follow-up. The findings demonstrated that the ASSIST is a valid screening test for psychoactive substance use in individuals who use a number of substances and have varying degrees of substance use.

  5. Treatment of Anxiety Disorders and Comorbid Alcohol Abuse with Buspirone in a Patient with Antidepressant-Induced Platelet Dysfunction: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mir Mazhar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The risk of abnormal bleeding with serotonin reuptake inhibitors has been known, but there is insufficient evidence base to guide pharmacological treatment of anxiety in patients with underlying haematological conditions. The following case report is about a 50-year-old female with generalized anxiety disorder, social phobia, obsessive compulsive disorder, and alcohol abuse where pharmacological treatment of anxiety symptoms has been difficult as it would lead to bruising due to the patient’s underlying qualitative platelet dysfunction. Treatment with venlafaxine, citalopram, escitalopram, and clomipramine resulted in improvement and anxiety symptoms, as well as reduction in alcohol use, but pharmacological treatment has to be discontinued because of bruising and hematomas. In view of an active substance use disorder, benzodiazepines were avoided as a treatment option. The patient’s anxiety symptoms and comorbid alcohol abuse responded well to pharmacological treatment with buspirone which gradually titrated up to a dose of 30 mg BID. Patient was followed for around a six-month period while she was on buspirone before being discharged to family doctor’s care. Buspirone is unlikely to have a significant effect on platelet serotonin transponder and could be an effective alternative for pharmacological treatment of anxiety in patients with a bleeding diathesis.

  6. Fetal alcohol-spectrum disorders: identifying at-risk mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montag, Annika C

    2016-01-01

    Fetal alcohol-spectrum disorders (FASDs) are a collection of physical and neurobehavioral disabilities caused by prenatal exposure to alcohol. To prevent or mitigate the costly effects of FASD, we must identify mothers at risk for having a child with FASD, so that we may reach them with interventions. Identifying mothers at risk is beneficial at all time points, whether prior to pregnancy, during pregnancy, or following the birth of the child. In this review, three approaches to identifying mothers at risk are explored: using characteristics of the mother and her pregnancy, using laboratory biomarkers, and using self-report assessment of alcohol-consumption risk. At present, all approaches have serious limitations. Research is needed to improve the sensitivity and specificity of biomarkers and screening instruments, and to link them to outcomes as opposed to exposure. Universal self-report screening of all women of childbearing potential should ideally be incorporated into routine obstetric and gynecologic care, followed by brief interventions, including education and personalized feedback for all who consume alcohol, and referral to treatment as indicated. Effective biomarkers or combinations of biomarkers may be used during pregnancy and at birth to determine maternal and fetal alcohol exposure. The combination of self-report and biomarker screening may help identify a greater proportion of women at risk for having a child with FASD, allowing them to access information and treatment, and empowering them to make decisions that benefit their children.

  7. Fetal alcohol-spectrum disorders: identifying at-risk mothers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montag, Annika C

    2016-01-01

    Fetal alcohol-spectrum disorders (FASDs) are a collection of physical and neurobehavioral disabilities caused by prenatal exposure to alcohol. To prevent or mitigate the costly effects of FASD, we must identify mothers at risk for having a child with FASD, so that we may reach them with interventions. Identifying mothers at risk is beneficial at all time points, whether prior to pregnancy, during pregnancy, or following the birth of the child. In this review, three approaches to identifying mothers at risk are explored: using characteristics of the mother and her pregnancy, using laboratory biomarkers, and using self-report assessment of alcohol-consumption risk. At present, all approaches have serious limitations. Research is needed to improve the sensitivity and specificity of biomarkers and screening instruments, and to link them to outcomes as opposed to exposure. Universal self-report screening of all women of childbearing potential should ideally be incorporated into routine obstetric and gynecologic care, followed by brief interventions, including education and personalized feedback for all who consume alcohol, and referral to treatment as indicated. Effective biomarkers or combinations of biomarkers may be used during pregnancy and at birth to determine maternal and fetal alcohol exposure. The combination of self-report and biomarker screening may help identify a greater proportion of women at risk for having a child with FASD, allowing them to access information and treatment, and empowering them to make decisions that benefit their children. PMID:27499649

  8. The economical production of alcohol fuels from coal-derived synthesis gas. Quarterly technical progress report No. 19, April 1, 1996--June 30, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-07-01

    The objective of Task I is to prepare and evaluate catalysts and to develop efficient reactor systems for the selective conversion of hydrogen-lean synthesis gas to alcohol fuel extenders and octane enhancers. In Task 1, during this reporting period, we encountered and solved a problem in the analysis of the reaction products containing a small amount of heavy components. Subsequently, we continued with the major thrusts of the program. We analyzed the results from our preliminary studies on the packed-bed membrane reactor using the BASF methanol synthesis catalyst. We developed a quantitative model to describe the performance of the reactor. The effect of varying permeances and the effect of catalyst aging are being incorporated into the model. Secondly, we resumed our more- detailed parametric studies on selected non-sulfide Mo-based catalysts. Finally, we continue with the analysis of data from the kinetic study of a sulfided carbon-supported potassium-doped molybdenum-cobalt catalyst in the Rotoberty reactor. We have completed catalyst screening at UCC. The complete characterization of selected catalysts has been started. In Task 2, the fuel blends of alcohol and unleaded test gas 96 (UTG 96) have been made and tests have been completed. The testing includes knock resistance tests and emissions tests. Emissions tests were conducted when the engine was optimized for the particular blend being tested (i.e. where the engine produced the most power when running on the blend in question). The data shows that the presence of alcohol in the fuel increases the fuel`s ability to resist knock. Because of this, when the engine was optimized for use with alcohol blends, the engine produced more power and lower emission rates.

  9. Differences in childhood physical abuse reporting and the association between CPA and alcohol use disorder in European American and African American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Kimberly B; Grant, Julia D; McCutcheon, Vivia V; Madden, Pamela A F; Heath, Andrew C; Bucholz, Kathleen K; Sartor, Carolyn E

    2016-06-01

    The goal of the current study was to examine whether the magnitude of the association between childhood physical abuse (CPA) and alcohol use disorder (AUD) varies by type of CPA assessment and race of the respondents. Data are from the Missouri adolescent female twins study and the Missouri family study (N = 4508) where 21.2% identified as African American (AA) and 78.8% as European American (EA); mean age = 23.8. Data were collected using a structured comprehensive interview which assessed CPA experiences using behavioral questions about specific abusive behaviors and trauma checklist items. Cox proportional hazards regression analyses were conducted, adjusting for additional risk factors associated with AUD, including co-occurring psychiatric disorders (defined as time-varying) and parental alcohol misuse. Overall, CPA reporting patterns were highly correlated (tetrachoric ρ = 0.73); although, only 25.8% of women who endorsed behaviorally defined CPA also endorsed checklist items whereas 72.2% of women who endorsed checklist items also endorsed behavioral questions. Racial disparities were evident, with behaviorally defined CPA increasing the hazard for AUD in EA but not AA women. Additional racial disparities in the risk for AUD were observed: increased hazard for AUD were associated with major depressive disorder in AA, and cannabis dependence and paternal alcohol problems in EA, women. Results demonstrate the relevance of the type of CPA measure in assessing CPA in studies of alcohol-related problems-behavioral items may be more inclusive of CPA exposure and more predictive of AUD- and highlight racial distinctions of AUD etiology in women. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. Brief report: Using global positioning system (GPS) enabled cell phones to examine adolescent travel patterns and time in proximity to alcohol outlets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrnes, Hilary F; Miller, Brenda A; Morrison, Christopher N; Wiebe, Douglas J; Remer, Lillian G; Wiehe, Sarah E

    2016-07-01

    As adolescents gain freedom to explore new environments unsupervised, more time in proximity to alcohol outlets may increase risks for alcohol and marijuana use. This pilot study: 1) Describes variations in adolescents' proximity to outlets by time of day and day of the week, 2) Examines variations in outlet proximity by drinking and marijuana use status, and 3) Tests feasibility of obtaining real-time data to study adolescent proximity to outlets. U.S. adolescents (N = 18) aged 16-17 (50% female) carried GPS-enabled smartphones for one week with their locations tracked. The geographic areas where adolescents spend time, activity spaces, were created by connecting GPS points sequentially and adding spatial buffers around routes. Proximity to outlets was greater during after school and evening hours. Drinkers and marijuana users were in proximity to outlets 1½ to 2 times more than non-users. Findings provide information about where adolescents spend time and times of greatest risk, informing prevention efforts. Copyright © 2016 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Alcohol and suicide: neurobiological and clinical aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sher, Leo

    2006-06-21

    Alcohol, primarily in the form of ethyl alcohol (ethanol), has occupied an important place in the history of humankind for at least 8,000 years. In most Western societies, at least 90% of people consume alcohol at some time during their lives, and 30% or more of drinkers develop alcohol-related problems. Severe alcohol-related life impairment, alcohol dependence (alcoholism), is observed at some time during their lives in about 10% of men and 3-5% of women. An additional 5-10% of each sex develops persistent, but less intense, problems that are diagnosed as alcohol abuse. It this review, neurobiological aspects of suicidal behavior in alcoholism is discussed. In individuals with comorbid depression and alcoholism, greater serotonergic impairment may be associated with higher risk of completed suicide. Dopaminergic dysfunction may play an important role in the pathophysiology of suicidal behavior in alcoholism. Brain damage and neurobehavioral deficits are associated with alcohol use disorders and may contribute to suicidal behavior in persons with alcohol dependence or abuse. Aggression/impulsivity and alcoholism severity affect risk for suicide among individuals with alcoholism. Major depressive episodes and stressful life events particularly, partner-relationship disruptions, may precipitate suicidal behavior in individuals with alcohol use disorders. Alcohol misuse and psychosocial adversity can combine to increase stress on the person, and, thereby, potentially, increase the risk for suicidal behavior. The management of suicidal patients with alcohol use disorders is also discussed. It is to be hoped that the efforts of clinicians will reduce morbidity and mortality associated with alcohol misuse.

  12. Alcohol and Suicide: Neurobiological and Clinical Aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leo Sher

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol, primarily in the form of ethyl alcohol (ethanol, has occupied an important place in the history of humankind for at least 8,000 years. In most Western societies, at least 90% of people consume alcohol at some time during their lives, and 30% or more of drinkers develop alcohol-related problems. Severe alcohol-related life impairment, alcohol dependence (alcoholism, is observed at some time during their lives in about 10% of men and 3—5% of women. An additional 5—10% of each sex develops persistent, but less intense, problems that are diagnosed as alcohol abuse. It this review, neurobiological aspects of suicidal behavior in alcoholism is discussed. In individuals with comorbid depression and alcoholism, greater serotonergic impairment may be associated with higher risk of completed suicide. Dopaminergic dysfunction may play an important role in the pathophysiology of suicidal behavior in alcoholism. Brain damage and neurobehavioral deficits are associated with alcohol use disorders and may contribute to suicidal behavior in persons with alcohol dependence or abuse. Aggression/impulsivity and alcoholism severity affect risk for suicide among individuals with alcoholism. Major depressive episodes and stressful life events particularly, partner-relationship disruptions, may precipitate suicidal behavior in individuals with alcohol use disorders. Alcohol misuse and psychosocial adversity can combine to increase stress on the person, and, thereby, potentially, increase the risk for suicidal behavior. The management of suicidal patients with alcohol use disorders is also discussed. It is to be hoped that the efforts of clinicians will reduce morbidity and mortality associated with alcohol misuse.

  13. Alcohol Consumption among College Students: Chief Student Affairs Officers' Perspectives on Evidence-Based Alcohol Consumption Reduction Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stender, David F., III

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol consumption among college students can lead to negative consequences for those consuming alcohol as well as for their classmates. The 2002 report from the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) Task Force on College Drinking described a "three-in-one" evidence-based approach for alcohol consumption reduction…

  14. Hydrocarbon contamination in groundwaters: Removal by alcohol flooding. Technical completion report, 1 May 1988-30 April 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farley, K.J.; Boyd, G.R.; Patwardhan, S.

    1992-05-01

    Present pump-and-treat remediation strategies employed to remove hydrocarbon contaminants that exist in groundwater as nonaqueous phase liquids (NAPLs) can displace only a fraction of the contaminant due to the trapping effects of capillary forces. These effects however are shown to be effectively eliminated by injecting alcohol solutions through the contamination zone. A laboratory column apparatus was developed to simulate NAPL contamination, free product recovery, and residual NAPL removal by alcohol flooding. Columns were packed with either glass beads or a South Carolina aquifer soil, and contaminated in preliminary experiments with benzene (a light NAPL) and in final experiments with trichloroethylene (TCE) (a dense NAPL). Proper scaling of the column was found to be critical in ensuring that the laboratory results adequately represented field-scale conditions.

  15. American Indian youths' perceptions of their environment and their reports of depressive symptoms and alcohol/marijuana use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nails, A Mercedes; Mullis, Ronald L; Mullis, Ann K

    2009-01-01

    The role of neighborhood and school environments in adolescent development has been explored over the years, yet few have examined these relationships with an American Indian sample. The purpose of this study was to explore the role of American Indian adolescents' sense of safety in their neighborhood and school environments and how this relates to their experience of depressive symptoms and alcohol/marijuana use. The data were drawn from a southwestern state's dataset containing survey results of adolescent well-being. Responses from a total of 148 American Indian 8th, 10th, and 12th grade students were analyzed. The findings indicated that neighborhood safety, especially the presence of crime and drug sales, was the strongest predictor of depressive symptoms and alcohol/marijuana use. Implications for future research and work with this population are discussed.

  16. Heterogeneous catalytic process for alcohol fuels from syngas. Sixteenth quarterly technical progress report, October--December, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-07-01

    The principal objectives of this project are to discover and evaluate novel heterogeneous catalysts for conversion of syngas to oxygenates having use as fuel enhancers, to explore novel reactor and process concepts applicable in this process, and to develop the best total process for converting syngas to liquid fuels. Among our previous best catalysts was the family consisting of potassium-promoted Pd on a Zn/Cr spinel oxide prepared via controlled pH precipitation. We have now examined the effect of potassium promotion on (1) a Zn/Cr/O spinel and (2) on ZnO; these two individual components are used together to make our best support. The presence of excess zinc oxide has a beneficial effect on the performance of Zn/Cr spinel oxide catalysts (1) promoted with cesium and (2) promoted with both cesium and palladium. The presence of the excess zinc oxide results in a more active and selective catalyst to total alcohols and increased isobutanol rates, demonstrating the effectiveness of zinc oxide addition to the spinel support. Potassium addition promotes higher alcohol synthesis on a commercial Zn/Cr spinel oxide methanol synthesis catalyst. Incremental potassium levels (1, 3 and 5 wt%) result in an increase in total alcohol selectivity, while isobutanol. rates are maximized at 1 wt% potassium. The commercial catalyst promoted with potassium is slightly less active for isobutanol synthesis and less selective to total alcohols when compared with our spinel formulation promoted with potassium and containing excess ZnO. Surface science studies have shown that the surface of these catalysts is predominately ZnO and alkali. With use, the ZnO is reduced to Zn metal, and Cr migrates to the surface giving increased surface acidity. In addition tends to lower the overall acidity. Hydrogen can be observed on the catalyst surface by surface science studies. Hydrogen on the active catalyst is associated with the palladium.

  17. Alcohol and cannabis use in Norway during the period 1995-2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elin K. Bye

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The description of alcohol and cannabis use in the period 1995-2009 is based on data from five sets of surveys. Sales figures for alcohol consumption are also included. Alcohol sales in Norway increased by 40 per cent during the period 1995-2009, from 4.8 to 6.7 litres of pure alcohol per inhabitant aged 15 years and over. This increase largely reflects a sharp increase in the sale of wine. Also when taking into account unregistered alcohol consumption, the consumption of alcohol increased considerably in Norway during the period in question. The increased alcohol consumption seems to be due to an increase in moderate alcohol consumers and/or an increase in situations involving moderate alcohol consumption. Population surveys indicate that there has been an increase in the proportion who drink alcohol and in the proportion of people who drink relatively often, but the increased drinking frequency is not accompanied by a corresponding increase in the proportion who often drink until they are intoxicated. On average, men drink more often and greater quantities than women, with the exception of wine. The proportion who drink alcohol at least twice a month or more has increased in all age groups, and the increase has been particularly marked among those above the age of 50. Despite a reduction in consumption among young people in recent years, consumption and drinking until intoxicated are still widespread. Young girls drink alcohol as often as boys and are equally often intoxicated. As for cannabis, there was an increase in the age group 15-20 years in the second half of the 1990s, followed by a decrease and stagnation since the turn of the millennium. There was little or no difference between boys and girls in the 15-20 age group in the use of cannabis, while among young adults, far more men than women reported that they had used cannabis

  18. Adult Separation Anxiety and TCI-R Personality Dimensions in Patients with Anxiety, Alcohol Use, and Gambling: A Preliminary Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gino Pozzi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Nowadays, adult separation anxiety disorder (ASAD is an established diagnostic category but is little investigated in subjects with addictive behaviours. Objective. To assess the presence of ASAD among patients with addictive disorders in comparison with anxiety patients and measure the personality correlates in all these groups. Methods. 103 outpatients, meeting DSM-IV-TR criteria for anxiety disorders (38 patients, alcohol dependence (30 patients, or pathological gambling (35 patients, were assessed by the Structured Clinical Interview for Separation Anxiety Symptoms (SCI-SAS and the Adult Separation Anxiety Checklist (ASA-27 for separation anxiety and by the Temperament and Character Inventory-Revised (TCI-R for personality characteristics. Results. ASAD is detected in 34.2% of anxiety patients, 13.3% of alcoholics, and 11.4% of gamblers. Separation anxiety scores correlate positively with harm avoidance and negatively with self-directedness in all groups; further correlations are seen among addictive patients only, that is, self-transcendence for gamblers and cooperativeness for both alcoholics and gamblers. Conclusions. The prevalence of ASAD is lower among addictive patients than in those with anxiety disorders; correlations are found between separation anxiety and specific TCI-R dimensions, with some matching across the three diagnostic groups.

  19. High octane ethers from synthesis gas-derived alcohols. Final technical report, September 25, 1990--December 24, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klier, K.; Herman, R.G.

    1994-05-01

    The objective of the research was to develop the methodology for the catalytic synthesis of ethers, primarily methyl isobutyl ether (MIBE) and methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE), directly from alcohol mixtures that are rich in methanol and 2-methyl-1-propanol (isobutanol). The overall scheme involves gasification of coal, purification and shifting of the synthesis gas, higher alcohol synthesis, and direct synthesis of ethers. The last stage of the synthesis involves direct coupling of synthesis gas-derived methanol and isobutanol that has been previously demonstrated by us to occur over superacid catalysts to yield MIBE and smaller amounts of MTBE at moderate pressures and a mixture of methanol and isobutene at low pressures. A wide range of organic resin catalysts and inorganic oxide and zeolite catalysts have been investigated for activity and selectivity in directly coupling alcohols, principally methanol and isobutanol, to form ethers and in the dehydration of isobutanol to isobutene in the presence of methanol. All of these catalysts are strong acids, and it was found that the organic and inorganic catalysts operate in different, but overlapping, temperature ranges, i.e. mainly 60--120{degrees}C for the organic resins and 90--175{degrees}C for the inorganic catalysts. For both types of catalysts, the presence of strong acid centers is required for catalytic activity, as was demonstrated by lack of activity of fully K{sup +} ion exchanged Nafion resin and zirconia prior to being sulfated by treatment with sulfuric acid.

  20. Methotrexate Hepatotoxicity in Psoriatics: Report of 104 Patients from Nova Scotia, with Analysis of Risks from Obesity, Diabetes and Alcohol Consumption During Long Term Follow-Up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DA Malatjalian

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND DESIGN: Methotrexate (MTX hepatotoxicity in psoriatic patients is well recognized, but there are discrepancies in the reported incidence and associated risk factors. This retrospective study describes 104 Nova Scotian patients with psoriasis seen between 1979 and 1990. Patients received MTX over one to 11 years (mean 3.38, with baseline and annual follow-up liver biopsies. Clinical data were obtained by chart review. Statistical analysis evaluated the risks associated with obesity, diabetes, alcohol consumption and duration of therapy, with the histological grade of liver biopsies.

  1. Fetal alcohol-spectrum disorders: identifying at-risk mothers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montag AC

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Annika C Montag Department of Pediatrics, Division of Dysmorphology and Teratology, University of California San Diego, San Diego, CA, USA Abstract: Fetal alcohol-spectrum disorders (FASDs are a collection of physical and neuro­behavioral disabilities caused by prenatal exposure to alcohol. To prevent or mitigate the costly effects of FASD, we must identify mothers at risk for having a child with FASD, so that we may reach them with interventions. Identifying mothers at risk is beneficial at all time points, whether prior to pregnancy, during pregnancy, or following the birth of the child. In this review, three approaches to identifying mothers at risk are explored: using characteristics of the mother and her pregnancy, using laboratory biomarkers, and using self-report assessment of alcohol-consumption risk. At present, all approaches have serious limitations. Research is needed to improve the sensitivity and specificity of biomarkers and screening instruments, and to link them to outcomes as opposed to exposure. Universal self-report screening of all women of childbearing potential should ideally be incorporated into routine obstetric and gynecologic care, followed by brief interventions, including education and personalized feedback for all who consume alcohol, and referral to treatment as indicated. Effective biomarkers or combinations of biomarkers may be used during pregnancy and at birth to determine maternal and fetal alcohol exposure. The combination of self-report and biomarker screening may help identify a greater proportion of women at risk for having a child with FASD, allowing them to access information and treatment, and empowering them to make decisions that benefit their children. Keywords: fetal alcohol-spectrum disorder (FASD, alcohol, pregnancy, screening, biomarkers, SBIRT

  2. The Effects of as-Needed Nalmefene on Patient-Reported Outcomes and Quality of Life in Relation to a Reduction in Alcohol Consumption in Alcohol-Dependent Patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clément François

    Full Text Available The objective of this article was to investigate the effect of as-needed nalmefene on health-related quality of life (HRQoL in patients with alcohol dependence, and to relate changes in drinking behavior and status to HRQoL outcomes.This post hoc analysis was conducted on a pooled subgroup of patients with at least a high drinking risk level (men: >60 g/day; women: >40 g/day who participated in one of two randomized controlled 6-month studies, ESENSE 1 and ESENSE 2. Patients received nalmefene 18 mg or placebo on an as-needed basis, in addition to a motivational and adherence-enhancing intervention (BRENDA. At baseline and after 12 and 24 weeks questionnaires for the Medical Outcomes Study (MOS 36-item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36, European Quality of life-5 Dimensions (EQ-5D and the Drinker Inventory of Consequences (DrInC-2R were completed.The pooled population consisted of 667 patients (nalmefene: 335; placebo: 332, with no notable between-group differences in baseline patient demographics/characteristics. At week 24, nalmefene had a superior effect compared to placebo in improving SF-36 mental component summary scores (mean difference [95% CI], p-value: 3.09 [1.29, 4.89]; p=0.0008, SF-36 physical component summary scores (1.23 [0.15, 2.31]; p=0.026, EQ-5D utility index scores (0.03 [0.00, 0.06]; p=0.045, EQ-5D health state scores (3.46 [0.75, 6.17]; p=0.012, and DrInC-2R scores (-3.22 [-6.12, 0.33]; p=0.029. The improvements in SF-36 mental component summary scores at week 24, and the DrInC-2R total score change from baseline to week 24, were significantly correlated to reductions in heavy drinking days and total alcohol consumption at week 24.As-needed nalmefene significantly improved almost all patient-reported HRQoL measures included in SF-36 and EQ-5D compared with placebo. These HRQoL gains were significantly correlated to reduced drinking behavior, as determined by reductions in heavy drinking days and total alcohol consumption.

  3. Alcohol and pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drinking alcohol during pregnancy; Fetal alcohol syndrome - pregnancy; FAS - fetal alcohol syndrome ... lead to lifelong damage. DANGERS OF ALCOHOL DURING PREGNANCY Drinking a lot of alcohol during pregnancy can ...

  4. Alcohol Energy Drinks

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home / About Addiction / Alcohol / Alcohol Energy Drinks Alcohol Energy Drinks Read 28133 times font size decrease font size increase font size Print Email Alcohol energy drinks (AEDs) or Caffeinated alcoholic beverages (CABs) are premixed ...

  5. The effects of chronic alcohol consumption and exercise on the skeleton of adult male rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Adam H.; McCarty, Heidi L.; Evans, Glenda L.; Turner, Russell T.; Westerlind, Kim C.

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Lifestyle factors are known to affect skeletal development and integrity. Specifically, running has been reported to increase risk of fatigue fractures, whereas chronic alcohol consumption has been shown to reduce bone formation and bone mass. The combined effect of exercise and alcohol on the skeleton has yet to be explored, although alcohol consumption is common among certain physically active populations (e.g., military recruits, college athletes). It was hypothesized that chronic alcohol consumption would accentuate the inherent risk associated with endurance running exercise. METHODS: Six-month-old male Sprague Dawley rats were assigned to one of five groups: baseline, exercise-alcohol diet, exercise-normal diet, sham-alcohol diet, and sham-normal diet. Alcohol-fed rats (35% caloric intake) received a liquid diet ad libitum. Normal animals were pair-fed the identical diet with a maltose dextrin caloric substitute. Exercise was conducted on a motorized treadmill 5 days/wk for 16 weeks. Sham rats were placed on a stationary treadmill for matching time periods. Fluorochrome labels were administered 3 days before baseline and at 10 and 2 days before animals were killed. Heart, soleus, and rectus femoris muscles were wet weighed to assess the effects of training. Tibiae were collected for static and dynamic histomorphometric measurements on cancellous and cortical bone. RESULTS: Muscle weights were larger in the exercised rats versus the sham rats. Alcohol had no significant effect on skeletal muscle weight but did result in larger heart weights in both alcohol-treated groups. Cancellous and periosteal bone formation rates were significantly decreased in the alcohol-fed rats versus rats on the normal diet and were associated with a significant reduction in trabecular thickness in the tibial metaphysis. Cortical and cross-sectional areas were also significantly lower in the alcohol-fed groups compared with the non-alcohol-fed groups. Exercise had no

  6. The effects of chronic alcohol consumption and exercise on the skeleton of adult male rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Adam H.; McCarty, Heidi L.; Evans, Glenda L.; Turner, Russell T.; Westerlind, Kim C.

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Lifestyle factors are known to affect skeletal development and integrity. Specifically, running has been reported to increase risk of fatigue fractures, whereas chronic alcohol consumption has been shown to reduce bone formation and bone mass. The combined effect of exercise and alcohol on the skeleton has yet to be explored, although alcohol consumption is common among certain physically active populations (e.g., military recruits, college athletes). It was hypothesized that chronic alcohol consumption would accentuate the inherent risk associated with endurance running exercise. METHODS: Six-month-old male Sprague Dawley rats were assigned to one of five groups: baseline, exercise-alcohol diet, exercise-normal diet, sham-alcohol diet, and sham-normal diet. Alcohol-fed rats (35% caloric intake) received a liquid diet ad libitum. Normal animals were pair-fed the identical diet with a maltose dextrin caloric substitute. Exercise was conducted on a motorized treadmill 5 days/wk for 16 weeks. Sham rats were placed on a stationary treadmill for matching time periods. Fluorochrome labels were administered 3 days before baseline and at 10 and 2 days before animals were killed. Heart, soleus, and rectus femoris muscles were wet weighed to assess the effects of training. Tibiae were collected for static and dynamic histomorphometric measurements on cancellous and cortical bone. RESULTS: Muscle weights were larger in the exercised rats versus the sham rats. Alcohol had no significant effect on skeletal muscle weight but did result in larger heart weights in both alcohol-treated groups. Cancellous and periosteal bone formation rates were significantly decreased in the alcohol-fed rats versus rats on the normal diet and were associated with a significant reduction in trabecular thickness in the tibial metaphysis. Cortical and cross-sectional areas were also significantly lower in the alcohol-fed groups compared with the non-alcohol-fed groups. Exercise had no

  7. Should we train alcohol-dependent patients to avoid alcohol?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.W. Wiers; T.E. Gladwin; M. Rinck

    2013-01-01

    Spruyt et al. (2013) report an interesting study in which they compared an alcohol approach-bias, as measured with the Relevant-feature Stimulus Response Compatibility task (R-SRC) in 40 abstaining alcohol-dependent patients and 40 non-dependent controls. While controls had an approach-bias for alco

  8. Greater trochanter apophysitis in the adolescent athlete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Simon W; Safran, Marc R

    2015-05-01

    Lower limb traction apophysitis is common in young athletes, occurring at sites such as the tibial tubercle (Osgood-Schlatter disease) and distal patella (Sinding-Larsen-Johansson disease). Around the hip, iliac apophysitis is well recognized, but no cases of greater trochanter apophysitis have previously been reported. We describe the case of a 15-year-old male basketball player with a 2-month history of the right hip pain and significant functional limitation. X-rays revealed widening of the greater trochanter apophysis with subchondral sclerosis, consistent with a diagnosis of traction apophysitis. The patient was treated with a period of relative rest and anti-inflammatory medication. He gradually returned to full athletic activity, including basketball, without recurrence of pain or limitation. We describe the first reported case of traction apophysitis of the greater trochanter. The unique muscular anatomy of this apophysis with balanced forces explains the rarity of this condition. If encountered, rest and activity modification is the recommended treatment.

  9. Heterogeneous catalytic process for alcohol fuels from syngas. Fifteenth quarterly technical progress report, July--September 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-31

    The principal objectives of this project are to discover and evaluate novel heterogeneous catalysts for conversion of syngas to oxygenates having use as fuel enhancers, to explore novel reactor and process concepts applicable in this process, and to develop the best total process for converting syngas to liquid fuels. The previous best catalysts consisted of potassium-promoted Pd on a Zn/Cr spinel oxide prepared via controlled pH precipitation. The authors have now examined the effect of cesium addition to the Zn/Cr spinel oxide support. Surprisingly, cesium levels required for optimum performance are similar to those for potassium on a wt% basis. The addition of 3 wt% cesium gives isobutanol rates > 170 g/kg-hr at 440 C and 1,500 psi with selectivity to total alcohols of 77% and with a methanol/isobutanol mole ratio of 1.4: this performance is as good as their best Pd/K catalyst. The addition of both cesium and palladium to a Zn/Cr spinel oxide support gives further performance improvements. The 5 wt% cesium, 5.9 wt% Pd formulation gives isobutanol rates > 150 g/kg-hr at 440 C and only 1,000 psi with a selectivity to total alcohols of 88% and with a methanol/isobutanol mole ratio of 0.58: this is their best overall performance to date. The addition of both cesium and palladium to a Zn/Cr/Mn spinel oxide support that contains excess Zn has also been examined. This spinel was the support used in the synthesis of 10-DAN-54, the benchmark catalyst. Formulations made on this support show a lower overall total alcohol rate than those using the spinel without Mn present, and require less cesium for optimal performance.

