WorldWideScience

Sample records for reported genital discharge

  1. Genital tuberculosis: A rare cause of vulvovaginal discharge and swelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malak Alhakeem

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Herein, we report a patient with vulvovaginal tuberculosis (TB presented with a vulvovaginal mass and vaginal discharge.The diagnosis was made by both histopathological examination of the excised specimen which was clinicallysuspected to be a malignant lesion and cervical smear culture positivity for Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The patientwas prescribed a full course of anti-tuberculous drugs. In this report, we discuss the genital TB and its gynecologicaleffects in the light of medical literature. J Microbiol Infect Dis 2013; 3(3: 140-142Key words: Genital tuberculosis, vulvovaginal swelling

  2. Validity of genito-urinary discharges, genital ulcers and genital rashes as indicators of seroincident HSV-2 infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eziyi Iche Kalu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the validity of vaginal discharges, urethral discharges, genital rashes, and painful genital ulcers as indicators of early detection of incident herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2 infection among pregnant women in Benin metropolis. Methods: Participants were antenatal clinic attendees of University of Benin Teaching Hospital and Central Hospital, Benin. Baseline sociodemographic, obstetric and HSV-2 serological data were collected. The HSV-2-seronegative returned for a repeat HSV-2 antibody assay before delivery date. Data on incidence of genital rashes, abnormal vaginal discharges, painful genital ulcers and urethral discharges were collected. Results: The sensitivities of abnormal vaginal discharges, genital rashes, urethral discharges and painful genital ulcers were 82.3%, 70.6%, 41.2% and 28.6% respectively; while their positive-predictive values were 53.8%, 60.0%, 58.3% and 66.7% respective. All the symptoms had >95% specificities and 95% negative-predictive values for seroincident HSV-2 infection. Conclusions: Abnormal vaginal discharge, genital rashes, urethral discharges and genital ulcers are valid indicators of seroincident HSV-2 infection and could be useful in formulation of screening tools in resource-limited settings.

  3. Genital warts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in the genital area near the warts Increased vaginal discharge Genital itching Vaginal bleeding during or after sex ... have visible warts on your external genitals, itching, discharge, or abnormal vaginal bleeding. Keep in mind that genital warts may ...

  4. Hyperaesthesia following genital herpes: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ooi, Catriona; Zawar, Vijay

    2011-01-01

    We report an adult female patient who presented with sacral radiculopathy as incapacitating dysthesias following primary genital herpes simplex, which later recurred. Despite use of systemic antiviral treatment, the painful syndrome in our patient persisted. The success in treatment was seen only after the addition of amitriptyline hydrochloride. The case is being presented here for its rare manifestation and novel use of amitriptyline hydrochloride.

  5. Hyperaesthesia Following Genital Herpes: A Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Ooi, Catriona; Zawar, Vijay

    2011-01-01

    We report an adult female patient who presented with sacral radiculopathy as incapacitating dysthesias following primary genital herpes simplex, which later recurred. Despite use of systemic antiviral treatment, the painful syndrome in our patient persisted. The success in treatment was seen only after the addition of amitriptyline hydrochloride. The case is being presented here for its rare manifestation and novel use of amitriptyline hydrochloride.

  6. Hyperaesthesia Following Genital Herpes: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catriona Ooi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We report an adult female patient who presented with sacral radiculopathy as incapacitating dysthesias following primary genital herpes simplex, which later recurred. Despite use of systemic antiviral treatment, the painful syndrome in our patient persisted. The success in treatment was seen only after the addition of amitriptyline hydrochloride. The case is being presented here for its rare manifestation and novel use of amitriptyline hydrochloride.

  7. Genital sanguineous discharge in prepuberty: a case of mullerian papilloma of vagina in a nine-year-old girl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumini, Stefano; Carinci, Silvia; Anzellotti, Maria Teresa; Chiesa, Pier Luigi Lelli; Rossi, Carlo; Stuppia, Liborio; Bertelloni, Silvano; Chiarelli, Francesco

    2010-08-01

    Vaginal bleeding in prepuberty is an alarming symptom that must be carefully investigated. Among quite common causes of genital sanguineous discharge, there are rarer conditions responsible for bleeding at this age like Mullerian papilloma of the genital tract. In this report, we describe a case of Mullerian papilloma of the vagina in a 9-year-old girl. We believe in the importance of a correct clinical setting and histological definition to avoid wrong diagnosis and consequent inadequate treatments. Mullerian papilloma, a benign tumor, can in fact be treated only with local excision.

  8. Rectal and genital prolapse in Nigerian newborns: Case reports and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-03-16

    2] ... management includes manual reduction and use of Foleys catheter.[12] These ... discharged her against medical advice on the 7th day of admission .... Thus, digital reduction of prolapse was achieved in this case. Genital ...

  9. Prevalence of genital Mycoplasmas among patients with discharge ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... (20- 24 years of age), married, nonemployed and non educated. The main complaint was whitish mucoid urethral or vaginal discharge without other significant symptoms or signs. Amongst patients with Mycoplasma infection, gonorrhoea was detected in 3 patients, syphilis in 3 and trichomonas vaginalis in one patient.

  10. Genital donovanosis with malignant transformation: An interesting case report

    OpenAIRE

    Sri, K. Navya; Chowdary, A. Swetha; Reddy, B. S. N.

    2014-01-01

    Donovanosis is a chronic indolent sexually transmitted granulomatous ulceration of genito-inguinal region, caused by Calymmatobacterium granulomatis. It became uncommon due to indiscriminate use of broad spectrum antibiotics. In recent years, much interest is being focused on this condition because genital ulcers facilitate HIV infection. We report an interesting episode of genital donovanosis complicated with squamous cell carcinoma in a middle aged female for its rarity and clinical interest.

  11. [Prevalence of associated microorganisms in genital discharge, Argentina].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Bartolomeo, Susana; Rodriguez Fermepin, Marcelo; Sauka, Diego H; Alberto de Torres, Ramón

    2002-10-01

    There was a significant increase in the number of women demanding gynecological care in public hospital of the Great Buenos Aires, Argentina, between 1997 and 1998. It was necessary to update the prevalence of associated microorganisms in order to review the laboratory support and adjust prevention and control guidelines. Samples from vaginal and endocervical discharge, from total cases: 84 adolescents (15 to 19 years) and 784 adults (20-60 years) attended in 1997-1998, were studied. Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Streptococcus agalactiae, Trichomonas vaginalis, Candida spp, and bacterial vaginosis, were diagnosed applying direct detection methods and specific culture isolation. Chlamydia trachomatis (antigen detection), Ureaplasma urealyticum and Mycoplasma hominis (culture) were also studied in part of the population. Patient care increased steadily from 1997 and there was an increase of 2.1 times from the first semester to the last one in 1998. Bacterial vaginosis was the most prevalent disease in the adult group, with 23.8%; followed by Candida spp 17.8%; S. agalactiae 5.6%; T.vaginalis 2.4%. In 50.3% of total adult cases neither bacterial vaginosis or presence of any sought microorganisms, was detected. In the adolescents group the most frequent detection was Candida spp with a 29.7%; bacterial vaginosis in 17.8%; followed by S. agalactiae 3.6%, T.vaginalis 2.4%. Also in this group on an important number of cases, 46.4%, none bacterial vaginosis or the presence of the sought microorganism were found. In some of the adult group, C. trachomatis (7/400) 1.76%, U. urealyticum (209/340) 61.4% and M. hominis (45/272) 16.5% were detected. Bacterial vaginosis and Candida spp prevalence is important in both groups. The absence of N. gonorrhoeae and lower prevalence of T. vaginalis and C. trachomatis is remarkable. A high prevalence of U. urealyticum and M. hominis were also detected, but the actual pathogenic role in adult women is still under discussion. The significant

  12. Female genital schistosomiasis--a differential diagnosis to sexually transmitted disease: genital itch and vaginal discharge as indicators of genital Schistosoma haematobium morbidity in a cross-sectional study in endemic rural Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjetland, Eyrun Floerecke; Kurewa, Edith Nyaradzai; Ndhlovu, Patricia D; Midzi, Nicholas; Gwanzura, Lovemore; Mason, Peter R; Gomo, Exnevia; Sandvik, Leiv; Mduluza, Takafira; Friis, Henrik; Gundersen, Svein Gunnar

    2008-12-01

    To examine the association between schistosomiasis and reproductive tract symptoms. A cross-sectional study was conducted in a Schistosoma haematobium-endemic area of rural Zimbabwe. A total of 483 permanently resident adult women of Mupfure Ward aged 20-49 were interviewed and examined clinically, each providing three consecutive urine samples. Logistic regression analysis was used to control for sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). Women with genital sandy patches had significantly more genital itch (P = 0.009) and perceived their discharge as abnormal (P = 0.003). Eighty percent of the women who had genital itch, yellow discharge, and childhood or current waterbody contact had sandy patches. Fifty-two percent of the women with genital sandy patches did not have detectable S. haematobium ova in urine. Genital schistosomiasis was associated with stress incontinence and pollakisuria, but not with menstrual irregularities, current or previous ulcers, or tumours. Genital schistosomiasis may be a differential diagnosis to the STDs in women who have been exposed to fresh water in endemic areas. Because of the chronic nature of the disease in adults, we suggest to pay special attention to the prevention of morbidity.

  13. Genital tuberculosis in a tamoxifen-treated postmenopausal woman with breast cancer and bloody vaginal discharge

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    Maraki Sofia

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Female genital tuberculosis is an uncommon disease that is rarely diagnosed in developed countries. Case presentation A 61-year-old postmenopausal woman who had undergone surgery and treated with adjuvant chemotherapy for infiltrating ductal carcinoma of the breast five years ago, presented with bloody vaginal discharge, fatigue, weight loss, and low grade fevers at night for two months. Histological examination of the endometrium, done based on the suspicion of a second primary cancer due to the tamoxifen therapy, revealed a granulomatous reaction. Liquid and solid mycobacterial cultures of the tissues were performed. Although the acid fast staining was negative, the liquid culture was positive for Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Involvement of other systems was not detected. The patient was treated with a three-drug antituberculosis regimen for 9 months and recovered fully. Conclusion Female genital tuberculosis is a rare but curable disease that should be included in the differential diagnosis of women with menstrual problems. Early diagnosis is important and may prevent unnecessary invasive procedures for the patient.

  14. Prevalencia de microorganismos asociados a secreción genital femenina, Argentina Prevalence of associated microorganisms in genital discharge, Argentina

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    Susana Di Bartolomeo

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Hay un aumento significativo de pacientes con Secreción Genital Femenina, en el Sector Público del gran Buenos Aires. Fue necesario actualizar la prevalencia de los microorganismos asociados a los efectos de revisar el apoyo necesario de laboratorio y ajustar las medidas de prevención y control. MÉTODOS: Se incorporan a este estudio, la totalidad de los casos atendidos (1997-1998: 84 adolescentes (15 a 19 años y 784 adultas (20 a 60 años sintomáticas. El protocolo incluye (secreción vaginal y endocervical detección de Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Streptococcus agalactiae, Trichomonas vaginalis, Candida spp y vaginosis bacteriana. Aplicando métodos específicos directos y cultivo, Chlamydia trachomatis (detección de antígeno, Ureaplasma urealitycum y Mycoplasma hominis (cultivos fueron estudiados en parte de la población total. RESULTADOS: El aumento de la demanda de consulta fue continuo desde 1997 y aumentó 2.10 veces del primero al último semestre de 1998. En las mujeres adultas se encontró: vaginosis bacteriana, 23,8%; Candida spp 17,8%; S. agalactiae 5,6%; T. vaginalis 2,4%. En 50,3% no se detecto ninguno. En adolescentes se detectó: vaginosis bacteriana, 17,8%; Candida spp 29,7%; S. agalactiae 3,6%, T. vaginalis 2,4%: En 46,4% de los casos el resultado fue negativo. En el grupo de mujeres adultas sintomáticas, no en la totalidad, se detectó: C. trachomatis (7/400 1,76%, U. urealyticum (209/340 61,4% y M. hominis (45/272 16,5%. CONCLUSIONES: El aumento significativo de consultas se debe a problemas sociales en la población, no al aumento de ninguna patología en especial. Impacta como problema clínico concreto la prevalencia de vaginosis bacteriana y Candida spp. Llama la atención, la nula incidencia de N. gonorrhoeae y la baja circulación de T. Vaginalis y C. trachomatis, en este tipo de población. La prevalencia de U. urealyticum y M. hominis es alta, pero su real participación en la patología genital de

  15. Management of Retained Genital Piercings: A Case Report and Review

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    Laura J. Moulton

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of genital piercing among women is increasing. As the popularity increases, the number of complications from infection, injury, and retained jewelry is likely to rise. Techniques to remove embedded jewelry are not well described in the literature. The purpose of this report was to describe a case of a patient with a retained clitoral glans piercing, discuss a simple technique for outpatient removal, and review current evidence regarding associated risks of clitoral piercings. A 24-year-old female presented to the emergency department with an embedded clitoral glans piercing. Local anesthetic was injected into the periclitoral skin and a small superficial vertical incision was made to remove the ball of the retained barbell safely. In conclusion, among patients with retained genital piercing, outpatient removal of embedded jewelry is feasible. While the practice of female genital piercing is not regulated, piercing of the glans of the clitoris is associated with increased injury to the nerves and blood supply of the clitoris structures leading to future fibrosis and diminished function compared to piercing of the clitoral hood.

  16. Management of Retained Genital Piercings: A Case Report and Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moulton, Laura J; Jernigan, Amelia M

    2017-01-01

    The prevalence of genital piercing among women is increasing. As the popularity increases, the number of complications from infection, injury, and retained jewelry is likely to rise. Techniques to remove embedded jewelry are not well described in the literature. The purpose of this report was to describe a case of a patient with a retained clitoral glans piercing, discuss a simple technique for outpatient removal, and review current evidence regarding associated risks of clitoral piercings. A 24-year-old female presented to the emergency department with an embedded clitoral glans piercing. Local anesthetic was injected into the periclitoral skin and a small superficial vertical incision was made to remove the ball of the retained barbell safely. In conclusion, among patients with retained genital piercing, outpatient removal of embedded jewelry is feasible. While the practice of female genital piercing is not regulated, piercing of the glans of the clitoris is associated with increased injury to the nerves and blood supply of the clitoris structures leading to future fibrosis and diminished function compared to piercing of the clitoral hood.

  17. Genital tuberculosis in postmenopausal women with variable clinical presentations: A report of 3 cases

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    Ashima Arora

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Genital tuberculosis is usually diagnosed in young women being assessed for infertility. After menopause it usually presents with symptoms resembling endometrial malignancy, such as postmenopausal bleeding, persistent vaginal discharge and pyometra. The diagnosis is made by detection of acid-fast bacilli on microscopy or bacteriological culture and/or presence of epithelioid granuloma on biopsy. Anti-tubercular therapy involves the use of rifampicin, isoniazid, pyrazinamide and ethambutol. Surgery is indicated if a pelvic mass and recurrence of pain or bleeding persist after 9 months of treatment. Three cases of genital tuberculosis in postmenopausal women with different clinical presentations are reported. The first woman presented with ascites and weight loss. The second had postmenopausal bleeding with a pipelle biopsy suggestive of endometrial intraepithelial neoplasia. The third presented with weight loss and a palpable abdominal mass. Pelvic malignancy was initially suspected but a diagnosis of tuberculosis was made following pre-operative endometrial biopsy, bacteriological culture and intra-operative frozen section. All three women responded to anti-tubercular therapy. Keywords: Genital tuberculosis, Postmenopausal, Endometrial intraepithelial neoplasia, Anti-tubercular therapy, Endometrial biopsy

  18. Haemophilus influenzae type B genital infection and septicemia in pregnant woman: a case report

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    Hosuru Subramanya Supram

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Haemophilus influenzae (H. influenzae type B a non-motile, aerobic, gram negative cocobacillus is a commensal of upper respiratory tract. Genitourinary infection due to H. influenzae has been reported but bacteremia associated with such infection appears to be rare. We report a case of 19 years young primigravida with complaints of amenorrhea of 32 weeks and 5 days, pyrexia, abdominal pain and blood stained discharge per vaginum. H. influenzae type B was recovered from the genital tract as well as blood of the mother indicating maternal septicemia. Septicemia caused by H. influenzae type B in pregnant women following vaginal colonization and infection is rare. It has been reported in many parts of world over the years; to the best of our knowledge this is the first reported case from Nepal. H. influenzae should be considered as a potential maternal, fetal, and neonatal pathogen.

  19. [Genital tuberculosis: atypical manifestation in the pregnancy. Case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco-Sansaloni, A; Vizcaíno-Torres, J; Gaona-Morales, J; Estellés-Morant, D; Antonio-Serrano, J

    2016-05-01

    In the last years has been an increase in cases of tu- berculosis, representing a global health problem that is also reflected in an increased of cases in pregnant population. Especially in developed countries has been observed a direct relation with VIH patients,and groups of immigrants from countries where the infection is endemic. Tuberculous disease during pregnancy presents good outcome if it is diagnosed and treated properly. We present the case of a romanian patient with uncon- trolled 23 weeks gestation that enters with the suspicion of chorioam- nionitis and after late septic miscarriage and clinical sepsis criteria, leaks out of the hospital reentering with signs of neurologic involvement and pelviperitonitis as a result of genital tuberculous. Diagnosed with tuber- culous meningitis and disseminated with a grim evolution until death.

  20. Physical therapy treatment of persistent genital arousal disorder during pregnancy: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbaum, Talli Yehuda

    2010-03-01

    Persistent genital arousal disorder (PGAD) is described as the spontaneous, intrusive, and unwanted genital arousal in the absence of sexual interest and desire. Whether the etiology of this disorder is essentially central or peripheral is unclear; however, a presenting symptom may be persistent engorgement of genital erectile and vascular tissue. To describe a case of a distressed 27 year old pregnant woman with symptoms consistent with PGAD, and the intervention leading to the resolution of symptoms. A patient with symptoms of PGAD was assessed. Information regarding this condition was offered. A manual therapy treatment was provided to decrease muscle hypertonus near the pudendal nerve, and a home intervention was suggested. Complete resolution of symptoms per patient's report 1 week later. Treatment with pelvic floor manual therapy directed at the pudendal nerve may provide safe and significant relief from PGAD symptoms in a pregnant woman patient.

  1. Xanthogranulomatous Inflammation of the Female Genital Tract: Report of Three Cases

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    Xiang-sheng Zhang, Hong-yan Dong, Lei-lei Zhang, Mohamed Mokhtar Desouki, Chengquan Zhao

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose and Methods: This is a series of three cases diagnosed with xanthogranulomatous inflammation of the female genital with emphasis on the etiology, clinical-pathologic features and biological behavior. Clinical, pathologic, radiologic and follow up data are reported.Results: The three cases of Xanthogranulomatous inflammation of the female genital tract are the followings: 1 one case affecting the endometrium, 2 one case affecting the fallopian tube, and 3 one case confined to the ovary. The patient's age was 37, 22 and 62 year-old, respectively. Histologic examination revealed extensive infiltration of foamy histiocytes admixed with variable amount of inflammatory cells. The later include plasma cells, lymphocytes, and occasional multinucleated giant cells. Immunohistochemistry showed positive staining for CD68, a histiocytic marker, in foamy histiocytes, CD3, a T cell marker, and CD20, a B cell marker, in the background lymphocytes. The plasma cells were polyclonal with expression of both κ and λ light chains.Conclusion: Xanthogranulomatous inflammation of the female genital tract is an unusual lesion, and clinically forms mass- like lesion in the pelvic cavity that invades the surrounding tissues, which may mimic the tumor clinically and by imaging.

  2. Nuclear medicine environmental discharge measurement. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gesell, T.F.; Prichard, H.M.; Davis, E.M.; Pirtle, O.L.; DiPietro, W.

    1975-06-01

    The discharge of most man-made radioactive materials to the environment is controlled by Federal, State or local regulatory agencies. Exceptions to this control include the radioactive wastes eliminated by individuals who have undergone diagnostic or therapeutic nuclear medicine procedures. The purpose of this study is to estimate the amount of radioactivity released to the environment via the nuclear medicine pathway for a single sewage drainage basin and to measure the amounts discharged to the environment. The report is organized into a review of previous studies, scope of work, facility data, environmental measurements and estimates of population exposure

  3. The Development of a Patient-Reported Outcome Measure for Assessment of Genital Psoriasis Symptoms: The Genital Psoriasis Symptoms Scale (GPSS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottlieb, Alice B; Kirby, Brian; Ryan, Caitriona; Naegeli, April N; Burge, Russel; Potts Bleakman, Alison; Anatchkova, Milena D; Yosipovitch, Gil

    2018-03-01

    Patient-reported outcome measures (PROs) specific for genital psoriasis (GenPs) have not been described. In this cross-sectional, qualitative study in patients with moderate-to-severe GenPs, we sought to develop a PRO useful for GenPs symptom assessment. A literature review was performed to identify relevant psoriasis or GenPs symptoms and existing PROs that may be useful in the evaluation of symptom severity in GenPs patients. The literature review findings were discussed with clinicians, and then patients with GenPs. Relevant psoriasis or GenPs symptoms from the literature review included itch, pain, scaling, redness/erythema, and stinging/burning. The validity of these symptoms for GenPs and potentially relevant PROs was corroborated by clinical experts. After gap analysis, a draft symptom scale consisting of Numeric Rating Scale (NRS) items was constructed. We then conducted interviews with GenPs patients (n = 20) to support content validity and use of the draft symptom NRS items in routine practice and in clinical trials. Participants identified and confirmed relevant symptoms and evaluated the utility of the draft PRO. A new PRO was developed: the Genital Psoriasis Symptoms Scale (GPSS). Cognitive debriefing and cultural adaptation/translation interviews with a second group of patients confirmed cultural appropriateness of the GPSS. The GPSS may be useful for assessing symptoms before, during, and after treatment in routine clinical practice and in clinical trials involving patients with GenPs. Eli Lilly & Company. Plain language summary available for this article.

  4. Genital Herpes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... No single step can protect you from every single type of STI. Can women who have sex with women get genital herpes? ... No single step can protect you from every single type of STI. Can women who have sex with women get genital herpes? ...

  5. Screening for genital tuberculosis in a limited resource country: case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namani, Sadie; Qehaja-Buçaj, Emine; Namani, Diellëza

    2017-02-07

    Screening for benign or malignant process of pelvis in young females is a challenge for a physician in a limited resource country. Tuberculosis should be always considered in the differential diagnosis of a pelvic mass in countries with high prevalence of tuberculosis. Negative results of analysis of peritoneal fluid for acid-fast staining, late cultures, and unavailability of new diagnostics methods such as polymerase chain reaction and adenosine deaminase of the aspirated fluid from peritoneal cavity can often result in invasive diagnostic procedures such as laparotomy. We report a case of a 24 year old Albanian unemployed female living in urban place in Kosovo who presented with abdominal pain, loss of appetite, fever, headache, a weight loss, nonproductive cough and menstrual irregularity for three weeks. In this example case, the patient with cystic mass in tubo-ovarial complex and elevated serum cancer antigen 125 levels was diagnosed for genital tuberculosis after performing laparotomy. Caseose mass found in left tubo-ovarial complex and histopathological examination of biopsied tissue were the fastest diagnostic tools for confirming pelvis TB. The Lowenstein-Jensen cultures were positive after six weeks and her family history was positive for tuberculosis. Young females with abdominopelvic mass, ascites, a positive family history for tuberculosis and high serum cancer antigen 125, should always raise suspicion of tuberculosis especially in a limited resource country. A laparoscopy combined with peritoneal biopsy should be performed to confirm the diagnosis as this could lead to a prevention of unnecessary laparotomies.

  6. Liquid silicone used for esthetic purposes as a potentiator for occurrence of post-radiotherapy genital lymphedema: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raíssa Quaiatti Antonelli

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT CONTEXT: Lymphedema consists of extracellular fluid retention caused by lymphatic obstruction. In chronic forms, fat and fibrous tissue accumulation is observed. Genital lymphedema is a rare condition in developed countries and may have primary or acquired etiology. It generally leads to urinary, sexual and social impairment. Clinical treatment usually has low effectiveness, and surgical resection is frequently indicated. CASE REPORT: We report a case of a male-to-female transgender patient who was referred for treatment of chronic genital lymphedema. She had a history of pelvic radiotherapy to treat anal cancer and of liquid silicone injections to the buttock and thigh regions for esthetic purposes. Radiological examinations showed signs both of tissue infiltration by liquid silicone and of granulomas, lymphadenopathy and lymphedema. Surgical treatment was performed on the area affected, in which lymphedematous tissue was excised from the scrotum while preserving the penis and testicles, with satisfactory results. Histopathological examination showed alterations compatible with tissue infiltration by exogenous material, along with chronic lymphedema. CONCLUSION: Genital lymphedema may be caused by an association of lesions due to liquid silicone injections and radiotherapy in the pelvic region. Cancer treatment decisions for patients who previously underwent liquid silicone injection should take this information into account, since it may represent a risk factor for radiotherapy complications.

  7. Persistent genital arousal disorder (PGAD): case report of long-term symptomatic management with electroconvulsive therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korda, Joanna B; Pfaus, James G; Kellner, Charles H; Goldstein, Irwin

    2009-10-01

    This is the second case report of a woman with bipolar disorder type I who noted the onset of persistent genital arousal disorder (PGAD) symptoms after abrupt cessation of paroxetine. With the worsening of PGAD symptoms, she developed severe depression and suicidal thoughts, resulting in her undergoing electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) as management. To describe a case of PGAD and develop hypotheses to explain the beneficial actions of ECT on PGAD based on 4 years of ECT administration. Patient self-report after obtaining consent, as well as literature review. After the fourth ECT, the patient's PGAD symptoms abated serendipitously. She was placed on ECT on demand for the treatment of her PGAD. With each ECT treatment, PGAD symptoms immediately disappeared, relapsing slowly over time until the next ECT was administered. The patient has, thus far, received a total of 30 treatments of ECT. Side effects continue to be minimal and include brief short-term memory loss, headache, and muscle aches. ECT is known to induce cerebral excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmitter changes after acute and chronic administration. Sexual arousal is stimulated by the action of hypothalamic and limbic dopamine, noradrenaline, melanocortin, and oxytocin, and inhibited by serotonin, cerebral opioids, and endocannabinoids. Based on the patient's bipolar disorder, the mechanism of action of ECT and the observation of ECT effectiveness on her PGAD, we hypothesize the following: (i) bipolar disorder led to central hyperactive dopamine release, an important component in the pathophysiology of her PGAD; (ii) central serotonin deficiency after selective serotonin-reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) withdrawal resulted in a lack of inhibition of sexual excitement; (iii) ECT resulted in lowering of the hyperstimulated central dopamine release; and (iv) ECT led to an increase in sexual inhibition by stimulating serotonin activity. Further research in the central control of sexual arousal is needed.

  8. Genital Herpes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genital herpes is a sexually transmitted disease (STD) caused by a herpes simplex virus (HSV). It can cause sores on ... also infect their babies during childbirth. Symptoms of herpes are called outbreaks. You usually get sores near ...

  9. Female genital cutting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perron, Liette; Senikas, Vyta; Burnett, Margaret; Davis, Victoria

    2013-11-01

    To strengthen the national framework for care of adolescents and women affected by female genital cutting (FGC) in Canada by providing health care professionals with: (1) information intended to strengthen their knowledge and understanding of the practice; (2) directions with regard to the legal issues related to the practice; (3) clinical guidelines for the management of obstetric and gynaecological care, including FGC related complications; and (4) guidance on the provision of culturally competent care to adolescents and women with FGC. Published literature was retrieved through searches of PubMed, CINAHL, and The Cochrane Library in September 2010 using appropriate controlled vocabulary (e.g., Circumcision, Female) and keywords (e.g., female genital mutilation, clitoridectomy, infibulation). We also searched Social Science Abstracts, Sociological Abstracts, Gender Studies Database, and ProQuest Dissertations and Theses in 2010 and 2011. There were no date or language restrictions. Searches were updated on a regular basis and incorporated in the guideline to December 2011. Grey (unpublished) literature was identified through searching the websites of health technology assessment and health technology-related agencies, clinical practice guideline collections, clinical trial registries, and national and international medical specialty societies. The quality of evidence in this document was rated using the criteria described in the Report of the Canadian Task Force on Preventive Health Care (Table 1). Summary Statements 1. Female genital cutting is internationally recognized as a harmful practice and a violation of girls' and women's rights to life, physical integrity, and health. (II-3) 2. The immediate and long-term health risks and complications of female genital cutting can be serious and life threatening. (II-3) 3. Female genital cutting continues to be practised in many countries, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa, Egypt, and Sudan. (II-3) 4. Global migration

  10. Genital sores - male

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sores - male genitals; Ulcers - male genitals ... A common cause of male genital sores are infections that are spread through sexual contact, such as: Genital herpes (small, painful blisters filled with clear ...

  11. Genital Warts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... No single step can protect you from every single type of STI. Can women who have sex with women get genital warts? ... Notice Language Assistance Available Accessibility Privacy Policy Disclaimers Freedom of Information Act ... A federal government website managed by the Office on Women's Health in the Office of the Assistant Secretary ...

  12. Genital herpes.

    OpenAIRE

    1980-01-01

    The author reviews the prevalence of genital herpes, outlines the typical clinical courses of the disease in its primary and recurrent forms. He discusses the physical, psychological and social effects of this sexually transmitted disease and provides three protocols for the use of oral acyclovir in its treatment.

  13. Persistent genital arousal disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eibye, Simone; Jensen, Hans Mørch

    2014-01-01

    We report a case of a woman suffering from persistent genital arousal disorder (PGAD) after paroxetine cessation. She was admitted to a psychiatric department and diagnosed with agitated depression. Physical investigation showed no gynaecological or neurological explanation; however, a pelvic MRI...

  14. S. haematobium as a common cause of genital morbidity in girls: a cross-sectional study of children in South Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid Elise Amlie Hegertun

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Schistosoma (S. haematobium infection is a common cause of genital morbidity in adult women. Ova in the genital mucosal lining may cause lesions, bleeding, pain, discharge, and the damaged surfaces may pose a risk for HIV. In a heterogeneous schistosomiasis endemic area in South Africa, we sought to investigate if young girls had genital symptoms and if this was associated with urinary S. haematobium. METHODOLOGY: In a cross-sectional study of 18 randomly chosen primary schools, we included 1057 schoolgirls between the age of 10 and 12 years. We interviewed assenting girls, whose parents had consented to their participation and examined three urines from each of them for schistosome ova. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: One third of the girls reported to have a history of genital symptoms. Prior schistosomal infection was reported by 22% (226/1020, this was associated with current genital symptoms (p<0.001. In regression analysis the genital symptoms were significantly associated both with urinary schistosomiasis (p<0.001 and water contact (p<0.001. CONCLUSIONS: Even before sexually active age, a relatively large proportion of the participating girls had similar genital symptoms to those reported for adult genital schistosomiasis previously. Anti-schistosomal treatment should be considered at a young age in order to prevent chronic genital damage and secondary infections such as HIV, sexually transmitted diseases and other super-infections.

  15. Evaluation of genital condyloma accuminata seen during pediatric age as for sexual abuse: Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Semih Petekkaya

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Anogenital wart is the most frequently seen during sexually transmitted disease in sexually active adults caused by Human Papillomavirus. The transmission with sexual contact has been defined for anogenital warts which emerge during childhood, however other routes of infection are also considered. We presented a case of a female child who had two genital warts. There is no history or suspicion of sexual abuse and the girl was infected by her mother. In the cases of condyloma accuminata seen in childhood, taking history and physical examination for sexual abuse of the child should be done by the clinician in a detailed way. Opinions should be achieved from forensic experts about the case and the legal authorities should be notified of the suspicion.

  16. Surgical Repair of an Impalement Genital Injury from an Inline Skating Accident in a 7-Year-Old Prepubertal Girl: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csorba, Roland; Engel, Joerg B; Wieg, Christian

    2017-02-01

    In girls who present with vaginal trauma, sexual abuse is often the primary diagnosis. The differential diagnosis must include patterns and the mechanism of injury that differentiate accidental injuries from inflicted trauma. A 7-year-old prepubertal girl presented to the emergency department with genital bleeding after a serious accidental impaling injury from inline skating. After rapid abduction of the legs and a fall onto the blade of an inline skate this child incurred an impaling genital injury consistent with an accidental mechanism. The dramatic genital injuries when repaired healed with almost imperceptible residual evidence of previous trauma. To our knowledge, this case report represents the first in the medical literature of an impaling vaginal trauma from an inline skate and describes its clinical and surgical management. Copyright © 2016 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. EPA Enforcement and Compliance History Online: Water Discharge Monitoring Report Data Sets for FY2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Integrated Compliance Information System (ICIS) National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) Discharge Monitoring Report (DMR) data sets for Clean Water...

  18. EPA Enforcement and Compliance History Online: Water Discharge Monitoring Report Data Sets for FY2015

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Integrated Compliance Information System (ICIS) National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) Discharge Monitoring Report (DMR) data sets for Clean Water...

  19. EPA Enforcement and Compliance History Online: Water Discharge Monitoring Report Data Sets for FY2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Integrated Compliance Information System (ICIS) National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) Discharge Monitoring Report (DMR) data sets for Clean Water...

  20. EPA Enforcement and Compliance History Online: Water Discharge Monitoring Report Data Sets for FY2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Integrated Compliance Information System (ICIS) National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) Discharge Monitoring Report (DMR) data sets for Clean Water...

  1. EPA Enforcement and Compliance History Online: Water Discharge Monitoring Report Data Sets for FY2016

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Integrated Compliance Information System (ICIS) National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) Discharge Monitoring Report (DMR) data sets for Clean Water...

  2. EPA Enforcement and Compliance History Online: Water Discharge Monitoring Report Data Sets for FY2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Integrated Compliance Information System (ICIS) National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) Discharge Monitoring Report (DMR) data sets for Clean Water...

  3. No. 207-Genital Herpes: Gynaecological Aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Money, Deborah; Steben, Marc

    2017-07-01

    The purpose of this guideline is to provide recommendations to gynaecology health care providers on optimal management of genital herpes. More effective prevention of complications and transmission of genital herpes. Medline was searched for articles published in French and English related to genital herpes and gynaecology. Additional articles were identified through the references of these articles. All study types and recommendation reports were reviewed. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. Annual report on radioactive discharges from Winfrith and monitoring the environment 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-04-01

    The 1987 Annual Report on radioactive discharges from Winfrith Atomic Energy Establishment and monitoring of the environment is given. The report covers waste discharges to the sea and the earth atmosphere and the associated environmental monitoring. (UK)

  5. Genital and Urinary Tract Defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... conditions > Genital and urinary tract defects Genital and urinary tract defects E-mail to a friend Please fill ... and extra fluids. What problems can genital and urinary tract defects cause? Genital and urinary tract defects affect ...

  6. Lymphogranuloma venereum causing a persistent genital ulcer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcotte, Terrence; Lee, Yer; Pandori, Mark; Jain, Vivek; Cohen, Stephanie Elise

    2014-04-01

    Lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV) is a sexually transmitted cause of inguinal lymphadenopathy and proctocolitis. We report a patient with a persistent genital ulcer due to LGV (serovar L2b), an unusual presentation among US men who have sex with men. Lymphogranuloma venereum should be considered when evaluating persistent genital ulcers, and LGV-specific testing should be sought.

  7. Genital Warts (HPV)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Videos for Educators Search English Español Genital Warts (HPV) KidsHealth / For Teens / Genital Warts (HPV) What's in ... HPV infection. How Do People Know They Have HPV? Most HPV infections have no signs or symptoms. ...

  8. Submittal of SWMU Assessment Report for Building 9960 Surface Discharge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dotson, Patrick Wells [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-03-01

    Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-purpose engineering and science laboratory owned by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)/National Nuclear Security Administration and managed and operated by Sandia Corporation (Sandia), a wholly-owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation. This Solid Waste Management Unit (SWMU) Assessment Report (SAR) for the Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico (SNL/NM), Coyote Test Field, Building 9960 Surface Discharge, has been prepared in accordance with Section V of the Compliance Order on Consent (the Consent Order) between the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED), DOE, and Sandia (NMED April 2004). The DOE and Sandia formally notified the NMED of this newly identified or suspected SWMU or Area of Concern (AOC) by letter dated December 9, 2014. This SAR is being submitted in accordance with the NMED Hazardous Waste Bureau (HWB) letter dated February 16, 2015 letter (Kieling February 2015). This SAR presents the available information for the Building 9960 Surface Discharge, including location, designation of type and function, a general description, the operational dates, waste characteristics, and a summary of existing analytical wastewater and soil data

  9. Evaluating the impact of existing legislation in Europe with regard to Female Genital Mutilation. Spanish National Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VVAA .

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The Spanish Report on the evaluation of existing legislation with regard to Female Genital Mutilation (FGM is the result of a research project supported by the European Commision Daphne Programme. The project Evaluating the impact of existing legislation in Europe with regard to female genital mutilation, has been coordinated by the International Centre for Reproductive Health of Ghent University (Belgium from january 2003 to march 2004. The project included as partners the Foundation for Women’s Health, Research and Development (FORWARD, United Kingdom; Lund University (Sweden; Commission pour l'Abolition des Mutilations Sexuelles, (CAMS, France, the Centre of Studies on Citizenship, Migration and Minorities of the University of Valencia (GECIM, Spain, and the above mentioned ICRH (Ghent University, Belgium . The Spanish report is an interdisciplinary research done by the Centre of Studies on Citizenship, Migration and Minorities (University of València, directed by professor Javier De Lucas, and which counts with researchers and collaborators both, from the University of Valencia and other Universities such as University of Barcelona and University Rovira i Virgili of Tarragona; in the fields of Law (Penal Law, Constitutional Law, Theory and Philosophy of Law, Sociology and Antropology. The Group of researchers includes as well lawyers and public prosecutors. Practice of Female Genital Mutilation in Spain, like other european countries, address this rite that is introduced by immigrants from countries where the practice is prevalent (as we may see in chapter 3, as a violation of women’s rights and consider that such violation cannot be justified by respect of cultural traditions or initiation ceremonies. The increasing of immigration in Spain, has been a fact in last years, and it would be an important issue in future, increasing too the number of girls at risk in our country. In Spain, since october 2003, we have anew

  10. Evaluating the impact of existing legislation in Europe with regard to Female Genital Mutilation. Spanish National Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VVAA .

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The Spanish Report on the evaluation of existing legislation with regard to Female Genital Mutilation (FGM is the result of a research project supported by the European Commision Daphne Programme. The project Evaluating the impact of existing legislation in Europe with regard to female genital mutilation, has been coordinated by the International Centre for Reproductive Health of Ghent University (Belgium from january 2003 to march 2004. The project included as partners the Foundation for Women’s Health, Research and Development (FORWARD, United Kingdom; Lund University (Sweden; Commission pour l'Abolition des Mutilations Sexuelles, (CAMS, France, the Centre of Studies on Citizenship, Migration and Minorities of the University of Valencia (GECIM, Spain, and the above mentioned ICRH (Ghent University, Belgium . The Spanish report is an interdisciplinary research done by the Centre of Studies on Citizenship, Migration and Minorities (University of València, directed by professor Javier De Lucas, and which counts with researchers and collaborators both, from the University of Valencia and other Universities such as University of Barcelona and University Rovira i Virgili of Tarragona; in the fields of Law (Penal Law, Constitutional Law, Theory and Philosophy of Law, Sociology and Antropology. The Group of researchers includes as well lawyers and public prosecutors. Practice of Female Genital Mutilation in Spain, like other european countries, address this rite that is introduced by immigrants from countries where the practice is prevalent (as we may see in chapter 3, as a violation of women’s rights and consider that such violation cannot be justified by respect of cultural traditions or initiation ceremonies. The increasing of immigration in Spain, has been a fact in last years, and it would be an important issue in future, increasing too the number of girls at risk in our country. In Spain, since october 2003, we have anew

  11. Genital condyloma virus infection following pelvic radiation therapy: report of seven cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lowell, D.M.; Livolsi, V.A.; Ludwig, M.E.

    1983-01-01

    Six women who underwent radiation therapy for gynecologic malignancies demonstrated cytologic evidence of condyloma virus infection 2 or more years following radiation. Histologic confirmation was obtained in two of the cases. A seventh patient developed in situ and invasive squamous cell carcinoma in a vulvar condyloma acuminatum following radiation therapy for Hodgkin's disease. This venereal infection is found most frequently in sexually active younger women (average age, 27 years). It is felt that depressed cell-mediated immunity consequent to the radiation therapy allowed the development of this infection in the older patients described in this report. The evolution of invasive squamous cell carcinoma in the condyloma acuminatum may indicate a possible oncogenic or cocarcinogenic effect of the virus. The immunologic responses to infection caused by the human papillomavirus group are discussed, as well as its potential for malignant transformation

  12. Complete self-mutilation of male genitals as a severe form of psychiatric manifestation of HIV: A case report with review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sriharsha Bokka

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Genital self-mutilation (GSM is a rare event that is commonly associated with psychotic disorders. However, such injuries have also been reported in nonpsychotic patients as a result of either bizarre autoerotic acts and attempts at crude sex-change operation by transsexuals or secondary complex religious beliefs and delusions regarding sexual guilt. We report a case of GSM in a human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-positive individual who not only severed his penis, scrotum, and testes completely as a result of internal conflict and frustration but also refused any further treatment toward reconstruction owing to his guilt.

  13. Serologic Screening for Genital Herpes: An Updated Evidence Report and Systematic Review for the US Preventive Services Task Force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feltner, Cynthia; Grodensky, Catherine; Ebel, Charles; Middleton, Jennifer C; Harris, Russell P; Ashok, Mahima; Jonas, Daniel E

    2016-12-20

    Genital herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection is a prevalent sexually transmitted infection. Vertical transmission of HSV can lead to fetal morbidity and mortality. To assess the evidence on serologic screening and preventive interventions for genital HSV infection in asymptomatic adults and adolescents to support the US Preventive Services Task Force for an updated recommendation statement. MEDLINE, Cochrane Library, EMBASE, and trial registries through March 31, 2016. Surveillance for new evidence in targeted publications was conducted through October 31, 2016. English-language randomized clinical trials (RCTs) comparing screening with no screening in persons without past or current symptoms of genital herpes; studies evaluating accuracy and harms of serologic screening tests for HSV-2; RCTs assessing preventive interventions in asymptomatic persons seropositive for HSV-2. Dual review of abstracts, full-text articles, and study quality; pooled sensitivities and specificities of screening tests using a hierarchical summary receiver operating characteristic curve analysis when at least 3 similar studies were available. Accuracy of screening tests, benefits of screening, harms of screening, reduction in genital herpes outbreaks. A total of 17 studies (n = 9736 participants; range, 24-3290) in 19 publications were included. No RCTs compared screening with no screening. Most studies of the accuracy of screening tests were from populations with high HSV-2 prevalence (greater than 40% based on Western blot). Pooled estimates of sensitivity and specificity of the most commonly used test at the manufacturer's cutpoint were 99% (95% CI, 97%-100%) and 81% (95% CI, 68%-90%), respectively (10 studies; n = 6537). At higher cutpoints, pooled estimates were 95% (95% CI, 91%-97%) and 89% (95% CI, 82%-93%), respectively (7 studies; n = 5516). Use of this test at the manufacturer's cutpoint in a population of 100 000 with a prevalence of HSV-2 of 16% (the

  14. Genital herpes simplex.

    OpenAIRE

    Tummon, I. S.; Dudley, D. K.; Walters, J. H.

    1981-01-01

    Genital herpes is a sexually transmitted disease caused by the herpes simplex virus. Following the initial infection the virus becomes latent in the sacral ganglia. Approximately 80% of patients are then subject to milder but unpredictable recurrences and may shed the virus even when they are asymptomatic. The disorder causes concern because genital herpes in the mother can result in rare but catastrophic neonatal infection and because of a possible association between genital herpes and canc...

  15. Genital herpes - self-care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herpes - genital - self-care; Herpes simplex - genital - self-care; Herpesvirus 2 - self-care; HSV-2 - self-care ... Genital herpes cannot be cured. Antiviral medicine (acyclovir and related drugs) may relieve pain and discomfort and help ...

  16. Genital reconstruction in exstrophy patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R B Nerli

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Surgery for bladder exstrophy has been evolving over the last four to five decades. Because survival has become almost universal, the focus has changed in the exstrophy-epispadias complex to improving quality of life. The most prevalent problem in the long-term function of exstrophy patients is the sexual activity of the adolescent and adult males. The penis in exstrophy patients appears short because of marked congenital deficiency of anterior corporal tissue. Many patients approach for genital reconstruction to improve cosmesis as well as to correct chordee. We report our series of male patients seeking genital reconstruction following exstrophy repair in the past. Materials and Methods: Fourteen adolescent/adult male patients attended urology services during the period January 2000-December 2009 seeking genital reconstruction following exstrophy repair in the past. Results: Three patients underwent epispadias repair, four patients had chordee correction with cosmetic excision of skin tags and seven patients underwent chordee correction with penile lengthening. All patients reported satisfaction in the answered questionnaire. Patients undergoing penile lengthening by partial corporal dissection achieved a mean increase in length of 1.614 ± 0.279 cm dorsally and 1.543 ± 0.230 cm ventrally. The satisfactory rate assessed by the Short Form-36 (SF-36 showed that irrespective of the different genital reconstructive procedures done, the patients were satisfied with cosmetic and functional outcome. Conclusions: Surgical procedures have transformed the management in these patients with bladder exstrophy. Bladders can be safely placed within the pelvis, with most patients achieving urinary continence and cosmetically acceptable external genitalia. Genital reconstruction in the form of correction of chordee, excision of ugly skin tags and lengthening of penis can be performed to give the patients a satisfactory cosmetic and functional

  17. Giant Cell Arteritis of the Female Genital Tract With Occult Temporal Arteritis and Marginal Zone Lymphoma Harboring Novel 20q Deletion: A Case Report and Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradhan, Dinesh; Amin, Rajnikant M; Jones, Miroslawa W; Surti, Urvashi; Parwani, Anil V

    2016-02-01

    Giant cell arteritis (GCA) is an immunologically mediated vasculitis of large and medium-sized vessels, typically affecting the cranial arteries and usually occurring in the elderly. GCA of the female genital tract is extremely rare with only 31 cases reported in the English literature. An 83-year-old white female with postmenopausal vaginal bleeding revealed an endometrial polyp on pelvic ultrasonography following which polypectomy and subsequently hysterectomy with bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy was done. Microscopy revealed a well-differentiated endometrioid adenocarcinoma. Interestingly, classic GCA involving numerous small to medium-sized arteries of the cervix, myometrium, bilateral fallopian tubes, and ovaries was also identified. Hematologic evaluation revealed marginal zone lymphoma with an exceptionally rare 20q deletion. Bilateral temporal artery biopsy was done subsequently, which exhibited GCA on microscopy. Corticosteroid was started that improved her polymyalgia rheumatica symptoms. The patient is on follow-up for 3 years and is doing well. To our knowledge, this is the first case of GCA of the female genital tract associated with a lymphoma and the second case of marginal zone lymphoma with the novel 20q deletion. © The Author(s) 2015.

  18. Annual report on radioactive discharges and monitoring of the environment 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    This report supplements BNFL's Health and Safety Annual Report and lists 1988 discharges and environmental monitoring for the following sites: Sellafield, Chapelcross, Drigg Storage and Disposal Site, Springfields Works, Capenhurst Works. (UK)

  19. Annual report on radioactive discharges from Winfrith and monitoring the environment 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-05-01

    This annual report, the seventh, aims to provide full information on our discharges and environmental monitoring. The report is mainly graphical, comparing past and current levels with authorised limits, derived limits or the recommended limits of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). Discharges from Winfrith are subject to Authorisations issued jointly by the Department of the Environment (DOE) and the Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food (MAFF). These Authorisations, one for discharges to the sea and one for discharges to the atmosphere, require that Winfrith establish a need to discharge; that we apply Best Practicable Means (BPM) to reduce our discharges; that our discharges are below set Authorised Limits; and that schedules of effluent and environmental monitoring are established. As a 'back stop', discharges at the limits must not result in doses to the most potentially exposed part of the local population - the critical group -exceeding 0.5 mSv per year. The limit recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) for dose to a member of the general public is 1.0 mSv per year. In September 1990 Winfrith's Steam Generating Heavy Water Reactor (SGHWR) was shut down therefore the pattern of discharges for 1991 differs from previous years. Discharges are generally reduced resulting in an even lower dose to the critical group, well below 1% of the ICRP limit and much less than 1% of the UK average natural background dose. (author)

  20. Genital chlamydia, genital herpes, Trichomonas vaginalis and gonorrhea prevalence, and risk factors among nearly 70,000 randomly selected women in 4 Nordic countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faber, Mette Tuxen; Nielsen, Ann; Nygård, Mari

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of women reporting ever having genital chlamydia, genital herpes, Trichomonas vaginalis, and gonorrhea, and to identify factors associated with each of these sexually transmitted infections (STIs).......The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of women reporting ever having genital chlamydia, genital herpes, Trichomonas vaginalis, and gonorrhea, and to identify factors associated with each of these sexually transmitted infections (STIs)....

  1. Annual report on radioactive discharges and monitoring of the environment 1992. V. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This Annual Report supplements the Company's Health and Safety Annual Report by providing more detailed information on radioactive discharges, monitoring of the environment and critical group doses. BNFL has published Annual Reports on Radioactive Discharges and Monitoring of the Environment, covering the period from 1977 to the present. For 1990 this report has been sub-divided into two complementary parts. Volume I includes annual data for each of the Company sites on radioactive discharges into the environment and the associated environmental monitoring programmes. Volume II reproduces the Certificates of Authorisation under which the Company operates and the statutory environmental monitoring programmes which relate to them. (author)

  2. Annual report on radioactive discharges and monitoring of the environment 1990. V. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    This Annual Report supplements the Company's Health and Safety Annual Report by providing more detailed information on radioactive discharges, monitoring of the environment and critical group doses. BNFL has published Annual Reports on Radioactive Discharges and Monitoring of the Environment, covering the period from 1977 to the present. For 1990 this report has been sub-divided into two complementary parts. Volume I includes annual data for each of the Company sites on radioactive discharges into the environment and the associated environmental monitoring programmes. Volume II reproduces the Certificates of Authorisation under which the Company operates and the statutory environmental monitoring programmes which relate to them. (author)

  3. Annual report on radioactive discharges and monitoring of the environment 1990. V. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    This Annual Report supplements the Company's Health and Safety Annual Report by providing more detailed information on radioactive discharges, monitoring of the environment and critical group doses. BNFL has published Annual Reports on Radioactive Discharges and Monitoring of the Environment, covering the period from 1977 to the present. For 1990 this report has been sub-divided into two complementary parts. Volume I includes annual data for each of the Company sites on radioactive discharges into the environment and the associated environmental monitoring programmes. Volume II reproduces the Certificates of Authorisation under which the Company operates and the statutory environmental monitoring programmes which relate to them. (author)

  4. Annual report on radioactive discharges and monitoring of the environment 1991. V. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    This Annual Report supplements and updates British Nuclear Fuel plc's Health and Safety and the Environment Annual Report by providing more detailed information on radioactive discharges, monitoring of the environment and critical groups doses. BNFL has published Annual Reports on Radioactive Discharges and Monitoring of the Environment since 1977. This year the report is again sub-divided into two complementary volumes. Volume I includes, for each of the Company's sites, annual data on radioactive discharges into the environment and the associated environmental monitoring programmes. Critical groups doses for each site are presented in summary tables at the beginning of each chapter. (author)

  5. Study of genital lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anand Kumar B

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available A total of one hundred patients (75 males and 25 females age ranged from 17-65 years with genital lesions attending the STD clinic of Bowring and LC Hospitals Bangalore constituted the study group. Based on clinical features, the study groups were classified as syphilis (39, chancroid (30, herpes genitolis (13, condylomato lato (9, LGV (7t condylomata acuminata (5, genital scabies (3, granuloma inguinole (2 and genital candidiasis (1. In 68% microbiological findings confirmed the clinical diagnosis. Of the 100 cases 13% and 2% were positive for HIV antibodies and HbsAg respectively.

  6. Diagnostic Challenges of Female Genital Tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaudhary Vigi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: India accounts for one fifth of the global incidence of tuberculosis (TB annually. Genital tract TB is one of the extra pulmonary presentations of TB leading to infertility among Indian women. Genital TB is a chronic disease and often asymptomatic with very few specific complaints. Infertility is the most common clinical presentation of genital TB. Herein, we report a case of 32-year-old female patient suffering from abdominal pain and infertility for the last 8 months. Methods: Hysterosalpingography (HSG and ultrasonography (USG did not reveal characteristic radiological appearances of TB although USG detected the presence of a large fibroid in the right uterine wall. Histology, microscopy for acid fast bacilli, liquid culture and nucleic acid amplification assay targeting 64kDa protein encoding gene, the IS6110 element of endometrium biopsy were negative for tubercle bacilli. Results: Since the diagnosis of genital TB is elusive, antitubercular treatment (ATT using isoniazid, pyrazinamide, rifampicin, and ethambutol was prescribed for two months followed by maintenance therapy with isoniazid and rifampicin for four months without any pregnancy outcome. Conclusion: However, the patient conceived spontaneously after surgical removal of fibroid. Relating infertility to female genital tuberculosis due to high prevalence of TB in the country and ignoring the presence of uterine fibroid might not have been the right decision taken by the gynaecologist. This suggests the urgent need for an accurate method intended for diagnosis of female genital tuberculosis.

  7. Genital herpes simplex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tummon, I S; Dudley, D K; Walters, J H

    1981-07-01

    Genital herpes is a sexually transmitted disease caused by the herpes simplex virus. Following the initial infection the virus becomes latent in the sacral ganglia. Approximately 80% of patients are then subject to milder but unpredictable recurrences and may shed the virus even when they are asymptomatic. The disorder causes concern because genital herpes in the mother can result in rare but catastrophic neonatal infection and because of a possible association between genital herpes and cancer of the cervix. No effective treatment is as yet available. Weekly monitoring for virus by cervical culture from 32 weeks' gestation is recommended for women with a history of genital herpes and for those whose sexual partner has such a history.

  8. Annual report on radioactive discharges and monitoring of the environment 1992. V. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This Annual Report supplements and updates the Company's Environment Annual Report by providing more detailed information on radioactive discharges, monitoring of the environment and critical group doses. BNFL has published Annual Reports on Radioactive Discharges and Monitoring of the Environment since 1977. This year the report is again sub-divided into two complementary volumes. Volume I consists of site papers, one for each of the Company's sites and includes annual data on radioactive discharges into the environment and the associated environmental monitoring programmes. Critical group doses for each site are presented in summary tables at the beginning of each Site paper. Volume II reproduces the Certificates of Authorisation regulating the Company's discharges and the statutory environmental monitoring programmes which relate to them. (Author)

  9. Annual report on radioactive discharges and monitoring of the environment, 1996. V. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    British Nuclear Fuels Limited (BNFL)'s 1996 report on radioactive discharges from its various sites and monitoring of the surrounding environments are described. For each of the Sellafield, Drigg, Chapelcross, Springfields and Capenhurst sites, details are given on normal operations, radioactive discharges in gaseous, liquid or solid forms, environmental monitoring routines and collective dose and critical group estimates. The second, linked, volume of this report covers certificates of authorisation issued to the company. (UK)

  10. Report on radioactive discharges and environmental monitoring at nuclear power stations during 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hurst, M.J.; Thomas, D.W.

    1992-09-01

    This report presents the details for 1991 of radioactive discharges and environmental monitoring at Nuclear Electric sites. In addition to the main section which summarises the discharges and monitoring at the Company's nuclear sites as a whole, appendices are presented covering the data in detail for individual sites. In each case the radiological impact on the general public has been estimated. Discharges generally were not substantially different from those of recent years. All radioactive effluent discharges from power stations were within authorised limits. Radiation doses to members of the public resulting from these discharges, and from direct radiation from the Stations, were in all cases less than the limit of 1 mSv per year which has been recommended by ICRP since 1985. (Author)

  11. Annual report on radioactive discharges and monitoring of the environment 1991. V. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    This Annual Report supplements British Nuclear Fuel plc's Health and Safety Annual Report by providing more detailed information on radioactive discharges, monitoring of the environmental and critical group doses. BNFL has published Annual Reports on Radioactive Discharges and Monitoring of the Environment, covering the period from 1977 to the present. For 1991 this report has been sub-divided into two complementary parts. Volume II reproduces the Certificates of Authorisation under which the Company operates and the statutory environmental monitoring programmes which relate to them. (author)

  12. Annual report on radioactive discharges and monitoring of the environment 1992. V. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This Annual Report supplements British Nuclear Fuel plc's Health and Safety Annual Report by providing more detailed information on radioactive discharges, monitoring of the environmental and critical group doses. BNFL has published Annual Reports on Radioactive Discharges and Monitoring of the Environment, covering the period from 1977 to the present. For 1991 this report has been sub-divided into two complementary parts. Volume II reproduces the Certificates of Authorisation under which the Company operates and the statutory environmental monitoring programmes which relate to them. (author)

  13. Genital male piercings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mircea Tampa

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Body piercing has been practiced for thousands of years all over the world for beautification, religion, initiation rites or status reasons. Genital piercings also have a significant background and have been practiced for enhancing sexual pleasure, chastity, shocking or as a protest against a conservative society. As the popularity of genital piercings increased in the last years, the number of complications is also on the rise. It is therefore important for the medical professionals to have at least basic knowledge regarding this practice, as it might be required in the management of unpredictable complications.

  14. Bipolar aphthosis presenting as mutilating genital ulcers in women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta Somesh

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Three women with large, mutilating genital ulcers of long duration, destroying almost the lower half of the external genitalia, are reported. They had a history of recurrent oral ulcers as well. All patients had been diagnosed as having ′genital ulcer syndrome′ in the past and had been treated with antimicrobials. Histopathology of the biopsy from the margin of the ulcer revealed features of leukocytoclastic vasculitis. Considering the history, clinical features and histology, a diagnosis of bipolar aphthosis was made in all patients. All patients responded well to immunosuppressive therapy. The cases are reported because of the presence of genital ulcers of an unusually large size, mutilating character and their close similarity to genital ulcers due to sexually transmitted diseases, especially genital herpes and donovanosis.

  15. Bipolar aphthosis presenting as mutilating genital ulcers in women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta Somesh

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Three women with large, mutilating genital ulcers of long duration, destroying almost the lower half of the external genitalia, are reported. They had a history of recurrent oral ulcers as well. All patients had been diagnosed as having ′genital ulcer syndrome′ in the past and had been treated with antimicrobials. Histopathology of the biopsy from the margin of the ulcer revealed features of leukocytoclastic vasculitis. Considering the history, clinical features and histology, a diagnosis of bipolar aphthosis was made in all patients. All patients responded well to immunosuppressive therapy. The cases are reported because of the presence of genital ulcers of an unusually large size, mutilating character and their close similarity to genital ulcers due to sexually transmitted diseases, especially genital herpes and donovanosis.

