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Sample records for reported genital discharge

  1. Validity of genito-urinary discharges, genital ulcers and genital rashes as indicators of seroincident HSV-2 infection

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    Eziyi Iche Kalu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the validity of vaginal discharges, urethral discharges, genital rashes, and painful genital ulcers as indicators of early detection of incident herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2 infection among pregnant women in Benin metropolis. Methods: Participants were antenatal clinic attendees of University of Benin Teaching Hospital and Central Hospital, Benin. Baseline sociodemographic, obstetric and HSV-2 serological data were collected. The HSV-2-seronegative returned for a repeat HSV-2 antibody assay before delivery date. Data on incidence of genital rashes, abnormal vaginal discharges, painful genital ulcers and urethral discharges were collected. Results: The sensitivities of abnormal vaginal discharges, genital rashes, urethral discharges and painful genital ulcers were 82.3%, 70.6%, 41.2% and 28.6% respectively; while their positive-predictive values were 53.8%, 60.0%, 58.3% and 66.7% respective. All the symptoms had >95% specificities and 95% negative-predictive values for seroincident HSV-2 infection. Conclusions: Abnormal vaginal discharge, genital rashes, urethral discharges and genital ulcers are valid indicators of seroincident HSV-2 infection and could be useful in formulation of screening tools in resource-limited settings.

  2. Female genital mutilation and reporting duties for all clinical personnel.

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    Cropp, Gabrielle; Armstrong, Jane

    2016-07-01

    Female genital mutilation is illegal. It is now mandatory for health-care professionals to report female genital mutilation to the police. Professionals caring for women and girls of all ages must understand how female genital mutilation presents, and what action to take.

  3. A CASE REPORT OF GIANT GENITAL WARTS

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    L. Grimaldi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Giant genital warts (GGW represent a rare form of sexually transmitted disease caused by the human papillomavirus, arising more frequently in the vulvar and perianal regions as large exophytic cauliflower-like mass. Estimated rate of recurrence is 60 to 66%, while malignant transformation is possible and it has been reported in 30 to 56% of cases. A 45- years-old woman was admitted to our Structure of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Siena, Italy with an extensive cauliflower- like masses diffused on vulvar and perianal region. The patient was treated in general anaesthesia, with a wide en bloc excision up to free clinical edges and immediate reconstruction of the vulvar continuity. Buschke Lowenstein tumour or giant genital warts is a sporadic tumour with an elevate local recurrence rate. In some cases, surgery can be very difficult and it must be associated to other strategies. An accurate follow-up is always necessary

  4. Neonatal genital prolapse: A case report

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    Sindu Saksono

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Neonatal genital prolapse without congenital spinal abnormality is rare. Several treatment modalities are known to manage this condition. Our management consists of manually reducing the prolapsed mass and applying purse string suture technique.

  5. Association of cutis laxa and genital prolapse: a case report.

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    Paladini, Dario; Di Spiezio Sardo, Attilio; Mandato, Vincenzo Dario; Guerra, Germano; Bifulco, Giuseppe; Mauriello, Silvana; Nappi, Carmine

    2007-11-01

    Cutis laxa (CL) is an extremely inherited or acquired connective tissue disorder characterised by a markedly reduced systemic elastin content. Genital abnormalities in patients with CL have been rarely reported. We report such a case in a 48-year-old CL patient affected by genital prolapse, focusing on immunohistological and molecular biology assessment of elastin and collagen type I, III, VI content in the main uterine ligaments. The woman was referred to our department for the onset of a rapidly progressing genital prolapse and urinary incontinence. The patient underwent total abdominal hysterectomy with bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy and sacrocolpopexy. Punch biopsies from both cardinal and uterosacral ligaments revealed a dramatic reduction in elastin and an increase in collagen type VI content. The present report seems to underline the central role exerted primarily by elastin in the supportive connective tissue and might contribute to the knowledge of extracellular matrix abnormalities at the basis of genital abnormalities in CL patients.

  6. Genital donovanosis with malignant transformation: An interesting case report

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    K Navya Sri

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Donovanosis is a chronic indolent sexually transmitted granulomatous ulceration of genito-inguinal region, caused by Calymmatobacterium granulomatis. It became uncommon due to indiscriminate use of broad spectrum antibiotics. In recent years, much interest is being focused on this condition because genital ulcers facilitate HIV infection. We report an interesting episode of genital donovanosis complicated with squamous cell carcinoma in a middle aged female for its rarity and clinical interest.

  7. Male genital mutilation (amputation) and its complications: a case report.

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    Kaggwa, Sam; Galukande, Moses

    2014-08-12

    Genital losses from ritual attacks are often reported in the media and often discussed in the social media but are hardly reported in medical literature. Male genital mutilation (MGM) refers to permanent modification of the external genitalia that involves ablation of genital tissues.When found, it is usually as a consequence of poor circumcision skills, auto mutilation/castration or genital injuries caused by attacks or accidents. Male circumcision on its own is widely regarded as a rather safe and acceptable practice which is known to have some health benefits and in keeping with several religious customs as rite of passage. Outside of professional performed circumcision, MGM is usually associated with dark arts and malicious intentions like witchcraft or as a consequence of torture of prisoners of war for information. In this case we describe a 5-year old Ugandan boy who had his genitals mutilated in bizarre circumstances within a ritual attack. He survived and a urethrostomy was fashioned. There is need to document more of these cases in order to gather enough information to inform prevention and treatment strategies. Issues of hormonal replacement therapy (HRT) and possible sex change require much debate. These genital sex changing operations should preferably be avoided until a child can fully participate in decision making.

  8. Genital tuberculosis in a tamoxifen-treated postmenopausal woman with breast cancer and bloody vaginal discharge

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    Maraki Sofia

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Female genital tuberculosis is an uncommon disease that is rarely diagnosed in developed countries. Case presentation A 61-year-old postmenopausal woman who had undergone surgery and treated with adjuvant chemotherapy for infiltrating ductal carcinoma of the breast five years ago, presented with bloody vaginal discharge, fatigue, weight loss, and low grade fevers at night for two months. Histological examination of the endometrium, done based on the suspicion of a second primary cancer due to the tamoxifen therapy, revealed a granulomatous reaction. Liquid and solid mycobacterial cultures of the tissues were performed. Although the acid fast staining was negative, the liquid culture was positive for Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Involvement of other systems was not detected. The patient was treated with a three-drug antituberculosis regimen for 9 months and recovered fully. Conclusion Female genital tuberculosis is a rare but curable disease that should be included in the differential diagnosis of women with menstrual problems. Early diagnosis is important and may prevent unnecessary invasive procedures for the patient.

  9. Prevalencia de microorganismos asociados a secreción genital femenina, Argentina Prevalence of associated microorganisms in genital discharge, Argentina

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    Susana Di Bartolomeo

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Hay un aumento significativo de pacientes con Secreción Genital Femenina, en el Sector Público del gran Buenos Aires. Fue necesario actualizar la prevalencia de los microorganismos asociados a los efectos de revisar el apoyo necesario de laboratorio y ajustar las medidas de prevención y control. MÉTODOS: Se incorporan a este estudio, la totalidad de los casos atendidos (1997-1998: 84 adolescentes (15 a 19 años y 784 adultas (20 a 60 años sintomáticas. El protocolo incluye (secreción vaginal y endocervical detección de Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Streptococcus agalactiae, Trichomonas vaginalis, Candida spp y vaginosis bacteriana. Aplicando métodos específicos directos y cultivo, Chlamydia trachomatis (detección de antígeno, Ureaplasma urealitycum y Mycoplasma hominis (cultivos fueron estudiados en parte de la población total. RESULTADOS: El aumento de la demanda de consulta fue continuo desde 1997 y aumentó 2.10 veces del primero al último semestre de 1998. En las mujeres adultas se encontró: vaginosis bacteriana, 23,8%; Candida spp 17,8%; S. agalactiae 5,6%; T. vaginalis 2,4%. En 50,3% no se detecto ninguno. En adolescentes se detectó: vaginosis bacteriana, 17,8%; Candida spp 29,7%; S. agalactiae 3,6%, T. vaginalis 2,4%: En 46,4% de los casos el resultado fue negativo. En el grupo de mujeres adultas sintomáticas, no en la totalidad, se detectó: C. trachomatis (7/400 1,76%, U. urealyticum (209/340 61,4% y M. hominis (45/272 16,5%. CONCLUSIONES: El aumento significativo de consultas se debe a problemas sociales en la población, no al aumento de ninguna patología en especial. Impacta como problema clínico concreto la prevalencia de vaginosis bacteriana y Candida spp. Llama la atención, la nula incidencia de N. gonorrhoeae y la baja circulación de T. Vaginalis y C. trachomatis, en este tipo de población. La prevalencia de U. urealyticum y M. hominis es alta, pero su real participación en la patología genital de

  10. Management of Retained Genital Piercings: A Case Report and Review

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    Laura J. Moulton

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of genital piercing among women is increasing. As the popularity increases, the number of complications from infection, injury, and retained jewelry is likely to rise. Techniques to remove embedded jewelry are not well described in the literature. The purpose of this report was to describe a case of a patient with a retained clitoral glans piercing, discuss a simple technique for outpatient removal, and review current evidence regarding associated risks of clitoral piercings. A 24-year-old female presented to the emergency department with an embedded clitoral glans piercing. Local anesthetic was injected into the periclitoral skin and a small superficial vertical incision was made to remove the ball of the retained barbell safely. In conclusion, among patients with retained genital piercing, outpatient removal of embedded jewelry is feasible. While the practice of female genital piercing is not regulated, piercing of the glans of the clitoris is associated with increased injury to the nerves and blood supply of the clitoris structures leading to future fibrosis and diminished function compared to piercing of the clitoral hood.

  11. Management of Retained Genital Piercings: A Case Report and Review

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    2017-01-01

    The prevalence of genital piercing among women is increasing. As the popularity increases, the number of complications from infection, injury, and retained jewelry is likely to rise. Techniques to remove embedded jewelry are not well described in the literature. The purpose of this report was to describe a case of a patient with a retained clitoral glans piercing, discuss a simple technique for outpatient removal, and review current evidence regarding associated risks of clitoral piercings. A 24-year-old female presented to the emergency department with an embedded clitoral glans piercing. Local anesthetic was injected into the periclitoral skin and a small superficial vertical incision was made to remove the ball of the retained barbell safely. In conclusion, among patients with retained genital piercing, outpatient removal of embedded jewelry is feasible. While the practice of female genital piercing is not regulated, piercing of the glans of the clitoris is associated with increased injury to the nerves and blood supply of the clitoris structures leading to future fibrosis and diminished function compared to piercing of the clitoral hood. PMID:28299217

  12. [Genital actinomycosis. Diagnostic and therapeutic difficulties. Report of three cases].

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    Atallah, D; Lizee, D S; Van den Akker, M; Gadonneix, P; Tranbaloc, P; Villet, R

    1999-01-01

    Genital actinomycosis is a rare bacterial infection affecting women of child-bearing age, which is sometimes related to the use of an IUD or an intra-vaginal pessary. Nevertheless, this relationship is at best tenous and actinomycosis is not the only bacterial infection caused by IUD use. Genital actinomycosis often occurs as a pelvic tumour which is sometimes difficult to correctly diagnose and consequently treat accordingly. Rapid diagnosis is essential in order to avoid any irreparable tissue damage. Treatment of this condition consists of a combination of antibiotics and surgery to achieve complete recovery. Three cases are described.

  13. Urinary and genital tract obstruction as a complication of female genital mutilation: case report and literature review.

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    Okwudili, Obi Anselm; Chukwudi, Onoh Robinson

    2012-01-01

    Female genital mutilation (FGM) is the partial or total removal of the female external genitalia or other deliberate injury to the female genital organs, either for cultural or non-therapeutic reasons. This barbaric act is accompanied by a variety of complications ranging from hemorrhage, fracture, infective complications, gynetresia, with its attendant sexual and obstetric difficulties, and death. A 23-year-old girl, with urinary and genital tract obstruction following female genital mutilation(infibulation) is presented. She was managed by elective defibulation, with a satisfactory outcome. Robust health education strategies are needed for the eradication of FGM.

  14. Genital/Vulvovaginal Candidiasis (VVC)

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    ... experience genital itching, burning, and sometimes a "cottage cheese-like" vaginal discharge. Men with genital candidiasis may ... number of Candida organisms are present. A fungal culture may not always be useful because Candida species ...

  15. Rectal and genital prolapse in Nigerian newborns: Case reports and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-03-16

    Mar 16, 2013 ... management includes manual reduction and use of Foleys catheter. ... antibiotics and the child remained well until the parents discharged her against ... noticed at birth with an associated fever and yellowness of the eyes few ...

  16. Paracoccidioidomycosis of the male genital tract. Report of eleven cases and a review of Brazilian literature

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    SEVERO Luiz Carlos

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Eleven cases of involvement of the genital tract in paracoccidioidomycosis were collected in a retrospective study of the clinical records of 683 patients seen in Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. These cases are herein summarily reported. Eighteen similar cases were gathered in review of the Brazilian literature. Obtained data are discussed.

  17. Female Genital Mutilation: Proposals for Change. Minority Rights Group International Report. [Revised].

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    Dorkenoo, Efua; Elworthy, Scilla

    In Africa today, women's voices are being raised against female genital mutilation. Inspired by the United Nations Decade for Women, this report seeks to present information in a logical, coherent manner to stimulate support for eradication of the practice. It describes steps African governments, Western states, and international agencies can take…

  18. Localized neurofibromatosis of the female genital system: a case report and review of the literature.

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    Gómez-Laencina, Ana M; Martínez Díaz, Francisco; Izquierdo Sanjuanes, Blanca; Vicente Sánchez, Elena M; Fernandez Salmerón, Rosario; Meseguer Peña, Francisco

    2012-06-01

    Neurofibromatosis within the female genital tract is uncommon. The vulva is the most frequent genital location, but it has rarely been reported in the context of the vagina, uterine cervix or ovaries. In spite of its rarity, neurofibroma is a neoplasm that should be considered in the differential diagnosis of pelvic masses, especially in patients with neurofibromatosis. In this paper we describe the case of a 71-year-old patient with pelvic pain and a uterine mass who underwent a hysterectomy after having been diagnosed with an 11-cm neurofibroma occupying the myometrium of the entire uterine corpus. There were no neurofibromas in the endometrium, serosa, fallopian tubes or ovaries. The patient had an unknown von Recklinghausen's disease. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research © 2012 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  19. [Genital self-mutilation. Report of 3 cases].

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    Moufid, Kamal; Joual, Abdenbi; Debbagh, Adil; Bennani, Saad; El Mrini, Mohamed

    2004-09-01

    Self-mutilation, a very unusual situation in routine urology, is a rare phenomenon. It is generally observed in a psychotic context, but can be secondary to drug or alcohol abuse. Treatment and management vary according to the severity of the lesions, the time to presentation and the patient's mental state. The authors report 3 cases of self-mutilation, including 1 case of penis amputation, 1 case of strangulation by a metal ring and 1 case of bilateral castration. In the light of these cases and a review of the recent literature, the authors analyse the various psychiatric medicolegal and urological aspects of this deliberate self-injury.

  20. Persistent genital arousal disorder and trazodone. Morphometric and vascular modifications of the clitoris. A case report.

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    Battaglia, Cesare; Venturoli, Stefano

    2009-10-01

    Persistent genital arousal disorder (PGAD) is an unwanted genital arousal which occurs in absence of sexual interest and desire. To report a case of PGAD presumably due to the use of trazodone in a young eumenorrheic woman. A young (29 years old), eumenorrheic (menstrual cycle of >25 and <35 days) woman suffered of unwanted genital arousal and uncontrollable orgasms. In the past, the patient undertook trazodone treatment. The patient was submitted, in the periovulatory (day 12) phase of the menstrual cycle, to bi- and tri-dimensional ultrasonographic and color Doppler analyses of the clitoral structures prior and after an unwanted orgasm. 2D ultrasonographic evaluation of the clitoral body volume and color Doppler evaluation of the dorsal clitoral arteries; 3D power Doppler reconstruction of the clitoral vascularization. The clitoral volume was 1.33 mL before the orgasm and resulted 1.36 mL and 1.33 mL, respectively after 1 minute and 15 minutes from the orgasm. The Pulsatility Index (PI) of the dorsal clitoral artery was 1.05 before the orgasm. It resulted lower after 1 minute (PI = 0.82) and 15 minutes (PI = 0.85) from the orgasm. A subtle and intermittent clitoral priapism may favor the feeling of arousal persistence and elicit unbidden and unwelcomed orgasms.

  1. Xanthogranulomatous Inflammation of the Female Genital Tract: Report of Three Cases

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    Xiang-sheng Zhang, Hong-yan Dong, Lei-lei Zhang, Mohamed Mokhtar Desouki, Chengquan Zhao

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose and Methods: This is a series of three cases diagnosed with xanthogranulomatous inflammation of the female genital with emphasis on the etiology, clinical-pathologic features and biological behavior. Clinical, pathologic, radiologic and follow up data are reported.Results: The three cases of Xanthogranulomatous inflammation of the female genital tract are the followings: 1 one case affecting the endometrium, 2 one case affecting the fallopian tube, and 3 one case confined to the ovary. The patient's age was 37, 22 and 62 year-old, respectively. Histologic examination revealed extensive infiltration of foamy histiocytes admixed with variable amount of inflammatory cells. The later include plasma cells, lymphocytes, and occasional multinucleated giant cells. Immunohistochemistry showed positive staining for CD68, a histiocytic marker, in foamy histiocytes, CD3, a T cell marker, and CD20, a B cell marker, in the background lymphocytes. The plasma cells were polyclonal with expression of both κ and λ light chains.Conclusion: Xanthogranulomatous inflammation of the female genital tract is an unusual lesion, and clinically forms mass- like lesion in the pelvic cavity that invades the surrounding tissues, which may mimic the tumor clinically and by imaging.

  2. Female genital mutilation/cutting type IV in Cambodia: a case report.

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    Abdulcadir, Jasmine; Irion, Olivier; de Tejada, Begoña Martinez

    2015-12-01

    Nontherapeutic female genital modifications can cause short- and long-term consequences. Caregivers should promote women's self knowledge on genitals' anatomy and physiology, and psychophysical and sexual health. They should also inform on possible negative consequences of vulvar nontherapeutic alterations requested and avoid the medicalization of female genital mutilation.

  3. Ultrasound plays a key role in imaging and management of genital angiomyofibroblastoma: a case report.

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    Wolf, Benjamin; Horn, Lars-Christian; Handzel, Romy; Einenkel, Jens

    2015-10-28

    Angiomyofibroblastoma is a benign, rare mesenchymal tumor arising from the genital tract of both men and women and was first described by Fletcher and colleagues in 1992. The tumor needs to be distinguished from other, similar lesions, such as deep and superficial aggressive angiomyxoma and cellular angiofibroma, because aggressive angiomyxoma demands much more extensive treatment. The vast majority of angiomyofibroblastomas arise from the vulva and appear as solid cystic masses on ultrasound images. We report a case of a 35-year-old Caucasian woman with an angiomyofibroblastoma arising from the vagina. She presented with a painless mass of about 5cm in diameter that had a rather homogeneous, hypoechoic appearance on ultrasound images. The patient underwent surgical resection of the mass, which was subsequently diagnosed as angiomyofibroblastoma. We present sonographic and magnetic resonance imaging findings, intraoperative and histologic images, and a thorough review of the literature. In our opinion, ultrasonography is the most valuable tool to establish a preoperative diagnosis of this tumor entity, differentiate it from other lesions of the female genital tract, and plan surgery accordingly. Even though it is a rare tumor, gynecologists should be able to recognize it and to differentiate it from other tumor entities that demand more aggressive treatment. We describe a different sonographic appearance of this tumor than previously reported.

  4. Adenomatoid tumor of the female genital tract: Report of three cases

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    Filiz BOLAT

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Adenomatoid tumors are benign proliferations that are most often encountered in the female and male genital tracts. The mesothelial phenotype of these unusual tumors has been established by a variety of ultrastructural and immunohistochemical studies, although their histogenesis is by no means certain. In this paper we report three cases that were diagnosed as genital tract adenomatoid tumors and discussed the clinical signs, origin and immunohistochemical characteristics of the this type of tumor. Immunohistochemical expression of calretinin, HBME-1, vimentin, pancytokeratin, EMA, and CD31 were analyzed in three ATs, using formaline-fixed, paraffin-embedded archival tissues. The age of the patients were ranging from 40 to 46 years with a median of 43.3. Tumors were located in uterus (one, and fallopian tube (two. Tumor sizes were ranging between 0.6-5 cm. Immunohistochemically all tumors exhibited strong and diffuse positivity for pancytokeratin, calretinin, HBME-1 and vimentin, but negativity for EMA, and CD31. The immunohistochemical results support histogenetic theories of the adenomatoid tumor that claim it as a type of benign mesothelioma. Immunohistochemical phenotypes can play an important role in the differential diagnosis.

  5. A genital hair tourniquet syndrome: Case report and review of the literature

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    Esra Ozcakir

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The genital hair tourniquet syndrome in children is an uncommon condition. Herein, a case of 9- year - old girl with a clitoral hair tourniquet is described, and review of the literature of genital tourniquets is presented, with a discussion about potential etiology by current literature.

  6. Case report: symptomatic oral herpes simplex virus type 2 and asymptomatic genital shedding.

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    Olin, Laura; Wald, Anna

    2006-05-01

    A 42-year-old bisexual man with a history of recurrent oral herpes and no history of genital herpes was noted to have antibody to herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) only. During a symptomatic oral recurrence, HSV-2 was found in a perioral lesion as well as in the genital area.

  7. Mouth and Genital Ulcers with Inflamed Cartilage Syndrome: Case Report and Review of the Published Work.

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    Kaneko, Yuka; Nakai, Noriaki; Kida, Takashi; Kawahito, Yutaka; Katoh, Norito

    2016-01-01

    Mouth and genital ulcers with inflamed cartilage (MAGIC) syndrome are disease that fulfilled criteria for diagnosis of Behcet's disease (BD) and relapsing polychondritis (RP). We report a 22-year-old Japanese woman presented with MAGIC syndrome and we described the clinicopathological characteristics of MAGIC syndrome based on a review of published cases from July 1985 to December 2015. In our case, the patient with oral aphthae, erythema nodosum, acne-like eruptions, uveitis, and polyarthritis fulfilled criteria for diagnosis of incomplete form of BD. The patient with uveitis, polyarthritis, and histological confirmation of chondritis also fulfilled criteria for diagnosis of RP. The patient was successfully treated with oral colchicine followed by prednisolone. The symptoms of MAGIC syndrome gradually disappeared, and the prednisolone dosage was gradually decreased and stopped. She has been in remission without active medication for a further 8 months. In the previous reports, some authors suggested that MAGIC syndrome was not a disease entity and might be RP occurring secondary to BD, another association of an autoimmune disease, or vasculitis with RP. However, the pathogenic association between MAGIC syndrome, BD, and RP is still unclear, and the number of reported cases of MAGIC syndrome is insufficient to establish a clear explanation. Therefore, further accumulation of data and careful observation of the clinical course are required to improve the understanding of MAGIC syndrome.

  8. Mouth and genital ulcers with inflamed cartilage syndrome: Case report and review of the published work

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    Yuka Kaneko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Mouth and genital ulcers with inflamed cartilage (MAGIC syndrome are disease that fulfilled criteria for diagnosis of Behcet's disease (BD and relapsing polychondritis (RP. We report a 22-year-old Japanese woman presented with MAGIC syndrome and we described the clinicopathological characteristics of MAGIC syndrome based on a review of published cases from July 1985 to December 2015. In our case, the patient with oral aphthae, erythema nodosum, acne-like eruptions, uveitis, and polyarthritis fulfilled criteria for diagnosis of incomplete form of BD. The patient with uveitis, polyarthritis, and histological confirmation of chondritis also fulfilled criteria for diagnosis of RP. The patient was successfully treated with oral colchicine followed by prednisolone. The symptoms of MAGIC syndrome gradually disappeared, and the prednisolone dosage was gradually decreased and stopped. She has been in remission without active medication for a further 8 months. In the previous reports, some authors suggested that MAGIC syndrome was not a disease entity and might be RP occurring secondary to BD, another association of an autoimmune disease, or vasculitis with RP. However, the pathogenic association between MAGIC syndrome, BD, and RP is still unclear, and the number of reported cases of MAGIC syndrome is insufficient to establish a clear explanation. Therefore, further accumulation of data and careful observation of the clinical course are required to improve the understanding of MAGIC syndrome.

  9. Female Genital Mutilation in Sierra Leone: Forms, Reliability of Reported Status, and Accuracy of Related Demographic and Health Survey Questions

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    Owolabi Bjälkander

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To determine forms of female genital mutilation (FGM, assess consistency between self-reported and observed FGM status, and assess the accuracy of Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS FGM questions in Sierra Leone. Methods. This cross-sectional study, conducted between October 2010 and April 2012, enrolled 558 females aged 12–47 from eleven antenatal clinics in northeast Sierra Leone. Data on demography, FGM status, and self-reported anatomical descriptions were collected. Genital inspection confirmed the occurrence and extent of cutting. Results. All participants reported FGM status; 4 refused genital inspection. Using the WHO classification of FGM, 31.7% had type Ib; 64.1% type IIb; and 4.2% type IIc. There was a high level of agreement between reported and observed FGM prevalence (81.2% and 81.4%, resp.. There was no correlation between DHS FGM responses and anatomic extent of cutting, as 2.7% reported pricking; 87.1% flesh removal; and 1.1% that genitalia was sewn closed. Conclusion. Types I and II are the main forms of FGM, with labia majora alterations in almost 5% of cases. Self-reports on FGM status could serve as a proxy measurement for FGM prevalence but not for FGM type. The DHS FGM questions are inaccurate for determining cutting extent.

  10. A study of 113 cases of genital ulcerative disease and urethral discharge syndrome with validation of syndromic management of sexually transmitted diseases

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    Chintan Bhavsar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: To validate syndromic management of cases having genital ulcerative disease (GUD and urethral discharge syndrome (UDS. Materials and Methods: A study of 113 cases of GUD and UDS was carried out in the Department of Skin and VD from March 2011 to August 2012. All cases having history and clinical evidence suggestive of GUD and UDS were included in the study. Results: According to syndromic diagnosis, GUD herpetic syndrome was the most common 71 (62.27%, followed by GUD non-herpetic syndrome 25 (21.89% and UDS 17 (14.91%. Out of 71 cases clinically diagnosed as GUD herpetic, 16 (22.53% were validated by immunoglobulin M (IgM anti herpes simplex virus-2 (HSV serology, 14 (19.71% by Tzanck smear and 3 (4.22% by both. 24 (33.80% were Reactive plasma Reagin (RPR(<1:8 reactive and trepenomma palidum haem-agglutination positive. Out of total 25 clinically diagnosed GUD non herpetic cases, 22 (88% were validated by laboratory tests Out of 17 cases of UDS, 15 (88% were validated by smear. Conclusion: Sensitivity and specificity of clinically diagnosed syndrome is not so high particularly for GUD herpetic syndrome Continuous monitoring of diagnostic component of syndromic approach is key to success of STD control program.

  11. [Systemic lymphoma cells with T precursor condition of extreme female genital tract. A case report and literature review].

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    Butrón Valdez, Karla; Ramírez Galves, Miguel; Germes Piña, Fernando; Ramos Martínez, Ernesto; Zamora Perea, Arturo

    2009-06-01

    Primary female genital tract non Hodgkin's lymphoma is a rare presentation for a common disease in the childhood, and its classification as primary extranodal lymphoma is still controversial. There are a few cases reported as a primary precursor B-cell lymphoblastic lymphoma of the female genital tract, but there is not any case reported as primary precursor T-cell lymphoblastic lymphoma of the ovary in childhood. Herein we describe a 16 years old young woman with bilateral ovarian tumors, paraaortic lymphoadenophaty and disseminate disease to the female genital tract including extension of the tumor to neighboring organs like the omentum and the appendix. Exploratory laparatomy were performed with bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy, hysterectomy, omentectomy, appendectomy, pelvic and para-aortic lymphadenectomy, pelvic washings and with biopsy of vaginal vault. The chemotherapy regimen comprised of CHOP (Cyclophosphamide, Hydroxydaunorubicin, Oncovin, Prednisone/Prednisolone) and methotrexate, 3 months later presents left facial hemiparesia follow by right facial hemiparesia, 7 months later presents more Central Nervous System (CNS) complications and apparently was complicated with acute lymphocitic leukemia and after 16 months from the diagnosis, following by a torpid evolution, the pacient finally died.

  12. Genital Herpes

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    Genital herpes is a sexually transmitted disease (STD) caused by a herpes simplex virus (HSV). It can cause sores on ... also infect their babies during childbirth. Symptoms of herpes are called outbreaks. You usually get sores near ...

  13. SIMPLE VIRILIZING CONGENITAL ADRENAL HYPERPLASIA: Presentation in a Female Child with Genital Ambiguity undergoing Genitoplasty (A Case Report

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    A Nurhaen

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: our objective was to display the presentation of simple virilizing Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia (CAH with genital ambiguity and severe virilization of the external genitalia, influencing growth, height and weight, bone maturation, quality of life and hence undergoing genitoplasty. Surgical treatment was aimed to obtain a more natural psychological and sexual development and the type of surgical repair performed was tailored based on individual patient’s anatomy findings.Case: we report a case of a 3-year old female with simple virilizing CAH, diagnosed due to genital ambiguity, severe virilization, clitoromegaly, external genital pigmentation, precocious pubic hair, previously was under treatment with glucocorticoid replacement therapy for 2years since newborn and neglected due to discontinuing the hormonal treatment for one year duration, underwent several clinical studies including chromosomal study for sex determining, pelvic ultrasonography for internal anatomical details and bone age study for skeletal maturation, givenstress dose steroids pre-operatively and followed by genital reconstructive surgery (genitoplasty. A clitorectomy and labioplasty approach were performed. At time of surgery cystoscopy was carried out prior to the surgical repair.Results: Management of virilizing CAH child with ambiguous genitalia demands multidisciplinary and interdisciplinary approach. The team‘s major challenge is to use thefeasible means to make the least bad choice in order to select a gender able to match the individualidentity, social identity, and behavioral identity. Surgical option should be tailored, one stage surgery,at early age and performed according to the individual anatomy findings.

  14. Genital ulcers associated with Epstein-Barr virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerdan, Kimberly; Aronson, Iris; Hernandez, Claudia; Fishman, Patricia M; Groth, John V

    2013-06-01

    Genital ulcerations are a rare clinical finding of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection. We present the case of a 16-year-old adolescent girl who reported the onset of diarrhea, headaches, dysuria, and vaginal discharge along with vulvar ulcerations with edema. Laboratory studies revealed a high-quantitative EBV IgG and early antigen as well as a positive IgM antibody for EBV. Although the association between EBV and genital ulcerations is rare, physicians should be aware of this clinical presentation to exclude other infectious entities, to be reassured to accept negative testing, and to quell patient distress or concerns of abuse.

  15. Genital Ulcer Disease: How Worrisome Is It Today? A Status Report from New Delhi, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumathi Muralidhar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives. Genital ulcer diseases represent a diagnostic dilemma, especially in India, where few STI clinics have access to reliable laboratory facility. The changing STI trends require that a correct diagnosis be made in order to institute appropriate treatment and formulate control policies. The objective of this study was to determine recent trends in aetiology of genital ulcers, by using accurate diagnostic tools. Methods. Specimens from 90 ulcer patients were processed for dark field microscopy, stained smears, culture for H. ducreyi, and real-time PCR. Blood samples were collected for serological tests. Results. Prevalence of GUD was 7.45 with mean age at initial sexual experience as 19.2 years. Use of condom with regular and nonregular partners was 19.5% and 42.1%, respectively. Sexual orientation was heterosexual (92.2% or homosexual (2.2%. There were 8 cases positive for HIV (8.9%. Herpes simplex virus ulcers were the commonest, followed by syphilis and chancroid. There were no cases of donovanosis and LGV. Conclusions. A valuable contribution of this study was in validating clinical and syndromic diagnoses of genital ulcers with an accurate aetiological diagnosis. Such reliable data will aid treatment and better define control measures of common agents and help eliminate diseases amenable to elimination, like donovanosis.

  16. Genital Herpes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... best way to prevent genital herpes is abstinence. Teens who do have sex must properly use a latex condom every time ... Date reviewed: February 2016 previous 1 • ... Boyfriend Has an STD Before We Have Sex? Telling Your Partner You Have an STD Contact ...

  17. Genital Warts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genital warts are a sexually transmitted disease (STD) caused by the human papillomavirus (HPV). The warts are soft, moist, pink, or flesh-colored bumps. ... or many of these bumps. In women, the warts usually occur in or around the vagina, on ...

  18. Genital warts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... warts URL of this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000886.htm Genital warts To use the sharing ... They may be found on the penis , vulva , urethra, vagina , cervix , and around ... in the cervix , or to cervical cancer . These are called high-risk types of HPV. ...

  19. Automated Reconciliation of Radiology Reports and Discharge Summaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koopman, Bevan; Zuccon, Guido; Wagholikar, Amol; Chu, Kevin; O’Dwyer, John; Nguyen, Anthony; Keijzers, Gerben

    2015-01-01

    We study machine learning techniques to automatically identify limb abnormalities (including fractures, dislocations and foreign bodies) from radiology reports. For patients presenting to the Emergency Room (ER) with suspected limb abnormalities (e.g., fractures) there is often a multi-day delay before the radiology report is available to ER staff, by which time the patient may have been discharged home with the possibility of undiagnosed fractures. ER staff, currently, have to manually review and reconcile radiology reports with the ER discharge diagnosis; this is a laborious and error-prone manual process. Using radiology reports from three different hospitals, we show that extracting detailed features from the reports to train Support Vector Machines can effectively automate the identification of limb fractures, dislocations and foreign bodies. These can be automatically reconciled with a patient’s discharge diagnosis from the ER to identify a number of cases where limb abnormalities went undiagnosed. PMID:26958213

  20. Family planning services in developing countries: an opportunity to treat asymptomatic and unrecognised genital tract infections?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, D; Ndovela, N; Harrison, A; Lurie, M; Connolly, C; Sturm, A W

    1997-12-01

    This is a study of 189 women attending a family planning clinic in rural South Africa to determine the prevalence of asymptomatic and unrecognized genital tract infections. Genital samples were taken from these women to diagnose infection with Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Chlamydia trachomatis, Trichomonas vaginalis, Candida albicans, Treponema pallidum, and HIV, and to diagnose bacterial vaginosis. Among the 189 women, 41 (22%) reported having had an STD treated in the preceding 12 months. By direct questioning, 74 women stated the following symptoms: genital itch -- 38 (20%); vaginal discharge -- 56 (30%); dysuria -- 33 (18%); dyspareunia -- 22 (12%); and genital ulcers -- 4 (2%). 45 (24%) women had more than one symptom. 119 (63%) women had at least one genital infection, and 49 (26%) had multiple infections. Most of the infections were asymptomatic; while those that were symptomatic, were unrecognized or not reported. Results showed a high prevalence of genital tract infection among the participating women, with most of their infections remaining asymptomatic or unrecognized. Thus, strategies to detect and treat genital tract infections in rural South Africa need to be developed.

  1. Genital and extra-genital warts increase the risk of asymptomatic genital human papillomavirus infection in men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Brenda Y; Shvetsov, Yurii B; Goodman, Marc T; Wilkens, Lynne R; Thompson, Pamela J; Zhu, Xuemei; Tom, James; Ning, Lily

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the relationship of warts in different parts of the body and the risk of asymptomatic genital human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in men. Methods We examined the relationship of self-reported genital and extra-genital warts with the subsequent acquisition of asymptomatic genital HPV infection in a cohort of 331 adult men. Participants were followed at 2-month intervals for up to 4 years. Past and current presence of warts was queried at study entry. At each visit, the external genitals were sampled for HPV DNA testing. Results Men who reported a history of genital warts, including current warts, were at increased risk of acquisition of asymptomatic HPV infection of the penis glans/corona, penis shaft and scrotum. The magnitude of these associations was greatest for HPV 6/11 infection. History of warts on the fingers, arms and trunk of the body was also associated with increased risk of genital HPV infection. Current presence of warts on the fingers and trunk specifically increased the risk of acquisition of HPV types not typically found on the genitals. Conclusions Men with a history of warts on the genitals, fingers, arms and trunk may be at increased risk for acquisition of new genital HPV infections. Warts may provide an efficient reservoir for the transmission of virions to the genitals through auto-inoculation. The potential for the spread of HPV throughout the body through auto-inoculation has important implications for prevention and control of HPV infection. PMID:21602516

  2. Mouth and genital ulcers with inflamed cartilage (MAGIC syndrome): a case report and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imai, H; Motegi, M; Mizuki, N; Ohtani, H; Komatsuda, A; Hamai, K; Miura, A B

    1997-11-01

    A 39-year-old woman had relapsing polychondritis and Behçet's disease, which was described as mouth and genital ulcers with inflamed cartilage syndrome (MAGIC). Serologic human leukocyte antigen analysis showed A24 (9), A31 (19), B56 (22), B62 (15), Cw6, DR4, DR9. Human leukocyte antigen allele analysis revealed DRB1* 0406/0901, DQA1* 0301/0301, DQB1* 0302/0303, DPB1* 0201/0501 through determining the genotype using the polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) technique. Treatment with methotrexate (5 mg/week) and pentoxifylline (300 mg/d) was effective to control oral ulcers, erythema nodosum, and arthritis.

  3. Genital Herpes (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Kids to Be Smart About Social Media Genital Herpes KidsHealth > For Parents > Genital Herpes Print A A A What's in this article? Symptoms Contagiousness Treatment Prevention Getting Help Genital herpes is a sexually transmitted disease (STD) that's usually ...

  4. EPA Enforcement and Compliance History Online: Water Discharge Monitoring Report Data Sets for FY2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Integrated Compliance Information System (ICIS) National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) Discharge Monitoring Report (DMR) data sets for Clean Water...

  5. EPA Enforcement and Compliance History Online: Water Discharge Monitoring Report Data Sets for FY2015

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Integrated Compliance Information System (ICIS) National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) Discharge Monitoring Report (DMR) data sets for Clean Water...

  6. EPA Enforcement and Compliance History Online: Water Discharge Monitoring Report Data Sets for FY2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Integrated Compliance Information System (ICIS) National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) Discharge Monitoring Report (DMR) data sets for Clean Water...

  7. EPA Enforcement and Compliance History Online: Water Discharge Monitoring Report Data Sets for FY2016

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Integrated Compliance Information System (ICIS) National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) Discharge Monitoring Report (DMR) data sets for Clean Water...

  8. EPA Enforcement and Compliance History Online: Water Discharge Monitoring Report Data Sets for FY2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Integrated Compliance Information System (ICIS) National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) Discharge Monitoring Report (DMR) data sets for Clean Water...

  9. EPA Enforcement and Compliance History Online: Water Discharge Monitoring Report Data Sets for FY2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Integrated Compliance Information System (ICIS) National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) Discharge Monitoring Report (DMR) data sets for Clean Water...

  10. EPA Enforcement and Compliance History Online: Water Discharge Monitoring Report Data Sets for FY2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Integrated Compliance Information System (ICIS) National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) Discharge Monitoring Report (DMR) data sets for Clean Water...

  11. EPA Enforcement and Compliance History Online: Water Discharge Monitoring Report Data Sets for FY2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Integrated Compliance Information System (ICIS) National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) Discharge Monitoring Report (DMR) data sets for Clean Water...

  12. Genital Warts (HPV)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Genital Warts (HPV) KidsHealth > For Teens > Genital Warts (HPV) A A ... HPV infection. How Do People Know They Have HPV? Most HPV infections have no signs or symptoms. ...

  13. Evaluating the impact of existing legislation in Europe with regard to Female Genital Mutilation. Spanish National Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VVAA .

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The Spanish Report on the evaluation of existing legislation with regard to Female Genital Mutilation (FGM is the result of a research project supported by the European Commision Daphne Programme. The project Evaluating the impact of existing legislation in Europe with regard to female genital mutilation, has been coordinated by the International Centre for Reproductive Health of Ghent University (Belgium from january 2003 to march 2004. The project included as partners the Foundation for Women’s Health, Research and Development (FORWARD, United Kingdom; Lund University (Sweden; Commission pour l'Abolition des Mutilations Sexuelles, (CAMS, France, the Centre of Studies on Citizenship, Migration and Minorities of the University of Valencia (GECIM, Spain, and the above mentioned ICRH (Ghent University, Belgium . The Spanish report is an interdisciplinary research done by the Centre of Studies on Citizenship, Migration and Minorities (University of València, directed by professor Javier De Lucas, and which counts with researchers and collaborators both, from the University of Valencia and other Universities such as University of Barcelona and University Rovira i Virgili of Tarragona; in the fields of Law (Penal Law, Constitutional Law, Theory and Philosophy of Law, Sociology and Antropology. The Group of researchers includes as well lawyers and public prosecutors. Practice of Female Genital Mutilation in Spain, like other european countries, address this rite that is introduced by immigrants from countries where the practice is prevalent (as we may see in chapter 3, as a violation of women’s rights and consider that such violation cannot be justified by respect of cultural traditions or initiation ceremonies. The increasing of immigration in Spain, has been a fact in last years, and it would be an important issue in future, increasing too the number of girls at risk in our country. In Spain, since october 2003, we have anew

  14. Submittal of SWMU Assessment Report for Building 9960 Surface Discharge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dotson, Patrick Wells [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-03-01

    Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-purpose engineering and science laboratory owned by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)/National Nuclear Security Administration and managed and operated by Sandia Corporation (Sandia), a wholly-owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation. This Solid Waste Management Unit (SWMU) Assessment Report (SAR) for the Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico (SNL/NM), Coyote Test Field, Building 9960 Surface Discharge, has been prepared in accordance with Section V of the Compliance Order on Consent (the Consent Order) between the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED), DOE, and Sandia (NMED April 2004). The DOE and Sandia formally notified the NMED of this newly identified or suspected SWMU or Area of Concern (AOC) by letter dated December 9, 2014. This SAR is being submitted in accordance with the NMED Hazardous Waste Bureau (HWB) letter dated February 16, 2015 letter (Kieling February 2015). This SAR presents the available information for the Building 9960 Surface Discharge, including location, designation of type and function, a general description, the operational dates, waste characteristics, and a summary of existing analytical wastewater and soil data

  15. [Enterobiasis of the female pelvi-genital tract: a report of three cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khabir, A; Makni, S; Khmiri, H; Gheriani, M; Rekik, S; Boudawara, T S

    2005-04-01

    Ectopic localization of oxyuriasis is rare and frequently does not cause clinical problems. It has been reported in the vagina, endometrium, fallopian tube, peritoneal surface and ovary; In these localizations it often causes pseudo-tumoral granulomas. The aim of our study was to describe etiopathogenic and clinical criteria of this rare pathology. We report one case of endometrial enterobiasis which developed in a 28-year-old women and two cases of tubo-ovarian pseudotumoral abscesses containing the ova of enterobius which appeared as a latero-uterin mass in women aged 28 and 38 years. Enterobius vermicularis may cause tubo-ovarian abscess formation with necrotizing epitheloid granulomas mimicking tumors. Antihelminth therapies are successful.