  10. Alcohol, Athletic Performance and Recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Cameron-Smith

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol consumption within elite sport has been continually reported both anecdotally within the media and quantitatively in the literature. The detrimental effects of alcohol on human physiology have been well documented, adversely influencing neural function, metabolism, cardiovascular physiology, thermoregulation and skeletal muscle myopathy. Remarkably, the downstream effects of alcohol consumption on exercise performance and recovery, has received less attention and as such is not well understood. The focus of this review is to identify the acute effects of alcohol on exercise performance and give a brief insight into explanatory factors.

  11. Heterogeneous catalytic process for alcohol fuels from syngas. Fourteenth quarterly technical progress report, April--June 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-31

    The project objectives are: (1) To discover, study, and evaluate novel heterogeneous catalytic systems for the production of oxygenated fuel enhancers from synthesis gas. In particular, novel heterogeneous catalysts will be studied and optimized for the production of: (a) C{sub 1}-C{sub 5} alcohols using conventional methanol synthesis conditions, and (b) methanol and isobutanol mixtures which may be used for the downstream synthesis of MTBE or related oxygenates. (2) To explore, analytically and on the bench scale, novel reactor and process concepts for use in converting syngas to liquid fuel products. (3) To develop on the bench scale the best combination of chemistry, catalyst, reactor, and total process configuration to achieve the minimum product cost for the conversion of syngas to liquid products. The authors have prepared a comparative Zn/Cr spinel oxide support that contains excess ZnO and have looked at the catalytic performance of (a) the bare support, (b) a potassium traverse on the bare support to determine the effect of alkali addition in the absence of Pd and (c) a potassium traverse on the support impregnated with 6 wt% Pd. The bare support is an inefficient methanol catalyst. Alkali addition results in an increase in selectivity to total alcohols vs. the bare support and a dramatic increase higher alcohol synthesis. Pd addition results in further improvements in performance. Selectivities increase with K loading. The 5 wt% K, 5.9 wt% Pd catalyst produces > 100 g/kg-hr of isobutanol at 440 C and 1,000 psi, with 85% selectivity to total alcohols and with a methanol/isobutanol mole ratio of <2. The authors intend to continue formulation screening using K/Pd formulations on ZnO and ZnCr{sub 2}O{sub 4} prepared conventionally and via controlled pH precipitation. They will also examine the effect of Cs in place of K as the alkali promoter and the use of Rh instead of Pd as a promoter.

  12. Problematic alcohol use among individuals with HIV: relations with everyday memory functioning and HIV symptom severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinz, Adrienne J; Fogler, Kethera A; Newcomb, Michael E; Trafton, Jodie A; Bonn-Miller, Marcel O

    2014-07-01

    Problematic alcohol use has been shown to negatively impact cognitive functions germane to achieving optimal HIV health outcomes. The present study, a secondary data analysis, examined the impact of problematic alcohol use on aspects of everyday memory functioning in a sample of 172 HIV-infected individuals (22 % female; Mage = 48.37 years, SD = 8.64; 39 % Black/non-Hispanic). Additionally, we tested whether self-reported memory functioning explained the relation between problematic alcohol use and HIV symptom severity. Results indicated that problematic patterns of alcohol use were associated with lower total memory functioning, retrieval (e.g., recall-difficulty) and memory for activity (e.g., what you did yesterday) and greater HIV symptom severity. Memory functioning mediated the relation between problematic alcohol use and HIV symptom severity. However, the direction of this relation was unclear as HIV symptom severity also mediated the relation between problematic alcohol use and memory functioning. Findings highlight the importance of integrated care for HIV and alcohol use disorders and suggest that routine alcohol and cognitive screenings may bolster health outcomes among this vulnerable population.

  13. Acute alcohol consumption and motivation to reduce drinking among injured patients in a Swedish emergency department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinks, Anna; Festin, Karin; Bendtsen, Preben; Cherpitel, Cheryl J; Nilsen, Per

    2012-10-01

    Injuries constitute a major public health problem. Millions of people are injured each year, and acute drinking is a well-known risk factor for injuries. Research suggests that acknowledgment of alcohol as a factor in an injury enhances willingness to change drinking behavior, possibly because the patient becomes aware of the negative consequences of their drinking. This study aims to investigate the prevalence of acute alcohol consumption (drinking before the event) among injury patients and to examine the importance of factors potentially associated with motivation to reduce alcohol consumption among these patients. All patients aged 18-69 years were requested to answer alcohol-related questions on a touchscreen computer. Fifteen percent of injured patients were categorized as acute drinkers, and of these, 64% reported that their injury was connected to alcohol. There were significant differences for all sociodemographic and drinking characteristics between acute drinkers and nonacute drinkers. Acute drinkers were categorized as risky drinkers to a much higher extent than nonacute drinkers. Acute drinkers had a considerably higher average weekly alcohol consumption and engaged far more frequently in heavy episodic drinking than nonacute drinkers. Acute drinkers were motivated to reduce their alcohol intake to a greater extent than nonacute drinkers; 51% were in the action, preparation, and contemplation stages, compared with 19% of the nonacute drinkers. Acute drinkers had considerably more detrimental alcohol consumption than nonacute drinkers, and the acute drinkers were more motivated to reduce their drinking than the nonacute drinkers.

  14. Job strain and alcohol intake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heikkilä, Katriina; Nyberg, Solja T; Fransson, Eleonor I

    2012-01-01

    The relationship between work-related stress and alcohol intake is uncertain. In order to add to the thus far inconsistent evidence from relatively small studies, we conducted individual-participant meta-analyses of the association between work-related stress (operationalised as self-reported job...... strain) and alcohol intake....

  15. Greater Trochanter Tuberculosis : MRI Findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    My Youssef Alaoui Lamrani

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis has been reported in almost all bones of body. The great trochanter tuberculosis (GTT installation is insidious and clinical symptoms are often vague with moderate painful swelling and stiffness. GTT is about 0,2 to 2% of all osteo-articular tuberculosis, occurring most commonly by hematogenous seeding secondary to primary focus elsewhere, more commonly in the lungs. Isolated GTT is unusual and thus its awareness is slow and diagnosis is often delayed.

  16. Social disadvantage, stress, and alcohol use among black, Hispanic, and white Americans: findings from the 2005 U.S. National Alcohol Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulia, Nina; Ye, Yu; Zemore, Sarah E; Greenfield, Thomas K

    2008-11-01

    Despite growing evidence of the adverse health effects of social disadvantage on minority populations, few studies have investigated whether such effects extend to alcohol problems. This study examines social disadvantage as a source of stress and analyzes its association with alcohol use and problems in the three largest racial/ethnic groups in the United States. Data on white, black, and Hispanic Americans (n = 6,631) were obtained from the 2005 U.S. National Alcohol Survey, a nationally representative telephone-based survey of adults ages 18 and older. Social disadvantage was measured by poverty level, frequency of unfair treatment, racial/ethnic stigma consciousness, and cumulative disadvantage. Outcomes included drinking status, at-risk drinking, and problem drinking. Blacks and Hispanics reported greater exposure to social disadvantage than whites, including greater poverty, unfair treatment, racial/ethnic stigma, and cumulative disadvantage. In all three racial/ethnic groups, exposure to disadvantage was associated with problem drinking. Frequent unfair treatment, high racial stigma (among minorities), and multiple sources of extreme disadvantage corresponded to a twofold to sixfold greater risk of alcohol problems, partially explained by psychological distress. These results are consistent with other studies of stress and adverse health consequences associated with social disadvantage. Although there is a clear disparity in exposure to such hardship, experiences of disadvantage appear to have similar effects on problem drinking among both racial/ethnic minorities and whites. Future research should attempt to assess causal directions in the relationships among social and economic hardship, stress, and alcohol problems.

  17. The role of early life experience and species differences in alcohol intake in microtine rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anacker, Allison M J; Ahern, Todd H; Young, Larry J; Ryabinin, Andrey E

    2012-01-01

    Social relationships have important effects on alcohol drinking. There are conflicting reports, however, about whether early-life family structure plays an important role in moderating alcohol use in humans. We have previously modeled social facilitation of alcohol drinking in peers in socially monogamous prairie voles. We have also modeled the effects of family structure on the development of adult social and emotional behaviors. Here we assessed whether alcohol intake would differ in prairie voles reared by both parents compared to those reared by a single mother. We also assessed whether meadow voles, a closely related species that do not form lasting reproductive partnerships, would differ in alcohol drinking or in the effect of social influence on drinking. Prairie voles were reared either bi-parentally (BP) or by a single mother (SM). BP- and SM-reared adult prairie voles and BP-reared adult meadow voles were given limited access to a choice between alcohol (10%) and water over four days and assessed for drinking behavior in social and non-social drinking environments. While alcohol preference was not different between species, meadow voles drank significantly lower doses than prairie voles. Meadow voles also had significantly higher blood ethanol concentrations than prairie voles after receiving the same dose, suggesting differences in ethanol metabolism. Both species, regardless of rearing condition, consumed more alcohol in the social drinking condition than the non-social condition. Early life family structure did not significantly affect any measure. Greater drinking in the social condition indicates that alcohol intake is influenced similarly in both species by the presence of a peer. While the ability of prairie voles to model humans may be limited, the lack of differences in alcohol drinking in BP- and SM-reared prairie voles lends biological support to human studies demonstrating no effect of single-parenting on alcohol abuse.

  18. Industry self-regulation of alcohol marketing: a systematic review of content and exposure research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noel, Jonathan K; Babor, Thomas F; Robaina, Katherine

    2017-01-01

    With governments relying increasingly upon the alcohol industry's self-regulated marketing codes to restrict alcohol marketing activity, there is a need to summarize the findings of research relevant to alcohol marketing controls. This paper provides a systematic review of studies investigating the content of, and exposure to, alcohol marketing in relation to self-regulated guidelines. Peer-reviewed papers were identified through four literature search engines: SCOPUS, Web of Science, PubMed and PsychINFO. Non-peer-reviewed reports produced by public health agencies, alcohol research centers, non-governmental organizations and government research centers were also identified. Ninety-six publications met the inclusion criteria. Of the 19 studies evaluating a specific marketing code and 25 content analysis studies reviewed, all detected content that could be considered potentially harmful to children and adolescents, including themes that appeal strongly to young men. Of the 57 studies of alcohol advertising exposure, high levels of youth exposure and high awareness of alcohol advertising were found for television, radio, print, digital and outdoor advertisements. Youth exposure to alcohol advertising has increased over time, even as greater compliance with exposure thresholds has been documented. Violations of the content guidelines within self-regulated alcohol marketing codes are highly prevalent in certain media. Exposure to alcohol marketing, particularly among youth, is also prevalent. Taken together, the findings suggest that the current self-regulatory systems that govern alcohol marketing practices are not meeting their intended goal of protecting vulnerable populations. © 2016 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  19. The role of early life experience and species differences in alcohol intake in microtine rodents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allison M J Anacker

    Full Text Available Social relationships have important effects on alcohol drinking. There are conflicting reports, however, about whether early-life family structure plays an important role in moderating alcohol use in humans. We have previously modeled social facilitation of alcohol drinking in peers in socially monogamous prairie voles. We have also modeled the effects of family structure on the development of adult social and emotional behaviors. Here we assessed whether alcohol intake would differ in prairie voles reared by both parents compared to those reared by a single mother. We also assessed whether meadow voles, a closely related species that do not form lasting reproductive partnerships, would differ in alcohol drinking or in the effect of social influence on drinking. Prairie voles were reared either bi-parentally (BP or by a single mother (SM. BP- and SM-reared adult prairie voles and BP-reared adult meadow voles were given limited access to a choice between alcohol (10% and water over four days and assessed for drinking behavior in social and non-social drinking environments. While alcohol preference was not different between species, meadow voles drank significantly lower doses than prairie voles. Meadow voles also had significantly higher blood ethanol concentrations than prairie voles after receiving the same dose, suggesting differences in ethanol metabolism. Both species, regardless of rearing condition, consumed more alcohol in the social drinking condition than the non-social condition. Early life family structure did not significantly affect any measure. Greater drinking in the social condition indicates that alcohol intake is influenced similarly in both species by the presence of a peer. While the ability of prairie voles to model humans may be limited, the lack of differences in alcohol drinking in BP- and SM-reared prairie voles lends biological support to human studies demonstrating no effect of single-parenting on alcohol abuse.

  20. Advising depression patients to reduce alcohol and drug use: factors associated with provider intervention in outpatient psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satre, Derek D; Leibowitz, Amy S; Mertens, Jennifer R; Weisner, Constance

    2014-01-01

    Mental health clinicians have an important opportunity to help depression patients reduce co-occurring alcohol and drug use. This study examined demographic and clinical patient characteristics and service factors associated with receiving a recommendation to reduce alcohol and drug use from providers in a university-based outpatient psychiatry clinic. The sample consisted of 97 participants ages 18 and older who reported hazardous drinking (≥3 drinks/occasion), illegal drug use (primarily cannabis) or misuse of prescription drugs, and who scored ≥15 on the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II). Participants were interviewed at intake and 6 months. At 6-month telephone interview, 30% of participants reported that a clinic provider had recommended that they reduce alcohol or drug use. In logistic regression, factors associated with receiving advice to reduce use included greater number of drinks consumed in the 30 days prior to intake (p = .035); and greater depression severity on the BDI-II (p = .096) and hazardous drinking at 6 months (p = .05). While participants with greater alcohol intake and depression symptom severity were more likely to receive advice to reduce use, the low overall rate of recommendation to reduce use highlights the need to improve alcohol and drug use intervention among depression patients, and potentially to address alcohol and drug training and treatment implementation issues among mental health providers. © American Academy of Addiction Psychiatry.

  1. Stress, religiosity, and abstinence from alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, N

    1991-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to test a conceptual model that attempts to identify psychosocial factors associated with the avoidance of alcohol in later life. This model is based on the life stress literature. Although most researchers maintain that life events are associated with greater alcohol consumption, a basic premise of this study is that certain stressors may be related to abstinence from alcohol in later life. In examining this relationship, the effects of a potentially important coping resource (religiosity) were also considered. Findings from a nationwide survey suggest that although greater health problems are associated with a greater probability that elderly people will abstain from using alcohol, financial difficulties had the opposite effect and were instead related to a lesser probability that older adults would avoid drinking alcoholic beverages. Finally, gender and race were found to exert important effects throughout the model.

  2. Alcohol effects on simulated driving performance and self-perceptions of impairment in DUI offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Dyke, Nicholas; Fillmore, Mark T

    2014-12-01

    Drivers with a history of driving under the influence (DUI) of alcohol self-report heightened impulsivity and display reckless driving behaviors as indicated by increased rates of vehicle crashes, moving violations, and traffic tickets. Such poor behavioral self-regulation could also increase sensitivity to the disruptive effects of alcohol on driving performance. The present study examined the degree to which DUI drivers display an increased sensitivity to the acute impairing effects of alcohol on simulated driving performance and overestimate their driving fitness following alcohol consumption. Adult drivers with a history of DUI and a demographically matched group of drivers with no history of DUI (controls) were tested following a 0.65 g/kg alcohol and a placebo. Results indicated that alcohol impaired several measures of driving performance, and there was no difference between DUI offenders and controls in these impairments. However, following alcohol, DUI drivers self-reported a greater ability and willingness to drive compared with controls. These findings indicate that drivers with a history of DUI might perceive themselves as more fit to drive after drinking, which could play an important role in their decisions to drink and drive.

  3. Effects of consuming alcohol mixed with energy drinks versus consuming alcohol only on overall alcohol consumption and negative alcohol-related consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Haan, Lydia; de Haan, Hein A; van der Palen, Job; Olivier, Berend; Verster, Joris C

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine differences in alcohol consumption and its consequences when consumed alone and when mixed with energy drinks. A survey was conducted among Dutch students at Utrecht University and the College of Utrecht. We collected data on alcohol consumption and alcohol-related consequences of alcohol consumed alone and/or alcohol mixed with energy drinks (AMED). The data were analyzed using a retrospective within-subject design, comparing occasions when subjects consumed AMED with those when they consumed alcohol only in the past 30 days. A representative sample of 6002 students completed the survey, including 1239 who consumed AMED. Compared with consuming alcohol only, when consuming AMED, students consumed significantly fewer alcoholic drinks on an average drinking day (6.0 versus 5.4, respectively), and reported significantly fewer drinking days in the previous month (9.2 versus 1.4), significantly fewer days being drunk (1.9 versus 0.5), and significantly fewer occasions of consuming more than four (female)/five (male) alcoholic drinks (4.7 versus 0.9). The maximum number of mixed alcoholic drinks (4.5) in the previous month was significantly lower when compared with occasions when they consumed alcohol only (10.7). Accordingly, the mean duration of a drinking session was significantly shorter when mixing alcoholic drinks (4.0 versus 6.0 hours). Finally, when consuming AMED, significantly fewer alcohol-related consequences were reported (2.6) for the previous year, including driving a car while intoxicated, taking foolish risks, or being injured or hurt, as compared with alcohol-related consequences when consuming alcohol only (4.9). Mixing alcohol with energy drinks decreases overall alcohol consumption, and decreases the likelihood of experiencing negative alcohol-related consequences.

  4. Predictors of Alcohol Consumption by University Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schall, Matthew; And Others

    1991-01-01

    College dormitory residents (n=160) were surveyed concerning their alcohol use, social influences, attitudes and beliefs about alcohol, personality characteristics, and demographic information. Subjects were reinterviewed two years later. Regression equations indicated utility of several variables in predicting self-reports of alcohol consumption,…

  5. Relationship of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptom severity with severity of alcohol-related problems in a sample of inpatients with alcohol use disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bozkurt M

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Muge Bozkurt,1 Cuneyt Evren,1 Gokhan Umut,1 Bilge Evren2 1Research, Treatment and Training Center for Alcohol and Substance Dependence, Bakirkoy Prof Dr Mazhar Osman Training and Research Hospital for Psychiatry, Neurology and Neurosurgery, 2Department of Psychiatry, Baltalimani State Hospital for Muskuloskeletal Disorders, Istanbul, Turkey Purpose: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD has been shown to be related to a higher risk of developing psychiatric problems such as depressive disorders, substance use disorder, and impulsivity. Adults who have comorbid ADHD and alcohol use disorder (AUD are at greater risk of negative outcomes. Thus, it is important to evaluate the relationship of ADHD symptoms and the severity of alcohol-related problems among patients with AUD. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of ADHD symptoms on severity of alcohol-related problems, while controlling the effects of depression and impulsivity in a sample of inpatients with AUD. Patients and methods: Participants (n=190 were evaluated with the Beck Depression Inventory, the Short Form Barratt Impulsiveness Scale, the Michigan Alcohol Screening Test, and the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale. Results: Severity of the scale scores was positively correlated with each other. Although severity of depression and impulsivity (particularly non-planning impulsivity predicted the severity of alcohol-related problems in a linear regression model, when severity of ADHD symptoms was included in the analysis, the inattentive subscale score, in particular, predicted the severity of alcohol-related problems together with non-planning impulsivity, whereas depression was no longer a predictor. Conclusion: These findings suggest that, together with non-planning impulsivity, symptoms of ADHD (particularly inattentive factor are an important factor that predict alcohol-related problems, while controlling the severity of depressive symptoms among inpatients

  6. Explaining Counterfeit Alcohol Purchases in Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotelnikova, Zoya

    2017-04-01

    Alcohol is a common target of counterfeiting in Russia. Counterfeit alcohol is defined here as the manufacture, distribution, unauthorized placement (forgery) of protected commodity trademarks, and infringement of the exclusive rights of the registered trademark holders of alcoholic beverages. It is often argued that the expansion of the counterfeit product market is due to the steady demand of economically disadvantaged people for low-priced goods. The situation becomes more complicated once deceptive and nondeceptive forms of counterfeiting are taken into account. This study aimed to identify markers of risky behavior associated with the purchase of counterfeit alcohol in Russia. The analysis relied on consumer self-reports of alcohol use and purchase collected nationwide by the Russia Longitudinal Monitoring Survey (RLMS-HSE) in 2012 to 2014. I used a generalized linear mixed-model logistic regression to identify predictors of risky behavior by consumers who purchased counterfeit alcohol, either knowingly or unknowingly, during the 30 days preceding the survey. Purchases of counterfeit alcohol declined slightly from 2012 to 2014, mainly due to a decrease in consumers mistakenly purchasing counterfeit products. Predictors of counterfeit alcohol purchases differed between consumers who knowingly and unknowingly purchased counterfeit products. Nondeceptive purchase of counterfeit alcohol was related primarily to an indifference to alcohol brands. Consumers with social networks that include drinkers of nonbeverage alcohol and producers of homemade alcohol were highly likely to consume counterfeit alcohol deliberately. Problem drinking was significantly associated with a higher risk of both deceptive and nondeceptive purchases of counterfeit alcohol. Poverty largely contributed to nondeceptive counterfeiting. The literature has overestimated the impact of low prices on counterfeit alcohol consumption. Problem drinking and membership in social networks of consumers

  7. Expectancy models of alcohol use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stacy, A W; Widaman, K F; Marlatt, G A

    1990-05-01

    The primary goal of the present article is to compare expectancy models with competing attitude models of alcohol use. First, several methodological issues in expectancy research were addressed, to more adequately compare the theoretical models. Study 1 examined the effect of possible self-report biases on associations among expectancy constructs and alcohol use. In Studies 2 and 3, the basic distinction between general factors of positive and negative alcohol expectancies was investigated in both cross-sectional and prospective models. Alternative predictions that were based on competing expectancy and attitude theories were evaluated primarily in Study 3. Results from these studies supported the validity of the expectancy constructs and the proposed distinctions among expectancy and attitude constructs-in terms of strong discriminant validity, absence of self-report bias, and differential prediction of alcohol use. Furthermore, the findings favored certain expectancy models over alternative attitude models of alcohol use, reaffirming the usefulness of the expectancy framework.

  8. Selected Findings on the Impact of the CASPAR Alcohol Education Program on Teacher Training and Curriculum Implementation. Evaluation Report No. 8.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carifio, James; And Others

    The Cambridge and Somerville (Massachusetts) Program for Alcoholism Rehabilitation (CASPAR) was instituted to train teachers and social service workers in implementing alcohol education programs; to train selected high school students as peer leaders; and to promote community awareness of alcohol-related problems. A sequential cycle evaluation…

  9. Asr1, an alcohol-responsive factor of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, is dispensable for alcoholic fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izawa, Shingo; Ikeda, Kayo; Kita, Takeomi; Inoue, Yoshiharu

    2006-09-01

    Yeast Asr1 is the first reported protein whose intracellular distribution changes specifically in response to alcohol (Betz et al. (2004) J Biol Chem 279:28174-28181). It was reported that Asr1 is required for tolerance to alcohol and plays an important role in the alcohol stress response. Therefore, Asr1 is of interest to brewers and winegrowers attempting to improve the techniques of alcoholic fermentation. We verified the importance of Asr1 in the alcohol stress response during alcoholic fermentation. Although we reconfirmed the alcohol-responsive changes in the intracellular localization of Asr1, we could not detect the effects of Asr1-deficiency on Japanese sake brewing or winemaking. In addition, we could not reconfirm the hypersensitivity of Asr1-deficient mutants to alcohol and sodium dodecyl sulfate. Instead, we conclude that Asr1 is not required and nor important for tolerance to alcohol stress.

  10. Differences in Alcohol Use and Alcohol-Related Problems between Transgender- and Nontransgender-identified Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulter, Robert W.S.; Blosnich, John R.; Bukowski, Leigh A.; Herrick, A. L.; Siconolfi, Daniel E.; Stall, Ron D.

    2015-01-01

    Background Little is known about differences in alcohol use and alcohol-related problems between transgender- and nontransgender-identified populations. Using data from a large-scale health survey, we compare the drinking patterns and prevalence of alcohol-related problems of transgender-identified individuals to nontransgender-identified males and females. For transgender-identified people, we examine how various forms of victimization relate to heavy episodic drinking (HED). Methods Cross-sectional surveys were completed by 75,192 students aged 18–29 years attending 120 post-secondary educational institutions in the United States from 2011–2013. Self-reported measures included alcohol use, alcohol-related problems, victimization, and sociodemographics, including 3 gender-identity groups: transgender-identified individuals; nontransgender-identified males; and nontransgender-identified females. Results Compared to transgender-identified individuals, nontransgender-identified males were more likely to report HED in the past 2 weeks (relative risk=1.42; p=0.006); however, nontransgender-identified males and females reported HED on fewer days than transgender-identified people (incidence-rate ratios [IRRs] ranged from 0.28–0.43; p-values<0.001). Compared to transgender-identified people, nontransgender-identified males and females had lower odds of past-year alcohol-related sexual assault and suicidal ideation (odds ratios ranged from 0.24–0.45; p-values<0.05). Among transgender-identified people, individuals who were sexually assaulted (IRR=3.21, p=0.011) or verbally threatened (IRR=2.42, p=0.021) in the past year had greater HED days than those who did not experience those forms of victimization. Conclusions Compared to transgender-identified people, nontransgender-identified males and females: have fewer HED occasions (despite nontransgender-identified males having greater prevalence of HED); and are at lower risk for alcohol-related sexual assaults and

  11. Alcohol withdrawal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manasco, Anton; Chang, Shannon; Larriviere, Joseph; Hamm, L Lee; Glass, Marcia

    2012-11-01

    Alcohol withdrawal is a common clinical condition that has a variety of complications and morbidities. The manifestations can range from mild agitation to withdrawal seizures and delirium tremens. The treatments for alcohol withdrawal include benzodiazepines, anticonvulsants, beta-blockers and antihypertensives. Although benzodiazepines are presently a first-line therapy, there is controversy regarding the efficacies of these medications compared with others. Treatment protocols often involve one of two contrasting approaches: symptom-triggered versus fixed-schedule dosing of benzodiazepines. We describe these protocols in our review and examine the data supporting symptom-triggered dosing as the preferred method for most patients in withdrawal.The Clinical Institute Withdrawal Assessment for Alcohol scoring system for alcohol withdrawal streamlines care, optimizes patient management, and is the best scale available for withdrawal assessment. Quality improvement implications for inpatient management of alcohol withdrawal include increasing training for signs of withdrawal and symptom recognition, adding new hospital protocols to employee curricula, and ensuring manageable patient-to-physician and patient-to-nurse ratios.

  12. Diabetes mellitus and alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Wiel, Albert

    2004-01-01

    Alcohol influences glucose metabolism in several ways in diabetic patients as well as in non-diabetic patients. Since alcohol inhibits both gluconeogenesis and glycogenolysis, its acute intake without food may provoke hypoglycaemia, especially in cases of depleted glycogen stores and in combination with sulphonylurea. Consumed with a meal including carbohydrates, it is the preferred fuel, which may initially lead to somewhat higher blood glucose levels and hence an insulin response in type 2 diabetic patients. Depending on the nature of the carbohydrates in the meal, this may be followed by reactive hypoglycaemia. Moderate consumption of alcohol is associated with a reduced risk of atherosclerotic disorders. Diabetic patients benefit from this favourable effect as much as non-diabetic patients. Apart from effects on lipid metabolism, haemostatic balance and blood pressure, alcohol improves insulin sensitivity. This improvement of insulin sensitivity may also be responsible for the lower incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus reported to be associated with light-to-moderate drinking. In case of moderate and sensible use, risks of disturbances in glycaemic control, weight and blood pressure are limited. Excessive intake of alcohol, however, may not only cause loss of metabolic control, but also annihilate the favourable effects on the cardiovascular system.

  13. Perceptions of Family Alcohol Use in a Young Adult Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serafini, Kelly A.; Stewart, David G.