  16. [Primary genital herpes with sacral meningoradiculitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carron, P-N; Anguenot, J-L; Dubuisson, J-B

    2004-02-01

    Herpetic genital infection is a common sexually transmitted disease, caused in most cases by type 2 Herpes simplex virus (HSV2). This virus is characterized by its neurotropic properties and its ability to establish latency in sacral sensory ganglions. Some cases of genital primo-infection are complicated by viral replication dissemination to neigbhoring nerve structures like meninges and radicular terminations. In such cases muco-cutaneous manifestations are associated with peripheral neurological impairment in the form of meningo-radiculitis. Physicians should be familiar with these neurological symptoms knowing that they always regress completely. The present report illustrates these complications and reviews the potential neurological implications described in the literature.

  17. Genital lesions following bestiality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mittal A

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available A 48-year-old man presented with painful genital lesions with history of bestiality and abnor-mal sexual behaviour. Examination revealed multiple irregular tender ulcers and erosions, with phimosis and left sided tender inguinal adenopathy. VDRL, TPHA, HIV-ELISA were negative. He was treated with ciprofloxacin 500mg b.d. along with saline compresses with complete resolution.

  18. Genital Herpes (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... against STDs. Using douche can actually increase a female's risk of contracting STDs because it can change the natural flora (healthy bacteria) of the vagina and may flush STD pathogens higher into the genital tract. A teen who is being treated for herpes ...

  19. Female genital mutilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladjali, M; Rattray, T W; Walder, R J

    1993-08-21

    Female genital mutilation, also misleadingly known as female circumcision, is usually performed on girls ranging in from 1 week to puberty. Immediate physical complications include severe pain, shock, infection, bleeding, acute urinary infection, tetanus, and death. Longterm problems include chronic pain, difficulties with micturition and menstruation, pelvic infection leading to infertility, and prolonged and obstructed labor during childbirth. An estimated 80 million girls and women have undergone female genital mutilation. In Britain alone an estimated 10,000 girls are currently at risk. Religious, cultural, medical, and moral grounds rationalize the custom which is practiced primarily in sub-Saharan Africa, the Arab world, Malaysia, Indonesia, and among migrant populations in Western countries. According to WHO it is correlated with poverty, illiteracy, and the low status of women. Women who escape mutilation are not sought in marriage. WHO, the UN Population Fund, the UN Children's Fund, the International Planned Parenthood Federation, and the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child have issued declarations on the eradication of female genital mutilation. In Britain, local authorities have intervened to prevent parents from mutilating their daughters. In 1984, the Inter-African Committee Against Harmful Traditional Practices Affecting Women and Children was established to work toward eliminating female genital mutilation and other damaging customs. National committees in 26 African countries coordinate projects run by local people using theater, dance, music, and storytelling for communication. In Australia, Canada, Europe, and the US women have organized to prevent the practice among vulnerable migrants and refugees.

  20. Genital ulcers in women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruisten, Sylvia M.

    2003-01-01

    Women who are in a low socioeconomic status are most vulnerable to genital ulcer disease (GUD). GUD is recognized as an important co-factor for acquisition of HIV. GUD etiology has been elucidated in the past decade, with the availability of multiplex polymerase chain reaction. Worldwide, herpes

  1. Angina - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chest pain - discharge; Stable angina - discharge; Chronic angina - discharge; Variant angina - discharge; Angina pectoris - discharge; Accelerating angina - discharge; New-onset angina - discharge; Angina-unstable - discharge; ...

  2. Annual report on radioactive discharges and monitoring of the environment 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-08-01

    A report is given on the liquid, airborne and solid radioactive discharges through authorised outlets and on environmental monitoring for all of BNFL's Works and sites for 1982, i.e. Sellafield Site and the Drigg Storage and Disposal Site; Chapelcross Works; Springfields Works and the Ulnes Walton Disposal Site; and Capenhurst Works. The report includes assessment of radiation doses to representative members of the most highly exposed group of the general population for the most important environmental pathways. At no time during 1982 have discharges and disposals of radioactive wastes through authorised outlets at any of the above Works exceeded those laid down in any of the Authorisations. (U.K.)

  3. Psychosocial Treatment for Recurrent Genital Herpes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longo, David J.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Assigned 21 individuals with recurrent genital herpes to psychosocial intervention, social support, or waiting-list control conditions. Those receiving psychosocial intervention (herpes simplex virus information, relaxation training, stress management instructions, and an imagery technique) reported significantly greater reductions in herpes…

  4. A Study of Isolates from Female Genital Swab Specimens in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Infective vaginal discharge, when left untreated, is a possible risk of acquisition of HIV/AIDS as well as other complications. To detect some common microbial agents of vaginal discharge in order to improve the current syndromic management of abnormal vaginal discharge. A prospective study of female genital swabs ...

  5. Genital Mycoplasma Infections Among Women In An Urban ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    those who presented with vaginal discharge were infected with Mycoplasma spp. (P< 0.05); also, the incidence of infection among the separated/divorce/widowed group was significantly higher than the married group (P<0.05). Conclusion: Mycoplasmas are common genital organisms, hence should be sought out for from ...

  6. Female genital tract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cole, M.P.; Hunter, R.D.

    1985-01-01

    This chapter is concerned with cancers of the cervix uteri, the corpus uteri, the ovary, vulva, and vagina. Radiotherapy has an important place in the management of patients with cancers of the genital tract but the radiotherapist must collaborate closely with surgical colleagues, both gynaecological and urological. Each must appreciate the merits and limitations of surgery and radiation therapy, whether used alone or in combination, with curative intent or in a supportive role

  7. Correlates of HIV-1 genital shedding in Tanzanian women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clare Tanton

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the correlates of HIV shedding is important to inform strategies to reduce HIV infectiousness. We examined correlates of genital HIV-1 RNA in women who were seropositive for both herpes simplex virus (HSV-2 and HIV-1 and who were enrolled in a randomised controlled trial of HSV suppressive therapy (aciclovir 400 mg b.i.d vs. placebo in Tanzania.Samples, including a cervico-vaginal lavage, were collected and tested for genital HIV-1 and HSV and reproductive tract infections (RTIs at randomisation and 6, 12 and 24 months follow-up. Data from all women at randomisation and women in the placebo arm during follow-up were analysed using generalised estimating equations to determine the correlates of cervico-vaginal HIV-1 RNA detection and load.Cervico-vaginal HIV-1 RNA was detected at 52.0% of 971 visits among 482 women, and was independently associated with plasma viral load, presence of genital ulcers, pregnancy, bloody cervical or vaginal discharge, abnormal vaginal discharge, cervical ectopy, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Chlamydia trachomatis, Trichomonas vaginalis, an intermediate bacterial vaginosis score and HSV DNA detection. Similar factors were associated with genital HIV-1 RNA load.RTIs were associated with increased presence and quantity of genital HIV-1 RNA in this population. These results highlight the importance of integrating effective RTI treatment into HIV care services.

  8. Liquid discharges from the Ringhals and Barsebaeck nuclear power plants. Report to the OSPAR commission in accordance with PARCOM recommendation 91/4 on radioactive discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-05-01

    With regard to the general objectives of the Convention for the Protection of the Marine Environment of the North-East Atlantic (OSPAR Convention), the contracting parties have agreed, as stated in PARCOM Recommendation 91/4 on Radioactive Discharges, to apply best available technique (BAT) to reduce radioactive releases from the nuclear industry. Progress in implementing BAT shall be reported to the OSPAR Commission every four years. This report contains the Swedish submission for the third round of implementation reporting according to PARCOM Recommendation 91/4. The data provided are relevant to the Ringhals NPP which discharge into Convention waters, and the Barsebaeck NPP which discharge into waters close to the Convention area. The report was submitted to the Commission in December 1999

  9. Liquid discharges from the Ringhals and Barsebaeck nuclear power plants. Report to the OSPAR commission in accordance with PARCOM recommendation 91/4 on radioactive discharges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-05-01

    With regard to the general objectives of the Convention for the Protection of the Marine Environment of the North-East Atlantic (OSPAR Convention), the contracting parties have agreed, as stated in PARCOM Recommendation 91/4 on Radioactive Discharges, to apply best available technique (BAT) to reduce radioactive releases from the nuclear industry. Progress in implementing BAT shall be reported to the OSPAR Commission every four years. This report contains the Swedish submission for the third round of implementation reporting according to PARCOM Recommendation 91/4. The data provided are relevant to the Ringhals NPP which discharge into Convention waters, and the Barsebaeck NPP which discharge into waters close to the Convention area. The report was submitted to the Commission in December 1999.

  10. Annual report on radioactive discharges and monitoring of the environment 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-07-01

    A report is given on discharges and disposal of radioactive wastes through authorised outlets and on environmental monitoring for all of BNFL's Company Works and Sites during 1981. At no time during 1981 have discharges and disposals of radioactive wastes at any of the Works or Sites exceeded those laid down in any of the Authorisations. Similarly, environmental monitoring studies have shown that the radiation doses to the most highly exposed group of the general population were significantly lower than the dose limit recommended by the ICRP. (U.K.)

  11. Genital Mycoplasmas in Placental Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Stein

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The involvement of the genital mycoplasmas Ureaplasma urealyticum and Mycoplasma hominis in complications of pregnancy has remained controversial especially because these microorganisms are frequent colonizers of the lower genital tract. Recovery of bacteria from the placenta appears to be the sole technique to represent a true infection and not vaginal contamination. Therefore, we investigated the presence of genital mycoplasmas, aerobic and anaerobic bacteria, and fungi in human placentas and evaluated their association with morbidity and mortality of pregnancy.

  12. 11p Microdeletion including WT1 but not PAX6, presenting with cataract, mental retardation, genital abnormalities and seizures: a case report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almind, Gitte J; Brøndum-Nielsen, Karen; Bangsgaard, Regitze

    2009-01-01

    , bilateral ptosis, genital abnormalities, seizures and a dysmorphic face. Cytogenetic analysis showed a deletion on 11p that was further characterized using FISH and MLPA analyses. The deletion (11p13-p12) located in the area between the deletions associated with the WAGR and Potocki-Shaffer syndromes had...

  13. Annual report on radioactive discharges and monitoring of the environment 1990. V. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    This Annual Report supplements the Health and Safety Annual Report of British Nuclear Fuels plc by providing more detailed information on radioactive discharges, monitoring of the environment and critical group doses. This report has been sub-divided into two complementary parts. Volume I includes annual data for each of the Company sites on radioactive discharges into the environment and the associated environmental monitoring programmes. The sites involved are: Sellafield where the main activities are irradiated nuclear fuel reprocessing and the Calder Hall nuclear station; the Drigg radioactive waste storage and disposal site; the Chapelcross nuclear power station; Springfields Works which manufactures nuclear fuels; Capenhurst Works where uranium isotopic enrichment plants are operated. Volume II reproduces the Certificates of Authorisation under which the Company operates and the statutory environmental monitoring programmes which relate to them. (author)

  14. Annual report on radioactive discharges and monitoring of the environment 1990. V. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    This Annual Report supplements the Health and Safety Annual Report of British Nuclear Fuels plc by providing more detailed information on radioactive discharges, monitoring of the environment and critical group doses. This report has been sub-divided into two complementary parts. Volume I includes annual data for each of the Company sites on radioactive discharges into the environment and the associated environmental monitoring programmes. The sites involved are: Sellafield where the main activities are irradiated nuclear fuel reprocessing and the Calder Hall nuclear station; the Drigg radioactive waste storage and disposal site; the Chapelcross nuclear power station; Springfields Works which manufactures nuclear fuels; Capenhurst Works where uranium isotopic enrichment plants are operated. Volume II reproduces the Certificates of Authorisation under which the Company operates and the statutory environmental monitoring programmes which relate to them. (author)

  15. Risk assessment for produced water discharges to Louisiana open bays. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meinhold, A.F.; DePhillips, M.P.; Holtzman, S.

    1996-01-01

    The US Department of Energy (USDOE) has a program of research in the environmental aspects of oil and gas extraction. This sampling project will characterize the environmental impacts associated with the discharge of naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM), metals and organics in produced water. This report is part of a series of studies of the health and ecological risks from discharges of produced water to the Gulf of Mexico, supported by the USDOE. These assessments are being coordinated with the field study, using the collected data to perform human health and ecological risk assessments. These assessments will provide input to regulators in the development of guidelines and permits, and to industry in the development and use of appropriate discharge practices. The initial human health and ecological risk assessments consist of conservative screening analyses meant to identify potentially important contaminants, and to eliminate others from further consideration. More quantitative assessments were done for contaminants identified, in the screening analysis, as being of potential concern. Section 2 gives an overview of human health and ecological risk assessment to help put the analyses presented here in perspective. Section 3 provides the hazard assessment portion of the risk assessment, and identifies the important receptors and pathways of concern. Section 3 also outlines the approach taken to the risk assessments presented in the rest of the report. The remaining sections (4 through 9) present the human health and ecological risk assessments for discharges of produced water to open bays in Louisiana

  16. Annual report on radioactive discharges from Winfrith and monitoring the environment 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-06-01

    This annual report, the sixth of its type, aims to provide full information on discharges and environmental monitoring. The report is mainly graphical, comparing past and current levels with authorised limits, derived limits or the recommended limits of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). All the data are presented at the end of the report in tabular form. Discharges from Winfrith are subject to Authorisations issued jointly by the Department of the Environment (DOE) and the Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food (MAFF). The numerical values of the Authorised Limits are based on past performance, future requirements and the application of Best Practicable Means (BPM). As a ''back stop'', discharges at the limits must not result in doses to the most potentially exposed part of the local population - the critical group - exceeding 0.5 mSv per year. The limit recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) for dose to a member of the general public is 1.0 mSv per year. In September 1990 Winfrith's Steam Generating Heavy Water Reactor (SGHWR) was shut down and a decision taken, later, that reactor operation would cease. The pattern of discharges thus changed in the last quarter of the year and discharges in future will be lower, and of a different pattern, than those of the past twenty years. The dose to the critical group, which is already less than 2% of the ICRP limit and less than 1% of the UK average natural background dose will drop further in future years. (Author)

  17. Annual report on radioactive discharges and monitoring of the environment 1993. V. 2: Certificates of authorisation and environmental monitoring programmes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    British Nuclear Fuels plc's Certificates of Authorisation, under which it operates, are reproduced in the second volume of the 1993 Annual Report on Radioactive Discharges and Monitoring of the Environment. The report also includes environmental monitoring programmes relating to discharge authorisation for each of the Sellafield, Drigg, Chapelcross, Springfields and Capenhurst sites. (UK)

  18. Annual report on radioactive discharges from Winfrith and monitoring the environment 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-03-01

    The numerical values of the authorised limits are based on past performance, future requirements and the application of BPM. As a 'back-stop', discharges at the limits must not result in doses to the most potentially exposed part of the local population -the critical group - exceeding 0.5 mSv per year. The limit of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) for dose to a member of the general public is 1.0 mSv per year. During 1989 some small changes took place in our discharge patterns, our environmental monitoring and in the assessment of critical group doses. These changes are discussed in the introductions to the two parts of this report where the relevant Authorisations are also discussed. This report, the fifth of our annual series, has as its aim the provision, to the general public, of full information on discharges from the SGHWR reactor and other smaller sources at Winfrith and the associated environmental monitoring programmes. Some improvements in presentation have been made. The data, mainly provided graphically in the main text, are still compared with authorised limits or derived levels, but numerical values are now given. The graphs refer to specifically authorised radio-nuclides e.g. tritium, rather than to gross activity. Previous reports were restricted to monitoring at the site boundary and to off-site monitoring. Some data are now given in the report for on-site monitoring. (author)

  19. Laparoscopic trans teres vault suspension, a new laparoscopic method of treatment of female genital prolapse – a preliminary report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Milnerowicz-Nabzdyk

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction : Pelvic organ prolapse (POP is treated with a great variety of procedures and none is fully satisfactory. The aim of the study was to introduce and evaluate the effectives of laparoscopic trans teres vault suspension (LTTVS technique as a new method for POP treatment. Material and methods: In the years 2013-2014, eight symptomatic women with grades II-IV POP underwent LTTVS procedure. The mean age of patients was 65.25 years (range from 52 to 76 years. The surgery encompassed total hysterectomy, suturing the vagina and fixation of uterosacral ligaments to the vaginal stump, fixation of stumps of round ligaments to the vaginal stump, and fixation of the vaginal stump to the anterior rectus fascia. Mean follow-up was 17.75 months (range from 6 to 27 months. Results : Eight patients were successfully operated. The symptoms of POP resolved after surgery and subjective quality of life increased. In one case a complication such as common fibular nerve injury appeared; however, it resolved after one month of physiotherapy. The other patient reported radiating pain down the leg after three months. No recurrence of vaginal stump prolapse was observed during the follow-up. Conclusions : LTTVS is a promising method for POP treatment. Due to repair with the use of native tissues, physiological placement of vaginal stump, and high efficacy it can be considered as an alternative to other POP surgeries. The method requires additional research on larger groups of patients.

  20. Psychophysical properties of female genital sensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, Melissa A; Maykut, Caroline A; Huberman, Jackie S; Huang, Lejian; Khalifé, Samir; Binik, Yitzchak M; Apkarian, A Vania; Schweinhardt, Petra

    2013-11-01

    Provoked vestibulodynia (PVD) is characterized by the presence of vulvar touch and pain hypersensitivity. Pain with vaginal distension, which motivates treatment seeking and perpetuates distress, is frequently reported with PVD. However, the concordance between the perception of vulvar and vaginal sensation (ie, somatic and visceral genital sensations, respectively) remains unstudied in healthy women, as well as in clinical populations such as PVD. To evaluate the static and dynamic (time-varying) properties of somatic and visceral genital sensation, women with PVD (n=14) and age- and contraceptive-matched healthy controls (n=10) rated varying degrees of nonpainful and painful genital stimulation. Somatic (vulvar) mechanical sensitivity to nonpainul and painful degrees of force were compared to visceral (vaginal) sensitivity to nonpainful and painful distension volumes. Results indicated that healthy women showed substantial individual variation in and high discrimination of vulvar and vaginal sensation. In contrast, PVD was associated with vulvar allodynia and hyperalgesia, as well as vaginal allodynia. Modeling of dynamic perception revealed novel properties of abnormal PVD genital sensation, including temporal delays in vulvar touch perception and reduced perceptual thresholds for vaginal distension. The temporal properties and magnitude of PVD distension pain were indistinguishable from vaginal fullness in healthy controls. These results constitute the first empirical comparison of somatic and visceral genital sensation in healthy women. Findings provide novel insights into the sensory abnormalities that characterize PVD, including an experimental demonstration of visceral allodynia. This investigation challenges the prevailing diagnostic assessment of PVD and reconceptualizes PVD as a chronic somatic and visceral pain condition. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Genital herpes simplex virus infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenthal, M S

    1979-09-01

    In recent years, a great increase in interest in genital herpes has been stimulated partly by the rising prevalence of this disease and partly by observations suggesting that genital herpes is a cause of cervical cancer. The clinical pictures produced by genital herpes simplex virus infections are similar in men and women. In contrast to recurrent attacks, initial episodes of infection are generally more extensive, last longer, and are more often associated with regional lymphadenopathy and systemic symptoms. Genital herpes in pregnancy may pose a serious threat to the newborn infant. Although the data suggesting genital herpes simplex virus infection is a cause of cervical cancer are quite extensive, the evidence is largely circumstantial. In spite of these more serious aspects of genital herpes simplex virus infection, episodes of genital herpes are almost always self-limited and benign. Frequent recurrences pose the major therapeutic and management problem. At present, there is no satisfactory treatment for recurrent genital herpes simplex virus in fection. Many of the suggested therapies, although some sound very promising, are potentially dangerous and should be used only under carefully controlled conditions.

  2. Annual report on radioactive discharges and monitoring of the environment 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    British Nuclear Fuels plc (BNFL) provides a comprehensive range of nuclear fuel cycle services, ie the purification and processing of uranium ore concentrates, the enrichment of uranium, the manufacture of uranium and plutonium based fuels, the reprocessing of irradiated fuel, and the conditioning and storage of nuclear materials and radioactive wastes. Some of these activities give rise to discharges of radioactive isotopes to the environment. This annual report follows the pattern established in 1977 in that it gives information on radioactive discharges, through authorised and scheduled outlets, and on environmental monitoring for all of the Company's Works and sites, ie Sellafield Site and the Drigg Storage and Disposal Site; Chapelcross Works; Springfield Works and the Ulnes Walton Disposal Site; and Capenhurst Works. Where a site also encompasses laboratories of the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority (UKAEA) reference is made to the significance of the discharges from the latter. It also includes assessment of radiation doses to representative members of the most highly exposed group of the general population (the critical group) for the most important environmental pathways in the vicinity of each site. Information for the period 1971-76 inclusive has also been published by BNFL and prior to 1971, the year in which BNFL was formed, information was published by the UKAEA. An appendix contains certificates of Authorisation granted by the DOE, MAFF and Scottish Office imposing limits and conditions relating to methods of disposal and quantities to be discharged. (author)

  3. Regulation, characterization and treatment of discharge waters from pipelines. Volume 1. Topical report, January 1989-April 1992. Executive summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tallon, J.T.; Fillo, J.P.

    1992-04-01

    The report examines environmental issues related to hydrostatic testing of discharge waters generated from integrity testing of natural gas pipelines. Hydrostatic testing, and proper environmental management of the discharge waters, can be required by DOT regulations. However, disposal of water used to conduct a hydrostatic pipeline test is regulated on a state-by-state basis. State-specific requirements vary widely, ranging from an authorization letter to a complete NPDES permit. Monitoring may be required before and during discharge, include a variety of analyses, have varying protocols for obtaining samples, and may be required either to obtain data or to ascertain compliance with stipulated discharge limits. The composition of the discharge and state-specific discharge limitations dictate treatment needs on a case-by-case basis. The volume consists of the Executive Summary of a five-volume report series

  4. Genital Herpes: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groves, Mary Jo

    2016-06-01

    Genital herpes is a common sexually transmitted disease, affecting more than 400 million persons worldwide. It is caused by herpes simplex virus (HSV) and characterized by lifelong infection and periodic reactivation. A visible outbreak consists of single or clustered vesicles on the genitalia, perineum, buttocks, upper thighs, or perianal areas that ulcerate before resolving. Symptoms of primary infection may include malaise, fever, or localized adenopathy. Subsequent outbreaks, caused by reactivation of latent virus, are usually milder. Asymptomatic shedding of transmissible virus is common. Although HSV-1 and HSV-2 are indistinguishable visually, they exhibit differences in behavior that may affect management. Patients with HSV-2 have a higher risk of acquiring human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Polymerase chain reaction assay is the preferred method of confirming HSV infection in patients with active lesions. Treatment of primary and subsequent outbreaks with nucleoside analogues is well tolerated and reduces duration, severity, and frequency of recurrences. In patients with HSV who are HIV-negative, treatment reduces transmission of HSV to uninfected partners. During pregnancy, antiviral prophylaxis with acyclovir is recommended from 36 weeks of gestation until delivery in women with a history of genital herpes. Elective cesarean delivery should be performed in laboring patients with active lesions to reduce the risk of neonatal herpes.

  5. [Genital warts and HPV vaccination].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilka, R; Dvorák, V; Fait, T

    2011-12-01

    To present and overview of incidence of, and cost of care for, genital warts. Review. Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Palacky University and Faculty University, Olomouc; Office gynecology and primary care centre, Brno; Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Charles university in Prague-First Faculty of Medicine and General Faculty Hospital, Prague. Literature review of incidence of, and cost of care for, genital warts in some european countries, North America and Australia. Genital warts exert a considerable impact on health services, a large proportion of which could be prevented through immunisation using the quadrivalent human papillomavirus vaccine.

  6. Sex differences in patterns of genital sexual arousal: measurement artifacts or true phenomena?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suschinsky, Kelly D; Lalumière, Martin L; Chivers, Meredith L

    2009-08-01

    Sex differences in patterns of sexual arousal have been reported recently. Men's genital arousal is typically more category-specific than women's, such that men experience their greatest genital arousal to stimuli depicting their preferred sex partners whereas women experience significant genital arousal to stimuli depicting both their preferred and non-preferred sex partners. In addition, men's genital and subjective sexual arousal patterns are more concordant than women's: The correlation between genital and subjective sexual arousal is much larger in men than in women. These sex differences could be due to low response-specificity in the measurement of genital arousal in women. The most commonly used measure of female sexual arousal, vaginal photoplethysmography, has not been fully validated and may not measure sexual arousal specifically. A total of 20 men and 20 women were presented with various sexual and non-sexual emotionally laden short film clips while their genital and subjective sexual arousal were measured. Results suggest that vaginal photoplethysmography is a measure of sexual arousal exclusively. Women's genital responses were highest during sexual stimuli and absent during all non-sexual stimuli. Sex differences in degree of category-specificity and concordance were replicated: Men's genital responses were more category-specific than women's and men's genital and subjective sexual arousal were more strongly correlated than women's. The results from the current study support the continued use of vaginal photoplethysmography in investigating sex differences in patterns of sexual arousal.

  7. Prevalence of Genital Tuberculosis among Infertile Women: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kefayat Chaman-Ara

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Genital tuberculosis is a kind of infectious diseases with a relatively high prevalence in developing countries. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of genital tuberculosis among infertile women. A PubMed, Science Direct, Scopus, Google Scholar, SID, Magiran and Cochrane databases (from 1980 to the present, date of last search March 2016 was carried out using the search keywords tuberculosis, genital tuberculosis, female genital, genital tract, genital system, female infertility, endometrial tuberculosis, anti-tubercular therapy, bacteriological, tuberculin antigen, histological, infertility, fallopian tube diseases, prevalence, rate, percent in order to find the studies which have reported the prevalence of genital tuberculosis among infertile women. Data were extracted from retrieved studies and a meta-analysis was done. 23 studies were found. In these studies a total of 4361 infertile women have been studied. The prevalence of genital tuberculosis among infertile women with 95% confidence interval was 24.2% (18.5-29.99. The prevalence of genital tuberculosis among infertile women is high. It seems that exact planning and action for the prevention and treatment of genital tuberculosis can reduce the infertility prevalence and prevent the negative consequences of infertility

  8. Report on the survey for electrostatic discharges on Mars using NASA's Deep Space Network (DSN)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arabshahi, S.; Majid, W.; Geldzahler, B.; Kocz, J.; Schulter, T.; White, L.

    2017-12-01

    Mars atmosphere has strong dust activity. It is suggested that the larger regional storms are capable of producing electric fields large enough to initiate electrostatic discharges. The storms have charging process similar to terrestrial dust devils and have hot cores and complicated vortex winds similar to terrestrial thunderstorms. However, due to uncertainties in our understanding of the electrical environment of the storms and absence of related in-situ measurements, the existence (or non-existence) of such electrostatic discharges on the planet is yet to be confirmed. Knowing about the electrical activity on Mars is essential for future human explorations of the planet. We have recently launched a long-term monitoring campaign at NASA's Madrid Deep Space Communication Complex (MDSCC) to search for powerful discharges on Mars. The search occurs during routine tracking of Mars orbiting spacecraft by Deep Space Network (DSN) radio telescope. In this presentation, we will report on the result of processing and analysis of the data from the first six months of our campaign.

  9. Elsberg syndrome: a neurologic basis for acute urinary retention in patients with genital herpes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemrika, D J; Schutte, M F; Bleker, O P

    1986-09-01

    Three patients with genital herpes simplex type II primoinfection and acute urinary retention are described. All patients showed pleocytosis of the cerebrospinal fluid, substantiating central nervous involvement. The association of genital herpes and sacral (myelo-) radiculitis has gained little attention in gynecologic literature, yet it is not an uncommon finding in female patients suffering from herpes. The present report emphasizes the importance of urinary symptoms in genital herpes and reviews the literature on similar cases.

  10. The Management of Pediatric Genital Injuries at a Pediatric Emergency Department in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takei, Hirokazu; Nomura, Osamu; Hagiwara, Yusuke; Inoue, Nobuaki

    2018-04-25

    Genital injuries among children are often associated with consumer products or specific activities. There are few descriptive studies from Asia on pediatric genital injuries seen in the emergency department (ED). The aim of this study was to describe the characteristic features of accidental genital injuries among children. A retrospective chart review of children aged 15 years or younger who visited our ED for genital injuries between March 2010 and November 2014 was conducted. Data on age, arrival time at the ED, location of the incident, mechanism of injury, objects, injured organ, consultation with specialists, emergency operation, sedation at the ED, and outcomes were collected and analyzed. One hundred seventy-nine patients were included in this analysis. Girls comprised 71% of the subject pool. The median age was 6 years (interquartile range, 4-9 years). Straddle injuries were the most common form of injury (56%). Male genital injuries occurred mostly outdoors (64%). Common consumer products associated with pediatric genital injuries were furniture (21%), exercise equipment (17%), and bicycles (15%). Thirty-two patients were examined by a surgeon, gynecologist, or urologist. The most commonly injured organs were the penis (55%) in boys and the labia (60%) in girls. Most patients (93%) were treated at the ED and discharged. The characteristics of accidental genital injuries among Japanese children were similar to those of children in other countries. The strategy for preventing genital injuries used in the West might be applicable to the East Asian context.

  11. Extended retroperitoneal necrotizing fasciitis with genital involvement, resembling fournier gangrene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimoto, Motokazu; Matsuura, Kenji; Takayama, Hiroshi; Kayo, Munefumi; Ie, Tomotsugu

    2010-10-01

    Necrotizing fasciitis is a serious infection that originates in the subcutaneous tissues. Although many reports have been published about necrotizing infections of other anatomical sites, retroperitoneal necrotizing soft tissue infection is a rare entity that has been described in only a few case reports. The etiology and clinical course of retroperitoneal necrotizing fasciitis can be variable and it is often difficult to identify the etiology of the infective process. We report a 58-year-old man with rapidly progressive, gas-producing, necrotizing inflammation in the retroperitoneum, complicated with genital involvement resembling Fournier gangrene. The patient was managed successfully by aggressive drainage, debridement, and sequential laparotomies to track and control the extensive necrosis of the retroperitoneum and perineum, in addition to systemic care to control sepsis. After his general condition stabilized, early rectosigmoid adenocarcinoma was identified and resected curatively. He remained well at follow up, six months after discharge. In retrospect, the trigger of the disease process was unclear. Although it was believed possibly to be due to the colon lesion, adenocarcinoma of the rectosigmoid colon was identified and the patient was managed successfully. Similar to necrotizing infections at other anatomical sites, early diagnosis and timely surgical intervention and systemic antimicrobial therapy are mandatory for treating patients with retroperitoneal necrotizing fasciitis.

  12. Peritonitis due to genital tuberculosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, J H; Mikkelsen, A L; Siemssen, O J

    1985-01-01

    A case of genital tuberculosis is presented. The diagnosis was made by laparotomy and histological examination of biopsies from peritoneum and the Fallopian tube. The literature is reviewed and the diagnostic approach and treatment discussed....

  13. Annual report on radioactive discharges and monitoring of the environment 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-07-01

    A report is given on radioactive discharges through authorised outlets and on environmental monitoring for all of British Nuclear Fuels Limited Works and Sites, i.e. the Windscale and Calder Works and the Drigg Storage and Disposal Site; Chapelcross Works; Springfields Works and the Ulnes Walton Disposal Site; and Capenhurst Works. The report includes information on liquid and airborne radioactive effluents and solid radioactive waste at each of the Company's Works and Sites. Assessments are made of maximum radiological exposures to individual members of the public expressed in terms of limits based on ICRP recommendations and in accordance with advice given by the NRPB. The report showed that at no time during 1980 did discharges and disposals of radioactive wastes through authorised outlets at any of the Works exceed those laid down in any of the Authorisations. Environmental monitoring studies also showed that the radiation exposure in 1980 of the most highly exposed groups of the general population was significantly lower than the Annual Limit recommended by the ICRP. (U.K.)

  14. Peritonitis due to genital tuberculosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Jesper Hastrup; Mikkelsen, A L; Siemssen, O J

    1985-01-01

    A case of genital tuberculosis is presented. The diagnosis was made by laparotomy and histological examination of biopsies from peritoneum and the Fallopian tube. The literature is reviewed and the diagnostic approach and treatment discussed.......A case of genital tuberculosis is presented. The diagnosis was made by laparotomy and histological examination of biopsies from peritoneum and the Fallopian tube. The literature is reviewed and the diagnostic approach and treatment discussed....

  15. [Does the nutritional care plan and report upon discharge under the health care system substitute the nutrition support team summary at patient discharge?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidaka, Kumi; Matsuoka, Mio; Kajiwara, Kanako; Hinokiyama, Hiromi; Mito, Saori; Doi, Seiko; Konishi, Eriko; Ibata, Takeshi; Komuro, Ryutaro; lijima, Shohei

    2013-12-01

    Our nutrition support team (NST) designed the NST summary for cooperation among personnel providing medical care for nutritional management of high-need patients in our area. After the introduction of the NST fee under the health care system, the number of summary publications decreased. The requested NST fee is necessary for publication of a nutritional care plan and report upon patient discharge. We hypothesized that the nutritional care plan and discharge report were being substituted for the NST summary at the time of patient discharge. We retrospectively investigated 192 cases with NST fee. There were only 13 cases of overlapping publication, and the NST summary was necessary for 107 of 179 cases in which no NST summary had been prepared. Since the space on the report form is limited, it can provide only limited information. However, the NST summary can convey detailed supplementary information. Therefore, there is a high need for the NST summary, and publication of NST summaries for the appropriate cases must continue.

  16. 11p Microdeletion including WT1 but not PAX6, presenting with cataract, mental retardation, genital abnormalities and seizures: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baekgaard Peter

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract WAGR syndrome (Wilms' tumor, aniridia, genitourinary abnormalities and mental retardation and Potocki-Shaffer syndrome are rare contiguous gene deletion syndromes caused by deletions of the 11p14-p12 chromosome region. We present a patient with mental retardation, unilateral cataract, bilateral ptosis, genital abnormalities, seizures and a dysmorphic face. Cytogenetic analysis showed a deletion on 11p that was further characterized using FISH and MLPA analyses. The deletion (11p13-p12 located in the area between the deletions associated with the WAGR and Potocki-Shaffer syndromes had a maximum size of 8.5 Mb and encompasses 44 genes. Deletion of WT1 explains the genital abnormalities observed. As PAX6 was intact the cataract observed cannot be explained by a deletion of this gene. Seizures have been described in Potocki-Shaffer syndrome while mental retardation has been described in both WAGR and Potocki-Shaffer syndrome. Characterization of this patient contributes further to elucidate the function of the genes in the 11p14-p12 chromosome region.

  17. Male genital trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jordan, G.H.; Gilbert, D.A.

    1988-01-01

    We have attempted to discuss genital trauma in relatively broad terms. In most cases, patients present with relatively minimal trauma. However, because of the complexity of the structures involved, minimal trauma can lead to significant disability later on. The process of erection requires correct functioning of the arterial, neurologic, and venous systems coupled with intact erectile bodies. The penis is composed of structures that are compliant and distensible to the limits of their compliance. These structures therefore tumesce in equal proportion to each other, allowing for straight erection. Relatively minimal trauma can upset this balance of elasticity, leading to disabling chordee. Likewise, relatively minimal injuries to the vascular erectile structures can lead to significantly disabling spongiofibrosis. The urethra is a conduit of paramount importance. Whereas the development of stricture is generally related to the nature of the trauma, the extent of stricture and of attendant complications is clearly a function of the immediate management. Overzealous debridement can greatly complicate subsequent reconstruction. A delicate balance between aggressive initial management and maximal preservation of viable structures must be achieved. 38 references

  18. Female genital mutilation in Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, J A; Debelle, G D

    1995-06-17

    The practice of female genital mutilation predates the founding of both Christianity and Islam. Though largely confined among Muslims, the operation is also practiced in some Christian communities in Africa such that female genital mutilation takes place in various forms in more than twenty African countries, Oman, Yemen, the United Arab Emirates, and by some Muslims in Malaysia and Indonesia. In recent decades, ethnic groups which practice female genital mutilation have immigrated to Britain. The main groups are from Eritrea, Ethiopia, Somalia, and Yemen. In their own countries, an estimated 80% of women have had the operation. Female genital mutilation has been illegal in Britain since 1985, but it is practiced illegally or children are sent abroad to undergo the operation typically at age 7-9 years. It is a form of child abuse which poses special problems. The authors review the history of female genital mutilation and describe its medical complications. Assuming that the size of the population in Britain of ethnic groups which practice or favor female genital mutilation remains more or less unchanged, adaptation and acculturation will probably cause the practice to die out within a few generations. Meanwhile, there is much to be done. A conspiracy of silence exists in medical circles as well as widespread ignorance. Moreover, none of a number of well-known obstetric and pediatric textbooks mentions female genital mutilation, while the National Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Children has neither information nor instructional material. It is high time that the problem was more widely and openly discussed.

  19. Self-reported post-discharge symptoms following obstetric neuraxial blockade.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hayes, N E

    2010-10-01

    Economic pressures are leading to earlier hospital discharge following delivery, before complications of obstetric neuraxial block may become apparent. Our aim was to estimate the incidence of symptoms presenting post-discharge at a single tertiary obstetric centre.

  20. [Laboratory diagnosis of genital herpes--direct immunofluorescence method].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majewska, Anna; Romejko-Wolniewicz, Ewa; Zareba-Szczudlik, Julia; Kilijańczyk, Marek; Gajewska, Małgorzata; Młynarczyk, Grazyna

    2013-07-01

    Aim of the study was to determine clinical usefulness of direct immunofluorescence method in the laboratory diagnosis of genital herpes in women. Overall 187 anogenital swabs were collected from 120 women. Using a dacron-tipped applicator 83 swabs were collected from women suspected of genital herpes and 104 from patients with no signs of genital infection. All samples were tested using cell culture (Vero cell line) and then direct immunofluorescence method (DIF) for the identification of antigens of herpes simplex viruses: HSV-1 and HSV-2. Characteristic cytopathic effect (CPE), indicative of alphaherpesvirus infection, was observed in 43.4% of cultures with clinical specimens collected from women with suspected genital herpes and in 29.8% of cultures of clinical specimens taken from patients with no clinical symptoms of genital herpes. Herpes simplex viruses were determined in 73 samples by direct immunofluorescence method after amplification of the virus in cell culture. The DIF test confirmed the diagnosis based on the microscopic CPE observation in 85%. In 15% of samples (taken from pregnant women without clinical signs of infection) we reported positive immunofluorescence in the absence of CPE. The frequency of antigen detection was statistically significantly higher in samples that were positive by culture study (chi-square test with Yates's correction, p genital herpes in swabs taken from the vestibule of the vagina and the vulva. However, there was no statistically significant difference in the frequency of detection of Herpes Simplex Virus antigens in specimens from different parts of the genital tract in both groups of women (chi-square test, p > 0.05). In our study HHV-1 was the main causative agent of genital herpes. The growing worldwide prevalence of genital herpes, challenges with the clinical diagnosis, and availability of effective antiviral therapy are the main reasons for a growing interest in rapid, proper laboratory diagnosis of infected

  1. Excitation of rare gases in an electron-beam-controlled discharge: report on preliminary experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bingham, F.W.

    1976-05-01

    Data from the preliminary phase of a study of rare-gas-excimer production in an electron-beam-controlled discharge are presented. The results indicate that it is possible to maintain an arc-free discharge in preionized Ar and Xe gas for a period of several microseconds at applied external E/p values up to 5 V/cm/Torr. In these experiments ultraviolet radiation emitted during the discharge signaled the presence of excited rare-gas molecules. Application of the external electric field significantly enhanced the ultraviolet intensity from xenon-gas discharges but produced little enhancement from argon-gas discharges

  2. Genital HSV Shedding among Kenyan Women Initiating Antiretroviral Therapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Griffins O Manguro

    Full Text Available Genital ulcer disease (GUD prevalence increases in the first month of antiretroviral treatment (ART, followed by a return to baseline prevalence by month 3. Since most GUD is caused by herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2, we hypothesized that genital HSV detection would follow a similar pattern after treatment initiation.We conducted a prospective cohort study of 122 HSV-2 and HIV-1 co-infected women with advanced HIV disease who initiated ART and were followed closely with collection of genital swab specimens for the first three months of treatment.At baseline, the HSV detection rate was 32%, without significant increase in genital HSV detection noted during the first month or the third month of ART. HIV-1 shedding declined during this period; no association was also noted between HSV and HIV-1 shedding during this period.Because other studies have reported increased HSV detection in women initiating ART and we have previously reported an increase in GUD during early ART, it may be prudent to counsel HIV-1 infected women initiating ART that HSV shedding in the genital tract may continue after ART initiation.

  3. Transnodal Lymphangiography in the Diagnosis and Treatment of Genital Lymphedema

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez, F. M., E-mail: gomez_fermun@gva.es; Martinez-Rodrigo, J.; Marti-Bonmati, L. [Hospital Universitario y Politecnico La Fe, Servicio de Radiologia (Spain); Santos, E. [University of Pittsburgh, Department of Radiology (United States); Forner, I. [Hospital Universitario y Politecnico La Fe, Servicio de Medicina Fisica y Rehabilitacion (Spain); Lloret, M.; Perez-Enguix, D.; Garcia-Marcos, R. [Hospital Universitario y Politecnico La Fe, Servicio de Radiologia (Spain)

    2012-12-15

    Purpose: To report the success of groin nodal lymphography in the diagnosis and treatment of genital lymphedema. Methods and Materials: We present one female (8 years old [patient no. 1]) and two male (69 and [patient no. 2] 31 years old [patient no. 3], respectively) patients with genital lymphedema in whom conservative treatment failed. The girl also had lymphorrhagia. Genital lymphedema was caused by radical cystectomy (patient no. 2), lymphatic hyperplasia (patient no. 1), and idiopathic lymphangitis (patient no. 3). All of them underwent ultrasound-guided bilateral groin lymph node puncture. Afterward, 4-8 ml Lipiodol Ultra-Fluide (Guerbet) were injected at a rate of 0.2 ml/s. Lipiodol progression was assessed by fluoroscopy. Computed tomography scan of the abdomen and pelvis was performed immediately after and again at 24 h after the procedure to confirm the leak. The follow-up period was 15, 13, and 9 months, respectively. Technical success was considered as bilateral pelvic and abdominal filling of lymphatic vessels. Therapeutic success was considered as improvement or disappearance of genital lymphedema and/or lymphorrhagia. Results: Lipiodol leak to the scrotum was observed in patients no. 2 and 3. Lymphaticopelvic fistula and genital lymphatic hyperplasia were seen in patient no. 1. Genital lymphedema diminished within 1 week and almost disappeared in two cases (patients no. 1 and 3) or significantly improved (patient no. 2). lymphorrhagia also resolved in patient no. 1. No recurrence or worsening was detected during follow-up. Conclusion: Therapeutic lymphangiography by lymph node injection seems to be effective to treat genital lymphedema. Lymph node puncture lymphangiography is feasible and less cumbersome than pedal lymphangiography.

  4. Transnodal Lymphangiography in the Diagnosis and Treatment of Genital Lymphedema

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gómez, F. M.; Martínez-Rodrigo, J.; Martí-Bonmatí, L.; Santos, E.; Forner, I.; Lloret, M.; Pérez-Enguix, D.; García-Marcos, R.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To report the success of groin nodal lymphography in the diagnosis and treatment of genital lymphedema. Methods and Materials: We present one female (8 years old [patient no. 1]) and two male (69 and [patient no. 2] 31 years old [patient no. 3], respectively) patients with genital lymphedema in whom conservative treatment failed. The girl also had lymphorrhagia. Genital lymphedema was caused by radical cystectomy (patient no. 2), lymphatic hyperplasia (patient no. 1), and idiopathic lymphangitis (patient no. 3). All of them underwent ultrasound-guided bilateral groin lymph node puncture. Afterward, 4–8 ml Lipiodol Ultra-Fluide (Guerbet) were injected at a rate of 0.2 ml/s. Lipiodol progression was assessed by fluoroscopy. Computed tomography scan of the abdomen and pelvis was performed immediately after and again at 24 h after the procedure to confirm the leak. The follow-up period was 15, 13, and 9 months, respectively. Technical success was considered as bilateral pelvic and abdominal filling of lymphatic vessels. Therapeutic success was considered as improvement or disappearance of genital lymphedema and/or lymphorrhagia. Results: Lipiodol leak to the scrotum was observed in patients no. 2 and 3. Lymphaticopelvic fistula and genital lymphatic hyperplasia were seen in patient no. 1. Genital lymphedema diminished within 1 week and almost disappeared in two cases (patients no. 1 and 3) or significantly improved (patient no. 2). lymphorrhagia also resolved in patient no. 1. No recurrence or worsening was detected during follow-up. Conclusion: Therapeutic lymphangiography by lymph node injection seems to be effective to treat genital lymphedema. Lymph node puncture lymphangiography is feasible and less cumbersome than pedal lymphangiography.

  5. Pyosalpinges after hysterosalpingography in a patient with lower genital tract infection and managed by laparoscopic surgery in a resource low tertiary hospital case report and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egbe, Thomas Obinchemti; Kobenge, Fidelia Mbi; Arlette, Metogo Mbengono Junette; Belley-Priso, Eugene

    2018-01-01

    Pyosalpinges (a complication of pelvic inflammatory disease) is infection of the fallopian tubes and the morbidity associated with it has major health implications. We are reporting a case of pyosalpinges diagnosed after hysterosalpingography and managed by laparoscopic surgery at the Douala General Hospital, Cameroon. A 29-year-old single woman, an assistant nurse of the Douala tribe in Cameroon. She is G1P0010 and came to our attention because of secondary infertility of three years duration. She has a history consistent with four lifetime sexual partners, self-medication for chlamydia trachomatis infection and induced abortion by dilatation and aspiration. Furthermore, she is HIV positive and had an ultrasound scan suggestive of bilateral hydrosalpinges. After a hysterosalpingography examination she developed painless muco-purulent vaginal discharge and bilateral adnexal tenderness on bimanual examination suggestive of pyosalpinges. Vaginal and cervical cultures isolated Ureaplasma urealyticum and Gardnerella vaginalis sensitive to ofloxacin and metronidazole, respectively.At laparoscopy, bilateral pyosalpinges, pelvic adhesions and peri-hepatic adhesions were found. Bilateral salpingectomy with adhesiolysis including lysis of perihepatic adhesions and peritoneal toileting was done. She was discharged from hospital 72 h later and her hospital stay was uneventful. She was counseled for in-vitro fertilization and to register in the national HIV treatment programme. Her husband was prescribed ofloxacin empirically. Antimicrobial prophylaxis should be given to patients prior to HSG, especially those with a history of chlamydia or evidence of hydrosalpinges. There should also be universal STI testing in high risk and HIV positive patients or the danger for suboptimal antibiotic usage in areas where self-medication is common.In resource-low tertiary hospitals where computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging is not readily available and/or affordable, clinical

  6. Annual report on radioactive discharges and monitoring of the environment 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-07-01

    This report gives information on radioactive discharges through authorised outlets and on environmental monitoring, for all of the British Nuclear Fuel Company's Works and Sites ie the Windscale and Calder Works and the Drigg Storage and Disposal site; Chapelcross Works; Springfields Works and the Ulnes Walton Disposal Site; and Capenhurst Works. Where a site also encompasses laboratories of the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority (UKAEA) reference is made to the significance of the discharges from the latter. The report includes assessment of maximum radiological exposures to individual members of the public expressed in terms of limits based on the recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) and in accordance with advice given by the National Radiological Protection Board (NRPB) on the application of the Commission's recommendations in the UK. It is recognised that certain consequences of exposure are believed not to occur unless a threshold dose to a particular part of the body is exceeded and that other possible consequences can be evaluated by computing an effective dose equivalent. In both cases limits are stated, the latter being 5 millisievert (500 millirem) per annum, together with the comment that it would be prudent to restrict actual continuous exposure over a whole lifetime to an average of 1 millisievert (100 millirem) per annum. The assessments are based on data recommended by ICRP. Where these data are not yet available the assessments are based on data published by NRPB as interim recommendations. The percentage of the effective dose equivalent limit is quoted together with the individual contributions to it. Where other limits, which are 'threshold' in nature and cannot be summed, are apparently more restrictive a textual comment is made. (author)

  7. Human papillomavirus and genital cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rapose Alwyn

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Human papillomavirus (HPV is one of the most common sexually transmitted infections world-wide. Low-risk HPV-types are associated with genital warts. Persistent infection with high-risk HPV-types is associated with genital cancers. Smoking and HIV infection have consistently been associated with longer duration of HPV infection and risk for genital cancer. There is an increasing incidence of anal cancers, and a close association with HPV infection has been demonstrated. Receptive anal sex and HIV-positive status are associated with a high risk for anal cancer. Two HPV vaccines are now available and offer protection from infection by the HPV-types included in the vaccine. This benefit is maximally seen in young women who were uninfected prior to vaccination.

  8. Female genital mutilation in Djibouti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinelli, M; Ollé-Goig, J E

    2012-12-01

    The practice of female genital mutilation (we will use the latest definition adopted by WHO/UNFP: female genital mutilation/cutting or FGM/C) is still widespread in 28 African countries. The World Health Organisation (WHO) estimates that more than two million females undergo some form of genital mutilation every year. Its negative health impact and its ethical and human rights aspects have been discussed and attempts to eliminate it have been the objectives of several meetings promoted by national and international organisations thanks to an increased awareness related to FGM/C in those countries practicing it and also, maybe due to the number of Africans migrating to industrialized countries. We review the present situation in Djibouti, a small country in the Horn of Africa, where 98 % of the female population has suffered different forms of FGM/C.

  9. Emerging technologies and approaches to minimize discharges into Lake Michigan, phase 2 module 4 report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Negri, M.C.; Gillenwater, P.; Urgun-Demirtas, M.; Nnanna, G.; Yu, J.; Jannotta, I, (Energy Systems); (Purdue University Calumet)

    2012-04-19

    The Great Lakes Initiative (GLI) established the new water quality-based discharge criteria for mercury (Hg), thereby increasing the need for many municipal and industrial wastewater treatment plants in the region to lower the mercury in their effluents. Information on deployable technologies to satisfy these requirements for industrial and municipal dischargers in the Great lakes region is scarce. Therefore, BP funded Purdue University Calumet and Argonne to identify deployable Hg removal technologies to meet the GLI discharge criterion at its Whiting Refinery in Indiana. The joint PUC/Argonne project was divided into 2 phases. Results from Phase I and Phase II Modules 1-3 have been previously reported. This report summarizes the work done in Phase 3 Module 4, which consisted of the pilot scale testing of Hg removal technologies previously selected in Module 3. The pilot testing was an Argonne/PUC jointly directed project that was hosted at and funded by the BP refinery in Whiting, IN. As two organizations were involved in data analysis and interpretation, this report combines two independent sets of evaluations of the testing that was done, prepared respectively by Argonne and Purdue. Each organization retains sole responsibility for its respective analysis conclusions and recommendations. Based on Module 3 bench testing with pre-Effluent To Lake (pre-ETL) and clarifier effluent (CE) samples from the Whiting refinery, three different technologies were chosen for pilot testing: (1) Ultrafiltration (using GE ZeeWeed(reg sign) Technology, 0.04 {mu}m pore size and made up of PVDF) for particulate mercury removal; (2) Adsorption using Mersorb(reg sign) LW, a sulfur-impregnated activated carbon, for dissolved mercury removal if present and (3) The Blue PRO(reg sign) reactive filtration process for both particulate and dissolved (if present) mercury removal. The ultrafiltration and the Blue PRO(reg sign) reactive filtration pilot studies were done simultaneously at the

  10. Vulvovaginitis: clinical features, aetiology, and microbiology of the genital tract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaquiery, A; Stylianopoulos, A; Hogg, G; Grover, S

    1999-01-01

    AIM—To clarify the contribution of clinical and environmental factors and infection to the aetiology of vulvovaginitis in premenarchal girls, and to determine clinical indicators of an infectious cause.
DESIGN—It was necessary first to define normal vaginal flora. Cases were 50 premenarchal girls > 2 years old with symptoms of vulvovaginitis; 50 controls were recruited from girls in the same age group undergoing minor or elective surgery.
RESULTS—Interview questionnaire showed no difference between cases and controls in regards to hygiene practices, exposure to specific irritants, or history of possible sexual abuse. Normal vaginal flora was similar to that described in previous studies, with the exception of organisms likely to be associated with sexual activity. 80% of cases had no evidence of an infectious cause. In the 10 cases in whom an infectious cause was found, there was significantly more visible discharge and distinct redness of the genital area on examination compared with other cases.
CONCLUSIONS— The findings suggest that vulvovaginitis in this age group is not usually infectious or necessarily related to poor hygiene, specific irritants or sexual abuse, although any of these can present with genital irritation. The possibility of sexual abuse should always be considered when a child presents with genital symptoms, but our data indicate it is not a common contributing factor. Infection is generally associated with vaginal discharge and moderate or severe inflammation.

 PMID:10373139

  11. A study of female genital swabs in primary health care centres in Jos, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Nwadioha

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To detect some common microbial agents of female genital discharges in order to improve the current syndromic management of abnormal vaginal discharge. Methods: A prospective study of female genital swabs collected from Primary Health Care Centres, Jos, and analysed for microscopy, culture and sensitivity in Jos University Teaching Hospital, December 2006 to December 2007 was carried out. Results: Microbial agents were detected in 70% (700 of a total 1 000 female genital swabs studied. Candida species peaked with 42.0% (420 out of the 1000 samples, followed by Gardnerella vaginalis, an agent of bacterial vaginosis with 26.0%. The distribution of abnormal vaginal discharge was highest in young adults aged 21 to 30 years. Conclusions: It is concluded that abnormal vaginal discharge is most prevalent in the young sexually active age group with Candida species as the commonest agent. We recommend prevention, early diagnosis and prompt treatment of infective female genital discharge in order to reduce the menace of HIV transmission.

  12. Differences in Perceived and Physiologic Genital Arousal Between Women With and Without Sexual Dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handy, Ariel B; Stanton, Amelia M; Pulverman, Carey S; Meston, Cindy M

    2018-01-01

    Many sexual psychophysiologic studies have failed to find differences in physiologic genital arousal between women with and those without sexual dysfunction. However, differences in self-reported (ie, perceived) measures of genital responses between these 2 groups of women have been noted. To determine whether women with and without sexual dysfunction differ on measures of physiologic and perceived genital arousal based on type of analytic technique used, to explore differences in perceived genital arousal, and to assess the relation between physiologic and perceived genital arousal. Data from 5 studies (N = 214) were used in this analysis. Women were categorized into 3 groups: women with arousal-specific sexual dysfunction (n = 40), women with decreased sexual function (n = 72), and women who were sexually functional (n = 102). Women viewed an erotic film while their physiologic genital arousal was measured using a vaginal photoplethysmograph. After watching the film, women completed a self-report measure of perceived genital arousal. There were differences in vaginal pulse amplitude (VPA) levels and association of VPA with perceived genital sensations based on level of sexual function. Commonly used methods of analysis failed to identify significant differences in VPA among these groups of women. When VPA data were analyzed with hierarchical linear modeling, significant differences emerged. Notably, women with arousal-specific dysfunction exhibited lower VPA than sexually functional women at the beginning of the assessment. As the erotic film progressed, women with arousal-specific dysfunction became aroused at a faster rate than sexually functional women, and these 2 groups ultimately reached a similar level of VPA. Sexually functional women reported the highest levels of perceived genital responses among the 3 groups of women. No significant relation between VPA and perceived genital arousal emerged. Women's perception of their genital responses could play

  13. Genital herpes simplex virus infection: clinical course and attempted therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, L G; Keeney, R E

    1981-06-01

    The epidemiology, clinical course, diagnosis, and attempted treatments of herpes genitalis are reviewed. Herpes genitalis is an increasingly common sexually transmitted disease for which there is no effective treatment. It can occur in either sex and is mot commonly first found in patients 14 to 29 years old. Initial exposure to the virus may result in prolonged local symptoms (pain, itching, discharge) and signs (ulcerative lesions) as well as fever, malaise, myalgias, and fatigue. After the initial exposure, the virus may be found in a latent stage in the dorsal nerve root ganglia in the sacral area, and recurrences of disease may ensue. The frequency and clinical course of recurrent genital herpes can be of varying duration and severity. Although antiviral substances, immune potentiators, topical surfactants, and photodynamic inactivation have been used to treat genital herpes infections, there is no proven effective therapy.

  14. Annual report on radioactive discharges and monitoring of the environment 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-07-01

    The report gives information on radioactive discharges and environmental monitoring for all the Works and Sites of British Nuclear Fuels Ltd. Where a site also encompasses laboratories of the United kingdom Atomic Energy Authority (UKAEA) reference is made to the latter. The report includes assessment of maximum radiological exposures to individual members of the public based on the recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) as advised by the National Radiological Protection Board (NRPB). This year account is taken of new recommendations, ICRP 26, which emphasise the importance of justification and optimisation of practices leading to radiological exposure, and revises the method for evaluating the significance of such exposure. This method recognises that certain consequences of exposure are believed not to occur unless a threshold dose to a particular part of the body is exceeded and that other possible consequences can be evaluated by computing an effective dose equivalent. In both cases limits are stated, the latter being numerically equal to the previous 5 millisievert (500 millirem) per annum whole body dose limit. In addition ICRP comment that it would be prudent to restrict actual continuous exposure over a whole life time to within an average of 1 millisievert (100 millirem) per annum. The assessments are based on data published by NRPB as interim recommendations until ICRP data becomes available. (author)

  15. Genital piercings in the context of acute sexual assault.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Amy P

    2017-11-01

    After an acute sexual assault, children and adolescents often present for medical evaluation and treatment. Physicians have an important role in both the medical and legal components of these cases. Careful physical examination and questioning are important in determining the origin of the trauma. In the presented case report, genital trauma after an acute sexual assault was noted and attributed to the alleged offender's penis piercing. The genital trauma caused by the piercing provided physical evidence linking offender to victim and may have implications for the victim's risk of HIV infection and other blood borne pathogens. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  16. Genital Infection as a First Sign of Acute Myeloid Leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoki Oiso

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Fournier’s gangrene is a life-threatening disorder caused by aerobic and anaerobic bacterial infection. We report a case of genital infection as the initial warning sign of acute myeloid leukemia. We were able to prevent progression to Fournier’s gangrene in our patient by immediate intensive therapy with incision, blood transfusions and intravenous administration of antibiotics. This case suggests that hematologists and dermatologists should keep in mind that genital infection can be a first sign of hematologic malignancy.