  16. Management of unusual genital lymphedema complication after Fournier’s gangrene: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meyer Ganz Oanna

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fournier’s gangrene is a bacterial infection characterized by necrotizing fasciitis, skin and soft tissue involvement, and eventually myositis of the perineal region. Aggressive debridement of devitalized tissue and overlying skin is of paramount importance, but often leaves large defects to be reconstructed. The present case reports successful extensive perineal defects coverage following Fournier’s gangrene and management of subsequent penile lymphoedema impairing sexual function in a young patient. Case presentation Following perianal abscess drainage, a healthy young man presented with scrotal pain. Fournier’s gangrene was diagnosed and treated with multiple surgical debridements. Tissue excision extended through the entire perineal area, base of the penile shaft, lower abdominal region, the inner thighs, and gluteal region, corresponding to 12% of the total body surface area. After serial debridements and negative pressure dressings, the defect was covered by two stages of skin grafting. Graft take was 90%. Healing was achieved without hypertrophic or retractile scar. However, chronic penile lymphedema remained and was first treated with compressive garments for 2 years. Upon failure of this conservative approach, we performed a circumcision, but only a “penile lift” allowed a satisfactory esthetical and functional result. Conclusion Fournier’s gangrene can be complicated by a chronic lymphedema of the penis. Conservative treatment is likely to fail in severe cases and can be treated surgically by “penile lift”.

  17. Peritoneal and genital coccidioidomycosis in an otherwise healthy Danish female: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bæk, Ole; Astvad, Karen; Serizawa, Reza; Wheat, Lawrence J; Brenøe, Pia T; Hansen, Ann-Brit E

    2017-01-31

    Coccidioidomycosis is a fungal infection that usually presents as a primary lung infection. The fungus is endemic to the Southwest United States of America, northern Mexico and parts of Central and South America the infection is rare outside these areas. However, some patients develop disseminated infection that can lie dormant for several years and can present itself in travelers. We report the first case of extra pulmonary Coccidioidomycosis in a non-immunocompromised individual in Denmark. A 32 year old Danish woman presented at the Emergency department with abdominal pain. Computed tomography scan and ultrasound examination of the pelvis raised suspicion of salpingitis. A laparoscopy exposed a necrotic salpinx and several small white elements that resembled peritoneal carcinomatosis. Histological workup however determined that she suffered from disseminated coccidioidomycosis. The patient had lived 2 years in Las Vegas, in the United States of America, 7 years prior and had no memory of lung infection at the time. Disseminated coccidioidomycosis is rare in non-immunocompromised individuals. The patient in this case underwent several rounds of in vitro fertilization treatment in the years before admittance. We suspect that the hormonal treatment in combination with low-dose prednisolone may have triggered reemergence of the disease and present literature that support this.

  18. Serologic Screening for Genital Herpes: An Updated Evidence Report and Systematic Review for the US Preventive Services Task Force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feltner, Cynthia; Grodensky, Catherine; Ebel, Charles; Middleton, Jennifer C; Harris, Russell P; Ashok, Mahima; Jonas, Daniel E

    2016-12-20

    Genital herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection is a prevalent sexually transmitted infection. Vertical transmission of HSV can lead to fetal morbidity and mortality. To assess the evidence on serologic screening and preventive interventions for genital HSV infection in asymptomatic adults and adolescents to support the US Preventive Services Task Force for an updated recommendation statement. MEDLINE, Cochrane Library, EMBASE, and trial registries through March 31, 2016. Surveillance for new evidence in targeted publications was conducted through October 31, 2016. English-language randomized clinical trials (RCTs) comparing screening with no screening in persons without past or current symptoms of genital herpes; studies evaluating accuracy and harms of serologic screening tests for HSV-2; RCTs assessing preventive interventions in asymptomatic persons seropositive for HSV-2. Dual review of abstracts, full-text articles, and study quality; pooled sensitivities and specificities of screening tests using a hierarchical summary receiver operating characteristic curve analysis when at least 3 similar studies were available. Accuracy of screening tests, benefits of screening, harms of screening, reduction in genital herpes outbreaks. A total of 17 studies (n = 9736 participants; range, 24-3290) in 19 publications were included. No RCTs compared screening with no screening. Most studies of the accuracy of screening tests were from populations with high HSV-2 prevalence (greater than 40% based on Western blot). Pooled estimates of sensitivity and specificity of the most commonly used test at the manufacturer's cutpoint were 99% (95% CI, 97%-100%) and 81% (95% CI, 68%-90%), respectively (10 studies; n = 6537). At higher cutpoints, pooled estimates were 95% (95% CI, 91%-97%) and 89% (95% CI, 82%-93%), respectively (7 studies; n = 5516). Use of this test at the manufacturer's cutpoint in a population of 100 000 with a prevalence of HSV-2 of 16% (the

  19. Possible Uses of Data from Hospital Discharge Reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kocic Sanja

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Almost all countries in the world keep some form of hospital discharge report (HDR. Although there are many variations, every report contains such data as patient demographics, the main cause of hospitalization, comorbidities, the length of stay in hospital and outcome. The advantages of using data obtained from HDRs are numerous: The data from HDRs are already collected in a designated centre and thus easily available and relatively cheap; HDRs contain information for many previous years; they are sometimes more reliable than data obtained through any other method; and finally, they provide a large and representative database. HDRs databases can be connected with other databases using a unified patient identification number. The limitations of using data obtained through HDRs are as follows: inconsistencies in defining and coding diagnoses and applied procedures, common underestimations of comorbidity, limited possible applications in specific studies and partial coverage of inpatient institutions. The prediction that in the future, a growing number of diagnostic and treatment procedures will be performed on an outpatient basis will also limit the use of HDRs. When electronic recordkeeping becomes a practice, we may assume that these data will no longer be needed. There is no perfect model for collection and processing data regarding hospitalized patients. HDRs, with their advantages and disadvantages, currently represent the best way to perceive the size, type, quality and efficiency of the health care services provided to patients at the secondary and tertiary level.

  20. SIMPLE VIRILIZING CONGENITAL ADRENAL HYPERPLASIA: Presentation in a Female Child with Genital Ambiguity undergoing Genitoplasty (A Case Report)

    OpenAIRE

    A Nurhaen; G Duarsa

    2012-01-01

    Objective: our objective was to display the presentation of simple virilizing Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia (CAH) with genital ambiguity and severe virilization of the external genitalia, influencing growth, height and weight, bone maturation, quality of life and hence undergoing genitoplasty. Surgical treatment was aimed to obtain a more natural psychological and sexual development and the type of surgical repair performed was tailored based on individual patient’s anatomy findings.Case: we...

  1. Acute genital ulcers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado-García, Silvia; Palacios-Marqués, Ana; Martínez-Escoriza, Juan Carlos; Martín-Bayón, Tina-Aurora

    2014-01-28

    Acute genital ulcers, also known as acute vulvar ulcers, ulcus vulvae acutum or Lipschütz ulcers, refer to an ulceration of the vulva or lower vagina of non-venereal origin that usually presents in young women, predominantly virgins. Although its incidence is unknown, it seems a rare entity, with few cases reported in the literature. Their aetiology and pathogenesis are still unknown. The disease is characterised by an acute onset of flu-like symptoms with single or multiple painful ulcers on the vulva. Diagnosis is mainly clinical, after exclusion of other causes of vulvar ulcers. The treatment is mainly symptomatic, with spontaneous resolution in 2 weeks and without recurrences in most cases. We present a case report of a 13-year-old girl with two episodes of acute ulcers that fit the clinical criteria for Lipschütz ulcers.

  2. Genital herpes - self-care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herpes - genital -self-care; Herpes simplex - genital - self-care; Herpesvirus 2 - self-care; HSV-2 - self-care ... genital herpes can be treated. Follow your health care provider's instructions for treatment and follow-up.

  3. Genital Warts (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Kids to Be Smart About Social Media Genital Warts (HPV) KidsHealth > For Parents > Genital Warts (HPV) Print A A A What's in this ... Active Teens en español Verrugas genitales G enital warts are warts that are on or near a ...

  4. Noninfectious genital ulcers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirshen, Carly; Edwards, Libby

    2015-12-01

    Noninfectious genital ulcers are much more common than ulcers arising from infections. Still, it is important to take a thorough history of sexual activity and a sexual abuse screen. A physical exam should include skin, oral mucosa, nails, hair, vulva, and vaginal mucosa if needed. The differential diagnosis of noninfectious genital ulcers includes: lipschütz ulcers, complex aphthosis, Behçet's syndrome, vulvar metastatic Crohn's disease, hidradenitis suppurativa, pyoderma gangrenosum, pressure ulcers, and malignancies. It is important to come to the correct diagnosis to avoid undue testing, stress, and anxiety in patients experiencing genital ulcerations.

  5. Genital chlamydia, genital herpes, Trichomonas vaginalis and gonorrhea prevalence, and risk factors among nearly 70,000 randomly selected women in 4 Nordic countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faber, Mette Tuxen; Nielsen, Ann; Nygård, Mari

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of women reporting ever having genital chlamydia, genital herpes, Trichomonas vaginalis, and gonorrhea, and to identify factors associated with each of these sexually transmitted infections (STIs).......The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of women reporting ever having genital chlamydia, genital herpes, Trichomonas vaginalis, and gonorrhea, and to identify factors associated with each of these sexually transmitted infections (STIs)....

  6. [Intensive care nursing discharge reports in Spain: present situation and analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro Arnedo, Jesús M; Orgiler Uranga, Pedro E; de Haro Marín, Salvador

    2005-01-01

    To determine the ICUs of Spain that fill out nursing discharge report, analyze what information they supply and know how the information on the patients is provided by the ICUs that do not use this record. Observational descriptive study. The nursing discharge reports issued by the ICUs were analyzed. For the units that did not fill them out, it was documented how they provided information on the patient to the ward. A total of 259 ICU (83%) responded and 176 (68%) filled out the nursing discharge report, which was sent with the patient's history in all the units. A total of 99% of the reports included information on the eating and elimination needs and 7% on living according to beliefs in their structure. One hundred percent requested information on the perception/control and nutritional/metabolic patterns; 1% on sexuality/reproduction. Forty three (54%) of the 79 ICU (30%) that did not fill out a nursing discharge report accompanied the patient to the ward and gave an oral report. In all, 242 ICU (93%) provided information to the ward professionals added to that contained in the clinical history. a) the nursing professionals in a significant number of intensive care units filled out a discharge report when the patient was transferred to the ward; b) assessment of basic biological aspects prevailed in these reports over psychological and socioculture aspects; c) the units that did not fill out a discharge report accompany the patient to the ward or give a report by telephone of the patient's situations to the destination ward; and d) most of the ICUs guarantee the continuity of nursing cares when the patient is discharged, either by filling out a nursing discharge report, accompanying the patient to the ward or calling by telephone to the ward's professionals.

  7. Multiple genital tract tumors and mucinous adenocarcinoma of colon in a woman with Peutz-Jeghers syndrome: a case report and review of literatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Feng; Lv, Bingjian; Dong, Lifeng; Wan, Fang; Qin, Jiale; Huang, Lili

    2014-01-01

    We report a very rare case of Peutz-Jeghers syndrome (PJS) composed of multiple genital tract tumors and mucinous adenocarcinoma. A 46-year-old woman presented to our hospital with lower abdominal pain resulting from PJS involves sex cord tumor with annular tubules (SCTAT), ovarian mucinous tumor, ovarian serous tumor, mucinous adenocarcinoma of colon. The CEA concentration is high before surgery, and decreases after the surgery and subsequent chemoradiotherapy. This case demonstrates a classic clinical presentation of a patient with PJS. PJS patients have increased risk of malignancy and early detection and regular surveillance of the high-risk patients with PJS is crucial. Surgery may be required for obstructive gastrointestinal lesions as well as those exhibiting malignant degeneration.

  8. Liquen escleroso extragenital ampollar y hemorrágico: a propósito de un caso Extra-genital bullous and haemorrhagic lichen sclerosus: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JM López Bertrán

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available El liquen escleroso (LE es una enfermedad inflamatoria, crónica y benigna. De etiología desconocida, se ha vinculado con diversos factores autoinmunológicos, genéticos, hormonales, infecciosos y traumáticos. Hay dos variedades clínicas de esta enfermedad: genital y extra-genital. La localización más frecuente en ambos sexos es la genital. Se presenta un caso clínico de LE extra-genital, con lesiones cutáneas poco frecuentes, ampollares y hemorrágicas, que coexistían con placas atróficas de larga evolución, no diagnosticadas previamente.Lichen sclerosus is an inflammatory disease, benign, chronic, of unknown aetiology. It has been linked with many factors such as autoimmune, genetic, hormonal and infectious diseases, as well as trauma. There are two clinical types of this disease: genital and extra-genital. The most frequent in both sexes is the genital form. We present a rare case of extra-genital localization with bullous and haemorrhagic manifestations that co-existed with late atrophic plaques, previously undiagnosed.

  9. 26 CFR 1.6050P-1 - Information reporting for discharges of indebtedness by certain entities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Information reporting for discharges of indebtedness by certain entities. (a) Reporting requirement—(1) In... creditor knows from information included in the reporting entity's books and records pertaining to the... reporting entity is subject to the requirements of paragraph (a) of this section for each debtor...

  10. Dechlorination Technology Manual. Final report. [Utility cooling water discharge systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aschoff, A.F.; Chiesa, R.J.; Jacobs, M.H.; Lee, Y.H.; Mehta, S.C.; Meko, A.C.; Musil, R.R.; Sopocy, D.M.; Wilson, J.A.

    1984-11-01

    On November 19, 1982, the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) promulgated regulations severely restricting chlorination practices as they relate to utility cooling water discharge systems. EPRI authorized the preparation of a manual on dechlorination technology to assist utilities in evaluating the various alternatives available to them to meet these new requirements. The Dechlorination Technology Manual emphasizes the engineering aspects involved in the selection and design of dechlorination systems. However, background information is included concerning chemistry, regulatory requirements, environmental considerations and aquatic impacts. There is also a brief discussion of the various alternatives to dechlorination. Case studies are given to acquaint the user with the use of the manual for the design of chlorination facilities given various site-related characteristics, such as salt versus fresh waters. Numerous graphs and tables are presented to facilitate the selection and design process. 207 references, 66 figures, 60 tables.

  11. Genital injuries in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Catherine

    2013-02-01

    The examination of the rape victim should focus on the therapeutic, forensic and psychological needs of the individual patient. One aspect will be an examination for ano-genital injuries. From a medical perspective, they tend to be minor and require little in the way of treatment. They must be considered when assessing the risk of blood-borne viruses and the need for prophylaxis. From a forensic perspective, an understanding of genital injury rates, type of injury, site and healing may assist the clinician to interpret the findings in the context of the allegations that have been made. There are many myths and misunderstandings about ano-genital injuries and rape. The clinician has a duty to dispel these.

  12. Genital soft tissue tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoolmeester, John K; Fritchie, Karen J

    2015-07-01

    Mesenchymal neoplasms of the vulvovaginal and inguinoscrotal regions are among the most diagnostically challenging specimens in the pathology laboratory owing largely to their unique intersection between general soft tissue tumors and relatively genital-specific mesenchymal tumors. Genital stromal tumors are a unique subset of soft tissue tumors encountered at this location, and this group includes fibroepithelial stromal polyp, superficial (cervicovaginal) myofibroblastoma, cellular angiofibroma, mammary-type myofibroblastoma, angiomyofibroblastoma and aggressive angiomyxoma. Aside from the striking morphologic and immunophenotypic similarity that is seen with these entities, there is evidence that a subset of genital stromal tumors may be linked genetically. This review will focus on simplifying this group of tumors and provide the pathologist or dermatopathologist with practical management information. Smooth muscle tumors of the external genitalia will also be discussed.

  13. Mutilação genital e psicose Genital mutilation and psychosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Souza Lima

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available A automutilação em pacientes psiquiátricos não é incomum, podendo estar relacionada a crenças religiosas, impulsividade, abuso de substâncias e sintomas psicóticos. Relatos de mutilação genital em pacientes esquizofrênicos são encontrados na literatura médica. Encontra-se aqui descrito um caso de automutilação genital em um paciente de 42 anos de idade, portador de esquizofrenia.Self-mutilation in psychiatric patients is not uncommon, and may result from religious beliefs, impulsivity, substance abuse and psychotic symptoms. Reports of genital mutilation among patients with schizophrenia can be found in medical literature. We described a case of genital self-mutilation in a 42-year-old schizophrenic patient.

  14. In-plant safety/relief valve discharge load test, Monticello Plant. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buzek, E.A. (comp.)

    1977-08-01

    This document reports the results of the test program of safety/relief valve (SRV) discharge load phenomena through a ramshead discharge device, and the effects upon the Mark I primary containment torus structure of the Monticello Nuclear Power Plant. The objectives were to provide a data base for verifying/improving bubble pressure, water reflood and piping load analytical models, and to measure the structural response of the torus, SRV piping, supports and acceleration of the basement and pedestal.

  15. Large inclusion cyst complicating female genital mutilation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdel Aziem AbdAllah Ali

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of an inclusion cyst, resulting from female genital mutilation (FGM, which enlarged to such a degree that it restricted the patient’s movement. This report aims to raise the awareness of the medical community to the dangers that arise from a common remote complication of FGM.

  16. Nonspecific genital ulcers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sehgal, Virendra N; Pandhi, Deepika; Khurana, Ananta

    2014-01-01

    Recent intervention of nonspecific genital ulcers has added refreshing dimensions to genital ulcer disease. It was considered pertinent to dwell on diverse clinical presentation and diagnostic strategies. It seems to possess spectrum. It includes infective causes, Epstein Bar Virus, tuberculosis, Leishmaniasis, HIV/AIDS related ulcers and amoebiasis. Noninfective causes are immunobullous disorders, aphthosis, Behcet's disease (BD), inflammatory bowel disease, lichen planus and lichen sclerosis et atrophicus, drug reactions, premalignant and malignant conditions, pyoderma gangrenosum, and hidradenitis suppurativa. The diagnostic features and treatment option of each disorder are succinctly outlined for ready reference.

  17. Labial hair tourniquet: unusual complication of an unrepaired genital laceration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dua, Anahita; Jamshidi, Ramin; Lal, Dave R

    2013-07-01

    Hair tourniquet syndrome has been recognized as a medical entity since the 1600 s. Appendages develop acute ischemia from tightening of hair strands circumferentially wrapped around them. Most commonly affected sites are fingers, toes, and penis, but limited reports have described involvement of the female genitalia. Although hair strangulation involving the labia minora or clitoris has been described, it typically occurs in young children. We present a case of an adolescent girl with a labial appendage hair tourniquet resulting from a previous unrepaired genital laceration. This is one of the oldest patients in whom a genital hair tourniquet has been reported, as well as description of a posttraumatic genital appendage. Genital hair tourniquets are medical emergencies that require prompt diagnosis and treatment to avoid tissue necrosis and possible amputation. Genital trauma in general requires surgical evaluation.

  18. Bipolar aphthosis presenting as mutilating genital ulcers in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Somesh; Ajith, C; Malhotra, S; Kumar, Bhushan

    2004-01-01

    Three women with large, mutilating genital ulcers of long duration, destroying almost the lower half of the external genitalia, are reported. They had a history of recurrent oral ulcers as well. All patients had been diagnosed as having 'genital ulcer syndrome' in the past and had been treated with antimicrobials. Histopathology of the biopsy from the margin of the ulcer revealed features of leukocytoclastic vasculitis. Considering the history, clinical features and histology, a diagnosis of bipolar aphthosis was made in all patients. All patients responded well to immunosuppressive therapy. The cases are reported because of the presence of genital ulcers of an unusually large size, mutilating character and their close similarity to genital ulcers due to sexually transmitted diseases, especially genital herpes and donovanosis.

  19. Bipolar aphthosis presenting as mutilating genital ulcers in women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta Somesh

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Three women with large, mutilating genital ulcers of long duration, destroying almost the lower half of the external genitalia, are reported. They had a history of recurrent oral ulcers as well. All patients had been diagnosed as having ′genital ulcer syndrome′ in the past and had been treated with antimicrobials. Histopathology of the biopsy from the margin of the ulcer revealed features of leukocytoclastic vasculitis. Considering the history, clinical features and histology, a diagnosis of bipolar aphthosis was made in all patients. All patients responded well to immunosuppressive therapy. The cases are reported because of the presence of genital ulcers of an unusually large size, mutilating character and their close similarity to genital ulcers due to sexually transmitted diseases, especially genital herpes and donovanosis.

  20. Bipolar aphthosis presenting as mutilating genital ulcers in women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta Somesh

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Three women with large, mutilating genital ulcers of long duration, destroying almost the lower half of the external genitalia, are reported. They had a history of recurrent oral ulcers as well. All patients had been diagnosed as having ′genital ulcer syndrome′ in the past and had been treated with antimicrobials. Histopathology of the biopsy from the margin of the ulcer revealed features of leukocytoclastic vasculitis. Considering the history, clinical features and histology, a diagnosis of bipolar aphthosis was made in all patients. All patients responded well to immunosuppressive therapy. The cases are reported because of the presence of genital ulcers of an unusually large size, mutilating character and their close similarity to genital ulcers due to sexually transmitted diseases, especially genital herpes and donovanosis.

  1. Healing of Genital Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkowitz, Carol D.

    2011-01-01

    Child sexual abuse as well as accidental trauma may cause acute injuries in the anogenital area. Most data on residual findings following genital trauma come from longitudinal studies of children who have been sexually assaulted, undergone surgical procedures, or experienced accidental trauma. Like injuries in other part parts of the body, such…

  2. Female genital mutilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladjali, M; Rattray, T W; Walder, R J

    1993-08-21

    Female genital mutilation, also misleadingly known as female circumcision, is usually performed on girls ranging in from 1 week to puberty. Immediate physical complications include severe pain, shock, infection, bleeding, acute urinary infection, tetanus, and death. Longterm problems include chronic pain, difficulties with micturition and menstruation, pelvic infection leading to infertility, and prolonged and obstructed labor during childbirth. An estimated 80 million girls and women have undergone female genital mutilation. In Britain alone an estimated 10,000 girls are currently at risk. Religious, cultural, medical, and moral grounds rationalize the custom which is practiced primarily in sub-Saharan Africa, the Arab world, Malaysia, Indonesia, and among migrant populations in Western countries. According to WHO it is correlated with poverty, illiteracy, and the low status of women. Women who escape mutilation are not sought in marriage. WHO, the UN Population Fund, the UN Children's Fund, the International Planned Parenthood Federation, and the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child have issued declarations on the eradication of female genital mutilation. In Britain, local authorities have intervened to prevent parents from mutilating their daughters. In 1984, the Inter-African Committee Against Harmful Traditional Practices Affecting Women and Children was established to work toward eliminating female genital mutilation and other damaging customs. National committees in 26 African countries coordinate projects run by local people using theater, dance, music, and storytelling for communication. In Australia, Canada, Europe, and the US women have organized to prevent the practice among vulnerable migrants and refugees.

  3. Genital lesions following bestiality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mittal A

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available A 48-year-old man presented with painful genital lesions with history of bestiality and abnor-mal sexual behaviour. Examination revealed multiple irregular tender ulcers and erosions, with phimosis and left sided tender inguinal adenopathy. VDRL, TPHA, HIV-ELISA were negative. He was treated with ciprofloxacin 500mg b.d. along with saline compresses with complete resolution.

  4. A case report of intraductal papilloma in a young female patient with bloody nipple discharge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Jin Young; Youk, Ji Hyun; Ko, Kyung Hee; Heo, Jin Hyung [Bundang CHA Hospital, Pochon CHA University, Seongnam (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-09-15

    Intraductal papillomas are the most common subtype of papillomas, which are benign neoplasms of the breast. An intraductal papillomas is usually found as a solitary mass which originates in the major duct of the breast. Intraductal papilloma cases are frequently presented as nipple discharge and most commonly occur in individuals between the ages of 30 and 55 years. Few reports exist regarding cases of intraductal papillomas in children. We report a case of an intraductal papilloma, with imaging findings, which occurred in the breast of an 11-years old girl and presented as bloody nipple discharge.

  5. Preliminary report: in-plant safety/relief valve discharge load test, Monticello Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, H.C. (comp.)

    1976-12-01

    This preliminary report covers the results of the test program of safety/relief valve (SRV) discharge load phenomena and the effects upon the Mark I primary containment torus structure of the Monticello Nuclear Power Plant. The objectives of the test were to provide a data base for verifying/improving analytical models and to measure the structural response of the torus to SRV discharges. Objectives, instrumentation, and test plan are described. Results of continuing data evaluation will be included in the final report scheduled for publication later in 1977.

  6. Electron density and collision frequency of microwave resonant cavity produced discharges. [Progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McColl, W.; Brooks, C.; Brake, M.L.

    1992-12-31

    This progress report consists of an article, the abstract of which follows, and apparently the references and vita from a proposal. A review of perturbation diagnostics applied to microwave resonant cavity discharges is presented. The classical microwave perturbation technique examines the shift in the resonant frequency and cavity quality factor of the resonant cavity caused by low electron density discharges. However, modifications presented here allow the analysis to be applied to discharges with electron densities beyond the limit predicted by perturbation theory. An {open_quote}exact{close_quote} perturbation analysis is presented which models the discharge as a separate dielectric, thereby removing the restrictions on electron density imposed by the classical technique. The {open_quote}exact{close_quote} method also uses measurements of the shifts in the resonant conditions of the cavity. Thirdly, an electromagnetic analysis is presented which uses a characteristic equation, based upon Maxwell`s laws, and predicts the discharge conductivity based upon measurements of a complex axial wave number. By allowing the axial wave number of the electromagnetic fields to be complex, the fields are experimentally and theoretically shown to be spatially attenuated. The diagnostics are applied to continuous-wave microwave (2.45 GHz) discharges produced in an Asmussen resonant cavity. Double Langmuir probes, placed directly in the discharge at the point where the radial electric field is zero, act as a comparison with the analytic diagnostics. Microwave powers ranging from 30 to 100 watts produce helium and nitrogen discharges with pressures ranging from 0.5 to 6 torr. Analysis of the data predicts electron temperatures from 5 to 20 eV, electron densities from 10{sup 11} to 3 {times} 10{sup 12} cm{sup {minus}3}, and collision frequencies from 10{sup 9} to 10{sup 11} sec{sup {minus}1}.

  7. Genital herpes: Heisenberg revisited

    OpenAIRE

    Goldmeier, D

    1998-01-01

    In the confirmation of recurrences of genital herpes, patient defined disease reactivation and virological data hold the scientific high ground. The influence of the psyche on recurrence rates and perception of recurrences has been largely neglected and marginalised up to the present, possibly because research work in that area has been and continues to be of poor calibre. However, neglected psychological variables may render otherwise relevant clinical trials uninterpretable. Psycholog...

  8. Liquid discharges from the Ringhals and Barsebaeck nuclear power plants. Report to the OSPAR commission in accordance with PARCOM recommendation 91/4 on radioactive discharges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-05-01

    With regard to the general objectives of the Convention for the Protection of the Marine Environment of the North-East Atlantic (OSPAR Convention), the contracting parties have agreed, as stated in PARCOM Recommendation 91/4 on Radioactive Discharges, to apply best available technique (BAT) to reduce radioactive releases from the nuclear industry. Progress in implementing BAT shall be reported to the OSPAR Commission every four years. This report contains the Swedish submission for the third round of implementation reporting according to PARCOM Recommendation 91/4. The data provided are relevant to the Ringhals NPP which discharge into Convention waters, and the Barsebaeck NPP which discharge into waters close to the Convention area. The report was submitted to the Commission in December 1999.

  9. Genitals and ethnicity: the politics of genital modifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnsdotter, Sara; Essén, Birgitta

    2010-05-01

    The discrepancy in societal attitudes toward female genital cosmetic surgery for European women and female genital cutting in primarily African girl children and women raises the following fundamental question. How can it be that extensive genital modifications, including reduction of labial and clitoral tissue, are considered acceptable and perfectly legal in many European countries, while those same societies have legislation making female genital cutting illegal, and the World Health Organization bans even the "pricking" of the female genitals? At present, tensions are obvious as regards the modification of female genitalia, and current legislation and medical practice show inconsistencies in relation to women of different ethnic backgrounds. As regards the right to health, it is questionable both whether genital cosmetic surgery is always free of complications and whether female genital cutting always leads to them. Activists, national policymakers and other stakeholders, including cosmetic genital surgeons, need to be aware of these inconsistencies and find ways to resolve them and adopt non-discriminatory policies. This is not necessarily an issue of either permitting or banning all forms of genital cutting, but about identifying a consistent and coherent stance in which key social values - including protection of children, bodily integrity, bodily autonomy, and equality before the law - are upheld. Copyright 2010 Reproductive Health Matters. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Correlates of HIV-1 genital shedding in Tanzanian women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clare Tanton

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Understanding the correlates of HIV shedding is important to inform strategies to reduce HIV infectiousness. We examined correlates of genital HIV-1 RNA in women who were seropositive for both herpes simplex virus (HSV-2 and HIV-1 and who were enrolled in a randomised controlled trial of HSV suppressive therapy (aciclovir 400 mg b.i.d vs. placebo in Tanzania. METHODOLOGY: Samples, including a cervico-vaginal lavage, were collected and tested for genital HIV-1 and HSV and reproductive tract infections (RTIs at randomisation and 6, 12 and 24 months follow-up. Data from all women at randomisation and women in the placebo arm during follow-up were analysed using generalised estimating equations to determine the correlates of cervico-vaginal HIV-1 RNA detection and load. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Cervico-vaginal HIV-1 RNA was detected at 52.0% of 971 visits among 482 women, and was independently associated with plasma viral load, presence of genital ulcers, pregnancy, bloody cervical or vaginal discharge, abnormal vaginal discharge, cervical ectopy, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Chlamydia trachomatis, Trichomonas vaginalis, an intermediate bacterial vaginosis score and HSV DNA detection. Similar factors were associated with genital HIV-1 RNA load. CONCLUSIONS: RTIs were associated with increased presence and quantity of genital HIV-1 RNA in this population. These results highlight the importance of integrating effective RTI treatment into HIV care services.

  11. Langerhans cell histiocytosis of the female genital tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axiotis, C A; Merino, M J; Duray, P H

    1991-03-15

    Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) of the female genital tract is rare. Four new cases are reported, and there is a review of the 38 cases in the literature. This disease may involve the vulva, vagina, cervix, endometrium, and ovary. Four distinct patient groups, segregated on the basis of initial presentation and subsequent anatomic extent of disease, were categorized as follows: (1) "pure" genital LCH, (2) genital LCH with subsequent multi-organ involvement, (3) oral or cutaneous LCH with subsequent genital and multi-organ involvement, and (4) diabetes insipidus with subsequent genital and multi-organ disease. Although involvement of the genital tract can occur at any age, it is most common in young adulthood. Clinically, LCH may mimic either primary neoplasia or various inflammatory lesions; the major pathologic differential diagnosis is venereal and other inflammatory diseases. The pure genital form may have a distinct nosologic position in the spectrum of LCH similar to the "pure," self-limited cutaneous histiocytosis seen in infants. There is no correlation between histologic findings and the outcome of the genital lesions. There is also no correlation between clinical presentation and/or the extent of involvement and outcome of genital lesions; complete regression, partial improvement, persistent lesions, and recurrences were seen in all four groups of patients. The treatment of genital LCH is not well defined and is highly individualized. Therapy has included surgery, radiation, topical corticosteroids, topical nitrogen mustard, systemic chemotherapy, and combination therapy; mixed results were obtained with all treatment modalities. Although no modality has been shown to yield a superior outcome, complete surgical excision is advocated as initial therapy.

  12. Genital Mycoplasmas in Placental Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Stein

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The involvement of the genital mycoplasmas Ureaplasma urealyticum and Mycoplasma hominis in complications of pregnancy has remained controversial especially because these microorganisms are frequent colonizers of the lower genital tract. Recovery of bacteria from the placenta appears to be the sole technique to represent a true infection and not vaginal contamination. Therefore, we investigated the presence of genital mycoplasmas, aerobic and anaerobic bacteria, and fungi in human placentas and evaluated their association with morbidity and mortality of pregnancy.

  13. 11p Microdeletion including WT1 but not PAX6, presenting with cataract, mental retardation, genital abnormalities and seizures: a case report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almind, Gitte J; Brøndum-Nielsen, Karen; Bangsgaard, Regitze

    2009-01-01

    a maximum size of 8.5 Mb and encompasses 44 genes. Deletion of WT1 explains the genital abnormalities observed. As PAX6 was intact the cataract observed cannot be explained by a deletion of this gene. Seizures have been described in Potocki-Shaffer syndrome while mental retardation has been described...

  14. Risk assessment for produced water discharges to Louisiana open bays. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meinhold, A.F.; DePhillips, M.P.; Holtzman, S.

    1996-03-22

    The US Department of Energy (USDOE) has a program of research in the environmental aspects of oil and gas extraction. This sampling project will characterize the environmental impacts associated with the discharge of naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM), metals and organics in produced water. This report is part of a series of studies of the health and ecological risks from discharges of produced water to the Gulf of Mexico, supported by the USDOE. These assessments are being coordinated with the field study, using the collected data to perform human health and ecological risk assessments. These assessments will provide input to regulators in the development of guidelines and permits, and to industry in the development and use of appropriate discharge practices. The initial human health and ecological risk assessments consist of conservative screening analyses meant to identify potentially important contaminants, and to eliminate others from further consideration. More quantitative assessments were done for contaminants identified, in the screening analysis, as being of potential concern. Section 2 gives an overview of human health and ecological risk assessment to help put the analyses presented here in perspective. Section 3 provides the hazard assessment portion of the risk assessment, and identifies the important receptors and pathways of concern. Section 3 also outlines the approach taken to the risk assessments presented in the rest of the report. The remaining sections (4 through 9) present the human health and ecological risk assessments for discharges of produced water to open bays in Louisiana.

  15. New approach to managing genital warts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopaschuk, Catharine C.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Objective To summarize and determine the appropriate use for the new and old management tools for genital warts. Sources of information The following databases were searched: MEDLINE, PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, ACP Journal Club, and Trip. The bibliographies of retrieved papers were also reviewed. Clinical trials, qualitative review articles, consensus reports, and clinical practice guidelines were retrieved. Main message Symptomatic warts are prevalent in at least 1% of the population between the ages of 15 and 49, with estimates of up to 50% of the population being infected with human papillomavirus at some point in their lifetime. Imiquimod and podophyllotoxin are 2 new treatments for external genital warts that are less painful and can be applied by patients at home. In addition, the quadrivalent human papillomavirus vaccine has been shown to be efficacious in preventing genital warts and cervical cancer. There is still a role for the older treatment methods in certain situations, such as intravaginal, urethral, anal, or recalcitrant warts; or for pregnant patients. Conclusion The new treatments of external genital warts can reduce the pain of treatment and the number of office visits. Other treatment methods are still useful in certain situations. PMID:23851535

  16. Female genital mutilation (FGM): Australian midwives' knowledge and attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogunsiji, Olayide

    2015-01-01

    Female genital mutilation (FGM) is a women's health and human rights issue attracting global interest. My purpose in this qualitative study was to report the knowledge and attitudes of Australian midwives toward FGM. Verbatim transcription and thematic analysis of semistructured interviews with 11 midwives resulted in these themes: knowledge of female genital mutilation and attitude toward female genital mutilation. Significant gaps in knowledge about FGM featured prominently. The midwives expressed anger toward FGM and empathy for affected women. Recommendations include increased information on FGM and associated legislation among midwives and other health providers in countries where FGM may be encountered.

  17. Laparoscopic trans teres vault suspension, a new laparoscopic method of treatment of female genital prolapse – a preliminary report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Milnerowicz-Nabzdyk

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction : Pelvic organ prolapse (POP is treated with a great variety of procedures and none is fully satisfactory. The aim of the study was to introduce and evaluate the effectives of laparoscopic trans teres vault suspension (LTTVS technique as a new method for POP treatment. Material and methods: In the years 2013-2014, eight symptomatic women with grades II-IV POP underwent LTTVS procedure. The mean age of patients was 65.25 years (range from 52 to 76 years. The surgery encompassed total hysterectomy, suturing the vagina and fixation of uterosacral ligaments to the vaginal stump, fixation of stumps of round ligaments to the vaginal stump, and fixation of the vaginal stump to the anterior rectus fascia. Mean follow-up was 17.75 months (range from 6 to 27 months. Results : Eight patients were successfully operated. The symptoms of POP resolved after surgery and subjective quality of life increased. In one case a complication such as common fibular nerve injury appeared; however, it resolved after one month of physiotherapy. The other patient reported radiating pain down the leg after three months. No recurrence of vaginal stump prolapse was observed during the follow-up. Conclusions : LTTVS is a promising method for POP treatment. Due to repair with the use of native tissues, physiological placement of vaginal stump, and high efficacy it can be considered as an alternative to other POP surgeries. The method requires additional research on larger groups of patients.

  18. Self-reported symptoms 8weeks after discharge: A comparison of takotsubo syndrome and myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallström, Sara; Ulin, Kerstin; Omerovic, Elmir; Ekman, Inger

    2016-12-01

    Takotsubo syndrome is a form of acute, reversible heart failure that has gained increasing attention. It affects mostly postmenopausal women, and its acute onset and symptoms mimic acute myocardial infarction. The distinct feature of takotsubo syndrome is the ballooning of a ventricle, but the complete pathophysiological mechanisms are not fully understood. Both short-term and long-term survival are affected, but little is known about the illness experience and self-reported residual symptoms after discharge from hospital. To measure and compare self-reported residual symptoms between patients with takotsubo syndrome and those with acute myocardial infarction. Questionnaire data measuring self-reported symptoms were collected from 48 patients with takotsubo syndrome and 79 patients with acute myocardial infarction 8weeks after discharge. A multivariate adjusted complete case regression model was used to compare the frequency and severity of symptoms. Self-reported symptoms 8weeks after discharge differed little between patients with takotsubo syndrome and those with acute myocardial infarction. Both groups reported symptoms, including pain, fatigue, breathlessness, and sleep disturbance. At onset there were significant differences between the groups concerning previous diabetes mellitus, cardiac troponin T, ejection fraction and Killip class. There were no significant between-group differences in frequency or severity of symptoms after adjusting for these differences. Patients with takotsubo syndrome experience residual symptoms after discharge. Symptoms in several cardiovascular diseases predict quality of life, re-admission, and mortality. Symptom management should be integrated into follow-up care for patients with takotsubo syndrome. One way of achieving this is through person-centered care. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Intersexual stages. Ambiguous genitals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvador G. Carrillo Soriano

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available It is considered that every newborn that presents a confused aspect of external genitalia, that does not permit to define his phenotypic sex, has Ambiguous Genitals. It includes real cases of intersex abnormalities, or those with severe hypospadia and bilateral chryptorchidism. In spite of the large advances in genetic, hormonal regulation and molecular biology studies in intersex abnormalities, today continues being motive of confussion when a doctor found a newborn with ambiguous genitalia. We presented the Good Clinical Practices Guideline for Intersex and ambiguos genitalia, approved by consensus in the 4th National Good Clinical Practices Workshop in Pediatric Surgery (Las Tunas, Cuba, March, 2005.

  20. Genital herpes: Heisenberg revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldmeier, D.

    1998-01-01

    In the confirmation of recurrences of genital herpes, patient defined disease reactivation and virological data hold the scientific high ground. The influence of the psyche on recurrence rates and perception of recurrences has been largely neglected and marginalised up to the present, possibly because research work in that area has been and continues to be of poor calibre. However, neglected psychological variables may render otherwise relevant clinical trials uninterpretable. Psychological aspects of counselling before testing for serum herpes simplex type 2 antibodies are also discussed. 




 PMID:9849561

  1. Genital self mutilation in alcohol withdrawal state complicated with delirium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Hari Charan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Genital self mutilation is a rare and a severe form of self-injurious behavior usually described in psychotic disorders, with delusions and hallucinations. It has been ascribed to sexual conflicts, Body image distortions, Internalized aggression, and suicidal intent. This phenomenon has been described in schizophrenia, affective psychosis, alcohol intoxication, and personality disorders. The present case genital self mutilation in a case of alcohol withdrawal state complicated by delirium is reported.

  2. Chlamydia Screening in Ireland: a pilot study of opportunistic screening for genital Chlamydia trachomatis infection in Ireland (2007-2009). Summary Integrated Report

    OpenAIRE

    Balfe, Myles; Brugha, Ruairi; O'Connell, Emer; Vaughan, Deirdre; O'Donovan, Diarmuid; Coleman, Claire; Conroy, Ronán; Cormican, Martin; Fitzgerald, Margaret; Fleming, Catherine; McGee, Hannah; Murphy, Andrew; Ni Fhoghlu, Grainne; O'Neill, Ciaran; Gillespie, Paddy

    2012-01-01

    Genital Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) infection is the most common curable, bacterial sexually transmitted infection (STI) worldwide [1, 2]. The number of cases notified in Ireland increased from 3,353 in 2005 to 5,781 in 2009 [3]. Notifications have increased since 2004 when legislation requiring laboratory notification came into effect. Chlamydia is usually a ‘silent’ asymptomatic infection, spread without the knowledge of those transmitting and contracting it: most cases remain undetected and...

  3. Primary non-Hodgkin's lymphoma of the female genital tract in a 27-year-old female: A rare case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pooja Srivastava

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL of the female genital tract is a rare tumor mainly affecting the elderly age group. A preoperative diagnosis is difficult to reach due to varied clinical presentation and lack of diagnostic features on radiological investigations. We present an unusual case of primary NHL affecting uterus, cervix, and bilateral ovaries in a 27-year-old female.

  4. OBSTETRICAL MORBIDITIES IN GENITAL TRACT INFECTION S

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sapna

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION- Sub clinical ascending infections through the lower female genital tract are predominant worldwide. Important morbidit ies related to poor perinatal outcome both for the mother and for the fetus and new born compr ise preterm birth, prelabor rupture of membranes, post partum sepsis and maternal anaemia. In the fetus, sepsis and intrauterine growth retardation are suspected to be the consequences of ascending maternal infection. Both the direct effect of the infection and the maternal immune r esponse contribute to these eventualities. This study was done to identify antenatal women with va rious genital infections and to know the outcome of pregnancy in presence of these infection s. OBJECTIVES- Diagnosis treatment and preventive measures in genital infections in Antena tal period to improve the pregnancy out come . MATERIAL AND METHODS- One thousand women were studied for lower genital tract infection by ELISA KITS for chlamydia trachomatis, hanging dr op preparation of vaginal discharge for trichomoniasis and mycelia of candida albicans can be seen by wet mount of vaginal dischage in 10% KOH. Gardnerella vaginal infection was diagnose d by Amsel's criteria . RESULT- out of thousand women 53% were positive for single or mult iple infections (gp-1, 47% women had no infection (gp-11 . Labour outcome was studied in 4 15 antenatal women of gp -1 &395 antenatal women of gp -11 . In gp-1 51.80% had no effect ,7.7 1% had abortions and 40.48% had pre term labour and/or PROM .Which was significantly higher than in non infected group . IN INFECTED GROUP- 41.92% neonates had no effect others had some effec t in terms of LBW, birth asphyxia, neonatal death & IUD. Which was significantly highe r than in non infected group. P=0.00 CONCLUSION- The study showed significantly higher incidence of obstetrical morbidities in women with lower genital tract infection,since geni tal infections are the root cause of these obstetrical

  5. Prevalence of Genital Prolapse among Married Women in Southern Karnataka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahana A

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this cross-sectional study is to estimate the prevalence of genital prolapse among married women of Udupi taluk, Karnataka, India. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted on 1256 married women using a structured questionnaire. Women were interviewed in their residence using the Manipal Pelvic Floor Dysfunction screening questionnaire. Result: The mean age of the women participated in this study was 42.3±12.2. The overall prevalence of genital prolapse found in this study was 2% (n=25. Thirty-two percent (n=8 of the women with prolapse had symptoms of urinary incontinence. An association was reported between the age and the genital prolapse. Conclusion: This study shows a 2% (n=25 prevalence of genital prolapse in married women of Udupi Taluk.