    2015-01-01

    Perceptions of family alcohol use have been linked to adolescent alcohol use behaviors, yet there have been no studies that have assessed this relationship in young adults. This study examined perceptions of family alcohol use and their association with participants’ self-reported alcohol use. Participants included 171 undergraduate students (mean age = 21.67, 71.9 percent female, 75.4 percent Caucasian). Participants completed measures assessing quantity and frequency of alcohol use, negative consequences of use, and sibling relationship quality. They also reported their perceptions of alcohol use for siblings and parents during a typical week. Perceptions of siblings’ quantity of weekly alcohol use were significantly associated with participants’ quantity of alcohol use (r = .21, p = .006) and frequency of alcohol use (r = .23, p = .002). Perceptions of parental alcohol use were not related to the participants’ alcohol use patterns. PMID:26339202

  14. Teenage drinking, alcohol availability and pricing: a cross-sectional study of risk and protective factors for alcohol-related harms in school children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannon Kerin

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a lack of empirical analyses examining how alcohol consumption patterns in children relate to harms. Such intelligence is required to inform parents, children and policy relating to the provision and use of alcohol during childhood. Here, we examine drinking habits and associated harms in 15-16 year olds and explore how this can inform public health advice on child drinking. Methods An opportunistic survey of 15-16 year olds (n = 9,833 in North West England was undertaken to determine alcohol consumption patterns, drink types consumed, drinking locations, methods of access and harms encountered. Cost per unit of alcohol was estimated based on a second survey of 29 retail outlets. Associations between demographics, drinking behaviours, alcohol pricing and negative outcomes (public drinking, forgetting things after drinking, violence when drunk and alcohol-related regretted sex were examined. Results Proportions of drinkers having experienced violence when drunk (28.8%, alcohol-related regretted sex (12.5% and forgetting things (45.3%, or reporting drinking in public places (35.8%, increased with drinking frequency, binge frequency and units consumed per week. At similar levels of consumption, experiencing any negative alcohol-related outcome was lower in those whose parents provided alcohol. Drunken violence was disproportionately associated with being male and greater deprivation while regretted sex and forgetting things after drinking were associated with being female. Independent of drinking behaviours, consuming cheaper alcohol was related to experiencing violence when drunk, forgetting things after drinking and drinking in public places. Conclusion There is no safe level of alcohol consumption for 15-16 year olds. However, while abstinence removes risk of harms from personal alcohol consumption, its promotion may also push children into accessing drink outside family environments and contribute to higher risks of

  15. Teenage drinking, alcohol availability and pricing: a cross-sectional study of risk and protective factors for alcohol-related harms in school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellis, Mark A; Phillips-Howard, Penelope A; Hughes, Karen; Hughes, Sara; Cook, Penny A; Morleo, Michela; Hannon, Kerin; Smallthwaite, Linda; Jones, Lisa

    2009-10-09

    There is a lack of empirical analyses examining how alcohol consumption patterns in children relate to harms. Such intelligence is required to inform parents, children and policy relating to the provision and use of alcohol during childhood. Here, we examine drinking habits and associated harms in 15-16 year olds and explore how this can inform public health advice on child drinking. An opportunistic survey of 15-16 year olds (n = 9,833) in North West England was undertaken to determine alcohol consumption patterns, drink types consumed, drinking locations, methods of access and harms encountered. Cost per unit of alcohol was estimated based on a second survey of 29 retail outlets. Associations between demographics, drinking behaviours, alcohol pricing and negative outcomes (public drinking, forgetting things after drinking, violence when drunk and alcohol-related regretted sex) were examined. Proportions of drinkers having experienced violence when drunk (28.8%), alcohol-related regretted sex (12.5%) and forgetting things (45.3%), or reporting drinking in public places (35.8%), increased with drinking frequency, binge frequency and units consumed per week. At similar levels of consumption, experiencing any negative alcohol-related outcome was lower in those whose parents provided alcohol. Drunken violence was disproportionately associated with being male and greater deprivation while regretted sex and forgetting things after drinking were associated with being female. Independent of drinking behaviours, consuming cheaper alcohol was related to experiencing violence when drunk, forgetting things after drinking and drinking in public places. There is no safe level of alcohol consumption for 15-16 year olds. However, while abstinence removes risk of harms from personal alcohol consumption, its promotion may also push children into accessing drink outside family environments and contribute to higher risks of harm. Strategies to reduce alcohol-related harms in children

  16. CORRELATION BETWEEN SEVERITY OF ALCOHOL DEPENDENCE WITH AGE OF ONSET AND FAMILY HISTORY AMONG URBAN ALCOHOLICS: A CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hariharan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND A potentially powerful predictor of progression to alcohol-related harm is age at first use. Evidence suggests that the earlier the age at which young people take their first drink of alcohol, the greater the risk of abusive consumption and the development of alcohol related disorders. Equally important is the family history of alcoholism, which is associated with early age of drinking. AIM This study specifically aims to explore the relationship between severity of alcohol dependence with family history of alcoholism and age of onset of alcohol use. MATERIALS AND METHODS For a period of six months, we conducted a cross sectional study among 200 male subjects aged between 20–50 years who reported the alcohol and drug dependence clinic of a tertiary care hospital in Chennai, Tamilnadu State with problem drinking in the past one year. We used Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT, Clinical Institute Withdrawal Assessment for Alcohol (CIWA-AD, Severity of Alcohol Dependence Questionnaire (SADQ, Family History Method, and Schedule for Clinical Assessment in Neuropsychiatry (SCAN for assessment. 123 subjects were Family History Positive (FHP and 77 were family history negative (FHN. The data was analysed using a computerized Statistical Software programme (SPSS version 20.0 for windows. Descriptive statistics was used to describe the socio-demographic variables. Student t-test was used to compare between ordinal groups. Pearson’s correlation was used for assessing the correlation between the variables. RESULTS The mean severity scores were significantly different between the early age of onset and late age of onset groups. The mean current age in the FHP was 38.61±8.59 and 42.12±6.90 in FHN. The Mean AOO in the FHP was 22.89±4.61 and in the FHN was 26.51±26.51 and was significantly different from each other (P<0.000. The Mean SADQ score were 44.59±10.79 in FHP and 38.96±11.50 in the FHN. This was also significantly

  17. Preliminary Report on Low -alcohol Vitis Amurensis Wines%低醇山葡萄酒研制初报

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张宇; 徐志臣; 金春爱; 崔松焕

    2014-01-01

    Study on fermentation process of low -alcohol Wine Vitis amurensis wines .Zuoyouhong V .amurensis Rupr .is raw material ,and it was brewed with the traditional fermentation process .By controlling the amount of sugar ,the alcohol content of V .amurensis wines was con-trolled for 6% vol .The main factors of influencing fermentation are optimized by orthogonal test .By single factor test ,the suitable taste was as-sured .Order of major factors influencing the fermentation process are as follows fermentation temperature >addition of yeast>the initial pH of fermentation .The best combination of these factors is fermentation temperature 25℃ ,yeast vaccination of 0.2‰ and the initial pH value of 3.4 .To adjust the acidity and sugar degree by the single factor test ,the sugar degree and acidity were at 40g/L and pH of 3.4 .%研究低醇山葡萄酒的发酵工艺。以山葡萄“左优红”为原料,采用传统发酵工艺,通过控制糖的添加量使山葡萄酒的酒精度达到6% vol。采用正交试验对低醇山葡萄酒发酵工艺中的主要影响因素进行优化;通过单因子试验调配低醇山葡萄酒的适合口感;通过感官评价确定影响低醇山葡萄酒质量的主要影响因素依次为发酵温度>酵母添加量>发酵初始pH,最佳因素组合为发酵温度25℃、酵母添加量0.2‰、发酵初始pH 3.4。通过单因素试验,当糖度为40g/L、pH为3.4时,得到色、香、味俱佳的低醇山葡萄酒。

  18. Impact of a new alcohol policy on homemade alcohol consumption and sales in Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radaev, Vadim

    2015-05-01

    To describe the effects of Russian policy since 2006 affecting price and availability on the consumption of recorded and unrecorded alcohol, with specific reference to homemade alcohol, and to investigate other factors affecting homemade alcohol consumption and purchasing. Consumption and preferred beverage data were collected from RLMS-HSE nationwide panel surveys from 1994 to 2013, with a detailed analysis of 2012 data (18,221 respondents aged 16+ years). Official statistics on manufactured alcohol sales, regional price increase and real disposable income were used. Homemade distilled spirits (samogon) consumption decreased together with that of recorded and unrecorded manufactured spirits since 2000. The consumption of spirits was partially replaced by the consumption of beer and wine. These trends in alcohol consumption were interrupted in 2008-2013. The interruption was more likely affected by the economic crisis and recession than by the new alcohol policy. Social networks and availability of unrecorded alcohol were more important predictors of homemade alcohol consumption and purchasing than was a recorded alcohol price increase. Homemade alcohol consumption does not replace the declining market for recorded spirits in Russia. The effects of economic and social factors on homemade alcohol consumption are greater than are the short-term effects of the new alcohol policy. The very recent (2015) reduction of the minimum unit price of vodka may be premature. © The Author 2015. Medical Council on Alcohol and Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.

  19. Mortality from alcohol consumption and alcohol use disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundin, Andreas; Mortensen, Laust Hvas

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To examine the relationship of alcohol consumption, alcohol use disorder and mortality. METHOD: A cohort of 4316 male former Vietnam-era US army personnel participating in telephone survey and medical examination in middle age (mean age 38.3 years) in 1985-1986 was used. Alcohol...... consumption was reported in face-to-face interview on medical history and information on DSM-III alcohol use disorder was obtained from structured psychiatric interview (using the Diagnostic Interview Schedule). Mortality hazard during 15 years of follow-up was assessed with Cox proportional hazard regression...... modeling. RESULT: A total of 4251 individuals participated in the psychiatric interview and the medical history interview. Of these 998 were abstainers, and for the remaining 3253 we calculated weekly average consumption and monthly frequency of binge drinking. A total of 1988 had alcohol dependence, abuse...

  20. Alcohol and Hepatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... code here Enter ZIP code here Daily Living: Alcohol for Veterans and the Public Alcohol and Hepatitis: Entire Lesson Overview Alcohol is one ... related to choices you make about your lifestyle . Alcohol and fibrosis Fibrosis is the medical term for ...

  1. Long-Term Testing of Rhodium-Based Catalysts for Mixed Alcohol Synthesis – 2013 Progress Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerber, Mark A.; Gray, Michel J.; Thompson, Becky L.

    2013-09-23

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s Pacific Northwest National Laboratory has been conducting research since 2005 to develop a catalyst for the conversion of synthesis gas (carbon monoxide and hydrogen) into mixed alcohols for use in liquid transportation fuels. Initially, research involved screening possible catalysts based on a review of the literature, because at that time, there were no commercial catalysts available. The screening effort resulted in a decision to focus on catalysts containing rhodium and manganese. Subsequent research identified iridium as a key promoter for this catalyst system. Since then, research has continued to improve rhodium/manganese/iridium-based catalysts, optimizing the relative and total concentrations of the three metals, examining baseline catalysts on alternative supports, and examining effects of additional promoters. Testing was continued in FY 2013 to evaluate the performance and long-term stability of the best catalysts tested to date. Three tests were conducted. A long-term test of over 2300 hr duration at a single set of operating conditions was conducted with the best carbon-supported catalyst. A second test of about 650 hr duration at a single set of operating conditions was performed for comparison using the same catalyst formulation on an alternative carbon support. A third test of about 680 hr duration at a single set of operating conditions was performed using the best silica-supported catalyst tested to date.

  2. Effect of dissolved oxygen in alcoholic beverages and drinking water on alcohol elimination in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhee, Su-jin; Chae, Jung-woo; Song, Byung-jeong; Lee, Eun-sil; Kwon, Kwang-il

    2013-02-01

    Oxygen plays an important role in the metabolism of alcohol. An increased dissolved oxygen level in alcoholic beverages reportedly accelerates the elimination of alcohol. Therefore, we evaluated the effect of dissolved oxygen in alcohol and the supportive effect of oxygenated water on alcohol pharmacokinetics after the excessive consumption of alcohol, i.e., 540 ml of 19.5% alcohol (v/v). Fifteen healthy males were included in this randomized, 3 × 3 crossover study. Three combinations were tested: X, normal alcoholic beverage and normal water; Y, oxygenated alcoholic beverage and normal water; Z, oxygenated alcoholic beverage and oxygenated water. Blood alcohol concentrations (BACs) were determined by conversion of breath alcohol concentrations. Four pharmacokinetic parameters (C(max), T(max), K(el), and AUCall) were obtained using non-compartmental analysis and the times to reach 0.05% and 0.03% BAC (T(0.05%) and T(0.03%)) were compared using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Duncan's post hoc test. With combination Z, the BAC decreased to 0.05% significantly faster (p water augments the effect of oxygen in the alcoholic beverage in alcohol elimination. Therefore, it is necessary to investigate the supportive effect of ingesting additional oxygenated water after heavy drinking of normal alcoholic beverages.

  3. Quantitative electroencephalography analysis in university students with hazardous alcohol consumption, but not alcohol dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Núñez-Jaramillo, Luis; Vega-Perera, Paulo; Ramírez-Lugo, Leticia; Reyes-López, Julián V; Santiago-Rodríguez, Efraín; Herrera-Morales, Wendy V

    2015-07-08

    Hazardous alcohol consumption is a pattern of consumption that leads to a higher risk of harmful consequences either for the user or for others. This pattern of alcohol consumption has been linked to risky behaviors, accidents, and injuries. Individuals with hazardous alcohol consumption do not necessarily present alcohol dependence; thus, a study of particular neurophysiological correlates of this alcohol consumption pattern needs to be carried out in nondependent individuals. Here, we carried out a quantitative electroencephalography analysis in health sciences university students with hazardous alcohol consumption, but not alcohol dependence (HAC), and control participants without hazardous alcohol consumption or alcohol dependence (NHAC). We analyzed Absolute Power (AP), Relative Power (RP), and Mean Frequency (MF) for beta and theta frequency bands under both eyes closed and eyes open conditions. We found that participants in the HAC group presented higher beta AP at centroparietal region, as well as lower beta MF at frontal and centroparietal regions in the eyes closed condition. Interestingly, participants did not present any change in theta activity (AP, RP, or MF), whereas previous reports indicate an increase in theta AP in alcohol-dependent individuals. Our results partially resemble those found in alcohol-dependent individuals, although are not completely identical, suggesting a possible difference in the underlying neuronal mechanism behind alcohol dependence and hazardous alcohol consumption. Similarities could be explained considering that both hazardous alcohol consumption and alcohol dependence are manifestations of behavioral disinhibition.

  4. Commercial Integrated Heat Pump with Thermal Storage --Demonstrate Greater than 50% Average Annual Energy Savings, Compared with Baseline Heat Pump and Water Heater (Go/No-Go) FY16 4th Quarter Milestone Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Bo [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Baxter, Van D. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Rice, C. Keith [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Abu-Heiba, Ahmad [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-03-01

    For this study, we authored a new air source integrated heat pump (AS-IHP) model in EnergyPlus, and conducted building energy simulations to demonstrate greater than 50% average energy savings, in comparison to a baseline heat pump with electric water heater, over 10 US cities, based on the EnergyPlus quick-service restaurant template building. We also assessed water heating energy saving potentials using ASIHP versus gas heating, and pointed out climate zones where AS-IHPs are promising.

  5. Alcohol combustion chemistry

    KAUST Repository

    Sarathy, Mani

    2014-10-01

    , also emphasizing advanced engine concepts. Research results addressing combustion reaction mechanisms have been reported based on results from pyrolysis and oxidation reactors, shock tubes, rapid compression machines, and research engines. This work is complemented by the development of detailed combustion models with the support of chemical kinetics and quantum chemistry. This paper seeks to provide an introduction to and overview of recent results on alcohol combustion by highlighting pertinent aspects of this rich and rapidly increasing body of information. As such, this paper provides an initial source of references and guidance regarding the present status of combustion experiments on alcohols and models of alcohol combustion. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Anticonvulsants for alcohol withdrawal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minozzi, Silvia; Amato, Laura; Vecchi, Simona; Davoli, Marina

    2010-03-17

    from one study, 72 participants, favour paraldehyde plus chloral hydrate versus chlordiazepoxide, for the severe-life threatening side effects, RR 0.12 (0.03 to 0.44). Results of this review do not provide sufficient evidence in favour of anticonvulsants for the treatment of AWS. There are some suggestions that carbamazepine may actually be more effective in treating some aspects of alcohol withdrawal when compared to benzodiazepines, the current first-line regimen for alcohol withdrawal syndrome. Anticonvulsants seem to have limited side effects, although adverse effects are not rigorously reported in the analysed trials.

  7. Alcoholics Anonymous and hazardously drinking women returning to the community after incarceration: predictors of attendance and outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schonbrun, Yael Chatav; Strong, David R; Anderson, Bradley J; Caviness, Celeste M; Brown, Richard A; Stein, Michael D

    2011-03-01

    The number of women incarcerated within the United States has risen dramatically in recent decades, and high rates of alcohol problems are evident among this population. Although little is known about the patterns of help utilization and efficacy for alcohol problems, preliminary evidence suggests that Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) is a widely available resource for this population. Data were collected as part of a study evaluating the effect of a brief intervention to reduce alcohol use among hazardously drinking (i.e., score of 8 or above on the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test or 4 or more drinks at a time on at least 3 days in prior 3 months) incarcerated women. The current study characterized demographic, clinical, and previous AA attendance variables associated with AA attendance in the 6 months following incarceration. Associations between frequency of AA attendance and drinking outcomes following incarceration were also evaluated. Among the 224 participants who provided data about AA attendance, 54% reported some AA attendance during the follow-up assessment period. AA attendance in the year prior to study entry (OR = 4.02; 95% CI: 3.32 to 4.71) and greater baseline consequences of alcohol use (OR = 2.09; 95% CI: 1.73 to 2.44) were associated with increased odds of higher frequency of AA attendance following incarceration. Weekly or greater AA attendance was associated with reductions in negative drinking consequences (B = -0.45; p Alcohol outcomes may be enhanced by AA attendance at a weekly or greater frequency is associated with better alcohol outcomes relative to lower levels of AA attendance. Evaluation of clinical guidelines for prescribing AA attendance for incarcerated women remains a task for future research. Copyright © 2010 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  8. Alcohol Related Problems and the Hispanic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Louis S.

    1977-01-01

    Although Hispanic women report high rates of abstinence, more Hispanic men report alcohol related problems than Anglos, Blacks, or Asians and report more heavy drinking. Yet little has been done to develop or fund culturally specific alcoholism prevention, treatment and rehabilitation programs for the Hispanics. (NQ)

  9. Alcohol abuse and postoperative morbidity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tønnesen, Hanne

    2003-01-01

    Patients who drink too much have more complications after surgery. The aim of this thesis was to evaluate the evidence, possible mechanisms, and prevention of the increased postoperative morbidity in alcohol abusers, defined by a consumption of at least five drinks per day. The literature could...... be criticised for several methodological flaws. Nevertheless, the results are in agreement showing moderate to strong evidence of increased postoperative morbidity after surgical procedures on alcohol abusers. There is weak to moderate evidence of increased postoperative mortality, hospital stay, and re......-operation. The personal and economic consequences are tremendous. The incidence of alcohol abusers undergoing surgery was 7% to 49%, according to gender and diagnosis. They have been identified by a self-reported alcohol intake, which implies the possibility of underestimation. Alcohol markers could be used for a more...

  10. Attachment styles in alcoholic inpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Rick, Ann; Vanheule, Stijn

    2007-01-01

    Despite the fact that addiction has often been identified as an attachment disorder, empirical studies on this topic are rather scarce. In our study we explore attachment style (secure vs. insecure) in alcoholic inpatients and its relationship with perceived parenting and alcohol-related and psychiatric problems in a sample of 101 alcoholic inpatients (Belgium). Our results reveal that in comparison to the securely-attached group, insecurely-attached alcoholic inpatients perceived their mother as more controlling, reported more severe psychiatric problems in the European Addiction Severity Index, had higher scores on the Beck Depression Inventory, showed more schizotypal and depressive personality traits and had more difficulties with communicating emotions (alexithymia). We argue that it makes sense to differentiate alcoholic inpatients on the basis of attachment style and that both groups (secure/insecure) need different treatment approaches.

  11. Role of impulsivity in the relationship between depression and alcohol problems among emerging adult college drinkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Vivian M; Reynolds, Brady; Skewes, Monica C

    2011-08-01

    Depression is common among college students and higher levels of depression are associated with greater alcohol-related problems. However, depression is frequently not found to be directly associated with more alcohol use. This study examined whether various aspects of impulsivity (negative urgency, lack of premeditation, lack of perseverance, sensation seeking, and delay discounting) and drinking to cope with negative affect help to account for the relationship between depression and alcohol problems among emerging adult college drinkers who reported at least a minimal level of depressive symptoms. In this cross-sectional study, 143 emerging adult (between 18 and 25 years old) female (69.9%, n = 100) and male (30.1%, n = 43) college drinkers with at least minimal depressive symptoms completed measures of depression, alcohol use and problems, drinking to cope, and impulsivity. A multiple mediation analysis revealed that only negative urgency and drinking to cope partially mediated the depression-alcohol problems relationship. Moderated mediation analyses revealed that impulsivity-related constructs did not significantly interact with drinking to cope to increase alcohol problems. It appears that alcohol use is particularly problematic for students with elevated depression, and this is partly attributable to depression's association with negative urgency, in addition to its association with drinking to cope. Our findings suggest that students who suffer from depression may engage in problematic drinking behavior in part because negative affect is detrimental to their short-term impulse control and decision making, independent of maladaptive attempts to regulate affect through drinking to cope.

  12. Does Moderate Level of Alcohol Consumption Produce a Relaxation Effect?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, William; Lockhart, Judy O.

    Although many individuals use alcohol to cope with stress (their behavior being based on the belief that alcohol can produce a relaxation effect), research has reported conflicting results on the effects of alcohol on tension reduction. A study was conducted to examine the psychophysiological effects of moderate levels of alcohol consumption under…

  13. Mechanisms of behavior change in alcoholics anonymous: does Alcoholics Anonymous lead to better alcohol use outcomes by reducing depression symptoms?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, John F; Stout, Robert L; Magill, Molly; Tonigan, J Scott; Pagano, Maria E

    2010-04-01

    Indices of negative affect, such as depression, have been implicated in stress-induced pathways to alcohol relapse. Empirically supported continuing care resources, such as Alcoholics Anonymous (AA), emphasize reducing negative affect to reduce relapse risk, but little research has been conducted to examine putative affective mechanisms of AA's effects. Using lagged, controlled, hierarchical linear modeling and mediational analyses this study investigated whether AA participation mobilized changes in depression symptoms and whether such changes explained subsequent reductions in alcohol use. Alcohol-dependent adults (n = 1706), receiving treatment as part of a clinical trial, were assessed at intake, 3, 6, 9, 12 and 15 months. Findings revealed elevated levels of depression compared to the general population, which decreased during treatment and then remained stable over follow-up. Greater AA attendance was associated with better subsequent alcohol use outcomes and decreased depression. Greater depression was associated with heavier and more frequent drinking. Lagged mediation analyses revealed that the effects of AA on alcohol use was mediated partially by reductions in depression symptoms. However, this salutary effect on depression itself appeared to be explained by AA's proximal effect on reducing concurrent drinking. AA attendance was associated both concurrently and predictively with improved alcohol outcomes. Although AA attendance was associated additionally with subsequent improvements in depression, it did not predict such improvements over and above concurrent alcohol use. AA appears to lead both to improvements in alcohol use and psychological and emotional wellbeing which, in turn, may reinforce further abstinence and recovery-related change.

  14. Agreement between Self-Report and Archival Public Service Utilization Data among Chronically Homeless Individuals with Severe Alcohol Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clifasefi, Seema L.; Collins, Susan E.; Tanzer, Kenneth; Burlingham, Bonnie; Hoang, Sara E.; Larimer, Mary E.

    2011-01-01

    Public service utilization data are often used as key outcomes in studies on homelessness. Although self-report data on these outcomes are accessible and cost-effective, various factors may affect retrospective recall in homeless populations. It is therefore necessary to establish validity of self-report to ensure the integrity of studies…

  15. A Multilevel Structural Equation Model of Within- and Between-Person Associations among Subjective Responses to Alcohol, Craving, and Laboratory Alcohol Self-Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wardell, Jeffrey D.; Ramchandani, Vijay A.; Hendershot, Christian S.

    2017-01-01

    Subjective responses to alcohol are important determinants of drinking behavior and have been linked with risk for alcohol use disorders. However, few attempts have been made to examine proximal within-person associations among state changes in subjective responses and ongoing alcohol self-administration in the laboratory. This study disaggregated within- and between-person associations among subjective responses and alcohol self-administration, while also examining the mediating role of craving and the moderating role of trait impaired control over alcohol. Sixty young heavy drinkers (mean age=19.90, SD=0.86) completed self-report measures including the Impaired Control Scale, then participated in a 2-hour intravenous alcohol self-administration session using the Computer-Assisted Self-infusion of Ethanol (CASE) paradigm. Repeated assessments of subjective stimulation, subjective sedation, and craving were examined in relation to ongoing in-session self-administration, as indexed by breath alcohol concentration (BrAC) assessed 15 minutes later. Multilevel structural equation modeling was used to disentangle within-person and between-person associations. The results showed few significant associations at the between-person level, except for a direct negative association between sedation and BrAC. At the within-person level, state fluctuations in stimulation were positively associated with both craving and subsequent BrAC, whereas state changes in sedation were negatively associated with craving and positively associated with BrAC. Within-person indirect associations from subjective stimulation and sedation to subsequent BrAC mediated via craving were statistically significant. Also, participants higher on impaired control showed stronger within-person associations between craving and greater subsequent BrAC. The results suggest that subjective responses to alcohol and craving have proximal associations with self-administration behavior, the strength of which is

  16. [Excessive alcohol consumption: what is the burden on natural caregivers?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoertel, N; Crochard, A; Limosin, F; Rouillon, F

    2014-04-01

    Data on the natural caregivers burdened by the excessive consumption of alcohol by members of the family circle or friends in the general population are lacking. Therefore, our aim was twofold: (i) to assess the burden of individuals with excessive alcohol consumption on natural caregivers and (ii) to examine the factors explaining the association between alcohol consumption and the level of burden. Data were derived from a national representative survey of the French adult population, conducted in 2013, that involved 1018 participants who had in their close environment a person consuming excessive amounts of alcohol. The level of burden was assessed using the Zarit Burden Scale (ZBI). The average score of the ZBI was 28.5 (SE=16.0). The average volume of alcohol consumed per day, heavy drinking days, as well as the consumers' profiles defined by the AUDIT-C were significantly associated with the level of burden. Following adjustments for the participants' characteristics and for the closeness between participants and individuals with excessive consumption, these associations remained significant. Following adjustments for these variables as well as demographic, social, behavioral and medical characteristics of individuals with excessive consumption, the associations between the level of burden and respectively consumers' profiles and heavy drinking days remained significant. At last, following adjustments for social, behavioral and medical characteristics of individuals with excessive consumption and for the closeness between them and participants, only the association between heavy drinking days and the level of burden remained significant. One out of five participants having in their close environment a person consuming excessive amount of alcohol reported an important burden. The association between the individuals' alcohol intake and the level of burden for natural caregivers was mainly influenced by social, behavioral and medical consequences of alcohol

  17. Alcohol Prevention Strategies on College Campuses and Student Alcohol Abuse and Related Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ringwalt, Christopher L.; Paschall, Mallie J.; Gitelman, Amy M.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between colleges' alcohol abuse prevention strategies and students' alcohol abuse and related problems. Alcohol prevention coordinators and first year students in 22 colleges reported whether their schools were implementing 48 strategies in six domains, and students (N = 2041) completed another survey…

  18. There's alcohol in my soap: Portrayal and effects of alcohol use in a popular television series.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hoof, Joris Jasper; de Jong, Menno D.T.; Fennis, B.M.; Gosselt, Jordi Franciscus

    2009-01-01

    Two studies are reported addressing the media influences on adolescents’ alcohol-related attitudes and behaviours. A content analysis was conducted to investigate the prevalence of alcohol portrayal in a Dutch soap series. The coding scheme covered the alcohol consumption per soap character,

  19. Mechanisms of Association between Paternal Alcoholism and Abuse of Alcohol and Other Illicit Drugs among Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peleg-Oren, Neta; Hospital, Michelle; Morris, Staci Leon; Wagner, Eric F.

    2013-01-01

    The current study examines the effect of paternal alcohol problems on adolescent use of alcohol and other illicit drugs as a function of maternal communication, as well as adolescent social and coping skills (N = 145). Structural equation modeling (SEM) analyses indicated that adolescents with a paternal history of alcohol problems reported higher…

  20. Influence of alcohol intake on postoperative morbidity after hysterectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Felding, C; Jensen, L M; Tønnesen, H

    1992-01-01

    Postoperative morbidity after hysterectomy was prospectively studied in 229 consecutive patients in our departments. The incidence of alcohol abuse (greater than 60 gm of alcohol daily) and social drinking (between 25 and 60 gm of alcohol daily) was 6.5% for each. When compared with the social...... drinkers and the control group, the alcohol abuse group had significantly more complications (80% vs 27% and 80% vs 13%, respectively)....

  1. Alcohol consumption and household expenditure on alcohol in a rural district in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giang, Kim Bao; Van Minh, Hoang; Allebeck, Peter

    2013-01-28

    Alcohol use and alcohol-related problems are on the rise in low- and middle-income countries. Expenditure on alcohol is an important problem for families and communities and needs to be assessed. This study examines level of alcohol consumption and expenditure on alcohol in a district in Vietnam. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in a rural district in northern Vietnam. Multi-stage sampling was employed to randomly select participants from 20 communities and a town in the same district. One thousand five hundred and sixty-four adults (765 males and 799 females) aged 18-60 years were interviewed. Information about alcohol use as well as expenditure on alcohol consumption four weeks prior to the interview was gathered. Non-parametric tests and log-linear regression were employed to compare expenditure on alcohol consumption across socioeconomic groups. The prevalence of alcohol use one month prior to interview was 35% (66% among men and 5% among women). The median alcohol consumption among those who reported use of alcohol in the week prior to the interview was 7.9 standard drinks. Excessive drinking (more than 14 standard drinks per week for men and more than seven standard drinks per week for women) occurred among 35% of those who used alcohol. Median expenditure for alcohol consumption during one month by those who drank alcohol was USD 3.5, accounting for 4.6% of household food expenditure, 2.7% of total household expenditure, and 1.8% of household income. The differences in alcohol consumption and expenditure between sexes and between socioeconomic groups are also presented. Our study confirms that alcohol consumption and alcohol-related problems are common among men in Vietnam. The share of alcohol expenditure in total household expenditure is substantial, especially among poor households. This should be considered an important public health issue, which needs to be taken into account in the alcohol policy debate.