  17. Current thinking on genital herpes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofstetter, Annika M; Rosenthal, Susan L; Stanberry, Lawrence R

    2014-02-01

    Genital herpes has a high global prevalence and burden of disease. This manuscript highlights recent advances in our understanding of genital herpes simplex virus (HSV) infections. Studies demonstrate a changing epidemiological landscape with an increasing proportion of genital herpes cases associated with HSV type 1. There is also growing evidence that the majority of infected individuals exhibit frequent, brief shedding episodes that are most often asymptomatic, which likely contribute to high HSV transmission rates. Given this finding as well as readily available serological assays, some have proposed that routine HSV screening be performed; however, this remains controversial and is not currently recommended. Host immune responses, particularly local CD4 and CD8 T cell activity, are crucial for HSV control and clearance following initial infection, during latency and after reactivation. Prior HSV immunity may also afford partial protection against HSV reinfection and disease. Although HSV vaccine trials have been disappointing to date and existing antiviral medications are limited, novel prophylactic and therapeutic modalities are currently in development. Although much remains unknown about genital herpes, improved knowledge of HSV epidemiology, pathogenesis and host immunity may help guide new strategies for disease prevention and control.

  18. Prostatic utricle cyst presenting with recurrent urethral discharge in the newborn: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Lazarus

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available A 6 month old boy with normal external genitalia, presented with purulent urethral discharge from the neonatal period and recurrent urinary tract infections. Radiologic and urethrocystoscopic evaluation showed a midline structure connected to the prostatic urethra and discharging with pus. This structure, considered to be a prostatic utricle cyst was successfully drained endoscopically

  19. Genital tract malign ancies in postmenopausal women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khursheed, F.; Jatoi, N.; Das, C.M.

    2010-01-01

    Background: The most common malignancy in women is breast carcinoma. The next common cancer is genital tract malignancies which constitute 14% of cancers in women. Objective of this study was to determine the type and frequency of genital tract malignancy in postmenopausal women and to find the age distribution of genital tract malignancies. Methods: This descriptive cross sectional study was conducted in Department of Obstetrics ad Gynaecology Unit-II at Liaquat University of Medical and Health Sciences, Jamshoro. All postmenopausal women, admitted in the unit due to various pathologies (abdominal masses, bleeding P/V etc.) from January 2005 to December 2007 were included in the study. Clinical evaluation and investigations were done on all patients. Those women who had benign diseases were excluded from the study. Malignancy was confirmed from histopathology report of biopsy specimen. These women were divided into 3 age groups: group I 70 years. Results: Out of 265 postmenopausal women admitted in ward during the study period, malignancy was confirmed in 68 cases (25.66%). The type of malignancy was cervical carcinoma (41, 60.28%), ovarian carcinoma (11, 16.17%), endometrial carcinoma (8, 11.76%), vulval carcinoma (5, 7.35%) vaginal carcinoma (2, 2.94%), and leiomyosarcoma of uterus (1, 1.47%). Increased frequency of cervical and endometrial carcinomas were seen in Group-I cases, while vulval carcinoma was seen more commonly in Group-II cases ( p =0.004). Conclusion: A very high frequency of cervical carcinoma was seen in our patients. There is need for more public awareness to integrate routine Gynae-Pap screening. (author)

  20. Fate and effects of nearshore discharges of OCS produced waters. Volume 2. Technical report (Final)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabalais, N.N.; McKee, B.A.; Reed, D.J.; Means, J.C.

    1991-06-01

    While the number of facilities that discharge OCS produced waters into coastal environments of Louisiana are few in number, they account for large volumes, individually and collectively. Of the 15 facilities which discharge OCS-generated produced water into coastal environments of Louisiana (as of February 1990), 10 discharges in seven areas were studied. The discharge volumes of the study areas range from 3,000 to 106,000/bbl.d. The receiving environments for these effluents are varied, but include the shallow, nearshore continental shelf; high energy, freshwater distributaries of the Mississippi River delta; and brackish and saline coastal environments with moderately to poorly flushed waters. All study areas are within the Mississippi River Deltaic Plain. The study expanded on the initial assessment of Boesch and Rabalais (1989a) with increased temporal and spatial studies of three areas, additional study sites including an abandoned discharge, and additional analytical and field observations

  1. [Sarcoidosis of the female genital tract].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šefčíková, A; Turková, M; Žurková, M

    To present the findings of sarcoidosis on female genital tract. Review. Department of Obstetric and Gynecology, Silesian Hospital Opava. Overview of published findings from case studies. Sarcoidosis is a multisystem granulomatous disorder of unclear cause. It typically involves the lymph nodes of mediastinum, predominantly billateral and/or pulmonary infiltrates. We find extrapulmonary involvement in 30-50% of cases. Sarcoidosis of the female reproductive system is a rare, it represent less than 1% cases of sarcoidosis. Lesions there may affect any organ, including the vulva, vagina, cervix, uterus, fallopian tube and ovary, but also for example placenta and breast. There is also recorded the incidence of multiple localization on female genitalia. Since sarcoidosis of this area is so rare, often proceeds asymptomatic and recognized only as an incidental finding, there are mention only the case histories in literature yet.Clinical symptoms may be non-specific, often imitating a tumor, or tend to be specific, depending on the localization of disability such as perineal pain, pain in the scar after the previous birth trauma, persistent pruritus, itching, irritation, dyspareunia, menstrual cycle disorders, menorrhagia, metrorrhagia, postmenopausal bleeding, amenorrhoe, abdominal pain, endometrial polypoid lesions, recurrent or persistent serometra or discharge. The diagnosis is made up of histologically - we are demonstrating noncaseating granulomas.The therapy is difficult, there are no available official guidelines. If the lesions are clinically silent, we can observed them because they may spontaneously disappear. If we are embarking on medical therapy, we start from a local application, and if this is unsuccessful then we approach the systemic administration. Corticosteroids are the drug of choice. If we diagnose the sarcoidosis of the female genital organs we must exclude systemic disease of sarcoidosis. The prognosis of disease is good.

  2. A report on the aquatic dilution experiment carried out at discharge canal, KGS site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reji, T.K.; Nayak, P.D.; Sudhakar, J.; Ajith, T.L.; Vishnu, M.S.; Ravi, P.M.; James, J.P.; Joshi, R.M.; Naik, S.B.; Kudtharkar, A.M.; Gaonkar, S.M.; Verma, P.C.; Datta, D.; Dahiya, Sudhir; Brijkumar; Datta, Maduparna; Sajeevan, G.

    2009-08-01

    Under Nuclear Power Corporation of India Limited (NPCIL), three units of (each of capacity 220MWe) Nuclear Power Stations are operational and one unit of similar capacity is under advanced stage of construction at Kaiga site. The radioactive liquid effluents generated in the plant are diluted with Condenser Coolant Water Stream (CCW) which is then discharged into Kadra reservoir through an artificially made discharge canal. The basic objective of the present study is to estimate the Dilution Factors at various locations of discharge canal and to understand the process of dilution and dispersion of radioactive effluent in the discharge canal. The strategy of the experiment involved the collection of samples from discharge canal lengthwise, breadth wise and depth wise immediately after the routine release of one of the batches of effluent stream into the CCW stream. No additional activity was released for the purpose of this experiment. The study compared the experimentally obtained Dilution Factor with that calculated based on the flow rates of CCW pumps and active liquid effluent discharge pumps. In the present conditions of experiment, Dilution Factor, based on flow rates of CCW pumps and Liquid Effluent Discharge pump, works out to be 8.11 E -05 while experimentally observed Mean Dilution Factor in the discharge canal works out to be (7.75±2.15) E-05. Hence this experiment clearly demonstrate the validity of the method of calculating dilution factor based on the flow rates of CCW line and that of Effluent discharge pump. The data analysis indicates that mass flow seems to be the major process of dispersion in the discharge canal. The tritium activity was found to be moving faster in the midstream as compared to that near the shore. The conclusions are drawn purely based on experimental results. This experimental data can be used for validation of aquatic dispersion models. (author)

  3. Emerging technologies and approaches to minimize discharges into Lake Michigan Phase 2, Module 3 report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Negri, M. C.; Gillenwater, P.; Urgun Demirtas, M. (Energy Systems)

    2011-05-11

    Purdue University Calumet (Purdue) and Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne) have conducted an independent study to identify deployable technologies that could help the BP Whiting Refinery, and other petroleum refineries, meet future wastewater discharge limits. This study has been funded by BP. Each organization tested a subset of the target technologies and retains sole responsibility for its respective test design and implementation, quality assurance and control, test results obtained from each of the technologies, and corresponding conclusions and recommendations. This project was divided in two phases and modules. This report summarizes the work conducted by Argonne in Phase II Module 3 (Bench Scale Testing). Other Modules are discussed elsewhere (Emerging Technologies and Approaches to Minimize Discharges into Lake Michigan, Phase 2, Modules 1-3 Report, April 2011, prepared for BP Americas by the Argonne - Purdue Task Force). The goal of this project was to identify and assess available and emerging wastewater treatment technologies for removing mercury and vanadium from the Whiting Refinery wastewater and to conduct bench-scale tests to provide comparable, transparent, and uniform results across the broad range of technologies tested. After the bench-scale testing phase, a previously developed decision matrix was refined and applied by Argonne to process and review test data to estimate and compare the preliminary performance, engineering configuration, preliminary cost, energy usage, and waste generation of technologies that were shown to be able to remove Hg and/or V to below the target limit at the bench scale. The data were used as the basis to identify the best candidates for further testing at the bench or pilot scale on a slip stream of effluent to lake (ETL) or clarifier effluent (CE) at the Whiting Refinery to determine whether future limits could be met and to generate other pertinent data for scale-up and sustainability evaluation. As a result of

  4. Ultrastructural age-related changes in the sensory corpuscles of the human genital skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tammaro, A; Parisella, F R; Cavallotti, C; Persechino, S; Cavallotti, C

    2013-01-01

    In human genital skin the majority of superficial sensory corpuscles is represented by glomerular corpuscles. These corpuscles show an own morphology. Our aim is to compare the ultra-structure of superficial sensory corpuscles in the penis skin of younger and older subjects. In this report the ultra-structure of the sensitive corpuscle in the penis skin of the younger and older subjects was compared, showing that the genital skin of the older humans contains more simple complexes than the younger ones. Our findings support the view that the age-related changes that can be observed in human glomerular genital corpuscles are consistent with an increase of the simple complexes and a strong decrease of the poly-lamellar one in the older people. These findings demonstrate that human genital corpuscles underwent age-related changes. Moreover our morphological findings can be correlated in relation to the clinical evolution of the sensitivity in the genital skin.

  5. Uterine arteriovenous malformation as a rare cause of genital bleeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, A.; Escartin, I.; Riazuelo, G.; Zaragozano, R.

    2002-01-01

    Uterine arteriovenous malformation is a rarely described entity, the presenting sign of which is usually genital bleeding. We report a case of this malformation in a woman of child-bearing age with a history of traumatic delivery and repeated subsequent curettage, describing the ultrasound, computed tomography and magnetic resonance findings, as well as the results of arteriography. (Author) 5 refs

  6. Vaginal Discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for you, talk to your doctor about other types of birth control. Avoid hot tubs. Bathe or shower daily and pat your genital area dry. Don’t douche. Avoid feminine hygiene sprays, colored or perfumed toilet paper, deodorant pads ...

  7. Vaginal foreign body causing recurrent discharge and vaginal stenosis--a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurung, Geeta; Rana, Ashma; Amatya, Archana

    2007-06-01

    Chronic vaginal discharge in children and adolescents is a common gynaecological complaint which is often resistant to antibiotic treatment. We present a 14 years old, premenarcheal girl who presented to us with the complaints of recurrent, foul smelling purulent occasionally blood stained vaginal discharge for eight years, where a foreign body in the upper vagina was found after releasing a dense adhesion of the lower vagina which was unable to detect by pelvic ultrasound.

  8. Diagnosis of a Nonpalpable Intraductal Papilloma without Radiological Abnormality by Nipple Discharge Smear Examination: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anshul Singh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nipple discharge is the third most common breast complaint after breast pain and breast mass, most commonly associated with endocrine alterations and/or medications, pregnancy, lactation, post lactation, fibrocystic disease, intraductal papilloma, duct ectasia, nipple adenoma, infection, chronic mastitis, subareolar abscess, and least frequently, breast carcinoma. Cytological examination of nipple discharge (ND is a noninvasive method of diagnosing the underlying breast pathology. We report a 46 year old female, who presented with pain and blood-mixed ND from the right breast with an impalpable mass. Cytological examination of the discharge was done and diagnosis of papillary neoplasm with degeneration, metaplasia, and atypia was given, which was further confirmed on histology and positive IHC for HMWCK and p63. Final diagnosis was intraductal papilloma of the lactiferous duct with squamous metaplasia and infarction. Differentiating benign papilloma from a carcinoma is challenging to the cytopathologist and requires clinicopathological correlation and a good knowledge of cytology.

  9. Virologic and Immunologic Evidence of Multifocal Genital Herpes Simplex Virus 2 Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jia; Jing, Lichen; Laing, Kerry J.; McClurkan, Christopher M.; Klock, Alexis; Diem, Kurt; Jin, Lei; Stanaway, Jeffrey; Tronstein, Elizabeth; Kwok, William W.; Huang, Meei-li; Selke, Stacy; Fong, Youyi; Magaret, Amalia; Koelle, David M.; Wald, Anna; Corey, Lawrence

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Genital herpes simplex virus (HSV) reactivation is thought to be anatomically and temporally localized, coincident with limited ganglionic infection. Short, subclinical shedding episodes are the most common form of HSV-2 reactivation, with host clearance mechanisms leading to rapid containment. The anatomic distribution of shedding episodes has not been characterized. To precisely define patterns of anatomic reactivation, we divided the genital tract into a 22-region grid and obtained daily swabs for 20 days from each region in 28 immunocompetent, HSV-2-seropositive persons. HSV was detected via PCR, and sites of asymptomatic HSV shedding were subjected to a biopsy procedure within 24 h. CD4+ and CD8+ T cells were quantified by immunofluorescence, and HSV-specific CD4+ T cells were identified by intracellular cytokine cytometry. HSV was detected in 868 (7%) of 11,603 genital swabs at a median of 12 sites per person (range, 0 to 22). Bilateral HSV detection occurred on 83 (67%) days with shedding, and the median quantity of virus detected/day was associated with the number of sites positive (P genital tract and are associated with a localized cellular infiltrate that was demonstrated to be HSV specific in 3 cases. These data provide evidence that asymptomatic HSV-2 shedding contributes to chronic inflammation throughout the genital tract. IMPORTANCE This detailed report of the anatomic patterns of genital HSV-2 shedding demonstrates that HSV-2 reactivation can be detected at multiple bilateral sites in the genital tract, suggesting that HSV establishes latency throughout the sacral ganglia. In addition, genital biopsy specimens from sites of asymptomatic HSV shedding have increased numbers of CD8+ T cells compared to control tissue, and HSV-specific CD4+ T cells are found at sites of asymptomatic shedding. These findings suggest that widespread asymptomatic genital HSV-2 shedding is associated with a targeted host immune response and contributes to chronic

  10. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 516: Septic Systems and Discharge Points, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    NSTec Environmental Restoration

    2007-01-01

    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 516 is located in Areas 3, 6, and 22 of the Nevada Test Site. CAU 516 is listed in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order of 1996 as Septic Systems and Discharge Points, and is comprised of six Corrective Action Sites (CASs): (sm b ullet) CAS 03-59-01, Bldg 3C-36 Septic System (sm b ullet) CAS 03-59-02, Bldg 3C-45 Septic System (sm b ullet) CAS 06-51-01, Sump and Piping (sm b ullet) CAS 06-51-02, Clay Pipe and Debris (sm b ullet) CAS 06-51-03, Clean Out Box and Piping (sm b ullet) CAS 22-19-04, Vehicle Decontamination Area The Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP)-approved corrective action alternative for CASs 06-51-02 and 22-19-04 is no further action. The NDEP-approved corrective action alternative for CASs 03-59-01, 03-59-02, 06-51-01, and 06-51-03 is clean closure. Closure activities included removing and disposing of total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH)-impacted septic tank contents, septic tanks, distribution/clean out boxes, and piping. CAU 516 was closed in accordance with the NDEP-approved CAU 516 Corrective Action Plan (CAP). The closure activities specified in the CAP were based on the recommendations presented in the CAU 516 Corrective Action Decision Document (U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office, 2004). This Closure Report documents CAU 516 closure activities. During closure activities, approximately 186 tons of hydrocarbon waste in the form of TPH-impacted soil and debris, as well as 89 tons of construction debris, were generated and managed and disposed of appropriately. Waste minimization techniques, such as field screening of soil samples and the utilization of laboratory analysis to characterize and classify waste streams, were employed during the performance of closure work

  11. Treatment of discharge water from hydrostatic testing of natural gas pipelines. Volume 4. Topical report, January 1989-June 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tallon, J.T.; Lee-Ryan, P.B.; Volpi, K.A.; Fillo, J.P.

    1992-06-01

    The report presents results developed from bench- and full-scale treatment testing conducted on discharge water from hydrostatic testing of natural gas pipelines. Bench-scale testing examined sedimentation with and without chemical coagulants for reducing iron and total suspended solids, aeration for removal of volatile organics, and activated carbon adsorption for removal of organic constituents. Treatment results are provided for a full-scale treatment process, which utilized a hay bale structure and adsorbent booms for removing suspended solids and oil from the discharge water. Detailed characterization results are presented for test water collected before and after treatment. Results developed from an economic analysis of other potential treatment/disposal alternatives are also presented. A total of eight approaches that may be applied for managing constituents present in hydrostatic test waters are examined. The report is Volume 4 of a five-volume report series

  12. Coevolution of female and male genital components to avoid genital size mismatches in sexually dimorphic spiders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupše, Nik; Cheng, Ren-Chung; Kuntner, Matjaž

    2016-08-17

    In most animal groups, it is unclear how body size variation relates to genital size differences between the sexes. While most morphological features tend to scale with total somatic size, this does not necessarily hold for genitalia because divergent evolution in somatic size between the sexes would cause genital size mismatches. Theory predicts that the interplay of female-biased sexual size dimorphism (SSD) and sexual genital size dimorphism (SGD) should adhere to the 'positive genital divergence', the 'constant genital divergence', or the 'negative genital divergence' model, but these models remain largely untested. We test their validity in the spider family Nephilidae known for the highest degrees of SSD among terrestrial animals. Through comparative analyses of sex-specific somatic and genital sizes, we first demonstrate that 99 of the 351 pairs of traits are phylogenetically correlated. Through factor analyses we then group these traits for MCMCglmm analyses that test broader correlation patterns, and these reveal significant correlations in 10 out of the 36 pairwise comparisons. Both types of analyses agree that female somatic and internal genital sizes evolve independently. While sizes of non-intromittent male genital parts coevolve with male body size, the size of the intromittent male genital parts is independent of the male somatic size. Instead, male intromittent genital size coevolves with female (external and, in part, internal) genital size. All analyses also agree that SGD and SSD evolve independently. Internal dimensions of female genitalia evolve independently of female body size in nephilid spiders, and similarly, male intromittent genital size evolves independently of the male body size. The size of the male intromittent organ (the embolus) and the sizes of female internal and external genital components thus seem to respond to selection against genital size mismatches. In accord with these interpretations, we reject the validity of the

  13. Report on radioactive discharges and environmental monitoring at nuclear sites during 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Short, A.; Davies, A.R.

    1989-09-01

    The details of radioactive discharges from and environmental monitoring in the vicinity of nuclear sites in the Untied Kingdom are presented. The highest predicted dose, resulting from a station's liquid discharges, was to a small group of fish eaters at Trawsfynydd, and is estimated at 120μSv. This is lower than in previous years. Based on the measurements made in marine samples, the dose to a group of fish and shellfish eaters at Heysham is estimated at 160μSv and the external dose to a group living and working on the tidal mud-flats of the nearby Lune Estuary, 120μSv. Only a small fraction of these doses can be attributed to discharges from Heysham. Discharges of Ar-41 are highest from stations with shield cooling air systems. In 1988, the maximum predicted dose associated with Ar-41 releases occurred at Sizewell and was calculated to be 60μSv. At some stations there is a contribution from direct radiation from the plant at locations in close proximity to the boundary fence. In 1988, the estimated highest dose from this source was 0.7mSv and occurs at Bradwell. Radiation doses to members of the public, resulting from discharges and from direct radiation were, in all cases, less than the principal limit of 1mSv/year recommended by ICRP. (author)

  14. Study of females genital tract microflora diversity

    OpenAIRE

    Vertelytė, Justina

    2016-01-01

    Study of females genital tract microflora diversity SUMMARY Study of female genital tract microflora diversity Authors of Master’s degree scientific research work: Justina Vertelytė Head of Master’s degree scientific research work: dr Silvija Kiverytė Vilnius, 2016 The aim of research work was to investigate and analyze the composition of the microflora of the female genital tract using the methods of microbiological smear, vaginal wet mount and PCR. The objectives of the work were to evaluat...

  15. Attitudes and Willingness to Assume Risk of Experimental Therapy to Eradicate Genital Herpes Simplex Virus Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oseso, Linda; Magaret, Amalia S; Jerome, Keith R; Fox, Julie; Wald, Anna

    2016-09-01

    Current treatment of genital herpes is focused on ameliorating signs and symptoms but is not curative. However, as potential herpes simplex virus (HSV) cure approaches are tested in the laboratory, we aimed to assess the interest in such studies by persons with genital herpes and the willingness to assume risks associated with experimental therapy. We constructed an anonymous online questionnaire that was posted on websites that provide information regarding genital herpes. The questions collected demographic and clinical information on adults who self-reported as having genital herpes, and assessed attitudes toward and willingness to participate in HSV cure clinical research. Seven hundred eleven participants provided sufficient responses to be included in the analysis. Sixty-six percent were women; the median age was 37 years, and the median time since genital HSV diagnosis was 4.7 years. The willingness to participate in trials increased from 59.0% in phase 1 to 68.5% in phase 2, and 81.2% in phase 3 trials, and 40% reported willingness to participate even in the absence of immediate, personal benefits. The most desirable outcome was the elimination of risk for transmission to sex partner or neonate. The mean perceived severity of receiving a diagnosis of genital HSV-2 was 4.2 on a scale of 1 to 5. Despite suppressive therapy available, persons with genital herpes are interested in participating in clinical research aimed at curing HSV, especially in more advanced stages of development.

  16. Pancreatitis - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chronic pancreatitis - discharge; Pancreatitis - chronic - discharge; Pancreatic insufficiency - discharge; Acute pancreatitis - discharge ... You were in the hospital because you have pancreatitis. This is a swelling of the pancreas. You ...

  17. Evaluation of the activity and safety of CS21 barrier genital gel® compared to topical aciclovir and placebo in symptoms of genital herpes recurrences: a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khemis, A; Duteil, L; Tillet, Y; Dereure, O; Ortonne, J-P

    2014-09-01

    Topical or systemic antiviral drugs reduce the duration of genital herpes recurrences but may not always alleviate functional symptoms. To assess the efficacy and safety of oxygenated glycerol triesters-based CS21 barrier genital gel(®) vs. topical aciclovir and placebo (vehicle) in resolving functional symptoms and in healing of genital herpes recurrences. A prospective randomized controlled, investigator-blinded trial of CS21 barrier genital gel(®) vs. topical aciclovir (reference treatment) and placebo (vehicle) was designed. The primary endpoint was the cumulative score of four herpes-related functional symptoms (pain, burning, itching and tingling sensations). Secondary endpoints included objective skin changes (erythema, papules, vesicles, oedema, erosion/ulceration, crusts), time to heal, local tolerance and overall acceptability of the treatment as reported by a self-administered questionnaire. Overall, 61 patients were included. CS 21 barrier genital gel(®) was significantly more efficient than topical aciclovir and vehicle for subjective symptoms and pain relief in genital herpes recurrences; additionally, time to heal was significantly shorter with CS 21 than with vehicle, whereas no significantly difference was observed between patients receiving topical aciclovir and vehicle. The treatments under investigation were well tolerated and the adverse events were comparable in the three treatment groups. Overall, these results support the interest of using of CS 21 barrier genital gel(®) in symptomatic genital herpes recurrences. Accordingly, this product offers a valuable alternative in topical management of recurrent genital herpes. © 2013 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  18. Non-healing genital herpes mimicking donovanosis in an immunocompetent man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Vishal; Khute, Prakash; Patel, Anjali; Gupta, Somesh

    2016-01-01

    Although atypical presentations of herpetic infection in immunocompetent individuals are common, they very rarely have the extensive, chronic and verrucous appearances seen in the immunocompromised host. We report a case of genital herpes manifesting as painless chronic non-healing genital ulcers with exuberant granulation tissue in an immunocompetent man. Owing to this morphology, the ulcers were initially mistaken for donovanosis. To the best of our knowledge, such a presentation of genital herpes in an immunocompetent individual has not been described previously. © The Author(s) 2015.

  19. Heart pacemaker - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardiac pacemaker implantation - discharge; Artificial pacemaker - discharge; Permanent pacemaker - discharge; Internal pacemaker - discharge; Cardiac resynchronization therapy - discharge; CRT - discharge; ...

  20. 75 FR 10477 - Draft Report to Congress: Study of Discharges Incidental to Normal Operation of Commercial...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-08

    ... dissolved metals; volatile and semivolatile organic compounds (VOCs and SVOCs); nonylphenols ethoxylates... evaluate the impacts of: (1) Any discharge of effluent from properly functioning marine engines; (2) Any...-disrupting compounds); and pathogen indicators (i.e., E. coli, enterococci, fecal coliforms). EPA found that...

  1. Abnormal anal cytology risk in women with known genital squamous intraepithelial lesion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria do Socorro Nobre

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to assess the risk of abnormal anal cytology in women with known genital squamous intraepithelial lesion. This study evaluated 200 women with and without genital squamous intraepithelial lesion who were recruited for anal Pap smears. Women who had abnormal results on equally or over atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance were classified as having abnormal anal cytology. A multiple logistic regression analysis (stepwise was performed to identify the risk for developing abnormal anal cytology. Data were analyzed using the SPSS 20.0 program. The average age was 41.09 (±12.64. Of the total participants, 75.5% did not practice anal sex, 91% did not have HPV-infected partners, 92% did not have any anal pathology, and 68.5% did not have anal bleeding. More than half (57.5% had genital SIL and a significant number developed abnormal anal cytology: 13% in the total sample and 17.4% in women with genital SIL. A significant association was observed between genital squamous intraepithelial lesion and anal squamous intraepithelial lesion (PR = 2.46; p = 0.03. In the logistic regression model, women having genital intraepithelial lesion were more likely to have abnormal anal Pap smear (aPR = 2.81; p = 0.02. This report shows that women with genital squamous intraepithelial lesion must be more closely screened for anal cancer.

  2. Determinants of subjective experience of sexual arousal in women: feedback from genital arousal and erotic stimulus content

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laan, E.; Everaerd, W.; van der Velde, J.; Geer, J. H.

    1995-01-01

    Sixty-two women participated in a study designed to explore the association between genital and subjective sexual arousal. Four stimulus conditions were created, designed to evoke differential patterns of genital arousal over time. Subjects were instructed to report sensations in their genitalia

  3. Educating about female genital mutilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Victoria; Farrington, Rebecca; Mulongo, Peggy

    2017-01-01

    Female genital mutilation (FGM) is illegal in the UK but nevertheless practised in some immigrant communities. Effective educational approaches are required to inform policy and to direct resources, often in the voluntary sector. The opinions in this article arise from discussions with professionals and members of FGM-practising communities. We highlight the importance of sharing experiences and expertise across health and social care professionals as well as working in partnership with culturally sensitive Non-Governmental Organisations. Enlisting the support of men and religious leaders is crucial to breaking down barriers in male-dominated communities and dispelling myths about FGM being a 'requirement' of faith.

  4. Genital chlamydia trachomatis infection among female ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Genital Chlamydia trachomatis infection is a common bacterial sexually transmitted infection worldwide. There is little information about this infection in Nigeria. This study determined the prevalence of genital Chlamydia trachomatis infection among female undergraduates of University of Port Harcourt and ...

  5. Experiential Interventions for Clients with Genital Herpes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, Anne L.

    1999-01-01

    Explores potential benefits of incorporating concepts and interventions from experimental therapy to help clients with psychosocial difficulties in learning to live with genital herpes. Recommends experimental counseling of two-chair dialog, empty chair, and metaphor for helping clients with emotional sequelae of genital herpes. Presents case…

  6. The genital herpes problem in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra, B; Puccetti, C; Cervi, F

    2012-10-01

    Genital herpes is a common sexually transmitted infection. In reproductive age it involves the additional risk of vertical transmission to the neonate. Rates of transmission are affected by the viral type and whether the infection around delivery is primary or recurrent. Neonatal herpes is a rare but very severe complication of genital herpes infection and is caused by contact with infected genital secretions at the time of labor. Maternal acquisition of herpes simplex virus (HSV) in the third trimester of pregnancy carries the highest risk of neonatal transmission. Prevention of neonatal herpes depends on preventing acquisition of genital HSV infection during late pregnancy and avoiding exposure of the infant to herpetic lesions during delivery. Uninfected woman should be counselled about the need of avoiding sexual contact during the third trimester. Elective caesarean section before the onset of labor is the choice mode of delivery for women with genital lesions or with prodromal symptoms near the term, even if it offers only a partial protection against neonatal infection. Antiviral suppressive therapy is used from 36 weeks of gestation until delivery in pregnant women with recurrences to prevent genital lesions at the time of labor so reducing the need of caesarean sections. Currently, routine maternal serologic screening is not yet recommended. Because most mothers of infants who acquire neonatal herpes lack histories of clinically evident genital herpes, researchers should focus on the recognition of asymptomatic primary genital HSV infections.

  7. Female genital schistosomiasis : pathological features and density ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the lower genital tract, the cervix accounted for thirty two (68%) cases. Interestingly fifteen (47%) of cases showed association with cervical dysplasia, invasive squamous cell carcinoma or human papilloma virus koliocytosis. Presentations in the lower genital tract were of ulceration, polyps or abnormal vaginal bleeding.

  8. Annual report on radioactive discharges and monitoring of the environment 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    Information is given on the liquid, airborne, and solid radioactive discharges through authorised outlets, and on environmental monitoring for all of BNFL's works and sites for 1984; ie Sellafield site and Drigg storage and disposal site; Chapelcross works; Springfields works and Ulnes Walton disposal site; Capenhurst works. Included is assessment of radiation doses to representative members of the most highly exposed group of the general population for the most important environmental pathways. (author)

  9. Optimal management of genital herpes: current perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauerbrei, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    As one of the most common sexually transmitted diseases, genital herpes is a global medical problem with significant physical and psychological morbidity. Genital herpes is caused by herpes simplex virus type 1 or type 2 and can manifest as primary and/or recurrent infection. This manuscript provides an overview about the fundamental knowledge on the virus, its epidemiology, and infection. Furthermore, the current possibilities of antiviral therapeutic interventions and laboratory diagnosis of genital herpes as well as the present situation and perspectives for the treatment by novel antivirals and prevention of disease by vaccination are presented. Since the medical management of patients with genital herpes simplex virus infection is often unsatisfactory, this review aims at all physicians and health professionals who are involved in the care of patients with genital herpes. The information provided would help to improve the counseling of affected patients and to optimize the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of this particular disease.

  10. Effect of Home Care Nursing on Patients Discharged From Hospital With Self-Reported Signs of Constipation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Konradsen, Hanne; Rasmussen, Marie Louise Thiese; Noiesen, Eline

    2017-01-01

    Constipation is a common health problem in relation to hospitalization. This randomized controlled trial aimed to investigate whether advice from a home care nurse after discharge had an effect on self-reported signs of constipation. A total of 59 patients were included in the study on the basis...... of their self-reported signs of constipation evaluated using the Constipation Assessment Scale. Advice from the home care nurses was given on the intake of fiber and liquid and mobilization related to scorings on the Constipation Risk Assessment Scale, the administration of laxatives, and referral...

  11. Westinghouse Hanford Company effluent discharges and solid waste management report for calendar year 1989: 200/600 Areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, M.J.; P'Pool, R.K.; Thomas, S.P.

    1990-05-01

    This report presents calendar year 1989 radiological and nonradiological effluent discharge data from facilities in the 200 Areas and the 600 Area of the Hanford Site. Both summary and detailed effluent data are presented. In addition, radioactive and nonradioactive solid waste storage and disposal data for calendar year 1989 are furnished. Where appropriate, comparisons to previous years are made. The intent of the report is to demonstrate compliance of Westinghouse Hanford Company-operated facilities with administrative control values for radioactive constituents and applicable guidelines and standards (including Federal permit limits) for nonradioactive constituents. 11 refs., 20 tabs

  12. Prevalence and Associated Factors of Genital and Sexually Transmitted Infections in Married Women of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elahe Ahmadnia

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study aimed to determine the prevalence of genital and sexually transmitted infections and its related factors in married women in Iran. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study of 4 274 married women living in urban and rural areas of the Zanjan province from 2012 to 2013. We used stratified cluster sampling to select the participants. Data collection included demographic characteristics, reproductive status, and cervical cytology results. Results: The prevalence of lower genital infections and sexually transmitted infections were 20.1% and 7.4%, respectively. The most common vaginal infection was bacterial vaginosis with a prevalence of 8.5%, and the most common sexually transmitted infection was Trichomonas vaginalis (1.4%. The use of the intrauterine device (IUD as a contraceptive, living in an urban area, and experiencing vaginal discharge were significantly related to genital tract and sexually transmitted infections. Conclusions: There was a high prevalence of genital infection among women living in Zanjab. Screening and treatment of genital infection are necessary to prevent adverse consequences in women who use an IUD or live in urban areas.

  13. Setting Authorized Limits for Radioactive Discharges: Practical Issues to Consider. Report for Discussion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-03-01

    Application of the principles of radioactive waste management requires the implementation of measures that afford protection of human health and of the environment, now and in the future. The IAEA has issued safety standards and other publications that provide a framework for the control of releases of radionuclides to the environment. This framework is relevant for regulatory bodies that issue authorizations and for organizations that (i) use radionuclides for medical or research purposes, (ii) operate nuclear reactors or (iii) reprocess nuclear material. An IAEA Safety Guide on Regulatory Control of Radioactive Discharges to the Environment was issued in 2000 that outlines the roles and responsibilities of regulatory bodies, licensees and registrants and provides guidance on the authorization procedure. However, there have been significant developments in radiological protection policy since the publication of this Safety Guide, most notably the issue of ICRP Publications No. 101 on Assessing Dose of the Representative Person for the Purpose of Radiation Protection of the Public and the Optimisation of Radiological Protection and No. 103 on The 2007 Recommendations of the ICRP. The objective of this IAEA-TECDOC is to stimulate discussion on the practical implementation of the control of radioactive releases in order to inform the review and revision of IAEA guidance on this subject. This IAEA-TECDOC is based on the practical experience of Member States and on information provided at Technical Committee Meetings held in 2003 and 2008 and gained by means of a questionnaire. It summarizes international experience on the optimization of discharges and the setting by the regulatory body of authorized limits on discharges for nuclear installations and non-nuclear facilities. Its issue at this stage is intended for consultation as a preparatory step pending the current process of revision of the IAEA's International Basic Safety Standards for Protection against Ionizing

  14. Male ductal carcinoma in situ presenting as bloody nipple discharge: a case report and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Rache M

    2002-01-01

    Male breast carcinoma accounts for 1% of all diagnosed breast carcinoma. Pure ductal carcinoma in situ in men is extremely rare. Unfortunately, male breast cancer is often diagnosed at a late stage because of the minimal awareness of presenting symptoms by the patient and sometimes by the health care provider. Because of this late presentation, the overall prognosis is less favorable. This case is presented to emphasize the importance of recognizing bloody nipple discharge as a clinical sign of male ductal carcinoma in situ and an opportunity for early diagnosis.

  15. Genital Autoinoculation with Vaccinia: A Look at Two Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittington, Julie R; Rollene, Nanette L; Gist, Richard S

    2018-05-01

    Smallpox, or vaccinia, has been eradicated worldwide as a disease; however, it may be weaponized and is thus a required immunization when military members deploy to certain parts of the world. We report two unusual cases of genital autoinoculation following smallpox vaccination. Both patients' lesions resolved without sequelae within 20 d. We advocate for thorough education on this potential vaccination adverse event. These cases highlight the importance of a broad differential diagnosis when dealing with vulvar lesions, particularly in our military population.

  16. Nipple Discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... any unexpected nipple discharge evaluated by a doctor. Nipple discharge in men under any circumstances could be a problem and needs further evaluation. One or both breasts may produce a nipple discharge, either spontaneously or when you squeeze your ...

  17. Intravenous Foscarnet With Topical Cidofovir for Chronic Refractory Genital Herpes in a Patient With AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usoro, Agnes; Batts, Alfreda; Sarria, Juan C

    2015-01-01

    Few case reports have documented the use of topical cidofovir for refractory genital herpes simplex virus (HSV) ulcers in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected patients. This drug formulation lacks a standardized concentration or even a procedural outline as to how it should be compounded. We aim to discuss the utilization of topical cidofovir in addition to presenting a procedural means of compounding it for treatment of refractory genital HSV ulcers. Our patient completed 21 days of intravenous foscarnet and 13 days of topical cidofovir with clinical improvement in the penile and scrotal ulcers. Genital herpes is a concern in patients with HIV because it generally manifests as a persistent infection. Physicians should be aware that when patients fail to respond to the conventional treatment regimens for genital HSV in a timely manner, other options are available, such as topical cidofovir as an adjuvant to systemic antivirals.

  18. Intravenous Foscarnet With Topical Cidofovir for Chronic Refractory Genital Herpes in a Patient With AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnes Usoro BSN

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Few case reports have documented the use of topical cidofovir for refractory genital herpes simplex virus (HSV ulcers in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infected patients. This drug formulation lacks a standardized concentration or even a procedural outline as to how it should be compounded. We aim to discuss the utilization of topical cidofovir in addition to presenting a procedural means of compounding it for treatment of refractory genital HSV ulcers. Our patient completed 21 days of intravenous foscarnet and 13 days of topical cidofovir with clinical improvement in the penile and scrotal ulcers. Genital herpes is a concern in patients with HIV because it generally manifests as a persistent infection. Physicians should be aware that when patients fail to respond to the conventional treatment regimens for genital HSV in a timely manner, other options are available, such as topical cidofovir as an adjuvant to systemic antivirals.

  19. Nonoverlapping Clinical and Mutational Patterns in Melanomas from the Female Genital Tract and Atypical Genital Nevi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yélamos, Oriol; Merkel, Emily A; Sholl, Lauren Meldi; Zhang, Bin; Amin, Sapna M; Lee, Christina Y; Guitart, Gerta E; Yang, Jingyi; Wenzel, Alexander T; Bunick, Christopher G; Yazdan, Pedram; Choi, Jaehyuk; Gerami, Pedram

    2016-09-01

    Genital melanomas (GM) are the second most common cancer of the female external genitalia and may be confused with atypical genital nevi (AGN), which exhibit atypical histological features but have benign behavior. In this study, we compared the clinical, histological, and molecular features of 19 GM and 25 AGN. We described chromosomal copy number aberrations and the mutational status of 50 oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes in both groups. Our study showed that a pigmented lesion occurring in mucosal tissue, particularly in postmenopausal women, was more likely to be a melanoma than a nevus. GM had high levels of chromosomal instability, with many copy number aberrations. Furthermore, we found a completely nonoverlapping pattern of oncogenic mutations when comparing GM and AGN. In GM, we report somatic mutations in KIT and TP53. Conversely, AGN had frequent BRAF V600E mutations, which were not seen in any of the GM. Our results show that GM and AGN have distinct clinical and molecular changes and that GM have a different mutational pattern compared with AGN. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. [Genes in the development of female genital tract].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Na; Zhu, Lan; Lang, Jing-he

    2013-12-01

    Female genital tract, which includes oviduct, uterus, and vagina, is critical for female reproduction. In recent years, animal experiments using knockout mice and genetic studies on patients with female genital malformations have contributed substantially to our understanding of the molecular mechanisms in the female genital tract development. Here we review genes that are involved in various stages of female genital tract formation and development.

  1. Symptom Characteristics and Medical History of an Online Sample of Women Who Experience Symptoms of Persistent Genital Arousal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackowich, Robyn; Pink, Leah; Gordon, Allan; Poirier, Évéline; Pukall, Caroline F

    2018-02-17

    Persistent genital arousal disorder (PGAD; Leiblum & Nathan, 2001 ) is characterized by distressing symptoms suggestive of genital arousal in the absence of subjective feelings of arousal. Although awareness of PGAD is growing, there continues to be a lack of systematic research on it. This study characterized an online sample of women with symptoms of persistent genital arousal (PGA) in terms of their symptom characteristics, medical comorbidities, symptom triggers, management strategies, and predictors of distress. Women reported diverse PGA symptoms, with almost half reporting painful symptoms, and most reported very high distress and negative emotions. Further research and awareness of PGA are needed to provide effective care for this population.

  2. A Case Report of Cervical Rhabdomyosarcoma with the Complaint of a Mass Protrusion from Vagina with Bleeding and Vaginal Discharge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Arab

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Botyroide sarcoma is one of the rhabdomyosarcoma which is usually seen in infant's vagina. However, it rarely originates from uterine cervix. Rhabdomyosarcoma is a heterogenic tumor and it is usually diagnosed in second decade of life.Case Report: The patient was a 17 years old virgin girl with the complaint of a mass protrusion from vagina with bleeding and vaginal discharge. Biopsy samples and immunohistochemistry assessments showed embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma. Surgery combined with chemotherapy, significantly increased the survival of patients with uterine cervical rhabdomyosarcoma. Conclusion: The patient underwent radical hysterectomy with restored ovaries and then combined chemotherapy. In the 9 months follow up recurrence has not been observed yet.

  3. Genital ulcer disease treatment for reducing sexual acquisition of HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutua, Florence M; M'imunya, James Machoki; Wiysonge, Charles Shey

    2012-08-15

    oral doses of fleroxacin (one trial, 45 participants; RR 3.00; 95% CI 0.29 to 30.69), or between 400 mg fleroxacin and 800 mg sulfamethoxazole plus 160 mg trimethoprim (one trial, 98 participants; RR 0.33; 95% CI 0.04 to 3.09). Adverse events reported were mild to moderate in severity, and included Jarisch-Herxheimer reactions and gastrointestinal symptoms. The differences between the treatment arms in the incidence of adverse events were not significant. The quality of this evidence on the effectiveness of genital ulcer disease treatment in reducing sexual acquisition of HIV, according to GRADE methodology, is of very low quality. At present, there is insufficient evidence to determine whether curative treatment of genital ulcer disease would reduce the risk of HIV acquisition. The very low quality of the evidence implies that the true effect of genital ulcer disease treatment on sexual acquisition of HIV may be substantially different from the effect estimated from currently available data. However, genital ulcer diseases are public health problems in their own right and patients with these conditions should be treated appropriately; whether the treatment reduces the risk of HIV infection or not.

  4. Colposacrosuspension for severe genital prolapse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronjé, H S

    2004-04-01

    A descriptive study of 140 patients with severe genital prolapse managed by colposacrosuspension with mesh interposition and a modified Burch colposuspension. A laparotomy was performed with mobilization of the rectum and exploration of the rectovaginal septum. Vaginally, a longitudinal incision was made in the posterior vaginal wall which was completely separated from the rectum. A perineal repair was done, whereafter a strip of Vypro (Johnson & Johnson, Brussels, Belgium) mesh was inserted from the perineum to the sacrum at S1. It was fixated to the perineum and vagina while the rectum was elevated and attached to the mesh. Where a perineal repair was deemed not necessary, the mesh extended from the mid-vagina to the sacrum. A second mesh strip was placed anteriorly of the vagina, covering the upper third of the vagina and extending to the sacrum. After closure of the pelvic peritoneum, covering the mesh, a modified Burch colposuspension was performed. Follow-up was done at 6 weeks, 6 months and yearly thereafter. The median age was 61 years with a median parity of 3. All patients presented with grade 2 (extending to the vaginal introitus) or 3 (outside the vaginal introitus) prolapse. Approximately one-third had urinary incontinence and a similar proportion complained of difficulty in defecation. All the patients underwent colposacrosuspension with the mesh extending to the perineum in 67% of the patients. A Burch colposuspension was performed in 79% of the women. Postoperatively, 97% of the patients were followed for 1-29 months with a median of 8.5 months (mean 10.2 months). Recurrent prolapse, grade 2 or 3, developed in 11 patients (8%) and 17 patients (12%) developed urinary incontinence, needing a transvaginal tape procedure. Removal of the mesh was necessary in one patient (0.7%). Colposacrosuspension for severe genital prolapse delivered satisfactory short-term results. It is, however, a major surgical procedure and elderly or compromised patients may

  5. Synchronous multifocal HPV-related neoplasm involving both the genital tract and the head-and-neck area: A case report of Fanconi anemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Tae-Jin; Lee, Chang-Hun; Yoo, Chong-Woo; Shin, Hye-Jin; Park, Hyun-Jin; Cho, Kwan Ho; Park, Joo-Yong; Choi, Sung-Won; Kim, Joo-Young

    2009-01-01

    We report the case of a 32-year-old woman who presented with multiple squamous cell neoplasms synchronously arising in the cervix, vulva, oral cavity and oropharynx. During the period when the patient was treated by radiotherapy, she developed severe radiation mucositis and pancytopenia. Immunofluorescence staining for foci of the monoubiquitinated form of FANCD2 revealed a complete absence of such foci in all cancer tissues that were examined.

  6. Update on chancroid: an important cause of genital ulcer disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langley, C

    1996-08-01

    Chancroid is a major cause of genital ulcer disease worldwide, and occurred at epidemic rates in the United States in the late 1980s. Though the recent epidemic in the U.S. appears to be waning, a number of areas continue to report significant numbers of cases. Chancroid is a particular concern, because, like other diseases that cause genital ulceration, it is associated with an increased risk for transmission or acquisition of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Recent studies have advanced the understanding of chancroid epidemiology, and new diagnostic tests may improve the ability to recognize and appropriately treat chancroid. Increased awareness of chancroid, with appropriate treatment for suspected lesions, along with public health efforts to implement prevention in high-risk populations, will be critical to prevent ongoing transmission of chancroid, and potentially ongoing transmission of HIV.

  7. Associations between individual and relationship characteristics and genital herpes disclosure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Jaime L; Buhi, Eric R; Marhefka, Stephanie; Daley, Ellen; Dedrick, Robert

    2016-10-01

    Disclosure is often a challenge for individuals living with genital herpes. This study explores determinants of genital herpes disclosure with one's most recent sexual partner using an online questionnaire (n = 93). The majority of participants reported (80.4%) disclosure. Among non-disclosers, fear of negative partner reactions was the primary reason for non-disclosure. Age, relationship commitment, time in relationship, and expectations of partner's reaction were statistically significant predictors at the bivariate level. Reaction expectations and relationship commitment remained significant in the multivariate logistic regression model. Findings indicate that future disclosure research should focus on relationship context and managing negative expectations to increase disclosure. © The Author(s) 2015.

  8. Subgroup differences and determinants of patient-reported mental and physical health at hospital discharge among patients with ischemic heart disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, T. B.; Herning, M.; Johansen, P. P.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: (i) To describe patient-reported outcomes (PROs) at hospital-discharge across three diagnostic IHD sub-groups; chronic ischemic heart disease/stable angina (IHD/AP), non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction/unstable angina (NSTEMI/UAP) and ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), and (i......) to examine determinants among demographic-, clinical- and self-report health behavior characteristics for PROs at hospital discharge in patients with IHD....

  9. Married women's negotiation for safer sexual intercourse in Kenya: Does experience of female genital mutilation matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Xiangnan; Sano, Yujiro; Kansanga, Moses; Baada, Jemima; Antabe, Roger

    2017-12-01

    Married women's ability to negotiate for safer sex is important for HIV prevention in sub-Saharan Africa, including Kenya. Yet, its relationship to female genital mutilation is rarely explored, although female genital mutilation has been described as a social norm and marker of womanhood that can control women's sexuality. Drawing on the social normative influence theory, this study addressed this void in the literature. We analysed data from the 2014 Kenya Demographic and Health Survey using logistic regression. Our sample included 8,602 married women. Two indicators of safer sex, namely the ability to refuse sex and the ability to ask for condom use, were explored. We found that women who had undergone genital mutilation were significantly less likely to report that they can refuse sex (OR=0.87; p<.05) and that they can ask for condom use during sexual intercourse (OR=0.62; p<.001) than their counterparts who had not undergone genital mutilation, while controlling for theoretically relevant variables. Our findings indicate that the experience of female genital mutilation may influence married women's ability to negotiate for safer sex through gendered socialization and expectations. Based on these findings, several policy implications are suggested. For instance, culturally sensitive programmes are needed that target both married women who have undergone genital mutilation and their husbands to understand the importance of safer sexual practices within marriage. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. Condition dependence of male and female genital structures in the seed beetle Callosobruchus maculatus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cayetano, L; Bonduriansky, R

    2015-07-01

    Theory predicts that costly secondary sexual traits will evolve heightened condition dependence, and many studies have reported strong condition dependence of signal and weapon traits in a variety of species. However, although genital structures often play key roles in intersexual interactions and appear to be subject to sexual or sexually antagonistic selection, few studies have examined the condition dependence of genital structures, especially in both sexes simultaneously. We investigated the responses of male and female genital structures to manipulation of larval diet quality (new versus once-used mung beans) in the bruchid seed beetle Callosobruchus maculatus. We quantified effects on mean relative size and static allometry of the male aedeagus, aedeagal spines, flap and paramere and the female reproductive tract and bursal spines. None of the male traits showed a significant effect of diet quality. In females, we found that longer bursal spines (relative to body size) were expressed on low-quality diet. Although the function of bursal spines is poorly understood, we suggest that greater bursal spine length in low-condition females may represent a sexually antagonistic adaptation. Overall, we found no evidence that genital traits in C. maculatus are expressed to a greater extent when nutrients are more abundant. This suggests that, even though some genital traits appear to function as secondary sexual traits, genital traits do not exhibit heightened condition dependence in this species. We discuss possible reasons for this finding. © 2015 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2015 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  11. FEMALE GENITAL MUTILATION: ARE WE WINNING?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-07-30

    Jul 30, 2013 ... Awolowo University Teaching Hospitals Complex, Ile-Ife, Nigeria ... practice of female genital mutilation (FGM) in countries like Nigeria. .... Table 1(b) 519 (92%) of the ..... Behrendt, A. and Moritz, S. Posttraumatic stress. 12.

  12. Direct Questioning of Genital Symptoms: Increasing Opportunities ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bioline

    prompted and pelvic examination findings of genital symptoms. Against the ... Correspondence to: ABM Kharsany CAPRISA 2nd Floor Doris Duke Medical Research Institute Nelson R Mandela ..... training efforts should focus on health care.

  13. Packed-bed reactor/silent-discharge plasma design data report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-05-01

    In 1992, Congress passed the Federal Facility Compliance Act requiring the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to treat and dispose of its mixed waste in accordance with Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) land disposal restrictions (LDRs). The DOE Albuquerque Operations Office (AL) currently does not have adequate systems to treat the mixed wastes generated and stored at the nine DOE-AL sites. In response to the need for mixed-waste treatment capacity, DOE-AL organized a Treatment Selection Team under the Mixed-Waste Treatment Program (MWTP) to match mixed wastes with treatment options and develop a strategy for treatment of its mixed waste. The strategy developed by the Treatment Selection Team, as described in the AL Mixed-Waste Treatment Plan (DOE 1994), is to use available off-site commercial treatment facilities for all wastes that can be successfully and cost-effectively treated by such facilities. Where no appropriate commercial treatment facilities exist, mobile treatment units (MTUs) would be developed to treat wastes at the sites where the wastes are generated. Treatment processes used for mixed waste must not only address the hazardous component (i.e., meet LDRs) but also must contain the radioactive component in a form that allows final disposal while protecting workers, the public, and the environment. The packed-bed reactor/silent discharge plasma was chosen as a potential candidate for the treatment of the mixed wastes. The process is described.

  14. Packed-bed reactor/silent-discharge plasma design data report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-05-01

    In 1992, Congress passed the Federal Facility Compliance Act requiring the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to treat and dispose of its mixed waste in accordance with Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) land disposal restrictions (LDRs). The DOE Albuquerque Operations Office (AL) currently does not have adequate systems to treat the mixed wastes generated and stored at the nine DOE-AL sites. In response to the need for mixed-waste treatment capacity, DOE-AL organized a Treatment Selection Team under the Mixed-Waste Treatment Program (MWTP) to match mixed wastes with treatment options and develop a strategy for treatment of its mixed waste. The strategy developed by the Treatment Selection Team, as described in the AL Mixed-Waste Treatment Plan (DOE 1994), is to use available off-site commercial treatment facilities for all wastes that can be successfully and cost-effectively treated by such facilities. Where no appropriate commercial treatment facilities exist, mobile treatment units (MTUs) would be developed to treat wastes at the sites where the wastes are generated. Treatment processes used for mixed waste must not only address the hazardous component (i.e., meet LDRs) but also must contain the radioactive component in a form that allows final disposal while protecting workers, the public, and the environment. The packed-bed reactor/silent discharge plasma was chosen as a potential candidate for the treatment of the mixed wastes. The process is described

  15. Effect of Home Care Nursing on Patients Discharged From Hospital With Self-Reported Signs of Constipation: A Randomized Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konradsen, Hanne; Rasmussen, Marie Louise Thiese; Noiesen, Eline; Trosborg, Ingelise

    Constipation is a common health problem in relation to hospitalization. This randomized controlled trial aimed to investigate whether advice from a home care nurse after discharge had an effect on self-reported signs of constipation. A total of 59 patients were included in the study on the basis of their self-reported signs of constipation evaluated using the Constipation Assessment Scale. Advice from the home care nurses was given on the intake of fiber and liquid and mobilization related to scorings on the Constipation Risk Assessment Scale, the administration of laxatives, and referral to a physician when needed. Results showed a tendency toward the visits being effective, but a more complex intervention might be needed.

  16. Gardnerella vaginalis and anaerobic bacteria in genital disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabaqchali, S; Wilks, M; Thin, R N

    1983-01-01

    In a study of Gardnerella vaginalis and anaerobic bacteria in non-specific vaginitis (NSV) and other genital disease 89 patients attending a genital medicine clinic had vaginal samples examined for conventional pathogens and for quantitative analysis of G vaginalis and aerobic and anaerobic bacterial flora. The overall incidence of G vaginalis was 20%; G vaginalis (mean concentration 7.0 log10/g of secretion) occurred predominantly in patients with NSV (57%) but also in sexual contacts of non-specific urethritis (NSU) (37.5%) and in patients with other conditions (11.8%). G vaginalis is therefore a relatively common isolate in patients with vaginal discharge. The concentration of aerobic and anaerobic bacteria ranged from 4.9-11.0 log10/g of secretion with an anaerobe-to-aerobe ratio of 10:1. Anaerobic bacteria, particularly anaerobic Gram-positive cocci (mean concentrations 7.7 log10/g), were present in patients with NSV and in association with G vaginalis, but they also occurred in other clinical groups and with other pathogens, particularly Trichomonas vaginalis. Anaerobic bacteria may therefore play an important role in the pathogenesis of vaginal infections. PMID:6600955

  17. Final Report - Spacially-Resolved Diagnostics and Modeling of Micro-Discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donnelly, Vincent M.; Economou, Demetre J.

    2012-01-01

    Optical emission spectroscopy measurements were performed with added trace probe gases in an atmospheric pressure direct current (DC) helium microplasma. Spatially resolved measurements (resolution ∼ 6 (micro)m) were taken across a 200 (micro)m slot-type discharge. Stark splitting of the hydrogen Balmer-line was used to investigate the electric field distribution in the cathode sheath region. Electron densities were evaluated from the analysis of the spectral line broadenings of H-β emission. The electron density in the bulk plasma was in the range 3-8 x 1013 cm-3. The electric field peaked at the cathode (∼60 kV/cm) and decayed to small values over a distance of ∼ 50 (micro)m (sheath edge) from the cathode. These experimental data were in good agreement with a self-consistent one-dimensional model of the discharge. The dependence of gas temperature on gas flow through the slot-type, atmospheric pressure microplasma in helium or argon was investigated by a combination of experiments and modeling. Spatially-resolved gas temperature profiles across the gap between the two electrodes were obtained from rotational analysis of N 2 (C 3 II u → B 3 II g ) emission spectra, with small amounts of N 2 added as actinometer gas. Under the same input power of 20 kW/cm 3 , the peak gas temperature in helium (∼650 K) was significantly lower than that in argon (over 1200 K). This reflects the much higher thermal conductivity of helium gas. The gas temperature decreased with increasing gas flow rate, more so in argon compared to helium. This was consistent with the fact that conductive heat losses dominate in helium microplasmas, while convective heat losses play a major role in argon microplasmas. A plasma-gas flow simulation of the microdischarge, including a chemistry set, a compressible Navier-Stokes (and mass continuity) equation, and a convective heat transport equation, was also performed. Experimental measurements were in good agreement with simulation

  18. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 151: Septic Systems and Discharge Area, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 151 is identified in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) as Septic Systems and Discharge Area. CAU 151 consists of the following eight Corrective Action Sites (CASs), located in Areas 2, 12, and 18 of the Nevada Test Site, approximately 65 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada: (1) CAS 02-05-01, UE-2ce Pond; (2) CAS 12-03-01, Sewage Lagoons (6); (3) CAS 12-04-01, Septic Tanks; (4) CAS 12-04-02, Septic Tanks; (5) CAS 12-04-03, Septic Tank; (6) CAS 12-47-01, Wastewater Pond; (7) CAS 18-03-01, Sewage Lagoon; and (8) CAS 18-99-09, Sewer Line (Exposed). CAU 151 closure activities were conducted according to the FFACO (FFACO, 1996; as amended February 2008) and the Corrective Action Plan for CAU 151 (U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office, 2007) from October 2007 to January 2008. The corrective action alternatives included no further action, clean closure, and closure in place with administrative controls. CAU 151 closure activities are summarized in Table 1. Closure activities generated liquid remediation waste, sanitary waste, hydrocarbon waste, and mixed waste. Waste generated was appropriately managed and disposed. Waste that is currently staged onsite is being appropriately managed and will be disposed under approved waste profiles in permitted landfills. Waste minimization activities included waste characterization sampling and segregation of waste streams. Some waste exceeded land disposal restriction limits and required offsite treatment prior to disposal. Other waste meeting land disposal restrictions was disposed of in appropriate onsite or offsite landfills. Waste disposition documentation is included as Appendix C

  19. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 151: Septic Systems and Discharge Area, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NSTec Environmental Restoration

    2008-04-01

    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 151 is identified in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) as Septic Systems and Discharge Area. CAU 151 consists of the following eight Corrective Action Sites (CASs), located in Areas 2, 12, and 18 of the Nevada Test Site, approximately 65 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada: (1) CAS 02-05-01, UE-2ce Pond; (2) CAS 12-03-01, Sewage Lagoons (6); (3) CAS 12-04-01, Septic Tanks; (4) CAS 12-04-02, Septic Tanks; (5) CAS 12-04-03, Septic Tank; (6) CAS 12-47-01, Wastewater Pond; (7) CAS 18-03-01, Sewage Lagoon; and (8) CAS 18-99-09, Sewer Line (Exposed). CAU 151 closure activities were conducted according to the FFACO (FFACO, 1996; as amended February 2008) and the Corrective Action Plan for CAU 151 (U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office, 2007) from October 2007 to January 2008. The corrective action alternatives included no further action, clean closure, and closure in place with administrative controls. CAU 151 closure activities are summarized in Table 1. Closure activities generated liquid remediation waste, sanitary waste, hydrocarbon waste, and mixed waste. Waste generated was appropriately managed and disposed. Waste that is currently staged onsite is being appropriately managed and will be disposed under approved waste profiles in permitted landfills. Waste minimization activities included waste characterization sampling and segregation of waste streams. Some waste exceeded land disposal restriction limits and required offsite treatment prior to disposal. Other waste meeting land disposal restrictions was disposed of in appropriate onsite or offsite landfills. Waste disposition documentation is included as Appendix C.