  6. Condiloma Acuminado (Verruga Genital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendy Andrea Marquina Cabero

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Paciente femenina de 18 años, internada en el Hospital Materno Infantil German Urquidi con embarazo de 39 semanas, trabajo de parto, condilomatosis genital. Inicio de vida sexual a sus 16 años.Al examen físico: útero grávido, embarazo de 39 semanas, genitales con lesiones vegetantes de 15x10 cm en intravaginal cubierta con secreción grisácea, sésil que sangra fácilmente; el examen de tacto vaginal no selogra realizar. Se realizan cesárea y biopsia con solicitud de histopatología de dicha lesión.

  7. Death by Suicide Within 1 Week of Hospital Discharge: A Retrospective Study of Root Cause Analysis Reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riblet, Natalie; Shiner, Brian; Watts, Bradley V; Mills, Peter; Rusch, Brett; Hemphill, Robin R

    2017-06-01

    There is a high risk for death by suicide after discharge from an inpatient mental health unit. To better understand system and organizational factors associated with postdischarge suicide, we reviewed root cause analysis reports of suicide within 7 days of discharge from across all Veterans Health Administration inpatient mental health units between 2002 and 2015. There were 141 reports of suicide within 7 days of discharge, and a large proportion (43.3%, n = 61) followed an unplanned discharge. Root causes fell into three major themes including challenges for clinicians and patients after the established process of care, awareness and communication of suicide risk, and flaws in the established process of care. Flaws in the design and execution of processes of care as well as deficits in communication may contribute to postdischarge suicide. Inpatient teams should be aware of the potentially heightened risk for suicide among patients with unplanned discharges.

  8. Insects are Crawling in My Genital Warts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhawan, Jyoti; Singh, Saurabh; Gupta, Somesh

    2011-05-01

    A 23-year-old woman presented with large exophytic genital wart arising from perineum, vulva, introitus of the vagina, and inner aspect of thighs. Patient developed severe itching and formication (insect-crawling sensation) in the lesions for past 1 week, though careful examination did not reveal any insects. Considering that the disease was causing psychological stress and physical symptoms, radiofrequency excision was planned. However, during the procedure, several maggots appeared from the crypts. The procedure was abandoned and maggots were removed manually. Subsequently external giant warts were removed using radiofrequency device. There was no recurrence of excised warts during 3 month follow-up. To our knowledge, this is the second reported case of maggots in genital warts.

  9. Insects are crawling in my genital warts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyoti Dhawan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A 23-year-old woman presented with large exophytic genital wart arising from perineum, vulva, introitus of the vagina, and inner aspect of thighs. Patient developed severe itching and formication (insect-crawling sensation in the lesions for past 1 week, though careful examination did not reveal any insects. Considering that the disease was causing psychological stress and physical symptoms, radiofrequency excision was planned. However, during the procedure, several maggots appeared from the crypts. The procedure was abandoned and maggots were removed manually. Subsequently external giant warts were removed using radiofrequency device. There was no recurrence of excised warts during 3 month follow-up. To our knowledge, this is the second reported case of maggots in genital warts.

  10. Prevalence of Genital Tuberculosis among Infertile Women: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kefayat Chaman-Ara

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Genital tuberculosis is a kind of infectious diseases with a relatively high prevalence in developing countries. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of genital tuberculosis among infertile women. A PubMed, Science Direct, Scopus, Google Scholar, SID, Magiran and Cochrane databases (from 1980 to the present, date of last search March 2016 was carried out using the search keywords tuberculosis, genital tuberculosis, female genital, genital tract, genital system, female infertility, endometrial tuberculosis, anti-tubercular therapy, bacteriological, tuberculin antigen, histological, infertility, fallopian tube diseases, prevalence, rate, percent in order to find the studies which have reported the prevalence of genital tuberculosis among infertile women. Data were extracted from retrieved studies and a meta-analysis was done. 23 studies were found. In these studies a total of 4361 infertile women have been studied. The prevalence of genital tuberculosis among infertile women with 95% confidence interval was 24.2% (18.5-29.99. The prevalence of genital tuberculosis among infertile women is high. It seems that exact planning and action for the prevention and treatment of genital tuberculosis can reduce the infertility prevalence and prevent the negative consequences of infertility

  11. Genital burns and vaginal delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pant, R; Manandhar, V; Wittgenstein, F; Fortney, J A; Fukushima, C

    1995-07-01

    Obstetric complications may result from burn scarring in the genital area. Women in developing countries typically squat around cooking fires, and burns are common. This recent case in Nepal describes obstructed labor in a young woman whose genital area had extensive scarring from a cooking fire injury. Proper antenatal assessment by health care providers can reduce the risk to mothers and infants of the consequences of a birth canal damaged or obstructed by burn scarring.

  12. Peritonitis due to genital tuberculosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Jesper Hastrup; Mikkelsen, A L; Siemssen, O J

    1985-01-01

    A case of genital tuberculosis is presented. The diagnosis was made by laparotomy and histological examination of biopsies from peritoneum and the Fallopian tube. The literature is reviewed and the diagnostic approach and treatment discussed.......A case of genital tuberculosis is presented. The diagnosis was made by laparotomy and histological examination of biopsies from peritoneum and the Fallopian tube. The literature is reviewed and the diagnostic approach and treatment discussed....

  13. 11p Microdeletion including WT1 but not PAX6, presenting with cataract, mental retardation, genital abnormalities and seizures: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baekgaard Peter

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract WAGR syndrome (Wilms' tumor, aniridia, genitourinary abnormalities and mental retardation and Potocki-Shaffer syndrome are rare contiguous gene deletion syndromes caused by deletions of the 11p14-p12 chromosome region. We present a patient with mental retardation, unilateral cataract, bilateral ptosis, genital abnormalities, seizures and a dysmorphic face. Cytogenetic analysis showed a deletion on 11p that was further characterized using FISH and MLPA analyses. The deletion (11p13-p12 located in the area between the deletions associated with the WAGR and Potocki-Shaffer syndromes had a maximum size of 8.5 Mb and encompasses 44 genes. Deletion of WT1 explains the genital abnormalities observed. As PAX6 was intact the cataract observed cannot be explained by a deletion of this gene. Seizures have been described in Potocki-Shaffer syndrome while mental retardation has been described in both WAGR and Potocki-Shaffer syndrome. Characterization of this patient contributes further to elucidate the function of the genes in the 11p14-p12 chromosome region.

  14. Warts (non-genital)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Warts are caused by the human papillomavirus (HPV), of which there are over 100 types, which probably infects the skin via areas of minimal trauma. Risk factors include use of communal showers, occupational handling of meat, and immunosuppression. In immunocompetent people, warts are harmless and resolve as a result of natural immunity within months or years. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical question: What are the effects of treatments for warts (non-genital)? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to June 2008 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 12 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic, review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: intralesional bleomycin; cimetidine; contact immunotherapy; cryotherapy; duct tape occlusion; formaldehyde, glutaraldehyde; homeopathy; photodynamic treatment; pulsed dye laser; surgical procedures; topical salicylic acid; and zinc sulphate. PMID:21726478

  15. Self-reported post-discharge symptoms following obstetric neuraxial blockade.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hayes, N E

    2010-10-01

    Economic pressures are leading to earlier hospital discharge following delivery, before complications of obstetric neuraxial block may become apparent. Our aim was to estimate the incidence of symptoms presenting post-discharge at a single tertiary obstetric centre.

  16. The Coexistence of Generalized and Lateralized Periodic Discharges: Report of Two Adult Cases with SSPE and MELAS Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aslıhan Taşkıran

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Generalized and lateralized periodic discharges have not been reported previously in the same EEG simultaneously. Here, we report two adult patients who suffered from rare clinical conditions [subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE and nitochondrial myopathy, encephalopathy, lactic acidosis, and stroke-like episodes (MELAS syndrome]. Their EEGs showed the same pattern consisting of generalized periodic discharges and lateralized periodic discharges in the same EEG simultaneously. Although the appearances of the EEG were very similar, discharges became more prominent after intravenous diazepam injection in the case with SSPE but were suppressed in the case with MELAS. Lesions in the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI were located posteriorly in both patients, involving mainly subcortical white matter in the case with SSPE, but mainly the cortical area in the case with MELAS. Generalized periodic discharges are also reported in MELAS for the first time. The underlying mechanisms of the genesis of periodic discharges are still not known, and these two patients may help us to learn more about these rare patterns.

  17. FY 1993 environmental sampling and analysis report for wastewater discharge at McMurdo Station, Antarctica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crockett, A.B.

    1994-04-01

    Wastewater impact assessment at McMurdo has been or is being conducted by four organizations: Antarctic Support Associates (ASA), which conducts the effluent monitoring; Moss Landing Marine Laboratories, which conducts all of the benthic monitoring and most of the biological monitoring; Montana State University, which conducted water quality and water current measurements; and EG&G Idaho, which conducted water quality and sea ice monitoring. All four programs are interrelated and were needed to determine the impact of the wastewater discharge on the marine environment. This report summarizes the relevant monitoring work being conducted by Antarctic Support Associates, Moss Landing, and Montana State personnel, and specifically documents the results of EG&G Idaho`s efforts.

  18. Female genital mutilation in Djibouti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinelli, M; Ollé-Goig, J E

    2012-12-01

    The practice of female genital mutilation (we will use the latest definition adopted by WHO/UNFP: female genital mutilation/cutting or FGM/C) is still widespread in 28 African countries. The World Health Organisation (WHO) estimates that more than two million females undergo some form of genital mutilation every year. Its negative health impact and its ethical and human rights aspects have been discussed and attempts to eliminate it have been the objectives of several meetings promoted by national and international organisations thanks to an increased awareness related to FGM/C in those countries practicing it and also, maybe due to the number of Africans migrating to industrialized countries. We review the present situation in Djibouti, a small country in the Horn of Africa, where 98 % of the female population has suffered different forms of FGM/C.

  19. [Genital ulcers--what's new?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu Raya, Bahaa; Bamberger, Ellen; Srugo, Isaac

    2013-08-01

    The most common infectious causes of genital ulcers are herpes simplex virus and syphilis. However, mixed infections can occur and genital ulcer may increase the risk of acquiring human immunodeficiency virus. Although the history and physical examination can narrow the differential diagnosis, there is a need for initial routine laboratory testing for the most common pathogens that includes: for syphilis: serologic screening and dark field examination of the lesion; for herpes simplex virus: serology, vial culture and/or polymerase chain reaction. Human immunodeficiency testing is mandatory. Recently, some clinical laboratories adapted the reverse screening algorithm for syphilis (initial treponemal test, and, if positive, followed by non-treponemal test) that may potentially lead to overtreatment. Early and prompt therapy may decrease the risk of transmission of the infectious agent to others. This article reviews the infectious pathogens causing genital ulcers, their unique clinical manifestation, diagnosis and treatment.

  20. Developmental disorders of the female genital tract

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... genitals: Developmental problems may lead to a swollen clitoris or fused labia (when the folds of tissue ... genital area or a single rectal opening Swollen clitoris The belly area may be swollen or a ...

  1. Female genital mutilation in the world today: a global review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosken, F P

    1981-01-01

    Extensive research and field work have established that more than 74 million women and female children are mutilated by female genital operations in Africa alone. The operations are also practiced in many parts of the Middle East and, with Moslemization, were introduced into Indonesia and Malaysia where they are preformed at the present time in a less damaging form. This paper lists the countries where instances of excision and infibulation have been reported and includes case reports from Sudan, Egypt, Ethiopia, Kenya, Somalia, Nigeria, Mali, Upper Volta, and Senegal. The ethical issues posed by genital mutilation are also discussed.

  2. Transnodal Lymphangiography in the Diagnosis and Treatment of Genital Lymphedema

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez, F. M., E-mail: gomez_fermun@gva.es; Martinez-Rodrigo, J.; Marti-Bonmati, L. [Hospital Universitario y Politecnico La Fe, Servicio de Radiologia (Spain); Santos, E. [University of Pittsburgh, Department of Radiology (United States); Forner, I. [Hospital Universitario y Politecnico La Fe, Servicio de Medicina Fisica y Rehabilitacion (Spain); Lloret, M.; Perez-Enguix, D.; Garcia-Marcos, R. [Hospital Universitario y Politecnico La Fe, Servicio de Radiologia (Spain)

    2012-12-15

    Purpose: To report the success of groin nodal lymphography in the diagnosis and treatment of genital lymphedema. Methods and Materials: We present one female (8 years old [patient no. 1]) and two male (69 and [patient no. 2] 31 years old [patient no. 3], respectively) patients with genital lymphedema in whom conservative treatment failed. The girl also had lymphorrhagia. Genital lymphedema was caused by radical cystectomy (patient no. 2), lymphatic hyperplasia (patient no. 1), and idiopathic lymphangitis (patient no. 3). All of them underwent ultrasound-guided bilateral groin lymph node puncture. Afterward, 4-8 ml Lipiodol Ultra-Fluide (Guerbet) were injected at a rate of 0.2 ml/s. Lipiodol progression was assessed by fluoroscopy. Computed tomography scan of the abdomen and pelvis was performed immediately after and again at 24 h after the procedure to confirm the leak. The follow-up period was 15, 13, and 9 months, respectively. Technical success was considered as bilateral pelvic and abdominal filling of lymphatic vessels. Therapeutic success was considered as improvement or disappearance of genital lymphedema and/or lymphorrhagia. Results: Lipiodol leak to the scrotum was observed in patients no. 2 and 3. Lymphaticopelvic fistula and genital lymphatic hyperplasia were seen in patient no. 1. Genital lymphedema diminished within 1 week and almost disappeared in two cases (patients no. 1 and 3) or significantly improved (patient no. 2). lymphorrhagia also resolved in patient no. 1. No recurrence or worsening was detected during follow-up. Conclusion: Therapeutic lymphangiography by lymph node injection seems to be effective to treat genital lymphedema. Lymph node puncture lymphangiography is feasible and less cumbersome than pedal lymphangiography.

  3. Emerging technologies and approaches to minimize discharges into Lake Michigan, phase 2 module 4 report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Negri, M.C.; Gillenwater, P.; Urgun-Demirtas, M.; Nnanna, G.; Yu, J.; Jannotta, I, (Energy Systems); (Purdue University Calumet)

    2012-04-19

    The Great Lakes Initiative (GLI) established the new water quality-based discharge criteria for mercury (Hg), thereby increasing the need for many municipal and industrial wastewater treatment plants in the region to lower the mercury in their effluents. Information on deployable technologies to satisfy these requirements for industrial and municipal dischargers in the Great lakes region is scarce. Therefore, BP funded Purdue University Calumet and Argonne to identify deployable Hg removal technologies to meet the GLI discharge criterion at its Whiting Refinery in Indiana. The joint PUC/Argonne project was divided into 2 phases. Results from Phase I and Phase II Modules 1-3 have been previously reported. This report summarizes the work done in Phase 3 Module 4, which consisted of the pilot scale testing of Hg removal technologies previously selected in Module 3. The pilot testing was an Argonne/PUC jointly directed project that was hosted at and funded by the BP refinery in Whiting, IN. As two organizations were involved in data analysis and interpretation, this report combines two independent sets of evaluations of the testing that was done, prepared respectively by Argonne and Purdue. Each organization retains sole responsibility for its respective analysis conclusions and recommendations. Based on Module 3 bench testing with pre-Effluent To Lake (pre-ETL) and clarifier effluent (CE) samples from the Whiting refinery, three different technologies were chosen for pilot testing: (1) Ultrafiltration (using GE ZeeWeed(reg sign) Technology, 0.04 {mu}m pore size and made up of PVDF) for particulate mercury removal; (2) Adsorption using Mersorb(reg sign) LW, a sulfur-impregnated activated carbon, for dissolved mercury removal if present and (3) The Blue PRO(reg sign) reactive filtration process for both particulate and dissolved (if present) mercury removal. The ultrafiltration and the Blue PRO(reg sign) reactive filtration pilot studies were done simultaneously at the

  4. Emollients on the genital area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farage, Miranda A; Warren, Raphael

    2011-01-01

    Emollients are known to lubricate, moisturize and soothe the skin. Prior to their incorporation into feminine hygiene pads, thorough premarket toxicological testing is conducted to evaluate their safety and effectiveness via in-use clinical settings. Product testing has been conducted on various body sites proven previously to be valid and reliable, such as the arm and popliteal fossa and, more recently, the genital area. Several clinical studies have confirmed the safety and efficacy of emollient-containing feminine hygiene products, which have also been shown to provide dermatological benefits in the genital area. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. Male genital trauma in sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Stanley R; Lishnak, Timothy S; Powers, Andria M; Lisle, David K

    2013-04-01

    Male genital trauma is a rare but potentially serious sports injury. Although such an injury can occur by many different mechanisms, including falls, collisions, straddle injuries, kicks, and equipment malfunction, the clinical presentation is typically homogeneous, characterized by pain and swelling. Almost all sports-related male genital injury comes from blunt force trauma, with involvement of scrotal structures far more common than penile structures. Most injuries can be treated conservatively, but catastrophic testicular injury must first be ruled out. Despite being relatively uncommon compared with other sports injuries, more than half of all testicular injuries are sustained during sports.

  6. Cutaneous metastases presenting as genital ulcer disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Vasuki

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cutaneous metastasis from an internal organ malignancy is rare and as, the presenting sign of malignancy is an uncommon phenomenon. Their presence, signals a poor prognosis. We report a case of 50-year-old female who was referred to sexually transmitted diseases - out patient department, with complaints of multiple genital ulcers to rule out sexually transmitted infections. After thorough evaluation, she was found to be a case of carcinoma cervix with metastatic squamous cell carcinomatous deposits on external genitalia. This case was unique because of relatively asymptomatic nature of internal malignancy and atypical presentation of carcinoma cervix as cutaneous metastasis.

  7. Lissencephaly, abnormal genitalia and refractory epilepsy: case report of XLAG syndrome Lisencefalia, genitália ambígua e epilepsia refratária: relato de caso da síndrome XLAG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mônica Jaques Spinosa

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: X-linked lissencephaly with ambiguous genitalia (XLAG is a recently described genetic disorder caused by mutation in the aristaless-related homeobox (ARX gene (Xp22.13. Patients present with lissencephaly, agenesis of the corpus callosum, refractory epilepsy of neonatal onset, acquired microcephaly and male genotype with ambiguous genitalia. CASE REPORT: Second child born to healthy nonconsanguineous parents, presented with seizures within the first hour of life that remained refractory to phenobarbital, phenytoin and midazolam. Examination identified microcephaly, axial hypotonia, pyramidal signs and ambiguous genitalia. EEG showed disorganized background activity and seizures starting at the right midtemporal, central and occipital regions. MRI showed diffuse pachygyria, moderate thickening of the cortex, enlarged ventricles, agenesis of the corpus callosum and septum pellucidum. Karyotype showed a 46,XY genotype. Additional findings were hypercalciuria, vesicoureteral reflux, patent ductus arteriosus and chronic diarrhea.INTRODUÇÃO: Lisencefalia com genitália ambígua ligada ao X (XLAG é doença genética recentemente descrita, causada por mutação no gene aristaless-related homeobox (ARX (Xp22.13. Os pacientes apresentam lisencefalia, agenesia de corpo caloso, epilepsia refratária com início no período neonatal, microcefalia adquirida e genótipo masculino com genitália ambígua. RELATO DE CASO: Segundo filho de pais não-consangüíneos, apresentou crises na primeira hora de vida que permaneceram refratárias a fenobarbital, fenitoína e midazolam. Apresentava microcefalia, hipotonia axial, sinais de liberação piramidal e genitália ambígua. EEG demonstrou atividade de base desorganizada, crises convulsivas com início nas regiões temporal-média, central e occipital direitas. RNM demonstrou paquigiria difusa, moderado espessamento do córtex, ventrículos aumentados, agenesia de corpo caloso e septo pel

  8. A study of female genital swabs in primary health care centres in Jos, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Nwadioha

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To detect some common microbial agents of female genital discharges in order to improve the current syndromic management of abnormal vaginal discharge. Methods: A prospective study of female genital swabs collected from Primary Health Care Centres, Jos, and analysed for microscopy, culture and sensitivity in Jos University Teaching Hospital, December 2006 to December 2007 was carried out. Results: Microbial agents were detected in 70% (700 of a total 1 000 female genital swabs studied. Candida species peaked with 42.0% (420 out of the 1000 samples, followed by Gardnerella vaginalis, an agent of bacterial vaginosis with 26.0%. The distribution of abnormal vaginal discharge was highest in young adults aged 21 to 30 years. Conclusions: It is concluded that abnormal vaginal discharge is most prevalent in the young sexually active age group with Candida species as the commonest agent. We recommend prevention, early diagnosis and prompt treatment of infective female genital discharge in order to reduce the menace of HIV transmission.

  9. Female Genital Mutilation in Infants and Young Girls: Report of Sixty Cases Observed at the General Hospital of Abobo (Abidjan, Cote D’Ivoire, West Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kouie Plo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The practice of female genital mutilations continues to be recurrent in African communities despite the campaigns, fights, and laws to ban it. A survey was carried out in infants and young girls at the General Hospital of Abobo in Cote D’Ivoire. The purpose of the study was to describe the epidemiological aspects and clinical findings related to FGM in young patients. Four hundred nine (409 females aged from 1 to 12 years and their mothers entered the study after their consent. The results were that 60/409 patients (15% were cut. The majority of the young females came from Muslim families (97%; the earlier age at FGM procedure in patients is less than 5 years: 87%. Amongst 409 mothers, 250 women underwent FGM which had other daughters cut. Women were mainly involved in the FGM and their motivations were virginity, chastity, body cleanliness, and fear of clitoris similar to penis. Only WHO types I and II were met. If there were no incidental events occurred at the time of the procedure, the obstetrical future of these young females would be compromised. With FGM being a harmful practice, health professionals and NGOs must unite their efforts in people education to abandon the procedure.

  10. Primary Malignant Amelanotic Melanoma in the Female Genital Tract:A Report of Six Cases and a Review of the Literature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jusheng An; Lingying Wu; Bin Li; Haizhen Lu; Ning Li; Shaokang Ma

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze the clinical characteristics,pathologic diagnosis,treatment and prognosis of amelanotic melanoma in the female genital tract (AMFGT).METHODS The medical records of 6 patients with AMFGT between 1991 and 2006 in our hospital were reviewed.RESULTS Of these cases,4 were preliminarily misdiagnosed as chorioepithelioma,sarcoma,adenocarcinoma or lymphoma.Two patients were determined to have AMFGT preoperatively after positive immunohistochemical staining for both S-100 protein and HMB-45.Specimens removed from all 6 cases were tested for immunohistochemical staining,as well as H & E histochemical stains.S-100 and vimentin were both positive in all patients,and HMB-45 was positive in 3 out of 5 patients.Four patients recurred (at 6,6,12 and 19 months) after primary treatments.Three patients died (at 13,18 and 19 months) after the initial diagnosis.CONCLUSION Because of an absence of pigmentation AMFGT is extremely difficult to diagnose.Combined immunohistochemical staining,such as the S-100 protein,HMB-45 and vimentin etc,is important in the evaluation of AMFGT.Correct diagnosis plays a crucial role in the treatment of this disease.

  11. Genital Infection as a First Sign of Acute Myeloid Leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoki Oiso

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Fournier’s gangrene is a life-threatening disorder caused by aerobic and anaerobic bacterial infection. We report a case of genital infection as the initial warning sign of acute myeloid leukemia. We were able to prevent progression to Fournier’s gangrene in our patient by immediate intensive therapy with incision, blood transfusions and intravenous administration of antibiotics. This case suggests that hematologists and dermatologists should keep in mind that genital infection can be a first sign of hematologic malignancy.

  12. Simultaneous genital ulcer and meningitis: a case of EBV infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Jairo Tavares; Lopes, Leonardo da Costa; Prokopowitsch, Aleksander Snioka

    2016-01-01

    The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is associated with a broad spectrum of diseases, mainly because of its genomic characteristics, which result in different latency patterns in immune cells and infective mechanisms. The patient described in this report is a previously healthy young man who presented to the emergency department with clinical features consistent with meningitis and genital ulcers, which raised concern that the herpes simplex virus was the causative agent. However, the polymerase chain reaction of cerebral spinal fluid was positive for EBV. The authors highlight the importance of this infection among the differential diagnosis of central nervous system involvement and genital ulceration. PMID:27547743

  13. [Sarcoidosis of the female genital tract].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šefčíková, A; Turková, M; Žurková, M

    To present the findings of sarcoidosis on female genital tract. Review. Department of Obstetric and Gynecology, Silesian Hospital Opava. Overview of published findings from case studies. Sarcoidosis is a multisystem granulomatous disorder of unclear cause. It typically involves the lymph nodes of mediastinum, predominantly billateral and/or pulmonary infiltrates. We find extrapulmonary involvement in 30-50% of cases. Sarcoidosis of the female reproductive system is a rare, it represent less than 1% cases of sarcoidosis. Lesions there may affect any organ, including the vulva, vagina, cervix, uterus, fallopian tube and ovary, but also for example placenta and breast. There is also recorded the incidence of multiple localization on female genitalia. Since sarcoidosis of this area is so rare, often proceeds asymptomatic and recognized only as an incidental finding, there are mention only the case histories in literature yet.Clinical symptoms may be non-specific, often imitating a tumor, or tend to be specific, depending on the localization of disability such as perineal pain, pain in the scar after the previous birth trauma, persistent pruritus, itching, irritation, dyspareunia, menstrual cycle disorders, menorrhagia, metrorrhagia, postmenopausal bleeding, amenorrhoe, abdominal pain, endometrial polypoid lesions, recurrent or persistent serometra or discharge. The diagnosis is made up of histologically - we are demonstrating noncaseating granulomas.The therapy is difficult, there are no available official guidelines. If the lesions are clinically silent, we can observed them because they may spontaneously disappear. If we are embarking on medical therapy, we start from a local application, and if this is unsuccessful then we approach the systemic administration. Corticosteroids are the drug of choice. If we diagnose the sarcoidosis of the female genital organs we must exclude systemic disease of sarcoidosis. The prognosis of disease is good.

  14. Emerging technologies and approaches to minimize discharges into Lake Michigan Phase 2, Module 3 report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Negri, M. C.; Gillenwater, P.; Urgun Demirtas, M. (Energy Systems)

    2011-05-11

    Purdue University Calumet (Purdue) and Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne) have conducted an independent study to identify deployable technologies that could help the BP Whiting Refinery, and other petroleum refineries, meet future wastewater discharge limits. This study has been funded by BP. Each organization tested a subset of the target technologies and retains sole responsibility for its respective test design and implementation, quality assurance and control, test results obtained from each of the technologies, and corresponding conclusions and recommendations. This project was divided in two phases and modules. This report summarizes the work conducted by Argonne in Phase II Module 3 (Bench Scale Testing). Other Modules are discussed elsewhere (Emerging Technologies and Approaches to Minimize Discharges into Lake Michigan, Phase 2, Modules 1-3 Report, April 2011, prepared for BP Americas by the Argonne - Purdue Task Force). The goal of this project was to identify and assess available and emerging wastewater treatment technologies for removing mercury and vanadium from the Whiting Refinery wastewater and to conduct bench-scale tests to provide comparable, transparent, and uniform results across the broad range of technologies tested. After the bench-scale testing phase, a previously developed decision matrix was refined and applied by Argonne to process and review test data to estimate and compare the preliminary performance, engineering configuration, preliminary cost, energy usage, and waste generation of technologies that were shown to be able to remove Hg and/or V to below the target limit at the bench scale. The data were used as the basis to identify the best candidates for further testing at the bench or pilot scale on a slip stream of effluent to lake (ETL) or clarifier effluent (CE) at the Whiting Refinery to determine whether future limits could be met and to generate other pertinent data for scale-up and sustainability evaluation. As a result of

  15. Female genital cosmetic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Dorothy; Lefebvre, Guylaine; Bouchard, Celine; Shapiro, Jodi; Blake, Jennifer; Allen, Lisa; Cassell, Krista; Leyland, Nicholas; Wolfman, Wendy; Allaire, Catherine; Awadalla, Alaa; Best, Carolyn; Dunn, Sheila; Heywood, Mark; Lemyre, Madeleine; Marcoux, Violaine; Menard, Chantal; Potestio, Frank; Rittenberg, David; Singh, Sukhbir; Shapiro, Jodi; Akhtar, Saima; Camire, Bruno; Christilaw, Jan; Corey, Julie; Nelson, Erin; Pierce, Marianne; Robertson, Deborah; Simmonds, Anne

    2013-12-01

    Objectif : Fournir aux gynécologues canadiens des directives factuelles en matière de chirurgie esthétique génitale chez la femme, en réponse au nombre grandissant de demandes (et d’interventions) de chirurgie vaginale et vulvaire se situant bien au-delà des reconstructions traditionnellement indiquées sur le plan médical. Résultats : La littérature publiée a été récupérée par l’intermédiaire de recherches menées dans PubMed ou MEDLINE, CINAHL et The Cochrane Library en 2011 et en 2012 au moyen d’un vocabulaire contrôlé et de mots clés appropriés (« female genital cosmetic surgery »). Les résultats ont été restreints aux analyses systématiques, aux essais comparatifs randomisés / essais cliniques comparatifs et aux études observationnelles. Aucune restriction n’a été appliquée en matière de date ou de langue. Les recherches ont été mises à jour de façon régulière et intégrées à la directive clinique jusqu’en mai 2012. La littérature grise (non publiée) a été identifiée par l’intermédiaire de recherches menées dans les sites Web d’organismes s’intéressant à l’évaluation des technologies dans le domaine de la santé et d’organismes connexes, dans des collections de directives cliniques, dans des registres d’essais cliniques et auprès de sociétés de spécialité médicale nationales et internationales. Valeurs : La qualité des résultats est évaluée au moyen des critères décrits dans le rapport du Groupe d’étude canadien sur les soins de santé préventifs (Tableau). Recommandations 1. Un des rôles importants des obstétriciens-gynécologues devrait consister à aider les femmes à comprendre leur anatomie et à en respecter les variantes qui leur sont propres. (III-A) 2. Lorsqu’une femme demande la tenue d’interventions esthétiques vaginales, une anamnèse médicale, sexuelle et gynécologique exhaustive devrait être obtenue et l’absence de tout dysfonctionnement

  16. Pregnancy Complications: Genital Herpes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Global Map Premature birth report card Careers Archives Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal ... virus and pregnancy Folic acid Medicine safety and pregnancy Birth defects prevention Learn how to help reduce ...

  17. Female Genital Mutilation in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nissrin Hoffmann

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Female Genital Mutilation is widely practiced in Egypt as well as in big sections of the African continent. The tradition of mutilation of the female genital areas has been practiced over the course of many years in the country and has been attributed to being promoted by the Islamic religion in Egypt. The Islamic religion is the most widely practiced religion within Egypt and therefore is linked to being the main reason why the country possesses one of the highest prevalence rates of the practice within Africa, according to many surveys performed by many leading agencies and nongovernmental organizations that advocate for the abolition of the practice within the country. FGM as a social health concern has been realized as not possessing any health benefits for the women and young girls who are taken through the practice.

  18. Female sexual dysfunction in female genital mutilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elneil, Sohier

    2016-01-01

    Female genital mutilation (FGM), otherwise known as female genital cutting (FGC), is currently very topical and has become a significant global political issue. The impact of FGM on the lives of women and girls is enormous, as it often affects both their psychology and physical being. Among the complications that are often under-reported and not always acknowledged is female sexual dysfunction (FSD). FSD presents with a complex of symptoms including lack of libido, arousability and orgasm. This often occurs in tandem with chronic urogenital pain and anatomical disruption due to perineal scarring.To treat FSD in FGM each woman needs specifically directed holistic care, geared to her individual case. This may include psychological support, physiotherapy and, on occasion, reconstructive surgery. In many cases the situation is complicated by symptoms of chronic pelvic pain, which can make treatment increasingly difficult as this issue needs a defined multidisciplinary approach for its effective management in its own right. The problems suffered by women with FGM are wholly preventable, as the practice need not happen. The current global momentum to address the social, cultural, economic and medical issues of FGM is being supported by communities, governments, non-governmental agencies (NGOs) and healthcare providers. It is only by working together that the practice can be abolished and women and girls may be free from this practice and its associated consequences.

  19. Applications and Therapeutic Actions of Complementary and Alternative Medicine for Women with Genital Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chenfang; Zhang, Yuehui; Yu, Yang; Han, Fengjuan

    2014-01-01

    Genital infection is a common worldwide disease among females with clinical features such as bilateral lower abdominal tenderness, abnormal vaginal or cervical discharge, fever, abnormal vaginal bleeding, dyspareunia, vaginal itching, and adnexal tenderness, which can significantly impair women's health and quality of life. Genital infection is commonly treated with antibiotics, leading to an imbalance in gut flora due to prolonged use of antibiotics. Therefore, it is necessary to discover safe and efficacious alternative treatment strategies for patients with genital infection. Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is becoming increasingly prevalent among women with genital infection. CAM has interested the western mainstream medical community because of its less invasive, safe, effective, economical, and convenient therapies. CAM focuses on the prevention and treatment of disease and has become an important force in treating chronic disease. During the last few decades, the popularity of CAM has gradually increased. To further understand the efficacy of CAM in treating genital infection, our paper will review the current progress of treating genital infection including vulvitis, vaginitis, cervicitis, and pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) with CAM therapies. Several CAM strategies including traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), acupuncture, Psychology interference, and physical therapy are introduced in this review. PMID:24648850

  20. Applications and Therapeutic Actions of Complementary and Alternative Medicine for Women with Genital Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chenfang Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Genital infection is a common worldwide disease among females with clinical features such as bilateral lower abdominal tenderness, abnormal vaginal or cervical discharge, fever, abnormal vaginal bleeding, dyspareunia, vaginal itching, and adnexal tenderness, which can significantly impair women’s health and quality of life. Genital infection is commonly treated with antibiotics, leading to an imbalance in gut flora due to prolonged use of antibiotics. Therefore, it is necessary to discover safe and efficacious alternative treatment strategies for patients with genital infection. Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM is becoming increasingly prevalent among women with genital infection. CAM has interested the western mainstream medical community because of its less invasive, safe, effective, economical, and convenient therapies. CAM focuses on the prevention and treatment of disease and has become an important force in treating chronic disease. During the last few decades, the popularity of CAM has gradually increased. To further understand the efficacy of CAM in treating genital infection, our paper will review the current progress of treating genital infection including vulvitis, vaginitis, cervicitis, and pelvic inflammatory disease (PID with CAM therapies. Several CAM strategies including traditional Chinese medicine (TCM, acupuncture, Psychology interference, and physical therapy are introduced in this review.

  1. Female genital cutting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perron, Liette; Senikas, Vyta; Burnett, Margaret; Davis, Victoria

    2013-11-01

    Objectif : Renforcer le cadre national des soins offerts aux adolescentes et aux femmes affectées par l’excision génitale féminine (EGF) au Canada en fournissant aux professionnels de la santé : (1) des renseignements ayant pour but d’approfondir leur compréhension de cette pratique et leurs connaissances à ce sujet; (2) des consignes quant aux aspects légaux liés à cette pratique; (3) des directives cliniques pour la gestion des soins obstétricaux et gynécologiques, y compris la prise en charge des complications liées à l’EGF; et (4) des conseils quant à l’offre de soins compétents au plan culturel aux adolescentes et aux femmes ayant subi une EGF. Résultats : La littérature publiée a été récupérée par l’intermédiaire de recherches menées dans PubMed, CINAHL et The Cochrane Library en septembre 2010 au moyen d’un vocabulaire contrôlé (p. ex. « Circumcision », « Female ») et de mots clés (p. ex. « female genital mutilation », « clitoridectomy », « infibulation ») appropriés. Nous avons également mené des recherches dans Social Science Abstracts, Sociological Abstracts, Gender Studies Database et ProQuest Dissertations and Theses en 2010 et en 2011. Aucune restriction n’a été appliquée en matière de date ou de langue. Les recherches ont été mises à jour de façon régulière et intégrées à la directive clinique jusqu’en décembre 2011. La littérature grise (non publiée) a été identifiée par l’intermédiaire de recherches menées dans les sites Web d’organismes s’intéressant à l’évaluation des technologies dans le domaine de la santé et d’organismes connexes, dans des collections de directives cliniques, dans des registres d’essais cliniques et auprès de sociétés de spécialité médicale nationales et internationales. Valeurs : La qualité des résultats a été évaluée au moyen des critères décrits dans le rapport du Groupe d’étude canadien sur les soins

  2. A cloudy bag and genital ulcers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liesker, J; van Elsacker-Niele, A M; Blanken, R; Halma, C

    2006-05-01

    A 30-year-old patient treated with CCPD presented with genital ulcers and a culture-negative peritonitis. Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) was cultured from the effluent and the genital lesions. Primary HSV-2 infection was diagnosed by serology. This is the first documented case of PD peritonitis caused by HSV-2. We speculate that cases of culture-negative PD peritonitis may be due to recurrences of genital herpes.

  3. Female Genital Warts: Global Trends and Treatments

    OpenAIRE

    Gall, Stanley A.

    2001-01-01

    The increasing incidence of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and HPV-associated conditions such as genital warts in women is a global concern. Genital warts are a clinical manifestation of HPV types 6 and 11, and are estimated to affect 1% of sexually active adults aged between 15 and 49. HPV infection is also strongly associated with cervical cancer, and is prevalent in as many as 99% of cases. The psychological stress of having genital warts is often greater than the morbidi...

  4. Coevolution of female and male genital components to avoid genital size mismatches in sexually dimorphic spiders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupše, Nik; Cheng, Ren-Chung; Kuntner, Matjaž

    2016-08-17

    In most animal groups, it is unclear how body size variation relates to genital size differences between the sexes. While most morphological features tend to scale with total somatic size, this does not necessarily hold for genitalia because divergent evolution in somatic size between the sexes would cause genital size mismatches. Theory predicts that the interplay of female-biased sexual size dimorphism (SSD) and sexual genital size dimorphism (SGD) should adhere to the 'positive genital divergence', the 'constant genital divergence', or the 'negative genital divergence' model, but these models remain largely untested. We test their validity in the spider family Nephilidae known for the highest degrees of SSD among terrestrial animals. Through comparative analyses of sex-specific somatic and genital sizes, we first demonstrate that 99 of the 351 pairs of traits are phylogenetically correlated. Through factor analyses we then group these traits for MCMCglmm analyses that test broader correlation patterns, and these reveal significant correlations in 10 out of the 36 pairwise comparisons. Both types of analyses agree that female somatic and internal genital sizes evolve independently. While sizes of non-intromittent male genital parts coevolve with male body size, the size of the intromittent male genital parts is independent of the male somatic size. Instead, male intromittent genital size coevolves with female (external and, in part, internal) genital size. All analyses also agree that SGD and SSD evolve independently. Internal dimensions of female genitalia evolve independently of female body size in nephilid spiders, and similarly, male intromittent genital size evolves independently of the male body size. The size of the male intromittent organ (the embolus) and the sizes of female internal and external genital components thus seem to respond to selection against genital size mismatches. In accord with these interpretations, we reject the validity of the

  5. Pancreatitis - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chronic pancreatitis - discharge; Pancreatitis - chronic - discharge; Pancreatic insufficiency - discharge; Acute pancreatitis - discharge ... You were in the hospital because you have pancreatitis. This is a swelling of the pancreas. You ...

  6. Sexual selection and genital evolution: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamloul, Rany; el-Sakka, Ahmed; Bella, Anthony J

    2010-05-01

    Genital morphology (especially male) among the animal kingdom is characterized by extensive differences that even members of closely related species with similar general morphology may have remarkably diverse genitalia. To present the sexual medicine specialist with a basic understanding of the current hypotheses on genital evolution with an emphasis on the sexual selection theories. A review of current literature on the theories of genital evolution. Analysis of the supporting evidence for the sexual selection theories of genital evolution. Several theories have been proposed to explain genital evolution. Currently, the sexual selection theories are being considered to present valid and solid evidence explaining genital evolution. However, other theories, including sexual conflict, are still being investigated. All theories of genital evolution have their own weaknesses and strengths. Given that many complex biological mechanisms, mostly unknown yet, are involved in the process of genital evolution, it is thus reasonable to conclude that not one theory can independently explain genital evolution. It is likely that these mechanisms may prove to have synergistic rather than exclusive effects.

  7. Interoceptive Awareness Moderates the Relationship Between Perceived and Physiological Genital Arousal in Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handy, Ariel B; Meston, Cindy M

    2016-12-01

    In general, laboratory studies have shown low correlations between subjective (ie, self-report) and physiologic (ie, vaginal pulse amplitude) measurements of sexual arousal in women. One explanation for this presumed low concordance is that women might not be attending to their genital responses and/or might be unable to accurately perceive their genital responses. To examine the extent to which women can perceive their genital arousal sensations, the role that interoceptive awareness plays in this ability, and whether interoceptive awareness influences sexual concordance in women. Twenty-six sexually functional women viewed an erotic film while their physiologic and perceived genital sexual arousal levels were measured continuously. Self-report measurements of sexual function and bodily awareness also were administered. Physiologic sexual arousal was measured with a vaginal photoplethysmograph, and perception of genital arousal was measured with an arousometer. Degree of bodily awareness was measured with the Multidimensional Assessment of Interoceptive Awareness questionnaire. Women exhibited a significant degree of agreement between physiologic and perceived genital arousal (P awareness was found to significantly moderate this relation (P awareness facilitated greater agreement between physiologic and perceived genital arousal. Interoceptive awareness also was found to facilitate greater concordance between subjective and physiologic sexual arousal (P awareness influences this ability and the relation between subjective and physiologic sexual arousal. Increasing bodily awareness could be a plausible route for treatment development. Copyright © 2016 International Society for Sexual Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Stereotactic radiosurgery - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamma knife - discharge; Cyberknife - discharge; Stereotactic radiotherapy - discharge; Fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy - discharge; Cyclotrons - discharge; Linear accelerator - discharge; Lineacs - ...

  9. Can You Get Genital Herpes from a Cold Sore?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Lucy* Yes — it is possible to get genital herpes from oral sex. Genital herpes is caused by the herpes ... Genital herpes is usually caused by HSV-2; oral herpes (cold sores) is usually caused by HSV-1. ...

  10. Final Report: Risk assessment for produced water discharges to Louisiana open bays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meinhold, A.F.; DePhillips, M.P.; Holtzman, S.

    1996-03-01

    Potential human health and environmental impacts from discharges of produced water to the Gulf of Mexico are of concern to regulators at the State and Federal levels, the public, environmental interest groups and industry. Current and proposed regulations require a zero discharge limit for coastal facilities, based primarily on studies in low energy, poorly flushed environments. However, produced water discharges in coastal Louisiana include a number of open bay sites, where potential human health and environmental impacts are likely to be smaller than those demonstrated for low energy canal environments, but greater than the minimal impacts associated with offshore discharges. Additional data and assessments are needed to support risk managers at the State and Federal levels in the development of regulations that protect human health and the environment without unnecessary cost to the economic welfare of the region and the nation. This project supports the Natural Gas and Oil Initiative objectives to: (1) improve coordination on environmental research; (2) streamline State and Federal regulation; (3) enhance State, and Federal regulatory decision making capability; (4) enhance dialogue through industry/government/public partnerships; and (5) work with States and Native American Tribes.