  2. Energy Drinks, Alcohol, Sports and Traumatic Brain Injuries among Adolescents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Ilie

    Full Text Available The high prevalence of traumatic brain injuries (TBI among adolescents has brought much focus to this area in recent years. Sports injuries have been identified as a main mechanism. Although energy drinks, including those mixed with alcohol, are often used by young athletes and other adolescents they have not been examined in relation to TBI.We report on the prevalence of adolescent TBI and its associations with energy drinks, alcohol and energy drink mixed in with alcohol consumption.Data were derived from the Centre for Addiction and Mental Health's 2013 Ontario Student Drug Use and Health Survey (OSDUHS. This population-based cross-sectional school survey included 10,272 7th to 12th graders (ages 11-20 who completed anonymous self-administered questionnaires in classrooms.Mild to severe TBI were defined as those resulting in a loss of consciousness for at least five minutes, or being hospitalized for at least one night. Mechanism of TBI, prevalence estimates of TBI, and odds of energy drink consumption, alcohol use, and consumption of energy drinks mixed with alcohol are assessed.Among all students, 22.4% (95% CI: 20.7, 24.1 reported a history of TBI. Sports injuries remain the main mechanism of a recent (past year TBI (45.5%, 95% CI: 41.0, 50.1. Multinomial logistic regression showed that relative to adolescents who never sustained a TBI, the odds of sustaining a recent TBI were greater for those consuming alcohol, energy drinks, and energy drinks mixed in with alcohol than abstainers. Odds ratios were higher for these behaviors among students who sustained a recent TBI than those who sustained a former TBI (lifetime but not past 12 months. Relative to recent TBI due to other causes of injury, adolescents who sustained a recent TBI while playing sports had higher odds of recent energy drinks consumption than abstainers.TBI remains a disabling and common condition among adolescents and the consumption of alcohol, energy drinks, and alcohol

  3. Energy Drinks, Alcohol, Sports and Traumatic Brain Injuries among Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilie, Gabriela; Boak, Angela; Mann, Robert E; Adlaf, Edward M; Hamilton, Hayley; Asbridge, Mark; Rehm, Jürgen; Cusimano, Michael D

    2015-01-01

    The high prevalence of traumatic brain injuries (TBI) among adolescents has brought much focus to this area in recent years. Sports injuries have been identified as a main mechanism. Although energy drinks, including those mixed with alcohol, are often used by young athletes and other adolescents they have not been examined in relation to TBI. We report on the prevalence of adolescent TBI and its associations with energy drinks, alcohol and energy drink mixed in with alcohol consumption. Data were derived from the Centre for Addiction and Mental Health's 2013 Ontario Student Drug Use and Health Survey (OSDUHS). This population-based cross-sectional school survey included 10,272 7th to 12th graders (ages 11-20) who completed anonymous self-administered questionnaires in classrooms. Mild to severe TBI were defined as those resulting in a loss of consciousness for at least five minutes, or being hospitalized for at least one night. Mechanism of TBI, prevalence estimates of TBI, and odds of energy drink consumption, alcohol use, and consumption of energy drinks mixed with alcohol are assessed. Among all students, 22.4% (95% CI: 20.7, 24.1) reported a history of TBI. Sports injuries remain the main mechanism of a recent (past year) TBI (45.5%, 95% CI: 41.0, 50.1). Multinomial logistic regression showed that relative to adolescents who never sustained a TBI, the odds of sustaining a recent TBI were greater for those consuming alcohol, energy drinks, and energy drinks mixed in with alcohol than abstainers. Odds ratios were higher for these behaviors among students who sustained a recent TBI than those who sustained a former TBI (lifetime but not past 12 months). Relative to recent TBI due to other causes of injury, adolescents who sustained a recent TBI while playing sports had higher odds of recent energy drinks consumption than abstainers. TBI remains a disabling and common condition among adolescents and the consumption of alcohol, energy drinks, and alcohol mixed with

  4. Advances in alcoholic liver disease: An update on alcoholic hepatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Randy; Liu, Andy; Perumpail, Ryan B; Wong, Robert J; Ahmed, Aijaz

    2015-11-14

    Alcoholic hepatitis is a pro-inflammatory chronic liver disease that is associated with high short-term morbidity and mortality (25%-35% in one month) in the setting of chronic alcohol use. Histopathology is notable for micro- and macrovesicular steatosis, acute inflammation with neutrophil infiltration, hepatocellular necrosis, perivenular and perisinusoidal fibrosis, and Mallory hyaline bodies found in ballooned hepatocytes. Other findings include the characteristic eosinophilic fibrillar material (Mallory's hyaline bodies) found in ballooned hepatocytes. The presence of focal intense lobular infiltration of neutrophils is what typically distinguishes alcoholic hepatitis from other forms of hepatitis, in which the inflammatory infiltrate is primarily composed of mononuclear cells. Management consists of a multidisciplinary approach including alcohol cessation, fluid and electrolyte correction, treatment of alcohol withdrawal, and pharmacological therapy based on the severity of the disease. Pharmacological treatment for severe alcoholic hepatitis, as defined by Maddrey's discriminant factor ≥ 32, consists of either prednisolone or pentoxifylline for a period of four weeks. The body of evidence for corticosteroids has been greater than pentoxifylline, although there are higher risks of complications. Recently head-to-head trials between corticosteroids and pentoxifylline have been performed, which again suggests that corticosteroids should strongly be considered over pentoxifylline.

  5. Alcoholism and alternative splicing of candidate genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasabe, Toshikazu; Ishiura, Shoichi

    2010-04-01

    Gene expression studies have shown that expression patterns of several genes have changed during the development of alcoholism. Gene expression is regulated not only at the level of transcription but also through alternative splicing of pre-mRNA. In this review, we discuss some of the evidence suggesting that alternative splicing of candidate genes such as DRD2 (encoding dopamine D2 receptor) may form the basis of the mechanisms underlying the pathophysiology of alcoholism. These reports suggest that aberrant expression of splice variants affects alcohol sensitivities, and alcohol consumption also regulates alternative splicing. Thus, investigations of alternative splicing are essential for understanding the molecular events underlying the development of alcoholism.

  6. Mechanisms of hyponatraemia in alcohol patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liamis, G L; Milionis, H J; Rizos, E C; Siamopoulos, K C; Elisaf, M S

    2000-01-01

    Hyponatraemia is commonly reported in chronic alcoholic patients. However, the underlying pathogenetic mechanisms are not well delineated. In the current study, we analysed the possible pathophysiological mechanisms of hyponatraemia in a group of alcoholic patients (n = 127) admitted to our hospital for causes related to alcohol misuse. Hyponatraemia (serum sodium potomania' syndrome, while in two others, hyponatraemia was due to reset osmostat or to cerebral salt wasting syndrome, not previously described in alcoholic patients. It is concluded that hyponatraemia is a frequently observed electrolyte disorder in hospitalized alcoholic patients and is related to various pathophysiological mechanisms.

  7. 27 CFR 24.242 - Authority to use greater quantities of decolorizing material in juice or wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... quantities of decolorizing material in juice or wine. 24.242 Section 24.242 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Storage, Treatment and Finishing of Wine § 24.242 Authority to use greater quantities of decolorizing material...

  8. Post-irradiation angiosarcoma of the greater omentum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westenberg, A.H.; Wiggers, T.; Henzen-Logmans, S.C.; Verweij, J.; Meerwaldt, J.A.; Geel, A.N. van (Dr Daniel den Hoed Cancer Center, Rotterdam (Netherlands))

    1989-04-01

    A case of angiosarcoma of the greater omentum is reported. This angiosarcoma developed 8 years after irradiation for cervical carcinoma and presented with an intra-abdominal hemorrhage. The authors describe her clinical course, treatment and follow-up. Although several other locations of irradiation-induced sarcomas have been published, this is the first report in literature of a postirradiation angiosarcoma in the greater omentum. (author).

  9. Post-irradiation angiosarcoma of the greater omentum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westenberg, A H; Wiggers, T; Henzen-Logmans, S C; Verweij, J; Meerwaldt, J A; van Geel, A N

    1989-04-01

    A case of angiosarcoma of the greater omentum is reported. This angiosarcoma developed 8 years after irradiation for cervical carcinoma and presented with an intra-abdominal hemorrhage. We describe her clinical course, treatment and follow-up. Although several other locations of irradiation-induced sarcomas have been published, this is the first report in literature of a postirradiation angiosarcoma in the greater omentum.

  10. Alcohol content in declared non-to low alcoholic beverages: implications to pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, Y Ingrid; Verjee, Zulfikar; Koren, Gideon

    2010-01-01

    Alcohol consumption in pregnancy may result in serious adverse fetal outcome. Non- or low alcoholic wines and beers may be a risk-reduction strategy to help alcohol-dependent individuals to prevent or limit ethanol consumption. The objective of this study was to quantify ethanol concentrations in Canadian beverages claiming to contain no or low alcohol content. Forty-five different beverages claiming to contain no or low alcohol content in the Canadian market were tested for ethanol concentration using gas chromatography. Thirteen (29%) of the beverages contained ethanol levels higher than the declared concentration on their label. Six beverages claiming to contain no alcohol were found to contain greater than 1% ethanol. Pregnant women seeking replacement to alcoholic beverages may be misled by these labels, unknowingly exposing themselves and their unborn babies to ethanol.

  11. Pharmacological aversion treatment of alcohol dependence. I. Production and prediction of conditioned alcohol aversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, M O

    2001-08-01

    Eighty-two hospitalized alcoholics receiving pharmacological aversion therapy (PAT) over a 10-day treatment interval completed cognitive, behavioral, and psychophysiological measures evaluating conditioned aversion to alcohol. Pre-post assessments provided convergent support for the efficacy of PAT vis-à-vis production of conditioned aversion to alcohol. Positive alcohol-related outcome expectancies were significantly reduced, whereas confidence that drinking could be avoided in various high-risk situations for consumption was increased following PAT. Behavioral and cardiac rate assessments revealed significant changes following PAT that were specific to alcoholic beverages and potentially reflective of conditioned alcohol aversion. Patients with more extensive pretreatment experiences with alcohol-associated nausea and greater involvement in antisocial conduct appeared to be less susceptible to the PAT conditioning protocol.

  12. Monitoring and research on the Bi-State Distinct Population Segment of greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) in the Pine Nut Mountains, California and Nevada—Study progress report, 2011–15

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coates, Peter S.; Andrle, Katie M.; Ziegler, Pilar T.; Casazza, Michael L.

    2016-09-29

    The Bi-State distinct population segment (DPS) of greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) that occurs along the Nevada–California border was proposed for listing as threatened under the Endangered Species Act (ESA) by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) in October 2013. However, in April 2015, the FWS determined that the Bi-State DPS no longer required protection under the ESA and withdrew the proposed rule to list the Bi-State DPS (U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, 2015). The Bi-State DPS occupies portions of Alpine, Mono, and Inyo Counties in California, and Douglas, Esmeralda, Lyon, Carson City, and Mineral Counties in Nevada. Unique threats facing this population include geographic isolation, expansion of single-leaf pinyon (Pinus monophylla) and Utah juniper (Juniperus osteosperma), anthropogenic activities, and recent changes in predator communities. Estimating population vital rates, identifying seasonal habitat, quantifying threats, and identifying movement patterns are important first steps in developing effective sage-grouse management and conservation plans. During 2011–15, we radio- and Global Positioning System (GPS)-marked (2012–14 only) 44, 47, 17, 9, and 3 sage-grouse, respectively, for a total of 120, in the Pine Nut Mountains Population Management Unit (PMU). No change in lek attendance was detected at Mill Canyon (maximum=18 males) between 2011 and 2012; however, 1 male was observed in 2014 and no males were observed in 2013 and 2015. Males were observed near Bald Mountain in 2013, making it the first year this lek was observed to be active during the study period. Males were observed at a new site in the Buckskin Range in 2014 during trapping efforts and again observed during surveys in 2015. Findings indicate that pinyon-juniper is avoided by sage-grouse during every life stage. Nesting females selected increased sagebrush cover, sagebrush height, and understory horizontal cover, and brood-rearing females selected similar areas

  13. A multidimensional model of mothers' perceptions of parent alcohol socialization and adolescent alcohol misuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ennett, Susan T; Jackson, Christine; Cole, Veronica T; Haws, Susan; Foshee, Vangie A; Reyes, Heathe Luz McNaughton; Burns, Alison Reimuller; Cox, Melissa J; Cai, Li

    2016-02-01

    We assessed a multidimensional model of parent alcohol socialization in which key socialization factors were considered simultaneously to identify combinations of factors that increase or decrease risk for development of adolescent alcohol misuse. Of interest was the interplay between putative risk and protective factors, such as whether the typically detrimental effects on youth drinking of parenting practices tolerant of some adolescent alcohol use are mitigated by an effective overall approach to parenting and parental modeling of modest alcohol use. The sample included 1,530 adolescents and their mothers; adolescents' mean age was 13.0 (SD = .99) at the initial assessment. Latent profile analysis was conducted of mothers' reports of their attitude toward teen drinking, alcohol-specific parenting practices, parental alcohol use and problem use, and overall approach to parenting. The profiles were used to predict trajectories of adolescent alcohol misuse from early to middle adolescence. Four profiles were identified: 2 profiles reflected conservative alcohol-specific parenting practices and 2 reflected alcohol-tolerant practices, all in the context of other attributes. Alcohol misuse accelerated more rapidly from Grade 6 through 10 in the 2 alcohol-tolerant compared with conservative profiles. Results suggest that maternal tolerance of some youth alcohol use, even in the presence of dimensions of an effective parenting style and low parental alcohol use and problem use, is not an effective strategy for reducing risky adolescent alcohol use. (PsycINFO Database Record

  14. Impact of Maryland's 2011 alcohol sales tax increase on alcoholic beverage sales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esser, Marissa B; Waters, Hugh; Smart, Mieka; Jernigan, David H

    2016-07-01

    Increasing alcohol taxes has proven effective in reducing alcohol consumption, but the effects of alcohol sales taxes on sales of specific alcoholic beverages have received little research attention. Data on sales are generally less subject to reporting biases than self-reported patterns of alcohol consumption. We aimed to assess the effects of Maryland's July 1, 2011 three percentage point increase in the alcohol sales tax (6-9%) on beverage-specific and total alcohol sales. Using county-level data on Maryland's monthly alcohol sales in gallons for 2010-2012, by beverage type, multilevel mixed effects multiple linear regression models estimated the effects of the tax increase on alcohol sales. We controlled for seasonality, county characteristics, and national unemployment rates in the main analyses. In the 18 months after the tax increase, average per capita sales of spirits were 5.1% lower (p sales were 3.2% lower (p sales were 2.5% lower (p sales trends in the 18 months prior to the tax increase. Overall, the alcohol sales tax increase was associated with a 3.8% decline in total alcohol sold relative to what would have been expected based on sales in the prior 18 months (p increased alcohol sales taxes may be as effective as excise taxes in reducing alcohol consumption and related problems. Sales taxes also have the added advantages of rising with inflation and taxing the highest priced beverages most heavily.

  15. Grant Monitoring: Department of Education Could Improve Its Processes with Greater Focus on Assessing Risks, Acquiring Financial Skills, and Sharing Information. Report to Congressional Requesters. GAO-10-57

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashby, Cornelia M.

    2009-01-01

    The Department of Education (Education) awards about $45 billion in grants each year to school districts, states, and other entities. In addition, the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 provided an additional $97 billion in grant funding. In a series of reports from 2002 to 2009, Education's Inspector General cited a number of grantees…

  16. Alcohol Use Problem Severity and Problem Behavior Engagement among School-Based Youths in Minnesota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancha, Brent E.; Rojas-Neese, Vanessa C.; Latimer, William W.

    2010-01-01

    This study created an alcohol use problem severity taxonomy and examined its association to engagement in other problem behaviors. Minnesota youths were categorized based on their frequency of alcohol use and DSM-IV alcohol abuse and dependence criteria. Greater alcohol use problem severity was generally associated with higher prevalence of…

  17. Adolescent Counterarguing of TV Beer Advertisements: Evidence for Effectiveness of Alcohol Education and Critical Viewing Discussions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, Michael D.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Examines the efficacy of alcohol education programs. This study (N=83) found that recency of exposure to alcohol education classes and discussion of alcohol advertising in those classes predicts adolescent cognitive resistance (counterarguing) to persuasive alcohol advertising for months or even years. Suggests greater attention to critical…

  18. Perceived racial/ethnic discrimination, smoking and alcohol consumption in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrell, Luisa N; Diez Roux, Ana V; Jacobs, David R; Shea, Steven; Jackson, Sharon A; Shrager, Sandi; Blumenthal, Roger S

    2010-01-01

    To examine the association of perceived racial/ethnic discrimination with smoking and alcohol consumption in adults participating in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis. Data on 6680 black, Chinese, Hispanic and white adults aged 45 to 84 years of age recruited from Illinois, New York, Maryland, North Carolina, Minnesota and California during 2000 and 2002 were used for this analysis. Logistic regression was used to estimate the association of perceived racial/ethnic discrimination with smoking status and alcohol consumption for each racial/ethnic group separately. Blacks were more likely to experience racial/ethnic discrimination (43%) than Hispanics (19%), Chinese participants (10%) or whites (4%, Pracial/ethnic discrimination had 34% and 51% greater odds of reporting smoking and drinking, respectively, than blacks who did not report racial/ethnic discrimination. Hispanics reporting racial/ethnic discrimination had 62% greater odds of heavy drinking. Whites reporting racial/ethnic discrimination had 88% greater odds of reporting being current smokers than whites who did not report racial/ethnic discrimination. Our findings suggest that the experience of discrimination is associated with greater prevalence of unhealthy behaviors. Specifically, the use of smoking and alcohol may be patterned by experience of discrimination. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Alcohol Misuse Among Nursing Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Julie McCulloh; Nemeth, Lynne S; Williams, Pamela Holtzclaw; Newman, Susan D; Sommers, Marilyn S

    2015-01-01

    The self-reported prevalence of alcohol use among U.S. college students decreased from 90.5% in 1980 to 79.2% in 2012. National efforts exist to reduce alcohol misuse among college students in the United States, yet little research addresses substance abuse among nursing students and even less addresses alcohol misuse. Alcohol misuse in nursing students may result in patient harm. This scoping study describes the state of the science of alcohol misuse among nursing students, guided by the research question: "What is the current state of alcohol misuse among U.S. nursing students?" Evidence was drawn from several scholarly sources. Articles were included if they addressed U.S. nursing students; alcohol misuse; substance abuse or chemical impairment; prevalence rates; and/or characteristics including nursing student behaviors, attitudes, and beliefs. Using thematic analysis, common themes were extracted, followed by hand coding those themes and using NVivo qualitative software. Six studies met inclusion criteria. Three themes, eight subthemes, and several gaps in knowledge were identified. The themes include "high prevalence exists," "necessity of supportive environments," and "hopelessness without policies." Subthemes include "root cause," "vulnerable population," "scholarship and substance use," "education," "identification of risk factors," "prevention and deterrents," "safety," "ethical and legal issues," and "consequences." On the basis of this analysis, several research questions were developed to explore alcohol misuse in this population. Alcohol was the most often used substance. Nursing students were unaware of a safe level of consumption and the potential negative health-related and professional effects associated with alcohol misuse.

  20. Alcohol consumption and rates of cancer screening: Is cancer risk overestimated?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Lin; Mukamal, Kenneth J

    2016-02-01

    Alcohol consumption in moderation has been associated with incident breast and colorectal cancer. Whether these associations may be overestimated by more intensive screening among moderate consumers is unknown. This study examines the associations of alcohol consumption with cancer screening. In six iterations (2002-2012) of the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, a telephone survey of US adults conducted by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, participants reported their alcohol use and recent screening for several cancers. We assessed whether alcohol use was associated with breast, cervical, and colorectal cancer screening after sample-weighted adjustment for sociodemographic and healthcare utilization factors. Among 2,191,483 survey respondents, 80.5 % (weighted prevalence) of eligible individuals reported having an up-to-date mammogram, 87.7 % having a Pap test, and 56.8 % having a colonoscopy/sigmoidoscopy. For all breast, cervical, and colorectal cancers, moderate consumers were more likely to report screening (84.7, 91.2, 61.1 %) than non-consumers, even after multivariate adjustment (adjusted prevalence ratios 1.04, 1.04, 1.07; p cancer screening. In the USA, moderate consumers consistently report a greater likelihood of breast, cervical, and colorectal cancer screening than do non-consumers. Given the likelihood of overdiagnosis, further study of alcohol consumption and cancer should include cancer-specific mortality, which is less sensitive to differences in screening and detection.

  1. Effects of moderate alcohol consumption on gene expression related to colonic inflammation and antioxidant enzymes in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klarich, DawnKylee S; Penprase, Jerrold; Cintora, Patricia; Medrano, Octavio; Erwin, Danielle; Brasser, Susan M; Hong, Mee Young

    2017-06-01

    Excessive alcohol consumption is a risk factor associated with colorectal cancer; however, some studies have reported that moderate alcohol consumption may not contribute additional risk for developing colorectal cancer while others suggest that moderate alcohol consumption provides a protective effect that reduces colorectal cancer risk. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of moderate voluntary alcohol (20% ethanol) intake on alternate days for 3 months in outbred Wistar rats on risk factors associated with colorectal cancer development. Colonic gene expression of cyclooxygenase-2, RelA, 8-oxoguanine DNA glycosylase 1, superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, glutathione-S-transferase M1, and aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 were determined. Blood alcohol content, liver function enzyme activities, and 8-oxo-deoxyguanosine DNA adducts were also assessed. Alcohol-treated rats were found to have significantly lower 8-oxo-deoxyguanosine levels in blood, a marker of DNA damage. Alanine aminotransferase and lactate dehydrogenase were both significantly lower in the alcohol group. Moderate alcohol significantly decreased cyclooxygenase-2 gene expression, an inflammatory marker associated with colorectal cancer risk. The alcohol group had significantly increased glutathione-S-transferase M1 expression, an antioxidant enzyme that helps detoxify carcinogens, such as acetaldehyde, and significantly increased aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 expression, which allows for greater acetaldehyde clearance. Increased expression of glutathione-S-transferase M1 and aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 likely contributed to reduce mucosal damage that is caused by acetaldehyde accumulation. These results indicate that moderate alcohol may reduce the risk for colorectal cancer development, which was evidenced by reduced inflammation activity and lower DNA damage after alcohol exposure. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Self-Reported Drug and Alcohol Use and Attitudes toward Drug Testing in High Schools with Random Student Drug Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    DuPont, Robert L.; Campbell, Michael D.; Campbell, Teresa G.; Shea, Corinne L.; DuPont, Helen S.

    2013-01-01

    Many schools implement random student drug testing (RSDT) programs as a drug prevention strategy. This study analyzes self-report surveys of students in eight secondary schools with well-established RSDT programs, comparing students who understood they were subject to testing and students who understood they were not subject to testing. Students…

  3. Self-Reported Drug and Alcohol Use and Attitudes toward Drug Testing in High Schools with Random Student Drug Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    DuPont, Robert L.; Campbell, Michael D.; Campbell, Teresa G.; Shea, Corinne L.; DuPont, Helen S.

    2013-01-01

    Many schools implement random student drug testing (RSDT) programs as a drug prevention strategy. This study analyzes self-report surveys of students in eight secondary schools with well-established RSDT programs, comparing students who understood they were subject to testing and students who understood they were not subject to testing. Students…

  4. Neurobiological Basis of Alcohol Addiction

    OpenAIRE

    Milagros Lisset León Regal; Lázaro Hermes González Otero; Alain León Valdés; José Omar de Armas García; Alexis Urquiza Hurtado; Gerardo Rodríguez Caña

    2014-01-01

    Alcoholism is a serious social problem due to its impact on individual and collective health. In order to provide an update on the latest findings that explain the development and symptoms of alcohol addiction, the short and long term changes that this disorder causes in the central nervous system are shown in this paper. A total of 52 information sources were consulted, including 43 journal articles, 4 books and statistical reports. The main network managers were used. The interaction of eth...

  5. Alcohol Poisoning Deaths PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-01-06

    This 60 second Public Service Announcement is based on the January 2015 CDC Vital Signs report. In the United States, an average of six people die every day from alcohol poisoning. Learn what you can do to prevent binge drinking and alcohol poisoning.  Created: 1/6/2015 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 1/6/2015.

  6. Interrelations between Pain and Alcohol: An Integrative Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zale, Emily L.; Maisto, Stephen A.; Ditre, Joseph W.

    2015-01-01

    Pain and alcohol use are both highly prevalent in the general population, and pain-alcohol interrelations are of increasing empirical interest. Previous research has identified associations between pain and alcohol dependence, and the current review provides novel contributions to this emerging domain by incorporating studies that have tested relations between pain and low-to-moderate alcohol consumption, and by identifying potential psychosocial mechanisms of action. Specifically, we sought to integrate evidence of pain-alcohol relations derived from two directions of empirical inquiry (i.e., effects of alcohol on pain and effects of pain on alcohol use) across psychological, social, and biological literatures. We observed converging evidence that associations between alcohol consumption and pain may be curvilinear in nature. Whereas moderate alcohol use was observed to be associated with positive pain-related outcomes (e.g., greater quality of life), excessive drinking and alcohol use disorder appear to be associated with deleterious pain-related outcomes (e.g., greater pain severity). We also observed evidence that alcohol administration confers acute pain-inhibitory effects, and that situational pain may motivate alcohol consumption (e.g., drinking for pain-coping). Future research can inform theoretical and clinical applications through examination of temporal relations between pain and alcohol consumption, tests of hypothesized mechanisms, and the development of novel interventions. PMID:25766100

  7. Alcoholism: Current Marker Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-03-01

    mongolism are high-risk candidates for certain types of leukemia. Similarly, hemophiliacs have a correspondingly high incidence of color blindness . (4...genetically determined characteristics such as color blindness and blood type. GENETIC MARKER STUDIES In 1966 Dr. Cruz-Coke and Dr. Varela reported that...their study had linked color blindness , cirrhosis of the liver and alcoholism. They further hypothesized the existence of a sex-linked carrier gene

  8. Eyeblink Classical Conditioning in Alcoholism and Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Dominic T; Jacobson, Sandra W; Jacobson, Joseph L; Molteno, Christopher D; Stanton, Mark E; Desmond, John E

    2015-01-01

    Alcoholism is a debilitating disorder that can take a significant toll on health and professional and personal relationships. Excessive alcohol consumption can have a serious impact on both drinkers and developing fetuses, leading to long-term learning impairments. Decades of research in laboratory animals and humans have demonstrated the value of eyeblink classical conditioning (EBC) as a well-characterized model system to study the neural mechanisms underlying associative learning. Behavioral EBC studies in adults with alcohol use disorders and in children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders report a clear learning deficit in these two patient populations, suggesting alcohol-related damage to the cerebellum and associated structures. Insight into the neural mechanisms underlying these learning impairments has largely stemmed from laboratory animal studies. In this mini-review, we present and discuss exemplary animal findings and data from patient and neuroimaging studies. An improved understanding of the neural mechanisms underlying learning deficits in EBC related to alcoholism and prenatal alcohol exposure has the potential to advance the diagnoses, treatment, and prevention of these and other pediatric and adult disorders.

  9. Assessment of binge drinking of alcohol in highly educated employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matano, Robert A; Koopman, Cheryl; Wanat, Stanley F; Whitsell, Shelly D; Borggrefe, Anne; Westrup, Darrah

    2003-09-01

    This study evaluated the usefulness of the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) and CAGE, a standardized screening instrument for detecting alcohol dependence in identifying binge drinking among highly educated employees. Brochures were mailed to an entire workforce inviting employees to learn about their coping strategies, stress levels, and risk for alcohol-related problems, with 228 employees providing complete data. Binge drinking in the previous 3 months was reported by 29% of the employees, with greater binge drinking reported by White employees, of mixed/other ethnic background, or younger. The AUDIT achieved a sensitivity of 35% in identifying respondents who reported binge drinking and a specificity of 98% in accurately identifying respondents who did not report binge drinking. Sensitivity using the cut-off of scoring one or more positive hits on the CAGE was 67%, and specificity was 84%. Therefore, neither the AUDIT nor the CAGE achieved adequate sensitivity, as well as specificity, as screening tools for assessing binge drinking. A more accurate method for assessing binge drinking appears to be by directly asking for the largest number of drinks consumed in a single drinking session.

  10. Alcohol industry sponsorship and hazardous drinking in UK university students who play sport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Kerry S; Ferris, Jason; Greenlees, Ian; Jowett, Sophia; Rhind, Daniel; Cook, Penny A; Kypri, Kypros

    2014-10-01

    To examine whether receipt of alcohol industry sponsorship is associated with problematic drinking in UK university students who play sport. University students (n = 2450) participating in sports were invited to complete a pen-and-paper questionnaire by research staff approaching them at sporting facilities and in university settings. Respondents were asked whether they, personally, their team and/or their club were currently in receipt of sponsorship (e.g. money, free or subsidized travel or sporting products) from an alcohol-related industry (e.g. bars, liquor stores, wholesalers), and whether they had solicited the sponsorship. Drinking was assessed using the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT). Questionnaires were completed by 2048 of those approached (response rate = 83%). Alcohol industry sponsorship was reported by 36% of the sample. After accounting for confounders (age, gender, disposable income and location) in multivariable models, receipt of alcohol sponsorship by a team (adjusted βadj  = 0.41, P = 0.013), club (βadj  = 0.73, P = 0.017), team and club (βadj  = 0.79, P = 0.002) and combinations of individual and team or club sponsorships (βadj  = 1.27, P 8). Respondents who sought out sponsorship were not at greater risk than respondents, or whose teams or clubs, had been approached by the alcohol industry. University students in the United Kingdom who play sport and who personally receive alcohol industry sponsorship or whose club or team receives alcohol industry sponsorship appear to have more problematic drinking behaviour than UK university students who play sport and receive no alcohol industry sponsorship. Policy to reduce or cease such sponsorship should be considered. © 2014 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  11. Association Between Alcohol Sports Sponsorship and Consumption: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Katherine

    2016-11-01

    Concerns have been raised about the impact of alcohol sports sponsorship on harmful consumption, with some countries banning this practice or considering a ban. We review evidence on the relationship between exposure to alcohol sports sponsorship and alcohol consumption. Search of electronic databases (PubMed, Cochrane Library, Google Scholar and International Alcohol Information Database) supplemented by hand searches of references and conference proceedings to locate studies providing data on the impact of exposure to alcohol sports sponsorship and outcomes relating to alcohol consumption. Seven studies met inclusion criteria, presenting data on 12,760 participants from Australia, New Zealand, the UK, Germany, Italy, Netherlands and Poland. All studies report positive associations between exposure to alcohol sports sponsorship and self-reported alcohol consumption, but the statistical significance of results varies. Two studies found indirect exposure to alcohol sports sponsorship was associated with increased levels of drinking amongst schoolchildren, and five studies found a positive association between direct alcohol sports sponsorship and hazardous drinking amongst adult sportspeople. These findings corroborate the results of previous systematic reviews that reported a positive association between exposure to alcohol marketing and alcohol consumption. The relationship between alcohol sports sponsorship and increased drinking amongst schoolchildren will concern policymakers. Further research into the effectiveness of restrictions on alcohol sports sponsorship in reducing harmful drinking is required. © The Author 2016. Medical Council on Alcohol and Oxford University Press.