  20. The presentation and management of complex female genital malformations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acién, Pedro; Acién, Maribel

    2016-01-01

    120 studied in detail. They were added to those included in a previous systematic review. Here, we report the clinical presentation and management of: agenesis or hypoplasia of one urogenital ridge; unilateral renal agenesis and ipsilateral blind or obstructed hemivagina or unilateral cervicovaginal agenesis; cavitated and non-communicating uterine horns and Müllerian atresias or agenesis, including Rokitansky syndrome; anomalies of the cloaca and urogenital sinus, including congenital vagino-vesical fistulas and cloacal anomalies; malformative combinations and other complex malformations. The clinical symptoms and therapeutic strategies for each complex genitourinary malformation are discussed. In general, surgical techniques to correct genital malformations depend on the type of anomaly, its complexity, the patient's symptoms and the correct embryological interpretation of the anomaly. Most anomalies can typically be resolved vaginally or by hysteroscopy, but laparoscopy or laparotomy is often required as well. We also include additional discussion of the catalogue and classification systems for female genital malformations, the systematic association between renal agenesis and ipsilateral genital malformation, and accessory and cavitated uterine masses. Knowledge of the correct genitourinary embryology is essential for the understanding, study, diagnosis and subsequent treatment of genital malformations, especially complex ones and those that lead to gynaecological and reproductive problems, particularly in young patients. Some anomalies may require complex surgery involving multiple specialties, and patients should therefore be referred to centres that have experience in treating complex genital malformations. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Effects of heated discharge on fish and invertebrates of White River at Petersburg, Indiana. Report of investigation No. 6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitaker, J.O. Jr.; Schlueter, R.A.; Proffitt, M.A.

    1973-12-01

    This report is based upon data gathered from June, 1971 through October, 1972, as part of continuing studies initiated to determine the effects of heated water on aquatic resources of the White River at Petersburg, Indiana. The heated effluent is discharged into the river by an electric generating station. Emphasis was placed on the distribution and abundance of smaller fish and invertebrates. A primary concern was to determine if the heated water affected the food habits, external parasites, or reproduction of the fishes. Sampling was continued through the winter to determine effects of heated discharge during the colder parts of the year. Results showed that differences can be found between heated and unheated water. However, the differences are rather minor and it is not always clear that they relate to temperature. Some may relate to other habitat factors. Other than in the effluent canal itself, where populations of organisms are much depressed, no evidence of major harmful effects caused by heated water were found

  2. Shoulder replacement - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Total shoulder arthroplasty - discharge; Endoprosthetic shoulder replacement - discharge; Partial shoulder replacement - discharge; Partial shoulder arthroplasty - discharge; Replacement - shoulder - discharge; Arthroplasty - shoulder - discharge

  3. Genital Chlamydia trachomatis: An update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meenakshi Malhotra

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Chlamydia trachomatis is the most common cause of curable bacterial sexually transmitted infection (STI worldwide. It manifests primarily as urethritis in males and endocervicitis in females. Untreated chlamydial infection in man can cause epididymitis and proctitis. Though most women with Chlamydia infection are asymptomatic or have minimal symptoms, some develop salpingitis, endometritis, pelvic inflammatory disease (PID, ectopic pregnancy and tubal factor infertility. It is associated with an increased risk for the transmission or acquisition of HIV and is also attributed to be a risk factor for the development of cervical carcinoma. Early diagnosis and treatment of infected individuals is required to prevent the spread of the disease and severe sequelae. Traditionally, tissue culture was considered the gold standard for the diagnosis. However, with the availability of newer diagnostic techniques particularly molecular methods which are not only highly sensitive and specific but are cost-effective also, the diagnosis has became fast and easy. The purpose of this review is to study the various aspects of genital C. trachomatis infection. Also the advances related to the clinical picture, various diagnostic modalities, prevention, treatment, drug resistance and control measures will be dealt with.

  4. Simulation Tool for Dielectric Barrier Discharge Plasma Actuators at Atmospheric and Sub-Atmospheric Pressures: SBIR Phase I Final Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Likhanskii, Alexandre

    2012-01-01

    This report is the final report of a SBIR Phase I project. It is identical to the final report submitted, after some proprietary information of administrative nature has been removed. The development of a numerical simulation tool for dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma actuator is reported. The objectives of the project were to analyze and predict DBD operation at wide range of ambient gas pressures. It overcomes the limitations of traditional DBD codes which are limited to low-speed applications and have weak prediction capabilities. The software tool allows DBD actuator analysis and prediction for subsonic to hypersonic flow regime. The simulation tool is based on the VORPAL code developed by Tech-X Corporation. VORPAL's capability of modeling DBD plasma actuator at low pressures (0.1 to 10 torr) using kinetic plasma modeling approach, and at moderate to atmospheric pressures (1 to 10 atm) using hydrodynamic plasma modeling approach, were demonstrated. In addition, results of experiments with pulsed+bias DBD configuration that were performed for validation purposes are reported.

  5. Partial discharge testing: a progress report. Statistical evaluation of PD data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warren, V.; Allan, J.

    2005-01-01

    It has long been known that comparing the partial discharge results obtained from a single machine is a valuable tool enabling companies to observe the gradual deterioration of a machine stator winding and thus plan appropriate maintenance for the machine. In 1998, at the annual Iris Rotating Machines Conference (IRMC), a paper was presented that compared thousands of PD test results to establish the criteria for comparing results from different machines and the expected PD levels. At subsequent annual Iris conferences, using similar analytical procedures, papers were presented that supported the previous criteria and: in 1999, established sensor location as an additional criterion; in 2000, evaluated the effect of insulation type and age on PD activity; in 2001, evaluated the effect of manufacturer on PD activity; in 2002, evaluated the effect of operating pressure for hydrogen-cooled machines; in 2003, evaluated the effect of insulation type and setting Trac alarms; in 2004, re-evaluated the effect of manufacturer on PD activity. Before going further in database analysis procedures, it would be prudent to statistically evaluate the anecdotal evidence observed to date. The goal was to determine which variables of machine conditions greatly influenced the PD results and which didn't. Therefore, this year's paper looks at the impact of operating voltage, machine type and winding type on the test results for air-cooled machines. Because of resource constraints, only data collected through 2003 was used; however, as before, it is still standardized for frequency bandwidth and pruned to include only full-load-hot (FLH) results collected for one sensor on operating machines. All questionable data, or data from off-line testing or unusual machine conditions was excluded, leaving 6824 results. Calibration of on-line PD test results is impractical; therefore, only results obtained using the same method of data collection and noise separation techniques are compared. For

  6. Uncovering category specificity of genital sexual arousal in women: The critical role of analytic technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulverman, Carey S; Hixon, J Gregory; Meston, Cindy M

    2015-10-01

    Based on analytic techniques that collapse data into a single average value, it has been reported that women lack category specificity and show genital sexual arousal to a large range of sexual stimuli including those that both match and do not match their self-reported sexual interests. These findings may be a methodological artifact of the way in which data are analyzed. This study examined whether using an analytic technique that models data over time would yield different results. Across two studies, heterosexual (N = 19) and lesbian (N = 14) women viewed erotic films featuring heterosexual, lesbian, and gay male couples, respectively, as their physiological sexual arousal was assessed with vaginal photoplethysmography. Data analysis with traditional methods comparing average genital arousal between films failed to detect specificity of genital arousal for either group. When data were analyzed with smoothing regression splines and a within-subjects approach, both heterosexual and lesbian women demonstrated different patterns of genital sexual arousal to the different types of erotic films, suggesting that sophisticated statistical techniques may be necessary to more fully understand women's genital sexual arousal response. Heterosexual women showed category-specific genital sexual arousal. Lesbian women showed higher arousal to the heterosexual film than the other films. However, within subjects, lesbian women showed significantly different arousal responses suggesting that lesbian women's genital arousal discriminates between different categories of stimuli at the individual level. Implications for the future use of vaginal photoplethysmography as a diagnostic tool of sexual preferences in clinical and forensic settings are discussed. © 2015 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  7. Discharges from nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-02-01

    HM Inspectorate of Pollution commissioned, with authorising responsibilities in England and Wales, a study into the discharges of radioactive effluents from Nuclear Power Stations. The study considered arisings from nuclear power stations in Europe and the USA and the technologies to treat and control the radioactive discharges. This report contains details of the technologies used at many nuclear power stations to treat and control radioactive discharges and gives, where information was available, details of discharges and authorised discharge limits. (author)

  8. Genital elephantiasis and sexually transmitted infections - revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Somesh; Ajith, C; Kanwar, Amrinder J; Sehgal, Virendra N; Kumar, Bhushan; Mete, Uttam

    2006-03-01

    Genital elephantiasis is an important medical problem in the tropics. It usually affects young and productive age group, and is associated with physical disability and extreme mental anguish. The majority of cases are due to filariasis; however, a small but significant proportion of patients develop genital elephantiasis due to bacterial sexually transmitted infections (STIs), mainly lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV) and donovanosis. STI-related genital elephantiasis should be differentiated from elephantiasis due to other causes, including filariasis, tuberculosis, haematological malignancies, iatrogenic, or dermatological diseases. Laboratory investigations like microscopy of tissue smear and nucleic acid amplification test for donovanosis, and serology and polymerase chain reaction for LGV may help in the diagnosis, but in endemic areas, in the absence of laboratory facilities, diagnosis largely depends on clinical characteristics. The causative agent of LGV, Chlamydia trachomatis serovar L1-L3, is a lymphotropic organism which leads to the development of thrombolymphangitis and perilymphangitis, and lymphadenitis. Long-standing oedema, fibrosis and lymphogranulomatous infiltration result in the final picture of elephantiasis. Elephantiasis in donovanosis is mainly due to constriction of the lymphatics which are trapped in the chronic granulomatous inflammatory response generated by the causative agent, Calymmatobacterium (Klebsiella) granulomatis. The LGV-associated genital elephantiasis should be treated with a prolonged course of doxycycline given orally, while donovanosis should be treated with azithromycin or trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole combination given for a minimum of three weeks. Genital elephantiasis is not completely reversible with medical therapy alone and often needs to be reduced surgically.

  9. Genital Herpes in Marital Partners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Jacob

    1988-01-01

    Full Text Available During 1983-86, 225 patients were clinically diagnosed to have genital herpes (GH at our clinic. Of these, 90 men and 55 women were currently married. All the spouses were screened clinically and through standardized techniques for isolation and typing of herpes simplex virus, serological testing and Papanicolaou smear. There were 90 couples in whom at least one spouse had GH and in 38 (42% couples both partners had GH. Clinically, 49% of wives and 75% of husbands of GH patients were diagnosed to have the disease. The spouses of recurrent GH patients had a higher frequency of the disease than spouses of primary GH patients. Among spouses who were clinically asymptomatic, 40% had high serological titres suggestive of GH. Wives generally experienced more severe symptoms, especially pain in the lesions. Majority of lesions in both the partners were vesicles and ulcers. Prodromata were more among recurrent GH patients in both the partners. The frequency of recurrences wasalso similar in spouses. Seventy percent of wives and 40% of husbands could not identify any precipitating factor. Intercourse, physical stress and rich food were cited as possible factors in the remaining. All the wives had acquired the diseases through their husbands who were promiscuous. Fifty percent of husbands had been infected before marriage. Given the fact that asymptomatic carriers exist, it is better to consider all marital partners of GH as infected. Repeated and long-term follow, - up examination, particularly of wives of GH patients is therefore essential as an important socio-preventive aspect of this disease.

  10. A prospective, open, comparative study of 5% potassium hydroxide solution versus cryotherapy in the treatment of genital warts in men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camargo, Caio Lamunier de Abreu; Belda Junior, Walter; Fagundes, Luiz Jorge; Romiti, Ricardo

    2014-01-01

    Genital warts are caused by human papillomavirus infection and represent one of the most common sexually transmitted diseases. Many infections are transient but the virus may recur, persist, or become latent. To date, there is no effective antiviral treatment to eliminate HPV infection and most therapies are aimed at the destruction of visible lesions. Potassium hydroxide is a strong alkali that has been shown to be safe and effective for the treatment of genital warts and molluscum contagiosum. Cryotherapy is considered one of the most established treatments for genital warts. No comparative trials have been reported to date on the use of potassium hydroxide for genital warts. A prospective, open-label, randomized clinical trial was conducted to compare topical potassium hydroxide versus cryotherapy in the treatment of genital warts affecting immunocompetent, sexually active men. Over a period of 10 months, 48 patients were enrolled. They were randomly divided into two groups and selected on an alternative basis for either potassium hydroxide therapy or cryotherapy. While response to therapy did not differ substantially between both treatment modalities, side effects such as local pain and post-treatment hypopigmentation were considerably more prevalent in the groups treated using cryotherapy. In our study, potassium hydroxide therapy proved to be at least as effective as cryotherapy and offered the benefit of a better safety profile. Topical 5% potassium hydroxide presents an effective, safe, and low-cost treatment modality for genital warts in men and should be included in the spectrum of therapies for genital warts.

  11. Recolonization of group B Streptococcus (GBS) in women with prior GBS genital colonization in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, Teresa; Bilinski, Ewa; Lombard, Emily

    2012-10-01

    The purpose of the study is to evaluate the incidence of women with prior GBS genital colonization who have recolonization in subsequent pregnancies. This is a retrospective, cohort study of patients with a prior GBS genital colonization in pregnancy and a subsequent pregnancy with a recorded GBS culture result, from January 2000 through June 2007. Documentation of GBS status was through GBS culture performed between 35 to 37 weeks gestation. Exclusion criteria included pregnancies with unknown GBS status, patients with GBS bacteriuria, women with a previous neonate with GBS disease and GBS finding prior to 35 weeks. Data was analyzed using SPSS 15.0. The sample proportion of subjects with GBS genital colonization and its confidence interval were computed to estimate the incidence rate. Logistic regression was performed to assess potential determinants of GBS colonization. Regression coefficients, odds ratios and associated confidence intervals, and p-values were reported, with significant results reported. There were 371 pregnancies that met the test criteria. There were 151 subsequent pregnancies with GBS genital colonization and 220 without GBS recolonization. The incidence of GBS recolonization on patients with prior GBS genital colonization was 40.7% (95% confidence interval 35.7-45.69%). The incidence rate for the sample was significantly larger than 30% (p recolonization in subsequent pregnancies.

  12. An Online Cross-Sectional Comparison of Women With Symptoms of Persistent Genital Arousal, Painful Persistent Genital Arousal, and Chronic Vulvar Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackowich, Robyn A; Pink, Leah; Gordon, Allan; Poirier, Évéline; Pukall, Caroline F

    2018-04-01

    Persistent genital arousal disorder (PGAD) is an understudied condition characterized by unwanted physiologic genital arousal in the absence of subjective sexual arousal. Markos and Dinsmore (Int J STD AIDS 2013;24:852-858) theorized that PGAD shares a number of similarities with vulvodynia (unexplained chronic vulvar pain [CVP]), including symptom characteristics and comorbidities. To compare medical histories, symptom characteristics, pain characteristics, and daily functioning among women with persistent genital pain (PGA) (n = 42), painful PGA (n = 37), and CVP (n = 42) symptoms. An online cross-sectional survey was conducted from October 2015 through April 2016. Self-report measures of symptoms, diagnosed medical conditions, pain characteristics (McGill Pain Questionnaire), catastrophizing (Pain Catastrophizing Scale), and daily functioning (Functional Status Questionnaire) were collected. All 3 groups reported similar medical diagnoses and high frequencies of other chronic pelvic pain conditions. Women in all 3 groups reported comparable ages at symptom onset and timing of symptom expression (ie, constant vs intermittent). Women in the 2 PGA groups reported significantly greater feelings of helplessness than women in the CVP group. Women in the painful PGA and CVP groups endorsed significantly more sensory terms to describe their symptoms compared with women in the PGA group, whereas women in the painful PGA group reported significantly more affective terms to describe their symptoms compared with women in the CVP group. Women in the 2 PGA groups reported that their symptoms interfered significantly with most areas of daily functioning. Given the similarities between PGA and CVP symptoms, women with PGA may benefit from similar assessment, treatment, and research approaches. Limitations of the present study include its sole use of self-report measures; the presence of PGA or CVP symptoms was not confirmed by clinical assessment. However, the anonymous

  13. Update summary of the 1991 discharge of enriched uranium to the sanitary sewer (DEUSS) report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-04-01

    Since the 1991 Y-12 Plant report, a flow study of the Y-12 Plant sanitary sewer collection system has been completed by the Y-12 Plant staff (Hanzelka and Maguire, 1993). Additional data has been obtained by the Y-12 Plant and the City of Oak Ridge (COR, 1994). COR developed limits on radionuclide concentrations in sludges used for land application (Stetar, 1993). Martin Marietta Energy Systems has provided recommendations to the Department of Energy (DOE) regarding the impacts of sludge land farming operations on the ORR (Frye, 1992). The DOE Office of Nuclear Safety (USDOE, 1993) completed an audit of activities related to radiological contamination of the COR sewer system due to DOE operations. In addition COR is currently developing limits on radionuclide releases for all industrial customers to be applied through the permitting process. In 1994, a new sanitary sewer monitoring station was installed and began operation at the Y-12 Plant to determine releases specifically from the Y-12 Plant. Previously, estimates were based on mass balance calculations using data from the City Monitoring Station which monitors Union Valley and Y-12 Plant releases. The purpose of this report is to update the 1991 Y-12 Plant study taking into account current data and information

  14. [Bacterial flora in the genital tract the last trimester of pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balaka, B; Agbèrè, A D; Baeta, S; Kessie, K; Assimadi, K

    2003-10-01

    Very widespread in our clinical setting, early-onset sepsis is due to organisms that commonly colonize or infect the maternal genital tract; identifying such organisms would help improve prevention and treatment. To determine the bacterial ecology and the pathological status of the genital organs during the last trimester of pregnancy, in order to evaluate the risk of materno-fetal infections and to improve the present prophylactic measures based on monitoring bacterial carriage during the first trimester. Vaginal and endocervical samples, usually taken during the first trimester of pregnancy were delayed and taken during the last trimester of pregnancy, in patients with no signs of sepsis and not taking antibiotics. A macroscopic examination described the aspect of the vagina, the cervix uteri, leukorrhea and possible inflammatory lesions or ulcerations. A microscopic examination searched for parasites, epithelial cells, Clue cells and leukocytes. The appropriate bacteriological cultures were performed after reading the Gram stain and scoring the vaginal flora. The clinical and cytobacteriological aspects were used to identify the bacterial ecology and the pathological genital states. Genital samples were collected from 306 pregnant women. Among them 118 were at 29-32 weeks of gestation, 104 at 33-36 and 84 at 37-40. The most frequent germs were C. albicans (33.3%), Enterobacteriaceae (20.3%) including E. coli (10.9%), S. aureus (15.4%), Gardnerella (13.6%), and Trichomonas (10.6%), in monomicrobian (79.2%) or polymicrobian carriage (20.8%). Lower genital tract pathological states such as vaginitis (29.4%), bacterial vaginosis (21.5%) or cervicitis (10.4%) and asymptomatic bacterial carriage (23.5%) and normal genital flora (15%) were identified. This is the first report of genital bacterial carriage in African women during the last trimester of pregnancy. Larger studies are required to evaluate the risk of maternofetal infections and to improve current

  15. Ureaplasma serovars & their antimicrobial susceptibility in patients of infertility & genital tract infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhawan, Benu; Malhotra, Neena; Sreenivas, Vishnubhatla; Rawre, Jyoti; Khanna, Neena; Chaudhry, Rama; Mittal, Suneeta

    2012-12-01

    Ureaplasmas have been implicated in a variety of clinical conditions. However, only certain serovars of ureaplasmas are disease associated. Only a few classes of antimicrobial agents are available for the treatment of mycoplasmal infections in humans. Increase of resistance of genital mycoplasmas to antimicrobials has been reported worldwide. The aim of the present study was to determine the occurrence of Ureaplasma serovars in patients with infertility and genital tract infections with polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based serotyping. The antimicrobial susceptibilities of Ureaplasma spp. and Mycoplasma hominis were also assessed to determine the most suitable treatment strategy. Sexually active adults (n=147) with symptoms of genital tract infections and 115 infertile women were enrolled. Endocervical swabs from women and urethral swabs from men were subjected to culture and multiplex PCR for detection of genital mycoplasmas. Serotyping of Ureaplasma was done by PCR and antimicrobial susceptibility to doxycycline, azithromycin, josamycin and ofloxacin was done by microbroth dilution method. Ureaplasma was detected in 25.8 per cent patients with genital tract infections and 20.8 per cent in infertile women. Serovar 3/14 was the most frequent isolate followed by serovar 1 and serovar 6. The majority of Ureaplasma isolates were susceptible to doxycycline (91%) and josamycin (86%) followed by ofloxacin (77%) and azithromycin (71%). All the isolates of M. hominis were uniformly susceptible to doxycycline, josamycin and ofloxacin. The predominance of Ureaplasma serovar 3/14 suggests their possible pathogenic role in genital tract infections and infertility. For empirical treatment, doxycycline could be the drug of choice for genital mycoplasmas.

  16. Current Concepts for Genital Herpes Simplex Virus Infection: Diagnostics and Pathogenesis of Genital Tract Shedding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Christine; Corey, Lawrence

    2016-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) is a DNA virus that is efficiently transmitted through intimate genital tract contact and causes persistent infection that cannot be eliminated. HSV-2 may cause frequent, symptomatic self-limited genital ulcers, but in most persons infection is subclinical. However, recent studies have demonstrated that the virus is frequently shed from genital surfaces even in the absence of signs or symptoms of clinical disease and that the virus can be transmitted during these periods of shedding. Furthermore, HSV-2 shedding is detected throughout the genital tract and may be associated with genital tract inflammation, which likely contributes to increased risk of HIV acquisition. This review focuses on HSV diagnostics, as well as what we have learned about the importance of frequent genital HSV shedding for (i) HSV transmission and (ii) genital tract inflammation, as well as (iii) the impact of HSV-2 infection on HIV acquisition and transmission. We conclude with discussion of future areas of research to push the field forward. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  17. Current Concepts for Genital Herpes Simplex Virus Infection: Diagnostics and Pathogenesis of Genital Tract Shedding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corey, Lawrence

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) is a DNA virus that is efficiently transmitted through intimate genital tract contact and causes persistent infection that cannot be eliminated. HSV-2 may cause frequent, symptomatic self-limited genital ulcers, but in most persons infection is subclinical. However, recent studies have demonstrated that the virus is frequently shed from genital surfaces even in the absence of signs or symptoms of clinical disease and that the virus can be transmitted during these periods of shedding. Furthermore, HSV-2 shedding is detected throughout the genital tract and may be associated with genital tract inflammation, which likely contributes to increased risk of HIV acquisition. This review focuses on HSV diagnostics, as well as what we have learned about the importance of frequent genital HSV shedding for (i) HSV transmission and (ii) genital tract inflammation, as well as (iii) the impact of HSV-2 infection on HIV acquisition and transmission. We conclude with discussion of future areas of research to push the field forward. PMID:26561565

  18. The colposcopic atlas of schistosomiasis in the lower female genital tract based on studies in Malawi, Zimbabwe, Madagascar and South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norseth, Hanne M; Ndhlovu, Patricia D; Kleppa, Elisabeth; Randrianasolo, Bodo S; Jourdan, Peter M; Roald, Borghild; Holmen, Sigve D; Gundersen, Svein G; Bagratee, Jayanthilall; Onsrud, Mathias; Kjetland, Eyrun F

    2014-01-01

    Schistosoma (S.) haematobium is a neglected tropical disease which may affect any part of the genital tract in women. Female genital schistosomiasis (FGS) may cause abnormal vaginal discharge, contact bleeding, genital tumours, ectopic pregnancies and increased susceptibility to HIV. Symptoms may mimic those typical of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and women with genital schistosomiasis may be incorrectly diagnosed. An expert consensus meeting suggested that the following findings by visual inspection should serve as proxy indicators for the diagnosis of schistosomiasis of the lower genital tract in women from S. haematobium endemic areas: sandy patches appearing as (1) single or clustered grains or (2) sandy patches appearing as homogenous, yellow areas, or (3) rubbery papules. In this atlas we aim to provide an overview of the genital mucosal manifestations of schistosomiasis in women. Photocolposcopic images were captured from women, between 1994 and 2012 in four different study sites endemic for S. haematobium in Malawi, Zimbabwe, South Africa and Madagascar. Images and specimens were sampled from sexually active women between 15 and 49 years of age. Colposcopic images of other diseases are included for differential diagnostic purposes. This is the first atlas to present the clinical manifestations of schistosomiasis in the lower female genital tract. It will be freely available for online use, downloadable as a presentation and for print. It could be used for training purposes, further research, and in clinical practice.

  19. A retrospective analysis of 34 potentially missed cases of female genital mutilation in the emergency department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fawcett, Richard John; Kernohan, George

    2017-09-12

    To discover if healthcare professionals working within an ED are able to make a diagnosis of female genital mutilation (FGM) in those patients who have previously undergone the procedure and report it as per UK law. A retrospective analysis of patients' notes who were assigned an FGM code during the period of May 2015 to August 2016. Single-centre, large UK major trauma centre offering a tertiary FGM clinic. Any woman coded during the study period as having undergone FGM. Number of FGM cases identified by the ED. Mean age, presenting complaint, discharge diagnosis, genitourinary exam and defibulation status. 34 patients were identified as having undergone FGM, 19 had previously attended ED and none had their FGM identified during their ED attendance. The age range of those identified was 23 to 40 years. None had undergone defibulation. This study demonstrates that the identification of FGM victims by an ED is very poor, and more work needs to be done to increase awareness of the subject by front-line staff. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  20. International efforts on abandoning female genital mutilation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Edouard

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Female genital mutilation (FGM, sometimes referred to as female circumcision or female genital cutting, is a harmful cultural practice without any known health benefit. Its short-term and long-term health risks have led to numerous initiatives toward its eradication at international and local levels, over the last two decades. While major challenges remain and millions of girls and women are still at risk of being subjected to FGM, there is growing evidence that interventions that take into account the social dynamics that perpetuate FGM are yielding positive results toward its reduction. Well-recognized as a human rights violation in international treaties, the elimination of female genital mutilation requires ongoing interventions through cross-sectoral approaches that address attitudinal, cultural and behavioral change.

  1. Generating protective immunity against genital herpes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Haina; Iwasaki, Akiko

    2013-10-01

    Genital herpes is an incurable, chronic disease that affects millions of people worldwide. Not only does genital herpes cause painful, recurrent symptoms, it is also a significant risk factor for the acquisition of other sexually transmitted infections such as HIV-1. Antiviral drugs are used to treat herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection, but they cannot stop viral shedding and transmission. Thus, developing a vaccine that can prevent or clear infection will be crucial in limiting the spread of disease. In this review we outline recent studies that improve our understanding of host responses against HSV infection, discuss past clinical vaccine trials, and highlight new strategies for vaccine design against genital herpes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Sexual and Natural Selection Both Influence Male Genital Evolution

    OpenAIRE

    House, Clarissa M.; Lewis, Zenobia; Hodgson, Dave J.; Wedell, Nina; Sharma, Manmohan D.; Hunt, John; Hosken, David J.

    2013-01-01

    Rapid and divergent evolution of male genital morphology is a conspicuous and general pattern across internally fertilizing animals. Rapid genital evolution is thought to be the result of sexual selection, and the role of natural selection in genital evolution remains controversial. However, natural and sexual selection are believed to act antagonistically on male genital form. We conducted an experimental evolution study to investigate the combined effects of natural and sexual selection on ...

  3. Primary Genital Herpes Diseases in İnfancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sevinç Gümüş Pekacar

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Symptomatic primary genital herpes infection is very rare in early childhood. Herpes simplex virus 1 type is the infectious agent in 20-50% percent of primery infections. Sexual abuse should be considered when genital herpes is seen in a person before sexual active age. It is mild and self limiting unless the patient is immune compramised. In this paper we discussed a 17 months old patient with genital herpes and approach to genital herpes in children.

  4. Intraurethral condylomata acuminata associated with genital piercings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, S; Hirano, Y; Kawamura, T; Homma, Y

    2013-01-01

    A 33-year-old man was referred to our institution with papillary masses at the urethral meatus and difficulty urinating. Genital examination showed two piercings on the frenulum, which were penetrating the external urethra. Endoscopic examination revealed papillary tumours over the entire circumference of the penile urethra and the piercing site. The tumours were resected transurethrally. Microscopic examination revealed condylomata acuminata. Human papillomavirus types 6 and 66 were detected in the lesions. Retrograde urethral viral infection is rare because of the protection provided by the mucosal immune system. Genital piercing may have facilitated spread of the human papillomavirus into the urethra.

  5. Genital herpes simplex virus infections in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertz, G; Corey, L

    1984-02-01

    With the decline in prevalence of childhood-acquired oral-labial herpes simplex type 1 infections in some populations and the increasing incidence of genital herpes infections in adults, clinicians are more likely to see patients with severe primary, first-episode genital herpes infections. Complications of these primary infections may include aseptic meningitis and urine retention secondary to sacral radiculopathy or autonomic dysfunction. Presented are the clinical course of first-episode and recurrent infections, complications, diagnostic laboratory methods, and results of controlled clinical trials evaluating the efficacy of topical, intravenous, and oral preparations of acyclovir.

  6. Travelling-wave-sustained discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlueter, Hans; Shivarova, Antonia

    2007-01-01

    This review is on discharges maintained by travelling waves: new plasma sources, discovered in 1974 and considered as a prototype of the gas discharges according to their definition as nonlinear systems which unify in a self-consistent manner plasmas and fields. In the presentation here of the fluid-plasma models of the diffusion-controlled regime of the travelling-wave-sustained discharges (TWSDs), the basic features of the discharge maintenance-the discharge self-consistency and the electron heating in the high-frequency field-are stressed. Operation of stationary and pulsed discharges, discharge maintenance without and in external magnetic fields as well as discharge production in different gases (argon, helium, helium-argon gas mixtures and hydrogen) are covered. Modulation instability of diffusion-controlled discharges and discharge filamentation at higher gas pressures are also included in the review. Experimental findings which motivate aspects of the reported modelling are pointed out

  7. On the physics of ion ring generation for the stabilization of FRX discharges. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fleischmann, H.

    1995-01-01

    As envisioned in the respective proposals, the author's work over the final periods of this contract centered on experimental and related theoretical investigations of the physics of the generation of ion rings which might be used for a tilt stabilization of FRX rings, with experiments centering around the new MICE equipment constructed during the earlier parts of the work. In particular, the work mainly consisted of the following: (i) investigations concerning the operation of the ion beam driver constructed earlier, especially of the magnetically insulated ion diode and possible improvements of that diode; (ii) theoretical analyses on the propagation and neutralization of the ion beam during its injection into the confinement tank; and (iii) experimental investigations on the physics of ion beam injection and ring formation in the MICE device; in these latter experiments very significant discrepancies of various observed data and those predicted from single-particle orbit calculations were found. Unfortunately, the work could not be completed due to stop in funding, but a semiquantitative analysis of these discrepancies indicated insufficient space charge neutralization of the ion beam in the tank and/or charge-exchange effects in the diode are considered the most likely reasons. In contrast to claims by its authors, a similar discrepancy also was found in the published data of the earlier IREX experiment. The results of their investigations, which together with the design and construction of the equipment provided the basis for two PhD theses, will be briefly described in this report; the full details can be obtained from the two theses

  8. The Epidemiology of Female Genital Mutilation in Nigeria - A Twelve ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the prevalence. The practice has several negative health and economic consequences. Culture and tradition are important factors fuelling its persistence. Conclusion: Female genital ... Female genital mutilation (FGM) otherwise known as female genital cutting or female ... without medical indication. This contrasts with male.

  9. Two cases of male genital self-mutilation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinay Singh Chauhan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Male genital self-mutilation (GSM is a rare but serious phenomenon. Some of the risk factors for this act are the presence of religious delusions, command hallucinations, low self-esteem, and feelings of guilt associated with sexual offences. Other risk factors include failures in the male role, problems in the early developmental period, such as experiencing difficulties in male identification and persistence of incestuous desires, depression, and having a history of GSM. The eponym Klingsor Syndrome, which involves the presence of religious delusions, is proposed for GSM. Psychiatric case reports of male GSM in the literature are rare and mostly anecdotal.

  10. Microbial Composition Predicts Genital Tract Inflammation and Persistent Bacterial Vaginosis in South African Adolescent Females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lennard, Katie; Dabee, Smritee; Barnabas, Shaun L; Havyarimana, Enock; Blakney, Anna; Jaumdally, Shameem Z; Botha, Gerrit; Mkhize, Nonhlanhla N; Bekker, Linda-Gail; Lewis, David A; Gray, Glenda; Mulder, Nicola; Passmore, Jo-Ann S; Jaspan, Heather B

    2018-01-01

    Young African females are at an increased risk of HIV acquisition, and genital inflammation or the vaginal microbiome may contribute to this risk. We studied these factors in 168 HIV-negative South African adolescent females aged 16 to 22 years. Unsupervised clustering of 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed three clusters (subtypes), one of which was strongly associated with genital inflammation. In a multivariate model, the microbiome compositional subtype and hormonal contraception were significantly associated with genital inflammation. We identified 40 taxa significantly associated with inflammation, including those reported previously ( Prevotella , Sneathia , Aerococcus , Fusobacterium , and Gemella ) as well as several novel taxa (including increased frequencies of bacterial vaginosis-associated bacterium 1 [BVAB1], BVAB2, BVAB3, Prevotella amnii , Prevotella pallens , Parvimonas micra , Megasphaera , Gardnerella vaginalis , and Atopobium vaginae and decreased frequencies of Lactobacillus reuteri , Lactobacillus crispatus , Lactobacillus jensenii , and Lactobacillus iners ). Women with inflammation-associated microbiomes had significantly higher body mass indices and lower levels of endogenous estradiol and luteinizing hormone. Community functional profiling revealed three distinct vaginal microbiome subtypes, one of which was characterized by extreme genital inflammation and persistent bacterial vaginosis (BV); this subtype could be predicted with high specificity and sensitivity based on the Nugent score (≥9) or BVAB1 abundance. We propose that women with this BVAB1-dominated subtype may have chronic genital inflammation due to persistent BV, which may place them at a particularly high risk for HIV infection. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  11. Genital Herpes: Insights into Sexually Transmitted Infectious Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaishankar, Dinesh; Shukla, Deepak

    2016-06-27

    Etiology, transmission and protection: Herpes simplex virus-2 (HSV-2) is a leading cause of sexually transmitted infections with recurring manifestations throughout the lifetime of infected hosts. Currently no effective vaccines or prophylactics exist that provide complete protection or immunity from the virus, which is endemic throughout the world. Pathology/Symptomatology: Primary and recurrent infections result in lesions and inflammation around the genital area and the latter accounts for majority of genital herpes instances. Immunocompromised patients including neonates are susceptible to additional systemic infections including debilitating consequences of nervous system inflammation. Epidemiology, incidence and prevalence: More than 500 million people are infected worldwide and most reported cases involve the age groups between 16-40 years, which coincides with an increase in sexual activity among this age group. While these numbers are an estimate, the actual numbers may be underestimated as many people are asymptomatic or do not report the symptoms. Treatment and curability: Currently prescribed medications, mostly nucleoside analogs, only reduce the symptoms caused by an active infection, but do not eliminate the virus or reduce latency. Therefore, no cure exists against genital herpes and infected patients suffer from periodic recurrences of disease symptoms for their entire lives. Molecular mechanisms of infection: The last few decades have generated many new advances in our understanding of the mechanisms that drive HSV infection. The viral entry receptors such as nectin-1 and HVEM have been identified, cytoskeletal signaling and membrane structures such as filopodia have been directly implicated in viral entry, host motor proteins and their viral ligands have been shown to facilitate capsid transport and many host and HSV proteins have been identified that help with viral replication and pathogenesis. New understanding has emerged on the role of

  12. Genital Herpes: Insights into Sexually Transmitted Infectious Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaishankar, Dinesh; Shukla, Deepak

    2016-01-01

    Etiology, transmission and protection: Herpes simplex virus-2 (HSV-2) is a leading cause of sexually transmitted infections with recurring manifestations throughout the lifetime of infected hosts. Currently no effective vaccines or prophylactics exist that provide complete protection or immunity from the virus, which is endemic throughout the world. Pathology/Symptomatology: Primary and recurrent infections result in lesions and inflammation around the genital area and the latter accounts for majority of genital herpes instances. Immunocompromised patients including neonates are susceptible to additional systemic infections including debilitating consequences of nervous system inflammation. Epidemiology, incidence and prevalence: More than 500 million people are infected worldwide and most reported cases involve the age groups between 16-40 years, which coincides with an increase in sexual activity among this age group. While these numbers are an estimate, the actual numbers may be underestimated as many people are asymptomatic or do not report the symptoms. Treatment and curability: Currently prescribed medications, mostly nucleoside analogs, only reduce the symptoms caused by an active infection, but do not eliminate the virus or reduce latency. Therefore, no cure exists against genital herpes and infected patients suffer from periodic recurrences of disease symptoms for their entire lives. Molecular mechanisms of infection: The last few decades have generated many new advances in our understanding of the mechanisms that drive HSV infection. The viral entry receptors such as nectin-1 and HVEM have been identified, cytoskeletal signaling and membrane structures such as filopodia have been directly implicated in viral entry, host motor proteins and their viral ligands have been shown to facilitate capsid transport and many host and HSV proteins have been identified that help with viral replication and pathogenesis. New understanding has emerged on the role of

  13. Lower Genital Tract Trauma in A Tertiary Care Centre in Mid-Western Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhikari, A K; Dutta, M; Das, C R

    2017-01-01

    The study of lower genital tract trauma has become important in gynaecological practice. There is paucity of reports on this clinical entity from our settings. The main aim of this study is to document injuries in female lower genital tract in Mid-Western Nepal. Sixty female patients admitted to the hospital with genital tract injuries caused by coitus or accidents were included in the study. Details of the causes of trauma clinical presentations and management were recorded. These injuries were grouped according to etiological factors. This study included 33 (55%) coital injuries and 27 (45%) non- coital injuries. Out of coital injury, 12 cases were criminal assault (rape) in age group of 4 to 18 years. Four unmarried girls had consensual sex. Non-coital injuries were due to fall from height, cattle horn injuries, straddle type of trauma, vulvar haematoma and anorectal injuries. Appropriate surgical intervention can avert morbidity and mortality.

  14. Transient urinary retention and chronic neuropathic pain associated with genital herpes simplex virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haanpää, Maija; Paavonen, Jorma

    2004-10-01

    Genital herpes (GH) causes genital ulcer disease, severe transient pain, and often paresthesias. Whether or not GH can cause urinary retention or chronic neuropathic pain is not well known. We present two immunocompetent patients with GH associated with neuropathic symptoms. We also review the literature on GH and associated neurologic problems. Patient 1 had primary herpes simplex virus (HSV)-2 infection with transient urinary retention and chronic bilateral neuropathic pain in the sacral area. Patient 2 had recurrent HSV-1 associated with unitaleral chronic neuropathic pain in the sacral area. Although transient urinary retention associated with GH is not uncommon, chronic neuropathic pain has not been reported previously. Our cases show that chronic neuropathic pain, that is "pain initiated or caused by a primary lesion or dysfunction in the nervous system," can follow genital HSV infection.

  15. Genital Human Papillomavirus Infection Progression to External Genital Lesions: The HIM Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudenga, Staci L; Ingles, Donna J; Pierce Campbell, Christine M; Lin, Hui-Yi; Fulp, William J; Messina, Jane L; Stoler, Mark H; Abrahamsen, Martha; Villa, Luisa L; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo; Giuliano, Anna R

    2016-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) causes two types of external genital lesions (EGLs) in men: genital warts (condyloma) and penile intraepithelial neoplasia (PeIN). The purpose of this study was to describe genital HPV progression to a histopathologically confirmed HPV-related EGL. A prospective analysis nested within the HPV Infection in Men (HIM) study was conducted among 3033 men. At each visit, visually distinct EGLs were biopsied; the biopsy specimens were subjected to pathologic evaluation and categorized by pathologic diagnoses. Genital swabs and biopsies were used to identify HPV types using the Linear Array genotyping method for swabs and INNO-LiPA for biopsy specimens. EGL incidence was determined among 1788 HPV-positive men, and cumulative incidence rates at 6, 12, and 24 mo were estimated. The proportion of HPV infections that progressed to EGL was also calculated, along with median time to EGL development. Among 1788 HPV-positive men, 92 developed an incident EGL during follow-up (9 PeIN and 86 condyloma). During the first 12 mo of follow-up, 16% of men with a genital HPV 6 infection developed an HPV 6-positive condyloma, and 22% of genital HPV 11 infections progressed to an HPV 11-positive condyloma. During the first 12 mo of follow-up, 0.5% of men with a genital HPV 16 infection developed an HPV 16-positive PeIN. Although we expected PeIN to be a rare event, the sample size for PeIN (n=10) limited the types of analyses that could be performed. Most EGLs develop following infection with HPV 6, 11, or 16, all of which could be prevented with the 4-valent HPV vaccine. In this study, we looked at genital human papillomavirus (HPV) infections that can cause lesions in men. The HPV that we detected within the lesions could be prevented by a vaccine. Copyright © 2015 European Association of Urology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Genital Involvement In Pre-Pubertal Pediatric Population: A Rare Aspect of Crohn’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qurratul Ann Warsi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Crohn’s disease is an inflammatory bowel disease (IBD, characterized by chronic intestinal inflammation that causes the loss of immune tolerance leading to bizarre inflammatory signals and disruption of mucosal barriers. Environmental triggers and interaction of genetic determinants also play an indispensible role. In this case report, we present a pre-pubertal girl with intermittent and refractory genital swelling. We emphasize that Crohn’s disease must be considered in the differential diagnosis of recurrent, non-tender, erythematous and edematous lesions of the genital area. We conclude with future directions for diagnosing and managing vulvar Crohn’s disease in pediatric population.

  17. Female genital mutilation : Conditions of decline

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caldwell, JC; Orubuloye, IO; Caldwell, P

    Female genital mutilation (or female circumcision) has been experienced by over 100 million women in sub-Saharan Africa and the Nile valley Efforts to suppress the practice were made in the earlier decades of the present century, especially by missionaries in Kenya in the 1920s and early 1930s.

  18. Rectal Lipoma Associated with Genital Prolapse

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    female genital prolapse. In the present case, as the patient is post‑menopausal and with co‑existing partial rectal prolapse, vaginal hysterectomy was carried out. Diagnostic approaches usually include endoscopy, contrast‑enhanced CT scan of the abdomen, and barium enema. Endoscopic biopsies usually fail to diagnose ...

  19. Medicalization of female genital mutilation/cutting

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    G.I. Serour

    Globally 100–140 million women and girls have been subjected to female genital mutilation/cutting ... In some Muslim countries where FGM/C is prevalent it is often wrongly quoted that the basis for ..... ditional health care, community leaders, educators, social scientists, ... lators, mass media, religious leaders, and NGOs.

  20. Genital evolution: why are females still understudied?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malin Ah-King

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The diversity, variability, and apparent rapid evolution of animal genitalia are a vivid focus of research in evolutionary biology, and studies exploring genitalia have dramatically increased over the past decade. These studies, however, exhibit a strong male bias, which has worsened since 2000, despite the fact that this bias has been explicitly pointed out in the past. Early critics argued that previous investigators too often considered only males and their genitalia, while overlooking female genitalia or physiology. Our analysis of the literature shows that overall this male bias has worsened with time. The degree of bias is not consistent between subdisciplines: studies of the lock-and-key hypothesis have been the most male focused, while studies of cryptic female choice usually consider both sexes. The degree of bias also differed across taxonomic groups, but did not associate with the ease of study of male and female genital characteristics. We argue that the persisting male bias in this field cannot solely be explained by anatomical sex differences influencing accessibility. Rather the bias reflects enduring assumptions about the dominant role of males in sex, and invariant female genitalia. New research highlights how rapidly female genital traits can evolve, and how complex coevolutionary dynamics between males and females can shape genital structures. We argue that understanding genital evolution is hampered by an outdated single-sex bias.

  1. Female genital mutilation: psychological and reproductive health ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study examined the reproductive health and psychological effects of female genital mutilation, in one traditional area in the Upper East region (i.e. Kayoro Traditional Area) of Ghana. The results of the study revealed that, the practice of FGM actually affects the physical (deforming the female genitalia), psychological (the ...

  2. Female genital mutilation - from tradition to femicide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakić Jelena

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Female genital mutilation has been drawing international attention for the last couple of decades, but this phenomenon is almost unknown in Serbia. In this work we will point to its basic forms and its presence in the world as well as to the variety of consequences, especially those which are the most common causes of death. With this purpose in mind, the work represents the a review of theoretical debates and empirical studies, based on which relevant data may be gathered, related to the previously mentioned subject of the work. Female genital mutilation is a phenomenon mostly in Africa, but due to migrations has become a problem thoughout the whole world. Traditional and cultural norms of strict patriarchal societies along with deeply rooted inequality of genders have contributed to the maintenance of this custom up till today. This custom includes a sequence of different procedures which are used to injure female genitals even though there are no medical reasons for such acts. They are conducted by older women in insanitary conditions and by means such as scissors, razors or glass which bring numerous consequences which can result in death. Females subdued to infibulation are at greater risk of death, although each of the forms of mutilation may have this consequence. Female genital mutilation represents violence against women due to its inevitable physical consequences and its harmful effect on health. Girls and women are subdued to the procedure which in some cases results in death, for the purpose of the community acceptance, most of all the acceptance of the future husband. Namely, women are elligible for marriage only if they are virgins, which is achieved by genital mutilation, according to the opinion of the community in which this tradition is preserved. Beside that, marriage is of high importance for the economic stability of a woman, considering the fact that all the economic power is held by men. Genital mutilation has the purpose

  3. NIPPLE DISCHARGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. N. Bukharova

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available According to the data available in the literature, as high as 50% of women have benign breast tumors frequently accompanied by nip- ple discharge. Nipple discharge may be serous, bloody, purulent, and colostric. The most common causes are breast abscess, injury, drugs, prolactinoma, intraductal pappiloma, ductal ectasia, intraductal cancer (not more than 10%.

  4. Closure report for CAU 339: Area 12 Fleet Operations steam-cleaning discharge area, Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-12-01

    This Closure Report (CR) provides documentation of the completed corrective action at the Area 12 Fleet Operations site located in the southeast portion of the Area 12 Camp at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). Field work was performed in July 1997 as outlined in the Corrective Action Plan (CAP). The CAP was approved by the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP) in June 1997. This site is identified in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) as Corrective Action Site (CAS) Number 12-19-01 and is the only CAS in Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 339. The former Area 12 Fleet Operations Building 12-16 functioned as a maintenance facility for light- and heavy-duty vehicles from approximately 1965 to January 1993. Services performed at the site included steam-cleaning, tire service, and preventative maintenance on vehicles and equipment. Past activities impacted the former steam-cleaning discharge area with volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) as oil

  5. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 262: Area 25 Septic Systems and Underground Discharge Point, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tobiason, D. S.

    2003-01-01

    This Closure Report (CR) documents the activities undertaken to close Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 262: Area 25 Septic Systems and Underground Discharge Point, in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) of 1996. Site closure was performed in accordance with the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP)-approved Corrective Action Plan (CAP) for CAU 262 (U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Operations Office [NNSA/NV, 2002a]). CAU 262 is located at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) approximately 105 kilometers (65 miles) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. CAU 262 consists of the following nine Corrective Action Sites (CASs) located in Area 25 of the NTS: CAS 25-02-06, Underground Storage tank CAS 25-04-06, Septic Systems A and B CAS 25-04-07, Septic System CAS 25-05-03, Leachfield CAS 25-05-05, Leachfield CAS 25-05-06, Leachfield CAS 25-05-08, Radioactive Leachfield CAS 25-05-12, Leachfield CAS 25-51-01, Dry Well

  6. Guidelines for the Standardization of Genital Photography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joumblat, Natalie R; Chim, Jimmy; Sanchez Aguirre, Priscila Gisselle; Bedolla, Edgar; Salgado, Christopher J

    2018-02-06

    Plastic surgery relies on photography for both clinical practice and research. The Photographic Standards in Plastic Surgery laid the foundation for standardized photography in plastic surgery. Despite these advancements, the current literature lacks guidelines for genital photography, thus resulting in a discordance of documentation. The authors propose photographic standards for the male and female genitalia to establish homogeneity in which information can be accurately exchanged. All medical photographs include a sky-blue background, proper lighting, removal of distractors, consistent camera framing, and standard camera angles. We propose the following guidelines to standardize genital photography. In the anterior upright position, feet are shoulder-width apart and arms are placed posteriorly. The frame is bounded superiorly by the xiphoid-umbilicus midpoint and inferiorly by the patella. For circumferential documentation, frontal 180 degree capture via 45 degree intervals is often sufficient. Images in standard lithotomy position should be captured at both parallel and 45 degrees above the horizontal. Images of the phallus should include both the flaccid and erect states. Despite the increasing incidence of genital procedures, there lacks a standardized methodology in which to document the genitalia, resulting in a substantial heterogeneity in the current literature. Our standardized techniques for genital photography set forth to establish a uniform language that promotes more effective communication with both the patient as well as with colleagues. The proposed photography guidelines provide optimal visualization and standard documentation of the genitalia, allowing for accurate education, meaningful collaborations, and advancement in genital surgery. © 2018 The American Society for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery, Inc. Reprints and permission: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Are There “Stages of Change” in the practice of Female Genital ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In recent years there has been growing interest in developing theoretical models for understanding behaviour change with respect to the practice of female genital cutting (FGC). Drawing on extensive qualitative data collected in Senegal and The Gambia, the research reported here explores whether and how theoretical ...

  8. Molecular diagnosis of lymphogranuloma venereum in patients with genital ulcer disease.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sturm, P.D.J.; Moodley, P.; Govender, K.; Bohlken, L.; Vanmali, T.; Sturm, A.W.

    2005-01-01

    The detection of herpes, chancroid, and syphilis in genital ulcers is done by PCR. This is not so for lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV). We report on the use of a PCR with digestion that differentiates the LGV biovar from the trachoma biovar. Our findings suggest that the clinical description of LGV in

  9. Variability of human immunodeficiency virus-1 in the female genital reservoir during genital reactivation of herpes simplex virus type 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeGoff, J; Roques, P; Jenabian, M-A; Charpentier, C; Brochier, C; Bouhlal, H; Gresenguet, G; Frost, E; Pepin, J; Mayaud, P; Belec, L

    2015-09-01

    Clinical and subclinical genital herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) reactivations have been associated with increases in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 genital shedding. Whether HSV-2 shedding contributes to the selection of specific genital HIV-1 variants remains unknown. We evaluated the genetic diversity of genital and blood HIV-1 RNA and DNA in 14 HIV-1/HSV-2-co-infected women, including seven with HSV-2 genital reactivation, and seven without as controls. HIV-1 DNA and HIV-1 RNA env V1-V3 sequences in paired blood and genital samples were compared. The HSV-2 selection pressure on HIV was estimated according to the number of synonymous substitutions (dS), the number of non-synonymous substitutions (dN) and the dS/dN ratio within HIV quasi-species. HIV-1 RNA levels in cervicovaginal secretions were higher in women with HSV-2 replication than in controls (p0.02). Plasma HIV-1 RNA and genital HIV-1 RNA and DNA were genetically compartmentalized. No differences in dS, dN and the dS/dN ratio were observed between the study groups for either genital HIV-1 RNA or plasma HIV-1 RNA. In contrast, dS and dN in genital HIV-1 DNA were significantly higher in patients with HSV-2 genital reactivation (p genital HIV-1 DNA was slightly higher in patients with HSV-2 genital replication, indicating a trend for purifying selection (p 0.056). HSV-2 increased the genetic diversity of genital HIV-1 DNA. These observations confirm molecular interactions between HSV-2 and HIV-1 at the genital tract level. Copyright © 2015 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Genital beautification: a concept that offers more than reduction of the labia minora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cihantimur, Bülent; Herold, Christian

    2013-12-01

    The interest and demand for female genital rejuvenation surgery are steadily increasing. This report presents a concept of genital beautification consisting of labia minora reduction, labia majora augmentation by autologous fat transplantation, labial brightening by laser, mons pubis reduction by liposuction, and vaginal tightening if desired. Genital beautification was performed for 124 patients between May 2009 and January 2012 and followed up for 1 year to obtain data about satisfaction with the surgery. Of the 124 female patients included in the study, 118 (95.2 %) were happy and 4 (3.2 %) were very happy with their postoperative appearance. In terms of postoperative functionality, 84 patients (67.7 %) were happy and 40 (32.3 %) were very happy. Only 2 patients (1.6 %) were not satisfied with the aesthetic result of their genital beautification procedures, and 10 patients (8.1 %) experienced wound dehiscence. The described technique of genital beautification combines different aesthetic female genital surgery techniques. Like other aesthetic surgeries, these procedures are designed for the subjective improvement of the appearance and feelings of the patients. The effects of the operation are functional and psychological. They offer the opportunity for sexual stimulation and satisfaction. The complication rate is low. Superior aesthetic results and patient satisfaction can be achieved by applying this technique. This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors www.springer.com/00266 .

  11. EcPV2 DNA in equine genital squamous cell carcinomas and normal genital mucosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogaert, Lies; Willemsen, Anouk; Vanderstraeten, Eva; Bracho, Maria A; De Baere, Cindy; Bravo, Ignacio G; Martens, Ann

    2012-07-06

    Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) represents the most common genital malignant tumor in horses. Similar to humans, papillomaviruses (PVs) have been proposed as etiological agents and recently Equine papillomavirus type 2 (EcPV2) has been identified in a subset of genital SCCs. The goals of this study were (1) to determine the prevalence of EcPV2 DNA in tissue samples from equine genital SCCs, penile intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN) and penile papillomas, using EcPV2-specific PCR, (2) to examine the prevalence of latent EcPV2 infection in healthy genital mucosa and (3) to determine genetic variability within EcPV2 and to disentangle phylogenetic relationships of EcPV2 among PVs. EcPV2 DNA was detected in all but one penile SCC (15/16), in all PIN lesions (8/8) and penile papillomas (4/4). Additionally, EcPV2 DNA was demonstrated in one of two metastasized lymph nodes, one contact metastasis in the mouth, two vaginal and one anal lesion. In healthy horses, EcPV2 DNA was detected in 10% (4/39) of penile swabs but in none of vulvovaginal swabs (0/20). This study confirms the presence of EcPV2 DNA in equine genital SCCs and shows its involvement in anal lesions, a lymph node and contact metastases. Latent EcPV2 presence was also shown in normal male genital mucosa. We found that different EcPV2 variants cocirculate among horses and that EcPV2 is related to the Delta+Zeta PVs and is only a very distant relative of high-risk human PVs causing genital cancer. Thus, similar viral tropism and similar malignant outcome of the infection do not imply close evolutionary relationship. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Ileostomy - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... dried fruits (such as raisins), mushrooms, chunky relishes, coconut, and some Chinese vegetables. Tips for when no ... ask your doctor Living with your ileostomy Low-fiber diet Small bowel resection - discharge Total colectomy or ...

  13. Riskgov European Project. Comparative analysis of risk governance for radiological and chemical discharges of industrial installations. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, T.; Schieber, C.; Vaillant, L.; Heriard Dubreuil, G.; Gadbois, S.; Oudiz, A.; Bourgoignon, F.; Milochevitch, A.; PATERSON, J.; Brownless, G.; Bandle, T.; Hansson, S.O.; Hayenhjelm, M.

    2004-11-01

    The objective of the RISKGOV Project is to analyse and identify quality criteria for the governance of industrial activities giving rise to risks to people and the environment from radioactive and chemical discharges during normal operations. For this purpose, RISKGOV aims at: 1) analysing and comparing the elements contributing to the quality of governance systems associated with environmental discharges from nuclear and chemical installations; 2) providing a series of criteria to assess the quality of the governance of risk activities. In total, 8 case studies were conducted, covering radioactive and chemical releases related to local and international contexts and referring to innovative risk governance processes in France, Sweden and the United Kingdom: - The role of local liaison committees with regard to the management of discharges of installations: - France: Local liaison committee of the Gravelines Nuclear Power Plant, - Sweden: Local liaison committees of the Barsebaeck Nuclear Power Plant and the Rohm and Hass Chemical installation, - The dialogue process during the preparation of re-authorisation of radioactive discharges: - France: COGEMA-La Hague facility, - United-Kingdom: Devonport Royal Dockyard, - The dialogue process in a regional context: - France: Management of air quality around the industrial site of Etang de Berre, - The dialogue process in an international context: - Implementation of the OSPAR Convention for chemical and radioactive releases, - The abandonment of the Brent Spar offshore platform. The analysis was performed by a multidisciplinary research team and based notably on interviews with key stakeholders directly involved in these innovative risk governance processes. The following dimensions were addressed: a) The guiding principles of the decision-making process; b) The role of expertise; c) The stakeholders involvement process; d) The factors integrated into the decision-framing and decision-taking processes; e) The

  14. Environmental and economic assessment of discharges from Gulf of Mexico Region oil and gas operation. Quarterly technical progress report, 1 October--31 December 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gettleson, D.A.

    1995-01-01

    Task 3 (Environmental Field Sampling and Analysis of NORM, Heavy Metals, and Organics) work included analyses of samples. Task 4 (Monitoring of the Recovery of Impacted Wetland and Open Bay Produced Water Discharge Sites in Coastal Louisiana and Texas) activities involved the continued analyses of samples and field sampling at Bay de Chene. Task 5 (Assessment of Economic Impacts of Offshore and Coastal Discharge Requirements on Present and Future Operations in the Gulf of Mexico Region) activities included preparing a draft final report. Task 6 (Synthesis of Gulf of Mexico Seafood Consumption and Use Patterns) work also involved preparing a draft final report. Task 7 (Technology Transfer Plan) activities included a presentation at the Minerals Management Service Information Transfer Meeting for the Gulf of Mexico OCS Region. Task 8 (Project Management and Deliverables) activities involved the submission of the necessary reports and routine management

  15. Effects of vaginal discharge on female sexual function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gungor, Ayse N C; Uludag, Aysegul; Sahin, Melih; Gencer, Meryem; Uysal, Ahmet

    2014-01-01

    To assess the effects of vaginal discharge on female sexual dysfunction (FSD) by using the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI). In a study at a university hospital in Canakkale, Turkey, women affected by vaginal discharge and age-matched healthy control women were recruited between January and December 2012. Women were grouped in accordance with their vaginal discharge complaints and each participant completed the FSFI questionnaire. A total of 114 women were included in the study. Women in the first group (n=58) had no vaginal discharge or had physiologic vaginal discharge, those in the second group (n=29) had abnormal vaginal discharge with itching, and those in the third group (n=27) had abnormal vaginal discharge without itching. Compared with the first group, women in the second and third groups had higher FSFI scores for desire, arousal, orgasm, and pain, in addition to higher overall FSFI scores. Women with genital malodor had significantly higher FSFI scores than patients without genital malodor (23.83 ± 5.07 vs 21.15 ± 4.78; P=0.008). Women with abnormal vaginal discharges were found to have better FSFI scores for some domains. This finding may be attributed to the adverse effects of sexual intercourse on vaginal infections. © 2013.