  11. Annual Report of Airborne Discharge Station for Treated Radioactive Waste Water with Tritium in 2015

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAN; Yi-dan; FENG; Chun-xiao; LONG; Bo-kang; ZHAO; Yu-hang; WANG; Jian-xin

    2015-01-01

    The airborne discharge station for radioactive purity liquid waste water is officially put into operation in 2010,and it is the first facility for treated radioactive waste water with tritium in China.The station is primarily based on the"air humidification"principle for treated waste water

  12. BWR suppression pool pressures during safety relief valve discharge. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, G.; Gay, R.R.

    1985-04-01

    An analytical understanding of the pool pressures measured during safety relief valve (SRV) discharge in BWRs equipped with x-quenchers has been developed and compared to experimental data. The local conditions inside the SRV discharge lines and inside of the x-quencher were modeled successfully with RELAP5. The measured pressure surges inside the quencher are successfully predicted by the code. In addition, the analytical predictions allow one to associate the peak pressure inside the quencher arm with the onset of air discharge into the suppression pool. A Rayleigh model of bubble dynamics successfully explained both the higher-frequency and the ensuing lower-frequency pressure oscillations that have been measured in suppression pools during SRV discharge tests. The higher-frequency oscillations are characteristic of an air bubble emanating from a single row of quencher holes. The lower-frequency pressure oscillations are characteristic of a large air bubble containing all the air expelled from one side of an x-quencher arm.

  13. Genital self-mutilation in an attempt of suicide by a patient with a borderline personality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachid Aalouane

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Self-mutilation acts are known to characterize the borderline personality disorders. However, voluntary cutting of the male genital organ remains extremely rare. The present paper reports a case of a 25-years-old young male with a borderline personality. The patient committed a genital self-mutilation (GSM targeting suicide during incarceration stage in jail. In addition, a discussion of the epidemiological and psychopathological aspects of the self-mutilation of borderline patients was been conducted. A particular interest is attributed to the genital self-mutilation and a review of the literature is presented.

  14. Epstein-Barr virus-associated genital ulcers: an under-recognized disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Cheryl J; Alió, Alessandra B; Cunningham, Bari B; Friedlander, Sheila Fallon

    2007-01-01

    Infectious mononucleosis is the best-known syndrome associated with primary Epstein-Barr virus infection. Although a variety of cutaneous and mucosal manifestations are recognized in infectious mononucleosis, genital ulcers have only rarely been described. We describe an otherwise healthy 14-year-old girl in whom painful genital ulcers developed during an episode of serologically-confirmed primary Epstein-Barr virus infection. Clinical, serologic, and histopathologic evaluation failed to disclose evidence of any other etiologic explanation for her lesions. The patient remains well, without recurrence. To date, only 13 instances of genital ulceration in females attributable to Epstein-Barr virus infection have been reported.

  15. Linfangite granulomatosa de genitália infantil: relato de caso e revisão da literatura Granulomatous lymphangitis of children's genitalia: report of a case and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Camargo Martins

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Linfangite granulomatosa de genitália não-infecciosa é causa rara de linfedema genital autolimitado e idiopático em crianças(4, 6, 9. A maioria dos casos de linfedema com granuloma não-infeccioso de genitália em pacientes jovens ocorre em associação à doença de Crohn subseqüente ou concomitante(1, 3, 4, 9. O caso relatado é de um menino de 14 anos que apresentava história de linfedema genital principalmente em região dorsal do corpo do pênis, poupando prepúcio, parte distal do pênis e saco escrotal. Estudos laboratoriais não revelavam doenças sistêmicas. O exame anatomopatológico da peça revelou tratar-se de linfangite granulomatosa não-infecciosa.Non-infectious granulomatous lymphangitis of genitalia is a rare cause of self-limited and idiopathic genital lymphoedema in children(4, 6, 9. Most cases of lymphoedema with non-infectious genital granulomas in young patients occur subsequent to or concomitant with Crohn's disease(1, 3, 4, 9. The case described is of a 14-year-old boy with history of genital lymphoedema mainly on the dorsal region of the body of the penis, sparing the prepuce, the distal part of the penis and the scrotum. Laboratory studies did not reveal systemic diseases. The histopathological analysis showed it was non-infectious granulomatous lymphangitis.

  16. Female genital mutilation/cutting: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouzi, A A; Alturki, F

    2015-01-01

    Female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C) is a cultural practice involving several types of external female genitalia cutting. FGM/C is known to occur in all parts of the world but is most prevalent in 28 countries in Africa and the Middle East and among immigrant communities in Europe, Australia, New Zealand, Canada, and the United States. Studies of FGM/C suffer from many methodological problems including inadequate analysis and an unclear reporting of results. The evidence to link FGM/C to infertility is weak. The management of epidermal clitoral inclusion cysts includes expensive investigations like comprehensive endocrinology tests and MRI resulting in unnecessary anxiety due to delay in surgical treatment. Similarly, unnecessary cesarean sections or rupture of the infibulation scar continue to occur because of the inadequate use of intrapartum defibulation. A significant amount of efforts is required to improve and correct the inadequate care of FGM/C women and girls.

  17. Leishmaniasis in the genital area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CABELLO Ismery

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Two patients from the gold mines of Bolivar State, Venezuela, presenting cutaneous leishmaniasis in the genital region, an unusual location, are described. The first patient showed an ulcerated lesion of the glans penis. Leishmanin skin test was positive. A biopsy specimen revealed a granulomatous infiltrate containing Leishmania parasites. In the second patient, Leishmanin skin test was positive, HIV and VDRL were negative. Leishmania parasites were present in a biopsy of an ulcerated lesion in the scrotum, with an indurated base, infiltrative borders with an yellowish exudate. Patients were treated with meglumine antimoniate and the lesions healed.

  18. Review of Genital Wart Treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TIAN Hongqing(田洪清); DU Donghong(杜东红)

    2002-01-01

    Although many traditional therapies areavailable for genital warts(GW), one of the major problemsin the treatment of GW is a high recurrenence rate. Inorder to resolve the problem of recurrence, new theraputicapproaches have been investigated. New approaches beingexplored include 5-fiuorouracil/epinephrine injectablecollagen gel, 5% imiguimod cream and humanpapillomavirus vaccine. Fluorouracil /epinephrine injectable collagen gel achieves high concentration of fiuorouracilat the site of injection. Imiguimod is a novelimmune-respones modifier, giving good clearance rates andtolerable side effects. Although the use of an HPV vaccine isfar away, preliminary studies show that it may be possibleto develop suitable prophylactic and therapeutic vaccines togenital warts.

  19. Persistent Genital Arousal Disorder Caused by Spinal Meningeal Cysts in the Sacrum: Successful Neurosurgical Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feigenbaum, Frank; Boone, Kaitlynn

    2015-10-01

    To evaluate whether treatment of spinal meningeal cysts that compress sacral spinal nerve roots is associated with relief of persistent genital arousal disorder. In this case series we encountered a group of patients with persistent genital arousal disorder among a larger cohort undergoing a prospective outcomes study on the surgical treatment of symptomatic spinal meningeal cysts. Epidemiologic data were collected and the type, number, and location of the meningeal cysts in each patient were determined on magnetic resonance imaging. Postoperatively patients were asked to self-report whether their persistent genital arousal disorder was eliminated, significantly better, the same, or worse. In a cohort of 1,045 patients with symptomatic spinal meningeal cysts, we identified 11 with persistent genital arousal disorder; all were female and all had meningeal cysts in the sacral spinal canal causing sacral nerve root compression. In addition to persistent genital arousal disorder, all patients had other symptoms typical of sacral nerve root compression such as perineal, bladder, and bowel symptoms. Although multiple types of meningeal cysts were encountered, Tarlov cysts were the most common (8/11). Postoperatively, seven (64%) patients reported elimination of their persistent genital arousal disorder, three (27%) noted significant improvement, one (9%) said they were unchanged, and none experienced worsening with an average follow-up of 23 months ranging from 2 months to 6 years. Although Tarlov cysts were more numerous, the presence of persistent genital arousal disorder and the surgical outcomes appeared unrelated to the type of spinal meningeal cyst treated. Our case series suggests that sacral nerve root compression caused by spinal meningeal cysts can cause persistent genital arousal disorder. The presence of nerve root compression appears to be more important than the particular type of meningeal cyst involved. Microsurgical cyst treatment cured or significantly

  20. Genital and subjective sexual arousal in postmenopausal women: influence of laboratory-induced hyperventilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brotto, Lori A; Gorzalka, Boris B

    2002-01-01

    The current study was aimed at comparing genital and subjective sexual arousal in pre- and postmenopausal women and exploring the effects of heightened sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activity on these parameters. Seventy-one women (25 young and premenopausal, 25 postmenopausal, and 21 age-matched premenopausal women) participated in two counterbalanced sessions consisting of genital arousal assessment with vaginal photoplethysmography and subjective arousal assessment with self-report questionnaires. SNS activity was enhanced using laboratory-induced hyperventilation. Results demonstrated no significant differences between pre- and postmenopausal women on genital and subjective measures of arousal in response to neutral and erotic films. SNS manipulation increased genital excitement only in young, premenopausal women. These data suggest that prior SNS enhancement can differentiate pre- from postmenopausal genital arousal. Data also revealed significant correlations between genital and subjective sexual arousal in older pre- and postmenopausal women, but not in young premenopausal women. These data are the first to directly compare genital-subjective correlations between pre- and postmenopausal women.

  1. Westinghouse Hanford Company effluent discharges and solid waste management report for calendar year 1989: 200/600 Areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, M.J.; P' Pool, R.K.; Thomas, S.P.

    1990-05-01

    This report presents calendar year 1989 radiological and nonradiological effluent discharge data from facilities in the 200 Areas and the 600 Area of the Hanford Site. Both summary and detailed effluent data are presented. In addition, radioactive and nonradioactive solid waste storage and disposal data for calendar year 1989 are furnished. Where appropriate, comparisons to previous years are made. The intent of the report is to demonstrate compliance of Westinghouse Hanford Company-operated facilities with administrative control values for radioactive constituents and applicable guidelines and standards (including Federal permit limits) for nonradioactive constituents. 11 refs., 20 tabs.

  2. Evaluation of Body Image and Sexual Satisfaction in Women Undergoing Female Genital Plastic/Cosmetic Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Michael P; Placik, Otto J; Matlock, David L; Simopoulos, Alex F; Dalton, Teresa A; Veale, David; Hardwick-Smith, Susan

    2016-10-01

    Little prospective data exists regarding the procedures constituting female genital plastic/cosmetic surgery (FGPS). To evaluate whether the procedures of labiaplasty and vaginoperineoplasty improve genital self image, and evaluate effects on sexual satisfaction. Prospective cohort case-controlled study of 120 subjects evaluated at baseline, 6, 12, and 24 months postoperative, paired with a demographically similar control group. Interventions include labiaplasty, clitoral hood reduction, and/or aesthetic vaginal tightening, defined as perineoplasty + "vaginoplasty" (aka "vaginal rejuvenation."). Outcome measures include body image, genital self-image, sexual satisfaction, and body esteem. As a group, study patients tested at baseline showing body dissatisfaction, negative genital self-image, and poorer indices of sexual satisfaction. Preoperative body image of study patients were in a range considered to be mild to moderately dysmorphic, but matched controls at one and two years; genital self-image scores at entry were considerably lower than controls, but by 2-year follow-up had surpassed control value at entry. Similarly, sexual satisfaction values, significantly lower at entry, equaled at one, and surpassed control values, at 2 years. Postoperatively, at all points in time, these differences in body image and genital self-image disappeared, and sexual satisfaction markedly improved. Overall body esteem did not differ between study and control groups, with the exception of the genital esteem quotient, which improved after surgery. Women requesting and completing FGPS, when tested by validated instruments, at entry report sexual dissatisfaction and negative genital self-image. When tested at several points in time after surgery up to two years, these findings were no longer present. When performed by an experienced surgeon, FGPS appears to provide sexual and genital self-image improvement. 2 Therapeutic. © 2016 The American Society for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery

  3. Capillary discharge extreme ultraviolet lasers. Progress report, December 15, 1991--December 14, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rocca, J.J.

    1992-08-01

    The project objective is to explore the generation of soft X-ray laser radiation in a plasma column created by a fast capillary discharge. The proposed capillary lasing scheme offers the potential for compact, simple and efficient soft X-ray laser sources. For this purpose a compact, fast pulse generator which produces 100 kA current pulses with a risetime of 11 ns was constructed. Initial experiments were conducted in evacuated capillaries, in which the plasma is produced by ablation of the capillary walls. The soft X-ray emission from discharges in polyethylene capillary channels was studied to investigate the possibility of amplification in the 3-2 transition of C VI, at {lambda} = 18.2 nm. Time-resolved spectra in which this transition appears anomalously intense with respect to the 4--2 transition of the same ion were obtained. To date, however, this phenomenoa could not be confirmed as gain, as the intensity of the 18.2 nm line has not been observed to increase exponentially as a function of the capillary length. Encouraging results were obtained by fast pulse discharge excitation of capillaries filled with preionized gas. High temperature (Te > 150 eV), small diameter ({approximately}200 {mu}m) plasma columns were efficiently generated. Fast current pulse excitation of a selected low mass density of uniformly preionized material Mag the capillary was observed to detach rapidly the plasma from the capillary walls, and form a plasma channel of a diameter much smaller and significantly hotter than those produced by a similar current pulse in evacuated capillaries of the same size. Discharges in argon-filled capillaries at currents between 20 and 60 kA produced plasmas with ArX-Ar{sub XIV} line emission, and with spectra that are similar to those of plasmas generated by > I MA current implosions in large pulsed power machines. The characteristic of these plasmas approach those necessary for soft X-ray amplification in low Z elements.

  4. Prevalence and Associated Factors of Genital and Sexually Transmitted Infections in Married Women of Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadnia, Elahe; Kharaghani, Roghieh; Maleki, Azam; Avazeh, Azar; Mazloomzadeh, Saeideh; Sedaghatpisheh, Tahereh; Jalilvand, Ahmad; Molae, Behnaz

    2016-01-01

    Objectives This study aimed to determine the prevalence of genital and sexually transmitted infections and its related factors in married women in Iran. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study of 4 274 married women living in urban and rural areas of the Zanjan province from 2012 to 2013. We used stratified cluster sampling to select the participants. Data collection included demographic characteristics, reproductive status, and cervical cytology results. Results The prevalence of lower genital infections and sexually transmitted infections were 20.1% and 7.4%, respectively. The most common vaginal infection was bacterial vaginosis with a prevalence of 8.5%, and the most common sexually transmitted infection was Trichomonas vaginalis (1.4%). The use of the intrauterine device (IUD) as a contraceptive, living in an urban area, and experiencing vaginal discharge were significantly related to genital tract and sexually transmitted infections. Conclusions There was a high prevalence of genital infection among women living in Zanjab. Screening and treatment of genital infection are necessary to prevent adverse consequences in women who use an IUD or live in urban areas. PMID:27974960

  5. Prevalence and Associated Factors of Genital and Sexually Transmitted Infections in Married Women of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elahe Ahmadnia

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study aimed to determine the prevalence of genital and sexually transmitted infections and its related factors in married women in Iran. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study of 4 274 married women living in urban and rural areas of the Zanjan province from 2012 to 2013. We used stratified cluster sampling to select the participants. Data collection included demographic characteristics, reproductive status, and cervical cytology results. Results: The prevalence of lower genital infections and sexually transmitted infections were 20.1% and 7.4%, respectively. The most common vaginal infection was bacterial vaginosis with a prevalence of 8.5%, and the most common sexually transmitted infection was Trichomonas vaginalis (1.4%. The use of the intrauterine device (IUD as a contraceptive, living in an urban area, and experiencing vaginal discharge were significantly related to genital tract and sexually transmitted infections. Conclusions: There was a high prevalence of genital infection among women living in Zanjab. Screening and treatment of genital infection are necessary to prevent adverse consequences in women who use an IUD or live in urban areas.

  6. Nonoverlapping Clinical and Mutational Patterns in Melanomas from the Female Genital Tract and Atypical Genital Nevi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yélamos, Oriol; Merkel, Emily A; Sholl, Lauren Meldi; Zhang, Bin; Amin, Sapna M; Lee, Christina Y; Guitart, Gerta E; Yang, Jingyi; Wenzel, Alexander T; Bunick, Christopher G; Yazdan, Pedram; Choi, Jaehyuk; Gerami, Pedram

    2016-09-01

    Genital melanomas (GM) are the second most common cancer of the female external genitalia and may be confused with atypical genital nevi (AGN), which exhibit atypical histological features but have benign behavior. In this study, we compared the clinical, histological, and molecular features of 19 GM and 25 AGN. We described chromosomal copy number aberrations and the mutational status of 50 oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes in both groups. Our study showed that a pigmented lesion occurring in mucosal tissue, particularly in postmenopausal women, was more likely to be a melanoma than a nevus. GM had high levels of chromosomal instability, with many copy number aberrations. Furthermore, we found a completely nonoverlapping pattern of oncogenic mutations when comparing GM and AGN. In GM, we report somatic mutations in KIT and TP53. Conversely, AGN had frequent BRAF V600E mutations, which were not seen in any of the GM. Our results show that GM and AGN have distinct clinical and molecular changes and that GM have a different mutational pattern compared with AGN.

  7. RELAP5/MOD3 assessment for calculation of safety and relief valve discharge piping hydrodynamic loads. International agreement report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stubbe, E.J.; VanHoenacker, L.; Otero, R. [TRACTEBEL, Brussels (Belgium)

    1994-02-01

    This report presents an assessment study for the use of the code RELAP 5/MOD3/5M5 in the calculation of transient hydrodynamic loads on safety and relief discharge pipes. Its predecessor, RELAP 5/MOD1, was found adequate for this kind of calculations by EPRI. The hydrodynamic loads are very important for the discharge piping design because of the fast opening of the valves and the presence of liquid in the upstream loop seals. The code results are compared to experimental load measurements performed at the Combustion Engineering Laboratory in Windsor (US). Those measurements were part of the PWR Valve Test Program undertaken by EPRI after the TMI-2 accident. This particular kind of transients challenges the applicability of the following code models: two-phase choked discharge; interphase drag in conditions with large density gradients; heat transfer to metallic structures in fast changing conditions; two-phase flow at abrupt expansions. The code applicability to this kind of transients is investigated. Some sensitivity analyses to different code and model options are performed. Finally, the suitability of the code and some modeling guidelines are discussed.

  8. Excessive bleeding from genital ulcers of Behçet's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bostankolu, A; Aksungur, V L; Aksungur, E H; Ozpoyraz, M; Yücel, A; Memisoglu, H R

    1997-09-01

    Although genital ulcers are a common manifestation of Behçet's disease, bleeding from these lesions is unusual. In this report, a patient with excessive bleeding from genital ulcers is presented. A 22-year-old man with recurrent oral and genital ulcers, erythema nodosum, folliculitis, positive pathergic reaction, uveitis, superior vena cava syndrome, and generalized lymphadenopathy fulfilled the diagnostic criteria of Behçet's disease. Three years after presenting he was admitted to our clinic with excessive bleeding from large ulcers on the scrotum and upper thighs and with a leg ulcer. Bleeding was controlled with compresses. Examination of a biopsy specimen obtained from the leg ulcer showed findings consistent with Kaposi-like acroangiodermatitis. Results of various radiologic investigations showed thrombosis of the inferior vena cava, peritesticular varicosities, and venous insufficiency of the lower extremities. We suggest that the bleeding was secondary to the extension of genital ulcers to the varicose veins.

  9. Intravenous Foscarnet With Topical Cidofovir for Chronic Refractory Genital Herpes in a Patient With AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usoro, Agnes; Batts, Alfreda; Sarria, Juan C

    2015-01-01

    Few case reports have documented the use of topical cidofovir for refractory genital herpes simplex virus (HSV) ulcers in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected patients. This drug formulation lacks a standardized concentration or even a procedural outline as to how it should be compounded. We aim to discuss the utilization of topical cidofovir in addition to presenting a procedural means of compounding it for treatment of refractory genital HSV ulcers. Our patient completed 21 days of intravenous foscarnet and 13 days of topical cidofovir with clinical improvement in the penile and scrotal ulcers. Genital herpes is a concern in patients with HIV because it generally manifests as a persistent infection. Physicians should be aware that when patients fail to respond to the conventional treatment regimens for genital HSV in a timely manner, other options are available, such as topical cidofovir as an adjuvant to systemic antivirals.

  10. Intravenous Foscarnet With Topical Cidofovir for Chronic Refractory Genital Herpes in a Patient With AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnes Usoro BSN

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Few case reports have documented the use of topical cidofovir for refractory genital herpes simplex virus (HSV ulcers in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infected patients. This drug formulation lacks a standardized concentration or even a procedural outline as to how it should be compounded. We aim to discuss the utilization of topical cidofovir in addition to presenting a procedural means of compounding it for treatment of refractory genital HSV ulcers. Our patient completed 21 days of intravenous foscarnet and 13 days of topical cidofovir with clinical improvement in the penile and scrotal ulcers. Genital herpes is a concern in patients with HIV because it generally manifests as a persistent infection. Physicians should be aware that when patients fail to respond to the conventional treatment regimens for genital HSV in a timely manner, other options are available, such as topical cidofovir as an adjuvant to systemic antivirals.

  11. Gata4 is required for formation of the genital ridge in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yueh-Chiang Hu

    Full Text Available In mammals, both testis and ovary arise from a sexually undifferentiated precursor, the genital ridge, which first appears during mid-gestation as a thickening of the coelomic epithelium on the ventromedial surface of the mesonephros. At least four genes (Lhx9, Sf1, Wt1, and Emx2 have been demonstrated to be required for subsequent growth and maintenance of the genital ridge. However, no gene has been shown to be required for the initial thickening of the coelomic epithelium during genital ridge formation. We report that the transcription factor GATA4 is expressed in the coelomic epithelium of the genital ridge, progressing in an anterior-to-posterior (A-P direction, immediately preceding an A-P wave of epithelial thickening. Mouse embryos conditionally deficient in Gata4 show no signs of gonadal initiation, as their coelomic epithelium remains a morphologically undifferentiated monolayer. The failure of genital ridge formation in Gata4-deficient embryos is corroborated by the absence of the early gonadal markers LHX9 and SF1. Our data indicate that GATA4 is required to initiate formation of the genital ridge in both XX and XY fetuses, prior to its previously reported role in testicular differentiation of the XY gonad.

  12. Genital ulcers and transmission of HIV among couples in Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latif, A S; Katzenstein, D A; Bassett, M T; Houston, S; Emmanuel, J C; Marowa, E

    1989-08-01

    Seventy-five married men found to be positive for HIV-1 in Harare, Zimbabwe, were interviewed in order to define behaviours associated with acquisition of infection and to determine factors associated with transmission of infection to their wives. The majority of infected men reported sexual intercourse with multiple heterosexual partners and female prostitutes, and gave a history of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). All subjects denied homosexual activity and parenteral drug abuse. Serological testing of the wives of seropositive men showed that 45 (60%) were HIV-antibody-positive. Wives of men with AIDS and AIDS-related complex (ARC) and wives of men who gave a history of genital ulcer disease were more likely to be seropositive. The study demonstrates that HIV-1 infection in Zimbabwe occurs through heterosexual intercourse and is associated with other STDs. In addition, the study shows that male to female transmission of HIV-1 is facilitated by the presence of genital ulcers in infected men.

  13. Cervical tuberculosis masquerading as cancer cervix: a report of three cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachan, Rekha; Gupta, Pooja; Patel, M L; Verma, Ajay; Maurya, Malti

    2013-01-01

    Tuberculosis is still frequently observed in third world countries like Africa and Asia. Here we report three cases of genital tuberculosis with variable presentations. First case was a lady of reproductive age group who presented with polymenorrhea and post-coital bleeding with unhealthy cervix. Histopathology of cervical tissue revealed tubercular cervicitis. Second and third cases presented with different complaints like discharge per vaginum, post-coital bleeding and pain in lower abdomen with growth over the cervix. Cervical biopsy was inconclusive of tuberculosis but endometrial tissue sampling for TB PCR was positive. This shows that newer diagnostic marker test can help us to detect secondary genital tuberculosis.

  14. Laser hair removal for genital gender affirming surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, William R.; Garrett, Giorgia L.; Arron, Sarah T.; Garcia, Maurice M.

    2016-01-01

    Genital gender affirming surgery (GAS) involves reconstruction of the genitals to match a patient’s identified sex. The use of hair-bearing flaps in this procedure may result in postoperative intra-vaginal and intra-urethral hair growth and associated complications, including lower satisfaction with genital GAS. Despite the significant increase in genital GAS within the past 50 years, there is limited data regarding hair removal practices in preparation for genital GAS and notable variation i...

  15. The medicalisation of female genital mutilation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Foldes

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The ‘medicalisation’ of female genital mutilation should be denounced on two counts.Firstly, it is usually anatomically more damaging and, secondly, it goes against the ethical basis of the medical profession.

  16. Genital ulcers: their diagnosis and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacks, S L

    1987-08-01

    THIS ARTICLE OFFERS SOME BACKGROUND INFORMATION ON DIAGNOSIS AND TREATMENT OF THREE MAJOR CAUSES OF GENITAL ULCERS: syphilis, herpes simplex virus (HSV), and chancroid. The author also discusses differential diagnoses and suggests an approach to treatment.

  17. Female genital warts: global trends and treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gall, S A

    2001-01-01

    The increasing incidence of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and HPV-associated conditions such as genital warts in women is a global concern. Genital warts are a clinical manifestation of HPV types 6 and 11, and are estimated to affect 1% of sexually active adults aged between 15 and 49. HPV infection is also strongly associated with cervical cancer, and is prevalent in as many as 99% of cases. The psychological stress of having genital warts is often greater than the morbidity of the disease, and therefore successful treatment is crucial. Current treatments are patient-applied and provider-administered therapies. Imiquimod 5% cream, a patient-applied therapy, is an efficacious treatment with tolerable side-effects and a low recurrence rate, and has the potential to be an effective strategy for the management of genital warts.

  18. Compromiso genital en un paciente con lepra lepromatosa Involvement of genitals in e patient with lepromatous leprosy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Soto

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available El compromiso de los órganos genitales masculinos en la lepra, se observa con mayor frecuencia en el transcurso de los cuadros reaccionales. Sin embargo, fuera de estos episodios agudos, la piel y mucosa de los genitales externos pueden estar comprometidas por lesiones específicas. Se comunica el caso de un paciente hanseniano que recidivó, lepromatoso con lesiones infiltradas y nodulares en prepucio y lóbulo auricular, como únicas manifestaciones de la enfermedad.The involvement of male genitals in leprosy appears more frecuently in the immunologic reactions. Although, the genital skin and mucous can be affected, by specific lesions too. We report a case of relapsed lepromatous leprosy with infiltrated lesions and nodules in prepuce and earlobe as the only disease manifestation.

  19. Is oral contraceptive associated with genital warts?

    OpenAIRE

    Ross, J. D.

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To measure the association between oral contraceptive use and the prevalence of genital warts in women. METHODS: Cross sectional case control study comparing oral contraceptive use in women with and without genital warts attending a city centre genitourinary medicine clinic controlling for recent sexual activity, the presence of other sexually transmitted infections, socio-economic class and history of pregnancy using a multivariate logistic regression model. RESULTS: After control...

  20. Condition dependence of male and female genital structures in the seed beetle Callosobruchus maculatus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cayetano, L; Bonduriansky, R

    2015-07-01

    Theory predicts that costly secondary sexual traits will evolve heightened condition dependence, and many studies have reported strong condition dependence of signal and weapon traits in a variety of species. However, although genital structures often play key roles in intersexual interactions and appear to be subject to sexual or sexually antagonistic selection, few studies have examined the condition dependence of genital structures, especially in both sexes simultaneously. We investigated the responses of male and female genital structures to manipulation of larval diet quality (new versus once-used mung beans) in the bruchid seed beetle Callosobruchus maculatus. We quantified effects on mean relative size and static allometry of the male aedeagus, aedeagal spines, flap and paramere and the female reproductive tract and bursal spines. None of the male traits showed a significant effect of diet quality. In females, we found that longer bursal spines (relative to body size) were expressed on low-quality diet. Although the function of bursal spines is poorly understood, we suggest that greater bursal spine length in low-condition females may represent a sexually antagonistic adaptation. Overall, we found no evidence that genital traits in C. maculatus are expressed to a greater extent when nutrients are more abundant. This suggests that, even though some genital traits appear to function as secondary sexual traits, genital traits do not exhibit heightened condition dependence in this species. We discuss possible reasons for this finding.

  1. Effect of cause-of-death training on agreement between hospital discharge diagnoses and cause of death reported, inpatient hospital deaths, New York City, 2008-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Paulina; Gambatese, Melissa; Begier, Elizabeth; Zimmerman, Regina; Soto, Antonio; Madsen, Ann

    2015-01-15

    Accurate cause-of-death reporting is required for mortality data to validly inform public health programming and evaluation. Research demonstrates overreporting of heart disease on New York City death certificates. We describe changes in reported causes of death following a New York City health department training conducted in 2009 to improve accuracy of cause-of-death reporting at 8 hospitals. The objective of our study was to assess the degree to which death certificates citing heart disease as cause of death agreed with hospital discharge data and the degree to which training improved accuracy of reporting. We analyzed 74,373 death certificates for 2008 through 2010 that were linked with hospital discharge records for New York City inpatient deaths and calculated the proportion of discordant deaths, that is, death certificates reporting an underlying cause of heart disease with no corresponding discharge record diagnosis. We also summarized top principal diagnoses among discordant reports and calculated the proportion of inpatient deaths reporting sepsis, a condition underreported in New York City, to assess whether documentation practices changed in response to clarifications made during the intervention. Citywide discordance between death certificates and discharge data decreased from 14.9% in 2008 to 9.6% in 2010 (P New York City heart disease mortality trends. Other vital records jurisdictions should employ similar interventions to improve cause-of-death reporting and use linked discharge data to monitor data quality.

  2. Effect of Cause-of-Death Training on Agreement Between Hospital Discharge Diagnoses and Cause of Death Reported, Inpatient Hospital Deaths, New York City, 2008–2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Paulina; Gambatese, Melissa; Begier, Elizabeth; Zimmerman, Regina; Soto, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Accurate cause-of-death reporting is required for mortality data to validly inform public health programming and evaluation. Research demonstrates overreporting of heart disease on New York City death certificates. We describe changes in reported causes of death following a New York City health department training conducted in 2009 to improve accuracy of cause-of-death reporting at 8 hospitals. The objective of our study was to assess the degree to which death certificates citing heart disease as cause of death agreed with hospital discharge data and the degree to which training improved accuracy of reporting. Methods We analyzed 74,373 death certificates for 2008 through 2010 that were linked with hospital discharge records for New York City inpatient deaths and calculated the proportion of discordant deaths, that is, death certificates reporting an underlying cause of heart disease with no corresponding discharge record diagnosis. We also summarized top principal diagnoses among discordant reports and calculated the proportion of inpatient deaths reporting sepsis, a condition underreported in New York City, to assess whether documentation practices changed in response to clarifications made during the intervention. Results Citywide discordance between death certificates and discharge data decreased from 14.9% in 2008 to 9.6% in 2010 (P New York City heart disease mortality trends. Other vital records jurisdictions should employ similar interventions to improve cause-of-death reporting and use linked discharge data to monitor data quality. PMID:25590598

  3. Diagnosis and management of genital ulcers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roett, Michelle A; Mayor, Mejebi T; Uduhiri, Kelechi A

    2012-02-01

    Herpes simplex virus infection and syphilis are the most common causes of genital ulcers in the United States. Other infectious causes include chancroid, lymphogranuloma venereum, granuloma inguinale (donovanosis), secondary bacterial infections, and fungi. Noninfectious etiologies, including sexual trauma, psoriasis, Behçet syndrome, and fixed drug eruptions, can also lead to genital ulcers. Although initial treatment of genital ulcers is generally based on clinical presentation, the following tests should be considered in all patients: serologic tests for syphilis and darkfield microscopy or direct fluorescent antibody testing for Treponema pallidum, culture or polymerase chain reaction test for herpes simplex virus, and culture for Haemophilus ducreyi in settings with a high prevalence of chancroid. No pathogen is identified in up to 25 percent of patients with genital ulcers. The first episode of herpes simplex virus infection is usually treated with seven to 10 days of oral acyclovir (five days for recurrent episodes). Famciclovir and valacyclovir are alternative therapies. One dose of intramuscular penicillin G benzathine is recommended to treat genital ulcers caused by primary syphilis. Treatment options for chancroid include a single dose of intramuscular ceftriaxone or oral azithromycin, ciprofloxacin, or erythromycin. Lymphogranuloma venereum and donovanosis are treated with 21 days of oral doxycycline. Treatment of noninfectious causes of genital ulcers varies by etiology, and ranges from topical wound care for ulcers caused by sexual trauma to consideration of subcutaneous pegylated interferon alfa-2a for ulcers caused by Behçet syndrome.

  4. Packed-bed reactor/silent-discharge plasma design data report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-05-01

    In 1992, Congress passed the Federal Facility Compliance Act requiring the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to treat and dispose of its mixed waste in accordance with Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) land disposal restrictions (LDRs). The DOE Albuquerque Operations Office (AL) currently does not have adequate systems to treat the mixed wastes generated and stored at the nine DOE-AL sites. In response to the need for mixed-waste treatment capacity, DOE-AL organized a Treatment Selection Team under the Mixed-Waste Treatment Program (MWTP) to match mixed wastes with treatment options and develop a strategy for treatment of its mixed waste. The strategy developed by the Treatment Selection Team, as described in the AL Mixed-Waste Treatment Plan (DOE 1994), is to use available off-site commercial treatment facilities for all wastes that can be successfully and cost-effectively treated by such facilities. Where no appropriate commercial treatment facilities exist, mobile treatment units (MTUs) would be developed to treat wastes at the sites where the wastes are generated. Treatment processes used for mixed waste must not only address the hazardous component (i.e., meet LDRs) but also must contain the radioactive component in a form that allows final disposal while protecting workers, the public, and the environment. The packed-bed reactor/silent discharge plasma was chosen as a potential candidate for the treatment of the mixed wastes. The process is described.

  5. Body image and genital self-image in pre-menopausal women with dyspareunia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pazmany, Els; Bergeron, Sophie; Van Oudenhove, Lukas; Verhaeghe, Johan; Enzlin, Paul

    2013-08-01

    With a prevalence of 15-21%, dyspareunia is one of the most commonly reported sexual dysfunctions in pre-menopausal women under the age of 40. Studies to date have focused primarily on clinical samples, showing that women with dyspareunia report overall sexual impairment, anxiety, and feelings of sexual inadequacy. However, little is known about their body image and genital self-image and few studies have sampled women exclusively from the general population. The aim of the present, controlled study was to investigate body image and genital self-image in a community sample of pre-menopausal women with self-reported dyspareunia. In total, 330 women completed an online survey, of which 192 (58%) had dyspareunia and 138 (42%) were pain-free control women. In comparison to pain-free control women, women with dyspareunia reported significantly more distress about their body image and a more negative genital self-image. Moreover, findings from a logistic regression, in which trait anxiety was controlled for, showed that a more negative genital self-image was strongly and independently associated with an increased likelihood of reporting dyspareunia. These results suggest that, in women with dyspareunia, body image and genital self-image are significantly poorer and would benefit from more attention from both clinicians and researchers.

  6. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 151: Septic Systems and Discharge Area, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NSTec Environmental Restoration

    2008-04-01

    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 151 is identified in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) as Septic Systems and Discharge Area. CAU 151 consists of the following eight Corrective Action Sites (CASs), located in Areas 2, 12, and 18 of the Nevada Test Site, approximately 65 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada: (1) CAS 02-05-01, UE-2ce Pond; (2) CAS 12-03-01, Sewage Lagoons (6); (3) CAS 12-04-01, Septic Tanks; (4) CAS 12-04-02, Septic Tanks; (5) CAS 12-04-03, Septic Tank; (6) CAS 12-47-01, Wastewater Pond; (7) CAS 18-03-01, Sewage Lagoon; and (8) CAS 18-99-09, Sewer Line (Exposed). CAU 151 closure activities were conducted according to the FFACO (FFACO, 1996; as amended February 2008) and the Corrective Action Plan for CAU 151 (U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office, 2007) from October 2007 to January 2008. The corrective action alternatives included no further action, clean closure, and closure in place with administrative controls. CAU 151 closure activities are summarized in Table 1. Closure activities generated liquid remediation waste, sanitary waste, hydrocarbon waste, and mixed waste. Waste generated was appropriately managed and disposed. Waste that is currently staged onsite is being appropriately managed and will be disposed under approved waste profiles in permitted landfills. Waste minimization activities included waste characterization sampling and segregation of waste streams. Some waste exceeded land disposal restriction limits and required offsite treatment prior to disposal. Other waste meeting land disposal restrictions was disposed of in appropriate onsite or offsite landfills. Waste disposition documentation is included as Appendix C.

  7. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 151: Septic Systems and Discharge Area, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NSTec Environmental Restoration

    2008-04-01

    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 151 is identified in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) as Septic Systems and Discharge Area. CAU 151 consists of the following eight Corrective Action Sites (CASs), located in Areas 2, 12, and 18 of the Nevada Test Site, approximately 65 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada: (1) CAS 02-05-01, UE-2ce Pond; (2) CAS 12-03-01, Sewage Lagoons (6); (3) CAS 12-04-01, Septic Tanks; (4) CAS 12-04-02, Septic Tanks; (5) CAS 12-04-03, Septic Tank; (6) CAS 12-47-01, Wastewater Pond; (7) CAS 18-03-01, Sewage Lagoon; and (8) CAS 18-99-09, Sewer Line (Exposed). CAU 151 closure activities were conducted according to the FFACO (FFACO, 1996; as amended February 2008) and the Corrective Action Plan for CAU 151 (U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office, 2007) from October 2007 to January 2008. The corrective action alternatives included no further action, clean closure, and closure in place with administrative controls. CAU 151 closure activities are summarized in Table 1. Closure activities generated liquid remediation waste, sanitary waste, hydrocarbon waste, and mixed waste. Waste generated was appropriately managed and disposed. Waste that is currently staged onsite is being appropriately managed and will be disposed under approved waste profiles in permitted landfills. Waste minimization activities included waste characterization sampling and segregation of waste streams. Some waste exceeded land disposal restriction limits and required offsite treatment prior to disposal. Other waste meeting land disposal restrictions was disposed of in appropriate onsite or offsite landfills. Waste disposition documentation is included as Appendix C.

  8. Simulation Tool for Dielectric Barrier Discharge Plasma Actuators at Atmospheric and Sub-Atmospheric Pressures: SBIR Phase I Final Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Likhanskii, Alexandre

    2012-01-01

    This report is the final report of a SBIR Phase I project. It is identical to the final report submitted, after some proprietary information of administrative nature has been removed. The development of a numerical simulation tool for dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma actuator is reported. The objectives of the project were to analyze and predict DBD operation at wide range of ambient gas pressures. It overcomes the limitations of traditional DBD codes which are limited to low-speed applications and have weak prediction capabilities. The software tool allows DBD actuator analysis and prediction for subsonic to hypersonic flow regime. The simulation tool is based on the VORPAL code developed by Tech-X Corporation. VORPAL's capability of modeling DBD plasma actuator at low pressures (0.1 to 10 torr) using kinetic plasma modeling approach, and at moderate to atmospheric pressures (1 to 10 atm) using hydrodynamic plasma modeling approach, were demonstrated. In addition, results of experiments with pulsed+bias DBD configuration that were performed for validation purposes are reported.

  9. Risk factors, healthcare-seeking and sexual behaviour among patients with genital ulcers in Zambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makasa Mpundu

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genital ulcers (GU are associated with an increased risk of HIV transmission. Understanding risk factors for genital ulcers and sexual behaviour patterns after onset of symptoms and health seeking behaviour among GU-patients can provide useful information to aid design effective prevention strategies for genital ulcers. We investigated risk factors of self-reported GUs and care-seeking in the general population, and assessed GU patients regarding past care-seeking, recent sexual behaviour and partner awareness of the disease. Methods We analysed national data on genital ulcers from the 2007 Zambia Demographic and Health Survey, and data from a cross-sectional survey of genital ulcer patients from primary health care facilities in Lusaka, Zambia. Results The prevalence of GU in 2007 in the general population of Lusaka was 3.6%. Important predictors for genital ulcers were age 25–29 years, being widowed/separated/divorced and having a high number of life-time sexual partners. No differences in care-seeking were observed by residence, wealth and gender, and 60% of the respondents sought care from public health facilities. Among patients with GUs in Lusaka, 14% sought care >2 weeks after symptom onset. Forty-two percent were not aware of their HIV status, 57% reported sex after onset of symptoms and only 15% reported consistent condom use. Conclusions Low awareness of HIV status despite high probability of being infected and low condom use after onset of genital ulcer symptoms leads to a high potential for transmission to sexual partners. This, combined with the fact that many patients with GUs delayed seeking care, shows a need for awareness campaigns about GUs and the importance of abstinence or use of condoms when experiencing such symptoms.

  10. Features of postoperative treatment of patients with genital prolapse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vdovin S.V.

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to improve management of the postoperative period in patients with genital prolapse after surgery. Methods. Survey of 57 patients, which, depending on the characteristics of the postoperative period were divided into 2 groups: 22 patients received conventional treatment methods vagina seams, in complex treatment of 35 patients was included depantol. The effectiveness of inclusion depantol was control by clinical and laboratory (analysis of blood, vaginal discharge evidence. Results. Clinical and laboratory evidence of the effectiveness of inclusion depantol, which has antiseptic and stimulating regenerative processes, in the complex of therapeutic measures, reflected in the absence of infectious complications in patients of the main group and reducing lengths of stay in hospital. Conclusions. A higher efficiency of the new method is proved

  11. Egyptian court overturns ban on genital mutilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-07-04

    The ban on female genital mutilation (FGM) performed by health professionals in Egypt was overturned by a June 24 [1997] ruling of Judge Abdul Aziz Hamade of a mid-level administrative court in Cairo. The judge determined that the ministerial decree, which had been implemented last July by Health Minister Ismail Sallam, inappropriately restricted the practice of doctors. According to news reports, the court cited research purporting to show that failure to perform FGM harmed children, as well as quotes from Mohammed, which FGM advocates said endorsed the procedure under Islamic law. Although the court overturned the ministerial decree, it did acknowledge that Parliament could outlaw the practice; however, human rights groups believe the practice is too popular for Parliament to do so. The suit against the ban had been filed by Sheik Youssef al-Badry, a conservative Islamic cleric, and Munir Fawzi, a Cairo gynecologist. In May, Egypt's highest court had recommended to the mid-level court that FGM should be legal. The decision does not effect a ban on the performance of surgery by those without a medical license, including barbers and midwives. It is estimated that 80% of girls in Egypt undergo FGM. Egypt's highest Sunni Moslem authority contests the endorsement of FGM under Islamic law.

  12. Bronchiolitis - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    RSV bronchiolitis - discharge; Respiratory syncytial virus bronchiolitis - discharge ... Your child has bronchiolitis , which causes swelling and mucus to build up in the smallest air passages of the lungs. In the hospital, ...

  13. Laser hair removal for genital gender affirming surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, William R; Garrett, Giorgia L; Arron, Sarah T; Garcia, Maurice M

    2016-06-01

    Genital gender affirming surgery (GAS) involves reconstruction of the genitals to match a patient's identified sex. The use of hair-bearing flaps in this procedure may result in postoperative intra-vaginal and intra-urethral hair growth and associated complications, including lower satisfaction with genital GAS. Despite the significant increase in genital GAS within the past 50 years, there is limited data regarding hair removal practices in preparation for genital GAS and notable variation in hair removal techniques among dermatologists and other practitioners. We present a literature review, recommendations from our experience, and a practical laser hair removal (LHR) approach to hair removal prior to genital GAS.