  12. Effects of consuming alcohol mixed with energy drinks versus consuming alcohol only on overall alcohol consumption and negative alcohol-related consequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Haan L

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Lydia de Haan,1 Hein A de Haan,2,3 Job van der Palen,4,5 Berend Olivier,1 Joris C Verster11Utrecht University, Utrecht Institute for Pharmaceutical Sciences, Division of Pharmacology, Utrecht, 2Tactus Addiction Treatment, Deventer, 3Nijmegen Institute for Scientist-Practitioners in Addiction, Nijmegen, 4Medical School Twente, Medisch Spectrum Twente, Enschede, 5Department of Research Methodology, Measurement, and Data Analysis, University of Twente, Enschede, The NetherlandsBackground: The aim of this study was to examine differences in alcohol consumption and its consequences when consumed alone and when mixed with energy drinks.Methods: A survey was conducted among Dutch students at Utrecht University and the College of Utrecht. We collected data on alcohol consumption and alcohol-related consequences of alcohol consumed alone and/or alcohol mixed with energy drinks (AMED. The data were analyzed using a retrospective within-subject design, comparing occasions when subjects consumed AMED with those when they consumed alcohol only in the past 30 days.Results: A representative sample of 6002 students completed the survey, including 1239 who consumed AMED. Compared with consuming alcohol only, when consuming AMED, students consumed significantly fewer alcoholic drinks on an average drinking day (6.0 versus 5.4, respectively, and reported significantly fewer drinking days in the previous month (9.2 versus 1.4, significantly fewer days being drunk (1.9 versus 0.5, and significantly fewer occasions of consuming more than four (female/five (male alcoholic drinks (4.7 versus 0.9. The maximum number of mixed alcoholic drinks (4.5 in the previous month was significantly lower when compared with occasions when they consumed alcohol only (10.7. Accordingly, the mean duration of a drinking session was significantly shorter when mixing alcoholic drinks (4.0 versus 6.0 hours. Finally, when consuming AMED, significantly fewer alcohol-related consequences were

  13. Pharmacological interventions for alcoholic liver disease (alcohol-related liver disease)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buzzetti, Elena; Kalafateli, Maria; Thorburn, Douglas

    2017-01-01

    trials (irrespective of language, blinding, or publication status) including participants with alcohol-related liver disease. We excluded trials that included participants who had previously undergone liver transplantation and those with co-existing chronic viral diseases. We considered any...... and follow-up of one to two years in order to compare the benefits and harms of different treatments in people with alcoholic hepatitis. Randomised clinical trials should include health-related quality of life and report serious adverse events separately from adverse events. Future randomised clinical trials......BACKGROUND: Alcohol-related liver disease is due to excessive alcohol consumption. It includes a spectrum of liver diseases such as alcohol-related fatty liver, alcoholic hepatitis, and alcoholic cirrhosis. Mortality associated with alcoholic hepatitis is high. The optimal pharmacological treatment...

  14. Prenatal exposure of a girl with autism spectrum disorder to 'horsetail' (Equisetum arvense herbal remedy and alcohol: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martínez-Salcedo Eduardo

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Autism is a complex neurodevelopmental disorder in which the interactions of genetic, epigenetic and environmental influences are thought to play a causal role. In humans, throughout embryonic and fetal life, brain development is exquisitely susceptible to injury caused by exposure to toxic chemicals present in the environment. Although the use of herbal supplements during pregnancy is relatively common, little information is available on their association with fetal neurodevelopment. This is, to the best of our knowledge, the first report in the literature to associate a new plausible mechanism of neurodevelopmental toxicity with a case of autism spectrum disorder through a vitamin deficiency potentiated by concomitant use of herbal supplements and ethanol exposure. Case presentation We describe the pediatric environmental history of a three-year-old Caucasian girl with an autism spectrum disorder. We utilized her pediatric environmental history to evaluate constitutional, genetic, and environmental factors pertinent to manifestation of neurodevelopment disorders. Both parents reported prenatal exposure to several risk factors of interest. A year prior to conception the mother began a weight loss diet and ingested 1200 mg/day of 'horsetail' (Equisetum arvense herbal remedies containing thiaminase, an enzyme that with long-term use can lead to vitamin deficiency. The mother reported a significant weight loss during the pregnancy and a deficiency of B-complex vitamins. Thiamine (vitamin B1 deficiency could have been potentiated by the horsetail's thiaminase activity and ethanol exposure during pregnancy. No other risk factors were identified. Conclusions A detailed and careful pediatric environmental history, which includes daily intake, herbal remedies and ethanol exposure, should be obtained from all patients with autism spectrum disorder. Maternal consumption of ethanol and of herbal supplements with suspected or

  15. A cross sectional evaluation of an alcohol intervention targeting young university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Sharyn; Jancey, Jonine; Crawford, Gemma; Hallett, Jonathan; Portsmouth, Linda; Longo, Janelle

    2016-07-20

    Hazardous drinking has been found to be higher among young university students compared to their non-university peers. Although young university students are exposed to new and exciting experiences, including greater availability and emphasis on social functions involving alcohol there are few multi strategy comprehensive interventions aimed at reducing alcohol-related harms. Random cross sectional online surveys were administered to 18-24 year old students studying at the main campus of a large metropolitan university in Perth, Western Australia. Prior to the completion of the second survey an alcohol intervention was implemented on campus. Completed surveys were received from 2465 (Baseline; T1) and 2422 (Post Year 1: T2) students. Students who consumed alcohol in the past 12 months were categorised as low risk or hazardous drinkers using the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT). Due to the cross sectional nature of the two samples two-tailed two-proportion z-test and two sample t-tests were employed to determine statistical significance between the two time periods for categorical and continuous variables respectively. At T1 and T2 89.1 % and 87.2 % of the total sample reported drinking alcohol in the past month respectively. Hazardous levels of alcohol consumption reduced slightly between T1 (39.7 %) and T2 (38 %). In both time periods hazardous drinkers reported significantly higher mean scores for experienced harm, second-hand harm and witnessed harm scores compared to low risk drinkers (p alcohol consumption and to report more positive alcohol expectations than low risk drinkers at both time periods (p students who report hazardous drinking are of concern and efforts should be made to ensure integrated and targeted strategies reach higher risk students and focus on specific issues such as driving while intoxicated and alcohol related unplanned sexual activity. However there is also a need for universal strategies targeting all students and

  16. The Moderating Effect of Substance Abuse Service Accessibility on the Relationship between Child Maltreatment and Neighborhood Alcohol Availability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, Cory M

    2013-12-01

    This study investigates how the relationship between dense concentrations of alcohol retailers and high rates of child maltreatment may be moderated by the presence of substance abuse service facilities. Using a cross-sectional design, the study utilized data from Bergen County, New Jersey on child maltreatment reports, alcohol-selling retailers, substance abuse service facilities, and the United States Census. Findings indicate child maltreatment rates were higher in neighborhoods with lower socioeconomic status and those with greater alcohol outlet density. Neighborhoods with easily accessed substance abuse service facilities had lower rates of child maltreatment. Additionally, the relationship between child maltreatment and alcohol outlet density was moderated by the presence of substance abuse service facilities. The study findings highlight the relevance of making primary prevention approaches readily available and using multi-sector collaboration to reduce child maltreatment.

  17. Public attitudes towards alcohol control policies in Scotland and England: Results from a mixed-methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jessica; Lovatt, Melanie; Eadie, Douglas; Dobbie, Fiona; Meier, Petra; Holmes, John; Hastings, Gerard; MacKintosh, Anne Marie

    2017-03-01

    The harmful effects of heavy drinking on health have been widely reported, yet public opinion on governmental responsibility for alcohol control remains divided. This study examines UK public attitudes towards alcohol policies, identifies underlying dimensions that inform these, and relationships with perceived effectiveness. A cross-sectional mixed methods study involving a telephone survey of 3477 adult drinkers aged 16-65 and sixteen focus groups with 89 adult drinkers in Scotland and England was conducted between September 2012 and February 2013. Principal components analysis (PCA) was used to reduce twelve policy statements into underlying dimensions. These dimensions were used in linear regression models examining alcohol policy support by demographics, drinking behaviour and perceptions of UK drinking and government responsibility. Findings were supplemented with a thematic analysis of focus group transcripts. A majority of survey respondents supported all alcohol policies, although the level of support varied by type of policy. Greater enforcement of laws on under-age sales and more police patrolling the streets were strongly supported while support for pricing policies and restricting access to alcohol was more divided. PCA identified four main dimensions underlying support on policies: alcohol availability, provision of health information and treatment services, alcohol pricing, and greater law enforcement. Being female, older, a moderate drinker, and holding a belief that government should do more to reduce alcohol harms were associated with higher support on all policy dimensions. Focus group data revealed findings from the survey may have presented an overly positive level of support on all policies due to differences in perceived policy effectiveness. Perceived effectiveness can help inform underlying patterns of policy support and should be considered in conjunction with standard measures of support in future research on alcohol control policies.

  18. Alcohol consumption in young adults: the role of multisensory imagery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connor, Jason P; Kavanagh, David J; Andrade, Jackie; May, Jon; Feeney, Gerald F X; Gullo, Matthew J; White, Angela M; Fry, Marie-Louise; Drennan, Judy; Previte, Josephine; Tjondronegoro, Dian

    2014-03-01

    Little is known about the subjective experience of alcohol desire and craving in young people. Descriptions of alcohol urges continue to be extensively used in the everyday lexicon of young, non-dependent drinkers. Elaborated Intrusion (EI) Theory contends that imagery is central to craving and desires, and predicts that alcohol-related imagery will be associated with greater frequency and amount of drinking. This study involved 1535 age stratified 18-25 year olds who completed an alcohol-related survey that included the Imagery scale of the Alcohol Craving Experience (ACE) questionnaire. Imagery items predicted 12-16% of the variance in concurrent alcohol consumption. Higher total Imagery subscale scores were linearly associated with greater drinking frequency and lower self-efficacy for moderate drinking. Interference with alcohol imagery may have promise as a preventive or early intervention target in young people. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Demographic and Academic Trends in Drinking Patterns and Alcohol-Related Problems on Dry College Campuses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Dexter M.; Johnson, Mark B.; Voas, Robert B.; Turrisi, Robert

    2006-01-01

    Restricting alcohol consumption on campus is a measure often used by college administrators to prevent alcohol abuse and-alcohol-related problems. The effect of dry campus policies on alcohol consumption and alcohol-related problems, however, remains poorly understood. This report will compare characteristics of two dry campuses with descriptions…

  20. The influence of nocturnal alcohol ingestion on snoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riemann, Randolf; Volk, Ralf; Müller, Alexander; Herzog, Michael

    2010-07-01

    Nocturnal alcohol ingestion is known to increase obstructive sleep apnea. It is assumed that snoring also increases under the influence of alcohol although only few data are available to support this hypothesis. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of nocturnal alcohol ingestion on the properties of snoring. Twenty healthy male reported non-snorers (n = 10) and snorers (n = 10) underwent night-time polysomnography at three randomly assigned nights with a blood alcohol concentration (BAC) of 0.0, 0.5 and 0.8 per thousand, respectively. Snoring events were recorded by a room and body contact microphone simultaneously. Loudness and incidence of snoring were calculated and correlated to the total sleep time (TST), body position and sleep stages. Snorers revealed an increase of the apnea-hypopnea-index (AHI) under increasing BAC, whereas no decrease in the nocturnal SAO(2) was detected. Non-snorers had no increase in the AHI but a decrease in SAO(2). Snoring individuals revealed a dose-dependent increase of incidence (TSI) and loudness (LSI) of snoring with regard to the TST. The TSI increased by a factor of 1.6 at 0.5 per thousand BAC and by 4.2 at 0.8 per thousand BAC compared to the 0.0 per thousand- BAC-night. The LSI increased threefold at 0.5 per thousand BAC and 14-fold at 0.8 per thousand BAC. Snoring increased to a bigger extent in a supine position compared to non supine and during REM stage as well as Non REM 3/4 stage. Non-snorers did not present any effect of alcohol on the snoring properties with regard to TST, body position and sleep stage. The results indicate that nocturnal alcohol ingestion affects individuals with a reported history of snoring to a greater extent than non-snorers. Non-snorers did not turn into snorers under increasing alcohol influence. The recommendation, to avoid alcohol intake prior to sleep, gains of special clinical importance for individuals already snoring.

  1. Energy drinks and alcohol-related risk among young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caviness, Celeste M; Anderson, Bradley J; Stein, Michael D

    2017-06-16

    Energy drink consumption, with or without concurrent alcohol use, is common among young adults. This study sought to clarify risk for negative alcohol outcomes related to the timing of energy drink use. The authors interviewed a community sample of 481 young adults, aged 18-25, who drank alcohol in the last month. Past-30-day energy drink use was operationalized as no-use, use without concurrent alcohol, and concurrent use of energy drinks with alcohol ("within a couple of hours"). Negative alcohol outcomes included past-30-day binge drinking, past-30-day alcohol use disorder, and drinking-related consequences. Just over half (50.5%) reported no use of energy drinks,18.3% reported using energy drinks without concurrent alcohol use, and 31.2% reported concurrent use of energy drinks and alcohol. Relative to those who reported concurrent use of energy drinks with alcohol, and controlling for background characteristics and frequency of alcohol consumption, those who didn't use energy drinks and those who used without concurrent alcohol use had significantly lower binge drinking, negative consequences, and rates of alcohol use disorder (P energy drink without concurrent alcohol groups on any alcohol-related measure (P > .10 for all outcomes). Concurrent energy drink and alcohol use is associated with increased risk for negative alcohol consequences in young adults. Clinicians providing care to young adults could consider asking patients about concurrent energy drink and alcohol use as a way to begin a conversation about risky alcohol consumption while addressing 2 substances commonly used by this population.

  2. Underage college students’ alcohol displays on Facebook and real-time alcohol behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Megan A.; Cox, Elizabeth D.; Young, Henry N.; Haaland, Wren

    2015-01-01

    Purpose College is often a time of alcohol use initiation as well as displayed Facebook alcohol references. The purpose of this longitudinal study was to determine associations between initial references to alcohol on social media and college students’ self-reported recent drinking, binge drinking and excessive drinking. Methods First-year students from two US public universities were randomly selected from registrar lists for recruitment. Data collection included 2 years of monthly Facebook evaluation. When an initial displayed Facebook alcohol reference was identified, these “New Alcohol Displayers” were contacted for phone interviews. Phone interviews used the validated TimeLine FollowBack method to evaluate recent alcohol use, binge episodes and excessive drinking. Analyses included calculation of positive predictive value and Poisson regression. Results A total of 338 participants were enrolled, 56.1% were female, 74.8% were Caucasian and 58.8% were from the Midwestern university. A total of 167 (49.4%) participants became New Alcohol Displayers during the first two years of college. Among New Alcohol Displayers, 78.5% reported past 28-day alcohol use. Among New Alcohol Displayers who reported recent alcohol use, 84.9% reported at least one binge episode. Posting an initial Facebook alcohol reference as a profile picture or cover photo was positively associated with excessive drinking (RR=2.34, 95% CI: 1.54–3.58). Conclusions Findings suggest positive associations between references to alcohol on social media and self-reported recent alcohol use. Location of initial reference as a profile picture or cover photo was associated with problematic drinking, and may suggest that a student would benefit from clinical investigation or resources. PMID:26003580

  3. Greater Celandine hepatotoxicity: a clinical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teschke, Rolf; Frenzel, Christian; Glass, Xaver; Schulze, Johannes; Eickhoff, Axel

    2012-01-01

    Herbal hepatotoxicity is a rare and poorly described disease because reported cases are mostly scattered and lack an appropriate causality assessment. We now describe in detail the clinical picture of herbal hepatotoxicity by extracts of Greater Celandine (GC), syn. Chelidonium majus L. from the Papaveraceae family, which contain more than 20 ingredients including various biologically active isoquinoline alkaloids. For this purpose, we analyzed and reviewed published cases of 16 patients from various European countries. In all patients, herbal hepatotoxicity was of probable and highly probable causality for GC, using the original and updated scale of CIOMS (Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences). GC associated hepatotoxicity usually has an acute clinical course exhibiting a hepatocellular pattern of injury and is correlated to an idiosyncratic reaction with its metabolic subtype. Jaundice combined with high values of serum aminotransferases was present in virtually all cases with favourable outcome despite severe clinical course. In conclusion, GC hepatotoxicity is a typical herbal hepatotoxicity with a sound causality track for GC, but there is uncertainty regarding the respective causative compound(s). The present detailed review of GC hepatotoxicity may serve as an example for clinical causality assessments of future cases of liver injury due to other herbs.

  4. An Intimate Look at Contraception and Alcohol Consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathias, Angela S.; Turrentine, Cathryn G.

    2003-01-01

    Explores the relationship between alcohol consumption and contraceptive methods used by 364 heterosexually active undergraduate students at a large public university. Twenty-six percent of the respondents reported drinking alcohol before their last sexual encounter. Found that men who combined alcohol and sex were less likely to report that their…

  5. An analysis of two recent epidemiologic reports in the New England Journal of Medicine associating breast cancer in women with moderate alcohol consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantel, N

    1988-11-01

    Two cohort studies showed an association between moderate alcohol consumption and breast cancer, with an apparent relative risk of 1.50. Drinkers and nondrinkers already differed in important ways at the initiation of these two studies, precluding a causal interpretation of the associations found. Women in need of the relaxing effect of alcohol may indeed be the group at higher risk for breast cancer. Inasmuch as the studies did not inquire into other cancers, morbidities, mortalities, or total mortality, they leave open the possibility that, on balance, moderate alcohol consumption is beneficial.

  6. Prevalence of alcohol and cannabis use and reported knowledge, attitudes and practice regarding its relationship with health and safety on mines in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Pick, W

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available possession, and after involvement in work related accidents. A breathalyser result of 0.24 mg/1000ml of breath is regarded as the limit for breath alcohol results at this mine. Though the right of an individual to refuse testing is acknowledged, a....e. normal blood alcohol level). Breath alcohol levels were automatically stored in the instrument, and actual results were downloaded onto a computer and read off after the interviews. 2.4.3 Urine cannabis testing Initial testing for Tetra...

  7. Alcohol use patterns, problems and policies in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jernigan, D H; Indran, S K

    1997-12-01

    The roots of Malaysia's drinking patterns lie in the introduction of most forms of alcohol by Europeans. Although Malaysia today has relatively low per capita alcohol consumption, available studies and interviews with alcohol industry officials point to a small segment of the population that drinks heavily and causes and experiences substantial alcohol related-problems. Indians are over-represented in this sub-population, but studies also reveal substantial drinking problems among Chinese and Malays. Government officials categorize alcohol as an Indian problem. The government devotes little resources to monitoring drinking patterns, use or problems; or to preventing, treating or educating the public about alcohol-related problems. Alcohol-producing transnational corporations own shares of all of Malaysia's major alcohol producers. In the face of high alcohol taxes and a ban on broadcast advertising of alcoholic beverages, these companies market alcohol aggressively, making health claims, targeting heavy drinkers and encouraging heavy drinking, employing indirect advertising, and using women in seductive poses and occupations to attract the mostly male drinking population. Monitoring of the country's alcohol problems is greatly needed in order to establish alcohol consumption more clearly as a national health and safety issue, while stronger controls and greater corporate responsibility are required to control alcohol marketing.

  8. Alcoholism between Fiction and Reality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carota, Antonio; Calabrese, Pasquale

    2013-01-01

    Alcoholism has always been emphasized in literature, narratives, and theater as its prevalence and related disability are very high, is found throughout the world, and affects women and men of all ages and social classes. There is a tragic or romantic fascination in the deep sense of personal failure that drinking is able to relieve and in the uncontrollable inability to stop drinking. These aspects have been portrayed well by fictional alcoholics in movies and novels. It has become evident that biological traits together with a complex series of psychosocial factors (e.g. negative life events, depression, anxiety, and other psychiatric or personality disorders), which are also well represented in novels and movies, can lead to alcohol addiction. Behavioral (euphoria, disinhibiting behaviors, aggressiveness) and neurological changes (confusion, bradypsychism, slurred speech, ataxia, blackouts) related to alcohol intoxication are also well portrayed by fictional characters. Delirium tremens, epilepsy, alcohol dementia, and Wernicke-Korsakoff disease, however, find less representation in literature and on the stage and screen. The treatment of alcoholic dependence is very difficult (as often reported by fictional and real stories), but should never be considered hopeless. It should be initiated at any stage of the disease. The support offered by Alcoholics Anonymous has always had great appeal for the public. Fictional works can portray alcohol addiction superbly and show some dark sides of human nature (negative emotions and autodestructive thoughts and behaviors), and, at the same time, the severity and pervasiveness of mental illnesses. The psychiatric and psychosocial aspects of alcohol addiction in movies and novels could be an inspiring source for new psychological studies and rehabilitation programs.

  9. Alcohol fuels program technical review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1981-07-01

    The last issue of the Alcohol Fuels Process R/D Newsletter contained a work breakdown structure (WBS) of the SERI Alcohol Fuels Program that stressed the subcontracted portion of the program and discussed the SERI biotechnology in-house program. This issue shows the WBS for the in-house programs and contains highlights for the remaining in-house tasks, that is, methanol production research, alcohol utilization research, and membrane research. The methanol production research activity consists of two elements: development of a pressurized oxygen gasifier and synthesis of catalytic materials to more efficiently convert synthesis gas to methanol and higher alcohols. A report is included (Finegold et al. 1981) that details the experimental apparatus and recent results obtained from the gasifier. The catalysis research is principally directed toward producing novel organometallic compounds for use as a homogeneous catalyst. The utilization research is directed toward the development of novel engine systems that use pure alcohol for fuel. Reforming methanol and ethanol catalytically to produce H/sub 2/ and CO gas for use as a fuel offers performance and efficiency advantages over burning alcohol directly as fuel in an engine. An application of this approach is also detailed at the end of this section. Another area of utilization is the use of fuel cells in transportation. In-house researchers investigating alternate electrolyte systems are exploring the direct and indirect use of alcohols in fuel cells. A workshop is being organized to explore potential applications of fuel cells in the transportation sector. The membrane research group is equipping to evaluate alcohol/water separation membranes and is also establishing cost estimation and energy utilization figures for use in alcohol plant design.

  10. Neurobiological Basis of Alcohol Addiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milagros Lisset León Regal

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Alcoholism is a serious social problem due to its impact on individual and collective health. In order to provide an update on the latest findings that explain the development and symptoms of alcohol addiction, the short and long term changes that this disorder causes in the central nervous system are shown in this paper. A total of 52 information sources were consulted, including 43 journal articles, 4 books and statistical reports. The main network managers were used. The interaction of ethanol with various structures of the neuronal membrane affects the cytoarchitecture and brain function associated with the reward system, motor processing, learning and memory, resulting in the development of alcohol dependence. In addition, ethanol-induced changes in excitation/inhibition explain the phenomena of alcohol tolerance and withdrawal.

  11. A Review of the Statistical and Quantitative Methods Used to Study Alcohol-Attributable Crime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitterer, Jessica L.; Nelson, Trisalyn A.

    2015-01-01

    Modelling the relationship between alcohol consumption and crime generates new knowledge for crime prevention strategies. Advances in data, particularly data with spatial and temporal attributes, have led to a growing suite of applied methods for modelling. In support of alcohol and crime researchers we synthesized and critiqued existing methods of spatially and quantitatively modelling the effects of alcohol exposure on crime to aid method selection, and identify new opportunities for analysis strategies. We searched the alcohol-crime literature from 1950 to January 2014. Analyses that statistically evaluated or mapped the association between alcohol and crime were included. For modelling purposes, crime data were most often derived from generalized police reports, aggregated to large spatial units such as census tracts or postal codes, and standardized by residential population data. Sixty-eight of the 90 selected studies included geospatial data of which 48 used cross-sectional datasets. Regression was the prominent modelling choice (n = 78) though dependent on data many variations existed. There are opportunities to improve information for alcohol-attributable crime prevention by using alternative population data to standardize crime rates, sourcing crime information from non-traditional platforms (social media), increasing the number of panel studies, and conducting analysis at the local level (neighbourhood, block, or point). Due to the spatio-temporal advances in crime data, we expect a continued uptake of flexible Bayesian hierarchical modelling, a greater inclusion of spatial-temporal point pattern analysis, and shift toward prospective (forecast) modelling over small areas (e.g., blocks). PMID:26418016

  12. Perceived legitimacy of parental authority and tobacco and alcohol use during early adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Christine

    2002-11-01

    To assess the likelihood that young adolescents perceive that parents have legitimate authority regarding cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption; to test whether perceived parental authority predicts adolescents' use of tobacco and alcohol, and to test the association between parenting style and the legitimacy of parental authority regarding tobacco and alcohol. Survey data were obtained in 1997 from 1220 sixth and eighth grade adolescents enrolled in a central North Carolina school district. The sample comprised 72.3% of 1687 eligible students and 92.3% of 1321 students with parental consent; 83.8% of the sample was European-American and 16.2% African-American. Students completed self-report questionnaires administered in classrooms. Logistic regression models were used to test the study hypotheses. Adolescents were significantly more likely to legitimize parental authority regarding tobacco and alcohol than parental authority regarding conventional or contemporary issues. Failure to legitimize parental authority was associated with significantly greater odds of current smoking (OR = 4.06; p parental authority regarding tobacco and alcohol varied significantly by parenting style. The results discredit the myth that adolescents uniformly disregard parental values and rules regarding tobacco and alcohol. The results also showed that general parenting style covaried strongly with adolescents' perceptions of parental authority regarding substance use. Additional research is warranted to test for causal relations between general parenting style, adolescents' perceptions of parental authority regarding substance use, and adolescents' risk of substance use.

  13. A Review of the Statistical and Quantitative Methods Used to Study Alcohol-Attributable Crime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitterer, Jessica L; Nelson, Trisalyn A

    2015-01-01

    Modelling the relationship between alcohol consumption and crime generates new knowledge for crime prevention strategies. Advances in data, particularly data with spatial and temporal attributes, have led to a growing suite of applied methods for modelling. In support of alcohol and crime researchers we synthesized and critiqued existing methods of spatially and quantitatively modelling the effects of alcohol exposure on crime to aid method selection, and identify new opportunities for analysis strategies. We searched the alcohol-crime literature from 1950 to January 2014. Analyses that statistically evaluated or mapped the association between alcohol and crime were included. For modelling purposes, crime data were most often derived from generalized police reports, aggregated to large spatial units such as census tracts or postal codes, and standardized by residential population data. Sixty-eight of the 90 selected studies included geospatial data of which 48 used cross-sectional datasets. Regression was the prominent modelling choice (n = 78) though dependent on data many variations existed. There are opportunities to improve information for alcohol-attributable crime prevention by using alternative population data to standardize crime rates, sourcing crime information from non-traditional platforms (social media), increasing the number of panel studies, and conducting analysis at the local level (neighbourhood, block, or point). Due to the spatio-temporal advances in crime data, we expect a continued uptake of flexible Bayesian hierarchical modelling, a greater inclusion of spatial-temporal point pattern analysis, and shift toward prospective (forecast) modelling over small areas (e.g., blocks).

  14. Food insecurity and antiretroviral adherence among HIV positive adults who drink alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalichman, Seth C; Grebler, Tamar; Amaral, Christina M; McKerney, Megan; White, Denise; Kalichman, Moira O; Cherry, Chauncey; Eaton, Lisa

    2014-10-01

    Food insecurity is associated with HIV treatment non-adherence and poor health outcomes for people living with HIV/AIDS. Given the poor nutritional status common to people who drink alcohol, food insecurity may be particularly problematic for HIV positive individuals who drink alcohol. To examine food insecurity among HIV positive men and women who drink alcohol and its association with antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence, health outcomes and health service utilization. Adults living with HIV (N = 183) in Atlanta, Georgia who reported alcohol use in the previous week and were receiving ART participated in a 12-month cohort. Participants were recruited from infectious disease clinics and social services to complete computerized interviews, monthly-unannounced pill counts to monitor ART adherence, and daily cell-phone delivered interactive-text assessments for alcohol use. Forty-three percent of participants experienced food insecurity during at least one month of the study period. Food insecurity was independently associated with suboptimal ART adherence and less suppressed HIV viral load over. Individuals who experienced food insecurity also had histories of more medical and psychiatric hospitalizations, and greater mental health problems. Food insecurity is prevalent among alcohol using people receiving ART and food insecurity is associated with treatment non-adherence, poor health outcomes, and increased medical and psychiatric hospitalizations.

  15. Energy drinks and alcohol: links to alcohol behaviors and consequences across 56 days.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick, Megan E; Maggs, Jennifer L

    2014-04-01

    To examine short-term consequences associated with consuming alcohol and energy drinks compared with consuming alcohol without energy drinks. A longitudinal measurement-burst design (14-day bursts of daily surveys in four consecutive college semesters) captured both within-person variation across occasions and between-person differences across individuals. The analytic sample of late adolescent alcohol users included 4,203 days with alcohol use across up to four semesters per person from 508 college students. Adding energy drink use to a given day with alcohol use was associated with an increase in number of alcoholic drinks, a trend toward more hours spent drinking, elevated estimated blood alcohol content (eBAC), a greater likelihood of subjective intoxication, and more negative consequences of drinking that day. After controlling for eBAC, energy drink use no longer predicted subjective intoxication but was still associated with a greater number of negative consequences. The consumption of energy drinks may lead to increases in alcohol consumption and, after controlling for eBAC, negative consequences. Use of energy drinks plus alcohol represents an emerging threat to public health. Copyright © 2014 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Alcoholic liver disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liver disease due to alcohol; Cirrhosis or hepatitis - alcoholic; Laennec's cirrhosis ... Alcoholic liver disease occurs after years of heavy drinking. Over time, scarring and cirrhosis can occur. Cirrhosis is the ...

  17. Breath alcohol test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcohol test - breath ... There are various brands of breath alcohol tests. Each one uses a different method to test the level of alcohol in the breath. The machine may be electronic or manual. One ...

  18. Weight loss and alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 19548203 . National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. Rethinking Drinking: Alcohol and Your Health. rethinkingdrinking.niaaa.nih. ... about A.D.A.M.'s editorial policy , editorial process and privacy policy . A.D.A.M. is ...