  16. Prevalência de anormalidades genitais em recém-nascidos Prevalence of genital abnormalities in neonates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabella L. Monlleó

    2012-12-01

    clinical protocol between 04/19/2010 and 04/18/2011. Control group included neonates without birth defects, born at the same maternity unit and in the same day in which a case was identified. Fisher and Kruskal-Wallis tests were used for statistics. RESULTS: The study identified 29 (1:100 neonates with genital abnormalities. Most of them were examined within 3 days of life and presented only one genital defect. Morphological abnormalities comprised: genital ambiguity (1/29, fusion of labia majora (1/29, micropenis (2/29, enlarged clitoris (6/29, hypospadia (9/29, and combined defects (4/29. Only one case reported the genital abnormality in the statement of live birth correctly. Prematurity occurred in 13/29 cases and was the only variable statistically associated with genital defects. Eight cases agreed on the complementary investigation of the genital defect, among which three were diagnosed with disorder of sex development. CONCLUSIONS: There is a high prevalence of genital abnormalities in the maternity units included in the present study and most cases are under-diagnosed and under-reported. Our results reinforce the importance of a careful examination of genital morphology in neonatal period towards the recognition of minor defects that can be clinical features of a disorder of sex development.

  17. Male genital mutilation in the high-mountain goblin spider, Unicorn catleyi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izquierdo, Matías A; Rubio, Gonzalo D

    2011-01-01

    Male genital mutilation is a common mechanism by which males reduce sperm competition by plugging female insemination ducts with different parts of its own genital system. This behavior is frequent in many spider families but is uncommon in Haplogynae. The reproductive biology of Dysderoidea is not well studied and the data is fragmentary; male genital mutilation has been reported only for one species of Oonopidae. This study provides evidence of male genital mutilation in Unicorn catleyi Platnick and Brescovit (Araneae: Oonopidae). Pieces of the embolus were found in the female posterior receptaculum. This behavior is a strategy used by the males in order to guarantee their paternity and not for escape from female attacks as has been reported for other species of Araneae, since cannibalism is unlikely in this species. The presence of embolus in the posterior receptaculum suggests this is the first place where sperm is received. The similarity of the female genitalia of U. catleyi to those of Orsolobidae, along with sclerotization of the seminal duct in the male copulatory bulb that is also present in Orchestina, Xiombarg, and Orsolobidae, provide strong evidence of the basal position of this genus in the family Oonopidae.

  18. Anatomy and physiology of genital organs - women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graziottin, Alessandra; Gambini, Dania

    2015-01-01

    "Anatomy is destiny": Sigmund Freud viewed human anatomy as a necessary, although not a sufficient, condition for understanding the complexity of human sexual function with a solid biologic basis. The aim of the chapter is to describe women's genital anatomy and physiology, focusing on women's sexual function with a clinically oriented vision. Key points include: embryology, stressing that the "female" is the anatomic "default" program, differentiated into "male" only in the presence of androgens at physiologic levels for the gestational age; sex determination and sex differentiation, describing the interplay between anatomic and endocrine factors; the "clitoral-urethral-vaginal" complex, the most recent anatomy reading of the corpora cavernosa pattern in women; the controversial G spot; the role of the pelvic floor muscles in modulating vaginal receptivity and intercourse feelings, with hyperactivity leading to introital dyspareunia and contributing to provoked vestibulodynia and recurrent postcoital cystitis, whilst lesions during delivery reduce vaginal sensations, genital arousability, and orgasm; innervation, vessels, bones, ligaments; and the physiology of women's sexual response. Attention to physiologic aging focuses on "low-grade inflammation," genital and systemic, with its impact on women sexual function, especially after the menopause, if the woman does not or cannot use hormone replacement therapy. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Genital elephantiasis due to donovanosis: forgotten but not gone yet ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narang, T; Kanwar, A J

    2012-11-01

    Genital elephantiasis is a disease that is characterized by massive enlargement of the genitalia. Early aetiological diagnosis is of paramount importance so that development of genital elephantiasis can be prevented; otherwise it is not completely reversible with medical therapy and often requires surgical intervention. Chronic mental distress and disability can result as it interferes with daily/routine activities of the affected individual. Over time, the infectious causes of genital elephantiasis have evolved, from syphilis in the pre-penicillin era to donovanosis, lymphogranuloma venereum and recently filariasis, tuberculosis, leishmaniasis, HIV and chromoblastomycosis. With a declining prevalence globally, donovanosis is at risk of being forgotten as a cause of genital swelling; however, it is known to persist for years without treatment and can lead to complications such as lymphoedema and genital mutilation. We herein present a case of genital elephantiasis that was eventually diagnosed as being due to donovanosis.

  20. Utility of microbiological profile of symptomatic vaginal discharge in rural women of reproductive age group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masand, Deepa Lokwani; Patel, Jaya; Gupta, Sweta

    2015-03-01

    Symptomatic vaginal discharge is the most frequent symptom in women of reproductive age group. Owing to social stigma majority of affected women hesitate to seek medical consultation. Therefore the actual incidence of vaginal discharge is much more than what is reported. The aim of the study is to determine the microbiological profile of symptomatic vaginal discharge in rural area and its utility in the management of genital tract infection. This was a descriptive type of observational study, conducted in sexually active women of reproductive age group (18-45 years) attending the OPD/IPD of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Department of National Institute of Medical Sciences, Shobhanagar, Jaipur (Rajasthan), over a period of 18 months from June 2012 to December 2013. Hundred sexually active non pregnant women of reproductive age group (18-45 years) were included in the study. After taking consent general physical examination along with pelvic examination was performed. Two high vaginal swabs and blood sample were collected for various tests. Hanging drop preparation was immediately made. This was followed by gram staining and culture. Chlamydia trachomatis IgM antibody was detected by ELISA method. Out of 100 women with symptomatic vaginal discharge, specific diagnosis was obtained in 89% of cases whereas no specific aetiology was found in 11% cases. Mean age was 32.60 years. Fifty-three percent patient had Bacterial vaginosis, candidiasis was found in 14% cases, 16% had Chlamydia trachomatis infection while Trichomonas vaginalis infection was detected in 6% cases. Homogenous discharge was most prevalent (52%), followed by mucopurulant discharge in 23% of women. Patient with symptomatic vaginal discharge need to be actively managed with appropriate antimicrobial agents. Judicious management may be helpful in prevention of HIV, HPV, CIN and post infection sequelae.

  1. Sexually Monomorphic Maps and Dimorphic Responses in Rat Genital Cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenschow, Constanze; Copley, Sean; Gardiner, Jayne M; Talbot, Zoe N; Vitenzon, Ariel; Brecht, Michael

    2016-01-11

    Mammalian external genitals show sexual dimorphism [1, 2] and can change size and shape upon sexual arousal. Genitals feature prominently in the oldest pieces of figural art [3] and phallic depictions of penises informed psychoanalytic thought about sexuality [4, 5]. Despite this longstanding interest, the neural representations of genitals are still poorly understood [6]. In somatosensory cortex specifically, many studies did not detect any cortical representation of genitals [7-9]. Studies in humans debate whether genitals are represented displaced below the foot of the cortical body map [10-12] or whether they are represented somatotopically [13-15]. We wondered what a high-resolution mapping of genital representations might tell us about the sexual differentiation of the mammalian brain. We identified genital responses in rat somatosensory cortex in a region previously assigned as arm/leg cortex. Genital responses were more common in males than in females. Despite such response dimorphism, we observed a stunning anatomical monomorphism of cortical penis and clitoris input maps revealed by cytochrome-oxidase-staining of cortical layer 4. Genital representations were somatotopic and bilaterally symmetric, and their relative size increased markedly during puberty. Size, shape, and erect posture give the cortical penis representation a phallic appearance pointing to a role in sexually aroused states. Cortical genital neurons showed unusual multi-body-part responses and sexually dimorphic receptive fields. Specifically, genital neurons were co-activated by distant body regions, which are touched during mounting in the respective sex. Genital maps indicate a deep homology of penis and clitoris representations in line with a fundamentally bi-sexual layout [16] of the vertebrate brain. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Hysterosalpingographic Appearances of Female Genital Tract Tuberculosis: Part II: Uterus

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmadi, Firoozeh; Zafarani, Fatemeh; Shahrzad, Gholam Shahrzad

    2014-01-01

    Female genital tuberculosis remains as a major cause of tubal obstruction leading to infertility, especially in developing countries. The global prevalence of genital tuberculosis has increased during the past two decades due to increasing acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Genital tuberculosis (TB) is commonly asymptomatic and it is diagnosed during infertility investigations. Despite of recent advances in imaging tools such as computed tomography (CT) scan, magnetic resonanc...

  3. Rectorrhagia and vaginal discharge caused by a vaginal foreign body--a case report and review of literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiryazdi, S M; Heiranizadeh, N; Soltani, H R

    2013-06-01

    An 8-year-old girl was taken to an outpatient clinic of surgery suffering from rectorrhagia and purulent, smelly vaginal discharge. Colonoscopy and biopsy were done before referring and sulfasalazine regime was administrated for probable colitis. The surgeon performed a rigid rectosigmoidoscopy under general anesthesia and no positive evidence was found. Having examined the hymen, it was found to be intact but a purulent discharge was observed. After drying the discharge, a black foreign body was seen in the bottom of the vagina and brought out by a fine forceps. It was a toy's wheel. The patient and her mother both denied foreign body abusing history. It was recommended she go for a psychological consultation. Generally speaking, all young patients suffering from vaginal or rectal bleeding with or without discharge should have their vagina checked for a foreign body. What is recommended in such cases is to undergo sonography or plain radiography before considering invasive or non-invasive procedures for evaluating anal and sigmoid abnormalities. Last but not least, a vaginal irrigation, precise examination of hymen, and posterior fossa can prove very useful for detecting simple vaginal bodies that can lead to various vaginal, rectal and abdominal complications. Copyright © 2013 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Genital piercings: what is known and what people with genital piercings tell us.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Myrna L; Caliendo, Carol; Roberts, Alden E

    2006-06-01

    General and subjective information about those who chose to obtain genital piercings was presented. Particularly, the assumptions made from the literature are refuted by objective and subjective data collected from intimately pierced individuals themselves. Professional nurses must not base practice decisions on assumptions but on the "best evidence with clinical experience, research, (as well as) associated patient values" (Sackett, Strauss, Richardson, Rosenberg, & Haynes, 2001, p. 10). Thus, providing clinically competent care is driven by the latest knowledge and evidence from research and patient sources. Data found here provide further empirical evidence that may help to improve client outcomes by advancing evidence-based nursing practice in relation to people with genital piercings.

  5. Campilobacteriose genital bovina e tricomonose genital bovina: epidemiologia, diagnóstico e controle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.M. Alves

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available A presente atualização trata de duas das mais importantes doenças sexualmente transmitidas de bovinos, a campilobacteriose genital bovina e a tricomonose genital bovina. São abordados aspectos relacionados à epidemiologia destas doenças, principalmente em relação a sua distribuição no Brasil. Também são revisados aspectos importantes de diagnóstico, incluindo as técnicas e interpretação dos resultados, além de medidas de controle para ambas as doenças.

  6. Discharge Dialogue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horsbøl, Anders

    2012-01-01

    For several years, efforts have been made to strengthen collaboration between health professionals with different specializations and to improve patient transition from hospital to home (care). In the Danish health care system, these efforts have concentrated on cancer and heart diseases, whereas...... coordinator, employed at the hospital, is supposed to anticipate discharge and serve as mediator between the hospital and the municipal home care system. Drawing on methods from discourse and interaction analysis, the paper studies the practice of the discharge coordinator in two encounters between patients...... how the home context provides different resources for identification of patient needs and mutual decision making....

  7. Development of an instrument to measure the concentration of noncondensable gases in geothermal discharges. Final report, October 1, 1978-September 30, 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blair, C.K.; Harrison, R.F.

    1980-01-01

    Reported herein is a summary of a project to design, construct, and test a device which will continuously measure the vapor phase concentration of noncendensable gases in saturated steam/water geothermal discharges. Descriptions of the design, operating procedures, measurement accuracy, and limitations of the device are included. Also presented are results of laboratory testing and of field demonstration of the instrument. Recommendations for further refinement and development of the apparatus are discussed.

  8. Seroepidemiological and socioeconomic studies of genital chlamydial infection in Ethiopian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, M E; Jamil, Y; Tibaux, G; Pelzer, A; Mehari, L; Darougar, S

    1992-08-01

    had a higher prevalence (65%) of genital chlamydial infection than the wealthiest (48%). Multivariate analysis showed the most important factors to be age at first coitus, religion, prostitution and present age of the woman in that order. Risk for genital chlamydial infection was increased in those with seropositivity for syphilis, gonorrhoea, HSV-2 but not HBV infection. CONCLUSION/APPLICATION: Chlamydial genital infections are highly prevalent in both symptomatic and asymptomatic Ethiopian women. The high prevalence of infection reported reflects a complexity of socioeconomic factors: very early age at first marriage and first coitus, instability of first marriage, subsequent divorce and remarriage or drift into prostitution, all of which are influenced by ethnic group, religion and poverty--together with transmission from an infected group of prostitutes by promiscuous males to their wives, lack of diagnostic facilities and inadequate treatment of both symptomatic and asymptomatic men and women. The problem of chlamydial disease in Ethiopia needs to be addressed urgently in the context of control of STD.

  9. Development of rat female genital cortex and control of female puberty by sexual touch.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constanze Lenschow

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Rat somatosensory cortex contains a large sexually monomorphic genital representation. Genital cortex undergoes an unusual 2-fold expansion during puberty. Here, we investigate genital cortex development and female rat sexual maturation. Ovariectomies and estradiol injections suggested sex hormones cause the pubertal genital cortex expansion but not its maintenance at adult size. Genital cortex expanded by thalamic afferents invading surrounding dysgranular cortex. Genital touch was a dominant factor driving female sexual maturation. Raising female rats in contact with adult males promoted genital cortex expansion, whereas contact to adult females or nontactile (audio-visual-olfactory male cues did not. Genital touch imposed by human experimenters powerfully advanced female genital cortex development and sexual maturation. Long-term blocking of genital cortex by tetrodotoxin in pubescent females housed with males prevented genital cortex expansion and decelerated vaginal opening. Sex hormones, sexual experience, and neural activity shape genital cortex, which contributes to the puberty promoting effects of sexual touch.

  10. Development of rat female genital cortex and control of female puberty by sexual touch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenschow, Constanze; Sigl-Glöckner, Johanna; Brecht, Michael

    2017-09-01

    Rat somatosensory cortex contains a large sexually monomorphic genital representation. Genital cortex undergoes an unusual 2-fold expansion during puberty. Here, we investigate genital cortex development and female rat sexual maturation. Ovariectomies and estradiol injections suggested sex hormones cause the pubertal genital cortex expansion but not its maintenance at adult size. Genital cortex expanded by thalamic afferents invading surrounding dysgranular cortex. Genital touch was a dominant factor driving female sexual maturation. Raising female rats in contact with adult males promoted genital cortex expansion, whereas contact to adult females or nontactile (audio-visual-olfactory) male cues did not. Genital touch imposed by human experimenters powerfully advanced female genital cortex development and sexual maturation. Long-term blocking of genital cortex by tetrodotoxin in pubescent females housed with males prevented genital cortex expansion and decelerated vaginal opening. Sex hormones, sexual experience, and neural activity shape genital cortex, which contributes to the puberty promoting effects of sexual touch.

  11. Common genital complaints in women: the contribution of psychosocial and infectious factors in a population-based cohort study in Goa, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Vikram; Weiss, Helen A; Kirkwood, Betty R; Pednekar, Sulochana; Nevrekar, Prasad; Gupte, Sheela; Mabey, David

    2006-12-01

    The genital complaint of abnormal vaginal discharge is common in South Asia. We describe the risk factors for the incidence of the complaint in women of reproductive age. Method Population-based cohort study in Goa, India. Out of 3000 randomly selected women, 2494 women participated. The outcome was an incident case of the complaint of abnormal vaginal discharge at 6 months (T1) and 12 months (T2) review. In total 71 (3.6%, 95% CI 2.8-4.5%) of the 2000 eligible women reviewed at T1 reported the complaint; and 80 (4.0%, CI 3.2-5.0%) of the 1999 women who did not complain of abnormal vaginal discharge at T1 reported it at T2. Multivariate logistic regression analysis identified the following factors as associated with the complaint: younger age (OR 0.26, CI 0.1-0.5 for women aged 40-49 years compared with women aged 18-24 years); illiteracy (OR 1.48, CI 0.9-2.4); religion (Muslim women OR 3.15, CI 1.7-6.0 compared with Hindu women); women's concerns regarding their spouse's extramarital relationships (OR 3.46, CI 1.2-10.0); current BV infection (OR 1.87, CI 1.2-2.9); somatoform complaints (OR 3.30, CI 1.7-6.5 for the highest somatoform score quartile compared with the lowest); and depression and anxiety (OR 1.55, CI 0.9-2.6 for the highest mental health score quartile compared with the lowest). Reproductive and sexual health programmes must strengthen the capacity of practitioners to assess and treat bacterial vaginosis and psychosocial problems in women with complaints of abnormal vaginal discharge.

  12. Molecular diagnostics and newborns at risk for genital herpes simplex virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chua, Caroline; Arnolds, Marin; Niklas, Victoria

    2015-05-01

    Herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection in the newborn carries a high mortality rate and can result in lifelong neurologic impairment. The severity of HSV infection in the newborn has always dictated conservative management when prodromal symptoms or active genital lesions (or those suggestive of genital herpes) are present during labor and delivery. The risk of intrapartum infection, however, is related to the presence or absence of maternal immunity (neutralizing antibody) to HSV. The most significant risk of transmission is in first-episode primary infections with active lesions at delivery. Recent recommendations from the American Academy of Pediatrics Committees on Infectious Diseases and the Fetus and Newborn use rapid serologic and virologic screening in the management of asymptomatic infants born to mothers with active genital herpes. The revised guidelines highlight infants at greatest risk for HSV disease but do not apply to asymptomatic infants born to mothers with a history of HSV but no genital lesions at delivery. The current guidelines also stipulate that maternal serologic screening and molecular assays for HSV in newborn blood and cerebrospinal fluid must be available and reported in a timely fashion. Copyright 2015, SLACK Incorporated.

  13. Improving immunogenicity and efficacy of vaccines for genital herpes containing herpes simplex virus glycoprotein D.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awasthi, Sita; Shaw, Carolyn; Friedman, Harvey

    2014-12-01

    No vaccines are approved for prevention or treatment of genital herpes. The focus of genital herpes vaccine trials has been on prevention using herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) glycoprotein D (gD2) alone or combined with glycoprotein B. These prevention trials did not achieve their primary end points. However, subset analyses reported some positive outcomes in each study. The most recent trial was the Herpevac Trial for Women that used gD2 with monophosphoryl lipid A and alum as adjuvants in herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) and HSV-2 seronegative women. Unexpectedly, the vaccine prevented genital disease by HSV-1 but not HSV-2. Currently, HSV-1 causes more first episodes of genital herpes than HSV-2, highlighting the importance of protecting against HSV-1. The scientific community is conflicted between abandoning vaccine efforts that include gD2 and building upon the partial successes of previous trials. We favor building upon success and present approaches to improve outcomes of gD2-based subunit antigen vaccines.

  14. Chronic genital ulcer disease with subsequent development of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA urethritis and bacteraemia in an HIV-seropositive person – a case observation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Katusiime

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available HIV-seropositive persons are at increased risk of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA. Genital ulcerative disease and sexually transmitted infection with subsequent MRSA infection in HIV-seropositive persons have been documented only once. We report a case of a 44-year-old man who presented to the Infectious Diseases Institute, Kampala, Uganda, with chronic genital ulcer disease and who subsequently developed MRSA urethritis and bacteraemia. This case also demonstrates that persistent genital ulcer disease in HIV-seropositive persons may be as a result of concurrent MRSA infection.

  15. Cognitive orientation and genital infections in young women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreitler, S; Kreitler, H; Schwartz, R

    1991-01-01

    The purpose was to explore the psychological determinants of common genital infections in young women. The study was done in the framework of the cognitive orientation theory which assumes that cognition guides behavior and provides predictions of behaviors and psychophysiological phenomena. We expected that beliefs of four types (about self, norms, goals, and general) would predict the occurrence and/or frequency of 17 gynecological symptoms (e.g., itching, swelling, different vaginal discharges, abscesses). The subjects were 195 female volunteers, undergraduates, about 23 years old, without gross gynecological disorders, mostly (87.7%) unmarried, mostly (83.6%) having had intercourse. They were administered anonymously questionnaires about demographic variables, frequency and treatment of gynecological symptoms and 3 urological ones (for control), and about cognitive orientation that referred to pretested themes (e.g., assertiveness, hypochondriasis). Stepwise discriminant and regression analyses showed that the belief types enabled predicting the occurrence and frequency of all symptoms, with a mean 34.5% improvement over the 50% chance level, accounting for 45.7-67.2% of the variance. Also the urological symptoms were predicted although at a lower level. Discussion focuses on the specificity of cognitive-motivational determinants and their role in producing conditions favoring physical pathology.

  16. [Phantoms for the collection of genital secretions in stallions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klug, E; Brinkhoff, D; Flüge, A; Scherbarth, R; Essich, G; Kienzler, M

    1977-10-05

    Practical experiences of the phantom method for collection of genital secretions from stallions are reported. Taking a phantom used in the Richard-Götze-Haus Tierärztliche Hochschule Hannover as a prototype two further models slightly modified have been constructed, baring a flat hollow in the right side of the caudal phantom body for manual inserting of the Artificial Vagina. These three models fulfill four important conditions for routine use: (1) sufficient sexual attractivity for the stallions; 80-85% successful collections of presecretions out of a total of 1050 using the dummy and 70% successful semen collections from more than 240 in total; (2) solid and resistant construction; (3) easy cleaning and desinfection of the surface of the phantom to get representative samples; (4) firm installation on a hygienic floor.

  17. Hypnotherapy for persistent genital arousal disorder: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkins, Gary R; Ramsey, Derek; Yu, Yimin

    2014-01-01

    Persistent genital arousal disorder (PGAD) is characterized by intrusive sexual arousal that is unresolvable via sexual activity and persists for an extended period of time. PGAD's etiology is unknown, and it has no established treatments. This case study reports on a 71-year-old female patient diagnosed with PGAD who received 9 sessions of hypnotherapy. The following measures were administered at baseline and follow-up: Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, and visual analogue measurements of quality of life, intensity of symptoms, and marital interference. At follow-up, there were significant improvements in all measures. Given the currently limited alternatives for treatment, this case study suggests that hypnotherapy may be beneficial for some patients with PGAD.

  18. A prospective, open, comparative study of 5% potassium hydroxide solution versus cryotherapy in the treatment of genital warts in men*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camargo, Caio Lamunier de Abreu; Belda, Walter; Fagundes, Luiz Jorge; Romiti, Ricardo

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Genital warts are caused by human papillomavirus infection and represent one of the most common sexually transmitted diseases. Many infections are transient but the virus may recur, persist, or become latent. To date, there is no effective antiviral treatment to eliminate HPV infection and most therapies are aimed at the destruction of visible lesions. Potassium hydroxide is a strong alkali that has been shown to be safe and effective for the treatment of genital warts and molluscum contagiosum. Cryotherapy is considered one of the most established treatments for genital warts. No comparative trials have been reported to date on the use of potassium hydroxide for genital warts. OBJECTIVE A prospective, open-label, randomized clinical trial was conducted to compare topical potassium hydroxide versus cryotherapy in the treatment of genital warts affecting immunocompetent, sexually active men. METHODS Over a period of 10 months, 48 patients were enrolled. They were randomly divided into two groups and selected on an alternative basis for either potassium hydroxide therapy or cryotherapy. While response to therapy did not differ substantially between both treatment modalities, side effects such as local pain and post-treatment hypopigmentation were considerably more prevalent in the groups treated using cryotherapy. RESULT In our study, potassium hydroxide therapy proved to be at least as effective as cryotherapy and offered the benefit of a better safety profile. CONCLUSION Topical 5% potassium hydroxide presents an effective, safe, and low-cost treatment modality for genital warts in men and should be included in the spectrum of therapies for genital warts. PMID:24770498

  19. Comparison of the Natural History of Genital HPV Infection among Men by Country: Brazil, Mexico, and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudenga, Staci L; Torres, B Nelson; Silva, Roberto; Villa, Luisa L; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo; Abrahamsen, Martha; Baggio, Maria Luiza; Salmeron, Jorge; Quiterio, Manuel; Giuliano, Anna R

    2017-07-01

    Background: Male genital human papillomavirus (HPV) prevalence and incidence has been reported to vary by geographical location. Our objective was to assess the natural history of genital HPV by country among men with a median of 48 months of follow-up. Methods: Men ages 18-70 years were recruited from United States ( n = 1,326), Mexico ( n = 1,349), and Brazil ( n = 1,410). Genital specimens were collected every 6 months and HPV genotyping identified 37 HPV genotypes. Prevalence of HPV was compared between the three countries using the Fisher exact test. Incidence rates and 95% confidence intervals were calculated. The median time to HPV clearance among men with an incident infection was estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Results: The prevalence and incidence of the genital HPV types known to cause disease in males (HPV 16 and 6) was significantly higher among men from Brazil than men from Mexico. Prevalence and incidence of those genital HPV types in the United States varied between being comparable with those of Mexico or Brazil. Although genital HPV16 duration was significantly longer in Brazil ( P = 0.04) compared with Mexico and the United States, HPV6 duration was shortest in Brazil ( P = 0.03) compared with Mexico and the United States. Conclusions: Men in Brazil and Mexico often have similar, if not higher prevalence of HPV compared with men from the United States. Impact: Currently, there is no routine screening for genital HPV among males and while HPV is common in men, and most naturally clear the infection, a proportion of men do develop HPV-related diseases. Men may benefit from gender-neutral vaccine policies. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 26(7); 1043-52. ©2017 AACR . ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  20. Outbreak of late-onset group B streptococcal infections in healthy newborn infants after discharge from a maternity hospital: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyung Jin; Kim, Soo Young; Seo, Won Hee; Choi, Byung Min; Yoo, Young; Lee, Kee Hyoung; Eun, Baik Lin; Kim, Hai Joong

    2006-04-01

    During a four-week period, four healthy term newborn infants born at a regional maternity hospital in Korea developed late-onset neonatal group B Streptococcus (GBS) infections, after being discharged from the same nursery. More than 10 days after their discharge, all of the infants developed fever, lethargy, and poor feeding behavior, and were subsequently admitted to the Korea University Medical Center, Ansan Hospital. GBS was isolated from the blood cultures of three babies; furthermore, GBS was isolated from 2 cerebral spinal fluid cultures. Three babies had meningitis, and GBS was isolated from their cerebral spinal fluid cultures. This outbreak was believed to reflect delayed infection after early colonization, originating from nosocomial sources within the hospital environment. This report underlines the necessity for Korean obstetricians and pediatricians to be aware of the risk of nosocomial transmissions of GBS infection in the delivery room and/or the nursery.

  1. Hypereosinophilia associated with genital sarcomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terzieff, V.; Alonso, I.; V ázquez, A.

    2004-01-01

    Eosinophils are phagocytic leukocytes, regulators reactions Mast cell mediated hypersensitivity. toxicity and primarily responsible antiparasitic. Predominate in epithelial tissues near the interface surface (skin, digestive tract) .The cytotoxic reaction exerted by deposit cell surface substances from the granules themselves: peroxidases, neurotoxins, and other cationic proteins. Hypereosinophilia is defined as the increase in eosinophils above 1500 / m m3. The most common causes are parasitic infections and reactions allergic. About 60% of tumors may be associated with an elevation eosinophil discrete but marked eosinophilia in these patients is little frequent. Tumors are most associated lung cancer and tumors hematology. There are few reports of this entity associated with uterine sarcomas. Although the pathophysiologic mechanism is unclear, it is assumed that the base is the increased secretion of cytokines eosinofilopoiétics: interleukins (Il) I L-3, Il-5 and G M-CSFR among other possible. Self-morbidity is primarily maintained hypereosinophilic heart, and is derived from the cytotoxic action, with endomyocardial fibrosis and thrombosis. Treatment should be directed at the control of the underlying disease, as good Tumor response was associated with the account and normalizaciónd eosinófiles. Los corticosteroids prednisone, 60 mg / day po) may be effective because antagonize The stimulatory effect of cytokines. In the vast majority of cases, the disease is associated with hypereosinophilia disseminated and poor overall prognosis We present a case of vaginal sarcoma with pulmonary metastases and hypereosinophilia seniors who responded to treatment with chemotherapy

  2. Genital anomalies in boys and the environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Main, Katharina M; Skakkebaek, Niels E; Virtanen, Helena E

    2010-01-01

    The prevalence of male reproductive disorders, such as testicular cancer and impaired semen quality, is increasing in many, albeit not all, countries. These disorders are aetiologically linked with congenital cryptorchidism and hypospadias by common factors leading to perinatal disruption of normal...... testis differentiation, the testicular dysgenesis syndrome (TDS). There is recent evidence that also the prevalence of genital malformations is increasing and the rapid pace of increase suggests that lifestyle factors and exposure to environmental chemicals with endocrine disrupting properties may play...... identified as potential risk factors for cryptorchidism. It may be the cocktail effect of many simultaneous exposures that result in adverse effects, especially during foetal life and infancy....

  3. Managing recurrent genital herpes with acyclovir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bedi T

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Seventy five patients of recurrent genital herpes (RGH treated with oral or topical acyclovir and placebo were compared and followed for periods ranging 4 to 8 years in a prospective study. Oral acyclovir definitely helps RGH patients; it shortens healing time; postpones recurrences and instills confidence in the patients. There is sufficient evidence that RGH dies a natural death with time as seen after 8 years follow up in placebo group patients. Topical use of acyclovir cream is not as useful as believed.

  4. Sacral myeloradiculitis complicating genital herpes in a HIV-infected patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corral, I; Quereda, C; Navas, E; Pérez-Elias, M J; Jover, F; Moreno, S

    2005-02-01

    Myeloradiculitis is a rare neurological complication of herpes simplex type 2 (HSV-2) infection, frequently associated with a fatal outcome. Among patients with HIV infection, HSV-2 myeloradiculitis has occasionally been reported, always associated with advanced immunosuppression and AIDS. We report a patient with HIV infection but no history of previous opportunistic infections, who developed sacral myeloradiculitis immediately after an episode of genital herpes. Magnetic resonance imaging with gadolinium showed necrotizing myelitis in the conus medullaris and enhancement of sacral roots. CD4 lymphocyte count was 530/mm3. Other possible causes of myeloradiculitis in HIV-infected patients were appropriately excluded. Acyclovir therapy resulted in partial clinical improvement. This report shows that myeloradiculitis as a complication of genital herpes may occur in the early stages of HIV infection and may have a favourable outcome with antiviral treatment.

  5. Atypical presentations of genital herpes simplex virus in HIV-1 and HIV-2 effectively treated by imiquimod.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKendry, Anna; Narayana, Srinivasulu; Browne, Rita

    2015-05-01

    Atypical presentations of genital herpes simplex virus have been described in HIV. We report two cases with hypertrophic presentations which were effectively treated with imiquimod, one of which is the first reported case occurring in a patient with HIV-2. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  6. Mass media constructions of 'socio-psychological epidemics' in sub-Saharan Africa: The case of genital shrinking in 11 countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de-Graft Aikins, Ama; Dzokoto, Vivian A; Yevak, Earl

    2015-11-01

    Genital shrinking is a recurring phenomenon with about 180 reported cases in sub-Saharan Africa over the last two decades. Transcending national boundaries, it results in distress for victims, mob violence against accused perpetrators and mass panic which law enforcement agencies struggle to contain. This article examines mass media construction and framing of genital shrinking within a social representations theory framework. Our analysis suggests the following: (1) mass media reports are informed by lay and expert perspectives; (2) three stocks of knowledge are drawn on interchangeably, with culture constituting a core representation; (3) lay and expert perspectives overlap on cultural and common-sense explanations of genital shrinking; and (4) scientific explanations are limited to individual pathophysiology and psychopathology and do not inform public opinion. We consider the implications of understanding genital shrinking for improving mass media constructions and dissemination of information on 'socio-psychological epidemics' that may have scientific explanations. © The Author(s) 2015.

  7. Association of Patient-Reported Readiness for Discharge and Hospital Consumer Assessment of Health Care Providers and Systems Patient Satisfaction Scores: A Retrospective Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmocker, Ryan K; Holden, Sara E; Vang, Xia; Leverson, Glen E; Cherney Stafford, Linda M; Winslow, Emily R

    2015-12-01

    Patient-reported outcomes (PRO) have been increasingly emphasized, however, determining clinically valuable PRO has been problematic and investigation limited. This study examines the association of readiness for discharge, which has been described previously, with patient satisfaction and readmission. Data from adult patients admitted to our institution from 2009 to 2012 who completed both the Hospital Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems and the Press Ganey surveys post discharge were extracted from an existing database of patients (composed of 220 patients admitted for small bowel obstruction and 98 patients with hospital stays ≥ 21 days). Using the survey question, "Did you feel ready for discharge?" (RFD), 2 groups were constructed, those RFD and those with lesser degrees of readiness (ie, less ready for discharge [LRFD]) using topbox methodology. Outcomes, readmission rates, and satisfaction were compared between RFD and LRFD groups. Three hundred and eighteen patients met the inclusion criteria; 45% were female and 94% were Caucasian. Median age was 62.3 years (interquartile range 52.5 to 70.8 year). Median length of stay was 10 days (interquartile range 6.0 to 24.0 days) and 69.2% were admitted with small bowel obstruction. The 30-day readmission rate was 14.3% and 55% indicated they were RFD. Those RFD and LRFD had similar demographics, comorbidity scores, and rates of surgery. Those RFD had higher overall hospital satisfaction (87.3% RFD vs 62.4% LRFD; p patient-reported metric, as those RFD have higher satisfaction with the hospital and physicians. Prospective investigation into variables affecting patient satisfaction in those LRFD is needed. Copyright © 2015 American College of Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. The Frequency and Pattern of Female Genital Tract Malignancies at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Female genital tract malignancy is common in our low resource setting. Options now exist for prevention, detection, treatment, and palliative care for the wide spectrum of female genital tract malignancies. Women will continue to die from these cancers unless health professionals and civil society adopt means ...

  9. factors associated with perceived continuation of females' genital

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    It has a long-term physiological, sexual and psychological effect on women. Females' genital ... Muslim religion were predictors of continuation of females' genital mutilation. Key words: Female ... deeply entrenched in social, economic and cultural structures. FGM is .... have more access and exposure to media and advo-.

  10. Genital elephantiasis as a complication of chromoblastomycosis: A diagnosis overlooked

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Nidhi; Marfatia, Y. S.

    2009-01-01

    Over the decades, causes of genital elephantiasis have changed only to become elusive to etiological diagnosis. This is a case of 20 year old male who presented with genital elephantiasis occurring due to lymphatic obstruction caused by chromoblastomycosis and super added erysipelas. The diagnosis of chromoblastomycosis was clenched by biopsy. We describe this case for the rarity of its occurrence. PMID:21938115

  11. Knowledge of genital herpes infection among antenatal clinic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Herpes simplex virus (HSV) is a major cause of genital ulcer disease worldwide and a significant factor for increased risk of acquisition and transmission of the Human Immune Deficiency Virus (HIV). The determination of the level of knowledge of genital herpes is necessary for the design and implementation of ...

  12. Preliminary observation of genital secretions, growth rate and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cane rats are large terrestial rodents which have the potential to increase animal protein intake. There is paucity of information on the genital secretions and growth rate of caged cane rats. This study observed the genital secretions, growth rate, feeds, feeding and the behaviour of caged cane rats. When animals adjusted to ...

  13. Female genital tract cancers in Sagamu, southwest, Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To describe pattern of female genital tract cancers seen at Olabisi Onabanjo University Teaching Hospital (OOUTH), Sagamu, Nigeria. Design: This is a retrospective review of all cases of female genital tract cancers managed at the Gynaecology department of OOUTH, Sagamu, Nigeria. Setting: OOUTH is a ...

  14. Angioplasty and stent - heart - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drug-eluting stents - discharge; PCI - discharge; Percutaneous coronary intervention - discharge; Balloon angioplasty - discharge; Coronary angioplasty - discharge; Coronary artery angioplasty - discharge; Cardiac ...

  15. Radiological discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woodliffe, J.

    1990-01-01

    Current practice of North Sea States on the discharge and disposal of liquid radioactive wastes to the North Sea are based on the declaration issued at the Second International Conference on the Protection of the North Sea, known as the London Declaration. This has three main points the first of which emphasises the application of the Best Available Technology to protect the North Sea, the second provides a framework on which future controls on radioactive discharges should be based. The third identifies two parts of the framework; to take into account the recommendations of international organizations and that any repositories of radioactive waste which are built should not pollute the North Sea. This chapter looks at how the concensus based on the London Declaration is working, gauges the progress made in the implementation of the policy goal, identifies existing and future areas for concern and proposes ways of strengthening the control of radioactive discharges. The emphasis is on the United Kingdom practice and regulations for liquid wastes, most of which comes from the Sellafield Reprocessing Plant. (author)

  16. Status of prophylactic and therapeutic genital herpes vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awasthi, Sita; Friedman, Harvey M

    2014-06-01

    A half billion people have genital herpes infections worldwide. Approximately one-fifth of American women between ages 14 and 49 are HSV-2 seropositive. The development of an effective genital herpes vaccine is a global health necessity based on the mental anguish genital herpes causes for some individuals, the fact that pregnant women with genital herpes risk transmitting infection to their newborn children, and the observation that HSV-2 infection is associated with a 3-fold to 4-fold increased probability of HIV acquisition. We review the strengths and limitations of preclinical animal models used to assess genital herpes vaccine candidates and the goals of prophylactic and therapeutic vaccines. We also discuss the current pipeline of vaccine candidates and lessons learned from past clinical trials that serve as a stimulus for new strategies, study designs and endpoint determinations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. In defence of genital autonomy for children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earp, Brian D

    2016-03-01

    Arora and Jacobs (2016) assume that liberal societies should tolerate non-therapeutic infant male circumcision, and argue that it follows from this that they should similarly tolerate-or even encourage-what the authors regard as 'de minimis' forms of female genital mutilation (as defined by the World Health Organization). In this commentary, I argue that many serious problems would be likely to follow from a policy of increased tolerance for female genital mutilation, and that it may therefore be time to consider a less tolerant attitude toward non-therapeutic infant male circumcision. Ultimately, I suggest that children of whatever sex or gender should be free from having healthy parts of their most intimate sexual organs either damaged or removed, before they can understand what is at stake in such an intervention and agree to it themselves. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  18. [Emergencies of the external genital area].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaminsky, A; Sperling, H

    2016-04-01

    In addition to epididymitis and testicular torsion, emergencies of the external genital are rare. Rapid diagnosis and therapy are essential so that immediate therapy can be provided, which is important for survival (Fournier gangrene) of the patient or for the preservation of erectile function (priapism and penile fracture). A detailed patient history and clinical examination are generally sufficient for correct diagnosis. Under certain circumstances, it might be useful to perform ultrasound, computed tomography scan or magnetic resonance imaging or retrograde urethrography. A urine analysis is obligatory. In case of penetrating injuries and genital trauma in females, additional imaging should be performed because these are often associated with concomitant injuries of the rectum, vagina, or bladder. Special cases are gunshot wounds, in which caliber and type of weapon play an important role for the degree of damage, and animal or human bites. For animal bites, the risk for rabies infection and in case of a human bite the risk for transmission of HIV and hepatitis should be taken into consideration and post-exposure prophylaxis should possibly be offered.

  19. Urethral discharge culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... can detect sexually transmitted infections (STIs), such as gonorrhea and chlamydia . Normal Results A negative culture, or ... in the genital tract. These infections can include gonorrhea or chlamydia. Risks Fainting may occur when the ...

  20. Laparoscopic findings in female genital tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Jai Bhagwan; Roy, Kallol K; Pushparaj, M; Kumar, S; Malhotra, N; Mittal, S

    2008-10-01

    To evaluate the laparoscopic findings in genital tuberculosis (TB). A total of 85 women of genital TB, who underwent diagnostic laparoscopy for infertility or chronic pelvic pain were enrolled in this retrospective study conducted in our unit at All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India from September 2004 to 2007. The mean age was 28.2 years and the mean parity was 0.24. Most women were from poor socioeconomic status (68.1%). Past history of TB was seen in 29 (34.1%) women with pulmonary TB in 19 (22.35%) women and extrapulmonary in 10 (11.7%) women. Most women presented with infertility (90.6% primary 72.9%; secondary 17.6%) while the rest had chronic pelvic pain (9.4%). The mean duration of infertility was 6.2 years. A total of 49 (57.6%) women had normal menses, while hypomenorrhea, oligomenorrhea, secondary amenorrhea and menorrhagia were seen in 25 (30.1%), 3 (3.5%), 5 (5.9%), and 2 (2.4%) women respectively. Diagnosis of genital TB was made by histopathological evidence of TB granuloma in 16 (18.8%) (Endometrial biopsy in 12.9%, laparoscopy biopsy in 5.9%) women, demonstration of acid fast bacilli (AFB) on microscopy in 2(2.3%), positive AFB culture in 2 (2.3%), positive polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in 55 (64.7%) and laparoscopic findings of genital TB in 40 (47.1%). The various findings on laparoscopy were tubercles on peritoneum (12.9%) or ovary (1.2%), tubovarian masses (7.1%), caseous nodules (5.8%), encysted ascitis in 7.1% women. Various grades of pelvic adhesions were seen in 56(65.8%) women. The various findings on fallopian tubes were normal looking tubes in (7.1%), inability to visualize in 12(14.1%), presence of tubercles on tubes in 3 (3.52%), caseous granuloma in 3 (3.52%), hydrosalpinx in 15 (17.6%) (Right tube 11.7%, left tube 5.9%), pyosalphinx in 3 (3.5%) on right tube and 2 (2.35%) in left tube, beaded tube in 3 (3.5%) on right tube, 4 (4.7%) in left tube with tobacco pouch appearance in 2 (2.35%) women. The right tube

  1. Patients with primary diffuse large B-cell lymphoma of female genital tract have high risk of central nervous system relapse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Xin-xin; Li, Jian; Zhang, Wei; Duan, Ming-hui; Shen, Ti; Zhou, Dao-bin

    2014-06-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate retrospectively the clinical characteristics, treatments, and outcomes of patients with primary diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) of the female genital tract. The basic characteristics, treatments, and outcomes of six patients diagnosed with primary DLBCL of the female genital tract, including the ovary, uterine cervix, and vagina, treated in our hospital between 2000 and 2012, were analyzed retrospectively. Seven of 323 (2.2 %) newly diagnosed DLBCLs were diagnosed as primary female genital tract DLBCL. Six patients with complete medical data were included in the analysis. The median age at diagnosis was 52.5 years (range 20-65). The presenting symptoms included abnormal vaginal bleeding, increased vaginal discharge, abdominal fullness, and abdominal pain. Two patients had stage IE disease and four patients had stage IIE disease. Treatment included chemotherapy only in five patients, and combined chemotherapy and localized radiation in one patient. After a median follow-up of 58 months, four patients showed relapse in the central nervous system and two had died from progressive disease. The median progression-free survival was 27 months and the median overall survival for this group has not been reached. Patients with primary female genital tract DLBCL may have poor outcomes and a high risk of central nervous system relapse. Central nervous system prophylaxis might be considered in addition to systemic chemotherapy for DLBCL of the female genital tract.

  2. Self-ratings of genital anatomy, sexual sensitivity and function in men using the 'Self-Assessment of Genital Anatomy and Sexual Function, Male' questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schober, Justine M; Meyer-Bahlburg, Heino F L; Dolezal, Curtis

    2009-04-01

    To assess the perceptions of healthy men of their genital anatomy and sexual sensitivity, along with the re-test reliability of these ratings, in a new self-reported questionnaire, the Self-Assessment of Genital Anatomy and Sexual Function, Male (SAGASF-M). Eighty-one healthy, sexually active, men aged 22-57 years (median 33), with no history of genital surgery, completed the SAGASF-M. This questionnaire comprises written text and images enabling men to rate details of their genital appearance, overall genital erotic and pain sensitivity, orgasm intensity, and effort required for achieving orgasm through stimulation of specified areas around the glans and shaft of the penis, scrotum and anus, along with the contribution of other sexually sensitive areas of the body. Anatomical locations were compared for the functional ratings by mixed-model analysis of variance (anova). A second sample of 38 healthy men (median age 26 years, range 22-64) from the same source completed the SAGASF-M twice with an interval of 2 weeks. There was little variability in anatomy ratings. Ratings of overall penile sensitivity to sexual stimulation gave higher values of 'sexual pleasure' for penile stimulation by the partner than by self (P = 0.002) and marginally higher ratings of 'orgasm intensity' by partner stimulation (P = 0.077), but there were no corresponding differences on ratings of 'effort needed to reach orgasm' or of 'discomfort/pain'. Overall discrimination between genital areas was highly significant (mixed-model anova, P = 0.001) for ratings of 'sexual pleasure', 'orgasm intensity' and 'orgasm effort', but was not significant for 'discomfort/pain'. Ranked by degree of 'sexual pleasure', the area 'underside of the glans' was highest, followed by 'underside of the penile shaft', 'upper side of the glans', 'left and right sides of the glans', 'one or both sides of the penis', 'upper side of the penile shaft', 'foreskin' (11 subjects), 'skin between the scrotum and anus', 'back

  3. Hysterectomy - vaginal - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaginal hysterectomy - discharge; Laparoscopically assisted vaginal hysterectomy - discharge; LAVH - discharge ... you were in the hospital, you had a vaginal hysterectomy. Your surgeon made a cut in your ...

  4. STING agonists enable antiviral cross-talk between human cells and confer protection against genital herpes in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skouboe, Morten K; Knudsen, Alice; Reinert, Line S

    2018-01-01

    In recent years, there has been an increasing interest in immunomodulatory therapy as a means to treat various conditions, including infectious diseases. For instance, Toll-like receptor (TLR) agonists have been evaluated for treatment of genital herpes. However, although the TLR7 agonist imiquimod...... herpes simplex virus (HSV) 2 replication and improved the clinical outcome of infection. More importantly, local application of CDNs at the genital epithelial surface gave rise to local IFN activity, but only limited systemic responses, and this treatment conferred total protection against disease...... to TLRs, STING is expressed broadly, including in epithelial cells. Here we report that natural and non-natural STING agonists strongly induce type I IFNs in human cells and in mice in vivo, without stimulating significant inflammatory gene expression. Systemic treatment with 2'3'-cGAMP reduced genital...

  5. Broad HPV distribution in the genital region of men from the HPV infection in men (HIM) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sichero, Laura; Pierce Campbell, Christine M; Ferreira, Silvaneide; Sobrinho, João S; Luiza Baggio, Maria; Galan, Lenice; Silva, Roberto C; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo; Giuliano, Anna R; Villa, Luisa L

    2013-09-01

    The HPV infection in men (HIM) study examines the natural history of genital HPV infection in men. Genotyping methods used in this study identify 37 α-HPV types; however, the viral type could not be identified in approximately 22% of male genital specimens that were HPV PCR positive. Our aim was to genotype HPV-unclassified specimens by sequencing PGMY09/11, GP5+/6+ or FAP59/64 PCR products. Using this approach we were able to detect 86 unique HPV types among 508 of 931 specimens analyzed. We report for the first time the presence of a broad range of α-, β- and γ-HPV at the male genitals. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Prevalence of genital tract infection with Entamoeba gingivalis among copper T 380A intrauterine device users in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foda, Ashraf A; El-Malky, Mohamed M

    2012-01-01

    This study was performed to study the prevalence and potential pathogenicity of E. gingivalis in the genital tracts of intrauterine contraceptive device (IUD) users. A prospective study conducted at the Obstetrics and Gynecology Department and Fertility Care Unit, Mansoura University Hospital, Egypt. The study was carried out on 87 IUD users and 87 nonusers. The copper T 380A IUD was removed from each woman and washed with phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) pH 7.4; the IUD wash was centrifuged. The sediment was resuspended in 2 ml PBS and divided into two portions. One portion was used for preparation of direct and iron hematoxylin-stained smears. Direct smears and stained smears were examined for detailed morphology. The second portion of the sediment was used for DNA extraction and subsequent PCR amplification targeting the small subunit ribosomal RNA of E. gingivalis. The parasite was found in 12.64% of IUD users and in 6.9% of non users (p>.3). It was found that 90.9% of those harboring E. gingivalis in their genital tract had the parasite in their oral cavity. The percentage of genital infection in IUD users increased with low level of education, rural areas, insertion in primary health-care center and among those not washing hands before checking the strings. In the infected cases, vaginal discharge was more common (81.8%) than in noninfected cases (32.9%), such difference was statistically significant (p<.05). Also, excessive vaginal discharge is more common than backache and menorrhagia in the infected cases. Higher incidence of E. gingivalis infection in IUD users is related to oral cavity infection, residence, the facility where they inserted their IUD and washing hands attitude before checking the strings. We recommend treatment of gingival infection, proper counseling and medical education on oral and genital tract hygiene for IUD users. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Lung surgery - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Lung biopsy - discharge; Thoracoscopy - discharge; Video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery - discharge; VATS - discharge ... milk) for 2 weeks after video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery and 6 to 8 weeks after open surgery. ...

  8. Pediatric heart surgery - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... discharge; Heart valve surgery - children - discharge; Heart surgery - pediatric - discharge; Heart transplant - pediatric - discharge ... Geme JW, Schor NF, eds. Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics . 20th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2016:chap 434. ...

  9. [Ritualistic female genital mutilation. The sentiment of the women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allag, F; Abboud, P; Mansour, G; Zanardi, M; Quéreux, C

    2001-11-01

    Female genital mutilation (FGM) is considered as the most dangerous custom still ritually practiced and 2 million girls undergo the ordeal each year. This practice is anchored and fixed firmly in numerous African people's culture and Western countries are confronted to it through African immigrants. In order to understand the justifications and the consequences of FGM we interviewed 14 genitally mutilated African women living in France. Unfortunately and despite the conscious knowledge of consequences and absurd side of such practice, yet it seems to be perpetuated over the descendants. Educational approach is the best solution to fight female genital mutilation fixed firmly in numerous African people's culture.

  10. A rare cause of infertility: A late complication of female genital mutilation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferjaoui Mohamed Aimen

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Female genital mutilation is a cultural practice in many African and Asian societies based usually on religious beliefs. This practice made by a non medical and traditional practitioner with non sterile instruments is a source of many complications such as infection, acute and chronic pain, life-threatening hemorrhage, sexual dysfunction, and rarely epidermal inclusion cysts. We report a case of a large epidermal inclusion cyst in a 36-year-old patient, 30 years after a female genital mutilation (FGM. The patient complains of a two-year-secondary infertility with a self-imaging alteration and a sexual dysfunction. The managment of this complication was based on surgery with a psychological support and sexual therapies.

  11. Genital Tuberculosis as the Cause of Tuboovarian Abscess in an Immunosuppressed Patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ilmer

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Although tuberculosis (TB is a major health problem worldwide, primary extrapulmonary tuberculosis (EPTB, and in particular female genital tract infection, remains a rare event. Case Report. A 35-year-old human immunodeficiency virus (HIV seropositive woman of African descent with lower abdominal pain and fever of two days duration underwent surgery due to left adnexal mass suggesting pelvic inflammatory disease. The surgical situs showed a four quadrant peritonitis, consistent with the clinical symptoms of the patient, provoked by a tuboovarian abscess (TOA on the left side. All routine diagnostic procedures failed to determine the causative organism/pathogen of the infection. Histopathological evaluation identified a necrotic granulomatous salpingitis and specific PCR analysis corroborated Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. Tb. Consequently, antituberculotic therapy was provided. Conclusion. In the differential diagnosis of pelvic inflammatory disease, internal genital tuberculosis should be considered. Moreover, physicians should consider tuberculous infections early in the work-up of patients when immunosuppressive conditions are present.

  12. Health complications of female genital mutilation in Sierra Leone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bjälkander O

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Owolabi Bjälkander,1 Laurel Bangura,2 Bailah Leigh,3 Vanja Berggren,1 Staffan Bergström,1 Lars Almroth11Division of Global Health, Department of Public Health, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; 2Inter Africa Committee, Sierra Leone; 3Department of Community Health, College of Medicine and Allied Health Sciences, University of Sierra Leone, Sierra LeoneAbstract: Sierra Leone has one of the highest rates of female genital mutilation (FGM in the world, and yet little is known about the health consequences of the practice.Purpose: To explore whether and what kind of FGM-related health complications girls and women in Sierra Leone experience, and to elucidate their health care-seeking behaviors.Patients and methods: A feasibility study was conducted to test and refine questionnaires and methods used for this study. Thereafter, a cross-section of girls and women (n = 258 attending antenatal care and Well Women Clinics in Bo Town, Bo District, in the southern region and in Makeni Town, Bombali District, in the northern region of Sierra Leone were randomly selected. Participants answered interview-administrated pretested structured questionnaires with open-ended-questions, administrated by trained female personnel.Results: All respondents had undergone FGM, most between 10 and 14 years of age. Complications were reported by 218 respondents (84.5%, the most common ones being excessive bleeding, delay in or incomplete healing, and tenderness. Fever was significantly more often reported by girls who had undergone FGM before 10 years of age compared with those who had undergone the procedure later. Out of those who reported complications, 187 (85.8% sought treatment, with 89 of them visiting a traditional healer, 75 a Sowei (traditional circumciser, and 16 a health professional.Conclusion: The high prevalence rate of FGM and the proportion of medical complications show that FGM is a matter for public health concern in Sierra Leone. Girls who

  13. The contribution of online content to the promotion and normalisation of female genital cosmetic surgery: a systematic review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mowat, Hayley; McDonald, Karalyn; Dobson, Amy Shields; Fisher, Jane; Kirkman, Maggie

    2015-11-25

    Women considering female genital cosmetic surgery (FGCS) are likely to use the internet as a key source of information during the decision-making process. The aim of this systematic review was to determine what is known about the role of the internet in the promotion and normalisation of female genital cosmetic surgery and to identify areas for future research. Eight social science, medical, and communication databases and Google Scholar were searched for peer-reviewed papers published in English. Results from all papers were analysed to identify recurring and unique themes. Five papers met inclusion criteria. Three of the papers reported investigations of website content of FGCS providers, a fourth compared motivations for labiaplasty publicised on provider websites with those disclosed by women in online communities, and the fifth analysed visual depictions of female genitalia in online pornography. Analysis yielded five significant and interrelated patterns of representation, each functioning to promote and normalise the practice of FGCS: pathologisation of genital diversity; female genital appearance as important to wellbeing; characteristics of women's genitals are important for sex life; female body as degenerative and improvable through surgery; and FGCS as safe, easy, and effective. A significant gap was identified in the literature: the ways in which user-generated content might function to perpetuate, challenge, or subvert the normative discourses prevalent in online pornography and surgical websites. Further research is needed to contribute to knowledge of the role played by the internet in the promotion and normalisation of female genital cosmetic surgery.

  14. The ultrasound research's results of the peri menopausal women's genitals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dodkhoeva, M.F.; Djonova, B.Yu.; Barieva, L.S.; Djonbekova, P.A.

    2007-01-01

    The results of ultrasound research of the peri menopausal women's genitals revealed that the sizes of the ovaries of women with the climacteric syndrome are smaller that the size of ovaries of the women with the physiologic menopause

  15. Confronting Female Genital Mutilation: The Role of Youth and ICTs ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2011-07-14

    Jul 14, 2011 ... Book cover Confronting Female Genital Mutilation: The Role of ... of an innovative research and action project carried out by ENDA Tiers ... Congratulations to the first cohort of Women in Climate Change Science Fellows!

  16. Survey of Women's Opinions on Female Genital Mutilation (FGM) in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Uche

    Background: Female genital mutilation is known to exist especially in many third world countries including Nigeria with ... of Women Journalists (NAWOJ) and Women ... There has also been .... profession and current civilization as injurious to.

  17. Surgical Treatment of Complication of Female Genital Mutilation in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Surgical Treatment of Complication of Female Genital Mutilation in Pikine Hospital, Senegal. Abdoul A Diouf, Moussa Diallo, Aissatou Mbodj, Omar Gassama, Mamour Guèye, Jean C Moreau, Alassane Diouf ...

  18. Local Risk Factors in Genital Human Papilloma Virus Infection in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keywords: Genital human papilloma virus, Pap smear, Risk factors. Access this article online .... their Pap smears taken and questionnaires on sexual attitudes, .... the high‑risk types, which mediate the response of the enhancer to steroid ...

  19. [Genital piercings: epidemiology, sociocultural aspects, sexuality and complications].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kluger, Nicolas

    2012-01-01

    Body piercing has gained tremendous popularity since the mid nineties. Genital piercings constitute a peculiar variant of piercing due to its sensitive localization. Health care providers are often very little informed about those piercings. Besides, negative stereotypes are often attributed to the bearers of such piercings. This review focuses not only on the medical aspects of genital piercings but also on the social, cultural and psychological background that surround those piercings. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Genital lesions: An indication for changing ART regimen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, S Arun; Kumar, N; Kumarasamy, N

    2011-01-01

    Genital lesions are common in HIV positive patients and aetiology for these are mainly due to HSV, HPV or bacterial. They usually respond to HAART, antiviral or antimicrobials. We are presenting a young patient on HAART with non-healing genital ulcer lesions for sixteen months. He responded well to a change in ART regimen within a period of 15 days. This happened after a change to a more potent ART regimen.