  14. Optimal management of genital herpes: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sauerbrei A

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Andreas Sauerbrei Institute of Virology and Antiviral Therapy, German Consulting Laboratory for Herpes Simplex Virus and Varicella-Zoster Virus, Jena University Hospital, Friedrich-Schiller University of Jena, Jena, Germany Abstract: As one of the most common sexually transmitted diseases, genital herpes is a global medical problem with significant physical and psychological morbidity. Genital herpes is caused by herpes simplex virus type 1 or type 2 and can manifest as primary and/or recurrent infection. This manuscript provides an overview about the fundamental knowledge on the virus, its epidemiology, and infection. Furthermore, the current possibilities of antiviral therapeutic interventions and laboratory diagnosis of genital herpes as well as the present situation and perspectives for the treatment by novel antivirals and prevention of disease by vaccination are presented. Since the medical management of patients with genital herpes simplex virus infection is often unsatisfactory, this review aims at all physicians and health professionals who are involved in the care of patients with genital herpes. The information provided would help to improve the counseling of affected patients and to optimize the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of this particular disease. Keywords: herpes simplex virus, epidemiology, infection, antiviral therapy, laboratory diagnosis, prevention

  15. [Vulvar amebiasis. Report of a case and review of the literature].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornejo Juárez, Patricia; Avilés-Salas, A

    2003-02-01

    Genital amebiasis by Entamoeba histolytica is rare, even in Mexico where the disease is endemic. We report a case of genital amebiasis in a female patient with a recto-perineal fistula and two-week history of a profuse vaginal discharge, a painful and friable vulvar ulcer and induration in gluteal and inner side of thighs. The PAP smear and the biopsy showed trophozoites, no malignant cells were observed. The findings were compatible with genital amebiasis. The serology test for E. histolytica was positive (> 1: 512). The patient was treated with metronidazol 750 mg tid for 3 weeks. Complete resolution was achieved. The long term fistula, the low socioeconomic status, the poor hygiene and diabetes mellitus of a recent onset were probably the risk factors associated to this infection. We reviewed the literature.

  16. Current Concepts for Genital Herpes Simplex Virus Infection: Diagnostics and Pathogenesis of Genital Tract Shedding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corey, Lawrence

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) is a DNA virus that is efficiently transmitted through intimate genital tract contact and causes persistent infection that cannot be eliminated. HSV-2 may cause frequent, symptomatic self-limited genital ulcers, but in most persons infection is subclinical. However, recent studies have demonstrated that the virus is frequently shed from genital surfaces even in the absence of signs or symptoms of clinical disease and that the virus can be transmitted during these periods of shedding. Furthermore, HSV-2 shedding is detected throughout the genital tract and may be associated with genital tract inflammation, which likely contributes to increased risk of HIV acquisition. This review focuses on HSV diagnostics, as well as what we have learned about the importance of frequent genital HSV shedding for (i) HSV transmission and (ii) genital tract inflammation, as well as (iii) the impact of HSV-2 infection on HIV acquisition and transmission. We conclude with discussion of future areas of research to push the field forward. PMID:26561565

  17. International efforts on abandoning female genital mutilation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Edouard

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Female genital mutilation (FGM, sometimes referred to as female circumcision or female genital cutting, is a harmful cultural practice without any known health benefit. Its short-term and long-term health risks have led to numerous initiatives toward its eradication at international and local levels, over the last two decades. While major challenges remain and millions of girls and women are still at risk of being subjected to FGM, there is growing evidence that interventions that take into account the social dynamics that perpetuate FGM are yielding positive results toward its reduction. Well-recognized as a human rights violation in international treaties, the elimination of female genital mutilation requires ongoing interventions through cross-sectoral approaches that address attitudinal, cultural and behavioral change.

  18. Chlamydia trachomatis in women attending a gynaecological outpatient clinic with lower genital tract infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svensson, L; Weström, L; Mårdh, P A

    1981-08-01

    In a study of 3794 consecutive women attending a gynaecological outpatient clinic with symptoms of lower genital tract infection (LGTI) 350 (9.2%) harboured Chlamydia trachomatis and 83 (2.2%) Neisseria gonorrhoeae. One hundred and ninety-five patients who were later found to have acute salpingitis and 109 other women in whom the chlamydial cultures were spoiled were excluded from the series. Of the remaining 3490 women, 281 were infected with C trachomatis, 42 with N gonorrhoeae, and 17 with both. Of the 3150 women who were infected with neither organism, 146 were randomly selected as controls. The chlamydia-positive patients were younger (P less than 0.001), did not complain of pelvic discomfort or pain (P less than 0.01), and used oral contraceptives (P less than 0.001) more frequently than did the controls; intrauterine devices were used more often (P less than 0.01) by the controls. Increased vaginal discharge was reported significantly more often in chlamydia-positive patients than in the controls (P less than 0.05). Of 266 women harbouring C trachomatis the organism was still present in 22 (8.3%) when they were followed up from two to more than eight weeks after finishing treatment with doxycycline. Of 91 male consorts of chlamydia-positive women, 53 (58.2%) were infected with C trachomatis.

  19. Effects of gender and relationship context in audio narratives on genital and subjective sexual response in heterosexual women and men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chivers, Meredith L; Timmers, Amanda D

    2012-02-01

    Previous research suggests that heterosexual women's sexual arousal patterns are nonspecific; heterosexual women demonstrate genital arousal to both preferred and nonpreferred sexual stimuli. These patterns may, however, be related to the intense and impersonal nature of the audiovisual stimuli used. The current study investigated the gender specificity of heterosexual women's sexual arousal in response to less intense sexual stimuli, and also examined the role of relationship context on both women's and men's genital and subjective sexual responses. Assessments were made of 43 heterosexual women's and 9 heterosexual men's genital and subjective sexual arousal to audio narratives describing sexual or neutral encounters with female and male strangers, friends, or long-term relationship partners. Consistent with research employing audiovisual sexual stimuli, men demonstrated a category-specific pattern of genital and subjective arousal with respect to gender, while women showed a nonspecific pattern of genital arousal, yet reported a category-specific pattern of subjective arousal. Heterosexual women's nonspecific genital response to gender cues is not a function of stimulus intensity or relationship context. Relationship context did significantly affect women's genital sexual arousal--arousal to both female and male friends was significantly lower than to the stranger and long-term relationship contexts--but not men's. These results suggest that relationship context may be a more important factor in heterosexual women's physiological sexual response than gender cues.

  20. 2 Doses of HPV Shot Enough to Prevent Genital Warts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Doses of HPV Shot Enough to Prevent Genital Warts: Study Findings back up new CDC recommendations for ... human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine to protect against genital warts in preteens and teens. Investigators at Boston University ...

  1. Female genital mutilation: an analysis of 522 cases in South-Western Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dare, F O; Oboro, V O; Fadiora, S O; Orji, E O; Sule-Odu, A O; Olabode, T O

    2004-04-01

    This study was conducted at three teaching hospitals in South-Western Nigeria. Paturients were examined to find out if they had had female genital mutilation. Those who did were given a self-administered questionnaire. Results show that all the patients had either Type I (69%) or Type II (31%) mutilation (using WHO classification). The average age at which the procedure was performed was 6.9+/-2.9 years, with 4% of women having the procedure performed in pregnancy. The majority of the procedures were performed by medically untrained personnel (89%). Up to 67% of the women reported complications following the procedure. Severe pain and bleeding were the most common (69%) of the complications reported. The most common reason given for the procedure is cultural/traditional (63%). About a fifth of the women want their female child to undergo female genital mutilation. This study highlights the need for further interventions aimed at discouraging the practice of female genital mutilation.

  2. LEPROMATOUS LEPROSY PRESENTING AS GENITAL ULCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arunkumar

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Mycobacterium leprae can invade almost any part of the skin but most commonly affects the cooler parts rather than the warmer areas. Involvement of the male external genitalia although not very common due to the relatively higher temperature caused by the occlusive undergarments, can still be affected in leprosy. Most of the genital lesions seen on the leprosy patients are either nodules, patches, plaques, papules and or swelling of external genitalia. Herewith we are presenting a lepromatous leprosy patient presenting as genital ulcers in this era of syndromic management of Sexually Transmitted Infections (STI.

  3. Non-infectious inflammatory genital lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreassi, Lucio; Bilenchi, Roberta

    2014-01-01

    The genitalia may be the site of non-infectious inflammatory lesions that are generally manifested as balanoposthitis and vulvovaginitis. In men, these forms constitute 50% of all balanoposthitis forms, and in women, vulvovaginitis frequency is even higher. They consist of genital locations of general skin diseases, such as psoriasis, lichen planus, lichen sclerosus, and other clinical entities with their own physiognomy, such as Zoon's balanitis-vulvitis. Diagnosis of genital non-infectious inflammatory lesions is usually made on clinical criteria. A biopsy is only necessary for the identification of clinical conditions that may simulate inflammatory form but are actually premalignant processes.

  4. Female genital mutilation: medico-legal issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mswela, Maureen

    2010-12-01

    The rising prevalence and severe impact of HIV/AIDS in relation to women still persists in South Africa. Both economically and socially the HIV/AIDS pandemic strikes women the hardest, with disadvantaged black women mainly at risk of higher infection. The theoretical framework of this paper focuses on the connection between HIV/AIDS, sexual inequalities and sexual violence, and more precisely, female genital mutilation, a cultural practice and custom which amplifies women's exposure to HIV. Pertinent to this focus is inescapably an analysis of apparent threats to precise essential human rights as a result of the continued use of the practice of female genital mutilation in South Africa.

  5. Female Genital Mutilation - the Importance of Recognition and Management

    OpenAIRE

    Campos, AC

    2010-01-01

    Female genital mutilation, also named female genital cutting or female circumcision, refers to all practices involving total or partial removal of female external genitalia, or causing other lesions without an established health benefit. The World Health Organization estimates that 130 million women have been submitted to genital mutilation and 3 million are annually exposed to such risk in Africa. It has classified the practice of female genital mutation in four types. Portugal is considered...

  6. Attitudes towards female genital mutilation: an integrative review

    OpenAIRE

    Reig Alcaraz, María; Siles González, José; Solano Ruiz,María del Carmen

    2013-01-01

    Background: Immigration and globalization processes have contributed to the international dissemination of practices such as female genital mutilation. Between 100 and 400 million girls and women have been genitally mutilated, and every year 3 million girls are at risk of being subjected to female genital mutilation. Objectives: The objective of this study was to describe the attitudes towards the practice of female genital mutilation in relation to different health systems and the factors th...

  7. Primary Genital Herpes Diseases in İnfancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sevinç Gümüş Pekacar

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Symptomatic primary genital herpes infection is very rare in early childhood. Herpes simplex virus 1 type is the infectious agent in 20-50% percent of primery infections. Sexual abuse should be considered when genital herpes is seen in a person before sexual active age. It is mild and self limiting unless the patient is immune compramised. In this paper we discussed a 17 months old patient with genital herpes and approach to genital herpes in children.

  8. Current approach to metastasis of extra-genital system malignancies to the female genital tract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kemal Güngördük

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Metastases to the female genital tract from extra-genital malignancies are very uncommon and have a poor prognosis. The most common extra-genital primary sites are breast and gastrointestinal system. The ovaries are frequent targets of metastasis for malignant tumors. Distinction between primary and metastatic tumors is important because misinterpretation of a metastatic tumor as primary tumor may lead to inappropriate management and suboptimal treatment outcome. The routes of tumor spread to the genital system are variable such as lymphatic and hematogenous metastasis or direct extension. Multidisciplinary approach is required to management and follow-up for these patients. J Clin Exp Invest 2015; 6 (4: 406-413

  9. [Medical and legal aspects of genital mutilation and circumcision part I: female genital mutilation (FGM)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dettmeyer, Reinhard; Laux, Johannes; Friedl, Hannah; Zedler, Barbara; Bratzke, Hansjürgen; Parzeller, Markus

    2011-01-01

    Female genital mutilation (FGM) is considered to be against the law and against morality not only in Western countries, although a woman of age and able to consent may sometimes think differently. The procedure may have serious physical and emotional consequences for the girl or woman. Nevertheless there are attempts to justify the procedure with medical and hygienic pseudoarguments, ideology, freedom of religion, cultural identity and social adequacy. Outside the Western world, some people claim that religion and culture alone justify the practice. In Germany, parents can lose the right to determine the residence of their daughter, if she is faced with the risk of genital mutilation in order to prevent that the child or girl is taken to her home country. Genital mutilation as a gender-specific threat is recognized as a reason to grant asylum or prevent deportation. Proposals to make genital mutilation a separate punishable offence are presently discussed by the legislator.

  10. Genital HPV infection progression to external genital lesions: The HIM Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudenga, Staci L.; Ingles, Donna J.; Pierce Campbell, Christine M.; Lin, Hui-Yi; Fulp, William J.; Messina, Jane L.; Stoler, Mark H.; Abrahamsen, Martha; Villa, Luisa L.; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo; Giuliano, Anna R.

    2015-01-01

    Background Human papillomavirus (HPV) causes two types of external genital lesions (EGLs) in men: genital warts (condyloma) and penile intraepithelial neoplasia (PeIN). Objective The purpose of this study was to describe genital HPV progression to a histopathologically confirmed HPV-related EGL. Design, Setting and Participants A prospective analysis nested within the HPV Infection in Men (HIM) Study was conducted among 3033 men. At each visit, visually distinct EGLs were biopsied, subjected to pathological evaluation, and categorized by pathological diagnoses. Genital swabs and biopsies were used to identify HPV types using the Linear Array genotyping method for swabs and INNO-LiPA for biopsies. Outcome Measurements EGL incidence was determined among 1788 HPV-positive men, and cumulative incidence rates at 6, 12, and 24 months were estimated. The proportion of HPV infections that progressed to EGL was also calculated, along with median time to EGL development. Results and Limitations Among 1788 HPV-positive men, 92 developed an incident EGL during follow-up (9 PeIN and 86 condyloma). During the first 12 months of follow-up, 16% of men with a genital HPV6 infection developed a HPV6-positive condyloma, and 22% of genital HPV11 infections progressed to an HPV11-positive condyloma. During the first 12-months of follow-up, 0.5% of men with a genital HPV16 infection developed an HPV16-positive PeIN. Although we expected PeIN to be a rare event, the sample size for PeIN (n=10) limited the types of analyses that could be performed. Conclusions Most EGLs develop following infection with HPV 6, 11, or 16, all of which could be prevented with the 4-valent HPV vaccine. Patient Summary In this study, we looked at genital HPV infections that can cause lesions in men. The HPV that we detected within the lesions could be prevented through a vaccine. PMID:26051441

  11. Ritual genital cutting of female minors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Dena S

    2010-05-01

    The traditional custom of ritual cutting and alteration of the genitalia of female infants, children, and adolescents, referred to as female genital mutilation or female genital cutting (FGC), persists primarily in Africa and among certain communities in the Middle East and Asia. Immigrants in the United States from areas in which FGC is common may have daughters who have undergone a ritual genital procedure or may request that such a procedure be performed by a physician. The American Academy of Pediatrics believes that pediatricians and pediatric surgical specialists should be aware that this practice has life-threatening health risks for children and women. The American Academy of Pediatrics opposes all types of female genital cutting that pose risks of physical or psychological harm, counsels its members not to perform such procedures, recommends that its members actively seek to dissuade families from carrying out harmful forms of FGC, and urges its members to provide patients and their parents with compassionate education about the harms of FGC while remaining sensitive to the cultural and religious reasons that motivate parents to seek this procedure for their daughters.

  12. Genital evolution: why are females still understudied?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ah-King, Malin; Barron, Andrew B; Herberstein, Marie E

    2014-05-01

    The diversity, variability, and apparent rapid evolution of animal genitalia are a vivid focus of research in evolutionary biology, and studies exploring genitalia have dramatically increased over the past decade. These studies, however, exhibit a strong male bias, which has worsened since 2000, despite the fact that this bias has been explicitly pointed out in the past. Early critics argued that previous investigators too often considered only males and their genitalia, while overlooking female genitalia or physiology. Our analysis of the literature shows that overall this male bias has worsened with time. The degree of bias is not consistent between subdisciplines: studies of the lock-and-key hypothesis have been the most male focused, while studies of cryptic female choice usually consider both sexes. The degree of bias also differed across taxonomic groups, but did not associate with the ease of study of male and female genital characteristics. We argue that the persisting male bias in this field cannot solely be explained by anatomical sex differences influencing accessibility. Rather the bias reflects enduring assumptions about the dominant role of males in sex, and invariant female genitalia. New research highlights how rapidly female genital traits can evolve, and how complex coevolutionary dynamics between males and females can shape genital structures. We argue that understanding genital evolution is hampered by an outdated single-sex bias.

  13. Genital evolution: why are females still understudied?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malin Ah-King

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The diversity, variability, and apparent rapid evolution of animal genitalia are a vivid focus of research in evolutionary biology, and studies exploring genitalia have dramatically increased over the past decade. These studies, however, exhibit a strong male bias, which has worsened since 2000, despite the fact that this bias has been explicitly pointed out in the past. Early critics argued that previous investigators too often considered only males and their genitalia, while overlooking female genitalia or physiology. Our analysis of the literature shows that overall this male bias has worsened with time. The degree of bias is not consistent between subdisciplines: studies of the lock-and-key hypothesis have been the most male focused, while studies of cryptic female choice usually consider both sexes. The degree of bias also differed across taxonomic groups, but did not associate with the ease of study of male and female genital characteristics. We argue that the persisting male bias in this field cannot solely be explained by anatomical sex differences influencing accessibility. Rather the bias reflects enduring assumptions about the dominant role of males in sex, and invariant female genitalia. New research highlights how rapidly female genital traits can evolve, and how complex coevolutionary dynamics between males and females can shape genital structures. We argue that understanding genital evolution is hampered by an outdated single-sex bias.

  14. Mothers' Perceptions of Female Genital Mutilation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahanonu, E. L.; Victor, O.

    2014-01-01

    The practice of female genital mutilation (FGM) is widespread in Nigeria. This study was conducted to assess the perceptions of FGM among mothers at a primary healthcare centre in Lagos, Nigeria. A convenience sample of 95 mothers completed the pre-tested, semi-structured questionnaires. Data analysis was carried out using descriptive statistics…

  15. Female genital mutilation : Conditions of decline

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caldwell, JC; Orubuloye, IO; Caldwell, P

    2000-01-01

    Female genital mutilation (or female circumcision) has been experienced by over 100 million women in sub-Saharan Africa and the Nile valley Efforts to suppress the practice were made in the earlier decades of the present century, especially by missionaries in Kenya in the 1920s and early 1930s. Succ

  16. Bacterial Flora of the Female Genital Tract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pongsakdi Chaisilwattana

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of this study was to analyze the ability of septicemic and nonsepticemic isolates of group B streptococci (GBS to inhibit in vitro the principal bacterial groups found in the normal bacterial flora of the female genital tract.

  17. [Genital actinomycosis in women wearing IUD].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brittig, F; Bánlaki, S

    1980-12-14

    The authors describe genital actinomycosis in 5 women using the IUD. They call attention to the relationship between the IUD and actinomycosis. They think it necessary to examine tissues and fluids adhering to the IUD coil upon removal. And they recommend that this be supplemented by regular cytological examination of the coil, with this data being associated with data from screening.

  18. FEMALE GENITAL MUTILATION: ARE WE WINNING?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-07-30

    Jul 30, 2013 ... practice of female genital mutilation (FGM) in countries like Nigeria. .... Islam. 137. 24.2. Traditionalist. 0. 0. Total. 565. 100. Ethnicity. Hausa. 23. 4.1. Ibo ... Evidence of FGM ... among adult females followed by South-East zone.

  19. Genital trauma during a complicated domiciliary childbirth assisted by a non-expert midwife

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ada Arleny Pérez Mayo

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The study presents the case of a 20-year-old puerpera seen at San Pedro Necta National Hospital of the Department of Huehuetenango, Guatemala, due to a persisting vaginal bleeding and genital tear. The clinical picture was determined as a genital trauma by domiciliary childbirth assisted by a midwife. As there was no abdominal echography and there were signs of hypovolemia, a gynecological checkup was performed at the operating room, having circulatory support with intravenous crystalloid solutions. A careful preoperative preparation was carried out which included local antisepsis with tincture of iodine and hydrogen peroxide, as well as the administration of ceftriaxone as a prophylactic antibiotic for the infection. The surgical intervention consisted in repairing the cervical tears, as well as the traumatic lesions caused by an inadequate manipulation of the external genitals, with absorbable suture material. No complications were reported and the patient progressed satisfactorily, with a 5-day hospital stay.

  20. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 262: Area 25 Septic Systems and Underground Discharge Point, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. S. Tobiason

    2003-07-01

    This Closure Report (CR) documents the activities undertaken to close Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 262: Area 25 Septic Systems and Underground Discharge Point, in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) of 1996. Site closure was performed in accordance with the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP)-approved Corrective Action Plan (CAP) for CAU 262 (U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Operations Office [NNSA/NV, 2002a]). CAU 262 is located at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) approximately 105 kilometers (65 miles) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. CAU 262 consists of the following nine Corrective Action Sites (CASs) located in Area 25 of the NTS: CAS 25-02-06, Underground Storage tank CAS 25-04-06, Septic Systems A and B CAS 25-04-07, Septic System CAS 25-05-03, Leachfield CAS 25-05-05, Leachfield CAS 25-05-06, Leachfield CAS 25-05-08, Radioactive Leachfield CAS 25-05-12, Leachfield CAS 25-51-01, Dry Well.

  1. Genital Involvement In Pre-Pubertal Pediatric Population: A Rare Aspect of Crohn’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qurratul Ann Warsi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Crohn’s disease is an inflammatory bowel disease (IBD, characterized by chronic intestinal inflammation that causes the loss of immune tolerance leading to bizarre inflammatory signals and disruption of mucosal barriers. Environmental triggers and interaction of genetic determinants also play an indispensible role. In this case report, we present a pre-pubertal girl with intermittent and refractory genital swelling. We emphasize that Crohn’s disease must be considered in the differential diagnosis of recurrent, non-tender, erythematous and edematous lesions of the genital area. We conclude with future directions for diagnosing and managing vulvar Crohn’s disease in pediatric population.

  2. NIPPLE DISCHARGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. N. Bukharova

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available According to the data available in the literature, as high as 50% of women have benign breast tumors frequently accompanied by nip- ple discharge. Nipple discharge may be serous, bloody, purulent, and colostric. The most common causes are breast abscess, injury, drugs, prolactinoma, intraductal pappiloma, ductal ectasia, intraductal cancer (not more than 10%.

  3. Genital ulcers after treatment with all-trans-retinoic acid in a child with acute promyelocytic leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unal, Selma; Gümrük, Fatma; Cetin, Mualla; Hiçsönmez, Gönül

    2005-01-01

    All-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA) has been shown to improve the outcome of patients with acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL). However, various adverse effects of ATRA treatment have been noted, such as scrotal and genital ulcers in adult patients. The authors report genital ulcers that developed in a child with APL after ATRA treatment. An 8-year-old girl with APL was treated with ATRA for 21 days and after discontinuation of ATRA treatment she developed genital ulcers. Systemic and local antibiotic pomades were applied and the lesions improved within 15 days. In conclusion, genital ulcers may develop in children with APL as a complication of ATRA treatment and physicians should be alert to this possibility.

  4. [Oncogenic human papillomaviruses in extra-genital Bowen disease revealed by in situ hybridization].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derancourt, C; Mougin, C; Chopard Lallier, M; Coumes-Marquet, S; Drobacheff, C; Laurent, R

    2001-01-01

    The association between mucosal oncogenic human papillomaviruses (HPV) and bowenoid papulosis or genital Bowen's disease is well documented. In contrast this association with extra-genital Bowen's disease is poorly studied. The aim of this study was to detect oncogenic (16/18, 31/33/51) and non oncogenic (8/11) mucosal HPV using a in situ hybridization method in 28 skin biopsy specimens of extra-genital Bowen's disease. Twenty-eight cases of extra-genital Bowen's disease seen in the period 1990-96 in the Dermatology department were included: 19 women and 9 men (mean age: 72 years). Bowen's disease locations were: hands and feet (8 cases), limbs (11 cases), face (8 cases), trunk (1 case). Blinded histopathologic examination confirmed the diagnosis of Bowen's disease and signs of HPV infection (koilocytosis). In situ hybridization was performed using three biotinylated probes detecting HPV types 6/11, 16/18, 31/33/51. Oncogenic HPV genoma was detected in 8 skin samples (28.6 p. 100). In all these cases, 16/18 probe was positive and in two cases, both 16/18 and 31/33/51 probes were positive; 4/8 Bowen's diseases of the extremities were positive for HPV. Koilocytes were found in 6/8 of skin samples with positive HPV detection. Mucosal oncogenic HPV are detected by in situ hybridization in 28.6 p. 100 of extra-genital Bowen's disease. In situ hybridization is an easier technique than Southern-Blot hybridization which is the gold standard. Five studies reported similar results and three studies reported different results that we discuss. A precise understanding of oncogenic HPV implication in the development of extra-genital Bowen's disease could lead to the development of new therapeutic strategies (topical cidofovir or imiquimod).

  5. Mental health problems associated with female genital mutilation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knipscheer, Jeroen; Vloeberghs, Erick; van der Kwaak, Anke; van den Muijsenbergh, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Aims and method To study the mental health status of 66 genitally mutilated immigrant women originating from Africa (i.e. Somalia, Sudan, Eritrea and Sierra Leone). Scores on standardised questionnaires (Harvard Trauma Questionnaire-30, Hopkins Symptom Checklist-25, COPE-Easy, Lowlands Acculturation Scale) and demographic and psychosocial correlates were analysed. Results A third of the respondents reported scores above the cut-off for affective or anxiety disorders; scores indicative for post-traumatic stress disorder were presented by 17.5% of women. Type of circumcision (infibulation), recollection of the event (a vivid memory), coping style (avoidance, in particular substance misuse) and employment status (lack of income) were significantly associated with psychopathology. Clinical implications A considerable minority group, characterised by infibulated women who have a vivid memory of the circumcision and cope with their symptoms in an avoidant way, reports to experience severe consequences of genital circumcision. In terms of public healthcare, interventions should target these groups as a priority. PMID:26755984

  6. Genital and anal injuries: A cross-sectional Australian study of 1266 women alleging recent sexual assault.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zilkens, Renate R; Smith, Debbie A; Phillips, Maureen A; Mukhtar, S Aqif; Semmens, James B; Kelly, Maire C

    2017-06-01

    To describe the frequency of genital and anal injury and associated demographic and assault characteristics in women alleging sexual assault. Cross-sectional study. Sexual Assault Resource Centre (SARC), Western Australia. Total of 1266 women attending SARC from Jan-2009 to Mar-2015. Women underwent a standardised data collection procedure by forensically trained doctors. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed. (1) Frequency of genital and anal injuries by type of sexual assault. (2) Identification of independent factors associated with genital and anal injuries following, respectively, completed vaginal and anal penetration. Genital injury was observed in 24.5% of all women with reported completed vaginal penetration; in a subset with no prior sexual intercourse 52.1% had genital injury. Genital injury was more likely with no prior sexual intercourse (adjusted odds ratio [adj. OR] 4.4, 95% confidence interval [95%CI] 2.4-8.0), multiple types of penetrants (adj. OR 1.5, 95%CI 1.0-2.1), if general body injury present and less likely with sedative use and delayed examination. Anal injury, observed in 27.0% of reported completed anal penetrations, was more likely with multiple types of penetrants (adjusted OR 5.0, 95%CI 1.2-21.0), if general body injury present and less likely with delayed examination. This study separately quantifies the frequency of both genital and anal injuries in sexually assaulted women. Genital injuries were absent in a large proportion of women regardless of prior vaginal intercourse status. It is anticipated that findings will better inform the community, police and medico-legal evidence to the criminal justice system. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Molecular diagnosis of lymphogranuloma venereum in patients with genital ulcer disease.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sturm, P.D.J.; Moodley, P.; Govender, K.; Bohlken, L.; Mali, T. van; Sturm, A.W.

    2005-01-01

    The detection of herpes, chancroid, and syphilis in genital ulcers is done by PCR. This is not so for lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV). We report on the use of a PCR with digestion that differentiates the LGV biovar from the trachoma biovar. Our findings suggest that the clinical description of LGV in

  8. Discharge Dialogue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horsbøl, Anders

    2012-01-01

    less attention has been given to medical patients, who are often elderly and suffer from multiple diseases. This paper addresses the latter issue with a case study of a local initiative to improve transition from hospital to home (care) for medical patients at a Danish hospital, in which a discharge...... coordinator, employed at the hospital, is supposed to anticipate discharge and serve as mediator between the hospital and the municipal home care system. Drawing on methods from discourse and interaction analysis, the paper studies the practice of the discharge coordinator in two encounters between patients...

  9. EcPV2 DNA in equine genital squamous cell carcinomas and normal genital mucosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogaert, Lies; Willemsen, Anouk; Vanderstraeten, Eva; Bracho, Maria A; De Baere, Cindy; Bravo, Ignacio G; Martens, Ann

    2012-07-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) represents the most common genital malignant tumor in horses. Similar to humans, papillomaviruses (PVs) have been proposed as etiological agents and recently Equine papillomavirus type 2 (EcPV2) has been identified in a subset of genital SCCs. The goals of this study were (1) to determine the prevalence of EcPV2 DNA in tissue samples from equine genital SCCs, penile intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN) and penile papillomas, using EcPV2-specific PCR, (2) to examine the prevalence of latent EcPV2 infection in healthy genital mucosa and (3) to determine genetic variability within EcPV2 and to disentangle phylogenetic relationships of EcPV2 among PVs. EcPV2 DNA was detected in all but one penile SCC (15/16), in all PIN lesions (8/8) and penile papillomas (4/4). Additionally, EcPV2 DNA was demonstrated in one of two metastasized lymph nodes, one contact metastasis in the mouth, two vaginal and one anal lesion. In healthy horses, EcPV2 DNA was detected in 10% (4/39) of penile swabs but in none of vulvovaginal swabs (0/20). This study confirms the presence of EcPV2 DNA in equine genital SCCs and shows its involvement in anal lesions, a lymph node and contact metastases. Latent EcPV2 presence was also shown in normal male genital mucosa. We found that different EcPV2 variants cocirculate among horses and that EcPV2 is related to the Delta+Zeta PVs and is only a very distant relative of high-risk human PVs causing genital cancer. Thus, similar viral tropism and similar malignant outcome of the infection do not imply close evolutionary relationship.

  10. Ileostomy - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... foods that may block your stoma are raw pineapple, nuts and seeds, celery, popcorn, corn, dried fruits ( ... ask your doctor Living with your ileostomy Low-fiber diet Small bowel resection - discharge Total colectomy or ...

  11. Gallstones - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000196.htm Gallstones - discharge To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. You have gallstones. These are hard, pebble-like deposits that formed ...

  12. Genital and Urinary Tract Defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... report card Careers Archives Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? Labor & ... Careers Archives Health Topics Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? Labor & ...

  13. In defence of genital autonomy for children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earp, Brian D

    2016-03-01

    Arora and Jacobs (2016) assume that liberal societies should tolerate non-therapeutic infant male circumcision, and argue that it follows from this that they should similarly tolerate-or even encourage-what the authors regard as 'de minimis' forms of female genital mutilation (as defined by the World Health Organization). In this commentary, I argue that many serious problems would be likely to follow from a policy of increased tolerance for female genital mutilation, and that it may therefore be time to consider a less tolerant attitude toward non-therapeutic infant male circumcision. Ultimately, I suggest that children of whatever sex or gender should be free from having healthy parts of their most intimate sexual organs either damaged or removed, before they can understand what is at stake in such an intervention and agree to it themselves.

  14. Morphological study of the male genital organs of Gracilinanus microtarsus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jussara Marcolino do Nascimento Lima

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Gracilinanus microtarsus is one of the smallest marsupials on earth. Since it spreads seeds, it has great ecological relevance. However, its reproduction data, especially those related to the anatomy of its reproduction apparatus, are scarce in the literature. Current analysis describes the male genital organs of six adult specimens of G. microtarsus. Macroscopic studies were undertaken on dissected organs, whereas histological studies were performed by inclusion technique in paraffin and by hematoxylin and eosin and Masson trichrome staining. The male genital organs of G. microtarsus consist of a penis with bifid glans, two testicles within a pendular scrotum, placed cranially to the penis, featuring a histology consisting of seminiferous tubules with spermatogonic cells, spermatozoa and Sertoli cells, and a peritubular region with Leydig cells. Testicles are closely associated with epididymis with head, body and tail, with histological differences between the different regions. Deferent ducts, spermatic funicles and annexed glands were reported. The latter were composed of prostate glands divided into three distinct segments and bulbourethral glands. Results show that the male reproduction system of G. Microtarsus is anatomically similar to that of Didelphis sp. and other marsupials groups, with slight details such as the site of each organ.

  15. Interstitial lung disease - adults - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diffuse parenchymal lung disease - discharge; Alveolitis - discharge; Idiopathic pulmonary pneumonitis - discharge; IPP - discharge; Chronic interstitial lung - discharge; Chronic respiratory interstitial lung - discharge; Hypoxia - interstitial lung - discharge

  16. Genital anomalies in boys and the environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Main, Katharina M; Skakkebaek, Niels E; Virtanen, Helena E

    2010-01-01

    testis differentiation, the testicular dysgenesis syndrome (TDS). There is recent evidence that also the prevalence of genital malformations is increasing and the rapid pace of increase suggests that lifestyle factors and exposure to environmental chemicals with endocrine disrupting properties may play...... a role. Recent prospective studies have established links between perinatal exposure to persistent halogenated compounds and cryptorchidism, as well as between phthalates and anti-androgenic effects in newborns. Maternal alcohol consumption, mild gestational diabetes and nicotine substitutes were also...

  17. Surgical reconstruction in female genital mutilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gültekin, İsmail Burak; Altınboğa, Orhan; Dur, Rıza; Kara, Osman Fadıl; Küçüközkan, Tuncay

    2016-06-01

    Female genital mutilation (FGM) is an unusual condition for our country. However, an increase in FGM in future days can be predicted with the increasing numbers of exchange students coming from African countries, migration of refugees and socioeconomic relations with the African countries. We want to share our experience of two FGM victims admitted to our clinic with the request of reconstructive vulvar surgery before their marriage. Both women had WHO Type III FGM. Physical examination findings and surgical reconstruction techniques were presented.

  18. Insects are Crawling in My Genital Warts

    OpenAIRE

    Jyoti Dhawan; Saurabh Singh; Somesh Gupta

    2011-01-01

    A 23-year-old woman presented with large exophytic genital wart arising from perineum, vulva, introitus of the vagina, and inner aspect of thighs. Patient developed severe itching and formication (insect-crawling sensation) in the lesions for past 1 week, though careful examination did not reveal any insects. Considering that the disease was causing psychological stress and physical symptoms, radiofrequency excision was planned. However, during the procedure, several maggots appeared from the...

  19. A study of female genital swabs in a Nigerian Tertiary Hospital

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Samuel Nwadioha; Julie O Egesie; Henry Emejuo; Elizabeth Iheanacho

    2010-01-01

    Objective:To detect some common microbial agents of vaginal discharge and improve the current syndromic management of abnormal vaginal discharge. Methods:A prospective study of female genital swabs collected from obstetrics and gynecology units of Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital, Kano, Nigeria and an analysed of microscopy, culture and sensitivity in the medical microbiology and parasitology laboratory of this hospital were conducted from December 2007 to December 2008. Data on epidemiologic indices were collected from the patients, using structured interviewer-administered questionnaires. Results:Eight hundred and forty Candida species were detected, constituting 60%(n=840) of 1 400 female genital discharge samples of microbial etiology in a total of 2 000 female genital samples received. The distribution of vaginal candidiasis was the highest in young adults aged 21 to 30 years with 43%(n=360) of the total 840 cases. Pregnant women that presented with vaginal candidiasis constituted 40%(n=360) of the total 840 cases. Other risk groups included the immuno-suppression with 24%(n=202), group on hormonal therapy with 15%(n=126) and broad spectrum antibiotics users with 16%(n=134). Conclusions:The results show that Candida is the most common cause of vaginitis and vulvo-vaginal candidiasis followed by C. albicans in the young adults aged 21 to 30 years, pregnant mothers, immuno-suppression, contraceptive and broad spectrum antibiotic users. Proper management of vaginal candidiasis and vulvo-vaginal candidiasis is recommended especially among the risk groups in order to avoid complications and reduce HIV transmission.

  20. Anatomy and physiology of genital organs - women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graziottin, Alessandra; Gambini, Dania

    2015-01-01

    "Anatomy is destiny": Sigmund Freud viewed human anatomy as a necessary, although not a sufficient, condition for understanding the complexity of human sexual function with a solid biologic basis. The aim of the chapter is to describe women's genital anatomy and physiology, focusing on women's sexual function with a clinically oriented vision. Key points include: embryology, stressing that the "female" is the anatomic "default" program, differentiated into "male" only in the presence of androgens at physiologic levels for the gestational age; sex determination and sex differentiation, describing the interplay between anatomic and endocrine factors; the "clitoral-urethral-vaginal" complex, the most recent anatomy reading of the corpora cavernosa pattern in women; the controversial G spot; the role of the pelvic floor muscles in modulating vaginal receptivity and intercourse feelings, with hyperactivity leading to introital dyspareunia and contributing to provoked vestibulodynia and recurrent postcoital cystitis, whilst lesions during delivery reduce vaginal sensations, genital arousability, and orgasm; innervation, vessels, bones, ligaments; and the physiology of women's sexual response. Attention to physiologic aging focuses on "low-grade inflammation," genital and systemic, with its impact on women sexual function, especially after the menopause, if the woman does not or cannot use hormone replacement therapy.

  1. STUDY OF GENITAL TUBERCULOSIS IN INFERTILE WOMEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shrikant

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available AIM To determine the incidence of female Genital Tuberculosis (GTB and to analyse clinicopathological features for GTB and comparison of Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR, Acid Fast Bacillus (AFB staining and Histopathology (HPR. STUDY SETTING A prospective study conducted on 50 infertile patients in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology at Krishna Hospital, Karad, for a period of 2 years between December 2013 and December 2015. METHODS Patients were investigated for the presence of Mycobacterium Tuberculosis (MTB on samples collected by endometrial curettage by PCR, AFB and HPR. Additional tests like Hysterosalpingography (HSG Laparoscopic chromopertubation and hysteroscopy were performed if not done earlier. RESULT PCR demonstrated MTB DNA in 9 patients, and 2 were positive with AFB and HPR. Within positive patients HSG findings were suggestive of TB in 3 cases and laparoscopy in 5 cases and hysteroscopy in 4 cases. Two MTB PCR positive patients conceived spontaneously after 6 months of anti-tubercular treatment. CONCLUSION Genital tuberculosis is a diagnostic challenge if untreated it is chronic, progressive and destructive disease. Early diagnosis is crucial because once the infection damages the tubes, reverting tubal patency is very difficult. Molecular tests like DNA PCR have enabled us to detect the organism in its latent stage and initiation of treatment early in the disease can prevent many irreversible changes in the female genital tract.

  2. Clinical Presentation of Atypical Genital Herpes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李俊杰; 梁沛杨; 罗北京

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To make a clinical analysis on the basis of 36cases of atypical genital herpes (GH) patients. Methods: Thirty-six cases of atypical GH were diagnosedclinically, and their case histories, symptoms and signs wererecorded in detail and followed up. Polymerase chain reaction(PCR) was adopted for testing HSV2-DNA with cotton-tippedswabs. Enzyme-linked immuno sorbent assay (ELISA) forserum anti-HSV2-IgM was done to establish a definfiivediagnosis. Other diagnoses were excluded at the same time bytesting for related pathogens including fungi, Chlamydia,Mycoplasma, Treponema pallidum, gonococci, Trichomonas,etc. Results: The main clinical manifestations of atypical GHwere: (1) small genital ulcers; (2) inflammation of urethralmeatus; (3) nonspecific genital erythema; (4) papuloid noduleson the glands; (5) nonspecific vaginitis. Twenty-three cases(64%) tested by PCR were HSV2-DNA sera-positive, and 36cases (100 %) anti-HSV2-IgM sera-positive by ELISA. Conclusion: atypical HSV is difficult to be diagnosed. Butthe combination of PCR and ELIAS will be helpful to thediagnosis of atypical HSV.

  3. Prevalence of sacral spinal (Tarlov) cysts in persistent genital arousal disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komisaruk, Barry R; Lee, Huey-Jen

    2012-08-01

    Neither consistent etiology nor treatment have been established for Persistent Genital Arousal Disorder (PGAD), which is characterized by uninvited, unwelcome, and distressing genital sensation. Sacral (Tarlov) cysts, which form on dorsal (sensory) roots, most commonly of S2 and S3 in the sacral spine, are reported to produce genital symptoms that bear similarities to those described for PGAD. The present study ascertained the incidence of Tarlov cysts in the sacral spine of women with PGAD symptoms. Women in a PGAD internet support group were asked to submit MRIs of their sacral region to the investigators, who evaluated the MRIs for the presence or absence of Tarlov cysts. The presence or absence of Tarlov cysts at the level of the sacral spine. Tarlov cysts were present in 12 of the first 18 (66.7%) MRIs submitted to the investigators by women who suffer from PGAD symptoms. By contrast to this incidence, that of Tarlov cysts reported in the literature for large samples of the population observed for various disorders (e.g., lumbosacral pain) is 1.2-9.0%. Tarlov cysts have been described in the literature as producing paresthesias and genital sensory disturbances. Hence, at least some cases of PGAD might be considered to be a Tarlov cyst-induced paresthesia. Based on the relatively high occurrence of Tarlov cysts currently observed in women who suffer from PGAD symptoms, it would seem advisable to suspect Tarlov cysts as a possible organic etiological factor underlying PGAD. © 2012 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  4. Prevalência de anormalidades genitais em recém-nascidos Prevalence of genital abnormalities in neonates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabella L. Monlleó

    2012-12-01

    clinical protocol between 04/19/2010 and 04/18/2011. Control group included neonates without birth defects, born at the same maternity unit and in the same day in which a case was identified. Fisher and Kruskal-Wallis tests were used for statistics. RESULTS: The study identified 29 (1:100 neonates with genital abnormalities. Most of them were examined within 3 days of life and presented only one genital defect. Morphological abnormalities comprised: genital ambiguity (1/29, fusion of labia majora (1/29, micropenis (2/29, enlarged clitoris (6/29, hypospadia (9/29, and combined defects (4/29. Only one case reported the genital abnormality in the statement of live birth correctly. Prematurity occurred in 13/29 cases and was the only variable statistically associated with genital defects. Eight cases agreed on the complementary investigation of the genital defect, among which three were diagnosed with disorder of sex development. CONCLUSIONS: There is a high prevalence of genital abnormalities in the maternity units included in the present study and most cases are under-diagnosed and under-reported. Our results reinforce the importance of a careful examination of genital morphology in neonatal period towards the recognition of minor defects that can be clinical features of a disorder of sex development.