  19. Behind the Label "Alcoholic."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Deborah M.

    1989-01-01

    Relates individual's personal story of her childhood influenced by her parent's alcoholism, her own alcoholism as a young adult, and her experiences with counseling. Asks others not to reject her because of the label "alcoholic." (ABL)

  20. Prejuízos neurocognitivos na dependência alcoólica: um estudo de caso Neurocognitive impairments in alcohol dependence: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Maria Tedeschi Vieira

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXTO: A alta prevalência de indivíduos dependentes de álcool estimula a realização de estudos que ampliem o entendimento de seus efeitos sobre o organismo. OBJETIVO: O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a preservação e prejuí­zo de funções neuropsicológicas em um caso de dependência alcoólica. Trata-se de estudo de caso de um alcoolista em tratamento medicamentoso no Hospital das Clínicas da Universidade de São Paulo, que declarava encontrar-se abstêmio desde o início do tratamento há cerca de um ano. MÉTODOS: Os instrumentos utilizados neste estudo foram entrevistas e testes neuropsicológicos (WAIS-III, Figura de Rey e WRAML-II. RESULTADOS: Os resultados das funções visuomotoras, praxia construtiva, memórias visual e verbal e capacidade de aprendizagem apresentaram graves prejuízos. O paciente teve um desempenho ligeiramente melhor, embora ainda rebaixado, em linguagem, aritmética e memória para sentenças curtas. A atenção imediata teve resultado dentro da normalidade, dado consistente com achados anteriores. O resultado no Subteste Semelhanças reforça evidências da capacidade de generalização em indivíduos dependentes de álcool. CONCLUSÃO: Conclui-se que os dados obtidos são consistentes com a literatura atual que apontam graves prejuízos na memória e funções visuomotoras paralelamente a manutenção da atenção e capacidade de generalização.BACKGROUND: The high prevalence of alcohol dependence asks for a better comprehension of its effects on the organism. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate prejudice and preservation of neuropsychological functions of alcohol dependence. It is presented a case report of a patient under drug treatment in Hospital das Clínicas da Universidade de São Paulo. The patient declared abstinence since the beginning of the treatment, about one year ago. METHODS: Interviews and neuropsycological tests (WAIS-III, Figure of Rey and WRAML-II. RESULTS: The

  1. Nicotine's effects on attentional efficiency in alcoholics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nixon, Sara Jo; Lawton-Craddock, Andrea; Tivis, Rick; Ceballos, Natalie

    2007-12-01

    Historically, the concomitant use of nicotine among alcoholics has not been methodologically accounted for. Given the observed cognitive enhancing effects of acute nicotine on attentional processes, it is important that the potentially positive effects of nicotine be disentangled from the negative effects of chronic alcohol dependence. The current study was conducted to address this question and to test the hypothesis that alcoholics who are regular smokers are more sensitive to the effects of nicotine on cognition as compared to regular smoking community controls. A 2 [drug group; alcoholics (n = 28), community controls (n = 27)] X 2 nicotine dose level [low (7 mg dose) vs. high (14 or 21 mg dose)] double-blind design was used to assess the differential effects of nicotine dose on a battery of neurocognitive tests focusing on attentional efficiency. As expected, the alcoholic group performed more poorly than did the control group. However, of greater interest to the current study was the finding that alcoholic participants differentially benefited from nicotine administration, as demonstrated in the differential dose effect. The concomitant use of nicotine may serve to "mask" or "overcome" some of the negative effects of chronic alcohol dependence in newly recovering alcoholics. This potential effect has significant implications for treatment development and further understanding of the process of recovery of function in chronic alcoholics.

  2. Self-reported hand hygiene practices, and feasibility and acceptability of alcohol-based hand rubs among village healthcare workers in Inner Mongolia, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y; Wang, Y; Yan, D; Rao, C Y

    2015-08-01

    Good hand hygiene is critical to reduce the risk of healthcare-associated infections. Limited data are available on hand hygiene practices from rural healthcare systems in China. To assess the feasibility and acceptability of sanitizing hands with alcohol-based hand rubs (ABHRs) among Chinese village healthcare workers, and to assess their hand hygiene practice. Five hundred bottles of ABHR were given to village healthcare workers in Inner Mongolia, China. Standardized questionnaires collected information on their work load, availability, and usage of hand hygiene facilities, and knowledge, attitudes, and practices of hand hygiene. In all, 369 (64.2%) participants completed the questionnaire. Although 84.5% of the ABHR recipients believed that receiving the ABHR improved their hand hygiene practice, 78.8% of recipients would pay no more than US$1.5 out of their own pocket (actual cost US$4). The majority (77.2%) who provided medical care at patients' homes never carried hand rubs with them outside their clinics. In general, self-reported hand hygiene compliance was suboptimal, and the lowest compliance was 'before touching a patient'. Reported top three complaints with using ABHR were skin irritation, splashing, and unpleasant residual. Village doctors with less experience practised less hand hygiene. The overall acceptance of ABHR among the village healthcare workers is high as long as it is provided to them for free/low cost, but their overall hand hygiene practice is suboptimal. Hand hygiene education and training is needed in settings outside of traditional healthcare facilities. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Genetic influences on alcohol use behaviors have diverging developmental trajectories: a prospective study among male and female twins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyers, Jacquelyn L; Salvatore, Jessica E; Vuoksimaa, Eero; Korhonen, Tellervo; Pulkkinen, Lea; Rose, Richard J; Kaprio, Jaakko; Dick, Danielle M

    2014-11-01

    Both alcohol-specific genetic factors and genetic factors related to externalizing behavior influence problematic alcohol use. Little is known, however, about the etiologic role of these 2 components of genetic risk on alcohol-related behaviors across development. Prior studies conducted in a male cohort of twins suggest that externalizing genetic factors are important for predicting heavy alcohol use in adolescence, whereas alcohol-specific genetic factors increase in importance during the transition to adulthood. In this report, we studied twin brothers and sisters and brother-sister twin pairs to examine such developmental trajectories and investigate whether sex and cotwin sex effects modify these genetic influences. We used prospective, longitudinal twin data collected between ages 12 and 22 within the population-based FinnTwin12 cohort study (analytic n = 1,864). Our dependent measures of alcohol use behaviors included alcohol initiation (age 12), intoxication frequency (ages 14 and 17), and alcohol dependence criteria (age 22). Each individual's genetic risk of alcohol use disorders (AUD-GR) was indexed by his/her parents' and cotwin's DSM-IV Alcohol Dependence (AD) criterion counts. Likewise, each individual's genetic risk of externalizing disorders (EXT-GR) was indexed with a composite measure of parents' and cotwin's DSM-IV Conduct Disorder and Antisocial Personality Disorder criterion counts. EXT-GR was most strongly related to alcohol use behaviors during adolescence, while AUD-GR was most strongly related to alcohol problems in young adulthood. Further, sex of the twin and sex of the cotwin significantly moderated the associations between genetic risk and alcohol use behaviors across development: AUD-GR influenced early adolescent alcohol use behaviors in females more than in males, and EXT-GR influenced age 22 AD more in males than in females. In addition, the associations of AUD-GR and EXT-GR with intoxication frequency were greater among 14- and

  4. Genetics and alcoholism

    OpenAIRE

    Edenberg, Howard J; Foroud, Tatiana

    2013-01-01

    Alcohol is widely consumed, but excessive use creates serious physical, psychological and social problems and contributes to many diseases. Alcoholism (alcohol dependence, alcohol use disorders) is a maladaptive pattern of excessive drinking leading to serious problems. Abundant evidence indicates that alcoholism is a complex genetic disease, with variations in a large number of genes affecting risk. Some of these genes have been identified, including two genes of alcohol me...

  5. Drug and alcohol task force

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gordey, T. [ConocoPhillips Canada Resources Corp., Calgary, AB (Canada); Sunstrum, M. [Enform, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    Worker absenteeism due to substance abuse costs the Alberta economy approximately $720 million a year. It is estimated that 20 per cent of all drivers in fatal crashes were using alcohol, and the use of cannabis and cocaine in Alberta has more than doubled over the last 15 years. In addition, 1 in 10 Alberta workers have reported using alcohol while at work and 4 per cent have reported using alcohol 4 hours prior to coming to work during the previous 12 months. In an effort to ensure appropriate health and safety for workers in the Canadian petroleum industry, 6 trade associations in the sector have joined together as the Enform Alcohol and Drug Initiative and are now working to develop a common approach to drug and alcohol guidelines and workplace rules. The task group will determine if existing policies and guidelines are sufficient to ensure a safe workplace and will consider standardizing the testing, application and rehabilitation of workers with respect to the use of drugs and alcohol. In the past, disciplinary actions have often been reversed because employers have not been consistent or did not follow established alcohol and drug policies or test to specific standards. Various work rules for inappropriate alcohol and drug use were reviewed, as well as education and communication strategies regarding policy content. Standards for testing criteria were discussed, as well as issues concerning duty-to-accommodate circumstances. An excerpt of concentration standards was presented. It was concluded that a matrix for companies to assess and determine safety sensitive positions is needed. refs., tabs., figs.

  6. Alcohol consumption and the risk of self-reported perennial and seasonal allergic rhinitis in young adult women in a population-based cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendtsen, P; Grønbæk, M; Kjær, S. K.;

    2008-01-01

    Background Alcohol consumption has been suggested to be associated with the development of allergic rhinitis (AR), but there is limited data on the topic. Objectives The objective of this study was to investigate the association between alcohol consumption and the risk of developing AR among young...... associated with the risk of developing seasonal (OR, 2.01; 95% CI, 1.65-2.45) and perennial AR (OR, 2.28; 95% CI, 1.70-2.74). Smoking was not associated with an increased risk of developing AR. Conclusion In this population of young adult women, alcohol consumption was associated with an increased risk...... women. Methods Five thousand eight hundred and seventy Danish women aged 20-29 years participated in a prospective cohort study, and were free of seasonal and perennial AR at baseline (1991-1993). Alcohol consumption was assessed by a food frequency questionnaire. The main outcome measures were self...

  7. Alcoholism and alcohol drinking habits predicted from alcohol dehydrogenase genes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tolstrup, Janne Schurmann; Nordestgaard, Børge Grønne; Rasmussen, Søren

    2008-01-01

    Alcohol drinking habits and alcoholism are partly genetically determined. Alcohol is degraded primarily by alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) wherein genetic variation that affects the rate of alcohol degradation is found in ADH1B and ADH1C. It is biologically plausible that these variations may...... be associated with alcohol drinking habits and alcoholism. By genotyping 9080 white men and women from the general population, we found that men and women with ADH1B slow vs fast alcohol degradation drank more alcohol and had a higher risk of everyday drinking, heavy drinking, excessive drinking...... and of alcoholism. For example, the weekly alcohol intake was 9.8 drinks (95% confidence interval (CI): 9.1-11) among men with the ADH1B.1/1 genotype compared to 7.5 drinks (95% CI: 6.4-8.7) among men with the ADH1B.1/2 genotype, and the odds ratio (OR) for heavy drinking was 3.1 (95% CI: 1.7-5.7) among men...

  8. Greater Trochanteric Pain Syndrome in general Practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Brinks (Tineke)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractThis thesis focuses on patients with greater trochanteric pain syndrome. These patients suffer from local pain at the lateral side of the hip. The syndrome is characterized by chronic intermittent or continuous pain at and around the greater trochanter, sometimes radiating to the lateral

  9. Alcohol Misuse and Multiple Sexual Partners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahrzad Bazargan-Hejazi, PhD

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: We examine the association between self-reported alcohol misuse and alcohol usewithin 2 hours of having sex and the number of sexual partners among a sample of African-Americanand Latino emergency department (ED patients.Methods: Cross-sectional data were collected prospectively from a randomized sample of all EDpatients during a 5-week period. In face-to-face interviews, subjects were asked to report their alcoholuse and number of sexual partners in the past 12 months. Data were analyzed using multiple variablenegative binomial regression models, and effect modification was assessed through inclusion ofinteraction terms.Results: The 395 study participants reported an average of 1.4 (standard error¼0.11 sexual partnersin the past 12 months, 23% reported misusing alcohol, and 28% reported consuming alcohol beforesex. There was no statistically significant association between alcohol misuse and the number ofsexual partners; however, alcohol before sex was associated with a larger number of sexual partners inthe past year. Moreover, among those who misused alcohol, participants who reported alcohol beforesex were 3 times more likely to report a higher number of sexual partners (risk ratio¼3.2; confidenceinterval [CI]¼1.9–5.6. The association between alcohol use before sex and number of sexual partnersis dependent upon whether a person has attributes of harmful drinking over the past 12 months.Overall, alcohol use before sex increases the number of sexual partners, but the magnitude of thiseffect is significantly increased among alcohol misusers.Conclusion: Alcohol misusers and those who reported having more than 1 sexual partner were morelikely to cluster in the same group, ie, those who used alcohol before sex. Efforts to reduce the burdenof sexually transmitted diseases, including human immunodeficiency virus, and other consequences ofrisky sexual behavior in the ED population should be cognizant of the interplay of alcohol and

  10. School commitment and alcohol use: The moderating role of race and ethnicity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamela McNulty Eitle

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Research indicates that lower levels of school commitment may be one potential outcome of policy initiatives such as high-stakes testing and exit exams. Such outcomes may lead these policy initiatives to have unintended consequences for students, particularly racial or ethnic minority students. This study examines whether race or ethnicity moderate the relationship between school commitment and alcohol use or binge drinking among a sample of Florida public middle and high-school students who were surveyed as part of the 2002 Florida Youth Substance Abuse Survey. Low school commitment was found to be associated with a greater likelihood of alcohol use in the past 30 days and a greater likelihood of binge drinking during the past two weeks for Black, Hispanic, and White students. Both the higher average levels of school commitment among Black and Hispanic than among white students and the greater association between low school commitment and the two alcohol use outcomes for Black and Hispanic students compared to White students account for some of the difference in alcohol use and binge drinking among the different groups.


    1 Financial assistance for this study was provided by the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (grant number R01 AA13167 and the National Institute of Drug Abuse (grant number R01 DA018645-01A1. We gratefully acknowledge Michael French and members of the Health Economics Research Group (HERG for their research suggestions and William Russell for editorial assistance. The authors are entirely responsible for the research and results reported in this paper, and their position or opinions do not necessarily represent those of NIAAA or NIDA.

  11. Alcoholics Anonymous attendance, decreases in impulsivity and drinking and psychosocial outcomes over 16 years: moderated-mediation from a developmental perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blonigen, Daniel M; Timko, Christine; Finney, John W; Moos, Bernice S; Moos, Rudolf H

    2011-12-01

    To examine whether decreases in impulsivity account for links between Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) attendance and better drinking and psychosocial outcomes, and whether these mediational 'effects' are conditional on age. A naturalistic study in which individuals were assessed at baseline, and 1, 8 and 16 years later. Participants initiated help-seeking through the alcohol intervention system (detoxification programs, information and referral centers). Individuals with alcohol use disorders and no prior history of substance abuse treatment at baseline [n=628; 47% women; mean age=34.7 years (standard deviation=9.4)]. Self-reports of impulsivity and drinking pattern at baseline and year 1, duration of AA (number of weeks) in year 1 and drinking (alcohol use problems, self-efficacy to resist drinking) and psychosocial outcomes (emotional discharge coping, social support) at baseline and follow-ups. Controlling for changes in drinking pattern, decreases in impulsivity were associated with fewer alcohol use problems, better coping and greater social support and self-efficacy at year 1, and better coping and greater social support at year 8. Decreases in impulsivity statistically mediated associations between longer AA duration and improvements on all year 1 outcomes and indirect effects were moderated by participant age (significant only for individuals 25 years of age or younger). Decreased impulsivity appears to mediate reductions in alcohol-related problems over 8 years in people attending Alcoholics Anonymous. Published 2011 This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  12. The economical production of alcohol fuels from coal-derived synthesis gas. Sixth quarterly technical progress report, January 1, 1993--March 31, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-04-01

    Preliminary economic investigations have focused on cost reduction measures in the production of syngas from coal. A spread sheet model has been developed which can determine the cost of syngas production based upon the cost of equipment and raw materials and the market value of energy and by-products. In comparison to natural gas derived syngas, coal derived syngas is much more expensive, suggesting a questionable economic status of coal derived alcohol fuels. While it is possible that use of less expensive coal or significant integration of alcohol production and electricity production may reduce the cost of coal derived syngas, it is unlikely to be less costly to produce than syngas from natural gas. Fuels evaluation is being conducted in three parts. First, standard ASTM tests are being used to analyze the blend characteristics of higher alcohols. Second, the performance characteristics of higher alcohols are being evaluated in a single-cylinder research engine. Third, the emissions characteristics of higher alcohols are being investigated. The equipment is still under construction and the measurement techniques are still being developed. Of particular interest is n-butanol, since the MoS{sub 2} catalyst produces only linear higher alcohols. There is almost no information on the combustion and emission characteristics of n-butanol, hence the importance of gathering this information in this research.

  13. Are we justified in suggesting change to caffeine, alcohol, and carbonated drink intake in lower urinary tract disease? Report from the ICI-RS 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Dudley; Hanna-Mitchell, Ann; Rantell, Angie; Thiagamoorthy, Gans; Cardozo, Linda

    2017-04-01

    There is increasing evidence that diet may have a significant role in the development of lower urinary tract symptoms. While fluid intake is known to affect lower urinary tract function the effects of alcohol, caffeine, carbonated drinks, and artificial sweeteners are less well understood and evidence from epidemiological studies is mixed and sometimes contradictory. The aim of this paper is to appraise the available evidence on the effect of caffeine, alcohol, and carbonated drinks on lower urinary tract function and dysfunction in addition to suggesting proposals for further research. Literature review based on a systematic search strategy using the terms "fluid intake," "caffeine," "alcohol," "carbonated" and "urinary incontinence," "detrusor overactivity," "Overactive Bladder," "OAB." In addition to fluid intake, there is some evidence to support a role of caffeine, alcohol, and carbonated beverages in the pathogenesis of OAB and lower urinary tract dysfunction. Although some findings are contradictory, others clearly show an association between the ingestion of caffeine, carbonated drinks, and alcohol with symptom severity. CONCLUSIONS Given the available evidence lifestyle interventions and fluid modification may have an important role in the primary prevention of lower urinary tract symptoms. However, more research is needed to determine the precise role of caffeine, carbonated drinks, and alcohol in the pathogenesis and management of these symptoms. The purpose of this paper is to stimulate that research. Neurourol. Urodynam. 36:876-881, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Alcohol use, anxiety, and insomnia in older adults with generalized anxiety disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivan, M Cristina; Amspoker, Amber B; Nadorff, Michael R; Kunik, Mark E; Cully, Jeffrey A; Wilson, Nancy; Calleo, Jessica; Kraus-Schuman, Cynthia; Stanley, Melinda A

    2014-09-01

    To examine alcohol consumption among older primary care patients with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD); its relationship to demographic variables, insomnia, worry, and anxiety; and its moderating role on the anxiety-insomnia relationship. We expected alcohol use to be similar to previous reports, correlate with higher anxiety and insomnia, and worsen the anxiety-insomnia relationship. Baseline data from a randomized controlled trial. Michael E. DeBakey VA Medical Center and Baylor College of Medicine. 223 patients, 60 years and older, with GAD. Frequency of alcohol use, insomnia (Insomnia Severity Index), worry (Penn State Worry Questionnaire - Abbreviated, Generalized Anxiety Disorder Severity Scale), and anxiety (State-Trait Anxiety Inventory - Trait subscale, Structured Interview Guide for the Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale [SIGH-A]). Most patients endorsed alcohol use, but frequency was low. Presence and frequency were greater than in previous reports of primary care samples. Alcohol use was associated with higher education, female gender, less severe insomnia, and lower worry (Generalized Anxiety Disorder Severity Scale) and anxiety (State-Trait Anxiety Inventory-Trait subscale; SIGH-A). Whites reported more drinks/week than African-Americans. More drinks/week were associated with higher education and lower anxiety (SIGH-A). Weaker relationships between worry/anxiety and insomnia occurred for those drinking. Drink frequency moderated the positive association between the Penn State Worry Questionnaire-Abbreviated and insomnia, which was lower with higher frequency of drinking. Older adults with GAD use alcohol at an increased rate, but mild to moderate drinkers do not experience sleep difficulties. A modest amount of alcohol may minimize the association between anxiety/worry and insomnia among this group. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. Teaching internal medicine resident physicians about Alcoholics Anonymous: a pilot study of an educational intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Adam J; Stein, Melissa R; Arnsten, Julia H; Saitz, Richard

    2006-09-01

    Greater physician confidence in treating alcoholism is associated with a higher frequency of referring alcoholic patients for treatment, but many physicians have limited experience with Alcoholics Anonymous. We implemented a brief, didactic and experiential educational intervention about AA and evaluated its effect on knowledge and attitudes, using a before-after repeated measures study design. Thirty-six first-year internal medicine resident physicians received an educational intervention, which consisted of a 45-minute lecture about AA, a visit to an AA meeting, and a 30-minute debriefing session the next day. Residents' knowledge and attitudes were assessed by a brief written anonymous survey before and after the educational intervention. Residents reported increases in self-perceived knowledge about AA and had more favorable attitudes towards AA after the intervention. Our pilot study shows that a brief, didactic and experiential course can improve physician knowledge and attitudes about AA, and holds promise for improving physician interface with this commonly used intervention.

  16. There's alcohol in my soap: portrayal and effects of alcohol use in a popular television series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Hoof, Joris J; de Jong, Menno D T; Fennis, Bob M; Gosselt, Jordy F

    2009-06-01

    Two studies are reported addressing the media influences on adolescents' alcohol-related attitudes and behaviours. A content analysis was conducted to investigate the prevalence of alcohol portrayal in a Dutch soap series. The coding scheme covered the alcohol consumption per soap character, drinking situations and drinking times. Inter-coder reliability was satisfactory. The results showed that alcohol portrayal was prominent and that many instances of alcohol use reflected undesirable behaviours. To assess the influence of such alcohol cues on adolescents, a 2x2 experiment was conducted focusing on the separate and combined effects of alcohol portrayal in the soap series and surrounding alcohol commercials. Whereas the alcohol commercials had the expected effects on adolescents' attitudes, the alcohol-related soap content only appeared to have unexpected effects. Adolescents who were exposed to the alcohol portrayal in the soap series had a less positive attitude towards alcohol and lower drinking intentions. Implications of these findings for health policy and future research are discussed.

  17. Greater happiness for a greater number: is that possible and desirable?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Veenhoven (Ruut)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractGREATER HAPPINESS FOR A GREATER NUMBER: IS THAT POSSIBLE AND DESIRABLE? Utilitarian philosophy holds that public policy should aim at greater happiness for a greater number of people. This moral tenet meets many objections, on pragmatic grounds it is denounced as unfeasible and on ideolo

  18. Greater happiness for a greater number: is that possible and desirable?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Veenhoven (Ruut)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractGREATER HAPPINESS FOR A GREATER NUMBER: IS THAT POSSIBLE AND DESIRABLE? Utilitarian philosophy holds that public policy should aim at greater happiness for a greater number of people. This moral tenet meets many objections, on pragmatic grounds it is denounced as unfeasible and on

  19. Health risks of alcohol use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcoholism - risks; Alcohol abuse - risks; Alcohol dependence - risks; Risky drinking ... Beer, wine, and liquor all contain alcohol. If you are drinking any of these, you are using alcohol. Your drinking patterns may vary, depending on who you are with ...

  20. Alcoholism and alcohol drinking habits predicted from alcohol dehydrogenase genes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tolstrup, J.S.; Nordestgaard, Børge; Rasmussen, S.

    2008-01-01

    Alcohol is degraded primarily by alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) wherein genetic variation that affects the rate of alcohol degradation is found in ADH1B and ADH1C. It is biologically plausible that these variations may be associated with alcohol drinking habits and alcoholism. By genotyping 9080 white...... men and women from the general population, we found that men and women with ADH1B slow vs fast alcohol degradation drank more alcohol and had a higher risk of everyday drinking, heavy drinking, excessive drinking and of alcoholism. For example, the weekly alcohol intake was 9.8 drinks (95% confidence......, individuals with ADH1C slow vs fast alcohol degradation had a higher risk of heavy and excessive drinking. For example, the OR for heavy drinking was 1.4 (95% CI: 1.1-1.8) among men with the ADH1C.1/2 genotype and 1.4 (95% CI: 1.0-1.9) among men with the ADH1B.2/2 genotype, compared with men with the ADH1C.1...

  1. The economical production of alcohol fuels from coal-derived synthesis gas. Quarterly technical progress report Number 8, 1 July, 1993--30 September, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-10-01

    Task 1, the preparation of catalyst materials, is proceeding actively. At WVU, catalysts based on Mo are being prepared using a variety of approaches to alter the oxidation state and environment of the Mo. At UCC and P, copper-based zinc chromite spinel catalysts will be prepared and tested. The modeling of the alcohol-synthesis reaction in a membrane reactor is proceeding actively. Under standard conditions, pressure drop in the membrane reactor has been shown to be negligible. In Task 2, base case designs had previously been completed with a Texaco gasifier. Now, similar designs have been completed using the Shell gasifier. A comparison of the payback periods or production cost of these plants shows significant differences among the base cases. However, a natural gas only design, prepared for comparison purposes, gives a lower payback period or production cost. Since the alcohol synthesis portion of the above processes is the same, the best way to make coal-derived higher alcohols more attractive economically than natural gas-derived higher alcohols is by making coal-derived syngas less expensive than natural gas-derived syngas. The maximum economically feasible capacity for a higher alcohol plant from coal-derived syngas appears to be 32 MM bbl/yr. This is based on consideration of regional coal supply in the eastern US, coal transportation, and regional product demand. The benefits of economics of scale are illustrated for the base case designs. A value for higher alcohol blends has been determined by appropriate combination of RVP, octane number, and oxygen content, using MTBE as a reference. This analysis suggests that the high RVP of methanol in combination with its higher water solubility make higher alcohols more valuable than methanol.

  2. Country Report on China's Participation in Greater Mekong Subregion Cooperation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    1.Executive SummaryThe Mekong River,which originates from the Danggula Mountain Range on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau in China and runs 4,880 km southward through six countries,namely,China,Myartmar,Laos,Thailand,Cambodia and Viet Nam,is an important transnational river in Asia and even the world.The section in China is called the Lancang River.Since the 1990s,the international cooperation in the Lancang-Mekong subregiun has received wide attention from the international community.Related countries and intemational organizations have carried out extensive cooperation,which has produced good results and forcefully facilitated economic and social development of the subregion.

  3. Alcohol consumption among University students in Spain

    OpenAIRE

    1986-01-01

    Producción Científica Alcohol consumption in 1984 among 2921 students of nine Faculties in the University of Valladolid (Spain) is reported. Alcoholic drinks were frequently consumed, especially by males and during weekends. Per capita consumption was 9.85 l of absolute alcohol/year for males and 4.971 for females. Beer, wine and gin were the favourite drinks. Alcohol consumption was similar in the different faculties and age groups but was to some extent related to age and place of reside...

  4. Coffee and Cigarette Consumption and Perceived Effects in Recovering Alcoholics Participating in Alcoholics Anonymous in Nashville, TN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reich, Michael S.; Dietrich, Mary S.; Finlayson, A.J. Reid; Fischer, Edward F.; Martin, Peter R.

    2008-01-01

    Background Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) members represent an important and relatively understudied population for improving our understanding of alcohol dependence recovery since over one million Americans participate in the program. Further insight into coffee and cigarette use by these individuals is necessary given AA members’ apparent widespread consumption and the recognized health consequences and psychopharmacological actions of these substances. Methods Volunteers were sought from all open-AA meetings in Nashville, TN during the summer of 2007 to complete a questionnaire (n=289, completion rate=94.1%) including timeline followback for coffee, cigarette, and alcohol consumption; the Alcoholics Anonymous Affiliation Scale; coffee consumption and effects questions; the Fagerstrom Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND); and the Smoking Effects Questionnaire. Results Mean (±SD) age of onset of alcohol consumption was 15.4±4.2 years and mean lifetime alcohol consumption was 1026.0±772.8 kg ethanol. Median declared alcohol abstinence was 2.1 years (range: 0 days–41.1 years) and median lifetime AA attendance was 1000.0 meetings (range: 4–44209 meetings); average AA affiliation score was 7.6±1.5. Most (88.5%) individuals consumed coffee and approximately 33% of coffee consumers drank more than four cups per day (M=3.9±3.9). The most common self-reported reasons for coffee consumption and coffee-associated behavioral changes were related to stimulatory effects. More than half (56.9%) of individuals in AA smoked cigarettes. Of those who smoked, 78.7% consumed at least half a pack of cigarettes per day (M=21.8±12.3). Smokers’ FTND scores were 5.8±2.4; over 60% of smokers were highly or very highly dependent. Reduced negative affect was the most important subjective effect of smoking. Conclusions A greater proportion of AA participants drink coffee and smoke cigarettes in larger per capita amounts than observed in general US populations. The effects of these

  5. Coffee and cigarette consumption and perceived effects in recovering alcoholics participating in Alcoholics Anonymous in Nashville, Tennessee, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reich, Michael S; Dietrich, Mary S; Finlayson, Alistair James Reid; Fischer, Edward F; Martin, Peter R

    2008-10-01

    Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) members represent an important and relatively understudied population for improving our understanding of alcohol dependence recovery as over 1 million Americans participate in the program. Further insight into coffee and cigarette use by these individuals is necessary given AA members' apparent widespread consumption and the recognized health consequences and psychopharmacological actions of these substances. Volunteers were sought from all open-AA meetings in Nashville, TN during the summer of 2007 to complete a questionnaire (n = 289, completion rate = 94.1%) including timeline followback for coffee, cigarette, and alcohol consumption; the Alcoholics Anonymous Affiliation Scale; coffee consumption and effects questions; the Fagerstrom Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND); and the Smoking Effects Questionnaire. Mean (+/-SD) age of onset of alcohol consumption was 15.4 +/- 4.2 years and mean lifetime alcohol consumption was 1026.0 +/- 772.8 kg ethanol. Median declared alcohol abstinence was 2.1 years (range: 0 days to 41.1 years) and median lifetime AA attendance was 1000.0 meetings (range: 4 to 44,209 meetings); average AA affiliation score was 7.6 +/- 1.5. Most (88.5%) individuals consumed coffee and approximately 33% of coffee consumers drank more than 4 cups per day (M = 3.9 +/- 3.9). The most common self-reported reasons for coffee consumption and coffee-associated behavioral changes were related to stimulatory effects. More than half (56.9%) of individuals in AA smoked cigarettes. Of those who smoked, 78.7% consumed at least half a pack of cigarettes per day (M = 21.8 +/- 12.3). Smokers' FTND scores were 5.8 +/- 2.4; over 60% of smokers were highly or very highly dependent. Reduced negative affect was the most important subjective effect of smoking. A greater proportion of AA participants drink coffee and smoke cigarettes in larger per capita amounts than observed in general U.S. populations. The effects of these products as described

  6. Alcohol facts labels on Four Loko: will the Federal Trade Commission's order be effective in reducing hazardous drinking among underage youth?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esser, Marissa B; Siegel, Michael

    2014-11-01

    Underage drinking accounts for 4400 alcohol-attributable deaths in the US each year. After several reports of the deaths of young people due to the consumption of the flavored-alcoholic beverage (FAB) Four Loko, the Federal Trade Commission (FTC) examined whether Phusion Projects violated federal law by using deceptive marketing. In 2013, the FTC responded by ordering alcohol facts labels on Four Loko disclosing the number of standard drinks contained in the product. This paper aims to discuss whether the FTC's order for alcohol facts labels on Four Loko cans will effectively reduce the hazardous consumption of FABs among youth. The authors discuss the existing research that relates to the FTC's order, including studies on the effectiveness of serving size labeling for reducing youth drinking, research on the brand-specific consumption of FABs among underage youth, and the associations between youth drinking and exposure to alcohol marketing. After synthesizing the evidence, the authors conclude that simply requiring the disclosure of the number of standard drinks on supersized Four Loko cans is not likely to adequately address the hazardous consumption of this beverage among underage drinkers. Instead, if the FTC addresses the marketing of these products and its potential to encourage the excessive use of alcohol, as the Attorneys General did recently in a settlement with the same company, it is possible that there would be a greater impact on reducing youth alcohol consumption. Additional research is needed to determine the impact of alcohol facts labels in changing underage drinking behaviors.