  1. Interferon Lambda 4 Genotype Is Not Associated with Recurrence of Oral or Genital Herpes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krystle A Lang Kuhs

    Full Text Available IFNL4-ΔG/TT (rs368234815 genotype is associated with hepatitis C virus clearance and may play a role in other infections. IFN-λ4 protein is generated only in individuals who carry the IFNL4-ΔG allele. The IFNL4 rs12979860-T allele, which is in strong linkage disequilibrium with IFNL4-ΔG, was recently reported to be associated with more frequent and severe oral herpes episodes. We investigated the association of IFNL4-ΔG/TT with herpes simplex virus (HSV-related outcomes among 2,192 African American and European American participants in the Women's Interagency HIV Study (WIHS. WIHS is a prospective cohort study of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-infected and at-risk women that began in 1994. This report includes follow-up through 2013. Available data included: HSV-1 and HSV-2 antibodies at study entry; bi-annually ascertained episodes of (self-reported oral herpes, (self-reported genital sores and (clinician-observed genital ulcers; HSV-2 DNA in cervicovaginal lavage (CVL specimens. IFNL4-ΔG/TT genotyping was determined by TaqMan. We compared women with IFNL4-ΔG/ΔG or IFNL4-TT/ΔG genotypes (i.e., IFNL4-ΔG carriers to those with the IFNL4-TT/TT genotype, adjusting for age, race and HIV status. For outcomes with repeated measurements, the adjusted odds ratio (aOR, 95% confidence interval [CI] and p-value were determined using a generalized estimating equations approach. Median participant age at enrollment was 36 years; 81% were African American, 74% were HIV-infected. Among 1,431 participants tested for antibodies, 72.8% were positive for HSV-1 and 79.0% were positive for HSV-2. We observed no association between IFNL4-ΔG/TT genotype and any outcome: HSV-1 or HSV-2 antibody prevalence (p>0.1, all comparisons; oral herpes (aOR, 1.2; p = 0.35; genital sores (aOR, 1.0; p = 0.71; genital ulcers (aOR, 1.1; p = 0.53; detectable HSV-2 DNA in CVL (N = 322; aOR, 0.71; p = 0.49; HSV-2 DNA level (p = 0.68. In this large prospective study, IFNL4

  2. Interferon Lambda 4 Genotype Is Not Associated with Recurrence of Oral or Genital Herpes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang Kuhs, Krystle A; Kuniholm, Mark H; Pfeiffer, Ruth M; Chen, Sabrina; Desai, Seema; Edlin, Brian R; Peters, Marion G; Plankey, Michael; Sharp, Gerald B; Strickler, Howard D; Villacres, Maria C; Quinn, Thomas C; Gange, Stephen J; Prokunina-Olsson, Ludmila; Greenblatt, Ruth M; O'Brien, Thomas R

    2015-01-01

    IFNL4-ΔG/TT (rs368234815) genotype is associated with hepatitis C virus clearance and may play a role in other infections. IFN-λ4 protein is generated only in individuals who carry the IFNL4-ΔG allele. The IFNL4 rs12979860-T allele, which is in strong linkage disequilibrium with IFNL4-ΔG, was recently reported to be associated with more frequent and severe oral herpes episodes. We investigated the association of IFNL4-ΔG/TT with herpes simplex virus (HSV)-related outcomes among 2,192 African American and European American participants in the Women's Interagency HIV Study (WIHS). WIHS is a prospective cohort study of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected and at-risk women that began in 1994. This report includes follow-up through 2013. Available data included: HSV-1 and HSV-2 antibodies at study entry; bi-annually ascertained episodes of (self-reported) oral herpes, (self-reported) genital sores and (clinician-observed) genital ulcers; HSV-2 DNA in cervicovaginal lavage (CVL) specimens. IFNL4-ΔG/TT genotyping was determined by TaqMan. We compared women with IFNL4-ΔG/ΔG or IFNL4-TT/ΔG genotypes (i.e., IFNL4-ΔG carriers) to those with the IFNL4-TT/TT genotype, adjusting for age, race and HIV status. For outcomes with repeated measurements, the adjusted odds ratio (aOR), 95% confidence interval [CI] and p-value were determined using a generalized estimating equations approach. Median participant age at enrollment was 36 years; 81% were African American, 74% were HIV-infected. Among 1,431 participants tested for antibodies, 72.8% were positive for HSV-1 and 79.0% were positive for HSV-2. We observed no association between IFNL4-ΔG/TT genotype and any outcome: HSV-1 or HSV-2 antibody prevalence (p>0.1, all comparisons); oral herpes (aOR, 1.2; p = 0.35); genital sores (aOR, 1.0; p = 0.71); genital ulcers (aOR, 1.1; p = 0.53); detectable HSV-2 DNA in CVL (N = 322; aOR, 0.71; p = 0.49); HSV-2 DNA level (p = 0.68). In this large prospective study, IFNL4-

  3. Influence of Body Odors and Gender on Perceived Genital Arousal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves-Oliveira, Patrícia; Carvalho, Joana; Ferreira, Jacqueline; Alho, Laura; Nobre, Pedro; Olsson, Mats J; Soares, Sandra C

    2018-04-01

    Olfaction is often linked to mating behavior in nonhumans. Additionally, studies in mating behavior have shown that women seem to be more affected by odor cues than men. However, the relationship between odor cues and sexual response-specifically, sexual arousal-has not been studied yet. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of the exposure to human body odors (from individuals of the opposite gender) on perceived genital arousal, while these were presented concomitantly to sexually explicit video clips. Eighty university students (40 women) rated their perceived genital arousal (perceived degree of erection/genital lubrication) in response to an audiovisual sexual stimulus, while simultaneously exposed to a body odor from an opposite-gender donor or no odor. Participants also rated each odor sample's (body odor and no odor) perceived pleasantness, intensity, and familiarity. Findings indicated that odor condition had an effect on women's (but not men's) perceived genital arousal, with women showing higher levels of perceived genital arousal in the no odor condition. Also, results showed that women rated body odors as less pleasant than no odor. Notwithstanding, the odor ratings do not seem to explain the association between body odor and perceived genital arousal. The current results support the hypothesis that women, rather than men, are sensitive to odors in the context of sexual response. The findings of this study have relevance for the understanding of human sexuality with respect to chemosensory communication.

  4. Salicylate Toxicity from Genital Exposure to a Methylsalicylate-Containing Rubefacient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Trevonne M.; Toerne, Theodore; Erickson, Timothy B.

    2016-01-01

    Methylsalicylate-containing rubefacients have been reported to cause salicylate poisoning after ingestion, topical application to abnormal skin, and inappropriate topical application to normal skin. Many over-the-counter products contain methylsalicylate. Topical salicylates rarely produce systemic toxicity when used appropriately; however, methylsaliclyate can be absorbed through intact skin. Scrotal skin can have up to 40-fold greater absorption compared to other dermal regions. We report a unique case of salicylate poisoning resulting from the use of a methylsalicylate-containing rubefacient to facilitate masturbation in a male teenager. Saliclyate toxicity has not previously been reported from the genital exposure to methylsaliclyate. PMID:26973745

  5. Estimated Minimum Discharge Rates of the Deepwater Horizon Spill-Interim Report to the Flow Rate Technical Group from the Mass Balance Team

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labson, Victor F.; Clark, Roger N.; Swayze, Gregg A.; Hoefen, Todd M.; Kokaly, Raymond F.; Livo, K. Eric; Powers, Michael H.; Plumlee, Geoffrey S.; Meeker, Gregory P.

    2010-01-01

    All of the calculations and results in this report are preliminary and intended for the purpose, and only for the purpose, of aiding the incident team in assessing the extent of the spilled oil for ongoing response efforts. Other applications of this report are not authorized and are not considered valid. Because of time constraints and limitations of data available to the experts, many of their estimates are approximate, are subject to revision, and certainly should not be used as the Federal Government's final values for assessing volume of the spill or its impact to the environment or to coastal communities. Each expert that contributed to this report reserves the right to alter his conclusions based upon further analysis or additional information. An estimated minimum total oil discharge was determined by calculations of oil volumes measured as of May 17, 2010. This included oil on the ocean surface measured with satellite and airborne images and with spectroscopic data (129,000 barrels to 246,000 barrels using less and more aggressive assumptions, respectively), oil skimmed off the surface (23,500 barrels from U.S. Coast Guard [USCG] estimates), oil burned off the surface (11,500 barrels from USCG estimates), dispersed subsea oil (67,000 to 114,000 barrels), and oil evaporated or dissolved (109,000 to 185,000 barrels). Sedimentation (oil captured from Mississippi River silt and deposited on the ocean bottom), biodegradation, and other processes may indicate significant oil volumes beyond our analyses, as will any subsurface volumes such as suspended tar balls or other emulsions that are not included in our estimates. The lower bounds of total measured volumes are estimated to be within the range of 340,000 to 580,000 barrels as of May 17, 2010, for an estimated average minimum discharge rate of 12,500 to 21,500 barrels per day for 27 days from April 20 to May 17, 2010.

  6. [Investigation on the incidence of genital herpes in different professional groups in Qingdao].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quan, L

    1993-10-01

    Genital herpes is one of 8 legally reportable sexually transmitted diseases (STD) in China. Using a HSV antigen ELISA kit we detected and typed HSV antigen in 1,148 clinical specimens collected from the genital organs (penis, cervix, vagina and vulva) of 446 men and 702 women in Qindao and divided into 11 different professional and 2 special groups (patients with cervical cancer and pregnant women). The highest positive rate of HSV antigen was found among long-distance transport drivers (48.0%). The second and third high positive rates were among waiters and waitresses in private, restaurants (39.2%) and patients with cervical cancer (38.2%). The positive rates among self-employed retailers and employees in private inns and restaurants were notably higher than those among employees in state-run shops, restaurants and hotels. And, the positive rate among workers was higher than that among peasants. There was no notable difference between the positive rate of HSV antigen among men (24.2%) and that among women (21.5%). But the incidence of HSV-2 infection was much higher than that of HSV-1 infection. The results indicate that some special professional groups have high rates of genital HSV infection. More attention needs to be paid to these special groups in order to control sexually transmitted herpes diseases.

  7. Transformation of the genital epithelial tract occurs early in California sea lion development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barragán-Vargas, Cecilia; Montano-Frías, Jorge; Ávila Rosales, Germán; Godínez-Reyes, Carlos R.; Acevedo-Whitehouse, Karina

    2016-01-01

    An unusually high prevalence of metastatic urogenital carcinoma has been observed in free-ranging California sea lions stranded off the coast of California in the past two decades. No cases have been reported for sea lions in the relatively unpolluted Gulf of California. We investigated occurrence of genital epithelial transformation in 60 sea lions (n=57 pups and 3 adult females) from the Gulf of California and examined whether infection by a viral pathogen previously found to be associated with urogenital carcinoma accounted for such alterations. We also explored the contribution of MHC class II gene expression on transformation. Cellular alterations, such as squamous cell atypia (ASC), atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS) and low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions were observed in 42% of the pups and in 67% of the adult females. Normal genital epithelium was more common in male than female pups. ASC was five times more likely to occur in older pups. Epithelial alterations were unrelated to infection by the potentially oncogenic otarine type I gammaherpesvirus (OtHV-1), but ASCUS was more common in pups with marked and severe inflammation. Expression of MHC class II DRB loci (Zaca DRB-D) by peripheral antigen-presenting leucocytes showed a slightly ‘protective’ effect for ASC. We propose that transformation of the California sea lion genital epithelium is relatively common in young animals, increases with age and is probably the result of infection by an unidentified pathogen. Expression of a specific MHC class II gene, suggestive of presentation of specific antigenic peptides to immune effectors, appears to lower the risk of transformation. Our study provides the first evidence that epithelial transformation of the California sea lion genital tract is relatively common, even from an early age, and raises questions regarding differences in sea lion cancer-detection and -repair success between geographical regions. PMID:27069641

  8. Female genital mutilation: an injury, physical and mental harm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utz-Billing, I; Kentenich, H

    2008-12-01

    This article gives an overview over the huge topic of 'female genital mutilation' (FGM). FGM means non-therapeutic, partial or complete removal or injury of each of the external female genitals. It concerns about 130 million women around the world. FGM is performed in about 30 countries, most of which are located in Africa. Four types of FGM are distinguished: type I stands for the removal of the clitoral foreskin, type II means the removal of the clitoris with partial or total excision of the labia minora. Type III is the extreme type of FGM. Not only the clitoris but also the labia minora and majora were removed. The orificium vaginae is sewn up, leaving only a small opening for urine or menstruation blood. Other types like pricking, piercing of clitoris or vulva, scraping of the vagina, etc. were defined as type IV of FGM. The mentioned reasons for FGM are: encouragement of the patriarchal family system, method for birth control, guarantee of moral behaviour and faithfulness to the husband, protection of women from suspicions and disgrace, initiation ritual, symbol of feminity and beauty, hygienic, health and economic advantages. Acute physical consequences of FGM include bleeding, wound infections, sepsis, shock, micturition problems and fractures. Chronic physical problems like anemia, infections of the urinary tract, incontinence, infertility, pain, menstruation problems and dyspareunia are frequent. Women also have a higher risk for HIV infections. During pregnancy and delivery, examinations and vaginal application of medicine are more difficult. Women have a higher risk for a prolonged delivery, wound infections, a postpartum blood loss of more than 500 mL, perineal tears, a resuscitation of the infant and an inpatient perinatal death. Mental consequences after FGM include the feelings of incompleteness, fear, inferiority and suppression. Women report chronic irritability and nightmares. They have a higher risk for psychiatric and psychosomatic diseases

  9. Female genital mutilation reversal: a general approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anand, Mallika; Stanhope, Todd J; Occhino, John A

    2014-07-01

    Female genital mutilation (FGM) is a violation of human rights; yet, more than 100 million females are estimated to have undergone the procedure worldwide. There is an increased need for physician education in treating FGM. Female pelvic surgeons have a unique opportunity to treat this population of patients. Here, we depict the classification of FGM and a general approach to FGM reversal. We specifically address the procedure of type III FGM reversal, or defibulation. In this video, we first highlight the importance of the problem of FGM. Next, we present the classification of FGM using an original, simple, schematic diagram highlighting they key anatomic structures involved in the four types of FGM. We then present a simple case of reversal of type III FGM, a procedure also known as defibulation. After depicting the surgical procedure, we discuss clinical results and summarize key principles of the defibulation procedure. Our patient was a 25-year-old woman who had undergone type III FGM as a child in Somalia. She desired restoration of vaginal function. We performed a reversal, and her postoperative course was uncomplicated. By 6 weeks postoperatively, she was able to engage in sexual intercourse without dyspareunia. FGM is a problem at the doorsteps of female pelvic medicine and reconstructive surgery. Our video demonstrates a basic surgical approach that can be applied to simple cases of type III FGM presenting to the female pelvic surgeon.

  10. Most important etiologic factors in the development of genital prolapse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mladenović-Segedi Ljiljana

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The incidence of genital prolapse depends on numerous factors. The contribution of race, gender and genetic factors is significant. However, additional factors of initiation, promotion and decomposition are necessary if a person with the genetic predisposition to genital prolapse begins to suffer from it. At least 50% of parous women are believed to suffer from genital prolapse of various degrees. Moreover, the prevalence of genital prolapse increases with age. The prevalence of genital prolapse is expected to be even higher in the future due to the extension of the lifespan of women worldwide. Objective The aim of this study was to determine the most common etiologic factors in the development of genital prolapse in the population of Serbia. Methods The study was conducted as prospective and included 50 women who underwent surgical treatment due to the problems caused by genital prolapse. Results Mean age of the women was 58.74 years. Twenty percent of the women had the menstrual cycle, while 80% were in menopause. Mean menopause period was 8.88 years. None of the women used hormone replacement therapy. Mean BMI was 27.395 kg/m2. Twenty-eight percent of the women were of normal weight, while 72% of the women were obese (42% were obese and 30% were severely obese. Ninety-eight percent of the women were parous, and mean parity was 2.08. Mean birth weight of neonates was 3682.77 g. Sixty-four percent of the women did physical labour and lifted heavy objects. Conclusion Vaginal childbirth is one of the most important initiating factors. The most significant promoting factor is obesity and heavy labour. Ageing and entering menopause are the most important factors of decomposition as well as the occurrence of clinical manifestations of the pelvic floor dysfunction. .

  11. Genital herpes and its treatment in relation to preterm delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, De-Kun; Raebel, Marsha A; Cheetham, T Craig; Hansen, Craig; Avalos, Lyndsay; Chen, Hong; Davis, Robert

    2014-12-01

    To examine the risks of genital herpes and antiherpes treatment during pregnancy in relation to preterm delivery (PTD), we conducted a multicenter, member-based cohort study within 4 Kaiser Permanente regions: northern and southern California, Colorado, and Georgia. The study included 662,913 mother-newborn pairs from 1997 to 2010. Pregnant women were classified into 3 groups based on genital herpes diagnosis and treatment: genital herpes without treatment, genital herpes with antiherpes treatment, and no herpes diagnosis or treatment (unexposed controls). After controlling for potential confounders, we found that compared with being unexposed, having untreated genital herpes during first or second trimester was associated with more than double the risk of PTD (odds ratio (OR) = 2.23, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.80, 2.76). The association was stronger for PTD due to premature rupture of membrane (OR = 3.57, 95% CI: 2.53, 5.06) and for early PTD (≤35 weeks gestation) (OR = 2.87, 95% CI: 2.22, 3.71). In contrast, undergoing antiherpes treatment during pregnancy was associated with a lower risk of PTD compared with not being treated, and the PTD risk was similar to that observed in the unexposed controls (OR = 1.11, 95% CI: 0.89, 1.38). The present study revealed increased risk of PTD associated with genital herpes infection if left untreated and a potential benefit of antiherpes medications in mitigating the effect of genital herpes infection on the risk of PTD. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Genital piercings: diagnostic and therapeutic implications for urologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelius, Thomas; Armstrong, Myrna L; Rinard, Katherine; Young, Cathy; Hogan, LaMicha; Angel, Elayne

    2011-11-01

    To provide quantitative and qualitative data that will assist evidence-based decision making for men and women with genital piercings (GP) when they present to urologists in ambulatory clinics or office settings. Currently many persons with GP seek nonmedical advice. A comprehensive 35-year (1975-2010) longitudinal electronic literature search (MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, OVID) was conducted for all relevant articles discussing GP. Authors of general body art literature tended to project many GP complications with potential statements of concern, drawing in overall piercings problems; then the information was further replicated. Few studies regarding GP clinical implications were located and more GP assumptions were noted. Only 17 cases, over 17 years, describe specific complications in the peer-reviewed literature, mainly from international sources (75%), and mostly with "Prince Albert" piercings (65%). Three cross-sectional studies provided further self-reported data. Persons with GP still remain a hidden variable so no baseline figures assess the overall GP picture, but this review did gather more evidence about GP wearers and should stimulate further research, rather than collectively projecting general body piercing information onto those with GP. With an increase in GP, urologists need to know the specific differences, medical implications, significant short- and long-term health risks, and patients concerns to treat and counsel patients in a culturally sensitive manner. Targeted educational strategies should be developed. Considering the amount of body modification, including GP, better legislation for public safety is overdue. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Genital Culture: Exploring the Cultural Importance of Genital Surgeru in the West

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexa Dodge

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The assumed importance of genital surgery for intersex children as well as the rising popularity of cosmetic surgery for one’s genitals (namely for women exemplify the importance placed on gender distinction in Western culture. This paper will explore how these genital surgeries are tied to the idealized conception of the gender binary that exists in our culture. Despite the reality that genitals, especially the vulva, vary widely in appearance (size, shape, colour, the belief that there are norms of genital appearance that need to be adhered to continues to be propagated within Western culture. I will posit that genital surgeries in the West are a culturally imbued practice. This will be argued in light of Leti Volpp’s assertion that people in the West need to recognize how our own culture promotes patriarchal/normative practices that can be dangerous and degrading to individuals. For instance, Western discourse vilifies cultures that engage in female genital mutilation (FGM without realizing how Western culture itself pressures women to ‘mutilate’ their genitals through cosmetic surgery or intersex surgery. The cultural influence of the West must be acknowledged so that we can better perceive how the agency of Western subjects is also directed and confined by our cultural context. Western culture also acts upon its subjects and, in this case, pushes gender binaries and the ideal of the perfect ‘normal’ vagina. This paper will utilize queer theory to question the necessity of gender binaries and to reveal the way that binary gender is privileged in our society. L'importance majeure de la chirurgie génitale pour les enfants intersexués ainsi que la popularité croissante de la chirurgie esthétique pour les organes génitaux, particulièrement pour les femmes, illustrent l'importance accordée à la distinction entre les sexes dans la culture occidentale. Cet article examine comment ces interventions chirurgicales génitales sont

  14. Genital infections and reproductive complications associated with Trichomonas vaginalis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, and Streptococcus agalactiae in women of Qom, central Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Nateghi Rostam

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Trichomonas vaginalis (T.vaginalis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae (N.gonorrhoeae are two most common non-viral sexually transmitted infections in the world. No data are available regarding the epidemiology of genital infections in women of Qom, central Iran. Objective: Epidemiological investigation of sexually transmitted infections in genital specimens of women referred to the referral gynecology hospital in Qom, central Iran. Materials and Methods: Genital swab specimens were collected from women volunteers and used for identification of bacterial and protozoal infections by conventional microbial diagnostics, porA pseudo gene LightCycler® real-time PCR (for N.gonorrhoeae and ITS-PCR (for T.vaginalis. Results: Of 420 volunteers, 277 (65.9% had genital signs/symptoms, including 38.3% malodorous discharge, 37.9% dyspareunia, and 54.8% abdominal pain. Totally, 2 isolates of Streptococcus agalactiae were identified. Five specimens (1.2% in Thayer-Martin culture and 17 (4.1% in real-time PCR were identified as N.gonorrhoeae. Fifty-four specimens (12.9% in wet mount, 64 (15.2% in Dorset’s culture, and 81 (19.3% in ITS-PCR showed positive results for T.vaginalis. Five mixed infections of T.vaginalis+ N.gonorrhoeae were found. The risk of T.vaginalis infection was increased in women with low-birth-weight (p=0.00; OR=43.29, history of abortion (p=0.00; OR=91.84, and premature rupture of membranes (PROM (p=0.00; OR=21.75. The probability of finding nuclear leukocytes (p=0.00; OR=43.34 in vaginal smear was higher in T.vaginalis infection. Conclusion: The significant prevalence of trichomoniasis and gonorrhea emphasizes the need for accurate diagnosis and effective surveillance to prevent serious reproductive complications in women.

  15. 77 FR 47380 - Final National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) General Permit for Discharges From...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-08

    ... test fluids, sanitary waste, domestic waste and miscellaneous discharges is authorized. More stringent... permit. Major changes also include definition of ``operator'', acute toxicity test for produced water, spill prevention best management practices, and electronic reporting requirements. To obtain discharge...

  16. Tennis elbow surgery - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... epicondylitis surgery - discharge; Lateral tendinosis surgery - discharge; Lateral tennis elbow surgery - discharge ... long as you are told. This helps ensure tennis elbow will not return. You may be prescribed a ...

  17. Ankle replacement - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... total - discharge; Total ankle arthroplasty - discharge; Endoprosthetic ankle replacement - discharge; Osteoarthritis - ankle ... You had an ankle replacement. Your surgeon removed and reshaped ... an artificial ankle joint. You received pain medicine and were ...

  18. Hip fracture - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... neck fracture repair - discharge; Trochanteric fracture repair - discharge; Hip pinning surgery - discharge ... in the hospital for surgery to repair a hip fracture, a break in the upper part of ...

  19. Asthma - child - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pediatric asthma - discharge; Wheezing - discharge; Reactive airway disease - discharge ... Your child has asthma , which causes the airways of the lungs to swell and narrow. In the hospital, the doctors and nurses helped ...

  20. West Hackberry Strategic Petroleum Reserve site brine disposal monitoring, Year I report. Volume V. Supporting data for estuarine hydrology, discharge plume analysis, chemical oceanography, biological oceanography, and data management. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeRouen, L.R.; Hann, R.W.; Casserly, D.M.; Giammona, C.; Lascara, V.J. (eds.)

    1983-02-01

    This project centers around the Strategic Petroleum Site (SPR) known as the West Hackberry salt dome which located in southwestern Louisiana, and which is designed to store 241 million barrels of crude oil. Oil storage caverns are formed by injecting water into salt deposits, and pumping out the resulting brine. Studies described in this report were designed as follow-on studies to three months of pre-discharge characterization work, and include data collected during the first year of brine leaching operations. The objectives were to: (1) characterize the environment in terms of physical, chemical and biological attributes; (2) determine if significant adverse changes in ecosystem productivity and stability of the biological community are occurring as a result of brine discharge; and (3) determine the magnitude of any change observed. Volume V contains appendices for the following: supporting data for estuarine hydrology and hydrography; supporting data analysis of discharge plume; supporting data for water and sediment chemistry; CTD/DO and pH profiles during biological monitoring; supporting data for nekton; and supporting data for data management.

  1. Severe primary postpartum hemorrhage due to genital tract laceration after operative vaginal delivery: successful treatment with transcatheter arterial embolization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fargeaudou, Yann; Soyer, Philippe; Sirol, Marc; Dref, Olivier le; Boudiaf, Mourad; Dahan, Henri; Rymer, Roland [Hopital Lariboisiere-APHP-GHU Nord et Universite Diderot-Paris 7, Department of Abdominal and Interventional Imaging, Paris (France); Morel, Olivier [Hopital Lariboisiere-APHP-GHU Nord et Universite Diderot-Paris 7, Department of Obstetrics, Paris (France)

    2009-09-15

    The purpose of this study was to report our experience in the management of severe primary postpartum hemorrhage due to genital tract laceration following operative vaginal delivery with forceps using pelvic transcatheter arterial embolization (TAE). Ten women (mean age, 31.9 years) with severe primary postpartum hemorrhage due to genital tract laceration after operative delivery with forceps were treated with TAE. TAE was indicated because of intractable bleeding that could not be controlled with uterotonic drugs, blood transfusion, attempted suturing and packing in all patients. Postdelivery perineal examination showed cervical or vaginal tears in all women and associated paravaginal hematoma in four. Angiography revealed extravasation of contrast material in six patients. TAE performed with gelatin sponge allowed to control the bleeding in all patients. Cervical and vaginal suturing was made possible and successfully achieved in the six women who had failed suturing attempts before TAE. Paravaginal hematoma was successfully evacuated in four patients in whom it was present after TAE. No complications related to TAE were noted. We conclude that in women with severe primary postpartum hemorrhage due to genital tract laceration after operative delivery with forceps, TAE is effective and safe for stopping the bleeding and helps genital tract suturing and evacuation of hematoma. (orig.)

  2. Severe primary postpartum hemorrhage due to genital tract laceration after operative vaginal delivery: successful treatment with transcatheter arterial embolization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fargeaudou, Yann; Soyer, Philippe; Sirol, Marc; Dref, Olivier le; Boudiaf, Mourad; Dahan, Henri; Rymer, Roland; Morel, Olivier

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to report our experience in the management of severe primary postpartum hemorrhage due to genital tract laceration following operative vaginal delivery with forceps using pelvic transcatheter arterial embolization (TAE). Ten women (mean age, 31.9 years) with severe primary postpartum hemorrhage due to genital tract laceration after operative delivery with forceps were treated with TAE. TAE was indicated because of intractable bleeding that could not be controlled with uterotonic drugs, blood transfusion, attempted suturing and packing in all patients. Postdelivery perineal examination showed cervical or vaginal tears in all women and associated paravaginal hematoma in four. Angiography revealed extravasation of contrast material in six patients. TAE performed with gelatin sponge allowed to control the bleeding in all patients. Cervical and vaginal suturing was made possible and successfully achieved in the six women who had failed suturing attempts before TAE. Paravaginal hematoma was successfully evacuated in four patients in whom it was present after TAE. No complications related to TAE were noted. We conclude that in women with severe primary postpartum hemorrhage due to genital tract laceration after operative delivery with forceps, TAE is effective and safe for stopping the bleeding and helps genital tract suturing and evacuation of hematoma. (orig.)

  3. [Genital herpes and pregnancy: Serological and molecular diagnostic tools. Guidelines for clinical practice from the French College of Gynecologists and Obstetricians (CNGOF)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vauloup-Fellous, C

    2017-12-01

    To describe serological and molecular tools available for genital and neonatal herpes, and their use in different clinical situations. Bibliographic investigations from MedLine database and consultation of international clinical practice guidelines. Virological confirmation of genital herpes during pregnancy or neonatal herpes must rely on PCR (Professional consensus). HSV type-specific serology (IgG) will allow determining the immune status of a patient (in the absence of clinical lesions). However, there is currently no evidence to justify universal HSV serological testing during pregnancy (Professional consensus). In case of genital lesions in a pregnant woman that do not report any genital herpes before, it is recommended to perform a virological confirmation by PCR and HSV type-specific IgG in order to distinguish a true primary infection, a non-primary infection associated with first genital manifestation, from a recurrence (Grade C). HSV IgM is useless for diagnosis of genital herpes (Grade C). If a pregnant woman has personal history of genital herpes but no lesions, whatever the gestational age, it is not recommended to perform genital sampling nor serology (Professional consensus). In case of recurrence, if the lesion is characteristic of herpes, virological confirmation is not necessary (Professional Agreement). However, if the lesion is not characteristic, virological confirmation by PCR should be performed (Professional consensus). At birth, HSV PCR samples should be collected as soon as neonatal herpes is suspected (symptomatic neonate) (best before beginning antiviral treatment but must not delay the treatment), or after 24hours of life in case of asymptomatic neonate born to a mother with herpes lesions at delivery (Professional consensus). Clinical samples for virological confirmation should include at least blood and a peripheral location. In case of clinical manifestations of herpes in the neonate, first samples PCR positive, preterm birth, or

  4. Dose conversion factors for radiation doses at normal operation discharges. F. Methods report; Dosomraekningsfaktorer foer normaldriftutslaepp. F. Metodrapport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergstroem, Ulla; Hallberg, Bengt; Karlsson, Sara

    2001-10-01

    A study has been performed in order to develop and extend existing models for dose estimations at emissions of radioactive substances from nuclear facilities in Sweden. This report gives a review of the different exposure pathways that have been considered in the study. Radioecological data that should be used in calculations of radiation doses are based on the actual situation at the nuclear sites. Dose factors for children have been split in different age groups. The exposure pathways have been carefully re-examined, like the radioecological data; leading to some new pathways (e.g. doses from consumption of forest berries, mushrooms and game) for cesium and strontium. Carbon 14 was given a special treatment by using a model for uptake of carbon by growing plants. For exposure from aquatic emissions, a simplification was done by focussing on the territory for fish species, since consumption of fish is the most important pathway.

  5. Genital ulcers in women: clinical, microbiologic and histopathologic characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Christiane Maria Moreira; Giraldo, Paulo César; Gomes, Francis de Assis Moraes; Amaral, Rose; Passos, Mauro Romero Leal; Gonçalves, Ana Katherine da Silveira

    2007-04-01

    Female genital ulcer is a disease that affects a large number of women, and its etiologic diagnosis can be difficult. The disease may increase the risk of acquiring HIV. Genital ulcer may be present in sexually transmitted diseases (STD)--syphilis, chancroid, genital herpes, donovanosis, lymphogranuloma venereum; and other non-STD disorders (NSTD)--Behçet's syndrome, pemphigus, Crohn's disease, erosive lichen planus and others. This study evaluated the clinical-histopathologic-microbiologic characteristics of female genital ulcers. A cross-sectional descriptive prospective study was conducted during a six-month period to investigate the first 53 women without a definitive diagnosis, seeking medical care for genital ulcers at a genital infections outpatient facility in a university hospital. A detailed and specific history was taken, followed by a dermatologic and gynecologic examination. In addition to collecting material from the lesions for microbiologic study, a biopsy of the ulcer was performed for histopathologic investigation. The average age of the patients was 32.7 years, 56.6% had junior high school education and higher education. The most frequent etiology was herpetic lesion, followed by auto-immune ulcers. At the time of their first consultation, around 60% of the women were using inadequate medication that was inconsistent with the final diagnosis. Histologic diagnosis was conclusive in only 26.4% of the patients (14/53). Cure was obtained in 99% of the cases after proper therapy. The female genital ulcers studied were equally distributed between sexually transmitted and non-sexually transmitted causes. Herpes was the most frequent type of genital ulcer, affecting women indiscriminately, mostly between the ages of 20 and 40 years. The etiologic diagnosis of herpetic ulcers is difficult to make even when various diagnostic methods are applied. It is imperative that NSTD should be included in the differential diagnoses of female genital ulcers. The

  6. Genital ulcers in women: clinical, microbiologic and histopathologic characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christiane Maria Moreira Gomes

    Full Text Available Female genital ulcer is a disease that affects a large number of women, and its etiologic diagnosis can be difficult. The disease may increase the risk of acquiring HIV. Genital ulcer may be present in sexually transmitted diseases (STD - syphilis, chancroid, genital herpes, donovanosis, lymphogranuloma venereum and other non-STD disorders (NSTD - Behçet's syndrome, pemphigus, Crohn's disease, erosive lichen planus and others. This study evaluated the clinical-histopathologic-microbiologic characteristics of female genital ulcers. A cross-sectional descriptive prospective study was conducted during a six-month period to investigate the first 53 women without a definitive diagnosis, seeking medical care for genital ulcers at a genital infections outpatient facility in a university hospital. A detailed and specific history was taken, followed by a dermatologic and gynecologic examination. In addition to collecting material from the lesions for microbiologic study, a biopsy of the ulcer was performed for histopathologic investigation. The average age of the patients was 32.7 years, 56.6% had junior high school education and higher education. The most frequent etiology was herpetic lesion, followed by auto-immune ulcers. At the time of their first consultation, around 60% of the women were using inadequate medication that was inconsistent with the final diagnosis. Histologic diagnosis was conclusive in only 26.4% of the patients (14/53. Cure was obtained in 99% of the cases after proper therapy. The female genital ulcers studied were equally distributed between sexually transmitted and non-sexually transmitted causes. Herpes was the most frequent type of genital ulcer, affecting women indiscriminately, mostly between the ages of 20 and 40 years. The etiologic diagnosis of herpetic ulcers is difficult to make even when various diagnostic methods are applied. It is imperative that NSTD should be included in the differential diagnoses of female

  7. Chlamydial variants differ in ability to ascend the genital tract in the guinea pig model of chlamydial genital infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeruva, Laxmi; Bowlin, Anne K; Spencer, Nicole; Maurelli, Anthony T; Rank, Roger G

    2015-08-01

    An important question in the study of chlamydial genital tract disease is why some women develop severe upper tract disease while others have mild or even "silent" infections with or without pathology. Animal studies suggest that the pathological outcome of an infection is dependent upon both the composition of the infecting chlamydial population and the genotype of the host, along with host physiological effects, such as the cyclical production of reproductive hormones and even the size of the infecting inoculum or the number of repeated infections. In this study, we compared two variants of Chlamydia caviae, contrasting in virulence, with respect to their abilities to ascend the guinea pig genital tract. We then determined the effect of combining the two variants on the course of infection and on the bacterial loads of the two variants in the genital tract. Although the variants individually had similar infection kinetics in the cervix, SP6, the virulent variant, could be isolated from the oviducts more often and in greater numbers than the attenuated variant, AZ2. SP6 also elicited higher levels of interleukin 8 (IL-8) in the lower genital tract and increased leukocyte infiltration in the cervix and uterus compared to AZ2. When the two variants were combined in a mixed infection, SP6 outcompeted AZ2 in the lower genital tract; however, AZ2 was able to ascend the genital tract as readily as SP6. These data suggest that the ability of SP6 to elicit an inflammatory response in the lower genital tract facilitates the spread of both variants to the oviducts. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  8. Prostate brachytherapy - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Implant therapy - prostate cancer - discharge; Radioactive seed placement - discharge ... You had a procedure called brachytherapy to treat prostate cancer. Your treatment lasted 30 minutes or more, ...

  9. Female genital mutilation in Iraqi Kurdistan: description and associated factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleem, Rozhgar A; Othman, Nasih; Fattah, Fattah H; Hazim, Luma; Adnan, Berivan

    2013-01-01

    The high prevalence of female genital mutilation has been a concern in Iraqi Kurdistan. This study was undertaken to estimate its prevalence and describe factors associated with its occurrence. A cross-sectional survey was undertaken from March to April 2011 of females aged up to 20 years using interviews and clinical examination. The survey included 1,508 participants with mean age of 13.5 years (SD 5.6). Overall female genital mutilation prevalence was 23%, and the mean age at which it had been performed was 4.6 years (SD 2.4). Type I (partial or total removal of the clitoris) comprised 76% of those who had had female genital mutilation; in 79% of cases the decision to perform it was made by the mother; and in 54% of cases it was performed by traditional birth attendants/midwives. Women aged 16 years and over were more likely to have had female genital mutilation compared to children aged below 6 years (OR 11.9, p Kurdistan region were more likely to have been circumcised. The study results show that female genital mutilation is a frequent practice in Iraqi Kurdistan. Attention and intervention is needed to address this aspect of the well-being of girls and women.

  10. Determining the cost of genital warts: a study from Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Dee, A

    2009-09-01

    OBJECTIVES: To determine the average cost of a case of genital warts, for both males and females, with a view to informing the current debate as to which Human papillomavirus vaccine would have maximum cost-effectiveness in the Irish population. METHODS: Contact time between patients and healthcare professionals was prospectively measured at five genitourinary medicine clinics in the south-west of Ireland, over a period of 3 weeks. By identifying all those with genital warts, it was possible to calculate the proportion of total time taken by patients with this condition, and from this to calculate a cost per incident case, by gender. RESULTS: A total of 25.5% of attendances were for genital warts, and these patients used 26.2% of total clinic time (CI 25.4 to 27.0%). The average cost calculated for genital warts was 335 euros per incident case, and by gender 300 euros per male case and 366 euros per female case. CONCLUSIONS: There are considerable costs associated with the treatment of genital warts, with female cases representing a higher cost than males. By vaccinating with the quadrivalent HPV vaccine, there are significant savings to be made.

  11. Interruption of CXCL13-CXCR5 axis increases upper genital tract pathology and activation of NKT cells following chlamydial genital infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janina Jiang

    Full Text Available Regulation of immune responses is critical for controlling inflammation and disruption of this process can lead to tissue damage. We reported that CXCL13 was induced in fallopian tube tissue following C. trachomatis infection. Here, we examined the influence of the CXCL13-CXCR5 axis in chlamydial genital infection.Disruption of the CXCL13-CXCR5 axis by injecting anti-CXCL13 Ab to BALB/c mice or using Cxcr5-/- mice increased chronic inflammation in the upper genital tract (UGT; uterine horns and oviducts after Chlamydia muridarum genital infection (GT. Further studies in Cxcr5-/- mice showed an elevation in bacterial burden in the GT and increased numbers of neutrophils, activated DCs and activated NKT cells early after infection. After resolution, we noted increased fibrosis and the accumulation of a variety of T cells subsets (CD4-IFNγ, CD4-IL-17, CD4-IL-10 & CD8-TNFα in the oviducts. NKT cell depletion in vitro reduced IL-17α and various cytokines and chemokines, suggesting that activated NKT cells modulate neutrophils and DCs through cytokine/chemokine secretion. Further, chlamydial glycolipids directly activated two distinct types of NKT cell hybridomas in a cell-free CD1d presentation assay and genital infection of Cd1d-/- mice showed reduced oviduct inflammation compared to WT mice. CXCR5 involvement in pathology was also noted using single-nucleotide polymorphism analysis in C. trachomatis infected women attending a sub-fertility clinic. Women who developed tubal pathology after a C. trachomatis infection had a decrease in the frequency of CXCR5 SNP +10950 T>C (rs3922.These experiments indicate that disruption of the CXCL13-CXCR5 axis permits increased activation of NKT cells by type I and type II glycolipids of Chlamydia muridarum and results in UGT pathology potentially through increased numbers of neutrophils and T cell subsets associated with UGT pathology. In addition, CXCR5 appears to contribute to inter-individual differences in

  12. Association of prenatal phenobarbital and phenytoin exposure with genital anomalies and menstrual disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dessens, A. B.; Cohen-Kettenis, P. T.; Mellenbergh, G. J.; Koppe, J. G.; Poll, N. E.; Boer, K.

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Animal studies demonstrated that early exposure to phenobarbital decreases reproductive function. This study investigates whether prenatal exposure to these anticonvulsants affects human genital tract development. METHODS: Genital anomalies at birth were studied retrospectively in 90

  13. Cervicovaginal bacteria are a major modulator of host inflammatory responses in the female genital tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anahtar, Melis N; Byrne, Elizabeth H; Doherty, Kathleen E; Bowman, Brittany A; Yamamoto, Hidemi S; Soumillon, Magali; Padavattan, Nikita; Ismail, Nasreen; Moodley, Amber; Sabatini, Mary E; Ghebremichael, Musie S; Nusbaum, Chad; Huttenhower, Curtis; Virgin, Herbert W; Ndung'u, Thumbi; Dong, Krista L; Walker, Bruce D; Fichorova, Raina N; Kwon, Douglas S

    2015-05-19

    Colonization by Lactobacillus in the female genital tract is thought to be critical for maintaining genital health. However, little is known about how genital microbiota influence host immune function and modulate disease susceptibility. We studied a cohort of asymptomatic young South African women and found that the majority of participants had genital communities with low Lactobacillus abundance and high ecological diversity. High-diversity communities strongly correlated with genital pro-inflammatory cytokine concentrations in both cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses. Transcriptional profiling suggested that genital antigen-presenting cells sense gram-negative bacterial products in situ via Toll-like receptor 4 signaling, contributing to genital inflammation through activation of the NF-κB signaling pathway and recruitment of lymphocytes by chemokine production. Our study proposes a mechanism by which cervicovaginal microbiota impact genital inflammation and thereby might affect a woman's reproductive health, including her risk of acquiring HIV. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Genital Herpes - Initial Visits to Physicians' Offices, United States, 1966-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Archive Data & Statistics Sexually Transmitted Diseases Figure 48. Genital Herpes — Initial Visits to Physicians’ Offices, United States, 1966 – ... Statistics page . NOTE : The relative standard errors for genital herpes estimates of more than 100,000 range from ...

  15. Genital Appearance Dissatisfaction: Implications for Women's Genital Image Self-Consciousness, Sexual Esteem, Sexual Satisfaction, and Sexual Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schick, Vanessa R; Calabrese, Sarah K; Rima, Brandi N; Zucker, Alyssa N

    2010-09-01

    Findings regarding the link between body image and sexuality have been equivocal, possibly because of the insensitivity of many of body image measures to potential variability across sensory aspects of the body (e.g., appearance versus odor), individual body parts (e.g., genitalia versus thighs), and social settings (e.g., public versus intimate). The current study refined existing methods of evaluating women's body image in the context of sexuality by focusing upon two highly specified dimensions: satisfaction with the visual appearance of the genitalia and self-consciousness about the genitalia during a sexual encounter. Genital appearance dissatisfaction, genital image self-consciousness, and multiple facets of sexuality were examined with a sample of 217 undergraduate women using an online survey. Path analysis revealed that greater dissatisfaction with genital appearance was associated with higher genital image self-consciousness during physical intimacy, which, in turn, was associated with lower sexual esteem, sexual satisfaction, and motivation to avoid risky sexual behavior. These findings underscore the detrimental impact of negative genital perceptions on young women's sexual wellbeing, which is of particular concern given their vulnerability at this stage of sexual development as well as the high rates of sexually transmitted infections within this age group. Interventions that enhance satisfaction with the natural appearance of their genitalia could facilitate the development of a healthy sexual self-concept and provide long-term benefits in terms of sexual safety and satisfaction.

  16. Prevention and management of genital herpes simplex infection during pregnancy and delivery: Guidelines from the French College of Gynaecologists and Obstetricians (CNGOF).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sénat, Marie-Victoire; Anselem, Olivia; Picone, Olivier; Renesme, Laurent; Sananès, Nicolas; Vauloup-Fellous, Christelle; Sellier, Yann; Laplace, Jean-Pierre; Sentilhes, Loïc

    2018-05-01

    Identify measures to diagnose, prevent, and treat genital herpes infection during pregnancy and childbirth as well as neonatal herpes infection. Bibliographic search from the Medline and Cochrane Library databases and review of international clinical practice guidelines. Genital herpes lesions are most often due to HSV-2 (LE2). The risk of HSV seroconversion during pregnancy is 1-5% (LE2). Genital herpes lesions during pregnancy in a woman with a history of genital herpes is a recurrence. In this situation, there is no need for virologic confirmation (Grade B). In pregnant women with genital lesions who report they have not previously had genital herpes, virological confirmation by PCR and identifying the specific IgG type is necessary (professional consensus). A first episode of genital herpes during pregnancy should be treated with aciclovir (200 mg 5 times daily) or valaciclovir (1000 mg twice daily) for 5-10 days (Grade C), and recurrent herpes during pregnancy with aciclovir (200 mg 5 times daily) or valaciclovir (500 mg twice daily) (Grade C). The risk of neonatal herpes is estimated at between 25% and 44% if a non primary and primary first genital herpes episode is ongoing at delivery (LE2) and 1% for a recurrence (LE3). Antiviral prophylaxis should be offered to women with either a first or recurrent episode of genital herpes during pregnancy from 36 weeks of gestation until delivery (Grade B). Routine prophylaxis is not recommended for women with a history of genital herpes but no recurrence during pregnancy (professional consensus). A cesarean delivery is recommended if a first episode of genital herpes is suspected (or confirmed) at the onset of labor (Grade B) or if it occured less than 6 weeks before delivery (professional consensus) or in the event of premature rupture of the membranes at term. When a recurrence of genital herpes is underway at the onset of labor, cesarean delivery is most likely to be considered when the membranes are

  17. [Impact of female genital mutilation on the millennium goals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Ismael Jiménez; Martínez, María Pilar Almansa; Bravo, María Del Mar Pastor

    2015-01-01

    To relate the Female Genital Mutilation as a negative factor for the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals 1, 3, 4, 5 and 6. Data collection was through review literature review between in the years 2014 and 2015 in the databases Medline/PubMed, Web of Science, LILACS, SCIELO, Tesis Doctorales TESEO and in the webs of WOK, UNICEF, UNAF and WHO using the descriptors: female circumcision, millennium development goals, rights of women. Articles published between years 2010 y 2015, were included and finally 24 articles were selected. The Female Genital Mutilation is based on gender discrimination, and reinforces and encourages the circle of poverty. This practice causes physical complications that may affect the infant mortality and morbidity, complications in pregnancy and childbirth and there is a relationship between the practice and the transmission of human immunodeficiency virus. The fight against Female Genital Mutilation contributes to the achievement of five of the eight Millennium Goals.

  18. Genital mycoplasmosis in rats: a model for intrauterine infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, M B; Peltier, M; Hillier, M; Crenshaw, B; Reyes, L

    2001-09-01

    Microbial infections of the chorioamnion and amniotic fluid have devastating effects on pregnancy outcome and neonatal morbidity and mortality. The mechanisms by which bacterial pathogens cause adverse effects are best addressed by an animal model of the disease with a naturally-occurring pathogen. Intrauterine infection in humans as well as genital mycoplasmosis in humans and rodents is reviewed. We describe a genital infection in rats, which provides a model for the role of infection in pregnancy, pregnancy wastage, low birth weight, and fetal infection. Infection of Sprague-Dawley rats with Mycoplasma pulmonis either vaginally or intravenously resulted in decreased litter size, increased adverse pregnancy outcome, and in utero transmission of the microorganism to the fetus. Mycoplasma pulmonis is an ideal model to study maternal genital infection during pregnancy, the impact of infections on pregnancy outcome, fetal infection, and maternal-fetal immune interactions.

  19. Mucosal immunity in the female genital tract, HIV/AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis Machado, Juliana; da Silva, Marcos Vinícius; Cavellani, Camila Lourencini; dos Reis, Marlene Antônia; Monteiro, Maria Luiza Gonçalves dos Reis; Teixeira, Vicente de Paula Antunes; Miranda Corrêa, Rosana Rosa

    2014-01-01

    Mucosal immunity consists of innate and adaptive immune responses which can be influenced by systemic immunity. Despite having been the subject of intensive studies, it is not fully elucidated what exactly occurs after HIV contact with the female genital tract mucosa. The sexual route is the main route of HIV transmission, with an increased risk of infection in women compared to men. Several characteristics of the female genital tract make it suitable for inoculation, establishment of infection, and systemic spread of the virus, which causes local changes that may favor the development of infections by other pathogens, often called sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). The relationship of these STDs with HIV infection has been widely studied. Here we review the characteristics of mucosal immunity of the female genital tract, its alterations due to HIV/AIDS, and the characteristics of coinfections between HIV/AIDS and the most prevalent STDs.

  20. IL-4-secreting eosinophils promote endometrial stromal cell proliferation and prevent Chlamydia-induced upper genital tract damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicetti Miguel, Rodolfo D; Quispe Calla, Nirk E; Dixon, Darlene; Foster, Robert A; Gambotto, Andrea; Pavelko, Stephen D; Hall-Stoodley, Luanne; Cherpes, Thomas L

    2017-08-15

    Genital Chlamydia trachomatis infections in women typically are asymptomatic and do not cause permanent upper genital tract (UGT) damage. Consistent with this presentation, type 2 innate and T H 2 adaptive immune responses associated with dampened inflammation and tissue repair are elicited in the UGT of Chlamydia -infected women. Primary C. trachomatis infection of mice also causes no genital pathology, but unlike women, does not generate Chlamydia -specific T H 2 immunity. Herein, we explored the significance of type 2 innate immunity for restricting UGT tissue damage in Chlamydia -infected mice, and in initial studies intravaginally infected wild-type, IL-10 -/- , IL-4 -/- , and IL-4Rα -/- mice with low-dose C. trachomatis inoculums. Whereas Chlamydia was comparably cleared in all groups, IL-4 -/- and IL-4Rα -/- mice displayed endometrial damage not seen in wild-type or IL-10 -/- mice. Congruent with the aberrant tissue repair in mice with deficient IL-4 signaling, we found that IL-4Rα and STAT6 signaling mediated IL-4-induced endometrial stromal cell (ESC) proliferation ex vivo, and that genital administration of an IL-4-expressing adenoviral vector greatly increased in vivo ESC proliferation. Studies with IL-4-IRES-eGFP (4get) reporter mice showed eosinophils were the main IL-4-producing endometrial leukocyte (constitutively and during Chlamydia infection), whereas studies with eosinophil-deficient mice identified this innate immune cell as essential for endometrial repair during Chlamydia infection. Together, our studies reveal IL-4-producing eosinophils stimulate ESC proliferation and prevent Chlamydia -induced endometrial damage. Based on these results, it seems possible that the robust type 2 immunity elicited by Chlamydia infection of human genital tissue may analogously promote repair processes that reduce phenotypic disease expression.

  1. Human immunodeficiency viruses appear compartmentalized to the female genital tract in cross-sectional analyses but genital lineages do not persist over time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bull, Marta E; Heath, Laura M; McKernan-Mullin, Jennifer L; Kraft, Kelli M; Acevedo, Luis; Hitti, Jane E; Cohn, Susan E; Tapia, Kenneth A; Holte, Sarah E; Dragavon, Joan A; Coombs, Robert W; Mullins, James I; Frenkel, Lisa M

    2013-04-15

    Whether unique human immunodeficiency type 1 (HIV) genotypes occur in the genital tract is important for vaccine development and management of drug resistant viruses. Multiple cross-sectional studies suggest HIV is compartmentalized within the female genital tract. We hypothesize that bursts of HIV replication and/or proliferation of infected cells captured in cross-sectional analyses drive compartmentalization but over time genital-specific viral lineages do not form; rather viruses mix between genital tract and blood. Eight women with ongoing HIV replication were studied during a period of 1.5 to 4.5 years. Multiple viral sequences were derived by single-genome amplification of the HIV C2-V5 region of env from genital secretions and blood plasma. Maximum likelihood phylogenies were evaluated for compartmentalization using 4 statistical tests. In cross-sectional analyses compartmentalization of genital from blood viruses was detected in three of eight women by all tests; this was associated with tissue specific clades containing multiple monotypic sequences. In longitudinal analysis, the tissues-specific clades did not persist to form viral lineages. Rather, across women, HIV lineages were comprised of both genital tract and blood sequences. The observation of genital-specific HIV clades only in cross-sectional analysis and an absence of genital-specific lineages in longitudinal analyses suggest a dynamic interchange of HIV variants between the female genital tract and blood.

  2. Human Immunodeficiency Viruses Appear Compartmentalized to the Female Genital Tract in Cross-Sectional Analyses but Genital Lineages Do Not Persist Over Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bull, Marta E.; Heath, Laura M.; McKernan-Mullin, Jennifer L.; Kraft, Kelli M.; Acevedo, Luis; Hitti, Jane E.; Cohn, Susan E.; Tapia, Kenneth A.; Holte, Sarah E.; Dragavon, Joan A.; Coombs, Robert W.; Mullins, James I.; Frenkel, Lisa M.

    2013-01-01

    Background. Whether unique human immunodeficiency type 1 (HIV) genotypes occur in the genital tract is important for vaccine development and management of drug resistant viruses. Multiple cross-sectional studies suggest HIV is compartmentalized within the female genital tract. We hypothesize that bursts of HIV replication and/or proliferation of infected cells captured in cross-sectional analyses drive compartmentalization but over time genital-specific viral lineages do not form; rather viruses mix between genital tract and blood. Methods. Eight women with ongoing HIV replication were studied during a period of 1.5 to 4.5 years. Multiple viral sequences were derived by single-genome amplification of the HIV C2-V5 region of env from genital secretions and blood plasma. Maximum likelihood phylogenies were evaluated for compartmentalization using 4 statistical tests. Results. In cross-sectional analyses compartmentalization of genital from blood viruses was detected in three of eight women by all tests; this was associated with tissue specific clades containing multiple monotypic sequences. In longitudinal analysis, the tissues-specific clades did not persist to form viral lineages. Rather, across women, HIV lineages were comprised of both genital tract and blood sequences. Conclusions. The observation of genital-specific HIV clades only in cross-sectional analysis and an absence of genital-specific lineages in longitudinal analyses suggest a dynamic interchange of HIV variants between the female genital tract and blood. PMID:23315326

  3. Post-coital genital injury in healthy women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup, Birgitte Schmidt; Lykkebo, Annemette Wildfang

    2015-01-01

    , a single study of adolescent women, and none regarding post-menopausal women. Larger lesions requiring treatment are described casuistically. The purpose of this article is to provide a short, easy-to-read review of the literature regarding the prevalence and nature of female genital injury following......Female genital injury following penile sexual intercourse in healthy women is a matter of importance and debate in many parts of society. However, the literature on the subject is sparse. There are a few studies regarding minor injury that does not require treatment in adult, pre-menopausal women...... consensual sexual intercourse in otherwise healthy women. Clin. Anat., 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc....

  4. X-ray diagnostics of female genitals in child age

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willich, E.; Benz-Bohm, G.; Koeln Univ.

    1982-01-01

    The experiences of special X-ray diagnostics of female genitals are described, that were made in 41 children within a period of 12 years. The superiority of the X-ray-technique arises from the impossibility of the manual examination in newborn and infants and the avoidance of diagnostic techniques like laparoscopy or laparotomy. All the examination techniques are described. In intersexualmarked patients the discrimination into six types after Shopfner is preferred. Malformations and tumours are dealt with briefly. The relations between skeleton and female genitals are pointed out at the example of the gonadal dysgenesis. (orig.) [de

  5. 2017 European guidelines for the management of genital herpes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Rajul; Kennedy, Oliver J; Clarke, Emily; Geretti, Anna; Nilsen, Arvid; Lautenschlager, Stephan; Green, John; Donders, Gilbert; van der Meijden, Willem; Gomberg, Mikhail; Moi, Harald; Foley, Elizabeth

    2017-12-01

    Genital herpes is one of the commonest sexually transmitted infections worldwide. Using the best available evidence, this guideline recommends strategies for diagnosis, management, and follow-up of the condition as well as for minimising transmission. Early recognition and initiation of therapy is key and may reduce the duration of illness or avoid hospitalisation with complications, including urinary retention, meningism, or severe systemic illness. The guideline covers a range of common clinical scenarios, such as recurrent genital herpes, infection during pregnancy, and co-infection with human immunodeficiency virus.

  6. Atypical extensive genital ulcer in full blown aids with slim disease ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Direct immunofluorescence detection on genital ulcer scraping was negative for Chlamydia trachomatis and Treponema pallidum. Furthermore, the infections with Haemophilus ducreyi and Chlamydia trachomatis were excluded by PCR on genital swabs.Genital PCR was positive for herpes simplex virus (HSV) type 2.

  7. Isolation of herpes simplex virus from the genital tract during symptomatic recurrence on the buttocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerkering, Katrina; Gardella, Carolyn; Selke, Stacy; Krantz, Elizabeth; Corey, Lawrence; Wald, Anna

    2006-10-01

    To estimate the frequency of isolation of herpes simplex virus (HSV) from the genital tract when recurrent herpes lesions were present on the buttocks. Data were extracted from a prospectively observed cohort attending a research clinic for genital herpes infections between 1975 and 2001. All patients with a documented herpes lesion on the buttocks, upper thigh or gluteal cleft ("buttock recurrence") and concomitant viral cultures from genital sites including the perianal region were eligible. We reviewed records of 237 subjects, 151 women and 86 men, with a total of 572 buttock recurrences. Of the 1,592 days with genital culture information during a buttock recurrence, participants had concurrent genital lesions on 311 (20%, 95% confidence interval [CI] 14-27%) of these days. Overall, HSV was isolated from the genital region on 12% (95% CI 8-17%) of days during a buttock recurrence. In the absence of genital lesions, HSV was isolated from the genital area on 7% (95% CI 4%-11%) of days during a buttock recurrence and, among women, from the vulvar or cervical sites on 1% of days. Viral shedding of herpes simplex virus from the genital area is a relatively common occurrence during a buttock recurrence of genital herpes, even without concurrent genital lesions, reflecting perhaps reactivation from concomitant regions of the sacral neural ganglia. Patients with buttock herpes recurrences should be instructed about the risk of genital shedding during such recurrences. II-2.

  8. The cryptic plasmid is more important for Chlamydia muridarum to colonize the mouse gastrointestinal tract than to infect the genital tract.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lili Shao

    Full Text Available Chlamydia has been detected in the gastrointestinal tracts of both animals and humans. However, the mechanism by which Chlamydia colonizes the gut remains unclear. Chlamydia muridarum is known to spread from the genital to the gastrointestinal tracts hematogenously. The C. muridarum plasmid is a key pathogenic determinant in the mouse upper genital tract although plasmid-deficient C. muridarum is still able to colonize the upper genital tract. We now report that plasmid-deficient C. muridarum exhibits significantly delayed/reduced spreading from the mouse genital to the gastrointestinal tracts. C. muridarum with or without plasmid maintained similar levels in the mouse circulatory system following intravenous inoculation but the hematogenous plasmid-deficient C. muridarum was significantly less efficient in colonizing the gastrointestinal tract. Consistently, plasmid-deficient C. muridarum failed to restore normal colonization in the gastrointestinal tract even after intragastric inoculation at a high dose. Thus, we have demonstrated a plasmid-dependent colonization of C. muridarum in the gastrointestinal tract, supporting the concept that C. muridarum may have acquired the plasmid for adaptation to the mouse gastrointestinal tract during oral-fecal transmission. Since the plasmid is more important for C. muridarum to colonize the gastrointestinal tract than to infect the genital tract, the current study has laid a foundation for further defining the host pathways targeted by the plasmid-encoded or -regulated chlamydial effectors.