  5. CLINICO-EPIDEMIOLOGICAL STUDY OF GENITAL ULCER DISE ASE AT A TERTIARY CARE CENTRE IN AN URBAN SETTING IN INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meetesh

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: In developing countries, the proportion with STDs wh o present with genital ulcers is high compared to developed nat ions. AIM: To study clinic-epidemiological profile of cases presenting with genital ulcer diseas e at a tertiary care centre. STUDY SETTINGS: Present study was carried out in Department of skin and VD, Medical College and SSG Hospital Baroda between June 2001 and Feb. 2003 . MATERIAL AND METHODS: A cross sectional study was conducted. Sexually active male or female having genital ulcer with history of exposure in patient or partner. Total 216 cases we re included in the study. Detailed history was taken and was recorded. Inquiries were made reg arding age, educational status, occupation, marital status and details of their compl aints. History of sexual activity was elaborately taken. All the details pertaining to num ber of exposures, last exposure, sexual partners, sexual orientations and condom use were no ted. RESULTS: Most of the case are males i.e.91.5%. 56% cases were married. It includes 53 .7% males and more than 88% females. This implies that the high extramarital transmission occu rs in wives and they bear the consequences of extramarital activity of their husbands. . 63.8 % of unmarried male cases and 51.9% of married male cases had sexual exposure to sex worker s. Along with genital ulcer, the most common associated findings were lymph node enlargeme nt (72..4% and subprepucial discharge (13..6% in males. In females, (35.3% ca ses had vaginal discharge. the commonest ulcerative STD was herpes progenitalis (52.8% follo wed by syphilis (30.5%. CONCLUSION: The present study highlights that the high risk sexu al behavior was present in cases, irrespective of the marital and educational status. Female attendance was very low which may be due to asymptomatic STIs, social financial reason and their dependence on male partners for seeking treatment. KEY WORDS:Genital ulcer disease

  6. Sexually Monomorphic Maps and Dimorphic Responses in Rat Genital Cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenschow, Constanze; Copley, Sean; Gardiner, Jayne M; Talbot, Zoe N; Vitenzon, Ariel; Brecht, Michael

    2016-01-11

    Mammalian external genitals show sexual dimorphism [1, 2] and can change size and shape upon sexual arousal. Genitals feature prominently in the oldest pieces of figural art [3] and phallic depictions of penises informed psychoanalytic thought about sexuality [4, 5]. Despite this longstanding interest, the neural representations of genitals are still poorly understood [6]. In somatosensory cortex specifically, many studies did not detect any cortical representation of genitals [7-9]. Studies in humans debate whether genitals are represented displaced below the foot of the cortical body map [10-12] or whether they are represented somatotopically [13-15]. We wondered what a high-resolution mapping of genital representations might tell us about the sexual differentiation of the mammalian brain. We identified genital responses in rat somatosensory cortex in a region previously assigned as arm/leg cortex. Genital responses were more common in males than in females. Despite such response dimorphism, we observed a stunning anatomical monomorphism of cortical penis and clitoris input maps revealed by cytochrome-oxidase-staining of cortical layer 4. Genital representations were somatotopic and bilaterally symmetric, and their relative size increased markedly during puberty. Size, shape, and erect posture give the cortical penis representation a phallic appearance pointing to a role in sexually aroused states. Cortical genital neurons showed unusual multi-body-part responses and sexually dimorphic receptive fields. Specifically, genital neurons were co-activated by distant body regions, which are touched during mounting in the respective sex. Genital maps indicate a deep homology of penis and clitoris representations in line with a fundamentally bi-sexual layout [16] of the vertebrate brain.

  7. Campilobacteriose genital bovina e tricomonose genital bovina: epidemiologia, diagnóstico e controle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.M. Alves

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available A presente atualização trata de duas das mais importantes doenças sexualmente transmitidas de bovinos, a campilobacteriose genital bovina e a tricomonose genital bovina. São abordados aspectos relacionados à epidemiologia destas doenças, principalmente em relação a sua distribuição no Brasil. Também são revisados aspectos importantes de diagnóstico, incluindo as técnicas e interpretação dos resultados, além de medidas de controle para ambas as doenças.

  8. Environmental and economic assessment of discharges from Gulf of Mexico Region Oil and Gas Operations. Quarterly technical progress report, January 1, 1994--March 31, 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gettleson, D.A.

    1994-04-21

    The primary objectives of the project are to increase the base of scientific knowledge concerning (1) the fate and environmental effects of organics, trace metals, and NORM in water, sediment, and biota near several offshore oil and gas facilities; (2) the characteristics of produced water and produced sand discharges as they pertain to organics, trace metals, and NORM variably found in association with the discharges; (3) the recovery of four terminated produced water discharge sites located in wetland and high-energy open bay sites of coastal Louisiana and Texas; (4) the economic and energy supply impacts of existing and anticipated federal and state offshore and coastal discharge regulations; and (5) the catch, consumption and human use patterns of seafood species collected from coastal and offshore waters. The products of the effort will be a series of technical reports detailing the study procedures, results, and conclusions which contribute to the transfer of technology to the scientific community, petroleum industry, and state and federal programs.

  9. Discharge Dialogue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horsbøl, Anders

    2012-01-01

    For several years, efforts have been made to strengthen collaboration between health professionals with different specializations and to improve patient transition from hospital to home (care). In the Danish health care system, these efforts have concentrated on cancer and heart diseases, whereas...... less attention has been given to medical patients, who are often elderly and suffer from multiple diseases. This paper addresses the latter issue with a case study of a local initiative to improve transition from hospital to home (care) for medical patients at a Danish hospital, in which a discharge...... coordinator, employed at the hospital, is supposed to anticipate discharge and serve as mediator between the hospital and the municipal home care system. Drawing on methods from discourse and interaction analysis, the paper studies the practice of the discharge coordinator in two encounters between patients...

  10. Capacitor discharge pulse analysis.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, Michael Sean; Griffiths, Stewart K.; Tanner, Danelle Mary

    2013-08-01

    Capacitors used in firing sets and other high discharge current applications are discharge tested to verify performance of the capacitor against the application requirements. Parameters such as capacitance, inductance, rise time, pulse width, peak current and current reversal must be verified to ensure that the capacitor will meet the application needs. This report summarizes an analysis performed on the discharge current data to extract these parameters by fitting a second-order system model to the discharge data and using this fit to determine the resulting performance metrics. Details of the theory and implementation are presented. Using the best-fit second-order system model to extract these metrics results in less sensitivity to noise in the measured data and allows for direct extraction of the total series resistance, inductance, and capacitance.

  11. Sexual and natural selection both influence male genital evolution.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clarissa M House

    Full Text Available Rapid and divergent evolution of male genital morphology is a conspicuous and general pattern across internally fertilizing animals. Rapid genital evolution is thought to be the result of sexual selection, and the role of natural selection in genital evolution remains controversial. However, natural and sexual selection are believed to act antagonistically on male genital form. We conducted an experimental evolution study to investigate the combined effects of natural and sexual selection on the genital-arch lobes of male Drosophila simulans. Replicate populations were forced to evolve under lifetime monogamy (relaxed sexual selection or lifetime polyandry (elevated sexual selection and two temperature regimes, 25°C (relaxed natural selection or 27°C (elevated natural selection in a fully factorial design. We found that natural and sexual selection plus their interaction caused genital evolution. Natural selection caused some aspects of genital form to evolve away from their sexually selected shape, whereas natural and sexual selection operated in the same direction for other shape components. Additionally, sexual and natural selection tended to favour larger genitals. Thus we find that the underlying selection driving genital evolution is complex, does not only involve sexual selection, and that natural selection and sexual selection do not always act antagonistically.

  12. Colouterine fistula complicating diverticulitis diagnosed at hysteroscopy: case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandato, Vincenzo Dario; Abrate, Martino; Sandonà, Francesco; Costagliola, Luigi; Gastaldi, Alfredo; La Sala, Giovanni Battista

    2012-01-01

    Since Noecker first reported a colouterine fistula secondary to diverticulitis in 1929, about 20 cases have been reported in the literature. Methods for diagnosis have yet to be established. Herein we report the first case of a colouterine fistula at the level of the isthmus diagnosed at hysteroscopy. Diagnostic hysteroscopy enabled rapid diagnosis of the colouterine fistula. Diagnostic hysteroscopy is the first-choice diagnostic tool for investigation of any abnormal vaginal discharge such as blood or stool because it enables direct vision and biopsy of the lesions of the lower genital tract quickly and at low cost.

  13. Recurrent Oral and Genital Ulcers in an Infant: Neonatal Presentation of Pediatric Behçet Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Emma F; Hawkins, Danielle M; Gifford, Laura K; Smidt, Aimee C

    2015-01-01

    Behçet disease is a complex, multisystem disease characterized by recurrent oral and genital ulcerations. It rarely occurs in infants or children. Neonatal Behçet disease has been reported in infants whose ulcers resolve at or before 9 weeks of age. Few cases of neonatal Behçet disease persisting into childhood have previously been reported. We report the case of a 1-month-old infant who presented with severe recurrent genital ulcerations and at 6 months developed recurrent oral ulcerations. Her orogenital ulcerations continue to recur. Human leukocyte antigen testing revealed HLA-B51 and B44 positivity. This is a case of pediatric Behçet disease in the neonatal period. Behçet disease should be considered in the differential diagnosis of recurrent genital and oral ulcerations in infants and children.

  14. Polymorphisms in Chlamydia trachomatis tryptophan synthase genes differentiate between genital and ocular isolates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldwell, Harlan D.; Wood, Heidi; Crane, Debbie; Bailey, Robin; Jones, Robert B.; Mabey, David; Maclean, Ian; Mohammed, Zeena; Peeling, Rosanna; Roshick, Christine; Schachter, Julius; Solomon, Anthony W.; Stamm, Walter E.; Suchland, Robert J.; Taylor, Lacey; West, Sheila K.; Quinn, Tom C.; Belland, Robert J.; McClarty, Grant

    2003-01-01

    We previously reported that laboratory reference strains of Chlamydia trachomatis differing in infection organotropism correlated with inactivating mutations in the pathogen’s tryptophan synthase (trpBA) genes. Here, we have applied functional genomics to extend this work and find that the paradigm established for reference serovars also applies to clinical isolates — specifically, all ocular trachoma isolates tested have inactivating mutations in the synthase, whereas all genital isolates encode a functional enzyme. Moreover, functional enzyme activity was directly correlated to IFN-γ resistance through an indole rescue mechanism. Hence, a strong selective pressure exists for genital strains to maintain a functional synthase capable of using indole for tryptophan biosynthesis. The fact that ocular serovars (serovar B) isolated from the genital tract were found to possess a functional synthase provided further persuasive evidence of this association. These results argue that there is an important host-parasite relationship between chlamydial genital strains and the human host that determines organotropism of infection and the pathophysiology of disease. We speculate that this relationship involves the production of indole by components of the vaginal microbial flora, allowing chlamydiae to escape IFN-γ–mediated eradication and thus establish persistent infection. PMID:12782678

  15. Vulvar Epidermal Inclusion Cyst as a Long-term Complication of Female Genital Mutilation

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Mercedes Victoria-Martínez; Laura Cubells-Sánchez; Lorena Martínez-Leborans; José Luis Sánchez-Carazo; Víctor Alegre de Miquel

    2016-01-01

    We present a case report of a patient with epidermal inclusion cyst as a late complication of female genital mutilation (FGM). We describe the management of the patient, and a review of the literature. We report the clinical and pathological findings in a 37-year-old female patient from Nigeria, with a clitoral mass of 1 year duration. She declared to have an FGM since she was 5 years. The lesion was excised successfully with good cosmetic results. Histological examination revealed epidermal ...

  16. Transplantation of female genital organs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brännström, Mats; Díaz-García, César

    2011-04-01

    Transplantation of gynecological organs is a medical field where considerable advancements have been made in research during the last 25 years and with some procedures already introduced as clinical treatments. These types of transplantations aim at curing permanent infertility. Uterus transplantation has been proven to be a feasible procedure in different experimentation animal models with proof of concept concerning surgery, control of rejection and fertility. There has already been one human transplantation attempt, which, however, was unsuccessful. Based on the progress in this area, we predict that the first successful uterus transplantation attempt will come within 2-3 years. Orthotopic ovarian cortex transplantation has overcome the status of an experimental procedure since more than 20 pregnancies have been reported. Its main field of application is fertility preservation in oncologic patients undergoing high gonadotoxic risk therapies. The role of heterotopic ovarian cortex transplantation still remains at the research level, although co-transplantation with an orthotopic cortex might facilitate a more accurate endocrine environment. The major drawback of ovarian cortex transplantation remains the long ischemic interval between re-implantation and the establishment of neovascularization. Whole ovary cryopreservation followed by transplantation through vascular anastomosis may emerge as an important procedure in this field, because the warm ischemic time would be reduced from several days to less than 1 h, which will most likely improve follicle survival. In summary, transplantation surgery is also entering the field of gynecology and in the future several types of transplantations of organs/tissues of the female reproductive tract may become established clinical procedures.

  17. Genital melanoma: prognosis factors and treatment modality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraioli, Domenico; Lamblin, Gery; Mathevet, Patrice; Hetu, Jessika; Berakdar, Isabelle; Beurrier, Frederic; Chopin, Nicolas

    2016-11-01

    Genital melanoma is a rare pathology. We present the experience of two comprehensive cancer centers in Lyon (France) in the management of genital melanoma in order to identify prognostic factors and optimal treatments. Between April 1992 and Mars 2014, 16 patients with a primary genital melanoma were referred to our department. Nine patients presented a vaginal melanoma, six vulvar melanomas and only one cervical melanoma. The median dimension of the lesion was 33.7 mm (5-100 mm). The AJCC stage ranged from IB to IIIC. 12 cases were the classic dark-blue flat melanoma and the other 4 cases were an atypical amelanotic tumor. Wide local surgery was performed in nine patients. A radical surgery was performed in six patients. In the large cervical melanoma, radiotherapy was performed as first-line treatment. In all the patients regional lymph node staging was performed. Adjuvant treatment was realized in nine patients. Two patients are alive without recurrence. Only one patient was lost to the first follow-up. The other 13 patients experienced a rapid recurrence. The median disease-free survival and the median overall survival were 11.8 months (2-49 m) and of 30.4 m (11-144 m), respectively. The disease-free survival and overall survival could be linked to a clinical presentation (Breslow thickness and morphology of lesion) associated to the early diagnosis. In our small series, the most important prognosis factor remains the tumor thickness. These rare lesions should be treated in experienced centers in order to improve their prognostic.

  18. Female genital mutilation: what do we know so far?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddig, Israa

    2016-09-08

    Female genital mutilation (FGM) is a practice that is now familiar to UK health professionals. It continues to be a problem in high-risk populations and affects girls and women throughout their lives. Complications related to FGM are poorly reported and documented. Health professionals, therefore, must be aware of the adverse effects and how they affect obstetric, gynaecological and sexual function and general quality of life. They must also be sensitive towards the psychological and emotional issues relating to FGM. Sociocultural barriers make research and data-collection difficult in a cohort of women who prefer not to discuss or disclose such intimate issues. New guidelines on the management of health consequences in FGM have been published, but evidence is of poor quality.

  19. Spatial distribution of female genital mutilation in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandala, Ngianga-Bakwin; Nwakeze, Ngozi; Kandala, Shadrack Ngianga I I

    2009-11-01

    The harmful effects of female genital mutilation (FGM) on women are recognized worldwide. Although it is practiced by persons of all socioeconomic backgrounds, there are differences within countries and between communities. The aim of this study was to use the 2003 Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey data to determine the spatial distribution of the prevalence of FGM and associated risk factors. Data were available for 7,620 women; 1,673 (22.0%) interviewed had had FGM and 2,168 women had living children, of whom 485 (22.4%) daughters had undergone FGM. Unmarried women were more likely to report a lower prevalence of FGM. Modernization (education and high socioeconomic status) had minimal impact on the likelihood of FGM, but education plays an important role in the mother's decision not to circumcise her daughter. It follows from these findings that community factors have a large effect on FGM, with individual factors having little effect on the distribution of FGM.

  20. Characterisation of an unusual bacterium isolated from genital ulcers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ursi, J P; van Dyck, E; Ballard, R C; Jacob, W; Piot, P; Meheus, A Z

    1982-02-01

    The preliminary characterisation of an unusual gram-negative bacillus isolated from genital ulcers in Swaziland is reported. Like Haemophilus ducreyi, it is an oxidase positive, nitrate-reductase-positive gram-negative rod that forms streptobacillary chains in some circumstances; it was therefore called the "ducreyi-like bacterium" (DLB). Distinguishing features of DLB are production of alpha-haemolysis on horse-blood agar, stimulation of growth by a microaerophilic atmosphere and by a factor produced by Staphylococcus aureus, a strongly positive porphyrin test, and a remarkable ability to undergo autolysis. DLB had a guanine + cytosine value of c. 50 mole% but it cannot be classified, even at the genus level, until more taxonomic data are obtained.

  1. [Phantoms for the collection of genital secretions in stallions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klug, E; Brinkhoff, D; Flüge, A; Scherbarth, R; Essich, G; Kienzler, M

    1977-10-01

    Practical experiences of the phantom method for collection of genital secretions from stallions are reported. Taking a phantom used in the Richard-Götze-Haus Tierärztliche Hochschule Hannover as a prototype two further models slightly modified have been constructed, baring a flat hollow in the right side of the caudal phantom body for manual inserting of the Artificial Vagina. These three models fulfill four important conditions for routine use: (1) sufficient sexual attractivity for the stallions; 80-85% successful collections of presecretions out of a total of 1050 using the dummy and 70% successful semen collections from more than 240 in total; (2) solid and resistant construction; (3) easy cleaning and desinfection of the surface of the phantom to get representative samples; (4) firm installation on a hygienic floor.

  2. Managing recurrent genital herpes with acyclovir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bedi T

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Seventy five patients of recurrent genital herpes (RGH treated with oral or topical acyclovir and placebo were compared and followed for periods ranging 4 to 8 years in a prospective study. Oral acyclovir definitely helps RGH patients; it shortens healing time; postpones recurrences and instills confidence in the patients. There is sufficient evidence that RGH dies a natural death with time as seen after 8 years follow up in placebo group patients. Topical use of acyclovir cream is not as useful as believed.

  3. Female Genital Cutting: A Persisting Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nour, Nawal M

    2008-01-01

    More than 130 million women worldwide have undergone female genital cutting (FGC). FGC occurs in parts of Africa and Asia, in societies with various cultures and religions. Reasons for the continuing practice of FGC include rite of passage, preserving chastity, ensuring marriageability, religion, hygiene, improving fertility, and enhancing sexual pleasure for men. The World Health Organization has classified FGC into 4 types depending on the extent of tissue removed. Immediate complications include hemorrhage, infection, sepsis, and death. Long-term complications include pain, scarring, urinary issues, and poor obstetric and neonatal outcomes. Efforts are being made nationally and internationally to eradicate this practice. PMID:19015765

  4. Angioplasty and stent - heart - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drug-eluting stents - discharge; PCI - discharge; Percutaneous coronary intervention - discharge; Balloon angioplasty - discharge; Coronary angioplasty - discharge; Coronary artery angioplasty - discharge; Cardiac ...

  5. Genital ulcers as initial manifestation of Epstein-Barr virus infection: two new cases and a review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halvorsen, Jon Anders; Brevig, Trine; Aas, Torkild; Skar, Anne Grete; Slevolden, Ellen Margrethe; Moi, Harald

    2006-01-01

    Genital ulceration is an uncommon manifestation of primary Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection. We present here two cases of genital ulcers probably caused by EBV. The first case is a 12-year-old girl with a genital ulcer appearing before specific EBV serology could identify a primary infection. However, serology was positive 13 days after the ulcer appeared. Polymerase chain reaction for EBV was positive in the biopsy from the ulcer as well. The second case is an 18-year-old female in whom the specific EBV serology was positive 8 days after appearance of the ulcer. The ulcers in both cases healed after 21 days. We reviewed the literature and a total of 26 cases of EBV-associated genital ulcers in females are now published. Median age of the 26 cases is 14.5 years of whom only 6 reports previous sexual contact. Mean healing time for the ulcers is 18 days. Our two cases correspond well with clinical reports of 24 EBV-associated genital ulcers in the literature.

  6. The Emergence of the "s"-Genitive in Danish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perridon, Harry

    2013-01-01

    The -"s" genitives of English and Swedish play an important role in grammaticalization theory, as they are often used as counterexamples to the main tenet of that theory, viz. that grammatical change is unidirectional. In this paper I look at the emergence of the -"s" genitive in Danish, hoping that it may shed some new light on the evolution of…

  7. Human papillomavirus genital infections among men, China, 2007-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Zhonghu; Liu, Ying; Sun, Yuan; Xi, Long Fu; Chen, Ke; Zhao, Yiqiang; Gao, Lei; Liu, Fangfang; Pan, Yaqi; Ning, Tao; Zhang, Lixin; Cai, Hong; Ke, Yang

    2013-06-01

    To determine prevalence of genital human papillomavirus (HPV) infection among men in rural China, we analyzed genital swab specimens. Among 2,236 male residents of rural Henan Province, HPV infection prevalence was 17.5%. The most common oncogenic and nononcogenic types were HPV-16 and HPV-3, respectively. Infection was associated with younger age and multiple sex partners.

  8. Genotype-specific concordance of oral and genital human papillomavirus infections among marital couples is low.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kero, K; Rautava, J; Louvanto, K; Syrjänen, K; Grenman, S; Syrjänen, S

    2016-04-01

    Data on genotype-specific concordance of oral-oral and genital-oral HPV infections among marital couples are key to understand HPV transmission between spouses. Genotype-specific concordance of HPV infections (oral/genital) and their co-variates among 131 marital couples were determined during 6-year follow-up (FU). Seven oral scrapings were taken from both spouses, accompanied by six genital samplings from the women and one (at baseline) from the male partners. HPV-genotyping was performed by nested PCR and a Luminex®-based Multimetrix Assay. Demographic data were collected with questionnaires at baseline and study conclusion. Prevalence of oral HPV varied from 10.3 to 27.0 % and 15.8 to 31.3 % in women and men, respectively. At baseline, 37.6 % of the male genital samples were HPV-positive while in female genital samples, HPV prevalence varied from 13.3 to 59.4 %. Only 15 couples had HPV genotype-specific concordance (oral-oral n = 7; male oral-female genital n = 9; female oral-male genital n = 2). In the nested case-control setting, higher number of deliveries (OR 0.145, 95%CI 0.030-0.706, p = 0.017) and higher number of intercourse (OR 0.488, 95%CI 0.243-0.978, p = 0.043) decreased the likelihood of concordant HPV infections while practicing oral sex increased the risk (OR 0.299, 95%CI 0.120-0.748, p = 0.010). In multivariate analysis, the likelihood of concordance was decreased by higher number of pregnancies of the female partner (p = 0.020) and by higher frequency of intercourse reported by the male spouse (p = 0.027). To conclude, asymptomatic HPV infections were common in both spouses while genotype-specific concordance was low. This supports the view that HPV profile of the spouses has been established before the current marital relationship.

  9. Female genital mutilation and cutting: An anatomical review and alternative rites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puppo, Vincenzo

    2017-01-01

    The World Health Organization reports that more than 200 million women currently alive have been subjected to female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C) worldwide, and three million girls continue to be at risk each year. FGM/C today is women's business. The vulva is formed by the labia majora and the vestibule, with its erectile apparatus. These structures are located under the urogenital diaphragm, behind the pubic symphysis in the anterior perineal region. The clitoris is entirely an external genital organ: the glans and body covered by the prepuce are visible/free while the roots are hidden. FGM/C procedures are classified into four types. Infibulation is the narrowing of the vaginal orifice with creation of a covering seal by cutting and appositioning of the labia minora and/or the labia majora, with or without removal of the clitoris. Deinfibulation is necessary to improve health and well-being and to allow intercourse or facilitate childbirth. Clitoral reconstruction is feasible for genitally mutilated patients. Female genital cosmetic surgery should be classed as FGM/C type IV. Both immediate and long-term complications are associated with FGM/C. It remains primarily a cultural rather than a religious practice. Different interventions have been used to persuade communities to abandon it. Alternative rites of passage are seen as an important strategy for eliminating this harmful practice. Such alternative rituals avoid genital cutting and involve educating girls about family life and women's roles, exchange of gifts, celebration, and a public declaration for community recognition. FGM/C is a violation of human rights and must be abandoned. Clin. Anat. 30:81-88, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Mass media constructions of 'socio-psychological epidemics' in sub-Saharan Africa: The case of genital shrinking in 11 countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de-Graft Aikins, Ama; Dzokoto, Vivian A; Yevak, Earl

    2015-11-01

    Genital shrinking is a recurring phenomenon with about 180 reported cases in sub-Saharan Africa over the last two decades. Transcending national boundaries, it results in distress for victims, mob violence against accused perpetrators and mass panic which law enforcement agencies struggle to contain. This article examines mass media construction and framing of genital shrinking within a social representations theory framework. Our analysis suggests the following: (1) mass media reports are informed by lay and expert perspectives; (2) three stocks of knowledge are drawn on interchangeably, with culture constituting a core representation; (3) lay and expert perspectives overlap on cultural and common-sense explanations of genital shrinking; and (4) scientific explanations are limited to individual pathophysiology and psychopathology and do not inform public opinion. We consider the implications of understanding genital shrinking for improving mass media constructions and dissemination of information on 'socio-psychological epidemics' that may have scientific explanations.

  11. Markers of genital tuberculosis in infertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanna, A; Agrawal, A

    2011-12-01

    Although genital tuberculosis is a condition that is prevalent worldwide, it is still a diagnostic dilemma. This study aimed to find an effective diagnostic modality for the condition. A total of 100 infertile women were clinically evaluated with haemoglobin estimation, total and differential count, Mantoux test, tubercle bacilli enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (TB ELISA), hysterosalpingography, pelvic ultrasonography, laparohysteroscopy, premenstrual endometrial biopsy for histopathology, culture and tubercle bacilli polymerase chain reaction (TBPCR). The womens' Day 2 hormonal profile (luteinising, follicle-stimulating, prolactin and thyroidstimulating hormones) and their husbands' semen analysis were also conducted. A total of 58 women had primary infertility and 42 had secondary infertility. Female factor infertility was present in 63 percent of the cases (mostly tubal; 45.97 percent). 26 women tested positive for endometrial TBPCR. Erythrocyte sedimentation rate, Mantoux test, TB ELISA and hysterosalpingography were found to have high negative predictive value (greater than 80 percent), while the positive predictive value was 35-45 percent. Laparoscopy findings were suggestive of tuberculosis in 13 percent of the women, out of which 83.3 percent were positive for endometrial TBPCR. Hysteroscopy revealed intrauterine adhesions in 34.8 percent of the women, with 68.8 percent being positive for tubercular bacilli. Our study established that in cases of genital tuberculosis, the use of expensive endometrial TBPCR tests may be avoided with a detailed workup, which would also help in the institution of anti-tubercular treatment in early disease, thus enhancing the chance of pregnancy.

  12. [Carcinosarcomas in female genital tracts: general review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guy, Jean-Baptiste; Trone, Jane-Chloé; Casteillo, François; Forest, Fabien; Pacaut, Cécile; Moncharmont, Coralie; Espenel, Sophie; Vallard, Alexis; Langrand Escure, Julien; Collard, Olivier; Peoc'h, Michel; Magné, Nicolas

    2014-01-01

    Carcinosarcoma, also known as mixed mesodermal tumor or malignant mixed Mullerian tumor (MMMT) is a pathological entity combining a sarcomatous and a carcinomatous component. Found in thoracic, digestive, genitourinary, liver or skin locations, the most common location is the female genital tract. In gynecological tumors, carcinosarcoma accounts for about 2-5% of endometrial cancers, and 1% of ovarian cancers. To date, there is no consensus on the therapeutic strategy. It relies mostly on maximum cytoreductive surgery. Adjuvant therapy remains controversial, and few prospective studies investigating its interest. Retrospective studies show the benefits of adjuvant chemotherapy based on platinum in most cases. Radiation therapy has a place in the adjuvant situations of endometrial and cervical carcinosarcoma. A more detailed pathological knowledge, and the use of targeted therapies may be promising in this histological subtype whose prognosis remains very poor. The objective of this study is to present the main principles of carcinosarcoma management in female genital tracts, describing pathological and prognostic features at the same time.

  13. Idiopathic genital ulcers in women infected with human immunodeficiency virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, J; Clark, R A; Watts, D H; Till, M; Arrastia, C; Schuman, P; Cohn, S E; Young, M; Bessen, L; Greenblatt, R; Vogler, M; Swindells, S; Boyer, P

    1996-12-01

    A national survey of investigators caring for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected women was undertaken to describe the clinical presentation of idiopathic genital ulcer disease. Patients with negative syphilis and herpes simplex testing and/or negative genital ulcer biopsy were included in this study. Study participants (n = 29) were generally severely immunocompromised (median CD4 cell count was 50/mm3, and 68% had an acquired immunodeficiency syndrome [AIDS]-defining opportunistic process). Thirty-seven percent had coexistent oral ulcers and 19% had their genital ulcer progress to fistula formation (four rectovaginal and one vaginal-perineal). There was generally a favorable response to topical, systemic, and intralesional steroid treatment. This study suggests that idiopathic or probable aphthous genital ulcers in women have similar clinical characteristics to aphthous oroesophageal ulcers. Although infrequent, these genital ulcers can cause severe morbidity. Further research is warranted to better define the pathophysiology and optimal management.

  14. [Vaginal microscopic evidence in women with symptoms of genital infection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerbini, S; Greco, M; Lalli, P; Santucci, A; Pitzurra, M

    1985-01-01

    Vaginal living organisms have been defined as the most complete in human ecology. As many as 100 million colonies of microorganisms can live in a single ml of vaginal liquid. More common are the anaerobic types, particularly the lactobacillus and bacteroides. The low pH of the vagina, normally 4, is due to the high lactic acid content of the lactobacillus. Pathogenic bacteria is inhibited at 4.5 pH. Conversely, it proliferates at a high pH. The slightest alteration of this delicate equilibrium allows potentially pathogenic bacteria to grow to a concentration high enough to produce symptoms. Researchers have sought to identify new pathological microorganisms, due to the increase in reported cases of vaginal infection in recent years. New strains such as microplasmas and chlamydia are assuming greater importance. Evidence of the numerous vaginal microbes comes from anamnestic, symptomatological data and from simple laboratory tests conducted in gynecological clinics with microscopes and Gram coloration. 663 women were examined in 6 laboratories. The computerized data revealed that only 29, or 4.37%, showed no symptoms at all and had gone to the lab for a mere check up; 175, or 26.40%, complained of pain, burning and itching; 361, or 54.45%, revealed symptoms associated with leukorrhea; 98, or 14.78%, showed only leukorrhea. The epidemiological study shows the importance of candida albicans in the infectious pathology of the female genital organ. Trichomonas vaginalis and grambacteria infection have been detected particularly when an IUD is used. The negative result of numerous bacterioscopic exams has shown the necessity of more in-depth study of genital infections, using analytical cultural methodology.

  15. New publication on female genital mutilation. Interviews with Nahid Toubia and Anika Rahman, co-authors of Female Genital Mutilation: a Guide to Laws and Policies Worldwide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, S

    2000-09-01

    Female circumcision/female genital mutilation (FC/FGM) is the collective name given to several different traditional practices that involve the cutting of female genitals. The WHO has grouped them in four categories: type 1: Clitoridectomy; type 2: Excision; type 3: Infibulation; and type 4: Unclassified. Reports indicate that an estimated 130 million girls and women have undergone FC/FGM and that it is practiced in 28 countries in the sub-Saharan and northeastern regions of Africa. As part of the growing movement to stop this human rights violation, numerous UN bodies and nongovernmental organizations such as the Center for Reproductive Law and Policy (CRLP) and RAINBO work together to monitor government responses. Presented in a questionnaire form, two authors Anika Rahman, CRLP's International Program Director, and Nahid Toubia, Director of RAINBO, discuss their recent book collaboration, "Female Genital Mutilation: A Guide to Laws and Policies Worldwide". The issues covered in the interview include the purpose of the book, reasons why FC/FGM is considered a human rights violation rather than a threat to women's health, role of international agencies in the eradication of the practice, and the effects of formal laws and policies in eliminating FC/FGM.

  16. Female Genital Dialogues: Female Genital Self-Image, Sexual Dysfunction, and Quality of Life in Patients With Vitiligo With and Without Genital Affection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarhan, Deena; Mohammed, Ghada F A; Gomaa, Amal H A; Eyada, Moustafa M K

    2016-01-01

    Vitiligo has a major effect on sexual health because of the disfiguring skin lesions affecting self-image and self-esteem. However, this topic has not explored. This article aimed to assess the effect of vitiligo on genital self-image, sexual function, and quality of life in female patients. This cross-sectional study included 50 sexually active women with vitiligo and 25 women without vitiligo. All participants subjected to full history taking and examination. Extent of vitiligo was assessed with the Vitiligo Area Scoring Index score, sexual function with the Female Sexual Function Index, genital self-image with Female Genital Self-Image Score and quality of life with the Dermatology Life Quality Index questionnaires. The main outcome measures were correlation between Vitiligo Area Scoring Index, Female Genital Self-Image Score, Female Sexual Function Index, and Dermatology Life Quality Index domains was determined using t test and Pearson correlation. This study revealed a negative correlation between the Vitiligo Area Scoring Index score and sexual satisfaction. Vitiligo Area Scoring Index and Dermatology Life Quality Index score was significantly correlated with Arabic Version of the Female Genital Self-Image Score alone and with Arabic Version of the Female Sexual Functioning Index alone and with both the Arabic Version of the Female Genital Self-Image Score and the Arabic Version of the Female Sexual Functioning Index (p vitiligo is imperative to improve outcomes and increase patients' compliance with treatment.

  17. Self-assessment of genital anatomy and sexual function within a Belgian, Dutch-speaking female population: a validation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronselaer, Guy; Callens, Nina; De Sutter, Petra; De Cuypere, Griet; T'Sjoen, Guy; Cools, Martine; Hoebeke, Piet

    2013-12-01

    Data on self-perceived genital anatomy and sensitivity should be part of the long-term follow-up of genitoplasty procedures. However, no normative data, based on a large sample, exist to date. Validation of the Self-Assessment of Genital Anatomy and Sexual Function, Female version (SAGAS-F) questionnaire within a Belgian, Dutch-speaking female population. Seven hundred forty-nine women with no history of genital surgery (aged 18-69 years, median 25 years) completed an Internet-based survey of whom 21 women underwent a gynecological examination as to correlate self-reported genital sensitivity assessed in an experimental setting. The SAGAS-F enables women to rate the sexual pleasure, discomfort, intensity of orgasm, and effort required for achieving orgasm in specified areas around the clitoris and within the vagina, as well as genital appearance. The latter was similarly evaluated by an experienced gynecologist, and women were asked to functionally rate the anatomical areas pointed out with a vaginal swab. Sexual pleasure and orgasm were strongest, and effort to attain orgasm and discomfort was lowest when stimulating the clitoris and sides of the clitoris (P clitoris. Functional scores on the SAGAS-F and during gynecological examination corresponded highly on most anatomical areas (P clitoris itself appeared to be the most sensitive, consistent with maximum nerve density in this area. Surgery to the clitoris could disrupt neurological pathways and compromise erotic sensation and pleasure. © 2013 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  18. Ulcerative colitis - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inflammatory bowel disease - ulcerative colitis - discharge; Ulcerative proctitis - discharge; Colitis - discharge ... were in the hospital because you have ulcerative colitis. This is a swelling of the inner lining ...

  19. The Tromsø study: registration of fractures, how good are self-reports, a computerized radiographic register and a discharge register?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joakimsen, R M; Fønnebø, V; Søgaard, A J; Tollan, A; Størmer, J; Magnus, J H

    2001-12-01

    In order to compare different methods of fracture registration, we sought all nonvertebral fractures suffered during 8 years (1988-95) among 21,441 persons invited to a survey in 1979/80. We registered a total of 54 hip fracture cases through three separate sources (self-report, computer linkage to the local radiographic archives, discharge register), whereas forearm fractures (a total of 291 cases) were registered through two separate sources (self-report, computer linkage to the radiographic archives). The registration of fractures at other sites (a total of 1321 cases) were from one source (computer linkage to the local radiographic archives), and we have compared three ways of obtaining data from this single source (no ascertainment, ascertainment of records coded as fracture, ascertainment of all records). Ninety-three percent of all hip fractures and 97% of all wrist fractures in the entire study population were found by computer linkage to the radiographic archives, whereas the discharge register detected 87% of all the hip fractures. Computer linkage with ascertainment gave no overreporting of fractures. Among the 11,626 persons who answered a follow-up questionnaire in 1994/95, 97% (CI 84-100%) of all hip fractures and 72% (CI 66-78%) of all wrist fractures were self-reported. We conclude that a computerized search of radiographic archives is a viable method of fracture registration.

  20. Persistent Genital Arousal Disorder: Confluent Patient History of Agitated Depression, Paroxetine Cessation, and a Tarlov Cyst

    OpenAIRE

    Simone Eibye; Hans Mørch Jensen

    2014-01-01

    We report a case of a woman suffering from persistent genital arousal disorder (PGAD) after paroxetine cessation. She was admitted to a psychiatric department and diagnosed with agitated depression. Physical investigation showed no gynaecological or neurological explanation; however, a pelvic MRI scan revealed a Tarlov cyst. Size and placement of the cyst could not explain the patient’s symptoms; thus neurosurgical approach would not be helpful. Her depression was treated with antidepressant ...

  1. Complex Genital Malformation in a Female with Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia: Evaluation with Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klessen, C.; Asbach, P.; Hein, P. A.; Beyersdorff, D.; Hamm, B.; Taupitz, M. [Humboldt-Univ. of Berlin, Campus Charite Mitte (Germany). Dept. of Radiology

    2005-12-01

    This is a case of complex genital malformation in a young patient with congenital adrenal hyperplasia. The magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings included ostium of the vagina into the urethra (common urogenital opening), prostate-like tissue surrounding the urethra, and hyperplasia of the left adrenal gland. The report provides information on the clinical findings, the MRI examination, including the applied sequences and the MR findings, and gives an overview of the disease pattern and its frequency of occurrence.

  2. Genital self-mutilation in a case of first episode psychosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anuj Khandelwal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Genital self-mutilation (GSM is a much rare finding and more commonly associated with psychosis when it comes to comparison with self-mutilation as a whole. There have been anecdotal case reports of GSM in psychotic disorders with most of them being in long standing psychoses. We describe herein a case of GSM during the first episode of psychosis where multiple phenomenological variables were seen responsible for the act.

  3. Genital Self-mutilation in a Case of First Episode Psychosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khandelwal, Anuj; Chauhan, Khushboo; De Sousa, Avinash; Sonavane, Sushma; Pawar, Alka

    2016-01-01

    Genital self-mutilation (GSM) is a much rare finding and more commonly associated with psychosis when it comes to comparison with self-mutilation as a whole. There have been anecdotal case reports of GSM in psychotic disorders with most of them being in long standing psychoses. We describe herein a case of GSM during the first episode of psychosis where multiple phenomenological variables were seen responsible for the act. PMID:27570352

  4. Application of RELAP5/MOD1 for calculation of safety and relief valve discharge piping hydrodynamic loads. Final report. [PWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-12-01

    A series of operability tests of spring-loaded safety valves was performed at Combustion Engineering in Windsor, CT as part of the PWR Safety and Relief Valve Test Program conducted by EPRI on behalf of PWR Utilities in response to the recommendations of NUREG-0578 and the requirements of the NRC. Experimental data from five of the safety valve tests are compared with RELAP5/MOD1 calculations to evaluate the capability of the code to determine the fluid-induced transient loads on downstream piping. Comparisons between data and calculations are given for transients with discharge of steam, water, and water loop seal followed by steam. RELAP5/MOD1 provides useful engineering estimates of the fluid-induced piping loads for all cases.

  5. Self-generated stochastic heating in an rf discharge. Annual progress report, May 15, 1991--May 14, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lichtenberg, A.

    1992-08-01

    We have studied the nonlinear dynamics of stochastic heating arising from the reflection of electrons from moving sheaths as an underlying mechanism for electron power deposition in r.f. discharges. We examined the dynamics of the electron collision with the sheaths in the regime in which the sheath motion is small compared to the average electron velocity to de rive a mop that describes the electron motion. We have shown that for high frequency, ({omega}/2{pi}{approx_gt}50MHz), the electrons will strike the moving wall with random phase. At low pressures this stochasticity is an intrinsic property of the dynamics. The stochastic electron heating leads to a power law electron distribution. The stochastic heating was determined in both the slow sheath and fast sheath velocity regimes assuming an incident Maxwellian distribution.

  6. Genital Ulcer Development in Patients with Acute Promyelocytic Leukaemia Treated with All-Trans Retinoic Acid: A Case Series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Al Huneini

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available We report here four cases of genital ulcers that developed after the administration of all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA for the treatment of acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL. Between October 2007 and March 2010, three males and one female (age range 19-35 years were identified to have genital ulcers after being prescribed all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA as a part of chemotherapy for APL. This is the first series of cases describing genital ulcers, as a unique and rare complication of ATRA used for treatment of APL in these patients, with no other cause identified. Following temporary cessation of ATRA for a few days in these three cases, improvement of the ulcers was noted.

  7. Determining oxidant and antioxidant status in patients with genital warts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cokluk, Erdem; Sekeroglu, Mehmet Ramazan; Aslan, Mehmet; Balahoroglu, Ragip; Bilgili, Serap Gunes; Huyut, Zubeyir

    2015-09-01

    Warts are abnormal skin growths caused by human papilloma virus (HPV) infections within the skin of patients. Genital warts usually appear in the perianal and perigenital regions. Asymptomatic warts may be activated after years and may damage natural immunity. The inflammation that occurs during this process may lead to an imbalance between the prooxidant and the antioxidant systems. The aim of this study was to investigate erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity, serum paraoxonase enzyme levels, and oxidative stress levels in patients with genital warts. In total, 32 patients with genital warts and 35 healthy subjects were included in this study. Erythrocyte GSH-Px activity, serum catalase activity, and paraoxonase enzyme, and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were determined. Erythrocyte GSH-Px activity, serum MDA levels, and catalase activity were significantly higher in patients with genital warts than in controls (P 0.05). Serum triglyceride levels were significantly lower in patients with genital warts than in controls (P 0.05). Our data suggest that oxidative stress is increased in genital warts. Increased oxidative stress levels may contribute to the pathogenesis of genital warts, and prolonged HPV infection due to chronic inflammation could also affect oxidative stress.

  8. [Secondary non-Hodgkin lymphoma of female genital tract].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovachev, S; Nacheva, A; Ganovska, A; Ivanov, A; Gigov, P; Vassilev, N

    2014-01-01

    Non-Hodgkin Lymphomas (NHL) are a separate group of blood diseases, which includes all types of lymphomas, without Hodgkin lymphomas. The incidence of NHL in the female genital system is 0.5% of all the NHL. They develop in the female genital organs primary or affect them secondary. Secondary development of the genital non-Hodgkin's lymphoma we have when the biopsy of a lymph node that precedes the diagnosis of the disease is before the development of a genital tumor or we can find a genital tumor--along with simultaneous involvement of the lymph nodes or extra genital authority. We present a clinical case of 56 years patient with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma with secondary genital involvement. From ultrasonography, computed axial tomography and Tu markers that were maiden we have suspicion for ovarian tumor with mechanical pressure over pyelocalix system due to left hidroureter and left hydronephrosis II degree. That was the only reason for urgent surgical treatment with intraoperative histologic diagnosis of NHL. The postoperative chemotherapy in combination with surgical treatment in our case had a good and long-lasting disease survivor effect. One year after the operation and the chemotherapy in the patient, there is no evidence of relapse.