  7. Alcohol Consumption and Health among Elders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balsa, Ana I.; Homer, Jenny F.; Fleming, Michael F.; French, Michael T.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This article estimates the effects of alcohol consumption on self-reported overall health status, injuries, heart problems, emergency room use, and hospitalizations among persons older than the age of 65. Design and Methods: We analyzed data from the first wave of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions, a…

  8. Acute esophageal necrosis caused by alcohol abuse

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tetsu Endo; Juichi Sakamoto; Ken Sato; Miyako Takimoto; Koji Shimaya; Tatsuya Mikami; Akihiro Munakata; Tadashi Shimoyama; Shinsaku Fukuda

    2005-01-01

    Acute esophageal necrosis (AEN) is extremely rare and the pathogenesis of this is still unknown. We report a case of AEN caused by alcohol abuse. In our case, the main pathogenesis could be accounted for low systemic perfusion caused by severe alcoholic lactic acidosis. After the healing of AEN, balloon dilatation was effective to manage the stricture.

  9. Altered States of Consciousness and Alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Ben Morgan; And Others

    This document contains the reports of research at a symposium on "Altered States of Consciousness and Alcohol." The participants primarily agreed that alcohol induces an altered state of consciousness similar to other drugs, but that this phenomenon has not been explicitly stated due to the current interest in newer and more novel drugs. The…

  10. Takotsubo cardiomyopathy triggered by alcohol withdrawal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandre, Joakim; Benouda, Leila; Champ-Rigot, Laure; Labombarda, Fabien

    2011-07-01

    Takotsubo cardiomyopathy is a reversible cardiomyopathy frequently precipitated by a sudden emotional or physical stress. The exact physiopathology is still debated and may involve catecholamine-induced myocardial stunning. Alcohol withdrawal is associated with an hyperadrenergic state and may be a period at risk of cardiac events. We report a 56-year-old man with Takotsubo cardiomyopathy triggered by alcohol withdrawal.

  11. Prevention of Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floyd, R. Louise; Weber, Mary Kate; Denny, Clark; O'Connor, Mary J.

    2009-01-01

    Alcohol use among women of childbearing age is a leading, preventable cause of birth defects and developmental disabilities in the United States. Although most women reduce their alcohol use upon pregnancy recognition, some women report drinking during pregnancy and others may continue to drink prior to realizing they are pregnant. These findings…

  12. Neuroimaging and Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Andria L.; Crocker, Nicole; Mattson, Sarah N.; Riley, Edward P.

    2009-01-01

    The detrimental effects of prenatal alcohol exposure on the developing brain include structural brain anomalies as well as cognitive and behavioral deficits. Initial neuroimaging studies of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) confirmed previous autopsy reports of overall reduction in brain volume and…

  13. [Representations of alcoholism in a former alcoholics' association: Alcoholics Anonymous].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Edemilson Antunes de

    2004-01-01

    This article is designed to review the representations of alcoholism provided by members of an association of former alcoholics, namely Alcoholics Anonymous (AA), based on partial results from a qualitative survey conducted in the Sapopemba group of AA in a neighborhood on the outskirts of the city of Sao Paulo, Brazil. The article thus analyzes alcoholism from an emic perspective, i.e., how it is conceived and managed by those who acknowledge themselves as being "sick as alcoholics", how they explain the sickness, how they experience it, and how they endeavor to overcome it. The purpose is to present AA and its treatment strategy and to highlight the link made by the association by conceiving of alcoholism as a physical, moral, and spiritual illness.

  14. Use of protective behavioral strategies and reduced alcohol risk: examining the moderating effects of mental health, gender, and race.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenney, Shannon R; LaBrie, Joseph W

    2013-12-01

    Recent research indicates that protective behavioral strategies (PBS)-previously established as effective self-regulating tools for reducing alcohol risk among college students-may be especially useful for students with poor mental health, who are shown to be at heightened risk for alcohol-related harm. The current study examined the moderating influence of mental health (depression and anxiety severity), gender, and race (White, Asian) in the relationship between PBS use and alcohol-related negative consequences. Participants were 1,782 undergraduate students from two West Coast universities who reported past-month incidence of heavy episodic drinking (HED). Students reported on their drinking, experience of alcohol-related consequences, use of PBS, and depression and anxiety symptomatology. Overall, results demonstrated that among participants experiencing depression or anxiety, greater PBS utilization was associated with significantly lower levels of alcohol-related consequences, even after controlling for drinking and other predictors. However, findings also revealed important distinctions in the potential effectiveness of PBS by depression/anxiety severity and racial-gender subgroup, such that Asian men with poor mental health appeared to garner unique and substantial benefit (i.e., lesser consequences) from increased PBS use. Further, PBS were found to offer substantial protective benefit for White females, irrespective of mental health. This study points to the potential for targeted PBS-specific skills training and interventions to minimize alcohol-related risks faced by the growing subpopulation of college students experiencing psychological distress, and further highlights important race and gender differentials.

  15. Effects of energy drinks mixed with alcohol on behavioral control: risks for college students consuming trendy cocktails.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marczinski, Cecile A; Fillmore, Mark T; Bardgett, Mark E; Howard, Meagan A

    2011-07-01

    There has been a dramatic rise in the consumption of alcohol mixed with energy drinks (AmED) in young people. AmED have been implicated in risky drinking practices and greater accidents and injuries have been associated with their consumption. Despite the increased popularity of these beverages (e.g., Red Bull and vodka), there is little laboratory research examining how the effects of AmED differ from alcohol alone. This experiment was designed to investigate if the consumption of AmED alters neurocognitive and subjective measures of intoxication compared with the consumption of alcohol alone. Participants (n=56) attended 1 session where they were randomly assigned to receive one of 4 doses (0.65 g/kg alcohol, 3.57 ml/kg energy drink, AmED, or a placebo beverage). Performance on a cued go/no-go task was used to measure the response of inhibitory and activational mechanisms of behavioral control following dose administration. Subjective ratings of stimulation, sedation, impairment, and level of intoxication were recorded. Alcohol alone impaired both inhibitory and activational mechanisms of behavioral control, as evidenced by increased inhibitory failures and increased response times compared to baseline performance. Coadministration of the energy drink with alcohol counteracted some of the alcohol-induced impairment of response activation, but not response inhibition. For subjective effects, alcohol increased ratings of stimulation, feeling the drink, liking the drink, impairment, and level of intoxication, and alcohol decreased the rating of ability to drive. Coadministration of the energy drink with alcohol increased self-reported stimulation, but resulted in similar ratings of the other subjective effects as when alcohol was administered alone. An energy drink appears to alter some of the objective and subjective impairing effects of alcohol, but not others. Thus, AmED may contribute to a high-risk scenario for the drinker. The mix of impaired behavioral

  16. Alcohol outlet densities and alcohol price: the British Columbia experiment in the partial privatization of alcohol sales off-premise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treno, Andrew J; Ponicki, William R; Stockwell, Tim; Macdonald, Scott; Gruenewald, Paul J; Zhao, Jinhui; Martin, Gina; Greer, Alissa

    2013-05-01

    Alcohol beverage prices or taxes have been shown to be related to alcohol sales and use and related problems. What is not clear are the mechanisms underlying these relationships. This study examines the relationship between alcohol outlet density under conditions of the partial privatization of off-premise consumption in British Columbia (BC) occurring over the past decade. Two hypotheses are tested. First, reflecting basic supply-demand principles, greater geographic densities of alcohol outlets will be directly related to reductions in beverage prices in response to greater competition. Second, reflecting the effects of niche marketing and resulting market stratification, increased densities of private liquor stores will be especially related to reductions in beverage prices within this outlet category. Data were collected from: (i) a survey of BC private store prices and practices, (ii) alcohol outlet location information, and (iii) data on demographic characteristics. Multilevel models examine the relationships between prices at individual private liquor stores and the densities of government liquor stores, private liquor stores, bars, and restaurants, controlling for background demographics and geographic unit level effects. Spatial dependencies were also examined. Increased densities of private liquor stores were associated with lower mean prices of beer and all alcohol aggregated across brands at the store level. There appeared to be no outlet level effect on discounting patterns, however, with the mean price differences apparently reflecting differences in the quality of brands carried rather than unequal prices for any given brand. Increased densities of private off-sale alcohol outlets appear to result in lower prices charged at said establishments independently of other types of alcohol outlets suggesting that they represent an emerging marketing niche in the context of off-sale outlet privatization. Copyright © 2012 by the Research Society on

  17. Alcohol and Breastfeeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haastrup, Maija Bruun; Pottegård, Anton; Damkier, Per

    2014-01-01

    While the harmful effects of alcohol during pregnancy are well-established, the consequences of alcohol intake during lactation have been far less examined. We reviewed available data on the prevalence of alcohol intake during lactation, the influence of alcohol on breastfeeding......, the pharmacokinetics of alcohol in lactating women and nursing infants and the effects of alcohol intake on nursing infants. A systematic search was performed in PubMed from origin to May 2013, and 41 publications were included in the review. Approximately half of all lactating women in Western countries consume...... alcohol while breastfeeding. Alcohol intake inhibits the milk ejection reflex, causing a temporary decrease in milk yield. The alcohol concentrations in breast milk closely resemble those in maternal blood. The amount of alcohol presented to nursing infants through breast milk is approximately 5...

  18. Neurolytic transversus abdominal plane block with alcohol for long-term malignancy related pain control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Joseph C; Azam, Nyla; Puttanniah, Vinay; Malhotra, Vivek; Gulati, Amitabh

    2014-01-01

    There have been several case reports in the literature of neurolytic transversus abdominis plane (TAP) blocks being used for malignant abdominal wall pain. However, most used phenol as a neurolytic agent. We found only a single case report by Sakamoto using alcohol for TAP neurolysis. Unfortunately this patient passed away only 5 days after performance of the block. We attempt to extend upon the existing literature by describing neurolytic TAP blockade outcomes using alcohol on 3 cancer patients with metastatic disease to the abdominal wall. Two of our 3 patients had colorectal cancer invading the abdominal musculature. The third patient had a metastatic neuroendocrine nodule in the left rectus muscle. In our case series, all 3 patients had sustained and significant (greater than 50%) relief of abdominal wall pain after performing TAP neurolysis using alcohol. Ultrasound guidance was used for all blocks. The concentration of alcohol used varied from 33% to 77% between patients. Duration of relief lasted between 17 days and 6 months. Opioid use either decreased or remained relatively stable for prolonged periods of time after neurolysis. Other than one patient with transient post-procedure pain related to alcohol injection, there were no significant complications. Addition of a depo steroid for diagnostic TAP blockade prior to neurolysis did not appear to extend or provide additional analgesia. Based on our observations, TAP neurolysis using alcohol also offers a feasible option for long-term control of malignant abdominal wall pain. Further investigation is needed to determine if alcohol offers any significant advantage compared with phenol.

  19. Conduct problem trajectories and alcohol use and misuse in mid to late adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heron, Jon; Maughan, Barbara; Dick, Danielle M; Kendler, Kenneth S; Lewis, Glyn; Macleod, John; Munafò, Marcus; Hickman, Matthew

    2013-11-01

    We consider the strength of the relationship between types of conduct problems in early life and pattern of alcohol use during adolescence. Children from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, a U.K. birth-cohort, had their level of conduct problems assessed repeatedly from 4 to 13 years using the maternal report Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. Developmental trajectories derived from these data were subsequently related to (i) patterns of alcohol use from 13 to 15 years, and (ii) hazardous alcohol used at age 16. Boys with 'Adolescent Onset' or 'Early Onset Persistent' conduct problems were much more likely to be high frequency drinkers between 13 and 15 years (OR 5.00 95% CI=[2.4, 10.6] and 3.9 95% CI=[2.1, 7.3] respectively) compared with those with Low or 'Childhood Limited' conduct. Adolescent Onset/Early Onset Persistent girls also had greater odds of this high-alcohol frequency drinking pattern (2.67 [1.4, 5.0] and 2.14 [1.2, 4.0] respectively). Associations were more moderate for risk of hazardous alcohol use at age 16. Compared to 32% among those with low conduct problems, over 40% of young people classified as showing Adolescent Onset/Early Onset Persistent conduct problems were drinking hazardously (OR 1.52 [1.09, 2.11] and 1.63 [1.22, 2.18] respectively). Whilst persistent conduct problems greatly increase the risk of adolescent alcohol problems, the majority of adolescents reporting hazardous use at age 16 lack such a history. It is important, therefore, to undertake alcohol prevention among all young people as a priority, as well as target people with manifest conduct problems. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. A model of school problems, academic failure, alcohol initiation, and the relationship to adult heroin injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trenz, Rebecca C; Harrell, Paul; Scherer, Michael; Mancha, Brent E; Latimer, William W

    2012-08-01

    The current study uses structural equation modeling to investigate factors associated with alcohol initiation and injection heroin use. Baseline data from the NEURO-HIV Epidemiologic Study in Baltimore, Maryland, were used. Participants were 404 injection heroin users (M(age) = 32.72) with a history of regular injection in their lifetime. Latent variables were created for self-reported school problems and academic failure. The final model indicated that greater school problems were associated with earlier alcohol initiation (ß = -0.22, p failure was directly related to greater frequency of recent heroin injection (ß = 0.15, p < .01). The results expand research investigating the relationship between adolescent behavior and illicit drug use in adulthood.

  1. Hailstones across the Greater Sydney Metropolitan Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Rasuly

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This study addresses the recent climatology of hail occurrence in the Greater Metropolitan Severe Thunderstorm Warning Area (GMSTWA of New South Wales, Australia, which is a sprawling suburban area, with a population of nearly 4.7 million and one of Australia's largest metropolis. The main objective is to highlight the recent temporal-spatial fluctuations of hailstone frequencies and magnitudes for each of recognized and vastly inhabited Local Government Areas (LGAs. The relevant hail event data from 1989 to 2013 were initially derived from the severe storm archive of Australian Bureau of Meteorology. A climatologically oriented GIS technique was applied in the examining and mapping procedure of all hail events and hail days reported throughout the study area. By applying a specific criterion, all severe hails (defined as 2 cm or more in diameter were cautiously selected and then imported into the ArcGIS software for relevant analysis. Appropriate data layers were stored in a unique database to allow logical integration of the data directly into some geoprocessing functions, mainly for querying, analyzing and mapping purposes in a model-builder setting. The database includes 357 hailstones with sizes 2–11 cm and occurred in 169 hail days across the region during the past 25 years. The models have established that hailstones are neither temporally nor spatially uniform in magnitude throughout the study area. Temporal analysis indicated that most of hail events occurred predominately in the afternoons with peak time of 1–5 p.m. EST. They were particularly common in spring and summer, and reached maximum frequency in November and December. There was an average of 14.3 events each year, but a significant decreasing trend in terms of hail frequency and associated magnitude in the recent years has been identified. In turn, spatial models also established three main distribution patterns over the study area, which include the Sydney Metropolitan

  2. Suicidal behavior and haplotypes of the dopamine receptor gene (DRD2 and ANKK1 gene polymorphisms in patients with alcohol dependence--preliminary report.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Jasiewicz

    Full Text Available Suicide is a significant public health issue and a major cause of death throughout the world. According to WHO it accounts for almost 2% of deaths worldwide. The etiology of suicidal behavior is complex but the results of many studies suggest that genetic determinants are of significant importance. In our study,--we have analyzed selected SNPs polymorphisms in the DRD2 and ANKK1 genes in patients with alcohol dependence syndrome (169 Caucasian subjects including a subgroup of individuals (n = 61 who have experienced at least one suicide attempt. The aim of the study was to verify if various haplotypes of selected genes, comprising Taq1A, Taq1B, and Taq1D single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP, play any role in the development of alcohol dependence and suicidal behavior. The control group comprised 157 unrelated individuals matched for ethnicity, gender,- and age and included no individuals with mental disorders. All subjects were recruited in the North West region of Poland. The study showed that alcohol dependent subjects with a history of at least one suicidal attempt were characterized by a significantly higher frequency of the T-G-A2 haplotype when compared to individuals in whom alcohol dependence was not associated with suicidal behavior (p = 0.006. It appears that studies based on identifying correlation between SNPs is the future for research on genetic risk factors that contribute to the development of alcohol addiction and other associated disorders. To sum up, there is a necessity to perform further research to explain dependencies between the dopaminergic system, alcohol use disorders and suicidal behavior.

  3. Alcohol consumption and self-reported (SF12) physical and mental health among working aged-men in a typical Russian city

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dissing, Nete; Gil, Artyom; Keenan, Katherine

    2013-01-01

    intake including hangover, excessive drunkenness and extended episodes of intoxication lasting two or more days) were used in addition to frequency of alcohol consumption and total volume of beverage ethanol per year. Information on smoking, and socio-demographic factors were obtained. FINDINGS: Compared.......70)), with frequent non-beverage alcohol drinking being associated with a particularly low MCS score (-7.23 (95%CI = -11.16; -3.29)). Adjustment for smoking and socio-demographic factors slightly attenuated these associations, but the same patterns persisted. Adjustment for employment status attenuated...

  4. Alcohol Use among Students with and without Hearing Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinquart, Martin; Pfeiffer, Jens P.

    2015-01-01

    We compared alcohol use among adolescents with and without hearing loss. Adolescents with hearing loss reported consuming less alcohol, less binge drinking, fewer episodes of drunkenness, and a higher age at first drunkenness than their hearing peers. Alcohol use did not vary between students who were deaf or hard of hearing or between students…

  5. 40 CFR 721.4660 - Alcohol, alkali metal salt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Alcohol, alkali metal salt. 721.4660... Substances § 721.4660 Alcohol, alkali metal salt. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance generically identified as alcohol, alkali metal salt (PMN P-91-151) is...

  6. Alcohol Use among Students with and without Hearing Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinquart, Martin; Pfeiffer, Jens P.

    2015-01-01

    We compared alcohol use among adolescents with and without hearing loss. Adolescents with hearing loss reported consuming less alcohol, less binge drinking, fewer episodes of drunkenness, and a higher age at first drunkenness than their hearing peers. Alcohol use did not vary between students who were deaf or hard of hearing or between students…

  7. Increased alcohol consumption as a cause of alcoholism, without similar evidence for depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wium-Andersen, Marie Kim; Orsted, David Dynnes; Tolstrup, Janne Schurmann

    2015-01-01

    -100 years randomly selected in 1991-2010 from the general population of Copenhagen, Denmark, and genotyped 68 486 participants for two genetic variants in two alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) genes, ADH-1B (rs1229984) and ADH-1C (rs698). We performed observational and causal analyses using a Mendelian......BACKGROUND: Increased alcohol consumption has been associated with depression and alcoholism, but whether these associations are causal remains unclear. We tested whether alcohol consumption is causally associated with depression and alcoholism. METHODS: We included 78 154 men and women aged 20...... randomization design with antidepressant medication use and hospitalization/death, with depression and alcoholism as outcomes. RESULTS: In prospective analyses, the multifactorially adjusted hazard ratio for participants reporting >6 drinks/day vs participants reporting 0.1-1 drinks/day was 1.28 (95% confidence...

  8. Blood alcohol levels for American Indian mothers and newborns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kvigne, Valborg L; Randall, Brad; Simanton, Edward G; Brenneman, George; Welty, Thomas K

    2012-10-01

    Very little is known about the alcohol elimination rates of newborns who have had chronic alcohol exposure in utero. In these case reports, blood alcohol levels were taken immediately before delivery, at delivery, and postdelivery for 2 mothers who drank alcohol during their pregnancies and 3 single-birth newborns. Newborn A1 of Mother A had no physical characteristics of fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS). The initial blood alcohol level for this newborn was 38.4 mg/dL 129 minutes after birth, with a subsequent blood alcohol level of 5.5 mg/dL 304 minutes after delivery, resulting in an alcohol elimination rate of 11.3 mg/dL per hour. The blood alcohol level for Mother A was 87.4 mg/dL 66 minutes before delivery. Newborn A2 of mother A had FAS. Sixty minutes after delivery, the blood alcohol level for this newborn was 39.5 mg/dL, and the alcohol level of the mother was 42.1 mg/dL. Newborn B1 of mother B had FAS. At 67 minutes after birth, newborn B1 had a blood alcohol level of 246.5 mg/dL, which dropped to 178.7 mg/dL 302 minutes after birth, resulting in an alcohol elimination rate of 17.3 mg/dL per hour. This alcohol elimination rate is within the metabolism range (15-49 mg/dL per hour) of adults with alcoholism. The maternal blood alcohol level was 265.9 mg/dL 27 minutes before delivery. Blood alcohol levels drawn on both the mother and newborn at delivery and 2 or 3 hourly follow-up levels can provide evidence that fetal alcohol dehydrogenase activity is induced by chronic maternal alcohol use.

  9. Psychoanalytic treatment of psychological addiction to alcohol (alcohol abuse).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Brian

    2011-01-01

    The DSM-V Committee plans to abolish the distinction between Alcohol Abuse and Alcohol Dependence (dsm5.org). The author presents a case report as a proof of concept that this distinction should be retained. The author has asserted that Alcohol Abuse is a purely psychological addiction, while Alcohol Dependence involves capture of the ventral tegmental dopaminergic SEEKING system (Johnson, 2003). In psychological addiction the brain can be assumed to function normally, and ordinary psychoanalytic technique can be followed. For the patient described, transference interpretation was the fundamental key to recovery. Alcoholic drinking functioned to prevent this man from remembering overwhelming childhood events; events that were also lived out in his current relationships. Murders that occurred when he was a child were hidden in a screen memory. The patient had an obsessional style of relating where almost all feeling was left out of his associations. After he stopped drinking compulsively, he continued to work compulsively. The maternal transference had to be enacted and then interpreted in order for overwhelming memories to be allowed into conscious thought. After psychoanalysis, the patient resumed drinking and worked a normal schedule that allowed more fulfilling relationships. He had no further symptoms of distress from drinking over a 9-year followup. This case illustrates that Alcohol Abuse is a purely psychological illness, that it does not have the brain changes typical of Alcohol Dependence. Combining epidemiological, neurobiological, longitudinal, and psychoanalytic observations would allow multiple sources of information to be used in creating diagnostic categories. Losing details of human behavior by relying only on epidemiological studies is likely to cause errors in categorization of disorders. In turn, having faulty categories as the basis of further research is likely to impair identification of specific effective treatments.

  10. Viewing alcohol warning advertising reduces urges to drink in young adults: an online experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stautz, Kaidy; Marteau, Theresa M

    2016-07-08

    Tobacco counter-advertising is effective at promoting smoking cessation. Few studies have evaluated the impact of alcohol warning advertising on alcohol consumption and possible mechanisms of effect. This pilot study aimed to assess whether alcohol warning advertising is effective in reducing urges to drink alcohol, if emotional responses to advertising explain any such effect or perceived effectiveness, and whether effects differ among heavier drinkers. One hundred fifty-two young adult (aged 18-25) alcohol users completed an online experiment in which they were randomly assigned to view one of three sets of six advertisements: (i) alcohol warning; (ii) alcohol promoting; or (iii) advertisements for non-alcohol products. Urges to drink alcohol were self-reported post-exposure. Affective responses (pleasure and arousal) to each advertisement and perceived effectiveness of each advertisement were recorded. Typical level of alcohol consumption was measured as a potential effect modifier. Participants exposed to alcohol warning advertisements reported significantly lower urges to drink alcohol than those who viewed either alcohol promoting or non-alcohol advertisements. This effect was fully mediated by negative affective responses (displeasure) to the alcohol warning advertisements. Perceived effectiveness of alcohol warning advertisements was associated with high arousal responses. Impact of the advertisements was unaffected by typical level of alcohol consumption, although the study was not powered to detect anything other than large effects. In line with findings from the tobacco literature, alcohol warning advertisements that elicit negative affect reduce urges to drink alcohol. Their impact upon actual consumption awaits investigation.

  11. Does technology use moderate the relationship between parental alcoholism and adolescent alcohol and cigarette use?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohannessian, Christine McCauley

    2009-01-01

    The primary goals of this study were to examine the associations between technology use and alcohol and cigarette use during adolescence and to explore whether technology use moderates the relationship between parental alcoholism and substance use (alcohol and cigarette use). The sample included 328 14-16 year-old adolescent boys and girls. The adolescents completed a battery of self-report questionnaires which included measures that assessed their substance use, their use of technology, and their parents' alcohol use (including alcoholism). Results indicated that adolescents who had an alcoholic parent reported relatively higher levels of alcohol consumption. Heavier use of technology (particularly text messaging, e-mailing/IMing, and watching television) also was related to earlier and heavier substance use during adolescence. Moreover, these effects tended to be more pronounced in adolescents with an alcoholic parent. Results from this study suggest that high levels of technology use during adolescence may be related to an increased risk of alcohol and cigarette use, particularly for children of alcoholic parents (COAs).

  12. Pharmacologically induced alcohol craving in treatment seeking alcoholics correlates with alcoholism severity, but is insensitive to acamprosate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umhau, John C; Schwandt, Melanie L; Usala, Julie; Geyer, Christopher; Singley, Erick; George, David T; Heilig, Markus

    2011-05-01

    Modulation of alcohol craving induced by challenge stimuli may predict the efficacy of new pharmacotherapies for alcoholism. We evaluated two pharmacological challenges, the α(2)-adrenergic antagonist yohimbine, which reinstates alcohol seeking in rats, and the serotonergic compound meta-chlorophenylpiperazine (mCPP), previously reported to increase alcohol craving in alcoholics. To assess the predictive validity of this approach, the approved alcoholism medication acamprosate was evaluated for its ability to modulate challenge-induced cravings. A total of 35 treatment seeking alcohol dependent inpatients in early abstinence were randomized to placebo or acamprosate (2997 mg daily). Following two weeks of medication, subjects underwent three challenge sessions with yohimbine, mCPP or saline infusion under double blind conditions, carried out in counterbalanced order, and separated by at least 5 days. Ratings of cravings and anxiety, as well as biochemical measures were obtained. In all, 25 subjects completed all three sessions and were included in the analysis. Cravings were modestly, but significantly higher following both yohimbine and mCPP challenge compared with saline infusion. The mCPP, but not yohimbine significantly increased anxiety ratings. Both challenges produced robust ACTH, cortisol and prolactin responses. There was a significant correlation between craving and the degree of alcoholism severity. Acamprosate administration did not influence craving. Both yohimbine and mCPP challenges lead to elevated alcohol craving in a clinical population of alcoholics, and these cravings correlate with alcoholism severity. Under the experimental conditions used, alcohol cravings induced by these two stimuli are not sensitive to acamprosate at clinically used doses.

  13. Separation characteristics of alcohol from aqueous solution by ultrasonic atomization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasuda, Keiji; Mochida, Kyosuke; Asakura, Yoshiyuki; Koda, Shinobu

    2014-11-01

    The generation rate of ultrasonically atomized droplets and the alcohol concentration in droplets were estimated by measuring the flow rate and the alcohol concentration of vapors from a bulk solution with a fountain. The effect of the alcohol concentration in the bulk solution on the generation rate of droplets and the alcohol concentration in droplets were investigated. The ultrasonic frequency was 2.4MHz, and ethanol and methanol aqueous solutions were used as samples. The generation rate of droplets for ethanol was smaller than that for methanol at the same alcohol molar fraction in the bulk solution. For both solutions, at low alcohol concentration in the bulk solution, the alcohol concentration in droplets was lower than that in vapors and the atomized droplets were visible. On the other side, at high concentration, the concentration in droplets exceeded that in vapors and the atomized droplets became invisible. These results could be explained that the alcohol-rich clusters in the bulk solution were preferentially atomized by ultrasonic irradiation. The concentration in droplets for ethanol was higher than that for methanol at low alcohol concentration because the amount of alcohol-rich clusters was larger. When the alcohol molar fraction was greater than 0.6, the atomized droplets almost consisted of pure alcohol.