  9. A trivalent subunit antigen glycoprotein vaccine as immunotherapy for genital herpes in the guinea pig genital infection model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awasthi, Sita; Hook, Lauren M; Shaw, Carolyn E; Friedman, Harvey M

    2017-12-02

    An estimated 417 million people worldwide ages 15 to 49 are infected with herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2), the most common cause of genital ulcer disease. Some individuals experience frequent recurrences of genital lesions, while others only have subclinical infection, yet all risk transmitting infection to their intimate partners. A vaccine was developed that prevents shingles, which is a recurrent infection caused by varicella-zoster virus (VZV), a closely related member of the Herpesviridae family. The success of the VZV vaccine has stimulated renewed interest in a therapeutic vaccine for genital herpes. We have been evaluating a trivalent subunit antigen vaccine for prevention of genital herpes. Here, we assess the trivalent vaccine as immunotherapy in guinea pigs that were previously infected intravaginally with HSV-2. The trivalent vaccine contains HSV-2 glycoproteins C, D, and E (gC2, gD2, gE2) subunit antigens administered with CpG and alum as adjuvants. We previously demonstrated that antibodies to gD2 neutralize the virus while antibodies to gC2 and gE2 block their immune evasion activities, including evading complement attack and inhibiting activities mediated by the IgG Fc domain, respectively. Here, we demonstrate that the trivalent vaccine significantly boosts ELISA titers and neutralizing antibody titers. The trivalent vaccine reduces the frequency of recurrent genital lesions and vaginal shedding of HSV-2 DNA by approximately 50% and almost totally eliminates vaginal shedding of replication-competent virus, suggesting that the trivalent vaccine is a worthy candidate for immunotherapy of genital herpes.

  10. Assessment of economic impact of offshore and coastal discharge requirements on present and future operations in the Gulf of Mexico. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindsey, R.

    1996-06-01

    The high potential costs of compliance associated with new effluent guidelines for offshore and coastal oil and gas operations could significantly affect the economics of finding, developing, and producing oil and gas in the Gulf of Mexico. This report characterizes the potential economic impacts of alternative treatment and discharge regulations for produced water on reserves and production in Gulf of Mexico coastal, territorial and outer continental shelf (OCS) waters, quantifying the impacts of both recent regulatory changes and possible more stringent requirements. The treatment technologies capable of meeting these requirements are characterized in terms of cost, performance, and applicability to coastal and offshore situations. As part of this analysis, an extensive database was constructed that includes oil and gas production forecasts by field, data on existing platforms, and the current treatment methods in place for produced water treatment and disposal on offshore facilities. This work provides the first comprehensive evaluation of the impacts of alternative regulatory requirements for produced water management and disposal in coastal and offshore areas of the Gulf of Mexico

  11. Discharge Planning in Chronic Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMartin, K

    2013-01-01

    Background Chronically ill people experience frequent changes in health status accompanied by multiple transitions between care settings and care providers. Discharge planning provides support services, follow-up activities, and other interventions that span pre-hospital discharge to post-hospital settings. Objective To determine if discharge planning is effective at reducing health resource utilization and improving patient outcomes compared with standard care alone. Data Sources A standard systematic literature search was conducted for studies published from January 1, 2004, until December 13, 2011. Review Methods Reports, randomized controlled trials, systematic reviews, and meta-analyses with 1 month or more of follow-up and limited to specified chronic conditions were examined. Outcomes included mortality/survival, readmissions and emergency department (ED) visits, hospital length of stay (LOS), health-related quality of life (HRQOL), and patient satisfaction. Results One meta-analysis compared individualized discharge planning to usual care and found a significant reduction in readmissions favouring individualized discharge planning. A second meta-analysis compared comprehensive discharge planning with postdischarge support to usual care. There was a significant reduction in readmissions favouring discharge planning with postdischarge support. However, there was significant statistical heterogeneity. For both meta-analyses there was a nonsignificant reduction in mortality between the study arms. Limitations There was difficulty in distinguishing the relative contribution of each element within the terms “discharge planning” and “postdischarge support.” For most studies, “usual care” was not explicitly described. Conclusions Compared with usual care, there was moderate quality evidence that individualized discharge planning is more effective at reducing readmissions or hospital LOS but not mortality, and very low quality evidence that it is more

  12. Quantifying the Behavioral Response of Spawning Chum Salmon to Elevated Discharges from Bonneville Dam, Columbia River : Annual Report 2005-2006.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiffan, Kenneth F.; Haskell, Craig A.; Kock, Tobias J.

    2008-12-01

    riverbed elevation and providing minimum spawning flows that have the greatest chance of being maintained through egg incubation and fry emergence. However, managing the lower Columbia River for a stable tailwater elevation does not provide much operational flexibility at Bonneville Dam, which has little storage capacity. When river discharges increase due to rain events, the traditional approach has been to pass excess water at night to maintain stable tailwater elevations during the daytime. The underlying assumption of this strategy, referred to as reverse load following, is that fish do not spawn at night. However, Tiffan et al. (2005) showed that this assumption is false by documenting nighttime spawning by chum salmon in the Ives Island area. Similarly, McMichael et al. (2005) reported nighttime spawning by Chinook salmon (O. tshawytscha) in the Columbia River, indicating that diel spawning may be a common occurrence in Pacific salmon. During the latter portion of the chum spawning period in December 2003 and 2004, discharges from Bonneville Dam increased from an average of 3,398 m3/s (tailwater elevation {approx} 3.5 m above mean sea level) during the day to over 5,664 m3/s (tailwater elevation {approx} 5.1 m) at night, with peak discharges of 7,080 m{sup 3}/s (tailwater elevation {approx} 6.1 m). This caused concern among fishery managers regarding the potential effects of these high discharges on this population of spawning chum salmon, which is listed under the Endangered Species Act (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 1999). We hypothesized that increased water velocities associated with elevated tailwaters might alter chum salmon spawning behavior if water velocities at redd locations increased beyond the range of suitability (>0.8 m/s; Salo 1991). In 2005, we investigated the movement and behavioral responses of spawning chum salmon at Ives Island to increased tailwater elevations at Bonneville Dam. We used acoustic telemetry to determine if the

  13. The association of bicycle-related genital numbness and Sexual Health Inventory for Men (SHIM) score: results from a large, multinational, cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baradaran, Nima; Awad, Mohannad; Gaither, Thomas W; Fergus, Kirkpatrick B; Ndoye, Medina; Cedars, Benjamin E; Balakrishnan, Ashwin S; Eisenberg, Michael L; Sanford, Tom; Breyer, Benjamin N

    2018-05-23

    To assess the association of genital numbness and erectile dysfunction in male cyclists. Cyclists were recruited through Facebook advertisements and outreach to sporting clubs. This is a secondary analysis of a larger epidemiological population-based study that examined sexual and urinary wellness in athletes. We queried cycling habits and erectile function using Sexual Health Inventory for Men (SHIM). A total of 2 774 male cyclists were included in the analysis. Amongst cyclists, there was a statistically significant increase in the trend of genital numbness presence with more years of cycling (P = 0.002), more frequent weekly cycling (P biking intensity. Cyclists report genital numbness in proportion with biking intensity but numbness is not associated with worse sexual function in this cohort. © 2018 The Authors BJU International © 2018 BJU International Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. An investigation of genital ulcers in Jackson, Mississippi, with use of a multiplex polymerase chain reaction assay: high prevalence of chancroid and human immunodeficiency virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertz, K J; Weiss, J B; Webb, R M; Levine, W C; Lewis, J S; Orle, K A; Totten, P A; Overbaugh, J; Morse, S A; Currier, M M; Fishbein, M; St Louis, M E

    1998-10-01

    In 1994, an apparent outbreak of atypical genital ulcers was noted by clinicians at the sexually transmitted disease clinic in Jackson, Mississippi. Of 143 patients with ulcers tested with a multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay, 56 (39%) were positive for Haemophilus ducreyi, 44 (31%) for herpes simplex virus, and 27 (19%) for Treponema pallidum; 12 (8%) were positive for > 1 organism. Of 136 patients tested for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) by serology, 14 (10%) were HIV-seropositive, compared with none of 200 patients without ulcers (P chancroid were significantly more likely than male patients without ulcers to report sex with a crack cocaine user, exchange of money or drugs for sex, and multiple sex partners. The strong association between genital ulcers and HIV infection in this population highlights the urgency of preventing genital ulcers in the southern United States.

  15. Short limbed dwarfism, genital hypoplasia, sparse hair, and vertebral anomalies: a variant of Ellis-van Creveld syndrome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fryns, J P; Moerman, P

    1993-01-01

    A male newborn with acromesomelic short limbed dwarfism, genital hypoplasia, and vertebral anomalies is reported. As the child had an important number of clinical and radiological symptoms seen in patients with Ellis-van Creveld syndrome, we raise the question of whether he may represent a variant example of this syndrome despite the absence of cardinal symptoms such as postaxial polydactyly and ectodermal changes (nail hypoplasia). Images PMID:8487282

  16. Short limbed dwarfism, genital hypoplasia, sparse hair, and vertebral anomalies: a variant of Ellis-van Creveld syndrome?

    OpenAIRE

    Fryns, J P; Moerman, P

    1993-01-01

    A male newborn with acromesomelic short limbed dwarfism, genital hypoplasia, and vertebral anomalies is reported. As the child had an important number of clinical and radiological symptoms seen in patients with Ellis-van Creveld syndrome, we raise the question of whether he may represent a variant example of this syndrome despite the absence of cardinal symptoms such as postaxial polydactyly and ectodermal changes (nail hypoplasia).

  17. El pene voluntarioso: parcialidad de la pulsión genital. // The self-willed penis: partiality of the genital drive.

    OpenAIRE

    Fredy Ricardo Moreno Chia.

    2008-01-01

    This work, besides presenting the characteristics of the so-called genital stage regarding the alterations each one of the components of the drive suffer, examines the idea that the genital stage constitutes the integration —either biological or psychic— of the partial drives. In this sense, it aims to show, based on descriptions done by several thinkers not necessarily psychoanalysts, that the genitality, at least in its male version, turns out to be problematic since it introduces a relatio...

  18. Human Immunodeficiency Viruses Appear Compartmentalized to the Female Genital Tract in Cross-Sectional Analyses but Genital Lineages Do Not Persist Over Time

    OpenAIRE

    Bull, Marta E.; Heath, Laura M.; McKernan-Mullin, Jennifer L.; Kraft, Kelli M.; Acevedo, Luis; Hitti, Jane E.; Cohn, Susan E.; Tapia, Kenneth A.; Holte, Sarah E.; Dragavon, Joan A.; Coombs, Robert W.; Mullins, James I.; Frenkel, Lisa M.

    2013-01-01

    Background. Whether unique human immunodeficiency type 1 (HIV) genotypes occur in the genital tract is important for vaccine development and management of drug resistant viruses. Multiple cross-sectional studies suggest HIV is compartmentalized within the female genital tract. We hypothesize that bursts of HIV replication and/or proliferation of infected cells captured in cross-sectional analyses drive compartmentalization but over time genital-specific viral lineages do not form; rather viru...

  19. Effect of female genital mutilation on female sexual function ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    52.6% of cases were convinced with FGM. Conclusion: FGM was a risk factor for dysmenorrhea, obstructed labor and postpartum hemorrhage. Cases had lower mean sexual function; moreover, half of them convinced with FGM practice and with its continuation. Keywords: Female genital mutilation; Female sexual function; ...

  20. An institutional survey of female genital mutilation in Lagos, South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Female genital mutilation (FGM) as a procedure can have serious physical and psychological health consequences in girls and women. Objectives: To determine the prevalence of FGM and the socio-demographic factors which influence the practice among women in Lagos State. Methods: This was a ...

  1. Genital tract morphometry and haematology of male rabbits fed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Genital tract morphometry and haematology of male rabbits fed graded levels of cassava leaf meal. ... It was concluded that the inclusion of up to 27% of CLM in bucks' diets is not detrimental to good health and normal reproductive tract development. It is recommended that further studies on the feeding potentials of ...

  2. The Jewish and Christian view on female genital mutilation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    I. El-Damanhoury

    Abstract. Female genital mutilation (FGM) is a practice involving the removal of all or parts of the female external genitalia. It has been documented in 28 African countries and in some countries in Asia and the Middle. East, but due to increasing immigration from these countries to the western world, FGM has become a.

  3. Genital ulcers as diagnostic clue for acute myeloid leukaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schröder, Sina D; Krause, Stefan W; Erfurt-Berge, Cornelia

    2018-04-23

    Acute myeloid leukaemia is a myeloid neoplasm with an extremely varying clinical appearance. Skin lesions are common for specific subtypes of acute myeloid leukaemia but are often misinterpreted. Here, we present a case of acute myeloid leukaemia in a young woman exhibiting genital ulcerations and gingival erosions. © 2018 Medicalhelplines.com Inc and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Genital tuberculosis is common among females with tubal factor ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: We conducted a prospective observational study in Al Thawra General Hospital (from March 2012 to February 2014). Of a total 151 women who had tubal factor infertility, 61 cases were investigated for genital tuberculosis. Women who were found to have the disease were treated by antitubercular therapy and the ...

  5. INFANT-FEMALE GENITAL MUTILATION (IFGM) IN CITIES AND ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BLESSING

    Empirical data was collected through focused group discussion and in-depth ... FGM has been one of the central concern/focus of scholars, local and ... seem to be preference for „infant girl/female‟ child genital mutilation than for adult or teenage ... goodies like wrappers, cloths, food items like fish and bags of rice for her ...

  6. Genital Ulcers and Sexual Transmitted Disease in Rural Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Casual sex was a dominant behavioural pattern. The phenomenon of denial was encountered in females. STDs are not uncommon in rural Nigeria. Integration of Sexual health in rural health, family health, and school health is urgently needed. Key Words: Genital ulcers, STDs, Rural Nigeria Jnl of Medical Investigation and ...

  7. Impact of Female Genital Mutilation on Sexual Functioning, Self ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Impact of Female Genital Mutilation on Sexual Functioning, Self-Esteem and Marital Instability of Women in Ajegunle. ... Awareness about the adverse consequences of FGM should be intensified and psychological treatment especially post-traumatic stress disorder intervention for circumcised women is recommended.

  8. Voluntary Genital Ablations: Contrasting the Cutters and Their Clients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robyn A. Jackowich, BA

    2014-08-01

    Conclusions: This study may help identify individuals who are at risk of performing illegal castrations. That information may help healthcare providers protect individuals with extreme castration ideations from injuring themselves or others. Jackowich RA, Vale R, Vale K, Wassersug RJ, and Johnson TW. Voluntary genital ablations: Contrasting the cutters and their clients. Sex Med 2014;2:121–132.

  9. Automated detection and categorization of genital injuries using digital colposcopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernandes, Kelwin; Cardoso, Jaime S.; Astrup, Birgitte Schmidt

    2017-01-01

    handcrafted features and deep learning techniques in the automated processing of colposcopic images for genital injury detection. Positive results where achieved by both paradigms in segmentation and classification subtasks, being traditional and deep models the best strategy for each subtask type...

  10. Factors and Problems Related to Female Genital Mutilation as Seen ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To determine the aetiological factors and problems related to female genital mutilation as seen in children at St. Gaspar Hospital. Data source: Secondary data were obtained from St. Gaspar Hospital, records, registers and patients files or case notes from children ward were retrieved and reviewed, later a special ...

  11. Knowledge, attitude and practice of female genital mutilation among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    McRoy

    International Journal of Medicine and Biomedical Research. Volume 2 Issue 1 January – April 2013 www.ijmbr.com ... female genital organs for non-medical reasons.[1] The various terms emerged in an attempt to balance varying .... cannot be said to be a done deal in Bayelsa state. Of greater concern is the fact that health.

  12. Newer trends in the management of genital herpes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nath Amiya

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Management of genital herpes is complex. Apart from using the standard antivirals, an ideal management protocol also needs to address various aspects of the disease, including the psychological morbidity. Oral acyclovir, valacyclovir or famciclovir are recommended for routine use. Long-term suppressive therapy is effective in reducing the number of recurrences and the risk of transmission to others. Severe or disseminated disease may require intravenous therapy. Resistant cases are managed with foscarnet or cidofovir. Genital herpes in human immunodeficiency virus-infected individuals usually needs a longer duration of antiviral therapy along with continuation of highly active anti retroviral therapy (HAART. Genital herpes in late pregnancy increases the risk of neonatal herpes. Antiviral therapy and/or cesarean delivery are indicated depending on the clinical circumstance. Acyclovir appears to be safe in pregnancy. But, there is limited data regarding the use of valacyclovir and famciclovir in pregnancy. Neonatal herpes requires a higher dose of acyclovir given intravenously for a longer duration. Management of the sex partner, counseling and prevention advice are equally important in appropriate management of genital herpes. Vaccines till date have been marginally effective. Helicase-primase inhibitors, needle-free mucosal vaccine and a new microbicide product named VivaGel may become promising treatment options in the future.

  13. Postmenopausal bleeding: causes and risk of genital tract malignancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dawood, N.S.; Peter, K.; Ibrar, F.; Dawood, A.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Postmenopausal bleeding (PMB) is bleeding occurring after 6-12 months of amenorrhea in a woman of age where the menopause can be expected. Objectives of this study were to ascertain various causes and prevalence of genital organ malignancy in patients presenting with postmenopausal bleeding. Methods: A prospective observational study carried out in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Fauji Foundation Hospital, Rawalpindi comprising of 167 consecutive cases presenting with postmenopausal bleeding one year after menopause. Women having undergone hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy, receiving radiotherapy or chemotherapy, suffered trauma to the genital tract, having coagulation disorder or on anticoagulant or hormone replacement therapy were excluded. Detailed history was obtained and a thorough clinical examination was conducted. Data were entered into hospital computer database (Medix) system. Mean +- SD were calculated for age, percentage was calculated for types of histopathological findings. Results: The commonest cause of PMB was atrophic endometritis and vaginitis 33 (21.2%). Overall incidence of various genital tract malignancies was 25 (16.0%). Conclusion: The overall incidence of genital tract malignancies in patients presenting with PMB is high (16.0%), therefore, it needs to be taken seriously and requires prompt and thorough investigations. (author)

  14. The Frequency and Pattern of Female Genital Tract Malignancies at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The acquired immune deficiency syndrome has considerably altered the pattern of female genital cancers.[1]. In developed countries, the introduction of routine screening and treatment for premalignant lesions of the cervix has lead to a dramatic fall in the incidence and mortality of cervical cancer over the past five decades.

  15. Lymphomas of the female genital tract in Ibadan | Odukogbe ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Study Design: Records of subjects were analysed for their sociodemographic and clinicopathological characteristics, recruiting only those who satisfy the criteria for diagnosing genital tract lymphomas according to Kosari et al1. Retrievable archival paraffin blocks of subjects were also analysed using immunophenotyping.

  16. Knowledge, attitude and practice of female genital mutilation among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Female genital mutilation (FGM) is a harmful traditional practice that is deeply rooted in Africa. It has been outlawed in Bayelsa state of Nigeria but there is evidence that its performance by traditional circumcisers and health professionals continues. Aim: The study aimed to determine the knowledge, attitude ...

  17. Gurya cutting and female genital fistulas in Niger: ten cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouedraogo, Itengre; McConley, Regina; Payne, Christopher; Heller, Alison; Wall, L Lewis

    2018-03-01

    The objective was to determine the contribution of female genital cutting to genital fistula formation in Niger from the case records of a specialist fistula hospital. A retrospective review was undertaken of the records of 360 patients seen at the Danja Fistula Center, Danja, Niger, between March 2014 and September 2016. Pertinent clinical and socio-demographic data were abstracted from the cases identified. A total of 10 fistulas resulting from gurya cutting was obtained: 9 cases of urethral loss and 1 rectovaginal fistula. In none of the cases was genital cutting performed for obstructed labor or as part of ritual coming-of-age ceremonies, but all cutting procedures were considered "therapeutic" within the local cultural context as treatment for dyspareunia, lack of interest in or unwillingness to engage in sexual intercourse, or female behavior that was deemed to be culturally inappropriate by the male spouse, parents, or in-laws. Clinical cure (fistula closed and the patient continent) was obtained in all 10 cases, although 3 women required more than one operation. Gurya cutting is an uncommon, but preventable, cause of genital fistulas in Niger. The socio-cultural context which gives rise to gurya cutting is explored in some detail.

  18. DNA immunization against experimental genital herpes simplex virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourne, N; Stanberry, L R; Bernstein, D I; Lew, D

    1996-04-01

    A nucleic acid vaccine, expressing the gene encoding herpes simplex virus (HSV) type 2 glycoprotein D (gD2) under control of the cytomegalovirus immediate-early gene promoter, was used to immunize guinea pigs against genital HSV-2 infection. The vaccine elicited humoral immune responses comparable to those seen after HSV-2 infection. Immunized animals exhibited protection from primary genital HSV-2 disease with little or no development of vesicular skin lesions and significantly reduced HSV-2 replication in the genital tract. After recovery from primary infection, immunized guinea pigs experienced significantly fewer recurrences and had significantly less HSV-2 genomic DNA detected in the sacral dorsal root ganglia compared with control animals. Thus, immunization reduced the burden of latent infection resulting from intravaginal HSV-2 challenge, and a nucleic acid vaccine expressing the HSV-2 gD2 antigen protected guinea pigs against genital herpes, limiting primary infection and reducing the magnitude of latent infection and the frequency of recurrent disease.

  19. Genital herpes simplex virus infections: clinical manifestations, course, and complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corey, L; Adams, H G; Brown, Z A; Holmes, K K

    1983-06-01

    The clinical course and complications of 268 patients with first episodes and 362 with recurrent episodes of genital herpes infection were reviewed. Symptoms of genital herpes were more severe in women than in men. Primary first-episode genital herpes was accompanied by systemic symptoms (67%), local pain and itching (98%), dysuria (63%), and tender adenopathy (80%). Patients presented with several bilaterally distributed postular ulcerative lesions that lasted a mean of 19.0 days. Herpes simplex virus was isolated from the urethra, cervix, and pharynx of 82%, 88%, and 13% of women with first-episode primary genital herpes, and the urethra and pharynx of 28% and 7% of men. Complications included aseptic meningitis (8%), sacral autonomic nervous system dysfunction (2%), development of extragenital lesions (20%), and secondary yeast infections (11%). Recurrent episodes were characterized by small vesicular or ulcerative unilaterally distributed lesions that lasted a mean of 10.1 days. Systemic symptoms were uncommon and 25% of recurrent episodes were asymptomatic. The major concerns of patients were the frequency of recurrences and fear of transmitting infection to partners or infants.

  20. Bloody nipple discharge in a 7-month-old boy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Zaid, Ahmed

    2011-10-01

    Isolated bloody nipple discharge is rare in infancy and is usually idiopathic. Discharge commonly resolves spontaneously, and ultrasonography is a useful diagnostic technique to detect the cause of discharge. The authors report a 7-month-old boy who presented with unilateral spontaneous bloody nipple discharge for 1 month without signs of infection or mass.

  1. Penoscrotal elephantiasis: Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Jędrowiak

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Genital elephantiasis is characterized by massive growth of genitals as a result of chronic lymphedema caused by numerous infectious and noninfectiuos triggers. In most cases it occurs in filarial endemic zones and is rarely encountered in developed nations. Herein, we report a case of 33-year-old previously healthy patient who presented with rapid penoscrostal enlargement and systemic signs due to probable streptococcal contagion after a surgical treatment of phimosis subsequently complicated with chronic penoscrotal lymphedema. Genital elephantiasis is usually irreversible with systemic therapy alone and frequently requires surgical procedures following the acute stage of the disease.

  2. Penoscrotal elephantiasis: Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Jędrowiak

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Genital elephantiasis is characterized by massive growth of genitals as a result of chronic lymphedema caused by numerous infectious and noninfectiuos triggers. In most cases it occurs in filarial endemic zones and is rarely encountered in developed nations. Herein, we report a case of 33-year-old previously healthy patient who presented with rapid penoscrostal enlargement and systemic signs due to probable streptococcal contagion after a surgical treatment of phimosis subsequently complicated with chronic penoscrotal lymphedema. Genital elephantiasis is usually irreversible with systemic therapy alone and frequently requires surgical procedures following the acute stage of the disease

  3. Outbreak of Late-onset Group B Streptococcal Infections in Healthy Newborn Infants after Discharge from a Maternity Hospital: A Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Hyung Jin; Kim, Soo Young; Seo, Won Hee; Choi, Byung Min; Yoo, Young; Lee, Kee Hyoung; Eun, Baik Lin; Kim, Hai Joong

    2006-01-01

    During a four-week period, four healthy term newborn infants born at a regional maternity hospital in Korea developed late-onset neonatal group B Streptococcus (GBS) infections, after being discharged from the same nursery. More than 10 days after their discharge, all of the infants developed fever, lethargy, and poor feeding behavior, and were subsequently admitted to the Korea University Medical Center, Ansan Hospital. GBS was isolated from the blood cultures of three babies; furthermore, G...

  4. Distribution of female genital tract anomalies in two classifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinonen, Pentti K

    2016-11-01

    This study assessed the distribution of Müllerian duct anomalies in two verified classifications of female genital tract malformations, and the presence of associated renal defects. 621 women with confirmed female genital tract anomalies were retrospectively grouped under the European (ESHRE/ESGE) and the American (AFS) classification. The diagnosis of uterine malformation was based on findings in hysterosalpingography, two-dimensional ultrasonography, endoscopies, laparotomy, cesarean section and magnetic resonance imaging in 97.3% of cases. Renal status was determined in 378 patients, including 5 with normal uterus and vagina. The European classification covered all 621 women studied. Uterine anomalies without cervical or vaginal anomaly were found in 302 (48.6%) patients. Uterine anomaly was associated with vaginal anomaly in 45.2%, and vaginal anomaly alone was found in 26 (4.2%) cases. Septate uterus was the most common (49.1%) of all genital tract anomalies, followed by bicorporeal uteri (18.2%). The American classification covered 590 (95%) out of the 621 women with genital tract anomalies. The American system did not take into account vaginal anomalies in 170 (34.7%) and cervical anomalies in 174 (35.5%) out of 490 cases with uterine malformations. Renal abnormalities were found in 71 (18.8%) out of 378 women, unilateral renal agenesis being the most common defect (12.2%), also found in 4 women without Müllerian duct anomaly. The European classification sufficiently covered uterine and vaginal abnormalities. The distribution of the main uterine anomalies was equal in both classifications. The American system missed cervical and vaginal anomalies associated with uterine anomalies. Evaluation of renal system is recommended for all patients with genital tract anomalies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Adhesion Molecules Associated with Female Genital Tract Infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamal Qualai

    Full Text Available Efforts to develop vaccines that can elicit mucosal immune responses in the female genital tract against sexually transmitted infections have been hampered by an inability to measure immune responses in these tissues. The differential expression of adhesion molecules is known to confer site-dependent homing of circulating effector T cells to mucosal tissues. Specific homing molecules have been defined that can be measured in blood as surrogate markers of local immunity (e.g. α4β7 for gut. Here we analyzed the expression pattern of adhesion molecules by circulating effector T cells following mucosal infection of the female genital tract in mice and during a symptomatic episode of vaginosis in women. While CCR2, CCR5, CXCR6 and CD11c were preferentially expressed in a mouse model of Chlamydia infection, only CCR5 and CD11c were clearly expressed by effector T cells during bacterial vaginosis in women. Other homing molecules previously suggested as required for homing to the genital mucosa such as α4β1 and α4β7 were also differentially expressed in these patients. However, CD11c expression, an integrin chain rarely analyzed in the context of T cell immunity, was the most consistently elevated in all activated effector CD8+ T cell subsets analyzed. This molecule was also induced after systemic infection in mice, suggesting that CD11c is not exclusive of genital tract infection. Still, its increase in response to genital tract disorders may represent a novel surrogate marker of mucosal immunity in women, and warrants further exploration for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes.

  6. Is incidence of multiple HPV genotypes rising in genital infections?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Sohrabi

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Frequency of cervical cancer related to Human Papilloma Virus (HPV has increased remarkably in less-developed countries. Hence, applying capable diagnostic methods is urgently needed, as is having a therapeutic strategy as an effective step for cervical cancer prevention. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of various multi-type HPV infection patterns and their possible rising incidence in women with genital infections.This descriptive study was conducted on women who attended referral clinical laboratories in Tehran for genital infections from January 2012 until December 2013. A total of 1387 archival cervical scraping and lesion specimens were collected from referred women. HPV genotyping was performed using approved HPV commercial diagnostic technologies with either INNO-LiPA HPV or Geno Array Test kits.HPV was positive in 563 cases (40.59% with mean age of 32.35 ± 9.96. Single, multiple HPV genotypes and untypable cases were detected in 398 (70.69%, 160 (28.42% and 5 (0.89% cases, respectively. Multiple HPV infections were detected in 92 (57.5%, 42 (26.2%, 17 (10.6% and 9 (5.7% cases as two, three, four and five or more genotypes, respectively. The prevalence of 32 HPV genotypes was determined one by one. Seventeen HPV genotypes were identified in 95.78% of all positive infections. Five dominant genotypes, HPV6, 16, 53, 11 and 31, were identified in a total of 52.35%of the HPV positive cases.In the present study, we were able to evaluate the rate of multiple HPV types in genital infections. Nevertheless, it is necessary to evaluate the role of the dominant HPV low-risk types and the new probably high-risk genotypes, such as HPV53, in the increasing incidences of genital infections. Keywords: Multiple HPV Types, Incidence, Genital infection, Cervical cancer, Iran

  7. Genital diseases awareness in young male students: Is information necessary to protect them?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Mondaini

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Few studies on the prevalence of male sexual diseases are currently available due to difficult application of observational studies or andrological disease prevention campaigns on large series of apparently healthy subjects. The medical check-up linked to compulsory military service represented in Italy a valid tool for epidemiological and observational study for 18 year old boys from 1861 to 2004. The stopping of compulsory military service and its related medical check-up could have determined an important social impact in terms of a lower level of attention and care on male genital/sexual diseases. The aim of the present observational study was to check the prevalence of genital/ sexual diseases among young male high-school students and promote an alternative campaign of information among young students. Methods: A prospective observational analytical study on young male students was conducted by 6 urological centres. Genital and sexually transmitted diseases were presented with slides to students in a general assembly. Some students were then counselled and filled out a short questionnaire on their lifestyle. Results: 12,535 students (10,432 males-83.6% followed the presentation. and 4,897 males (46.7% decided to be checked-up by the urologist and out of them 1554 (31.7% presented relevant andrological diseases. Five-hundred students completed the questionnaire concerning their lifestyle. Many of them had not yet experienced condom use during sexual intercourse (27.8%. Drug abuse was reported by 39.6% of subjects and alcohol consumption in 80.8% of them. Conclusions: These data suggest the need for a national information campaign on male sexual disorders to promote sexual health.

  8. Genital Herpes Simplex Virus Type 2 Shedding Among Adults With and Without HIV Infection in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phipps, Warren; Nakku-Joloba, Edith; Krantz, Elizabeth M; Selke, Stacy; Huang, Meei-Li; Kambugu, Fred; Orem, Jackson; Casper, Corey; Corey, Lawrence; Wald, Anna

    2016-02-01

    Despite the high prevalence of herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) in sub-Saharan Africa, the natural history of infection among Africans is not well characterized. We evaluated the frequency of genital HSV shedding in HIV-seropositive and HIV-seronegative men and women in Uganda. Ninety-three HSV-2-seropositive Ugandan adults collected anogenital swab specimens for HSV DNA quantification by polymerase chain reaction 3 times daily for 6 weeks. HSV-2 was detected from 2484 of 11 283 swab specimens collected (22%), with a median quantity of 4.3 log10 HSV copies/mL (range, 2.2-8.9 log10 HSV copies/mL). Genital lesions were reported on 749 of 3875 days (19%), and subclinical HSV shedding was detected from 1480 of 9113 swab specimens (16%) collected on days without lesions. Men had higher rates of total HSV shedding (relative risk [RR], 2.0 [95% confidence interval {CI}, 1.3-2.9]; P genital lesions (RR, 2.1 [95% CI, 1.2-3.4]; P = .005), compared with women. No differences in shedding rates or lesion frequency were observed based on HIV serostatus. HSV-2 shedding frequency and quantity are high among HSV-2-seropositive adults in sub-Saharan Africa, including persons with and those without HIV infection. Shedding rates were particularly high among men, which may contribute to the high prevalence of HSV-2 and early acquisition among African women. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Medroxyprogesterone acetate and levonorgestrel increase genital mucosal permeability and enhance susceptibility to genital herpes simplex virus type 2 infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quispe Calla, N E; Vicetti Miguel, R D; Boyaka, P N; Hall-Stoodley, L; Kaur, B; Trout, W; Pavelko, S D; Cherpes, T L

    2016-11-01

    Depot-medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA) is a hormonal contraceptive especially popular in areas with high prevalence of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STI). Although observational studies identify DMPA as an important STI risk factor, mechanisms underlying this connection are undefined. Levonorgestrel (LNG) is another progestin used for hormonal contraception, but its effect on STI susceptibility is much less explored. Using a mouse model of genital herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) infection, we herein found that DMPA and LNG similarly reduced genital expression of the desmosomal cadherin desmoglein-1α (DSG1α), enhanced access of inflammatory cells to genital tissue by increasing mucosal epithelial permeability, and increased susceptibility to viral infection. Additional studies with uninfected mice revealed that DMPA-mediated increases in mucosal permeability promoted tissue inflammation by facilitating endogenous vaginal microbiota invasion. Conversely, concomitant treatment of mice with DMPA and intravaginal estrogen restored mucosal barrier function and prevented HSV-2 infection. Evaluating ectocervical biopsy tissue from women before and 1 month after initiating DMPA remarkably revealed that inflammation and barrier protection were altered by treatment identically to changes seen in progestin-treated mice. Together, our work reveals DMPA and LNG diminish the genital mucosal barrier; a first-line defense against all STI, but may offer foundation for new contraceptive strategies less compromising of barrier protection.

  10. Incorporating uncertainty into mercury-offset decisions with a probabilistic network for National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permit holders: an interim report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Alexander

    2004-01-01

    This interim report describes an alternative approach for evaluating the efficacy of using mercury (Hg) offsets to improve water quality. Hg-offset programs may allow dischargers facing higher-pollution control costs to meet their regulatory obligations by making more cost effective pollutant-reduction decisions. Efficient Hg management requires methods to translate that science and economics into a regulatory decision framework. This report documents the work in progress by the U.S. Geological Surveys Western Geographic Science Center in collaboration with Stanford University toward developing this decision framework to help managers, regulators, and other stakeholders decide whether offsets can cost effectively meet the Hg total maximum daily load (TMDL) requirements in the Sacramento River watershed. Two key approaches being considered are: (1) a probabilistic approach that explicitly incorporates scientific uncertainty, cost information, and value judgments; and (2) a quantitative approach that captures uncertainty in testing the feasibility of Hg offsets. Current fate and transport-process models commonly attempt to predict chemical transformations and transport pathways deterministically. However, the physical, chemical, and biologic processes controlling the fate and transport of Hg in aquatic environments are complex and poorly understood. Deterministic models of Hg environmental behavior contain large uncertainties, reflecting this lack of understanding. The uncertainty in these underlying physical processes may produce similarly large uncertainties in the decisionmaking process. However, decisions about control strategies are still being made despite the large uncertainties in current Hg loadings, the relations between total Hg (HgT) loading and methylmercury (MeHg) formation, and the relations between control efforts and Hg content in fish. The research presented here focuses on an alternative analytical approach to the current use of safety factors and

  11. Vessel Sewage Discharges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vessel sewage discharges are regulated under Section 312 of the Clean Water Act, which is jointly implemented by the EPA and Coast Guard. This homepage links to information on marine sanitation devices and no discharge zones.

  12. Therapeutic benefits of carbon dioxide (CO2) laser on single-site HPV lesions in the lower female genital tract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urru, Giovanni; Moretti, Gianfranco

    1998-01-01

    Numerous studies have shown contradictory variable percentages of recurrent HPV lesions, after various therapies. The present study therefore evaluates the effectiveness of CO2 laser vaporization in the treatment of single-site HPV lesions of the lower female genital tract in order to confirm the conviction that physical therapy alone, in agreement with some findings reported in the literature, is capable of guaranteeing a high cure rate in selected patients. From January 1995 to June 1996, seventy- five female patients were treated with CO2 laser vaporization for single-site genital HPV lesions, some of which were associated with low-grade intra-epithelial neoplasia. The success rate after 12 months proved to be 97%. The pre-existing clinical symptoms disappeared in all the patients treated. No complication in the vaporization procedure was encountered.

  13. Discharge characteristics of copper vapor laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nemoto, Koshichi; Fujii, Takashi

    1988-01-01

    This report describes about the copper vapor laser and experimental results of it's discharge characteristics. We measured time varing of plasma regist, and analyzed electron density. (1) The plasma regist is larger than 100Ω at the beginning of discharge, and is rapidly reduced to about 10Ω. (2) The electron density is estimated about 1∼2 x 10 12 /cc at the begining of discharge. (author)

  14. Secondary mechanisms in a gas discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fletcher, J.; Blevin, H.A.

    1978-05-01

    The technique for studying swarms of electrons in a gas discharge by observing the photon flux from the discharge has been adapted to investigate the role of the secondary mechanisms. First results, reported here, show that, contrary to previous indications, ion bombardment of the cathode plays only a negligible, if any, part in the low pressure discharge in hydrogen at E/N approx. less than 200Td

  15. Early discharge following birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, Ingrid M. S.; Kronborg, Hanne; Knight, Christopher H.

    2017-01-01

    .26–0.48) and primiparous compared to multiparous had an OR of 0.22 (CI 0.17–0.29) for early discharge. Other predictors for early discharge were: no induction of labour, no epidural painkiller, bleeding less than 500 ml during delivery, higher gestational age, early expected discharge and positive breastfeeding experience...

  16. Heart attack - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and lifestyle Cholesterol - drug treatment Controlling your high blood pressure Deep vein thrombosis - discharge Dietary fats explained Fast food tips Heart attack - discharge Heart attack - what to ask your doctor Heart bypass ... pacemaker - discharge High blood pressure - what to ask your doctor How to read ...

  17. Estimates of the timing of reductions in genital warts and high grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia after onset of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chesson, Harrell W; Ekwueme, Donatus U; Saraiya, Mona; Dunne, Eileen F; Markowitz, Lauri E

    2013-08-20

    The objective of this study was to estimate the number of years after onset of a quadrivalent HPV vaccination program before notable reductions in genital warts and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) will occur in teenagers and young adults in the United States. We applied a previously published model of HPV vaccination in the United States and focused on the timing of reductions in genital warts among both sexes and reductions in CIN 2/3 among females. Using different coverage scenarios, the lowest being consistent with current 3-dose coverage in the United States, we estimated the number of years before reductions of 10%, 25%, and 50% would be observed after onset of an HPV vaccination program for ages 12-26 years. The model suggested female-only HPV vaccination in the intermediate coverage scenario will result in a 10% reduction in genital warts within 2-4 years for females aged 15-19 years and a 10% reduction in CIN 2/3 among females aged 20-29 years within 7-11 years. Coverage had a major impact on when reductions would be observed. For example, in the higher coverage scenario a 25% reduction in CIN2/3 would be observed with 8 years compared with 15 years in the lower coverage scenario. Our model provides estimates of the potential timing and magnitude of the impact of HPV vaccination on genital warts and CIN 2/3 at the population level in the United States. Notable, population-level impacts of HPV vaccination on genital warts and CIN 2/3 can occur within a few years after onset of vaccination, particularly among younger age groups. Our results are generally consistent with early reports of declines in genital warts among youth. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Young women's genital self-image and effects of exposure to pictures of natural vulvas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laan, Ellen; Martoredjo, Daphne K; Hesselink, Sara; Snijders, Nóinín; van Lunsen, Rik H W

    2017-12-01

    Many women have doubts about the normality of the physical appearance of their vulvas. This study measured genital self-image in a convenience sample of college-educated women, and assessed whether exposure to pictures of natural vulvas influenced their genital self-image. Forty-three women were either shown pictures of natural vulvas (N = 29) or pictures of neutral objects (N = 14). Genital self-image was measured before and after exposure to the pictures and two weeks later. Sexual function, sexual distress, self-esteem and trait anxiety were measured to investigate whether these factors influenced genital self-image scores after vulva picture exposure. A majority of the participants felt generally positively about their genitals. Having been exposed to pictures of natural vulvas resulted in an even more positive genital self-image, irrespective of levels of sexual function, sexual distress, self-esteem and trait anxiety. In the women who had seen the vulva pictures, the positive effect on genital self-image was still present after two weeks. The results of this study seem to indicate that even in young women with a relatively positive genital self-image, exposure to pictures of a large variety of natural vulvas positively affects genital self-image. This finding may suggest that exposure to pictures of natural vulvas may also lead to a more positive genital self-image in women who consider labiaplasty.

  19. Analysis of Multipactor Discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lau, Y. Y.

    2005-01-01

    Several comprehensive studies of radio frequency (rf) breakdown and rf heating are reported. They are of general interest to magnetic confinement fusion, rf linac, and high power microwave source development. The major results include: (1) a ground-breaking theory of multipactor discharge on dielectric, including a successful proof-of-principle experiment that verified the newly developed scaling laws, (2) an in depth investigation of the failure mechanisms of diamond windows and ceramic windows, and of the roles of graphitization, thin films of coating and contaminants, and (3) a most comprehensive theory, to date, on the heating of particulates by an electromagnetic pulse, and on the roles of rf magnetic field heating and of rf electric field heating, including the construction of new scaling laws that govern them. The above form a valuable knowledge base for the general problem of heating phenomenology

  20. Design of the FemCure study: prospective multicentre study on the transmission of genital and extra-genital Chlamydia trachomatis infections in women receiving routine care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dukers-Muijrers, Nicole H. T. M.; Wolffs, Petra F. G.; Eppings, Lisanne; Götz, Hannelore M.; Bruisten, Sylvia M.; Schim van der Loeff, Maarten F.; Janssen, Kevin; Lucchesi, Mayk; Heijman, Titia; van Benthem, Birgit H.; van Bergen, Jan E.; Morre, Servaas A.; Herbergs, Jos; Kok, Gerjo; Steenbakkers, Mieke; Hogewoning, Arjan A.; de Vries, Henry J.; Hoebe, Christian J. P. A.

    2016-01-01

    In women, anorectal infections with Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) are about as common as genital CT, yet the anorectal site remains largely untested in routine care. Anorectal CT frequently co-occurs with genital CT and may thus often be treated co-incidentally. Nevertheless, post-treatment detection

  1. Incontinence and trauma: sexual violence, female genital cutting and proxy measures of gynecological fistula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterman, Amber; Johnson, Kiersten

    2009-03-01

    Obstetric fistula, characterized by urinary or fecal incontinence via the vagina, has begun to receive attention on the international public health agenda, however less attention has been given to traumatic fistula. Field reports indicate that trauma contributes to the burden of vaginal fistula, especially in regions wrought by civil unrest, however evidence is largely anecdotal or facility-based. This paper specifically examines the co-occurrence of incontinence and two potential sources of trauma: sexual violence and female genital cutting using the most recent Demographic and Health Surveys in Malawi, Rwanda, Uganda and Ethiopia. Multivariate selection models are used to control for sampling differences by country. Results indicate that sexual violence is a significant determinant of incontinence in Rwanda and Malawi, however not in Uganda. Simulations predict that elimination of sexual violence would result in from a 7 to a 40% reduction of the total burden of incontinence. In contrast, no evidence is found that female genital cutting contributes to incontinence and this finding is robust for types of cutting and high risk samples. Results point to the importance of reinforcing prevention programs which seek to address prevention of sexual violence and for the integration of services to better serve women experiencing both sexual violence and incontinence.

  2. Perception of primary health professionals about Female Genital Mutilation: from healthcare to intercultural competence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fàbregas Ma Jose

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The practice of Female Genital Mutilation (FGM, a deeply-rooted tradition in 28 countries in Sub-Saharan Africa, carries important negative consequences for the health and quality of life of women and children. Migratory movements have brought this harmful traditional practice to our medical offices, with the subsequent conflicts related to how to approach this healthcare problem, involving not only a purely healthcare-related event but also questions of an ethical, cultural identity and human rights nature. Methods The aim of this study was to analyse the perceptions, degree of knowledge, attitudes and practices of the primary healthcare professionals in relation to FGM. A transversal, descriptive study was performed with a self-administered questionnaire to family physicians, paediatricians, nurses, midwives and gynaecologists. Trends towards changes in the two periods studied (2001 and 2004 were analysed. Results A total of 225 (80% professionals answered the questionnaire in 2001 and 184 (62% in 2004. Sixteen percent declared detection of some case in 2004, rising three-fold from the number reported in 2001. Eighteen percent stated that they had no interest in FGM. Less than 40% correctly identified the typology, while less than 30% knew the countries in which the practice is carried out and 82% normally attended patients from these countries. Conclusion Female genital mutilations are present in primary healthcare medical offices with paediatricians and gynaecologists having the closest contact with the problem. Preventive measures should be designed as should sensitization to promote stands against these practices.

  3. Possible Synergistic Interactions Among Multiple HPV Genotypes in Women Suffering from Genital Neoplasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajia, Massoud; Sohrabi, Amir

    2018-03-27

    Objective: Persistence of HPV infection is the true cause of cervical disorders. It is reported that competition may exist among HPV genotypes for colonization. This survey was designed to establish the multiple HPV genotype status in our community and the probability of multiple HPV infections involvement. Methods: All multiple HPV infections were selected for investigation in women suffering from genital infections referred to private laboratories in Tehran, Iran. A total of 160 multi HPV positive specimens from cervical scraping were identified by the HPV genotyping methods, "INNO-LiPA and Geno Array". Result: In present study, HPV 6 (LR), 16 (HR), 53 (pHR), 31 (HR) and 11 (LR) were included in 48.8% of detected infections as the most five dominant genotypes. HPV 16 was detected at the highest rate with genotypes 53, 31 and 52, while HPV 53 appeared linked with HPV 16, 51 and 56 in concurrent infections. It appears that HPV 16 and 53 may have significant tendencies to associate with each other rather than with other genotypes. Analysis of the data revealed there may be some synergistic interactions with a few particular genotypes such as "HPV 53". Conclusion: Multiple HPV genotypes appear more likely to be linked with development of cervical abnormalities especially in patients with genital infections. Since, there are various patterns of dominant HPV genotypes in different regions of world, more investigations of this type should be performed for careHPV programs in individual countries. Creative Commons Attribution License

  4. Sex-Linked Mating Strategies Diverge with a Manipulation of Genital Salience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fetterman, Adam K; Kruger, Nicole N; Robinson, Michael D

    2015-02-01

    Trivers (1972) proposed that evolutionary factors should favor divergent mating strategies for males versus females. Such differences may be less pronounced among human beings than other animals and social norms and sex roles are also pertinent influences. The present experiment ( N = 133 college undergraduates, 74 female) sought to bypass some of these other influences. Participants were randomly assigned to a condition designed to increase attention to the genital region (a downward pointing arrow) or not (an upward pointing arrow). They then reported on their interest in short-term (e.g., a one-night stand) and long-term (e.g., a potential marital partner) mating opportunities. A theory-consistent three-way interaction occurred such that the genital salience manipulation primed a shorter-term reproductive strategy among men and a longer-term reproductive strategy among women. The results provide unique support for evolution-linked ideas about sex differences in the form of a role for bodily attention.

  5. ARC discharge sliding over a conducting surface

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Goor, F.A.; Mitko, S.; Ochkin, V.N.; Paramonov, A.P.; Witteman, W.J.

    1997-01-01

    Results of experimental and theoretical studies of the arc discharge which slides over the surface of a conductor are reported. Experiments were performed in air and argon ambients at various pressures. It is found that the velocity of the discharge plasma front depends linearly on the strength of

  6. Standard Operating Procedures for Female Genital Sexual Pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fugl-Meyer, Kerstin S; Bohm-Starke, Nina; Damsted Petersen, Christina

    2012-01-01

    Introduction.  Female genital sexual pain (GSP) is a common, distressing complaint in women of all ages that is underrecognized and undertreated. Definitions and terminology for female GSP are currently being debated. While some authors have suggested that GSP is not per se a sexual dysfunction......, but rather a localized genial pain syndrome, others adhere to using clearly sexually related terms such as dyspareunia and vaginismus. Aim.  The aims of this brief review are to present definitions of the different types of female GSP. Their etiology, incidence, prevalence, and comorbidity with somatic......-Meyer KS, Bohm-Starke N, Damsted Petersen C, Fugl-Meyer A, Parish S, and Giraldi A. Standard operating procedures for female genital sexual pain. J Sex Med **;**:**-**....

  7. A rat uterine horn model of genital tract wound healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlaff, W D; Cooley, B C; Shen, W; Gittlesohn, A M; Rock, J A

    1987-11-01

    A rat uterine horn model of genital tract wound healing is described. Healing was reflected by acquisition of strength and elasticity, measured by burst strength (BS) and extensibility (EX), respectively. A tensiometer (Instron Corp., Canton, MA) was used to assess these characteristics in castrated and estrogen-supplemented or nonsupplemented animals. While the horn weights (HW), BS, and EX of contralateral horns were not significantly different, the intra-animal variation of HW was 7.2%, BS was 17.7% and EX was 38.2%. In a second experiment, one uterine horn was divided and anastomosed, and the animal given estrogen supplementation or a placebo pellet. Estrogen administration was found to increase BS and EX of anastomosed horns prior to 14 days, but had no beneficial effect at 21 or 42 days. The data suggest that estrogen may be required for optimal early healing of genital tract wounds.

  8. Des Menschens Genitive Normabweichende Genitiv-Varianten bei schwachen Maskulina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfgang Krischke

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The genitive singular of the weak masculine nouns appears in three non-standard variations in addition to the standard suffix -(en: one variation is case augmenting (des Bär-en-s, one is stem affixing (des Polizist-s and one lacks a case suffix (des Patient-Ø. Linguists as well as language critics have focussed mainly on the stem affixing genitive while more or less ignor­ing the two other non-standard variations. This paper presents a corpus-based investigation regarding frequency and contexts of all three variations, also considering the diachronic back­ground and the implications the results might have for predicting the further development of the declension class of the weak masculine nouns.

  9. Tumorigenic Effects of Tamoxifen on the Female Genital Tract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaei Nasu M.D., Ph.D.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Tamoxifen is widely used for endocrine treatment and breast cancer prevention. It acts as both an estrogen antagonist in breast tissue and an estrogen agonist in the female lower genital tract. Tamoxifen causes severe gynecologic side effects, such as endometrial cancer. This review focuses on the effects of prolonged tamoxifen treatment on the human female genital tract and considers its tumorigenicity in the gynecologic organs through clinical data analysis. Tamoxifen is associated with an increased incidence of benign endometrial lesions such as polyps and hyperplasia and a two- to four-fold increased risk of endometrial cancer in postmenopausal patients. Moreover, the incidence of functional ovarian cysts is significantly high in premenopausal tamoxifen users. To prevent tamoxifen from having severe side effects in gynecologic organs, frequent gynecological examination should be performed for both premenopausal and postmenopausal patients with breast cancer who are treated with this drug.

  10. Pathology of Neuroendocrine Tumours of the Female Genital Tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howitt, Brooke E; Kelly, Paul; McCluggage, W Glenn

    2017-09-01

    Neuroendocrine tumours are uncommon or rare at all sites in the female genital tract. The 2014 World Health Organisation (WHO) Classification of neuroendocrine tumours of the endometrium, cervix, vagina and vulva has been updated with adoption of the terms low-grade neuroendocrine tumour and high-grade neuroendocrine carcinoma. In the endometrium and cervix, high-grade neoplasms are much more prevalent than low-grade and are more common in the cervix than the corpus. In the ovary, low-grade tumours are more common than high-grade carcinomas and the term carcinoid tumour is still used in WHO 2014. The term ovarian small-cell carcinoma of pulmonary type is included in WHO 2014 for a tumour which in other organs is termed high small-cell neuroendocrine carcinoma. Neuroendocrine tumours at various sites within the female genital tract often occur in association with other neoplasms and more uncommonly in pure form.

  11. [Factual approach to the treatment of genital herpes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikkels, A F; Piérard, G E

    2000-05-01

    Genital herpes is a sexually transmitted disease. After the primary infection, the virus establishes a life-long latency in the sacral dorsal root ganglia. Recurrences may occur at an unpredictable rate. The clinical signs are not always easy to recognize and viral identification techniques may be helpful such as immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization on Tzanck smears and muco-cutaneous biopsies. The treatment of genital herpes can follow one of three strategies using antiviral drugs, non-specific immunomodulators, and vaccination. The new oral antiviral drugs decrease the severity of clinical manifestations without, however, providing a definitive cure. In this article recent knowledge about the clinical aspects, differential diagnosis, diagnostic methods, treatment options and management is reviewed.

  12. Thermal discharge residence by Lake Michigan Salmonids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romberg, G.P.; Prepejchal, W.

    1975-01-01

    Lake Michigan salmon and trout were tagged with a thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD) temperature tag to estimate their thermal exposure and residence time at a warm water discharge. Fish were collected, tagged, and released at the Point Beach Nuclear Plant, Two Rivers, Wisconsin, in the fall of 1973 and 1974. Tags were recovered during the same season, primarily from fish recaptured at Point Beach. Average uniform temperature exposure and maximum possible discharge residence time were determined. Appropriate hourly intake and discharge temperatures were averaged to calculate mean temperature exposure for the case of maximum discharge residence. Lowest discharge temperature not included within the period of maximum residence was identified to serve as a possible indicator of avoidance temperature. Mean values for the above parameters were calculated for fish species for each tagging year and are reported with the accompanying range of intake and discharge temperatures

  13. Final Report DE-FG02-00ER54583: 'Physics of Atmospheric Pressure Glow Discharges' and 'Nanoparticle Nucleation and Dynamics in Low-Pressure Plasmas'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kortshagen, Uwe; Heberlein, Joachim; Girshick, Steven L.

    2009-01-01

    This project was funded over two periods of three years each, with an additional year of no-cost extension. Research in the first funding period focused on the physics of uniform atmospheric pressure glow discharges, the second funding period was devoted to the study of the dynamics of nanometer-sized particles in plasmas.

  14. Genital tract of zebu (Bos indicus cows in Niger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Moussa Garba

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The anatomical characteristics, and the ovarian and pathological structures of the genital tract of 500 zebu (Bos indicus females belonging to four breeds (Azawak, Bororo, Djelli, Goudali were studied at Niamey’s slaughterhouse in Niger from August 15 to December 15, 2011. Each animal was examined before slaughter. The cows and heifers were on average 8 ± 2.5 years old. Their mean body condition score was 1.6 ± 0.6 and mean carcass weight 113 ± 21 kg. The anatomical characteristics of the genital tract did not show differences between breeds (p > 0.05. The following characteristics were observed: cervix diameter 3.4 ± 1.1 cm, cervix length 8.1 ± 2.5 cm, horn length 21.6 ± 5.2 cm, horn diameter 1.6 ± 0.5 cm, length and width of the right ovary 19.8 ± 4.4 and 11.2 ± 3.8 mm, of the left ovary 18.8 ± 4.5 and 10.2 ± 3.3 mm, and weight of the right and left ovaries 2.9 ± 1.8 and 2.5 ± 1.6 g, respectively. A corpus luteum was identified in only 14% cases and no visible follicles were found on the surface of the ovaries in 32% cases. These characteristics were significantly (p < 0.05 influenced by the age of the animal. Among the examined females, 7.4% were confirmed pregnant. Various genital tract diseases (cysts, uterine infection, free martinism, pyometra... were observed in 10.4% of the genital tracts.

  15. Malignant tumours of the genital tract among Batswana women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanko, M. N.; Cainelli, F.; Vento, S.; Kayembe, M. A.

    2012-01-01

    To determine the frequency and pattern of malignant tumours of the female genital tract among Batswana women. A four-year retrospective histological study of the pattern of female genital tract malignancy in Botswana. University of Botswana and the National Health Laboratory Gaborone, Botswana. The National Health Laboratory is the only public tertiary referral laboratory that provides diagnostic pathology services in the South-Eastern part of Botswana. It is located just adjacent to Princess Marina Hospital, the major tertiary referral hospital in the country. All histologically confirmed diagnoses of female genital tract malignancies from January 1st 2006 to December 31st 2009 were reviewed by two pathologists and diagnoses re-confirmed by taking fresh tissue sections from paraffin embedded archival tissue blocks. The age of patients ranged from 13-96 years with a mean age of 54.5 ± 6.4 years. Cancer of the cervix constituted 80.6%, followed by uterine cancer (10.0%), carcinomas of the vulva (4.5%) and ovary (3.4%) in that order. Ovarian cancers predominated in the younger age group. There was a steady increase in the frequencies of cervical, uterine and ovarian cancers over the 4-year study period with a decline in uterine cancer in the 4th year. Cervical cancer incidence is high among Batswana women and all female genital tract cancers occurred at a relatively early mean age. Therefore the importance of established and accessible screening programs and awareness campaigns need more emphasis than it is being given currently. (au)

  16. FEMALE GENITAL TRACT CANCERS IN SAGAMU, SOUTHWEST, NIGERIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adefuye, P O; Adefuye, B O; Oluwole, A A

    2014-11-01

    To describe pattern of female genital tract cancers seen at Olabisi Onabanjo University Teaching Hospital (OOUTH), Sagamu, Nigeria. This is a retrospective review of all cases of female genital tract cancers managed at the Gynaecology department of OOUTH, Sagamu, Nigeria. OOUTH is a tertiary health institution of the State's university and it takes referrals from within and outside the State. Case records of all female genital tract cancers managed between January 2004 and December 2013 were retrieved and analysed using SPSS version 16.0. There were 2059 women treated forvarious gynaecologic conditions, 179 (8.7%) were cases of female genital tract cancers and 161 records were available for analysis. Cervical cancer constituted the commonest (51.6%), followed by ovarian (35.4%), endometrial (9.9%), and choriocarcinoma (1.9%). There were no cases of vaginal and fallopian tube cancers. The lowest mean age was found in choriocarcinoma (36.60 ± 4.50 years) and highest in vulvar cancer (70.00 ± 2.82 years). The mean ages for cervical, endometrial and ovarian cancers were (51.98 ± 12.39), (65.38 ± 7.24), and (54.42 ± 10.51) years respectively. Similarly the least mean parity was found in choriocarcinoma (2.33 ± 1.52), and the highest in vulvar cancer (6.00 ± 1.44). The mean parity for cervical, endometrial, and ovarian were (4.10 ± 1.49),(3.06 ± 1.48), and (3.72 ± 1.68) respectively. These differences are statistically significant, age; F = 7.61, p < 0.0001, and parity; F = 3.27, p= 0.013. Incidence of cervical, endometrial, and ovarian cancers remain high and presentations are at late stages. There is a need to improve on cervical cancer screening, and for the attending physicians to improve on their indices of suspicions as regards endometrial and ovarian cancers.