  9. Prevalence of genital tract infection with Entamoeba gingivalis among copper T 380A intrauterine device users in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foda, Ashraf A; El-Malky, Mohamed M

    2012-01-01

    This study was performed to study the prevalence and potential pathogenicity of E. gingivalis in the genital tracts of intrauterine contraceptive device (IUD) users. A prospective study conducted at the Obstetrics and Gynecology Department and Fertility Care Unit, Mansoura University Hospital, Egypt. The study was carried out on 87 IUD users and 87 nonusers. The copper T 380A IUD was removed from each woman and washed with phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) pH 7.4; the IUD wash was centrifuged. The sediment was resuspended in 2 ml PBS and divided into two portions. One portion was used for preparation of direct and iron hematoxylin-stained smears. Direct smears and stained smears were examined for detailed morphology. The second portion of the sediment was used for DNA extraction and subsequent PCR amplification targeting the small subunit ribosomal RNA of E. gingivalis. The parasite was found in 12.64% of IUD users and in 6.9% of non users (p>.3). It was found that 90.9% of those harboring E. gingivalis in their genital tract had the parasite in their oral cavity. The percentage of genital infection in IUD users increased with low level of education, rural areas, insertion in primary health-care center and among those not washing hands before checking the strings. In the infected cases, vaginal discharge was more common (81.8%) than in noninfected cases (32.9%), such difference was statistically significant (p<.05). Also, excessive vaginal discharge is more common than backache and menorrhagia in the infected cases. Higher incidence of E. gingivalis infection in IUD users is related to oral cavity infection, residence, the facility where they inserted their IUD and washing hands attitude before checking the strings. We recommend treatment of gingival infection, proper counseling and medical education on oral and genital tract hygiene for IUD users. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Difficulties in Preventing Repeated Genital Self-Mutilation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djuricic Katarina Nikic

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Self-mutilation is self-inflicted and intentional damage done to one’s body or one’s body parts without a conscious suicidal intention. The first case of genital self-mutilation was published in 1846, and the first scientific description of genital self-mutilation was written by Stroch in 1901. Since the first case has been described, there have been a relatively small number of described cases of genital self-mutilation in both genders; there have been an even smaller number of cases of repeated genital self-mutilation and only a few descriptions of repetitive forms of male genital self-mutilation in the literature. The aim of our study is to present difficulties in preventing repeated male genital self-mutilation of a patient with an intellectual disability who was diagnosed and treated for epilepsy and psychosis in early adult life and had a previous history of self-destructive behaviour during childhood. Previous literature does not contain many repeated cases of male genital self-mutilation. After evaluating the contribution of each individual factor in the aetiology of self-mutilation, we concluded that every individual factor is significant in the aetiology of self-mutilation; however, no single factor, as well as all the factors put together, is not enough for prevention of self-mutilation. Our conclusion is that all the presented factors in our research (intellectual disability, epilepsy, psychosis, self-destructive tendencies in childhood have their place in the aetiology of male genital self-mutilation, but none of them are determining factors. This confirms that it is necessary to conduct further research in the field of aetiology of male genital self-mutilation, which would contribute towards more adequate prevention.

  11. Pediatric heart surgery - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... discharge; Heart valve surgery - children - discharge; Heart surgery - pediatric - discharge; Heart transplant - pediatric - discharge ... Geme JW, Schor NF, eds. Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics . 20th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2016:chap 434. ...

  12. Lung surgery - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Lung biopsy - discharge; Thoracoscopy - discharge; Video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery - discharge; VATS - discharge ... milk) for 2 weeks after video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery and 6 to 8 weeks after open surgery. ...

  13. Refractive corneal surgery - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nearsightedness surgery - discharge; Refractive surgery - discharge; LASIK - discharge; PRK - discharge ... You had refractive corneal surgery to help improve your vision. This surgery uses a laser to reshape your cornea. It corrects mild-to-moderate nearsightedness, ...

  14. Systematic review of the incidence and prevalence of genital warts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Anogenital warts (AGWs) are a common, highly infectious disease caused by the human papillomavirus (HPV), whose high recurrence rates contribute to direct medical costs, productivity loss and increased psychosocial impact. Because of the lack of a systematic review of the epidemiology of AGWs in the literature, this study reviewed the published medical literature on the incidence and prevalence of AGWs. Methods A comprehensive literature search was performed on the worldwide incidence and prevalence of AGWs between 2001 and 2012 using the PubMed and EMBASE databases. An additional screening of abstracts from relevant sexual health and infectious disease conferences from 2009 to 2011 was also conducted. Only original studies with general adult populations (i.e., at least including ages 20 through 40 years) were included. Results The overall (females and males combined) reported annual incidence of any AGWs (including new and recurrent) ranged from 160 to 289 per 100,000, with a median of 194.5 per 100,000. New AGW incidence rates among males ranged from 103 to 168 per 100,000, with a median of 137 per 100,000 and among females from 76 to 191 per 100,000, with a median of 120.5 per 100,000 per annum. The reported incidence of recurrent AGWs was as high as 110 per 100,000 among females and 163 per 100,000 among males. Incidence peaked before 24 years of age in females and between 25 and 29 years of age among males. The overall prevalence of AGWs based on retrospective administrative databases or medical chart reviews or prospectively collected physician reports ranged from 0.13% to 0.56%, whereas it ranged from 0.2% to 5.1% based on genital examinations. Conclusions The literature suggests that AGWs are widespread and the prevalence depends on study methodology as suggested by higher rates reported from routine genital examinations versus those from treatment records. However, there remains a need for more population-based studies from certain regions

  15. Genital powder use and risk of ovarian cancer: a pooled analysis of 8,525 cases and 9,859 controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry, Kathryn L.; Karageorgi, Stalo; Shvetsov, Yurii B.; Merritt, Melissa A.; Lurie, Galina; Thompson, Pamela J.; Carney, Michael E.; Weber, Rachel Palmieri; Akushevich, Lucy; Lo-Ciganic, Wei-Hsuan; Cushing-Haugen, Kara; Sieh, Weiva; Moysich, Kirsten; Doherty, Jennifer A.; Nagle, Christina M.; Berchuck, Andrew; Pearce, Celeste L.; Pike, Malcolm; Ness, Roberta B.; Webb, Penelope M.; Rossing, Mary Anne; Schildkraut, Joellen; Risch, Harvey; Goodman, Marc T.

    2013-01-01

    Genital powder use has been associated with risk of epithelial ovarian cancer in some, but not all, epidemiologic investigations, possibly reflecting the carcinogenic effects of talc particles found in most of these products. Whether risk increases with number of genital-powder applications and for all histologic types of ovarian cancer also remains uncertain. Therefore, we estimated the association between self-reported genital powder use and epithelial ovarian cancer risk in eight population-based case-control studies. Individual data from each study was collected and harmonized. Lifetime number of genital-powder applications was estimated from duration and frequency of use. Pooled odds ratios were calculated using conditional logistic regression matched on study and age and adjusted for potential confounders. Subtype-specific risks were estimated according to tumor behavior and histology. 8,525 cases and 9,859 controls were included in the analyses. Genital powder use was associated with a modest increased risk of epithelial ovarian cancer (odds ratio 1.24, 95% confidence interval 1.15–1.33) relative to women who never used powder. Risk was elevated for invasive serous (1.20, 1.09–1.32), endometrioid (1.22, 1.04–1.43), and clear cell (1.24, 1.01–1.52) tumors, and for borderline serous tumors (1.46, 1.24–1.72). Among genital powder users, we observed no significant trend (p=0.17) in risk with increasing number of lifetime applications (assessed in quartiles). We noted no increase in risk among women who only reported non-genital powder use. In summary, genital powder use is a modifiable exposure associated with small-to-moderate increases in risk of most histologic subtypes of epithelial ovarian cancer. PMID:23761272

  16. Panuveitis with oral and genital ulcer misdiagnosed as Behcet’s disease:two cases report and literature review%全葡萄膜炎合并口腔、外阴溃疡误诊为白塞病2例分析及文献复习

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王昱; 杨柳; 张卓莉

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY Here we reported two patients who presented with panuveitis and were transferred from oph-thalmologists to rheumatologists,for both the patients had oral and genital ulcers.They were misdiag-nosed with Behcet’s disease at first glance.Two young males presented with acute uveitis with history of recurrent oral and genital ulcers.They initially presented with symptoms and signs resembling Behcet’s disease and were treated with systemic steroids with suboptimal responses.Routine laboratory test re-vealed syphilis and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)infection.After treatment of penicillin and anti HIV virus therapy,the panuveitis was relived.The other patient was lost in the follow up.Recently epi-demiological data indicate that syphilis and HIV infection increase,which can mimic the manifestation of Behcet’s disease.Diagnosis of sexual transmitted diseases,such as HIV or syphilis needs to be ruled out in all cases that mimic the clinical feature of Behcet’s disease,especially for those who had a history of high risk behaviors.Every patient should have history analysis in detail.Screening of sexual transmitted diseases,such as HIV or syphilis is important especially in those rapid progressive panuveitis.Also, other virus infections,such as cytomegalovirus,epstein-barr virus or Herpes simplex virus can cause mucosa ulcers and uveitis.CD4 T cell count is a very important marker to indicate that the patient has immunodeficiency.Erythema nodosa and pseudofolliculitis are the third common clinical manifestation in Chinese Behcet’s disease patients.Rheumatologist should watch out for patients without skin involvement when making the diagnosis of Behcet’s disease.Syphilis-associated uveitis usually has a good prognosis. Treatment of antibiotics can get good response,92% uveitis can be relieved,with 67% improved vision. Acute syphilitic posterior placoid chorioretinitis (ASPPC)is a clinically and angiographically distinct manifestation of ocular syphilis

  17. A rare cause of infertility: A late complication of female genital mutilation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferjaoui Mohamed Aimen

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Female genital mutilation is a cultural practice in many African and Asian societies based usually on religious beliefs. This practice made by a non medical and traditional practitioner with non sterile instruments is a source of many complications such as infection, acute and chronic pain, life-threatening hemorrhage, sexual dysfunction, and rarely epidermal inclusion cysts. We report a case of a large epidermal inclusion cyst in a 36-year-old patient, 30 years after a female genital mutilation (FGM. The patient complains of a two-year-secondary infertility with a self-imaging alteration and a sexual dysfunction. The managment of this complication was based on surgery with a psychological support and sexual therapies.

  18. Genital Tuberculosis as the Cause of Tuboovarian Abscess in an Immunosuppressed Patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ilmer

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Although tuberculosis (TB is a major health problem worldwide, primary extrapulmonary tuberculosis (EPTB, and in particular female genital tract infection, remains a rare event. Case Report. A 35-year-old human immunodeficiency virus (HIV seropositive woman of African descent with lower abdominal pain and fever of two days duration underwent surgery due to left adnexal mass suggesting pelvic inflammatory disease. The surgical situs showed a four quadrant peritonitis, consistent with the clinical symptoms of the patient, provoked by a tuboovarian abscess (TOA on the left side. All routine diagnostic procedures failed to determine the causative organism/pathogen of the infection. Histopathological evaluation identified a necrotic granulomatous salpingitis and specific PCR analysis corroborated Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. Tb. Consequently, antituberculotic therapy was provided. Conclusion. In the differential diagnosis of pelvic inflammatory disease, internal genital tuberculosis should be considered. Moreover, physicians should consider tuberculous infections early in the work-up of patients when immunosuppressive conditions are present.

  19. Health complications of female genital mutilation in Sierra Leone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bjälkander O

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Owolabi Bjälkander,1 Laurel Bangura,2 Bailah Leigh,3 Vanja Berggren,1 Staffan Bergström,1 Lars Almroth11Division of Global Health, Department of Public Health, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; 2Inter Africa Committee, Sierra Leone; 3Department of Community Health, College of Medicine and Allied Health Sciences, University of Sierra Leone, Sierra LeoneAbstract: Sierra Leone has one of the highest rates of female genital mutilation (FGM in the world, and yet little is known about the health consequences of the practice.Purpose: To explore whether and what kind of FGM-related health complications girls and women in Sierra Leone experience, and to elucidate their health care-seeking behaviors.Patients and methods: A feasibility study was conducted to test and refine questionnaires and methods used for this study. Thereafter, a cross-section of girls and women (n = 258 attending antenatal care and Well Women Clinics in Bo Town, Bo District, in the southern region and in Makeni Town, Bombali District, in the northern region of Sierra Leone were randomly selected. Participants answered interview-administrated pretested structured questionnaires with open-ended-questions, administrated by trained female personnel.Results: All respondents had undergone FGM, most between 10 and 14 years of age. Complications were reported by 218 respondents (84.5%, the most common ones being excessive bleeding, delay in or incomplete healing, and tenderness. Fever was significantly more often reported by girls who had undergone FGM before 10 years of age compared with those who had undergone the procedure later. Out of those who reported complications, 187 (85.8% sought treatment, with 89 of them visiting a traditional healer, 75 a Sowei (traditional circumciser, and 16 a health professional.Conclusion: The high prevalence rate of FGM and the proportion of medical complications show that FGM is a matter for public health concern in Sierra Leone. Girls who

  20. Genital examination training: assessing the effectiveness of an integrated female and male teaching programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBain, Lynn; Pullon, Susan; Garrett, Sue; Hoare, Kath

    2016-11-22

    Learning to undertake intimate female and male examinations is an important part of medical student training but opportunities to participate in practical, supervised learning in a safe environment can be limited. A collaborative, integrated training programme to provide such learning was developed by two university teaching departments and a specialist sexual health service, utilising teaching associates trained for intimate examinations in a simulated clinical educational setting. The objective of this research was to determine changes in senior medical students' self- reported experience and confidence in performing male and female genital examinations, before and after participating in a new clinical teaching programme. A quasi-experimental mixed methods design, using pre and post programme questionnaires and focus groups, was used to assess the effectiveness of the programme. The students reported greatly improved skill, confidence and comfort levels for both male and female genital examination following the teaching programme. Skill, confidence and comfort regarding male examinations were rated particularly low on the pre-teaching programme self- assessment, but post-programme was rated at similar levels to the female examination. This integrated female-male teaching programme (utilising trained teaching associates as simulated patients in a supervised clinical teaching environment) was successful in increasing senior medical students' skills and levels of confidence in performing genital examinations. There were differences between female and male medical students in their learning. Suggestions for improvement included providing more detailed instruction to some clinical supervisors about their facilitation role in the session.

  1. [The Prognostic Significance of ICF Data with Regard to Realization of Recommendations Given in the Medical Discharge Report after In-Patient Psychosomatic Rehabilitation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oster, Jörg; von Wietersheim, Jörn; Müller, Gottfried; Braunger, Carina

    2017-05-01

    Target In this trial, the prognostic significance of ICF-related diagnostics compared to social and medical, disease-related and personal factors with regard to realization of recommendations given in the medical discharge report after the in-patient psychosomatic rehabilitation should be examined. Methodology ICF-related, social and medical, disease-related and personal prognostic factors were surveyed by questionnaires and interviews, on admission, discharge and 6 months after discharge from rehabilitation (time of catamnesis). As target criteria, realizations of recommendations from the fields of sports and exercise, psychotherapy and social medicine were chosen, they could be evaluated by telephone from N=344 participants at the time of catamnesis. For determination of relevant predictors, bivariate and multi-variate analyses were performed. Results 70% of patients realized the recommended sports and exercise, 45% the recommended psychotherapy and 44% a social and medical recommendation. With regard to the target criterion for the realization of recommended sports and exercise, the elevated prognostic factors had only a low prognostic value. For the prognosis of the target criterion of realizing a recommended psychotherapy, interpersonal problems and a low ability to interact in groups (Mini-ICF-APP) turned out to be relevant ICF-related predictors. Different problems (e. g., job-related conditions) appeared as relevant, ICF-related predictors concerning the realization of social and medical recommendations. Disturbances of reliability, self-evaluated by means of ICF AT-50 Psych, showed in the bivariate analyses significant correlations with the target criteria. Conclusion Besides other variables, also ICF-supported attributes turned out to be suitable for the prognosis of target criteria. They should be evaluated and considered in the rehabilitation process. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  2. Genital tuberculosis is common among females with tubal factor ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abdulhakim Ali Al eryani

    2015-01-02

    Jan 2, 2015 ... Of a total 151 women who had tubal factor infertility, 61 cases were investigated ... Introduction. Female genital tuberculosis (GTB) is a common health ... had normal hormonal profile, and normal male parameters assessed by ...

  3. Genital Herpes Vaccine Shows Promise in Animal Trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 163137.html Genital Herpes Vaccine Shows Promise in Animal Trials Two-pronged approach tested on lab monkeys, guinea ... vaccines have not shown very robust protection in animal and human trials. Friedman and his colleagues decided that an effective ...

  4. Genital rhabdomyoma of the urethra in an infant girl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, David Y; Chang, Sue; Cook, Heather; Alizadeh, Yalda; Karam, Amer K; Moatamed, Neda A; Dry, Sarah M

    2012-04-01

    Extracardiac rhabdomyomas are rare benign entities that usually occur in the head and neck region. Although genital rhabdomyoma is known to occur in the lower genital tract of young and middle-aged women, involvement of the anatomically adjacent urethra by rhabdomyoma is exceedingly rare. We present a case of genital rhabdomyoma arising from the urethra of an infant girl. The tumor was characterized by the submucosal presence of mature-appearing rhabdomyoblastic cells containing conspicuous cross-striations, with the cells set in a collagenous stroma. Necrosis and mitoses were absent. Skeletal muscle differentiation of the tumor cells was supported by positive immunohistochemical staining for desmin and myogenin. To our knowledge, this is the first case of urethral genital-type rhabdomyoma in a child.

  5. Environmental and economic assessment of discharges from Gulf of Mexico Region Oil and Gas Operations. Quarterly technical progress report, 1 October--31 December 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gettleson, D.A.

    1994-01-28

    Task 2 (Preparation of the Sampling and Analysis Plan) activities involved the incorporation of the offshore site selection process into the Sampling and Analysis Plan. Task 3 (Environmental Field Sampling and Analysis of NORM, Heavy Metals, and Organics) work included making decisions on tissue analyses and performing analyses of water and sediment samples. Task 4 (Monitoring of the Recovery of Impacted Wetland and Open Bay Produced Water Discharge Sites in Coastal Louisiana and Texas) activities involved the completion of the spring benthos samples collection on pre-termination samples at Four Isle Dome and the first post-termination samples at Delacroix Island. Task 5 (Assessment of Economic Impacts of Offshore and Coastal Discharge Requirements on Present and Future Operations in the Gum of Mexico Region) activities included continued work on development of a base case production forecast, modeling future production, and determining economic impact of treatment technologies. Task 6 (Synthesis of Gulf of Mexico Seafood Consumption and Use Patterns) work involved the completion of the fall survey season and the initiation of the survey data assembly. Task 7 (Technology Transfer Plan) activities included presentations at the Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry annual meeting and Minerals Management Service Information Transfer Meeting. Task 8 (Project Management and Deliverables) activities involved the submission of the necessary reports and routine management.

  6. Various hysterosalpingography findings of female genital tuberculosis: A case series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nargess Afzali

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Genital tuberculosis is a chorionic disease and mostly occurs by haematogenous spread from extra genital source like lungs, peritoneum, lymph nodes and bones. Transmission through a sexual intercourse is also possible. Since the majority of patients are in reproductive ages, involvement of fallopian tubes and endometrium cause infertility in patients. Cases: Reviewing 4 cases of female genital tuberculosis, which referred to an infertility treatment center with various symptoms, we encountered various appearances on hysterosalpingography (HSG. Conclusion: The genitourinary tract is the most common site of extra pulmonary TB. The primary focus of genital tuberculosis is fallopian tubes, which are almost always affected bilaterally but not symmetrically. Because of common involvement of fallopian tubes and endometrial cavity, disease causes infertility. Diagnosis is not easy because genital tuberculosis has a wide range of clinical and radiological manifestations with slow growing symptoms. Detailed hysterosalpingography finding may be helpful in better diagnosis of the disease. This case series aims to depict the various hystrosalpingographic appearances and pathology produced by tuberculosis and related literatures are reviewed in order to establish a better diagnostic evaluation of genital tuberculosis

  7. Interferon Lambda 4 Genotype Is Not Associated with Recurrence of Oral or Genital Herpes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang Kuhs, Krystle A; Kuniholm, Mark H; Pfeiffer, Ruth M; Chen, Sabrina; Desai, Seema; Edlin, Brian R; Peters, Marion G; Plankey, Michael; Sharp, Gerald B; Strickler, Howard D; Villacres, Maria C; Quinn, Thomas C; Gange, Stephen J; Prokunina-Olsson, Ludmila; Greenblatt, Ruth M; O'Brien, Thomas R

    2015-01-01

    IFNL4-ΔG/TT (rs368234815) genotype is associated with hepatitis C virus clearance and may play a role in other infections. IFN-λ4 protein is generated only in individuals who carry the IFNL4-ΔG allele. The IFNL4 rs12979860-T allele, which is in strong linkage disequilibrium with IFNL4-ΔG, was recently reported to be associated with more frequent and severe oral herpes episodes. We investigated the association of IFNL4-ΔG/TT with herpes simplex virus (HSV)-related outcomes among 2,192 African American and European American participants in the Women's Interagency HIV Study (WIHS). WIHS is a prospective cohort study of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected and at-risk women that began in 1994. This report includes follow-up through 2013. Available data included: HSV-1 and HSV-2 antibodies at study entry; bi-annually ascertained episodes of (self-reported) oral herpes, (self-reported) genital sores and (clinician-observed) genital ulcers; HSV-2 DNA in cervicovaginal lavage (CVL) specimens. IFNL4-ΔG/TT genotyping was determined by TaqMan. We compared women with IFNL4-ΔG/ΔG or IFNL4-TT/ΔG genotypes (i.e., IFNL4-ΔG carriers) to those with the IFNL4-TT/TT genotype, adjusting for age, race and HIV status. For outcomes with repeated measurements, the adjusted odds ratio (aOR), 95% confidence interval [CI] and p-value were determined using a generalized estimating equations approach. Median participant age at enrollment was 36 years; 81% were African American, 74% were HIV-infected. Among 1,431 participants tested for antibodies, 72.8% were positive for HSV-1 and 79.0% were positive for HSV-2. We observed no association between IFNL4-ΔG/TT genotype and any outcome: HSV-1 or HSV-2 antibody prevalence (p>0.1, all comparisons); oral herpes (aOR, 1.2; p = 0.35); genital sores (aOR, 1.0; p = 0.71); genital ulcers (aOR, 1.1; p = 0.53); detectable HSV-2 DNA in CVL (N = 322; aOR, 0.71; p = 0.49); HSV-2 DNA level (p = 0.68). In this large prospective study, IFNL4-

  8. Interferon Lambda 4 Genotype Is Not Associated with Recurrence of Oral or Genital Herpes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krystle A Lang Kuhs

    Full Text Available IFNL4-ΔG/TT (rs368234815 genotype is associated with hepatitis C virus clearance and may play a role in other infections. IFN-λ4 protein is generated only in individuals who carry the IFNL4-ΔG allele. The IFNL4 rs12979860-T allele, which is in strong linkage disequilibrium with IFNL4-ΔG, was recently reported to be associated with more frequent and severe oral herpes episodes. We investigated the association of IFNL4-ΔG/TT with herpes simplex virus (HSV-related outcomes among 2,192 African American and European American participants in the Women's Interagency HIV Study (WIHS. WIHS is a prospective cohort study of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-infected and at-risk women that began in 1994. This report includes follow-up through 2013. Available data included: HSV-1 and HSV-2 antibodies at study entry; bi-annually ascertained episodes of (self-reported oral herpes, (self-reported genital sores and (clinician-observed genital ulcers; HSV-2 DNA in cervicovaginal lavage (CVL specimens. IFNL4-ΔG/TT genotyping was determined by TaqMan. We compared women with IFNL4-ΔG/ΔG or IFNL4-TT/ΔG genotypes (i.e., IFNL4-ΔG carriers to those with the IFNL4-TT/TT genotype, adjusting for age, race and HIV status. For outcomes with repeated measurements, the adjusted odds ratio (aOR, 95% confidence interval [CI] and p-value were determined using a generalized estimating equations approach. Median participant age at enrollment was 36 years; 81% were African American, 74% were HIV-infected. Among 1,431 participants tested for antibodies, 72.8% were positive for HSV-1 and 79.0% were positive for HSV-2. We observed no association between IFNL4-ΔG/TT genotype and any outcome: HSV-1 or HSV-2 antibody prevalence (p>0.1, all comparisons; oral herpes (aOR, 1.2; p = 0.35; genital sores (aOR, 1.0; p = 0.71; genital ulcers (aOR, 1.1; p = 0.53; detectable HSV-2 DNA in CVL (N = 322; aOR, 0.71; p = 0.49; HSV-2 DNA level (p = 0.68. In this large prospective study, IFNL4

  9. Interferon Lambda 4 Genotype Is Not Associated with Recurrence of Oral or Genital Herpes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang Kuhs, Krystle A.; Kuniholm, Mark H.; Pfeiffer, Ruth M.; Chen, Sabrina; Desai, Seema; Edlin, Brian R.; Peters, Marion G.; Plankey, Michael; Sharp, Gerald B.; Strickler, Howard D.; Villacres, Maria C.; Quinn, Thomas C.; Gange, Stephen J.; Prokunina-Olsson, Ludmila; Greenblatt, Ruth M.; O’Brien, Thomas R.

    2015-01-01

    IFNL4-ΔG/TT (rs368234815) genotype is associated with hepatitis C virus clearance and may play a role in other infections. IFN-λ4 protein is generated only in individuals who carry the IFNL4-ΔG allele. The IFNL4 rs12979860-T allele, which is in strong linkage disequilibrium with IFNL4-ΔG, was recently reported to be associated with more frequent and severe oral herpes episodes. We investigated the association of IFNL4-ΔG/TT with herpes simplex virus (HSV)-related outcomes among 2,192 African American and European American participants in the Women’s Interagency HIV Study (WIHS). WIHS is a prospective cohort study of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)–infected and at-risk women that began in 1994. This report includes follow-up through 2013. Available data included: HSV–1 and HSV–2 antibodies at study entry; bi-annually ascertained episodes of (self-reported) oral herpes, (self-reported) genital sores and (clinician-observed) genital ulcers; HSV–2 DNA in cervicovaginal lavage (CVL) specimens. IFNL4-ΔG/TT genotyping was determined by TaqMan. We compared women with IFNL4-ΔG/ΔG or IFNL4-TT/ΔG genotypes (i.e., IFNL4-ΔG carriers) to those with the IFNL4-TT/TT genotype, adjusting for age, race and HIV status. For outcomes with repeated measurements, the adjusted odds ratio (aOR), 95% confidence interval [CI] and p-value were determined using a generalized estimating equations approach. Median participant age at enrollment was 36 years; 81% were African American, 74% were HIV-infected. Among 1,431 participants tested for antibodies, 72.8% were positive for HSV–1 and 79.0% were positive for HSV–2. We observed no association between IFNL4-ΔG/TT genotype and any outcome: HSV–1 or HSV–2 antibody prevalence (p>0.1, all comparisons); oral herpes (aOR, 1.2; p = 0.35); genital sores (aOR, 1.0; p = 0.71); genital ulcers (aOR, 1.1; p = 0.53); detectable HSV–2 DNA in CVL (N = 322; aOR, 0.71; p = 0.49); HSV–2 DNA level (p = 0.68). In this large

  10. Giant condylomata acuminata of Buschke-Lowenstein: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Silian Mandu Fonseca

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The giant condylomata acuminata of Buschke-Lowenstein is a sexually transmitted disease caused by the human papillomavirus, clinically characterized by genital warts, with high potential to develop into squamous cell carcinoma. This article seeks to report the case of a male patient, HIV-negative, who had bleeding, purulent discharge and injury with vegetative aspect in the perianal region. Biopsy of the lesion showed condyloma of Buschke-Lowenstein, and, after six months, surgery with wide excision of the lesion and rectum amputation was performed. The anatomopathological examination of the surgical specimen showed squamous cells carcinoma.

  11. Salicylate Toxicity from Genital Exposure to a Methylsalicylate-Containing Rubefacient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trevonne M. Thompson, MD

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Methylsalicylate-containing rubefacients have been reported to cause salicylate poisoning after ingestion, topical application to abnormal skin, and inappropriate topical application to normal skin. Many over-the-counter products contain methylsalicylate. Topical salicylates rarely produce systemic toxicity when used appropriately; however, methylsaliclyate can be absorbed through intact skin. Scrotal skin can have up to 40-fold greater absorption compared to other dermal regions. We report a unique case of salicylate poisoning resulting from the use of a methylsalicylate-containing rubefacient to facilitate masturbation in a male teenager. Saliclyate toxicity has not previously been reported from the genital exposure to methylsaliclyate.

  12. Condilomatosis genital y embarazo asociada a corioamnionitis y parto prematuro Genital condylomatosis and pregnancy associated with chorioamnionitis and premature delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Martínez Montero

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Los condilomas genitales están producidos por el virus del papiloma humano. En muchas ocasiones se asocian a otras infecciones genitales (hongos, tricomonas y vaginosis. El embarazo favorece la aparición de condilomas en la región anogenital. A propósito de un caso de condilomatosis genital asociada a corioamnionitis y que desencadenó un parto prematuro realizamos una revisión de la literatura.Genital condylomas are produced by the human papilloma virus. On many occasions they are associated with other genital infections (fungi, trichomonas and vaginosis. Pregnancy favours the appearance of condylomas in the anogenital region. On the occasion of a case of genital condylomatosis associated with chorioamnionitis that resulted in a premature delivery, we carry out a review the literature.

  13. Transformation of the genital epithelial tract occurs early in California sea lion development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barragán-Vargas, Cecilia; Montano-Frías, Jorge; Ávila Rosales, Germán; Godínez-Reyes, Carlos R; Acevedo-Whitehouse, Karina

    2016-03-01

    An unusually high prevalence of metastatic urogenital carcinoma has been observed in free-ranging California sea lions stranded off the coast of California in the past two decades. No cases have been reported for sea lions in the relatively unpolluted Gulf of California. We investigated occurrence of genital epithelial transformation in 60 sea lions (n=57 pups and 3 adult females) from the Gulf of California and examined whether infection by a viral pathogen previously found to be associated with urogenital carcinoma accounted for such alterations. We also explored the contribution of MHC class II gene expression on transformation. Cellular alterations, such as squamous cell atypia (ASC), atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS) and low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions were observed in 42% of the pups and in 67% of the adult females. Normal genital epithelium was more common in male than female pups. ASC was five times more likely to occur in older pups. Epithelial alterations were unrelated to infection by the potentially oncogenic otarine type I gammaherpesvirus (OtHV-1), but ASCUS was more common in pups with marked and severe inflammation. Expression of MHC class II DRB loci (Zaca DRB-D) by peripheral antigen-presenting leucocytes showed a slightly 'protective' effect for ASC. We propose that transformation of the California sea lion genital epithelium is relatively common in young animals, increases with age and is probably the result of infection by an unidentified pathogen. Expression of a specific MHC class II gene, suggestive of presentation of specific antigenic peptides to immune effectors, appears to lower the risk of transformation. Our study provides the first evidence that epithelial transformation of the California sea lion genital tract is relatively common, even from an early age, and raises questions regarding differences in sea lion cancer-detection and -repair success between geographical regions.

  14. Transformation of the genital epithelial tract occurs early in California sea lion development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barragán-Vargas, Cecilia; Montano-Frías, Jorge; Ávila Rosales, Germán; Godínez-Reyes, Carlos R.; Acevedo-Whitehouse, Karina

    2016-01-01

    An unusually high prevalence of metastatic urogenital carcinoma has been observed in free-ranging California sea lions stranded off the coast of California in the past two decades. No cases have been reported for sea lions in the relatively unpolluted Gulf of California. We investigated occurrence of genital epithelial transformation in 60 sea lions (n=57 pups and 3 adult females) from the Gulf of California and examined whether infection by a viral pathogen previously found to be associated with urogenital carcinoma accounted for such alterations. We also explored the contribution of MHC class II gene expression on transformation. Cellular alterations, such as squamous cell atypia (ASC), atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS) and low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions were observed in 42% of the pups and in 67% of the adult females. Normal genital epithelium was more common in male than female pups. ASC was five times more likely to occur in older pups. Epithelial alterations were unrelated to infection by the potentially oncogenic otarine type I gammaherpesvirus (OtHV-1), but ASCUS was more common in pups with marked and severe inflammation. Expression of MHC class II DRB loci (Zaca DRB-D) by peripheral antigen-presenting leucocytes showed a slightly ‘protective’ effect for ASC. We propose that transformation of the California sea lion genital epithelium is relatively common in young animals, increases with age and is probably the result of infection by an unidentified pathogen. Expression of a specific MHC class II gene, suggestive of presentation of specific antigenic peptides to immune effectors, appears to lower the risk of transformation. Our study provides the first evidence that epithelial transformation of the California sea lion genital tract is relatively common, even from an early age, and raises questions regarding differences in sea lion cancer-detection and -repair success between geographical regions. PMID:27069641

  15. Major traumatic and septic genital injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAninch, J W; Kahn, R I; Jeffrey, R B; Laing, F C; Krieger, M J

    1984-04-01

    Major injuries to the testicles, penis, and genital skin from trauma and infection were seen in 62 patients over a 6-year period (1977 to 1983). Urethral injuries were excluded. In the past blunt testicle injuries were infrequently diagnosed and surgically ignored because of large surrounding hematomas. With the use of real-time ultrasound, 17 of 18 cases of testicle rupture were correctly diagnosed preoperatively. Surgical repair resulted in testicle salvage in 16 patients. Penetrating testicle injuries resulted in a high orchiectomy rate secondary to the infrequently described but recognized entity of self-emasculation in transsexuals. Penile rupture from blunt injuries (8) was successfully repaired and complete function was recovered. Penetrating penile injuries (4) were extensive and involved the urethra in two cases; full function returned after reconstruction. Major skin loss of the penis and/or scrotum (19) occurred from necrotizing fasciitis, burns, avulsion and penetrating injuries. Early debridement, bowel and urinary diversion followed by penile skin grafting, thigh pouches to protect testicles, and scrotal reconstruction resulted in acceptable cosmetic and functional results in all cases of major skin loss.

  16. Abdominal sacral colpopexy for massive genital prolapse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell; Joseph

    1998-07-01

    Objective: A retrospective study to determine the success and complications of abdominal sacral colpopexy in correcting massive genital prolapse over an 8-year period between September 1989 and January 1997.Methods: The charts were reviewed for 3 patients with massive procidentia and 15 patients with symptomatic posthysterectomy vaginal vault prolapse, who desired preservation of sexual function and underwent abdominal sacral colpopexy with Marlex mesh at two community teaching hospitals.Results: In 16 of the 18 patients, one or more concurrent procedures were performed at the same time, including three Burch colpocystourethropexies and one Raz bladder neck suspension, which successfully controlled urinary stress incontinence. In three cases, staging procedures were done for ovarian neoplasia. There were no intraoperative complications. One patient developed a superficial abdominal wound infection, one patient had a deep venous thrombosis in her left leg 7 days postoperatively, and one patient experienced a 1 cm area of graft erosion 10 months postoperative requiring partial resection. Duration of follow-up has varied from 8 months to 5 years. One patient died 43 months after surgery of unrelated causes. No patients developed recurrent prolapse.Conclusions: Abdominal sacral colpopexy is a successful operation for the correction of prolapse. Serious complications are infrequent. Photographs of the technique and a review of the literature are presented.

  17. Female genital cutting: impact on women's health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nour, Nawal M

    2015-01-01

    More than 130 million women worldwide have undergone female genital cutting (FGC). FGC is practiced in parts of Africa and Asia, in societies with various cultures and religions. Reasons for the continuing practice of FGC include rite of passage, preserving chastity, ensuring marriageability, religion, hygiene, improving fertility, and enhancing sexual pleasure for men. The World Health Organization has classified FGC into four types depending on the extent of tissue removed. Immediate complications include hemorrhage, infection, sepsis, and death. Long-term complications include pain, scarring, urinary issues, and poor obstetric and neonatal outcomes. Efforts are being made nationally and internationally to eradicate this practice. In December 2012, the UN General Assembly accepted a resolution on the elimination of FGC. Although it is illegal to perform FGC in the United States, women from countries where the practice occurs have been and are still immigrating here. Many enter as refugees from war-torn, famine-stricken, or politically unstable countries. They bring along with them their cultural pride, health complications, and fears of being judged when visiting a health provider. A deeper understanding of the history, cultural beliefs, medical complications, and methods of surgical reconstruction is necessary to provide culturally and linguistically competent care to this unique group of women. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  18. Surveillance of poisoning and drug overdose through hospital discharge coding, poison control center reporting, and the Drug Abuse Warning Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanc, P D; Jones, M R; Olson, K R

    1993-01-01

    There is no gold standard for determining poisoning incidence. We wished to compare four measures of poisoning incidence: International Classification of Diseases 9th Revision (ICD-9) principal (N-code) and supplemental external cause of injury (E-code) designations, poison control center (PCC) reporting, and detection by the Drug Abuse Warning Network (DAWN). We studied a case series at two urban hospitals. We assigned ICD-9 N-code and E-code classifications, determining whether these matched with medical records. We ascertained PCC and DAWN system reporting. A total of 724 subjects met entry criteria; 533 were studied (74%). We matched poisoning N-codes for 278 patients (52%), E-code by cause in 306 patients (57%), and E-code by intent in 171 patients (32%). A total of 383 patients (72%) received any poisoning N-code or any E-code. We found that PCC and DAWN reporting occurred for 123 of all patients (23%) and 399 of 487 eligible patients (82%), respectively. In multiple logistic regression, factors of age, hospital admission, suicidal intent, principal poisoning or overdose type, and mixed drug overdose were statistically significant predictors of case match or report varying by surveillance measure. Our findings indicate that common surveillance measures of poisoning and drug overdose may systematically undercount morbidity.

  19. Female genital mutilation: an injury, physical and mental harm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utz-Billing, I; Kentenich, H

    2008-12-01

    This article gives an overview over the huge topic of 'female genital mutilation' (FGM). FGM means non-therapeutic, partial or complete removal or injury of each of the external female genitals. It concerns about 130 million women around the world. FGM is performed in about 30 countries, most of which are located in Africa. Four types of FGM are distinguished: type I stands for the removal of the clitoral foreskin, type II means the removal of the clitoris with partial or total excision of the labia minora. Type III is the extreme type of FGM. Not only the clitoris but also the labia minora and majora were removed. The orificium vaginae is sewn up, leaving only a small opening for urine or menstruation blood. Other types like pricking, piercing of clitoris or vulva, scraping of the vagina, etc. were defined as type IV of FGM. The mentioned reasons for FGM are: encouragement of the patriarchal family system, method for birth control, guarantee of moral behaviour and faithfulness to the husband, protection of women from suspicions and disgrace, initiation ritual, symbol of feminity and beauty, hygienic, health and economic advantages. Acute physical consequences of FGM include bleeding, wound infections, sepsis, shock, micturition problems and fractures. Chronic physical problems like anemia, infections of the urinary tract, incontinence, infertility, pain, menstruation problems and dyspareunia are frequent. Women also have a higher risk for HIV infections. During pregnancy and delivery, examinations and vaginal application of medicine are more difficult. Women have a higher risk for a prolonged delivery, wound infections, a postpartum blood loss of more than 500 mL, perineal tears, a resuscitation of the infant and an inpatient perinatal death. Mental consequences after FGM include the feelings of incompleteness, fear, inferiority and suppression. Women report chronic irritability and nightmares. They have a higher risk for psychiatric and psychosomatic diseases

  20. Forewing venation pattern and genital plate structure in a non-outbreak population of the Rice Black Bug (Scotinophara coarctata Stål) from Lala, Lanao del Norte, Philippines

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mark A. J. Torres; Gerald M. P. Ong; Ravindra C. Joshi; Alberto T. Barrion; Leocadio S. Sebastian; Cesar G. Demayo

    2013-01-01

    .... The present study reports on the variability in the wing venation pattern and shapes of the male and female genital plates structure in a non-outbreak population of RBB from Lala, Lanao del Norte...

  1. Quantifying the Behavioral Response of Spawning Chum Salmon to Elevated Discharges from Bonneville Dam, Columbia River : Annual Report 2005-2006.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiffan, Kenneth F.; Haskell, Craig A.; Kock, Tobias J.

    2008-12-01

    riverbed elevation and providing minimum spawning flows that have the greatest chance of being maintained through egg incubation and fry emergence. However, managing the lower Columbia River for a stable tailwater elevation does not provide much operational flexibility at Bonneville Dam, which has little storage capacity. When river discharges increase due to rain events, the traditional approach has been to pass excess water at night to maintain stable tailwater elevations during the daytime. The underlying assumption of this strategy, referred to as reverse load following, is that fish do not spawn at night. However, Tiffan et al. (2005) showed that this assumption is false by documenting nighttime spawning by chum salmon in the Ives Island area. Similarly, McMichael et al. (2005) reported nighttime spawning by Chinook salmon (O. tshawytscha) in the Columbia River, indicating that diel spawning may be a common occurrence in Pacific salmon. During the latter portion of the chum spawning period in December 2003 and 2004, discharges from Bonneville Dam increased from an average of 3,398 m3/s (tailwater elevation {approx} 3.5 m above mean sea level) during the day to over 5,664 m3/s (tailwater elevation {approx} 5.1 m) at night, with peak discharges of 7,080 m{sup 3}/s (tailwater elevation {approx} 6.1 m). This caused concern among fishery managers regarding the potential effects of these high discharges on this population of spawning chum salmon, which is listed under the Endangered Species Act (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 1999). We hypothesized that increased water velocities associated with elevated tailwaters might alter chum salmon spawning behavior if water velocities at redd locations increased beyond the range of suitability (>0.8 m/s; Salo 1991). In 2005, we investigated the movement and behavioral responses of spawning chum salmon at Ives Island to increased tailwater elevations at Bonneville Dam. We used acoustic telemetry to determine if the

  2. Genital Culture: Exploring the Cultural Importance of Genital Surgeru in the West

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexa Dodge

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The assumed importance of genital surgery for intersex children as well as the rising popularity of cosmetic surgery for one’s genitals (namely for women exemplify the importance placed on gender distinction in Western culture. This paper will explore how these genital surgeries are tied to the idealized conception of the gender binary that exists in our culture. Despite the reality that genitals, especially the vulva, vary widely in appearance (size, shape, colour, the belief that there are norms of genital appearance that need to be adhered to continues to be propagated within Western culture. I will posit that genital surgeries in the West are a culturally imbued practice. This will be argued in light of Leti Volpp’s assertion that people in the West need to recognize how our own culture promotes patriarchal/normative practices that can be dangerous and degrading to individuals. For instance, Western discourse vilifies cultures that engage in female genital mutilation (FGM without realizing how Western culture itself pressures women to ‘mutilate’ their genitals through cosmetic surgery or intersex surgery. The cultural influence of the West must be acknowledged so that we can better perceive how the agency of Western subjects is also directed and confined by our cultural context. Western culture also acts upon its subjects and, in this case, pushes gender binaries and the ideal of the perfect ‘normal’ vagina. This paper will utilize queer theory to question the necessity of gender binaries and to reveal the way that binary gender is privileged in our society. L'importance majeure de la chirurgie génitale pour les enfants intersexués ainsi que la popularité croissante de la chirurgie esthétique pour les organes génitaux, particulièrement pour les femmes, illustrent l'importance accordée à la distinction entre les sexes dans la culture occidentale. Cet article examine comment ces interventions chirurgicales génitales sont

  3. Coevolution of male and female genital morphology in waterfowl.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia L R Brennan

    Full Text Available Most birds have simple genitalia; males lack external genitalia and females have simple vaginas. However, male waterfowl have a phallus whose length (1.5->40 cm and morphological elaborations vary among species and are positively correlated with the frequency of forced extra-pair copulations among waterfowl species. Here we report morphological complexity in female genital morphology in waterfowl and describe variation vaginal morphology that is unprecedented in birds. This variation comprises two anatomical novelties: (i dead end sacs, and (ii clockwise coils. These vaginal structures appear to function to exclude the intromission of the counter-clockwise spiralling male phallus without female cooperation. A phylogenetically controlled comparative analysis of 16 waterfowl species shows that the degree of vaginal elaboration is positively correlated with phallus length, demonstrating that female morphological complexity has co-evolved with male phallus length. Intersexual selection is most likely responsible for the observed coevolution, although identifying the specific mechanism is difficult. Our results suggest that females have evolved a cryptic anatomical mechanism of choice in response to forced extra-pair copulations.