  14. Alcohol: impact on sports performance and recovery in male athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Matthew J

    2014-07-01

    Alcohol is the most commonly used recreational drug globally and its consumption, often in large volume, is deeply embedded in many aspects of Western society. Indeed, athletes are not exempt from the influence alcohol has on society; they often consume greater volumes of alcohol through bingeing behaviour compared with the general population, yet it is often expected and recommended that athletes abstain from alcohol to avoid the negative impact this drug may have on recovery and sporting performance. While this recommendation may seem sensible, the impact alcohol has on recovery and sports performance is complicated and depends on many factors, including the timing of alcohol consumption post-exercise, recovery time required before recommencing training/competition, injury status and dose of alcohol being consumed. In general, acute alcohol consumption, at the levels often consumed by athletes, may negatively alter normal immunoendocrine function, blood flow and protein synthesis so that recovery from skeletal muscle injury may be impaired. Other factors related to recovery, such as rehydration and glycogen resynthesis, may be affected to a lesser extent. Those responsible for the wellbeing of athletes, including the athlete themselves, should carefully monitor habitual alcohol consumption so that the generic negative health and social outcomes associated with heavy alcohol use are avoided. Additionally, if athletes are to consume alcohol after sport/exercise, a dose of approximately 0.5 g/kg body weight is unlikely to impact most aspects of recovery and may therefore be recommended if alcohol is to be consumed during this period.

  15. Alcohol attributable hospitalisations and costs in Ireland, 2000-2004.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Martin, J

    2011-05-01

    The aim of this study was to calculate the number and costs of hospital bed-days due to alcohol use in Ireland over the five year period 2000 to 2004. Age and sex specific Irish alcohol-attributable-fractions (AAFs) were developed by combining international risk estimates with Irish consumption data where available; where not available international AAFs were used. These were applied to national datasets to count the number and costs of bed-days wholly caused and prevented by alcohol and that proportion of bed-days that were partially caused and prevented by alcohol. Between 2000 and 2004, alcohol was estimated to have caused 3,428,973 (10.3%) and prevented 529,239 (1.6%) of hospital bed-days, giving a net number of bed-days due to alcohol of 2,899,734 (8.7%). Over this period the hospital inpatient costs attributed to the negative effects of alcohol were 953,126,381 euros, the costs attributed to hospitalisations prevented were 147,968,164 euros; giving net costs of alcohol-attributed bed-days of 805,158,217 euros. Chronic conditions accounted for 3,262,408 (95%) hospital bed-days due to the harmful effects of alcohol. Conditions not wholly due to alcohol accounted for 2,297,412 (67%) hospital bed-days due to the harmful effects of alcohol. The negative impacts of alcohol were greater than previously thought and spread across the whole population.

  16. There’s alcohol in my soap: portrayal and effects of alcohol use in a popular television series

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoof, van Joris J.; Jong, de Menno D.T.; Fennis, Bob M.; Gosselt, Jordy F.

    2009-01-01

    Two studies are reported addressing the media influences on adolescents’ alcohol-related attitudes and behaviours. A content analysis was conducted to investigate the prevalence of alcohol portrayal in a Dutch soap series. The coding scheme covered the alcohol consumption per soap character, drinkin

  17. The relationship between exposure to alcohol-related content on Facebook and predictors of alcohol consumption among female emerging adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Joseph; Prichard, Ivanka; Hutchinson, Amanda; Wilson, Carlene

    2014-12-01

    Consuming an unhealthy level of alcohol is a significant problem for some young women. Potential determinants of excess consumption include perceptions of usual consumption among peers-perceptions of what is "normal." The present study examined whether perceptions of social normative endorsement of drinking, operationalized by measures of perceived alcohol consumption of close friends (proximal norms), the consumption of the "average student" (distal norms), and the extent of alcohol-related content posted by peers on Facebook were related to alcohol-related attitudes and self-reported consumption. Female university students (n=129; Mage=21.48 years, SD=3.00) completed an online questionnaire assessing Facebook use, perceived alcohol-related norms, and self-reported alcohol attitudes and consumption. Perceptions of the consumption of the average female student were a negative predictor of attitudes. Positive alcohol attitudes, extent of own alcohol-related photographic posts on Facebook, average female student alcohol consumption, and report of male close friend consumption predicted self-report of own alcohol consumption. Interestingly, female close friend norms failed to predict consumption, whereas male close friend norms predicted consumption but not attitudes, suggesting the possibility of separate cognitive pathways for alcohol-related attitudes and behavior. This study builds on existing research by casting new light on predictors of alcohol-related attitudes, as well as describing the potential role of social networking sites such as Facebook in the formation of social norms and the modulation of drinking behavior.

  18. The Effects of Boys & Girls Clubs on Alcohol and Other Drug Use and Related Problems in Public Housing. Final Research Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schinke, Steven P.; And Others

    This comparative study evaluates the effects of Boys and Girls Clubs and related SMART Moves drug prevention programs on children and adolescents living in public housing and on the quality of life in public housing. The study involves 15 public housing developments in a representative sample of American cities and focuses on alcohol and other…

  19. The Effects of Boys & Girls Clubs on Alcohol and Other Drug Use and Related Problems in Public Housing. Final Research Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schinke, Steven P.; And Others

    This comparative study evaluates the effects of Boys and Girls Clubs and related SMART Moves drug prevention programs on children and adolescents living in public housing and on the quality of life in public housing. The study involves 15 public housing developments in a representative sample of American cities and focuses on alcohol and other…

  20. Alcoholism and alcohol drinking habits predicted from alcohol dehydrogenase genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolstrup, Janne Schurmann; Nordestgaard, Børge Grønne; Rasmussen, Søren; Tybjaerg-Hansen, Anne; Grønbaek, Morten

    2008-06-01

    Alcohol drinking habits and alcoholism are partly genetically determined. Alcohol is degraded primarily by alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) wherein genetic variation that affects the rate of alcohol degradation is found in ADH1B and ADH1C. It is biologically plausible that these variations may be associated with alcohol drinking habits and alcoholism. By genotyping 9080 white men and women from the general population, we found that men and women with ADH1B slow vs fast alcohol degradation drank more alcohol and had a higher risk of everyday drinking, heavy drinking, excessive drinking and of alcoholism. For example, the weekly alcohol intake was 9.8 drinks (95% confidence interval (CI): 9.1-11) among men with the ADH1B.1/1 genotype compared to 7.5 drinks (95% CI: 6.4-8.7) among men with the ADH1B.1/2 genotype, and the odds ratio (OR) for heavy drinking was 3.1 (95% CI: 1.7-5.7) among men with the ADH1B.1/1 genotype compared to men with the ADH1B.1/2 genotype. Furthermore, individuals with ADH1C slow vs fast alcohol degradation had a higher risk of heavy and excessive drinking. For example, the OR for heavy drinking was 1.4 (95% CI: 1.1-1.8) among men with the ADH1C.1/2 genotype and 1.4 (95% CI: 1.0-1.9) among men with the ADH1B.2/2 genotype, compared with men with the ADH1C.1/1 genotype. Results for ADH1B and ADH1C genotypes among men and women were similar. Finally, because slow ADH1B alcohol degradation is found in more than 90% of the white population compared to less than 10% of East Asians, the population attributable risk of heavy drinking and alcoholism by ADH1B.1/1 genotype was 67 and 62% among the white population compared with 9 and 24% among the East Asian population.

  1. Greater Somalia, the never-ending dream?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zoppi, Marco

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides an historical analysis of the concept of Greater Somalia, the nationalist project that advocates the political union of all Somali-speaking people, including those inhabiting areas in current Djibouti, Ethiopia and Kenya. The Somali territorial unification project of “lost ter...

  2. Greater trochanteric fracture with occult intertrochanteric extension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiter, Michael; O'Brien, Seth D; Bui-Mansfield, Liem T; Alderete, Joseph

    2013-10-01

    Proximal femoral fractures are frequently encountered in the emergency department (ED). Prompt diagnosis is paramount as delay will exacerbate the already poor outcomes associated with these injuries. In cases where radiography is negative but clinical suspicion remains high, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the study of choice as it has the capability to depict fractures which are occult on other imaging modalities. Awareness of a particular subset of proximal femoral fractures, namely greater trochanteric fractures, is vital for both radiologists and clinicians since it has been well documented that they invariably have an intertrochanteric component which may require surgical management. The detection of intertrochanteric or cervical extension of greater trochanteric fractures has been described utilizing MRI but is underestimated with both computed tomography (CT) and bone scan. Therefore, if MRI is unavailable or contraindicated, the diagnosis of an isolated greater trochanteric fracture should be met with caution. The importance of avoiding this potential pitfall is demonstrated in the following case of an elderly woman with hip pain and CT demonstrating an isolated greater trochanteric fracture who subsequently returned to the ED with a displaced intertrochanteric fracture.

  3. Deciding to quit drinking alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... quitting drinking; Quitting drinking; Quitting alcohol; Alcoholism - deciding to quit ... drinking problem when your body depends on alcohol to function and your drinking is causing problems with ...

  4. Longitudinal outcomes of an alcohol abuse prevention program for urban adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schinke, Steven P; Schwinn, Traci M; Fang, Lin

    2010-05-01

    This randomized clinical trial examined longitudinal outcomes from an alcohol abuse prevention program aimed at urban youths. Study participants were an ethnically and racially heterogeneous sample of early adolescents, recruited from community-based agencies in greater New York City and its environs. Once they assented to study participation and gained parental permission, youths were divided into three arms: youth intervention delivered by CD-ROM (CD), the same youth intervention plus parent intervention (CD(P)), and control. Once all youths completed baseline measures, those in CD and CD(P) arms received a computerized 10-session alcohol abuse prevention program. Parents of youths in the CD(P) arm received supplemental materials to support and strengthen their children's learning. All youths completed postintervention and annual follow-up measures, and CD- and CD(P)-arm participants received annual booster intervention sessions. Seven years following postintervention testing and relative to control-arm youths, youths in CD and CD(P) arms reported less alcohol use, cigarette use, binge drinking, and peer pressure to drink; fewer drinking friends; greater refusal of alcohol use opportunities; and lower intentions to drink. No differences were observed between CD and CD(P) arms. Study findings lend support to the potential of computerized, skills-based prevention programs to help urban youth reduce their risks for underage drinking. Copyright 2010 Society for Adolescent Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Alcoholic ingestion and alcohol abuse in university students at Jequié-BA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Henrique Fernandes

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Epidemiologic researches about psychoactive substance use have shown an up-and-coming situation to abusive consumption of alcohol in adolescent and young-adult groups. This consumption over come the knowledge about damage caused by abusive of these substances, especially for the population part who is in the “top of life experiences”; the university students. Aim: To estimate the prevalence of the alcoholic ingestion and alcohol abuse in university students at Jequié-BA, and to verify the association between the alcoholic ingestion and alcohol abuse with the gender, race, smoking and graduation area. Methods: Prevalence study with probabilistic randomized sample (n = 129 of a population of 3,644 university students, registered in three universities. It was used a Questionnaire contends socio-demographic data, asking for the alcoholic ingestion and test CAGE to abuse. Results: It has been found prevalence of 63.6% to alcohol ingestion, 21.7% of high risk in abuse, and 8.5% of alcohol abuse. Although they have not been gotten association statistics between these variable and gender, race, graduation area and smoking; the data had demonstrated highest rates of alcohol abuse, and high risk in developing in students of masculine gender, medium brown race, who attend a graduation course in the health area. Those who have used of the tobacco had presented percentile greater of high risk in becoming alcohol consumer abusive. Conclusions: Intent for data found, as much alcohol ingestion as abuse, since they reflect the necessity of prevention politics to the alcoholic abusive ingestion in this population

  6. Sex-related alcohol expectancies as moderators of the relationship between alcohol use and risky sex in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dermen, K H; Cooper, M L; Agocha, V B

    1998-01-01

    Alcohol is frequently identified as a potential contributor to HIV-related sexual risk taking. Drawing on alcohol expectancy explanations for postdrinking behavior, the present study tested the hypothesis that adolescents who drink alcohol on a given occasion will be more likely to engage in sexual risk-taking behavior to the extent that they believe that alcohol disinhibits sexual behavior or promotes sexual risk taking. The combined effects of sex-related alcohol expectancies and alcohol use in sexual situations were investigated using interview data from a representative sample of 907 (476 male) sexually experienced adolescents (13 to 19 years) who had ever consumed alcohol. Regression analyses on a composite measure of risk taking revealed that for two of three intercourse occasions examined alcohol use was associated with greater risk taking primarily among respondents who expected alcohol to increase risky sexual behavior. The results lend support to expectancy theories of alcohol's effects on sexual risk taking and raise the possibility that providing overly simplistic warnings that "alcohol leads to risky sex" may paradoxically increase the likelihood that individuals will fail to act prudently when intoxicated. Preventive interventions might beneficially focus on weakening, rather than strengthening, individuals' expectancies with regard to the impact of alcohol on sexual behavior, so that self-protective behavior will be more likely to occur even during intoxication.

  7. Past racial discrimination exacerbates the effects of racial exclusion on negative affect, perceived control, and alcohol-risk cognitions among Black young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stock, Michelle L; Peterson, Laurel M; Molloy, Brianne K; Lambert, Sharon F

    2017-06-01

    Racial discrimination is associated with alcohol use and risky sex cognitions and behaviors, which are risk factors for negative health outcomes, including human immunodeficiency virus infection. The current study investigated the causal impact of racial discrimination on alcohol and sexual-risk cognitions while exploring potential mediators that might help explain this relation: negative affect, perceived control, and meaningful existence. We also examined if past discrimination impacts the strength of (moderates) these effects. Participants were 287 Black/African American young adults aged 18-25. They were randomly assigned to be excluded or included by White peers via the game Cyberball. Racial exclusion (vs. inclusion) predicted greater: perceived racial discrimination, negative affect, alcohol use willingness, and reduced perceived control and meaningful existence. Furthermore, excluded participants who experienced more past racial discrimination reported the lowest perceived control, and greatest negative affect and alcohol-risk cognitions. The findings suggest that past racial discrimination exacerbates the harmful health effects of immediate experiences of discrimination.

  8. Neighborhood income and income distribution and the use of cigarettes, alcohol, and marijuana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galea, Sandro; Ahern, Jennifer; Tracy, Melissa; Vlahov, David

    2007-06-01

    Evidence about the relationship between contextual variables and substance use is conflicting. Relationships between neighborhood income and income distribution and the prevalence and frequency of substance use in 59 New York City (NYC) neighborhoods were assessed while accounting for individual income and other socio-demographic variables. Measures of current substance use (in the 30 days prior to the survey) were obtained from a random-digit-dial phone survey of adult residents of NYC and data from the 2000 U.S. Census to calculate median neighborhood income and income distribution (assessed using the Gini coefficient). Among 1355 respondents analyzed (female=56.2%, mean age=40.4), 23.9% reported cigarette, 40.0% alcohol, and 5.4% marijuana use in the previous 30 days. In ecologic assessment, neighborhoods with both the highest income and the highest income maldistribution had the highest prevalence of drinking alcohol (69.0%) and of smoking marijuana (10.5%) but not of cigarette use; there was no clear ecologic association between neighborhood income, income distribution, and cigarette use. In multilevel multivariable models adjusting for individual income, age, race, sex, and education, high neighborhood median income and maldistributed neighborhood income were both significantly associated with a greater likelihood of alcohol and marijuana use but not of cigarette use. Both high neighborhood income and maldistributed income also were associated with greater frequency of alcohol use among current alcohol drinkers. These observations suggest that neighborhood income and income distribution may play more important roles in determining population use of alcohol and marijuana than individual income, and that determinants of substance use may vary by potential for drug dependence. Further research should investigate specific pathways that may explain the relationship between neighborhood characteristics and use of different substances.

  9. Characterizing subjective responses to alcohol among adolescent problem drinkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Robert; Monti, Peter M; Ray, Lara; Treloar, Hayley R; Reynolds, Elizabeth K; Ramirez, Jason; Chun, Thomas; Gwaltney, Chad J; Justus, Alicia; Tidey, Jennifer; Blanchard, Alexander; Magill, Molly

    2014-02-01

    Theoretical models of alcoholism emphasize the acute reinforcing properties of alcohol as chief determinants of drinking, and animal research suggests adolescents are uniquely sensitive to these effects. Human studies of these phenomena, however, are virtually nonexistent. We used ecological momentary assessment methods to capture adolescents' subjective responses to alcohol in real time in their natural environments. Adolescent participants were 22 problem drinkers, ages 15 to 19 years (M = 18.3, SD = 0.09; 55% female; 55% alcohol dependent). Participants consumed alcohol on 38% of days during a 1-week monitoring period, with an average of 5 drinks per occasion. Momentary data revealed that adolescents experience decreased stimulation and increased sedation and "high" across the ascending limb of the blood alcohol curve. Notably, greater craving predicted higher volumes of subsequent alcohol consumption during the episode, whereas greater "high" attenuated use. To test for developmental differences in these effects, we pooled these data with data from a similarly ascertained sample of 36 adult heavy drinkers, ages 24 to 64 years (M = 38.1, SD = 11.8; 50% female; 61% alcohol dependent). Adolescents were more sensitive to the stimulant effects of alcohol than adults. This study provides novel data on how adolescent problem drinkers experience alcohol in their natural contexts and illustrates how these effects, which appear to differ from adult problem drinkers, confer liability for future drinking. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  10. Personality and alcohol metacognitions as predictors of weekly levels of alcohol use in binge drinking university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Ailsa; Tran, Cathy; Weiss, Alexander; Caselli, Gabriele; Nikčević, Ana V; Spada, Marcantonio M

    2012-04-01

    This study investigated the relative contribution of the Big 5 personality factors and alcohol metacognitions in predicting weekly levels of alcohol use in binge drinking university students. No research to date has investigated whether either of these constructs predicts levels of weekly alcohol use in binge drinkers. A sample of university students (n=142) who were classified as binge drinkers were administered the following self-report instruments: NEO-Five Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI; Costa & McCrae, 1992), Positive Alcohol Metacognitions Scale (PAMS; Spada & Wells, 2008), Negative Alcohol Metacognitions Scale (NAMS; Spada & Wells, 2008), and Khavari Alcohol Test (KAT; Khavari & Farber, 1978). Pearson product-moment correlations showed that weekly levels of alcohol use were negatively correlated with agreeableness and conscientiousness and positively correlated with positive alcohol metacognitions about cognitive self-regulation, negative alcohol metacognitions about uncontrollability and negative alcohol metacognitions about cognitive harm. A hierarchical regression analysis revealed that conscientiousness and positive alcohol metacognitions about cognitive self-regulation were the only two significant predictors of weekly levels of alcohol use when controlling for gender. These findings show that being male, low on conscientiousness and high on positive alcohol metacognitions about cognitive self-regulation raises the risk for increased weekly levels of alcohol use in binge drinking university students. The implications of these findings are discussed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Alcohol Dependence and Alcoholic Liver Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl Mann

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol dependence is a disabling condition that has a high prevalence, but in Europe only a small fraction of the people diagnosed with alcohol abuse and dependence are treated, representing the widest treatment gap, as compared with other mental disorders. Early diagnosis and monitoring of alcoholic liver disease (ALD is still insufficiently solved. Although ALD is the most common cause for liver disease in the Western world, it largely remains underestimated and underdiagnosed for many reasons. The recent introduction of non-invasive elastographic techniques such as transient elastography (TE has significantly improved the early diagnosis of alcoholic liver cirrhosis (ALC. As demonstrated in the literature, inflammation-associated liver stiffness (LS rapidly decreases during alcohol detoxification, and is also directly correlated to change in LS in both abstinent and relapsing patients. Newly published data show that LS could be used to monitor and validate hepatoprotective effects during nalmefene usage. Nalmefene is an opioid system modulator that diminishes the reinforcing effects of alcohol, helping the patient to reduce drinking. Three randomised, multicentre, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallelgroup Phase III studies were designed to assess the efficacy and safety of nalmefene in reducing alcohol consumption. Patients with a high or very high drinking risk level (DRL at baseline and randomisation show a clinically significant effect from nalmefene treatment, which is generally well tolerated. Moreover, reduced alcohol consumption supported by nalmefene in combination with psychosocial support may indeed help to reduce the alcohol-related burden and the large treatment gap.

  12. Alcohol Consumption-Related Metabolites in Relation to Colorectal Cancer and Adenoma: Two Case-Control Studies Using Serum Biomarkers

    OpenAIRE

    Jose Ramon Troche; Mayne, Susan T.; Neal D Freedman; Shebl, Fatma M.; Guertin, Kristin A.; Cross, Amanda J; Abnet, Christian C.

    2016-01-01

    Alcohol is a known carcinogen that may be associated with colorectal cancer. However, most epidemiologic studies assess alcoholic beverage consumption using self-reported data, leading to potential exposure misclassification. Biomarkers of alcohol consumption may provide an alternative, complementary approach that reduces misclassification and incorporates individual differences in alcohol metabolism. Therefore, we evaluated the relationship between previously identified alcohol consumption-r...

  13. Increased tobacco and alcohol use among women with joint hypermobility: a way to cope with anxiety?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baeza-Velasco, C; Stoebner-Delbarre, A; Cousson-Gélie, F; Pailhez, G; Bulbena, A; Baguet, F; Gély-Nargeot, M C

    2015-01-01

    Joint hypermobility (JH) is a common trait of heritable disorders of the connective tissue which has been identified as a risk factor for anxiety states. Anxiety and other negative emotions lead some people to use tobacco and alcohol as a coping strategy. The purpose of this study was to examine JH in relation to the consumption of these psychoactive substances and the associated anxiety and coping strategies. A cross-sectional sample of 305 female college students completed self-administered questionnaires on JH, tobacco and alcohol use, state and trait anxiety, and coping strategies. The prevalence of JH in the final sample (N = 301) was 51.8 %. The percentage of smokers, smokers using tobacco to calm anxiety, at-risk drinkers, tobacco and alcohol users, and the number of standard drinks consumed per week were significantly higher among females with JH than among those without it. The percentage of participants with severe state anxiety was significantly higher in the JH group, as were the emotion-focused coping score. The results of the logistic regression analysis showed that the odds of being assessed with JH were greater in those who consume tobacco and alcohol. This study provides evidence that women with JH report higher levels of state anxiety than non-JH women and use emotion-focused coping (i.e., efforts to regulate affect) more than any other coping strategies to deal with stress. These factors may help explain the increase in tobacco and alcohol use observed in this population.

  14. The interplay of trait anger, childhood physical abuse, and alcohol consumption in predicting intimate partner aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldonado, Rosalita C; Watkins, Laura E; DiLillo, David

    2015-04-01

    The current study examined three well-established risk factors for intimate partner aggression (IPA) within Finkel and Eckhardt's I(3) model, including two impellance factors-trait anger and childhood physical abuse history-and the disinhibiting factor of alcohol consumption. Participants were 236 male and female college students in a committed heterosexual dating relationship who completed a battery of self-report measures assessing childhood physical abuse, trait anger, alcohol consumption, and IPA perpetration. Results revealed a significant three-way interaction showing that as the disinhibition factor alcohol consumption increased, the interaction of the two impelling factors, trait anger and childhood physical abuse, became increasingly more positive. Individuals who had high levels of childhood physical abuse and alcohol consumption were at greater risk of IPA perpetration when trait anger was high. Consistent with the I(3) model, these findings suggest that trait anger and a history of childhood physical abuse may increase tendencies to aggress against one's partner, whereas alcohol consumption may reduce individuals' abilities to manage these aggressive tendencies. The importance of interplay among these risk factors in elevating IPA risk is discussed, as are the implications for clinicians working with male and female IPA perpetrators.

  15. Socioeconomic determinants of exposure to alcohol outlets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Christopher; Gruenewald, Paul J; Ponicki, William R

    2015-05-01

    Alcohol outlets tend to be located in lower income areas, exposing lower income populations to excess risks associated with alcohol sales through these establishments. The objective of this study was to test two hypotheses about the etiology of these differential exposures based on theories of the economic geography of retail markets: (a) outlets will locate within or near areas of high alcohol demand, and (b) outlets will be excluded from areas with high land and structure rents. Data from the 2010 National Drug Strategy Household Survey were used to develop a surrogate for alcohol demand (i.e., market potential) at two census geographies for the city of Melbourne, Australia. Bayesian conditional autoregressive Poisson models estimated multilevel spatial relationships between counts of bars, restaurants, and off-premise outlets and market potential, income, and zoning ordinances (Level 1: n = 8,914). Market potentials were greatest in areas with larger older age, male, English-speaking, high-income populations. Independent of zoning characteristics, greater numbers of outlets appeared in areas with greater market potentials and the immediately surrounding areas. Greater income excluded outlets in local and surrounding areas. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that alcohol outlets are located in areas with high demand and are excluded from high-income areas. These processes appear to take place at relatively small geographic scales, encourage the concentration of outlets in specific low-income areas, and represent a very general economic process likely to take place in communities throughout the world.

  16. Self-regulation, daily drinking, and partner violence in alcohol treatment-seeking men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumacher, Julie A; Coffey, Scott F; Leonard, Kenneth E; O'Jile, Judith R; Landy, Noah C

    2013-02-01

    This study builds on research identifying deficits in behavioral self-regulation as risk factors for intimate partner violence (IPV). It also builds on alcohol administration research identifying these deficits as moderators of the association between acute alcohol consumption and aggression in laboratory paradigms. Participants analyzed were 97 men seeking residential treatment for alcohol dependence who were involved in a current or recent heterosexual relationship of at least 1 year. Participants completed a self-report measure of impulsivity, neuropsychological tests of executive function, and computerized delay discounting and behavioral inhibition tasks. With the exception of the self-report measure of impulsivity, performance on measures of behavioral self-regulation was not associated with the occurrence or frequency of past year IPV in this sample. Similarly, self-reported impulsivity moderated the association between daily drinking and IPV in multivariate models controlling for daily drug use, but deficits in performance on other measures did not. Performance on a tower task moderated the association between daily drinking and the occurrence of IPV, but contrary to hypotheses, better task performance was associated with greater likelihood of IPV on drinking days. These results suggest that self-perceived impulsivity is a better predictor of IPV in alcohol treatment seeking men than deficits in performance on behavioral measures of delay discounting, behavioral inhibition, and executive function.

  17. Examination of associations between early life victimisation and alcohol's harm from others.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Lauren M; Greenfield, Thomas K; Karriker-Jaffe, Katherine J

    2017-08-21

    Study aims were to examine: (i) how physical and sexual victimisation in early life are associated with alcohol's harm from others; and (ii) whether respondents' current drinking is a mediator of the association between early life victimisation and alcohol's harm from others among men and women. Data were from national computer-assisted telephone interviews, using the landline sample (3335 men and 3520 women ages ≥18) from the 2010 US National Alcohol Survey. Harms from someone else's drinking included family/marital problems, financial troubles, assault and vandalism in the past 12 months. Victimisation was measured with severe physical abuse or sexual assault before age 18. Severe physical or sexual victimisation before age 18 was reported by 3.4% of men and 8.1% of women. Significantly more men (5.2%) than women (2.4%) reported assault by other drinkers, and significantly more women reported family/marital (5.3%) and financial problems (2.8%) than did men (2.6 and 1% respectively). Severe early life victimisation was robustly associated with a greater likelihood of experiencing past-year harms from other drinkers for both men and women. Men's drinking partially mediated associations between early life victimisation and recent assaults and vandalism by other drinkers. Early life victimisation may increase risk of harms from someone else's drinking. Health services and interventions that screen for histories of victimisation may help decrease risk of later harms from others' drinking. Reductions in drinking among men with histories of victimisation also could help reduce their exposure to such harms. [Kaplan LM, Greenfield TK, Karriker-Jaffe KJ. Examination of associations between early life victimisation and alcohol's harm from others. Drug Alcohol Rev 2017;00:000-000]. © 2017 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  18. Consumo de alcohol alcoholismo

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez Páez, Pablo E.; Fundación Valle de Lili

    1999-01-01

    ¿Qué es el alcohol?/¿Cómo actual el alcohol en el organismo?/¿Qué efectos causa?/Efectos por el consumo crónico/¿El consumo de alcohol durante el embarazo afecta el embrión?/¿Qué otras consecuencias tiene el consumo de alcohol?/¿Cuándo se considera que una persona tiene problemas con su consumo de alcohol?/¿Cuándo se debe sospechar que alguien tiene problemas con el consumo de alcohol?/Características del saber beber adecuadamente?/¿Cuales son las alternativas de tratamiento para este problem...

  19. Impact of alcohol-promoting and alcohol-warning advertisements on alcohol consumption, affect, and implicit cognition in heavy-drinking young adults: A laboratory-based randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stautz, Kaidy; Frings, Daniel; Albery, Ian P; Moss, Antony C; Marteau, Theresa M

    2017-02-01

    There is sparse evidence regarding the effect of alcohol-advertising exposure on alcohol consumption among heavy drinkers. This study aimed to assess the immediate effects of alcohol-promoting and alcohol-warning video advertising on objective alcohol consumption in heavy-drinking young adults, and to examine underlying processes. Between-participants randomized controlled trial with three conditions. Two hundred and four young adults (aged 18-25) who self-reported as heavy drinkers were randomized to view one of three sets of 10 video advertisements that included either (1) alcohol-promoting, (2) alcohol-warning, or (3) non-alcohol advertisements. The primary outcome was the proportion of alcoholic beverages consumed in a sham taste test. Affective responses to advertisements, implicit alcohol approach bias, and alcohol attentional bias were assessed as secondary outcomes and possible mediators. Typical alcohol consumption, Internet use, and television use were measured as covariates. There was no main effect of condition on alcohol consumption. Participants exposed to alcohol-promoting advertisements showed increased positive affect and an increased approach/reduced avoidance bias towards alcohol relative to those exposed to non-alcohol advertisements. There was an indirect effect of exposure to alcohol-warning advertisements on reduced alcohol consumption via negative affect experienced in response to these advertisements. Restricting alcohol-promoting advertising could remove a potential influence on positive alcohol-related emotions and cognitions among heavy-drinking young adults. Producing alcohol-warning advertising that generates negative emotion may be an effective strategy to reduce alcohol consumption. Statement of contribution What is already known on this subject? Exposure to alcohol advertising has immediate and distal effects on alcohol consumption. There is some evidence that effects may be larger in heavy drinkers. Alcohol-warning advertising has

  20. Alcohol, drugs and much more in later life

    OpenAIRE

    Hulse Gary K

    2002-01-01

    Elderly adults are greater consumers of prescription and 'over the counter' medications than any other age group and polypharmacy, including the co-use of alcohol, is common in this group. Age related physiological changes which influence drug concentrations, metabolism, polypharmacy and interaction of other drugs with alcohol can negatively influence functional capacity, psychomotor ability, and cognition, including attention and memory, placing the older person at greater risk of accident, ...