  17. Female Genital Cutting: Fundamentals, Social Expectations and Change

    OpenAIRE

    Bicchieri, Cristina; Marini, Annalisa

    2015-01-01

    The paper studies the relationship between female genital cutting (FGC) dynamics, beliefs and fundamentals across African countries. Results show that social and economic conditions are worse in countries where FGC is practiced. However, if we consider the dynamics of FGC in those countries, there is no clear link between fundamentals and the abandonment of the practice. Instead, we find a significant correlation with social expectations and trust. Our findings support the implementation of b...

  18. Female Genital Mutilation: Fundamentals, Social Expectations and Change

    OpenAIRE

    Bicchieri, Cristina; Marini, Annalisa

    2015-01-01

    The paper studies the relationship between female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C) dynamics, social expectations and fundamentals across African countries. We show that socioeconomic conditions are overall worse in countries where FGM/C is practiced. Yet when we consider the dynamics of FGM/C within countries that perform it, there is no clear link between fundamentals and the decline of the practice. We find instead that FGM/C dynamics are strongly related to social expectations and social...

  19. Cryotherapy versus electrocautery in the treatment of genital warts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, P D; Langlet, F; Thin, R N

    1981-01-01

    Forty-two male patients with ano-genital warts were randomly allocated to a single-blind study of cryotherapy versus electrocautery. There was no significant difference in the success rates of these two forms of treatment in patients followed for three months. Cryotherapy was qualitatively much more acceptable to the patients than electrocautery. It seems particularly suited to patients with widely scattered warts who are unable to attend for regular treatment. PMID:7272706

  20. Interventions for men and women with their first episode of genital herpes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heslop, Rachel; Roberts, Helen; Flower, Deralie; Jordan, Vanessa

    2016-08-30

    ; largely due to lack of information supplied in the publications, and due to the age of the trials. This review found low quality evidence from two studies of oral acyclovir, when compared to placebo, reduced the duration of symptoms in individuals undergoing their first episode of genital herpes (mean difference (MD) -3.22, 95% confidence interval (CI) -5.91 to -0.54; I(2) = 52%). In two studies (112 participants), intravenous acyclovir decreased the median number of days that patients with first-episode herpes suffered symptoms. Oral valaciclovir (converted to acyclovir) also showed a similar length of symptom duration when compared to acyclovir in two studies.There is currently no evidence that topical acyclovir reduces symptoms (MD -0.61 days, 95% CI -2.16 to 0.95; 3 RCTs, 195 participants, I(2) statistic = 56%). There is also no current evidence that the topical treatments of cicloxolone cream, carbenoxolone sodium cream, adenosine arabinoside, idoxuridine in dimethyl sulfoxide, when compared to placebo reduced the duration of symptoms in people undergoing their first episode of herpes.Two studies reported no evidence of a reduction in the number of median days to recurrence following treatment with oral acyclovir versus placebo. Adverse events were generally poorly reported by all of the included studies and we were unable to quantitatively analyse this outcome. For those taking acyclovir, there were no serious adverse events; the most common adverse events reported for oral acyclovir were coryza, dizziness, tiredness, diarrhoea and renal colic. For intravenous acyclovir these were phlebitis, nausea and abnormal liver function tests and for topical acyclovir there was pain with the topical application.Those undergoing interferon treatment had significantly more adverse events compared to those taking placebo. There is low quality evidence from this review that oral acyclovir reduced the duration of symptoms for genital herpes. However, there is low quality evidence

  1. Yeasts of the genital region of patients attending the dermatology service at Hospital São Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentubo, Henri Donnarumma Levy; Mantovani, Ariane; Yamashita, Jane Tomimori; Gambale, Walderez; Fischman, Olga

    2015-01-01

    The knowledge of the diversity of yeasts that make up the skin microbiota of human beings is essential for the efficient monitoring of infections to which a person may be predisposed. This study identified yeasts comprising the genital skin microbiota of patients attending the Dermatology Service at the Hospital São Paulo-UNIFESP, Brazil. Samples were collected from the genital region of each patient and cultured on Sabouraud dextrose agar. Individual colonies were carefully transferred to tubes daily. Yeasts were identified based on classical methodologies and confirmed using a commercial kit. Eighty-three patients were included in the study. Approximately 80% were women and 20% were men. The average age was 55 years. Hypertension, diabetes, kidney transplant and AIDS were the main underlying diseases reported by the patients. The most prevalent yeasts were Candida parapsilosis (36.1%), Rhodotorula mucilaginosa (9.2%), Rhodotorula glutinis (8.3%), Candida tropicalis (5.5%) and Trichosporon inkin (1.8%). Approximately 78% of the isolates were obtained in pure cultures. Trichosporon inkin was isolated only from women, in contrast to literature describing a high prevalence in males. Our results suggest that Candida albicans is not the main yeast found on genital skin as previously thought, and opportunistic pathogens such as C. parapsilosis, C. tropicalis, Rhodotorula spp. and T. inkin make up the genital skin microbiota, representing a risk for infection in immunocompromised subjects. These results also indicate that women are carriers of T. inkin, the etiological agent of white piedra and trichosporonosis. Copyright © 2013 Revista Iberoamericana de Micología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  2. [The prognostic value of variables from the quality assurance program and of the rehabilitation-discharge report of the LVA Baden-Württemberg for early retirement: results of a retrospective cohort-study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Küpper-Nybelen, J; Rothenbacher, D; Jacobi, E; Brenner, H

    2003-12-01

    Since 1997 the LVA Baden-Württemberg pension insurance agency has implemented an instrument to measure the outcome quality of in-patient rehabilitation. The objective of this study was to evaluate the prognostic value of various short-term rehabilitation success markers and of variables of the quality assurance program and the rehab-discharge report of the LVA Baden-Württemberg on early retirement by means of a retrospective cohort study. The analysis was based on routinely registered data of patients who underwent in-hospital rehabilitation in a hospital accredited by the LVA Baden-Württemberg between June 1997 and June 1999. Baseline data included information from medical discharge reports and from the quality assurance programme. Follow-up information with regard to disability was collected until July 2000. The prognostic value of the quality assurance programme and of 4 standardized documented items from the medical discharge report was estimated by proportional hazards regression. In this analysis 6,823 patients aged 30-59 years who underwent an in-patient rehab programme between June 1997 and July 1999 in 5 of 6 LVA rehab clinics were included. During follow-up (mean duration: 1.8 years) 908 (13.3%) patients retired because of health-related disability. The variables with the strongest prognostic values were the evaluation of the patient health status by the physician and the patients themselves and the capacity to work. The variables with the highest prognostic value were the evaluation on a 1-6 visual analogue scale; a better assessment by one mark of the health status by physician and patient himself, respectively, was associated with a 53% and 40% reduced risk of disability. Fitness for work at discharge was the most prognostic variable from the discharge report. Patients who were able to work had a 78% reduced risk of disability compared to patients unable to work. Also of prognostic relevance were a positive performance and the duration of the

  3. Urethroscopy and urethral cytology in men with external genital condyloma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fralick, R A; Malek, R S; Goellner, J R; Hyland, K M

    1994-03-01

    To develop guidelines as to which asymptomatic male patients with genital human papillomavirus (HPV) infection need further evaluation of the urethra, we studied two screening methods: urethroscopy and voided urethral cytology. In a four-year period, 135 asymptomatic men underwent complete screening for HPV infection. They were evaluated because of HPV-related genital disease in their female sex partners or visible genital lesions, or both. Of the 135 patients, 21 (16%) had no clinical, subclinical, cytologic, or urethroscopic evidence of disease, and 114 (84%) had biopsy-proven HPV infection. Of these 114 patients, only 14 (12.3%) had intraurethral condyloma. All of these 14 patients had current or historical evidence of meatal or perimeatal "sentinel" lesions. They constituted 29.8 percent of 47 such patients with sentinel lesions. In 5 patients (4%), results of voided urine cytology were positive for condyloma cells, but only 1 of these had visible intraurethral disease. Of the 14 patients with urethral disease, only 1 (7%) had positive results of urine cytology. These observations suggest that any asymptomatic male patient undergoing screening for condyloma acuminatum who has a history of or demonstrable subclinical or grossly visible perimeatal or meatal HPV infection should undergo urethroscopy and that voided urine cytology is not a reliable or cost-effective test for the detection of visible intraurethral disease.

  4. Peculiarities of immune effects in patients with genital endometriosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gasanova Ch.A.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The research goal is to study the immune effects in patients with external genital endometriosis. 126 patients with external genital endometriosis ages 22-44 years have been examined. CD3+, CD4+, CD8+, CD16+, CD19+, CD25+, immunoglobulin A, M, G are defined in peripheral blood and peritoneal liquid. Method of cytoflowmetry and radial immunodiffusion by Manchini has been used. Statistical processing of results has been spent by means of a package of the statistical program «Statgraphics», STSC (USA. Reliability of variability has been estimated by means of calculation of nonparametric criterion by Uilkokson — Mann — Uitni. Depression of cellular and increase of humoral immunity (IgG and IgA in peritoneal liquid have been revealed. Degree of expressiveness of immunity has been depended on presence of inflammatory diseases, duration of disease, localization of the pathology center. In peritoneal liquid the total amount of T-lymphocytes, CD4+ cells and CD8+ lymphocytes has been increased in patients with of external genital endometriosis of lll-IV degree. The immunoregulatory index has been also increased. These results have confirmed the presence of inflammatory process in peritoneal cavity

  5. HPV-11 variability, persistence and progression to genital warts in men: the HIM study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores-Díaz, Ema; Sereday, Karen A; Ferreira, Silvaneide; Sirak, Bradley; Sobrinho, João Simão; Baggio, Maria Luiza; Galan, Lenice; Silva, Roberto C; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo; Giuliano, Anna R; Villa, Luisa L; Sichero, Laura

    2017-09-01

    HPV-11 and HPV-6 are the etiological agents of about 90 % of genital warts (GWs). The intra-typic variability of HPV-11 and its association with infection persistence and GW development remains undetermined. Here, HPV infection in men (HIM) participants who had an HPV-11 genital swab and/or GW, preceded or not by a normal skin genital swab were analysed. Genomic variants were characterized by PCR-sequencing and classified within lineages (A, B) and sublineages (A1, A2, A3, A4). HPV-11 A2 variants were the most frequently detected in the genital swab samples from controls and in both genital swabs and GW samples from cases. The same HPV-11 variant was detected in the GW sample and its preceding genital swab. There was a lack of association between any particular HPV-11 variant and the increased risk for GW development.

  6. Limited evidence of the effect of prophylactic pelvic floor training on genital prolapse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boie, Sidsel; Jeppesen, Ulla; Bor, Isil Pinar

    Abstract A growing number of women are bothered by genital prolapse. The treatment of genital prolapse includes pelvic floor exercise in variable extent, but only few data are published. Variations in interventions, follow-up time, outcome etc. complicates a comparison. Because of the very limited...... material it is difficult to conclude if pelvic floor exercises have any effect on genital prolapse. There is need for studies concerning the clinical relevance and a cost-benefit analysis....

  7. Hysterosalpingographic Appearances of Female Genital Tract Tuberculosis: Part I. Fallopian Tube

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmadi, Firoozeh; Zafarani, Fatemeh; Shahrzad, Gholam

    2013-01-01

    Female genital tuberculosis (TB) remains as a major cause of tubal obstruction leading to infertility, especially in developing countries. The global prevalence of genital tuberculosis has increased during the past two decades due to increasing acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Genital TB is commonly asymptomatic, and it is diagnosed during infertility investigations. Despite of recent advances in imaging tools, such as computerized tomography (CT) scan, magnetic reson...

  8. Clinical study of Gene-Eden-VIR/Novirin in genital herpes: suppressive treatment safely decreases the duration of outbreaks in both severe and mild cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polansky, Hanan; Itzkovitz, Edan; Javaherian, Adrian

    2016-12-01

    We conducted a clinical study that tested the effect of suppressive treatment with the botanical product Gene-Eden-VIR/Novirin on genital herpes. Our previous paper showed that the treatment decreased the number of genital herpes outbreaks without any side effects. It also showed that the clinical effects of Gene-Eden-VIR/Novirin are mostly better than those reported in the studies that tested acyclovir, valacyclovir, and famciclovir. The current paper reports the effect of suppressive treatment with Gene-Eden-VIR/Novirin on the duration of outbreaks, in severe and mild genital herpes cases. The framework was a retrospective chart review. The population included 137 participants. The treatment was 1-4 capsules per day. The duration of treatment was 2-48 months. The study included three controls: baseline, no-treatment, and dose-response. The treatment decreased the duration of outbreaks in 87 % of participants and decreased the mean duration of outbreaks from 8.77 days and 6.7 days in the control groups to 2.87 days in the treatment group (P genital herpes outbreaks, in both severe and mild cases, without any side effects. Based on the results reported in this and our previous paper, we recommend suppressive treatment with Gene-Eden-VIR/Novirin as a natural alternative to both suppressive and episodic treatments with current drugs, in both severe and mild genital herpes cases. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02715752 Registered 17 March 2016 Retrospectively Registered.

  9. Genital Mycoplasma and Chlamydia trachomatis infections in patients with genital tract infections attending a tertiary care hospital of North India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karnika Saigal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Limited data are available on the prevalence of genital mycoplasmas and Chlamydia trachomatis (CT among Indian patients with genital tract infections. The objectives of the study were to determine the prevalence of Ureaplasma urealyticum (UU, Mycoplasma hominis (MH, Mycoplasma genitalium (MG, and CT in patients with genital tract infections. The antimicrobial susceptibilities of UU and MH were also assessed. Endocervical swabs/urethral swabs and first void urine samples of patients (n = 164 were collected. UU and MH were detected by culture and multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR. MG and CT were identified by PCR. Ureaplasma isolates were further biotyped and serotyped. Antimicrobial susceptibility was done by microbroth dilution method. UU, MH, MG, and CT were detected in 15.2%, 5.4%, 1.2%, and 6% patients, respectively. Ureaplasma parvum serovar 3/14 was the most prevalent. All isolates of UU and MH were uniformly susceptible to doxycycline and josamycin. Routine screening for these pathogens and antimicrobial susceptibility testing is warranted to prevent sequel of infections and formulate treatment guidelines.

  10. Does interval laparoscopic sterilisation influence the risk of lower genital tract infections and menstrual abnormalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Kistan

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background. Tubal sterilisation is a safe, accessible and effective contraceptive method. There is a paucity of data regarding the risk of genital tract infections and menstrual abnormalities post sterilisation in Durban, South Africa.Objectives. To evaluate the risk of lower genital tract infections (LGTIs and menstrual abnormalities following interval laparoscopic sterilisation.Methods. A prospective cohort study of 225 women undergoing sterilisation between August 2012 and April 2013, with follow-up 1 year post procedure, was conducted at King Dinuzulu Hospital, Durban.Results. Following sterilisation, LGTIs were increased only in women with a history of infection pre sterilisation (odds ratio 6.7; 95% CI 2.2 - 20.9; p=0.002. There was no significant risk of HIV acquisition post sterilisation. In women who had not used contraception or used barrier methods pre sterilisation, we found no significant change in menstrual patterns post sterilisation. There was an increase in menstrual bleeding and dysmenorrhoea post sterilisation among previous combined oral contraceptive users. Among women with amenorrhoea on injectable contraception pre sterilisation, 73.8% reported return to regular menses and 26.2% reported abnormal uterine bleeding post sterilisation. Among injectable contraceptive users with regular menses pre sterilisation, 71.4% reported no change in menses post sterilisation and 28.6% reported abnormal uterine bleeding post sterilisation.Conclusion. In women undergoing interval tubal sterilisation, the risk of LGTIs was only increased in those women with a history. Menstrual abnormalities post sterilisation were more likely in women who used steroid contraception prior to sterilisation.

  11. International efforts on abandoning female genital mutilation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    E. Edouard

    ... Surgeons' Association. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. ... lately, it has been reported in countries such as Colombia and Peru in Latin America [1]. ... cost for the provision of resulting services. With local swelling ...

  12. The development of the genital peritoneum in domestic mammals. An analysis of the literature and nomenclature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, E

    1995-12-01

    This review presents and discusses the reasons for the currently employed anatomical terminology relating to the genital peritoneum of various domestic species, based upon its prenatal development. When reviewing the development of genital organs, attention must be paid to changes in the related peritoneum in order to define currently used terminology more clearly. The relevance of some terms such as Caudal genital ligament, Plica gubernaculi, Plica iguinalis and genital fold is considered. A system of serosal folds, the Plica gonadoinguinalis or genitoinguinalis, seems to be a useful term to be added to the Nomina Embryologica Veterinaria.

  13. Oncogenic mutations in melanomas and benign melanocytic nevi of the female genital tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Diane; Kim, Julie; Warrick, Andrea; Nelson, Dylan; Pukay, Marina; Beadling, Carol; Heinrich, Michael; Selim, Maria Angelica; Corless, Christopher L; Nelson, Kelly

    2014-08-01

    The genetic heterogeneity of melanomas and melanocytic nevi of the female genital tract is poorly understood. We aim to characterize the frequency of mutations of the following genes: BRAF, NRAS, KIT, GNA11, and GNAQ in female genital tract melanomas. We also characterize the frequency of BRAF mutations in female genital tract melanomas compared with melanocytic nevi. Mutational screening was performed on the following female genital tract melanocytic neoplasms: 25 melanomas, 7 benign melanocytic nevi, and 4 atypical melanocytic nevi. Of the 25 female genital tract melanoma specimens queried, KIT mutations were detected in 4 (16.0%), NRAS mutations in 4 (16.0%), and BRAF mutations in 2 (8.0%) samples. Two of the tumors with KIT mutations harbored double mutations in the same exon. No GNAQ or GNA11 mutations were identified among 11 melanomas screened. BRAF V600E mutations were detected in 7 of 7 benign melanocytic genital nevi (100%) and 3 of 4 atypical genital nevi (75%). Our study is limited by the small sample size of this rare subset of melanomas. KIT, NRAS, and BRAF mutations are found in a subset of female genital tract melanomas. Screening for oncogenic mutations is important for developing and applying clinical therapies for melanomas of the female genital tract. Copyright © 2014 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Positive Perceptions of Genital Appearance and Feeling Sexually Attractive: Is It a Matter of Sexual Esteem?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amos, Natalie; McCabe, Marita

    2016-07-01

    The present study examined the relationship between perceptions of genital appearance and self-perceived sexual attractiveness. The study sample included men and women (aged 18-45 years, M = 23.7, SD = 4.98) who identified as heterosexual (n = 1017), gay or lesbian (n = 1225), or bisexual (n = 651). Participants responded to an online survey assessing their self-perceived sexual attractiveness, genital self-image, genital self-consciousness during sexual activity, and sexual esteem. Based on previous findings, we hypothesized a positive link between genital self-perceptions and self-perceived sexual attractiveness, with sexual esteem acting as a mediator. We tested this hypothesis using structural equation modeling. Analyses revealed a significant association between both genital self-image and genital self-consciousness and self-perceived sexual attractiveness. However, these relationships were at least partially mediated by sexual esteem, across both gender and sexual orientation. The findings suggest that, regardless of gender or sexual orientation, individuals who maintain a positive genital self-image or lack genital self-consciousness, are more likely to experience greater sexual esteem, and in turn, feel more sexually attractive. The findings have implications for the importance of genital appearance perceptions and improving individuals' sexual esteem and self-perceived sexual attractiveness.

  15. Readiness for hospital discharge: A concept analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvin, Eileen Catherine; Wills, Teresa; Coffey, Alice

    2017-11-01

    To report on an analysis on the concept of 'readiness for hospital discharge'. No uniform operational definition of 'readiness for hospital discharge' exists in the literature; therefore, a concept analysis is required to clarify the concept and identify an up-to-date understanding of readiness for hospital discharge. Clarity of the concept will identify all uses of the concept; provide conceptual clarity, an operational definition and direction for further research. Literature review and concept analysis. A review of literature was conducted in 2016. Databases searched were: Academic Search Complete, CINAHL Plus with Full Text, PsycARTICLES, Psychology and Behavioural Sciences Collection, PsycINFO, Social Sciences Full Text (H.W. Wilson) and SocINDEX with Full Text. No date limits were applied. Identification of the attributes, antecedents and consequences of readiness for hospital discharge led to an operational definition of the concept. The following attributes belonging to 'readiness for hospital discharge' were extracted from the literature: physical stability, adequate support, psychological ability, and adequate information and knowledge. This analysis contributes to the advancement of knowledge in the area of hospital discharge, by proposing an operational definition of readiness for hospital discharge, derived from the literature. A better understanding of the phenomenon will assist healthcare professionals to recognize, measure and implement interventions where necessary, to ensure patients are ready for hospital discharge and assist in the advancement of knowledge for all professionals involved in patient discharge from hospital. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Modeling High Pressure Micro Hollow Cathode Discharges

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Boeuf, Jean-Pierre; Pitchford, Leanne

    2004-01-01

    This report results from a contract tasking CPAT as follows: The Grantee will perform theoretical modeling of point, surface, and volume high-pressure plasmas created using Micro Hollow Cathode Discharge sources...

  17. Patterns of sexual behaviour and reported symptoms of STI/RTIs among young people in Croatia--implications for interventions' planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozicević, Ivana; Stulhofer, Aleksandar; Ajduković, Dean; Kufrin, Kresimir

    2006-12-01

    This paper describes some of the results of the first national-level survey on sexual behaviour and the distribution of risks to sexually transmitted infections (STIs), including human immunodeficiency virus infection (HIV), among youth in Croatia, and the nature and the extent of their vulnerability to these adverse health outcomes. The study was a cross-sectional, probability-based household survey conducted in 2005, and included 1093 respondents aged 18-24. This paper aims to describe the findings related to the knowledge of HIV transmission, key behavioural outcomes relevant for potential transmission of HIV and STIs, and correlates of genital discharge in young men and young women. More than 80% of young people know that the correct use of condoms protects against HIV and that HIV can be transmitted by someone who looks healthy. Fifty-nine percent of young men and 52.4% of young women reported using condoms during the first sexual intercourse, and 59.3% of men and 46.1% of women used condoms during the last sexual intercourse with a casual partner. This points to the gap between knowledge of condom use and the actual use of condoms as a high proportion of risky sexual contact remain unprotected. Having sexual intercourse frequently or regularly while consuming alcohol was reported by 19.2% of men and 7.6% of women. Much lower proportion are using drugs frequently or regularly during sexual intercourse (3.7% of men and 2.1% of women). Among those sexually experienced, 11.8% of men and 44.1% of women reported ever having a genital discharge. Higher presence of genital discharge in women is suggestive of reproductive tract infections that are not necessarily sexually transmitted. In the multivariate analysis, the lack of knowledge of whether chlamydial infections is an STI and having more than five partners in life were correlates of genital discharge in men, while in women the correlates included having more than five partners in life and not using condoms

  18. Glow discharging device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maeno, Katsuki; Kawasaki, Kozo; Hiratsuka, Hajime; Kawashima, Shuichi.

    1989-01-01

    In a thermonuclear device, etc. impurities adsorbed to inner walls of a vacuum vessel by glow discharge are released to clean the vacuum vessel for preventing intrusion of the impurities into plasmas. The object of the present invention is to minimize the capacity of a power source equipment for the glow discharge device to the least extent. That is, a stabilization resistance is connected in series between each of a plurality of anodes which are inserted and arranged at the inside of a vacuum vessel as a cathode and a power source respectively. The resistance value R is selected so as to satisfy the relation: R < (Vi - Vm)/Ii, in which Vi: glow discharge starting voltage, Vm: glow discharge keeping voltage, Ii: glow discharge starting current. Accordingly, if a voltage is applied from a power source to a plurality of anodes, scattering of electric discharge between the anodes can be suppressed and the effect of voltage drop during discharge by the stabilization resistance can be eliminated. As a result, it is possible to provide an economically advantageous glow discharge device with the capacity for the power source facility being to the least extent. (K.M.)

  19. Genital infections and risk of premature rupture of membranes in Mulago Hospital, Uganda: a case control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakubulwa, Sarah; Kaye, Dan K; Bwanga, Freddie; Tumwesigye, Nazarius Mbona; Mirembe, Florence M

    2015-10-16

    Inflammatory mediators that weaken and cause membrane rupture are released during the course of genital infections among pregnant women. We set out to determine the association of common genital infections (Trichomonas vaginalis, syphilis, Neisseria gonorrhea, Chlamydia trachomatis, Group B Streptococcus, Bacterial vaginosis, Herpes Simplex Virus Type 2 and candidiasis) and premature rupture of membranes in Mulago hospital, Uganda. We conducted an unmatched case-control study among women who were in the third trimester of pregnancy at New Mulago hospital, Uganda. The cases had PROM and the controls had intact membranes during latent phase of labour in the labour ward. We used interviewer-administered questionnaires to collect data on socio-demographic characteristics, obstetric and medical history. Laboratory tests were conducted to identify T. vaginalis, syphilis, N. gonorrhea, C. trachomatis, Group B Streptococcus, Bacterial vaginosis, Herpes Simplex Virus Type 2 (HSV-2) and candidiasis. Logistic regression models were used to estimate the odds ratios (OR) and 95% CI of the association between genital infections and PROM. There was an association between PROM and abnormal vaginal discharge (OR = 2.02, 95% CI 1.10-3.70 and AOR = 2.30, 95% CI 1.18-4.47), presence of candidiasis (OR = 0.27, 95% CI 0.14-0.52 and AOR = 0.22, 95% CI 0.10-0.46) and T. vaginalis (OR = 2.98, 95% CI 1.18-7.56 and AOR = 4.22, 95% CI 1.51-11.80). However, there was no association between PROM and presence of C. trachomatis (OR = 2.05, 95% CI 0.37-11.49) and HSV-2 serostatus (OR = 1.15, 95% CI 0.63-2.09). Few or no patients with Bacterial vaginosis, Neisseria gonorrhoea, Group B streptococcus or syphilis were identified among the cases and controls. Co-infection of Trichomoniasis and candidiasis was not associated with PROM (AOR = 1.34, 95% CI 0.16-11.10). Co infection with T. vaginalis and C. trachomatis was associated with PROM (OR = 3.09, 95% CI 1.21-7.84 and AOR = 4.22, 95% CI 1

  20. CO-AXIAL DISCHARGES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luce, J.S.; Smith, L.P.

    1960-11-22

    A method and apparatus are given for producing coaxial arc discharges in an evacuated enclosure and within a strong, confining magnetic field. The arcs are maintained at a high potential difference. Electrons will diffuse to the more positive arc from the negative arc, and positive ions will diffuse from the more positive arc to the negative arc. Coaxial arc discharges have the advantage that ions which return to strike the positive arc discharge will lose no energy since they do not strike a solid wall or electrode. Those discharges are useful in confining an ionized plasma between the discharges, and have the advantage of preventing impurities from the walls of the enclosure from entering ihe plasma area because of the arc barrier set up bv the cylindrical outer arc.

  1. Energy discharge heater power supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaskierny, W.

    1992-11-01

    The heater power supply is intended to supply capacitively stored,energy to embedded heater strips in cryo magnets. The amount of energy can be controlled by setting different charge different capacitor values. Two chassis' can be operated in series or interlocks are provided. The charge voltage, number of capacitors pulse can be monitored. There and dual channel has two discharge supplies in one chassis. This report reviews the characteristics of this power supply further

  2. Modelling electric discharge chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McFarlane, J.; Wren, J.C.

    1991-07-01

    The chemistry occurring in a electric discharge was modelled to predict how it would be influenced by discharge conditions. The discharge was characterized by a calculated Boltzmann electron-energy distribution, from which rate constants for electron-molecule processes in air were determined. These rate constants were used in a chemical kinetics calculation that also included reactions between neutral molecules, ions, free radicals and electronically excited species. The model describes how the discharge chemistry was influenced by humidity, electric field, electron number density, and concentrations of key reagents identified in the study. The use of an electric discharge to destroy airborne contaminant molecules was appraised, the targeted contaminants being CF 2 Cl 2 , HCN, and SO 2 . The modelling results indicate that an electric discharge should be able to remove HCN and CF 2 Cl 2 effectively, especially if the discharge conditions have been optimized. Effective destruction is achieved with a moderate electric field (over 1 x 10 -15 V.cm 2 ), a substantial electron number density (over 1 x 10 12 cm -3 ), and the presence of H 2 0 in the process air. The residence time in the discharge was also shown to be important in contaminant destruction. An attempt was made to explain the results of the electric discharge abatement of SO 2 , a component of a simulated flue-gas mixture. Results from the model indicate that the discharge parameters that increase the concentration of hydroxyl radical also increase the rate of decomposition of SO 2 . An objective of the study was to explain the apparent enhancement of SO 2 destruction by the presence of a small amount of NO 2 . It was thought that a likely explanation would be the stabilization of HOSO 2 , an important intermediate in the oxidation of SO 2 by NO 2 . (49 figs., 14 tabs., 75 refs.)

  3. Once Daily Valacyclovir for Reducing Viral Shedding in Subjects Newly Diagnosed with Genital Herpes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark G. Martens

    2009-01-01

    Results. 52 subjects had at least one PCR measurement in both treatment periods and comprised the primary efficacy population. Valacyclovir significantly reduced HSV-2 shedding during all days compared to placebo (mean 2.9% versus 13.5% of all days (P<.01, a 78% reduction. Valacyclovir significantly reduced subclinical HSV-2 shedding during all days compared to placebo (mean 2.4% versus 11.0% of all days (P<.01, a 78% reduction. However, 79% of subjects had no GH recurrences while receiving valacyclovir compared to 52% of subjects receiving placebo (P<.01. Conclusion. In this study, the frequency of total and subclinical HSV-2 shedding was greater than reported in earlier studies involving subjects with a history of symptomatic genital recurrences. Our study is the first to demonstrate a significant reduction in viral shedding with valacyclovir 1 g daily compared to placebo in a population of subjects newly diagnosed with HSV-2 infection.

  4. Progressive Hypertrophic Genital Herpes in an HIV-Infected Woman despite Immune Recovery on Antiretroviral Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark H. Yudin

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Most HIV-infected individuals are coinfected by Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2. HSV-2 reactivates more frequently in HIV-coinfected individuals with advanced immunosuppression, and may have very unusual clinical presentations, including hypertrophic genital lesions. We report the case of a progressive, hypertrophic HSV-2 lesion in an HIV-coinfected woman, despite near-complete immune restoration on antiretroviral therapy for up to three years. In this case, there was prompt response to topical imiquimod. The immunopathogenesis and clinical presentation of HSV-2 disease in HIV-coinfected individuals are reviewed, with a focus on potential mechanisms for persistent disease despite apparent immune reconstitution. HIV-infected individuals and their care providers should be aware that HSV-2 may cause atypical disease even in the context of near-comlpete immune reconstitution on HAART.

  5. Ulcus vulvae acutum — A case of genital ulcers in adolescent girl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Visentin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Ulcus vulvae acutum is a rare clinical condition characterized by the presence of multiple acute painful genital ulcers of non-venereal origin associated with systemic symptoms in young women. The aetiopathogenesis of the disease is not fully understood, although recent reports have associated it with the Epstein–Barr virus. Diagnosis is difficult and generally made by exclusion after venereal diseases, and autoimmune, inflammatory, traumatic, and neoplastic causes. We describe a case of adolescent female with an episode of ulcus vulvae acutum associated with infectious mononucleosis. The diagnosis was supported by the clinical symptoms, elevated circulating levels of liver enzymes, positive EBV serology, cervical and inguinal lymphadenomegaly, and hepatosplenomegaly. The patient presented a history of aphthous stomatitis. Negative Pathergy test and the absence of any other related symptoms allowed us to exclude the Behçhet syndrome. Lesions healed with no sequelae or recurrences.

  6. Infection and cellular defense dynamics in a novel 17β-estradiol murine model of chronic human group B streptococcus genital tract colonization reveal a role for hemolysin in persistence and neutrophil accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, Alison J; Tan, Chee Keong; Mirza, Shaper; Irving-Rodgers, Helen; Webb, Richard I; Lam, Alfred; Ulett, Glen C

    2014-02-15

    Genital tract carriage of group B streptococcus (GBS) is prevalent among adult women; however, the dynamics of chronic GBS genital tract carriage, including how GBS persists in this immunologically active host niche long term, are not well defined. To our knowledge, in this study, we report the first animal model of chronic GBS genital tract colonization using female mice synchronized into estrus by delivery of 17β-estradiol prior to intravaginal challenge with wild-type GBS 874391. Cervicovaginal swabs, which were used to measure bacterial persistence, showed that GBS colonized the vaginal mucosa of mice at high numbers (10(6)-10(7) CFU/swab) for at least 90 d. Cellular and histological analyses showed that chronic GBS colonization of the murine genital tract caused significant lymphocyte and PMN cell infiltrates, which were localized to the vaginal mucosal surface. Long-term colonization was independent of regular hormone cycling. Immunological analyses of 23 soluble proteins related to chemotaxis and inflammation showed that the host response to GBS in the genital tract comprised markers of innate immune activation including cytokines such as GM-CSF and TNF-α. A nonhemolytic isogenic mutant of GBS 874391, Δcyle9, was impaired for colonization and was associated with amplified local PMN responses. Induction of DNA neutrophil extracellular traps, which was observed in GBS-infected human PMNs in vitro in a hemolysin-dependent manner, appeared to be part of this response. Overall, this study defines key infection dynamics in a novel murine model of chronic GBS genital tract colonization and establishes previously unknown cellular and soluble defense responses to GBS in the female genital tract.

  7. Various Characteristics of Electromagnetic Contactor when Arc Discharge are Generated only Make Arc(Researches and Overseas Activities)--(Reports of Overseas Activities)

    OpenAIRE

    Kiyoshi, Yoshida

    2017-01-01

    Experiments are carried out to clarify the influence on the current and voltage for various characteristics.A small electromagnetic contactor that has two contacts is used.The arc discharge with only a make arc is generated and various characteristics are measured.Source voltage is set to 100V DC, closed contacts currents are changed from 10A 20A and 30A.From the waveforms, the arc duration time and the bounce time are read out.Arc energy is calculated from the arc voltage and arc current.The...

  8. The Laboratory Diagnosis of Genital Human Papillomavirus Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François Coutlee

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Human papillomaviruses (HPVs are the etiological agents of several genital cancers, including cancer of the uterine cervix. The detection of HPV infection in genital samples may increase the sensitivity of primary and secondary screenings of cervical cancer. HPV testing may also improve the specificity of screening programs, resulting in the avoidance of overtreatment and cost savings for confirmatory procedures. The major determinants of clinical progression of HPV infection include persistence of HPV infection, involvement of high-risk HPV types, high HPV viral load, integration of viral DNA and presence of several potential cofactors. Signal amplification HPV-DNA detection techniques (Hybrid Capture II, Digene Corporation, USA are standardized, commercially available, and capable of detecting several high-risk HPV types. They also increase the sensitivity of screening for high-grade lesions in combination with cytology. The sensitivity of these techniques to detect high-grade lesions is higher than that of cytology, but the referral rate for colposcopy is greater. These techniques are approved for the triage to colposcopy of women with cervical smears interpreted as atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance. Triage and screening for cervical cancer using HPV will probably be restricted to women aged 30 years or older because of the high prevalence of infection in younger women. Amplification techniques are ideal for epidemiological studies because they minimize the misclassification of HPV infection status. These techniques can detect low HPV burden infections. Consensus primers amplify most genital types in one reaction, and the reverse hybridization of amplicons with type-specific probes allows for the typing of HPV-positive samples. Consensus PCR assays are currently under evaluation for diagnostic purposes. HPV testing is currently implemented for the clinical management of women.

  9. Facts and controversies on female genital mutilation and Islam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouzi, Abdulrahim A

    2013-02-01

    Female genital mutilation (FGM) is a very ancient traditional and cultural ritual. Strategies and policies have been implemented to abandon this practice. However, despite commendable work, it is still prevalent, mainly in Muslim countries. FGM predates Islam. It is not mentioned in the Qur'an (the verbatim word of God in Islam). Muslim religious authorities agree that all types of mutilation, including FGM, are condemned. 'Sensitivity' to cultural traditions that erroneously associate FGM with Islam is misplaced. The principle of 'do no harm', endorsed by Islam, supersedes cultural practices, logically eliminating FGM from receiving any Islamic religious endorsement.

  10. A Case of Genital Self-mutilation Committed Before Suicide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Yadukul

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Male genital self-mutilation (GSM is a rare, but serious phenomenon. Some of the risk factors for this act are: presence of religious delusions, command hallucinations, low self-esteem and feelings of guilt associated with sexual offences. Other risk factors include failures in the male role, problems in the early developmental period, such as experiencing difficulties in male identification and persistence of incestuous desires; depression and having a history of GSM. We present a case of a suicide wherein the deceased before committing the suicidal act had GSM.

  11. A Decolonizing Methodology for Health Research on Female Genital Cutting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werunga, Jane; Reimer-Kirkham, Sheryl; Ewashen, Carol

    2016-01-01

    In this article, critical perspectives including postcolonial feminism, African feminism, and intersectionality are presented as having decolonizing methodological potential whereby the Western narrative surrounding the practice of female genital cutting, particularly in the context of migration, is reexamined. In addition, multiple intersecting influences on affected women's realities are accounted for and a critical consciousness that serves to inform praxis, address social determinants of health, and promote health equity is encouraged. The inclusion of an African feminist perspective, a traditionally marginalized critical perspective, serves to further decolonize some long-held erroneous beliefs about the sexuality, subjectivity, and embodiment of the African woman.

  12. For the sake of purity (and control). Female genital mutilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, D

    1993-01-01

    In 1973 approximately 1 million girls will be victimized by female genital mutilation (FGM), widely practiced in more than 20 African nations from Mauritania to the Ivory Coast in the west, to Egypt and North Tanzania in the east, as well as in Oman, Bahrain, North and South Yemen, and the United Arab Emirates. FGM takes place among the Moslem populations of the Philippines, Indonesia, and Malaysia and the Jewish Falashas in Ethiopia. FGM is practiced on babies just a few days old to girls right before marriage or young women pregnant with their first child. The most extreme mutilation is called infibulation. In Somalia, almost 100% of the women are infibulated, and so are more than 80% of the women in north and central Sudan. In Ethiopia/Eritrea, Mali, and Sierra Leone, 90% of the women have undergone some form of genital mutilation. The rate reaches 70% in Burkina Faso; 60% in Kenya, Gambia, and the Ivory Coast; and 50% in Senegal, Egypt, Guinea Bissau, and Nigeria. The mutilation often results in accumulation of menstrual blood and pelvic inflammatory disease often leading to infertility. Between 20% and 25% of infertility in Sudan has been attributed to female genital mutilation. The practice of FGM has existed for centuries, and some claim it originated in the Nile Valley during the Pharaonic era. On the other hand, Muslim countries like Iraq, Syria, and Tunisia do not practice FGM. The London Black Women's Health Action Project set up an educational network to prevent mutilations and to dispel the myth of religion about FGM. FORWARD convened the First Study Conference on Genital Mutilation of Girls in Europe in 1992 and deemed FGM a form of child abuse. Local campaigns in Africa, Asia, and the Arab world educate against FGM. The Inter-Africa Committee on Traditional Practices Affecting the Health of Women and Children, based in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, has offices in more than 20 African nations to sensitize the public about the harmful effects of FGM. In

  13. Bibliometric analysis of literature on female genital mutilation: (1930 - 2015).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweileh, Waleed M

    2016-10-10

    Female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C) is a common harmful traditional practice in many communities in Africa and to a lesser extent in Middle East and other regions in the world. In order to better understand publishing on this topic, we conducted a bibliometric study on FGM/C. Bibliometric analyses can be used as an indicator of the extent of interaction of researchers, health authorities, and communities with a particular health issue. Scopus database was used to retrieve data on FGM/C. Keywords used were "female genital mutilation", "female genital circumcision", "female genital cutting" and "female circumcision". Specifically, the number of publications, top productive countries and institutions, highly cited articles, citation analysis, co-authorships, international collaboration, role of African countries, top active authors, and journals involved in publishing articles on FGM/C were reviewed and analyzed. We indirectly assessed the impact of publications using total number of citations received, average number of citations per article, Hirsch-index, percentage of highly cited articles, and journal's impact factor. One thousand and thirty-five publications on FGM/C were retrieved. The h-index of retrieved articles was 37. A steep rise in number of publications was noticed in mid-1990s and again in 2012. More than half of retrieved articles were published from 2006 - 2015. A total of 65 countries contributed. The top ten productive countries included ones from Northern America, Europe and Africa. Nigeria and Egypt were the most active African countries in FGM/C publications. At least nine African academic institutions were actively involved on FGM/C publications. Articles on FGM/C that received the highest number of citations were those that focused on negative physical and psychosexual consequences of FGM/C. Journal topic areas were obstetrics/gynecology, public health, and psychological sociology. Collaboration between African and European countries on

  14. [Herpes simplex virus and malignancies of female genital organs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cokić-Damjanović, J; Horvat, E; Balog, A

    2001-01-01

    Primary herpes simplex virus (HSV) infections of female genital tract usually end with remission, while the virus remains in the organism--almost in the sacral ganglion in a latent form, protected from humoral and cellular immunity. Stress induces the virus and the result is recurrent genital infection. Frequent exacerbations damage some parts of vital cellular structures without cytolysis, but stimulate malignant transformations. Vulvar (portio vaginalis uteri) and endometrial tumor tissue samples were analyzed for HSV by direct and indirect fluorescent antibody technique (FAT). Pre and postoperative sera samples were analyzed for presence of anti-HSV antibodies--IgM and IgG by Elisa-Enzygnost method. Acellular filtrates obtained by ultrasonic destruction of malignant tissues were used as inoculum for rabbit corneal scarification. Out of 63 tissue samples, 42 were positive for HSV antigen i.e. 67.3%. According to location 50% of vulvar, 76% PVU and 65% of endometrial tissues were positive. This antigen induces production of virus specific antibodies. Two types of antigens are known: the so-called T-antigen persisting in the cell nucleus and cell-surface antigen--product of the viral genome and can be evidenced by immunofluorescence method. Anti HSV antibodies were present in 63 preoperative serum samples and belonged to IgG group, but not one to IgM, implying a long and chronic course of infection excluding acute primary. Out of 38 postoperative serums the titer of antibodies decreased in 36 evidently, but in two samples remained unchanged. Two samples of endometrial and one from PVU origin contained HSV antigen type one. In the remaining 16 samples HSV 2 antigen was present. Rabbit corneal scarification was the proof of complete infectious virus in malignant tissues. Acellular filtrate of malignant tissues served as inoculum. Corneas of examined rabbits showed a mild inflammation after 24 hours which disappeared in the next 24 hours. We could not isolate the

  15. The development and validation of the Male Genital Self-Image Scale: results from a nationally representative probability sample of men in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbenick, Debby; Schick, Vanessa; Reece, Michael; Sanders, Stephanie A; Fortenberry, J Dennis

    2013-06-01

    Numerous factors may affect men's sexual experiences, including their health status, past trauma or abuse, medication use, relationships, mood, anxiety, and body image. Little research has assessed the influence of men's genital self-image on their sexual function or behaviors and none has done so in a nationally representative sample. The purpose of this study was to, in a nationally representative probability sample of men ages 18 to 60, assess the reliability and validity of the Male Genital Self-Image Scale (MGSIS), and to examine the relationship between scores on the MGSIS and men's scores on the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF). The MGSIS was developed in two stages. Phase One involved a review of the literature and an analysis of cross-sectional survey data. Phase Two involved an administration of the scale items to a nationally representative sample of men in the United States ages 18 to 60. Measures include demographic items, the IIEF, and the MGSIS. Overall, most men felt positively about their genitals. However, 24.6% of men expressed some discomfort letting a healthcare provider examine their genitals and about 20% reported dissatisfaction with their genital size. The MGSIS was found to be reliable and valid, with the MGSIS-5 (consisting of five items) being the best fit to the data. The MGSIS was found to be a reliable and valid measure. In addition, men's scores on the MGSIS-5 were found to be positively related to men's scores on the IIEF. © 2013 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  16. Incidence of genital warts among the Hong Kong general adult population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsui Hi-Yi

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective of this study is to estimate the incidence of genital warts in Hong Kong and explore a way to establish a surveillance system for genital warts among the Hong Kong general population. Methods A total of 170 private doctors and all doctors working in the 5 local Social Hygiene Clinics (SHC participated in this study. During the 14-day data collection period (January 5 through18, 2009, the participating doctors filled out a log-form on a daily basis to record the number of patients with genital warts. The total number of new cases of genital warts presented to private and public doctors in Hong Kong was projected using the stratification sampling method. Results A total of 721 (0.94% adults presented with genital warts to the participating doctors during the two-week study period, amongst them 73 (10.1% were new cases. The projected number of new cases of genital warts among Hong Kong adults was 442 (297 male and 144 female during the study period. The incidence of genital warts in Hong Kong was estimated to be 203.7 per 100,000 person-years (respectively 292.2 and 124.9 per 100,000 person-years for males and females. Conclusions The incidence of genital warts is high among adults in Hong Kong. The study demonstrates the importance of collecting surveillance data from both private and public sectors.

  17. Prevalence of Human Papillomavirus in Anal and Oral Sites Among Patients with Genital Warts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kofoed, Kristian; Sand, Carsten; Forslund, Ola

    2014-01-01

    Genital warts are caused by human papillomavirus (HPV). HPV is a leading cause of anogenital malignancies and a role of HPV in the aetiology of oro-pharyngeal cancers has been demonstrated. The frequency of oral HPV infection in patients with genital warts and the association between concomitant...

  18. Female genital mutilation : a hidden epidemic (statement from the European Academy of Paediatrics)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sauer, Pieter J. J.; Neubauer, David

    Female genital mutilation or female circumcision is frequently performed worldwide. It is estimated by the World Health Organisation that worldwide, 100-140 million girls and women currently have to live with the consequences of female genital mutilation. The article argues that the tradition is one

  19. The ESHRE/ESGE consensus on the classification of female genital tract congenital anomalies(,)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grimbizis, G.F.; Gordts, S.; Di Spiezio Sardo, A.; Brucker, S.; De Angelis, C.; Gergolet, M.; Li, T.C.; Tanos, V.; Brölmann, H.A.M.; Gianaroli, L.; Campo, R.

    2013-01-01

    STUDY QUESTIONWhat classification system is more suitable for the accurate, clear, simple and related to the clinical management categorization of female genital anomalies?SUMMARY ANSWERThe new ESHRE/ESGE classification system of female genital anomalies is presented.WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADYCongenital

  20. Cesarean Delivery in Women With Genital Herpes in Washington State, 1989–1991

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeanne M. Marrazzo

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine whether the proportion of cesarean deliveries in pregnant women with a history of genital herpes and no active lesions at birth is higher than that in women with no history of genital herpes, and to determine whether this risk was modified by birth facilities' underlying prevalence of cesarean delivery.

  1. CHLAMYFAST-OIA TEST IN THE GENITAL CHLAMYDIA MALE INFECTION DIAGNOSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anka Vasic

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available The genital infections caused by Chlamydia trachomatis (Ch. trachomatis, Mycoplasma hominis (M. hominis and Ureaplasma urealyticum (U. urealyticum represent, in the countries with developed industry, those diseases which are most often sexually transmissible. Chronic infections provoked by the mentioned causes are considered to be the risk factors for sterility.The aim of this paper is to examine the importance and specific characteristics of the CHLAMYFAST-OIA test in the Chlamydia genital infection diagnosis. This study includes 400 male patients with urethritis symptoms. The CHLAMYFAST-optical immunologic test has been used to determine the presence of the Ch. trachomatis in the genital tract of 360 males (Mycoplasma, International, France. The genital microplasmas, that is M. hominis and U. urealyticum, have been detected with the use of MYCOFAST-test (Mycroplasm International, France. The presence of the genital microplasmas has been studied in 129 patients.Chlamydia genital infection has been determined in 128 males (35,55%. The genital infection caused by M. hominis has been determined in a largely lower number of patients (3; 2,32%, as well as the infection caused by U. urealyticum (in 8 patients; 6,20%. Mixed infections have been detected in 8 patients. In 6 men (4,64% there has been detected a mixed infection caused by genital microplasmas. The mixed infection provoked by Ch. Trachomatis and M. hominis, and the one caused by Ch. trachomatis and U. urealyticum, has been proven only in one patient respectively.

  2. Discharge lamp technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dakin, James

    1994-01-01

    This talk is an overview of discharge lamp technology commonly employed in general lighting, with emphasis on issues pertinent to lighting for plant growth. Since the audience is primarily from the plant growth community, and this begins the light source part of the program, we will start with a brief description of the discharge lamps. Challenges of economics and of thermal management make lamp efficiency a prime concern in controlled environment agriculture, so we will emphasize science considerations relating to discharge lamp efficiency. We will then look at the spectra and ratings of some representative lighting products, and conclude with a discussion of technological advances.

  3. Capacitor discharge engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Früngel, Frank B A

    1976-01-01

    High Speed Pulse Technology, Volume III: Capacitor Discharge Engineering covers the production and practical application of capacitor dischargers for the generation and utilization of high speed pulsed of energy in different forms. This nine-chapter volume discusses the principles of electric current, voltage, X-rays, gamma rays, heat, beams of electrons, neutrons and ions, magnetic fields, sound, and shock waves in gases and liquids. Considerable chapters consider the applications of capacitor discharges, such as impulse hardening of steel, ultrapulse welding of precision parts, X-ray flash t

  4. Predicting tile drainage discharge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Bo Vangsø; Kjærgaard, Charlotte; Petersen, Rasmus Jes

    used in the analysis. For the dynamic modelling, a simple linear reservoir model was used where different outlets in the model represented tile drain as well as groundwater discharge outputs. This modelling was based on daily measured tile drain discharge values. The statistical predictive model...... was based on a polynomial regression predicting yearly tile drain discharge values using site specific parameters such as soil type, catchment topography, etc. as predictors. Values of calibrated model parameters from the dynamic modelling were compared to the same site specific parameter as used...

  5. Reconstructing the history of 14C discharges from Sellafield. Part 2. Aquatic discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, G.T.; MacKenzie, A.B.; Naysmith, F.H.; Anderson, R.; Naysmith, P.; Kershaw, P.J.

    2004-01-01

    Prior to 1984, the reported marine 14 C discharges from Sellafield were estimates: 0.2 TBq per annum from 1952 to 1969 and 1 TBq per annum until 1984 when measurements commenced. The relationship between the net excess 14 C activity in annually collected Nori (Porphyra umbilicalis) seaweed samples and the annual discharges (estimated and measured) implies that the discharges were not as constant as the estimates. Based on the relationship between post-1984 measured discharges and the excess 14 C in the seaweed, two simple empirical models were used to re-calculate the discharges between 1967 and 1984. Gamma-spectrometry measurements on the seaweed also indicate that Porphyra is a sensitive indicator of changes in discharge of other radionuclides, brought about by the introduction of new waste clean-up technologies within Sellafield. (author)

  6. Oral antiviral therapy for prevention of genital herpes outbreaks in immunocompetent and nonpregnant patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Cleach, Laurence; Trinquart, Ludovic; Do, Giao; Maruani, Annabel; Lebrun-Vignes, Benedicte; Ravaud, Philippe; Chosidow, Olivier

    2014-08-03

    acyclovir; pooled RR 1.04, 95% CI, 0.71 to 1.49 for famciclovir vs acyclovir; and pooled RR 1.26, 95% CI 0.89 to 1.75 for famciclovir vs valacyclovir). Safety data were sought but were reported as total numbers of adverse events. Owing to risk of bias and inconsistency, there is low quality evidence that suppressive antiviral therapy with acyclovir, valacyclovir or famciclovir in pacients experiencing at least four recurrences of genital herpes per year decreases the number of pacients with at least one recurrence as compared with placebo. Network meta-analysis of the few direct comparisons and the indirect comparisons did not show superiority of one drug over another.

  7. Electric discharge during electrosurgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shashurin, Alexey; Scott, David; Zhuang, Taisen; Canady, Jerome; Beilis, Isak I; Keidar, Michael

    2015-04-16

    Electric discharge utilized for electrosurgery is studied by means of a recently developed method for the diagnostics of small-size atmospheric plasma objects based on Rayleigh scattering of microwaves on the plasma volume. Evolution of the plasma parameters in the near-electrode sheaths and in the positive column is measured and analyzed. It is found that the electrosurgical system produces a glow discharge of alternating current with strongly contracted positive column with current densities reaching 10(3) A/cm(2). The plasma electron density and electrical conductivities in the channel were found be 10(16) cm(-3) and (1-2) Ohm(-1) cm(-1), respectively. The discharge interrupts every instance when the discharge-driving AC voltage crosses zero and re-ignites again every next half-wave at the moment when the instant voltage exceeds the breakdown threshold.

  8. Vaginal delivery - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pregnancy - discharge after vaginal delivery ... You may have bleeding from your vagina for up to 6 weeks. Early on, you may pass some small clots when you first get up. Bleeding will slowly become ...

  9. Prostate radiation - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000399.htm Prostate radiation - discharge To use the sharing features on ... keeping or getting an erection may occur after prostate radiation therapy. You may not notice this problem ...

  10. Brain injury - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000163.htm Brain injury - discharge To use the sharing features on ... know was in the hospital for a serious brain injury. At home, it will take time for ...

  11. Brain aneurysm repair - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000123.htm Brain aneurysm repair - discharge To use the sharing features ... this page, please enable JavaScript. You had a brain aneurysm . An aneurysm is a weak area in ...

  12. Brain radiation - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radiation - brain - discharge; Cancer - brain radiation; Lymphoma - brain radiation; Leukemia - brain radiation ... Decadron) while you are getting radiation to the brain. It may make you hungrier, cause leg swelling ...

  13. Atrial fibrillation - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000237.htm Atrial fibrillation - discharge To use the sharing features on this ... have been in the hospital because you have atrial fibrillation . This condition occurs when your heart beats faster ...

  14. Pneumonia - adults - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000017.htm Pneumonia in adults - discharge To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. You have pneumonia, which is an infection in your lungs. In ...

  15. Knee arthroscopy - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000199.htm Knee arthroscopy - discharge To use the sharing features on this ... surgery to treat problems in your knee (knee arthroscopy). You may have been checked for: Torn meniscus. ...

  16. Cosmetic breast surgery - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000273.htm Cosmetic breast surgery - discharge To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. You had cosmetic breast surgery to change the size or shape ...

  17. Shoulder surgery - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000179.htm Shoulder surgery - discharge To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. You had shoulder surgery to repair the tissues inside or around your ...

  18. Systemic Immune Activation and HIV Shedding in the Female Genital Tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, LaShonda Y; Christiansen, Shawna; Wang, Chia-Hao H; Mack, Wendy J; Young, Mary; Strickler, Howard D; Anastos, Kathryn; Minkoff, Howard; Cohen, Mardge; Geenblatt, Ruth M; Karim, Roksana; Operskalski, Eva; Frederick, Toni; Homans, James D; Landay, Alan; Kovacs, Andrea

    2016-02-01

    Plasma HIV RNA is the most significant determinant of cervical HIV shedding. However, shedding is also associated with sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and cervical inflammation. The mechanism by which this occurs is poorly understood. There is evidence that systemic immune activation promotes viral entry, replication, and HIV disease progression. We hypothesized that systemic immune activation would be associated with an increase in HIV genital shedding. Clinical assessments, HIV RNA in plasma and genital secretions, and markers of immune activation (CD38(+)DR(+) and CD38(-)DR(-)) on CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells in blood were evaluated in 226 HIV+ women enrolled in the Women's Interagency HIV Study. There were 569 genital evaluations of which 159 (28%) exhibited HIV RNA shedding, defined as HIV viral load >80 copies per milliliter. We tested associations between immune activation and shedding using generalized estimating equations with logit link function. In the univariate model, higher levels of CD4(+) and CD8(+) T-cell activation in blood were significantly associated with genital tract shedding. However, in the multivariate model adjusting for plasma HIV RNA, STIs, and genital tract infections, only higher levels of resting CD8(+) T cells (CD38(-)DR(-)) were significantly inversely associated with HIV shedding in the genital tract (odds ratios = 0.44, 95% confidence interval: 0.21 to 0.9, P = 0.02). The association of systemic immune activation with genital HIV shedding is multifactorial. Systemic T-cell activation is associated with genital tract shedding in univariate analysis but not when adjusting for plasma HIV RNA, STIs, and genital tract infections. In addition, women with high percentage of resting T cells are less likely to have HIV shedding compared with those with lower percentages. These findings suggest that a higher percentage of resting cells, as a result of maximal viral suppression with treatment, may decrease local genital activation, HIV

  19. Interrelationships Within the Bacterial Flora of the Female Genital Tract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry J. Carson

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of 240 consecutive vaginal swabs using the compatibility profile technique revealed that only 2 bacteria have the ability to be a sole isolate and as such a candidate to be a major aerobic regulator of the bacterial flora of the female genital tract (BFFGT. Compatibility profiles of Lactobacillus and Gardnerella vaginalis have shown that these organisms shared compatibility profiling for the majority of the normal bacterial constituents of the female genital tract. Dominance disruption appears to come from the addition of compatible co-isolates and presumed loss of numerical superiority. These phenomena appear to be the keys to reregulation of BFFGT. Lactobacillus appears to be the major regulator of both G. vaginalis and anaerobic bacteria. When additional organisms are added to the bacterial flora, they may add to or partially negate the inhibitory influence of Lactobacillus on the BFFGT. Inhibitor interrelationships appear to exist between coagulase-negative staphylococci and Staphylococcus aureus and the group B streptococci (GBS and other beta hemolytic streptococci. Facilitating interrelationships appear to exist between S. aureus and the GBS and selected Enterobacteriaceae.

  20. Vulvar Epidermoid Cyst and Type 2 Radical Genital Mutilation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozer Birge

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available About 100 million women are estimated to be circumcised globally. Various rates of complications have been encountered, especially after circumcision, such as bleeding, infection, shock, menstrual irregularity, difficulty in urination or common urinary tract infections, inguinal pain, difficulty in sexual intercourse, and genital circumcision scar especially at the vulvar region, and cystic or solid character mass in short and long term. Furthermore, the maternal-fetal morbidity and mortality increase due to bleeding and fistula, which develop after prolonged labor, travail, and difficult labors. Our aim in this paper was to discuss a 42-year-old multiparous female case who had undergone type 2 radical genital mutilation (circumcision when she was 7 years of age, along with the literature, which has been evaluated for the gradually growing mass at the left inguinal canal region in the last 10 years and diagnosed as epidermoid inclusion cyst developing secondary to postcircumcision surgical ground trauma, since there was no other case found in the literature search that had been circumcised at such an early age and developing after circumcision at such advanced age, and, therefore, this is suggested to be the first case on this subject.