  4. Female genital mutilation: new laws, programs try to end practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalkley, K

    1997-10-01

    A new US law criminalizes female genital mutilation (FGM) and requires notification of this fact to immigrants from Africa and the Middle East. In addition, US representative to international financial institutions are directed to oppose issuance of foreign aid to countries that lack established educational programs to eradicate FGM. FGM involves a range of procedures characterized by the amount of tissue removed and may be carried out in infants, adolescents, or new mothers. Complications include death, debilitating illness, and increased risk during child birth. FGM is firmly entrenched in countries in sub-Saharan Africa and parts of the Arab peninsula and extends to a few groups in Asia and immigrant populations in developed countries. Most women in an Egyptian study had undergone FGM and justified the practice as a way of reducing sexual desire and, thus, preserving premarital virginity. Many women also consider FGM a religious requirement, but this claim is unsubstantiated. Successful eradication campaigns in Kenya have preserved the social and coming-of-age ritual aspects of the practice while rejecting the physical mutilation, and efforts in Nigeria have focuses on health education. A New York-based group working to eradicate FGM has criticized the new US law because it requires education of affected communities without allocating the necessary funding. The group charges that the new law needs revision to remove criminal liability from family members who may object to a proposed FGM procedure but fail to report or stop it.

  5. Most important etiologic factors in the development of genital prolapse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mladenović-Segedi Ljiljana

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The incidence of genital prolapse depends on numerous factors. The contribution of race, gender and genetic factors is significant. However, additional factors of initiation, promotion and decomposition are necessary if a person with the genetic predisposition to genital prolapse begins to suffer from it. At least 50% of parous women are believed to suffer from genital prolapse of various degrees. Moreover, the prevalence of genital prolapse increases with age. The prevalence of genital prolapse is expected to be even higher in the future due to the extension of the lifespan of women worldwide. Objective The aim of this study was to determine the most common etiologic factors in the development of genital prolapse in the population of Serbia. Methods The study was conducted as prospective and included 50 women who underwent surgical treatment due to the problems caused by genital prolapse. Results Mean age of the women was 58.74 years. Twenty percent of the women had the menstrual cycle, while 80% were in menopause. Mean menopause period was 8.88 years. None of the women used hormone replacement therapy. Mean BMI was 27.395 kg/m2. Twenty-eight percent of the women were of normal weight, while 72% of the women were obese (42% were obese and 30% were severely obese. Ninety-eight percent of the women were parous, and mean parity was 2.08. Mean birth weight of neonates was 3682.77 g. Sixty-four percent of the women did physical labour and lifted heavy objects. Conclusion Vaginal childbirth is one of the most important initiating factors. The most significant promoting factor is obesity and heavy labour. Ageing and entering menopause are the most important factors of decomposition as well as the occurrence of clinical manifestations of the pelvic floor dysfunction. .

  6. West Hackberry Strategic Petroleum Reserve site brine disposal monitoring, Year I report. Volume V. Supporting data for estuarine hydrology, discharge plume analysis, chemical oceanography, biological oceanography, and data management. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeRouen, L.R.; Hann, R.W.; Casserly, D.M.; Giammona, C.; Lascara, V.J. (eds.)

    1983-02-01

    This project centers around the Strategic Petroleum Site (SPR) known as the West Hackberry salt dome which located in southwestern Louisiana, and which is designed to store 241 million barrels of crude oil. Oil storage caverns are formed by injecting water into salt deposits, and pumping out the resulting brine. Studies described in this report were designed as follow-on studies to three months of pre-discharge characterization work, and include data collected during the first year of brine leaching operations. The objectives were to: (1) characterize the environment in terms of physical, chemical and biological attributes; (2) determine if significant adverse changes in ecosystem productivity and stability of the biological community are occurring as a result of brine discharge; and (3) determine the magnitude of any change observed. Volume V contains appendices for the following: supporting data for estuarine hydrology and hydrography; supporting data analysis of discharge plume; supporting data for water and sediment chemistry; CTD/DO and pH profiles during biological monitoring; supporting data for nekton; and supporting data for data management.

  7. Vulvar epidermal inclusion cyst as a long-term complication of female genital mutilation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Mercedes Victoria-Martínez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a case report of a patient with epidermal inclusion cyst as a late complication of female genital mutilation (FGM. We describe the management of the patient, and a review of the literature. We report the clinical and pathological findings in a 37-year-old female patient from Nigeria, with a clitoral mass of 1 year duration. She declared to have an FGM since she was 5 years. The lesion was excised successfully with good cosmetic results. Histological examination revealed epidermal cyst with the presence of granular layer. An epidermal inclusion cyst can develop as a long-term consequence of FGM.

  8. Vulvar Epidermal Inclusion Cyst as a Long-term Complication of Female Genital Mutilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Victoria-Martínez, Ana Mercedes; Cubells-Sánchez, Laura; Martínez-Leborans, Lorena; Sánchez-Carazo, José Luis; de Miquel, Víctor Alegre

    2016-01-01

    We present a case report of a patient with epidermal inclusion cyst as a late complication of female genital mutilation (FGM). We describe the management of the patient, and a review of the literature. We report the clinical and pathological findings in a 37-year-old female patient from Nigeria, with a clitoral mass of 1 year duration. She declared to have an FGM since she was 5 years. The lesion was excised successfully with good cosmetic results. Histological examination revealed epidermal cyst with the presence of granular layer. An epidermal inclusion cyst can develop as a long-term consequence of FGM.

  9. Concussion - adults - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brain injury - concussion - discharge; Traumatic brain injury - concussion - discharge; Closed head injury - concussion - discharge ... Getting better from a concussion takes days to weeks or even months. ... have trouble concentrating, or be unable to remember things. ...

  10. Tennis elbow surgery - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... epicondylitis surgery - discharge; Lateral tendinosis surgery - discharge; Lateral tennis elbow surgery - discharge ... long as you are told. This helps ensure tennis elbow will not return. You may be prescribed a ...

  11. Asthma - child - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pediatric asthma - discharge; Wheezing - discharge; Reactive airway disease - discharge ... Your child has asthma , which causes the airways of the lungs to swell and narrow. In the hospital, the doctors and nurses helped ...

  12. Eye muscle repair - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Lazy eye repair - discharge; Strabismus repair - discharge; Extraocular muscle surgery - discharge ... You or your child had eye muscle repair surgery to correct eye muscle ... term for crossed eyes is strabismus. Children most often ...

  13. Neck dissection - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radical neck dissection - discharge; Modified radical neck dissection - discharge; Selective neck dissection - discharge ... 659-665. Robbins KT, Samant S, Ronen O. Neck dissection. In: Flint PW, Haughey BH, Lund V, et ...

  14. Lipschütz ulcer (ulcus vulvae acutum: a rare cause of genital lesion Úlcera de Lipschütz (ulcus vulvae acutum: uma causa rara de lesão genital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Brinca

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Lipschütz Ulcer, or ulcus vulvae acutum, is a rare and probably underdiagnosed entity that usually presents as an acute painful vulvar ulcer in young women. The etiology is unknown, although recent reports have associated it with the Epstein-Barr virus. The diagnosis is made by exclusion after ruling out sexually transmitted diseases, autoimmune causes, trauma, and other etiologies of genital ulcerations. We report a case of a young woman who developed flu-like symptoms and painful vulvar ulcers. Complementary examinations ruled out sexually transmitted diseases and the other usual causes of genital ulcers; lesions healed with no sequelae or recurrences. This case represents a rare important differential diagnosis of genital ulceration.A Úlcera de Lipschütz, ou ulcus vulvae acutum, é uma entidade rara mas provavelmente subdiagnosticada, que se apresenta como úlcera vulvar aguda dolorosa numa mulher jovem. A etiologia é desconhecida embora relatos recentes a tenham associado à primo-infecção pelo vírus Epstein-Barr. O diagnóstico é estabelecido após exclusão de doenças sexualmente transmissíveis, causas autoimunes, traumáticas e outras etiologias de úlceras genitais. Relatamos o caso de uma jovem que desenvolveu quadro gripal e dolorosas úlceras genitais. Os exames complementares excluiram doenças sexualmente transmissíveis e as outras causas habituais de ulceração genital. As lesões cicatrizaram sem sequelas e sem recorrências. Este caso representa um diagnóstico diferencial importante e raro de ulceração genital.

  15. Genital powder use and risk of ovarian cancer: a pooled analysis of 8,525 cases and 9,859 controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry, Kathryn L; Karageorgi, Stalo; Shvetsov, Yurii B; Merritt, Melissa A; Lurie, Galina; Thompson, Pamela J; Carney, Michael E; Weber, Rachel Palmieri; Akushevich, Lucy; Lo-Ciganic, Wei-Hsuan; Cushing-Haugen, Kara; Sieh, Weiva; Moysich, Kirsten; Doherty, Jennifer A; Nagle, Christina M; Berchuck, Andrew; Pearce, Celeste L; Pike, Malcolm; Ness, Roberta B; Webb, Penelope M; Rossing, Mary Anne; Schildkraut, Joellen; Risch, Harvey; Goodman, Marc T

    2013-08-01

    Genital powder use has been associated with risk of epithelial ovarian cancer in some, but not all, epidemiologic investigations, possibly reflecting the carcinogenic effects of talc particles found in most of these products. Whether risk increases with number of genital powder applications and for all histologic types of ovarian cancer also remains uncertain. Therefore, we estimated the association between self-reported genital powder use and epithelial ovarian cancer risk in eight population-based case-control studies. Individual data from each study were collected and harmonized. Lifetime number of genital powder applications was estimated from duration and frequency of use. Pooled ORs were calculated using conditional logistic regression matched on study and age and adjusted for potential confounders. Subtype-specific risks were estimated according to tumor behavior and histology. 8,525 cases and 9,859 controls were included in the analyses. Genital powder use was associated with a modest increased risk of epithelial ovarian cancer [OR, 1.24; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.15-1.33] relative to women who never used powder. Risk was elevated for invasive serous (OR, 1.20; 95% CI, 1.09-1.32), endometrioid (OR, 1.22; 95% CI, 1.04-1.43), and clear cell (OR, 1.24; 95% CI, 1.01-1.52) tumors, and for borderline serous tumors (OR, 1.46; 95% CI, 1.24-1.72). Among genital powder users, we observed no significant trend (P = 0.17) in risk with increasing number of lifetime applications (assessed in quartiles). We noted no increase in risk among women who only reported nongenital powder use. In summary, genital powder use is a modifiable exposure associated with small-to-moderate increases in risk of most histologic subtypes of epithelial ovarian cancer.

  16. Stopping female genital mutilation. An update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamble, A

    1995-01-01

    There is widespread consensus among many individuals, countries, and organizations that female genital mutilation (FGM) is a human rights abuse. France, Britain, Sweden, and Switzerland have passed legislation forbidding medical personnel from performing FGM, eighteen African countries have made official statements against FGM, and FGM was an issue in the 1993 World Health Assembly, the 1993 World Human Rights Conference, and the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development. True change, however, depends upon a transformation in the informal economic, social, and political structures which perpetuate women's dependency upon marriage and men. The Research Action Information Network for the Bodily Integrity of Women (RAINBOW) and the Development Law and Policy Unit of the Columbia University School of Public Health introduced the Global Action Against FGM (GAAFGM) Project in June 1994. The project is designed to integrate action against FGM into existing health and human rights programs and to pool available resources against FGM. GAAFGM has also coordinated an interagency working group comprised of international agencies, in-country grassroots organizations, and women's groups, which met for the first time in November 1994. The project should provide considerable information and leadership on the issue. On another front, participants in the most recent preparatory meeting for the upcoming Beijing Conference noted the existence of a strong recognition that FGM is a problem upon which the international community should act. The author notes recent litigation brought by the Egyptian Organization for Human Rights against the grand sheik of Al-Azhar University for issuing a fatwa declaring female circumcision an Islamic duty. In addition, a Ghanaian may be granted refugee status in Canada on the basis of her efforts to avoid mutilation if deported to her country of origin.

  17. Therapeutic options for external genital warts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vender, Ronald; Bourcier, Marc; Bhatia, Neal; Lynde, Charles

    2013-12-01

    The primary goal of treatment for external genital warts (EGWs) is to eradicate visible lesions and address symptoms that may accompany them, but it does not address the underlying virus. Left untreated, warts may grow, remain the same, or spontaneously regress as a result of being cleared by the immune system. However, recurrence is common with or without treatment and may occur within 3 months of ending treatment in one-quarter to two-thirds of cases. Treatment options fall into two categories: provider or patient applied. Provider-based therapies include cryotherapy, trichloroacetic and bichloroacetic acid, electrocautery, surgical excision, and CO2 laser therapy. Patient-applied therapy choices include imiquimod and podophyllotoxin. Imiquimod 3.75% is a fairly new, patient-administered topical cream approved by Health Canada in 2011. Another recently approved patient-applied choice is sinecatechins, a green tea extract with immunomodulatory effects. Self-treatment options are attractive to patients because they offer privacy, convenience, and autonomy. In contrast, provider-administered therapies may boast increased precision (especially for areas that are hard to reach) and closer monitoring, which can be augmented by patient education and counseling. Available topical and surgical therapies vary widely in terms of cost, efficacy, adverse effects, dosage/frequency, and length of treatment. No one treatment is ideally suited to all patients or constitutes a gold standard. Treatment regimens must be tailored to each patient's needs and preferences. The health care provider's skills and experience will also factor into treatment decisions. In addition, the size, number, and location of lesions and whether the infection is new or recurrent will help guide the decision process toward the best treatment for a given patient.

  18. Changing cultural attitudes towards female genital cutting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogt, Sonja; Mohmmed Zaid, Nadia Ahmed; El Fadil Ahmed, Hilal; Fehr, Ernst; Efferson, Charles

    2016-10-27

    As globalization brings people with incompatible attitudes into contact, cultural conflicts inevitably arise. Little is known about how to mitigate conflict and about how the conflicts that occur can shape the cultural evolution of the groups involved. Female genital cutting is a prominent example. Governments and international agencies have promoted the abandonment of cutting for decades, but the practice remains widespread with associated health risks for millions of girls and women. In their efforts to end cutting, international agents have often adopted the view that cutting is locally pervasive and entrenched. This implies the need to introduce values and expectations from outside the local culture. Members of the target society may view such interventions as unwelcome intrusions, and campaigns promoting abandonment have sometimes led to backlash as they struggle to reconcile cultural tolerance with the conviction that cutting violates universal human rights. Cutting, however, is not necessarily locally pervasive and entrenched. We designed experiments on cultural change that exploited the existence of conflicting attitudes within cutting societies. We produced four entertaining movies that served as experimental treatments in two experiments in Sudan, and we developed an implicit association test to unobtrusively measure attitudes about cutting. The movies depart from the view that cutting is locally pervasive by dramatizing members of an extended family as they confront each other with divergent views about whether the family should continue cutting. The movies significantly improved attitudes towards girls who remain uncut, with one in particular having a relatively persistent effect. These results show that using entertainment to dramatize locally discordant views can provide a basis for applied cultural evolution without accentuating intercultural divisions.

  19. Genital ulcers in women: clinical, microbiologic and histopathologic characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christiane Maria Moreira Gomes

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Female genital ulcer is a disease that affects a large number of women, and its etiologic diagnosis can be difficult. The disease may increase the risk of acquiring HIV. Genital ulcer may be present in sexually transmitted diseases (STD - syphilis, chancroid, genital herpes, donovanosis, lymphogranuloma venereum and other non-STD disorders (NSTD - Behçet's syndrome, pemphigus, Crohn's disease, erosive lichen planus and others. This study evaluated the clinical-histopathologic-microbiologic characteristics of female genital ulcers. A cross-sectional descriptive prospective study was conducted during a six-month period to investigate the first 53 women without a definitive diagnosis, seeking medical care for genital ulcers at a genital infections outpatient facility in a university hospital. A detailed and specific history was taken, followed by a dermatologic and gynecologic examination. In addition to collecting material from the lesions for microbiologic study, a biopsy of the ulcer was performed for histopathologic investigation. The average age of the patients was 32.7 years, 56.6% had junior high school education and higher education. The most frequent etiology was herpetic lesion, followed by auto-immune ulcers. At the time of their first consultation, around 60% of the women were using inadequate medication that was inconsistent with the final diagnosis. Histologic diagnosis was conclusive in only 26.4% of the patients (14/53. Cure was obtained in 99% of the cases after proper therapy. The female genital ulcers studied were equally distributed between sexually transmitted and non-sexually transmitted causes. Herpes was the most frequent type of genital ulcer, affecting women indiscriminately, mostly between the ages of 20 and 40 years. The etiologic diagnosis of herpetic ulcers is difficult to make even when various diagnostic methods are applied. It is imperative that NSTD should be included in the differential diagnoses of female

  20. Genital ulcers in women: clinical, microbiologic and histopathologic characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Christiane Maria Moreira; Giraldo, Paulo César; Gomes, Francis de Assis Moraes; Amaral, Rose; Passos, Mauro Romero Leal; Gonçalves, Ana Katherine da Silveira

    2007-04-01

    Female genital ulcer is a disease that affects a large number of women, and its etiologic diagnosis can be difficult. The disease may increase the risk of acquiring HIV. Genital ulcer may be present in sexually transmitted diseases (STD)--syphilis, chancroid, genital herpes, donovanosis, lymphogranuloma venereum; and other non-STD disorders (NSTD)--Behçet's syndrome, pemphigus, Crohn's disease, erosive lichen planus and others. This study evaluated the clinical-histopathologic-microbiologic characteristics of female genital ulcers. A cross-sectional descriptive prospective study was conducted during a six-month period to investigate the first 53 women without a definitive diagnosis, seeking medical care for genital ulcers at a genital infections outpatient facility in a university hospital. A detailed and specific history was taken, followed by a dermatologic and gynecologic examination. In addition to collecting material from the lesions for microbiologic study, a biopsy of the ulcer was performed for histopathologic investigation. The average age of the patients was 32.7 years, 56.6% had junior high school education and higher education. The most frequent etiology was herpetic lesion, followed by auto-immune ulcers. At the time of their first consultation, around 60% of the women were using inadequate medication that was inconsistent with the final diagnosis. Histologic diagnosis was conclusive in only 26.4% of the patients (14/53). Cure was obtained in 99% of the cases after proper therapy. The female genital ulcers studied were equally distributed between sexually transmitted and non-sexually transmitted causes. Herpes was the most frequent type of genital ulcer, affecting women indiscriminately, mostly between the ages of 20 and 40 years. The etiologic diagnosis of herpetic ulcers is difficult to make even when various diagnostic methods are applied. It is imperative that NSTD should be included in the differential diagnoses of female genital ulcers. The

  1. Severe primary postpartum hemorrhage due to genital tract laceration after operative vaginal delivery: successful treatment with transcatheter arterial embolization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fargeaudou, Yann; Soyer, Philippe; Sirol, Marc; Dref, Olivier le; Boudiaf, Mourad; Dahan, Henri; Rymer, Roland [Hopital Lariboisiere-APHP-GHU Nord et Universite Diderot-Paris 7, Department of Abdominal and Interventional Imaging, Paris (France); Morel, Olivier [Hopital Lariboisiere-APHP-GHU Nord et Universite Diderot-Paris 7, Department of Obstetrics, Paris (France)

    2009-09-15

    The purpose of this study was to report our experience in the management of severe primary postpartum hemorrhage due to genital tract laceration following operative vaginal delivery with forceps using pelvic transcatheter arterial embolization (TAE). Ten women (mean age, 31.9 years) with severe primary postpartum hemorrhage due to genital tract laceration after operative delivery with forceps were treated with TAE. TAE was indicated because of intractable bleeding that could not be controlled with uterotonic drugs, blood transfusion, attempted suturing and packing in all patients. Postdelivery perineal examination showed cervical or vaginal tears in all women and associated paravaginal hematoma in four. Angiography revealed extravasation of contrast material in six patients. TAE performed with gelatin sponge allowed to control the bleeding in all patients. Cervical and vaginal suturing was made possible and successfully achieved in the six women who had failed suturing attempts before TAE. Paravaginal hematoma was successfully evacuated in four patients in whom it was present after TAE. No complications related to TAE were noted. We conclude that in women with severe primary postpartum hemorrhage due to genital tract laceration after operative delivery with forceps, TAE is effective and safe for stopping the bleeding and helps genital tract suturing and evacuation of hematoma. (orig.)

  2. ACL reconstruction - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction - discharge; ACL reconstruction - discharge ... had surgery to reconstruct your anterior cruciate ligament (ACL). The surgeon drilled holes in the bones of ...

  3. Determining the cost of genital warts: a study from Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Dee, A

    2009-09-01

    OBJECTIVES: To determine the average cost of a case of genital warts, for both males and females, with a view to informing the current debate as to which Human papillomavirus vaccine would have maximum cost-effectiveness in the Irish population. METHODS: Contact time between patients and healthcare professionals was prospectively measured at five genitourinary medicine clinics in the south-west of Ireland, over a period of 3 weeks. By identifying all those with genital warts, it was possible to calculate the proportion of total time taken by patients with this condition, and from this to calculate a cost per incident case, by gender. RESULTS: A total of 25.5% of attendances were for genital warts, and these patients used 26.2% of total clinic time (CI 25.4 to 27.0%). The average cost calculated for genital warts was 335 euros per incident case, and by gender 300 euros per male case and 366 euros per female case. CONCLUSIONS: There are considerable costs associated with the treatment of genital warts, with female cases representing a higher cost than males. By vaccinating with the quadrivalent HPV vaccine, there are significant savings to be made.

  4. Female genital mutilation in Iraqi Kurdistan: description and associated factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleem, Rozhgar A; Othman, Nasih; Fattah, Fattah H; Hazim, Luma; Adnan, Berivan

    2013-01-01

    The high prevalence of female genital mutilation has been a concern in Iraqi Kurdistan. This study was undertaken to estimate its prevalence and describe factors associated with its occurrence. A cross-sectional survey was undertaken from March to April 2011 of females aged up to 20 years using interviews and clinical examination. The survey included 1,508 participants with mean age of 13.5 years (SD 5.6). Overall female genital mutilation prevalence was 23%, and the mean age at which it had been performed was 4.6 years (SD 2.4). Type I (partial or total removal of the clitoris) comprised 76% of those who had had female genital mutilation; in 79% of cases the decision to perform it was made by the mother; and in 54% of cases it was performed by traditional birth attendants/midwives. Women aged 16 years and over were more likely to have had female genital mutilation compared to children aged below 6 years (OR 11.9, p Kurdistan region were more likely to have been circumcised. The study results show that female genital mutilation is a frequent practice in Iraqi Kurdistan. Attention and intervention is needed to address this aspect of the well-being of girls and women.

  5. Interruption of CXCL13-CXCR5 axis increases upper genital tract pathology and activation of NKT cells following chlamydial genital infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janina Jiang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Regulation of immune responses is critical for controlling inflammation and disruption of this process can lead to tissue damage. We reported that CXCL13 was induced in fallopian tube tissue following C. trachomatis infection. Here, we examined the influence of the CXCL13-CXCR5 axis in chlamydial genital infection. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Disruption of the CXCL13-CXCR5 axis by injecting anti-CXCL13 Ab to BALB/c mice or using Cxcr5-/- mice increased chronic inflammation in the upper genital tract (UGT; uterine horns and oviducts after Chlamydia muridarum genital infection (GT. Further studies in Cxcr5-/- mice showed an elevation in bacterial burden in the GT and increased numbers of neutrophils, activated DCs and activated NKT cells early after infection. After resolution, we noted increased fibrosis and the accumulation of a variety of T cells subsets (CD4-IFNγ, CD4-IL-17, CD4-IL-10 & CD8-TNFα in the oviducts. NKT cell depletion in vitro reduced IL-17α and various cytokines and chemokines, suggesting that activated NKT cells modulate neutrophils and DCs through cytokine/chemokine secretion. Further, chlamydial glycolipids directly activated two distinct types of NKT cell hybridomas in a cell-free CD1d presentation assay and genital infection of Cd1d-/- mice showed reduced oviduct inflammation compared to WT mice. CXCR5 involvement in pathology was also noted using single-nucleotide polymorphism analysis in C. trachomatis infected women attending a sub-fertility clinic. Women who developed tubal pathology after a C. trachomatis infection had a decrease in the frequency of CXCR5 SNP +10950 T>C (rs3922. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These experiments indicate that disruption of the CXCL13-CXCR5 axis permits increased activation of NKT cells by type I and type II glycolipids of Chlamydia muridarum and results in UGT pathology potentially through increased numbers of neutrophils and T cell subsets associated with UGT pathology

  6. Genital Appearance Dissatisfaction: Implications for Women’s Genital Image Self-Consciousness, Sexual Esteem, Sexual Satisfaction, and Sexual Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schick, Vanessa R.; Calabrese, Sarah K.; Rima, Brandi N.; Zucker, Alyssa N.

    2010-01-01

    Findings regarding the link between body image and sexuality have been equivocal, possibly because of the insensitivity of many of body image measures to potential variability across sensory aspects of the body (e.g., appearance versus odor), individual body parts (e.g., genitalia versus thighs), and social settings (e.g., public versus intimate). The current study refined existing methods of evaluating women’s body image in the context of sexuality by focusing upon two highly specified dimensions: satisfaction with the visual appearance of the genitalia and self-consciousness about the genitalia during a sexual encounter. Genital appearance dissatisfaction, genital image self-consciousness, and multiple facets of sexuality were examined with a sample of 217 undergraduate women using an online survey. Path analysis revealed that greater dissatisfaction with genital appearance was associated with higher genital image self-consciousness during physical intimacy, which, in turn, was associated with lower sexual esteem, sexual satisfaction, and motivation to avoid risky sexual behavior. These findings underscore the detrimental impact of negative genital perceptions on young women’s sexual wellbeing, which is of particular concern given their vulnerability at this stage of sexual development as well as the high rates of sexually transmitted infections within this age group. Interventions that enhance satisfaction with the natural appearance of their genitalia could facilitate the development of a healthy sexual self-concept and provide long-term benefits in terms of sexual safety and satisfaction. PMID:20824180

  7. [Impact of female genital mutilation on the millennium goals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Ismael Jiménez; Martínez, María Pilar Almansa; Bravo, María Del Mar Pastor

    2015-01-01

    To relate the Female Genital Mutilation as a negative factor for the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals 1, 3, 4, 5 and 6. Data collection was through review literature review between in the years 2014 and 2015 in the databases Medline/PubMed, Web of Science, LILACS, SCIELO, Tesis Doctorales TESEO and in the webs of WOK, UNICEF, UNAF and WHO using the descriptors: female circumcision, millennium development goals, rights of women. Articles published between years 2010 y 2015, were included and finally 24 articles were selected. The Female Genital Mutilation is based on gender discrimination, and reinforces and encourages the circle of poverty. This practice causes physical complications that may affect the infant mortality and morbidity, complications in pregnancy and childbirth and there is a relationship between the practice and the transmission of human immunodeficiency virus. The fight against Female Genital Mutilation contributes to the achievement of five of the eight Millennium Goals.

  8. Mucosal immunity in the female genital tract, HIV/AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis Machado, Juliana; da Silva, Marcos Vinícius; Cavellani, Camila Lourencini; dos Reis, Marlene Antônia; Monteiro, Maria Luiza Gonçalves dos Reis; Teixeira, Vicente de Paula Antunes; Miranda Corrêa, Rosana Rosa

    2014-01-01

    Mucosal immunity consists of innate and adaptive immune responses which can be influenced by systemic immunity. Despite having been the subject of intensive studies, it is not fully elucidated what exactly occurs after HIV contact with the female genital tract mucosa. The sexual route is the main route of HIV transmission, with an increased risk of infection in women compared to men. Several characteristics of the female genital tract make it suitable for inoculation, establishment of infection, and systemic spread of the virus, which causes local changes that may favor the development of infections by other pathogens, often called sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). The relationship of these STDs with HIV infection has been widely studied. Here we review the characteristics of mucosal immunity of the female genital tract, its alterations due to HIV/AIDS, and the characteristics of coinfections between HIV/AIDS and the most prevalent STDs.

  9. Mucosal Immunity in the Female Genital Tract, HIV/AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Reis Machado

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Mucosal immunity consists of innate and adaptive immune responses which can be influenced by systemic immunity. Despite having been the subject of intensive studies, it is not fully elucidated what exactly occurs after HIV contact with the female genital tract mucosa. The sexual route is the main route of HIV transmission, with an increased risk of infection in women compared to men. Several characteristics of the female genital tract make it suitable for inoculation, establishment of infection, and systemic spread of the virus, which causes local changes that may favor the development of infections by other pathogens, often called sexually transmitted diseases (STDs. The relationship of these STDs with HIV infection has been widely studied. Here we review the characteristics of mucosal immunity of the female genital tract, its alterations due to HIV/AIDS, and the characteristics of coinfections between HIV/AIDS and the most prevalent STDs.

  10. Female genital circumcision/mutilation: implications for female urogynaecological health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teufel, Katharina; Dörfler, Daniela Marianne

    2013-12-01

    "Female genital circumcision" or "female genital mutilation", as it is called more often, is an operation that is primarily carried out in Africa. Owing to migration, physicians are increasingly confronted with this issue in Western countries as well. A range of negative effects may result from this operation and this article aims to address consequences for female pelvic health. Special emphasis is placed on urogynaecological health consequences; in particular, on "voiding difficulties", "recurrent urinary tract infections" and "vesicovaginal fistula". All of these occur mostly in infibulated women, i.e. in women whose genitalia are sealed by the most severe form of circumcision. Some of the problems that may emerge as a result of the operation can be resolved by defibulation (i.e. surgical reopening of the sealed vulva). Female genital circumcision is a sensitive topic even in the area of research and reliable data are therefore scarce.

  11. Management of oral and genital herpes in the emergency department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mell, Howard K

    2008-05-01

    The epidemiology of oral and genital herpes has dramatically changed over the past decade. Herpes simplex virus-1, traditionally associated with oral herpes, is now implicated in an increasing percentage of genital herpes cases. The possibility of "autoinoculation" (or self-infection) of anatomic sites other than that of the primary infection has been recognized. New methods of suppression therapy are being examined. These changes have led to a revision in the recommendations by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). This review discusses herpes infections of the oral and genital mucosa and the suggested approach to the infected patient who presents in the emergency department. Specific attention is given to the CDC's 2006 guidelines for the treatment of sexually transmitted diseases.

  12. Female genital mutilation. Council on Scientific Affairs, American Medical Association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-12-06

    Female genital mutilation is the medically unnecessary modification of female genitalia. Female genital mutilation typically occurs at about 7 years of age, but mutilated women suffer severe medical complications throughout their adult lives. Female genital mutilation most frequently occurs in Africa, the Middle East, and Muslim parts of Indonesia and Malaysia, and it is generally part of a ceremonial induction into adult society. Recent political and economic problems in these regions, however, have increased the numbers of students and refugees to the United States. Consequently, US physicians are treating an increasing number of mutilated patients. The Council on Scientific Affairs recommends that US physicians join the World Health Organization, the World Medical Association, and other major health care organizations in opposing all forms of medically unnecessary surgical modification of the female genitalia.

  13. Genital Warts -- Initial Visits to Physicians' Offices, United States, 1966 - 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Data & Statistics Sexually Transmitted Diseases Figure 46. Genital Warts — Initial Visits to Physicians’ Offices, United States, 1966 – ... page . NOTE : The relative standard errors for genital warts estimates of more than 100,000 range from ...

  14. [Female genital mutilations, forced marriages, and early pregnancies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henrion, Roger

    2003-01-01

    Female genital mutilations, as well as forcible childhood marriage and their correlate adolescent pregnancies are traditional practices which, not only violate the dignity, but also jeopardize the health, and even the life, of women and their children. The complications of genital mutilations are frequent for a number of reasons: the fact that the clitoris is highly vascularized, the nature of the mutilations, excision or infibulation, and the poor conditions of hygiene. The short term complications are pain, hemorrhage, shock, and urinary retention. Medium term complications include gangrene, septicemia, tetanus, pelvic inflammatory disease, HIV/AIDS, and hepatitis B or C infections. Serious sequelae may occur, including infertility and gynecologic disorders, and sexual life is invariably altered. The main obstetrical complications of genital mutilations are genital lacerations involving the labia minor and the perineum, which can lead to hemorrhage and sequelae such as urinary or anal incontinence, recto-vaginal and vesico-vaginal fistulas. The role of doctors, which is delicate because these customs are entrenched, is to detect genital mutilations, repair them and prevent them, by participating in health education programs. The consequences of forcible childhood marriage are serious, besides the fact that this is a disguised form of rape. The obstetrical risks favored by the underdevelopment of the uterus and the pelvis, include uterine rupture, preeclampsia and eclampsia, and obstetrical hemorrhage. The fetus/neonate are jeopardized by these complications, which can result in perinatal asphyxia and death, as well as the high rates of intrauterine growth retardation and preterm delivery. The impact of genital mutilations on delivery are compounded in childhood pregnancies for anatomical reasons, but also because these adolescents or children are extremely vulnerable and have poor access to perinatal care. In France, as well as in Africa, non-governmental and

  15. Elevated tumor markers in coccidiomyocosis of the female genital tract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Y

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The female genital tract is rarely involved by coccidioidomycosis. We describe a woman with disseminated coccidioidomycosis involving the female pelvic organs associated with elevated tumor markers CA 125 and CA 19-9. She had no fevers and the initial clinical suspicion was a malignancy because of the elevated tumor markers. At exploratory laparotomy a total abdominal hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy were performed because of the suspicion of a malignancy. Subsequent pathology demonstrated coccidioidomycosis involving the female genital tract and no malignancy. The abnormal CA 125 and CA 19-9 returned to normal after surgical resection and treatment of the coccidioidomycosis.

  16. Health Care Personnel challenges encountering patients with Female Genital Mutilation

    OpenAIRE

    Nilsson, Raili

    2015-01-01

    Background: People are moving more and it demands more of health care in the countries receiving people from cultures and countries different from their own. I wanted to write this essay to try to answer what are the challenges for healthcare staff, and how to solve those problems when it comes to female genital-mutilation which is a widespread practice in Africa and in Islam. Aim: Female genital mutilation is an important issue because it affects a woman's life, both mentally and physical...

  17. Persistent genital arousal disorder: confluent patient history of agitated depression, paroxetine cessation, and a tarlov cyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eibye, Simone; Jensen, Hans Mørch

    2014-01-01

    We report a case of a woman suffering from persistent genital arousal disorder (PGAD) after paroxetine cessation. She was admitted to a psychiatric department and diagnosed with agitated depression. Physical investigation showed no gynaecological or neurological explanation; however, a pelvic MRI scan revealed a Tarlov cyst. Size and placement of the cyst could not explain the patient's symptoms; thus neurosurgical approach would not be helpful. Her depression was treated with antidepressant with little effect. Electroconvulsive therapy improved the patient's symptoms though they did not fully resolve. More awareness of PGAD and thorough interdisciplinary conferences are necessary to insure an unequivocal treatment strategy.

  18. Persistent Genital Arousal Disorder: Confluent Patient History of Agitated Depression, Paroxetine Cessation, and a Tarlov Cyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Eibye

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of a woman suffering from persistent genital arousal disorder (PGAD after paroxetine cessation. She was admitted to a psychiatric department and diagnosed with agitated depression. Physical investigation showed no gynaecological or neurological explanation; however, a pelvic MRI scan revealed a Tarlov cyst. Size and placement of the cyst could not explain the patient’s symptoms; thus neurosurgical approach would not be helpful. Her depression was treated with antidepressant with little effect. Electroconvulsive therapy improved the patient’s symptoms though they did not fully resolve. More awareness of PGAD and thorough interdisciplinary conferences are necessary to insure an unequivocal treatment strategy.

  19. Mouth and genital ulcers with inflamed cartilage (MAGIC) syndrome complicated by aneurysmal aortitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Chin Soon; Hogan, Patrick; McKenzie, Scott; Gibbs, Harry; Strutton, Geoff; Wong, Richard

    2007-08-01

    "MAGIC syndrome" (Mouth And Genital ulcers with Inflamed Cartilage) has been proposed to describe patients with clinical features of both relapsing polychondritis and Behcet disease. A total of 18 cases have been reported with only 1 case associated with aneurysmal aortitis described in 1997. Herein, we describe a patient with MAGIC syndrome complicated by aneurysmal aortitis requiring cardiothoracic surgery and intensive immunosuppression. Monitoring for the possible development of inflammatory aortic aneurysms should thus be considered in patients with MAGIC syndrome who have persistently elevated serum inflammatory markers. If an aortic aneurysm is detected, cardiothoracic surgical referral is necessary, close monitoring for enlargement is mandatory, and intensification of immunosuppressive therapy should be considered.

  20. Insight into the diagnosis and management of subclinical genital tuberculosis in women with infertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nalini Mahajan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Genital tuberculosis (GTB is an important cause of infertility in India. Lack of an accurate diagnostic test has led to an indiscriminate use of antitubercular treatment in infertile women. Apart from concerns of drug toxicity, this may be a contributing factor in the increasing incidence of multidrug-resistant TB reported in India. We conducted a study to analyze whether a combination of tests could help improve diagnostic accuracy. An algorithm for the management of GTB in infertile women based on the use of multiple tests is presented.

  1. Evaluation and management of acute genital ulcers in sexually active patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, S J

    1984-02-01

    The causes of genital ulcers vary with the age of the patient. Although sexually related genital ulcers can be seen at any age, they are most common between the ages of 15 and 30. The differential diagnosis includes syphilis, chancroid, genital herpes, lymphogranuloma venereum, granuloma inguinale, fixed drug reactions, and traumatic ulcers.

  2. The evolution of genital complexity and mating rates in sexually size dimorphic spiders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuntner, Matjaž; Cheng, Ren-Chung; Kralj-Fišer, Simona; Liao, Chen-Pan; Schneider, Jutta M; Elgar, Mark A

    2016-11-09

    Genital diversity may arise through sexual conflict over polyandry, where male genital features function to manipulate female mating frequency against her interest. Correlated genital evolution across animal groups is consistent with this view, but a link between genital complexity and mating rates remains to be established. In sexually size dimorphic spiders, golden orbweaving spiders (Nephilidae) males mutilate their genitals to form genital plugs, but these plugs do not always prevent female polyandry. In a comparative framework, we test whether male and female genital complexity coevolve, and how these morphologies, as well as sexual cannibalism, relate to the evolution of mating systems. Using a combination of comparative tests, we show that male genital complexity negatively correlates with female mating rates, and that levels of sexual cannibalism negatively correlate with male mating rates. We also confirm a positive correlation between male and female genital complexity. The macroevolutionary trajectory is consistent with a repeated evolution from polyandry to monandry coinciding with the evolution towards more complex male genitals. These results are consistent with the predictions from sexual conflict theory, although sexual conflict may not be the only mechanism responsible for the evolution of genital complexity and mating systems. Nevertheless, our comparative evidence suggests that in golden orbweavers, male genital complexity limits female mating rates, and sexual cannibalism by females coincides with monogyny.

  3. Discharge Planning in Chronic Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMartin, K

    2013-01-01

    Background Chronically ill people experience frequent changes in health status accompanied by multiple transitions between care settings and care providers. Discharge planning provides support services, follow-up activities, and other interventions that span pre-hospital discharge to post-hospital settings. Objective To determine if discharge planning is effective at reducing health resource utilization and improving patient outcomes compared with standard care alone. Data Sources A standard systematic literature search was conducted for studies published from January 1, 2004, until December 13, 2011. Review Methods Reports, randomized controlled trials, systematic reviews, and meta-analyses with 1 month or more of follow-up and limited to specified chronic conditions were examined. Outcomes included mortality/survival, readmissions and emergency department (ED) visits, hospital length of stay (LOS), health-related quality of life (HRQOL), and patient satisfaction. Results One meta-analysis compared individualized discharge planning to usual care and found a significant reduction in readmissions favouring individualized discharge planning. A second meta-analysis compared comprehensive discharge planning with postdischarge support to usual care. There was a significant reduction in readmissions favouring discharge planning with postdischarge support. However, there was significant statistical heterogeneity. For both meta-analyses there was a nonsignificant reduction in mortality between the study arms. Limitations There was difficulty in distinguishing the relative contribution of each element within the terms “discharge planning” and “postdischarge support.” For most studies, “usual care” was not explicitly described. Conclusions Compared with usual care, there was moderate quality evidence that individualized discharge planning is more effective at reducing readmissions or hospital LOS but not mortality, and very low quality evidence that it is more

  4. [Isolation of the yeast-like fungus Stephanoascus ciferrii by culturing the aural discharge of a patient with intractable otitis media. Case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soki, Hironobu; Nagase, Yoshitaka; Yamazaki, Kenichiro; Oda, Toshimi; Kikuchi, Ken

    2010-03-01

    As longer lives have become possible due to advances in medical technology and diagnostic technology in recent years, weakly toxic fungus have been emerging as causative agents of opportunistic infections, primarily in high-risk groups. We report a case in which the yeast-like fungus Stephanoascus ciferii, which has morphological characteristics that differ from those of the more common Candida species, was isolated by culturing the aural discharge of a patient with intractable otitis media. Drug susceptibility testing showed that it was resistant to fluconazole, flucytosine, and itraconazole, suggesting that it is a species that has a strong tendency to become resistant. The principal sites of infection by Stephanoascus ciferii are thought to be in the ENT area, but in other countries it has been isolated from patients with acute myeloid leukemia and immunodeficiency as well as superficial mycoses, and it may also be a causative agent of deep mycoses. We therefore think that it is necessary to bear in mind detection in other areas outside the ENT field and to adequately monitor the circumstances under which this fungus is isolated.

  5. Pyometra presenting in conjunction with bowel cancer in a post-menopausal women: a case report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soleymani majd, Hooman; Watermeyer, Sean; Ismail, Lamiese

    2008-01-01

    This case describes a 71 year old, post-menopausal woman who developed vaginal discharge. This complaint ultimately led to the discovery of bowel cancer in conjunction with a large sterile pyometra. The pyometra was not due to genital malignancy. The most likely conclusion is that the pyometra may have arisen as an inflammatory response to the adjacent bowel pathology. This case report highlights the need for clinicians to consider non-gynaecological cancer as a possible cause for otherwise unexplained pyometra. PMID:18606021

  6. Bloody nipple discharge in a 7-month-old boy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Zaid, Ahmed

    2011-10-01

    Isolated bloody nipple discharge is rare in infancy and is usually idiopathic. Discharge commonly resolves spontaneously, and ultrasonography is a useful diagnostic technique to detect the cause of discharge. The authors report a 7-month-old boy who presented with unilateral spontaneous bloody nipple discharge for 1 month without signs of infection or mass.

  7. HLA Class I and II alleles, heterozygosity and HLA-KIR interactions are associated with rates of genital HSV shedding and lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magaret, A; Dong, L; John, M; Mallal, S A; James, I; Warren, T; Gaudieri, S; Koelle, D M; Wald, A

    2016-12-01

    Variation at HLA and KIR loci is associated with the severity of viral infections. To assess associations of genital HSV-2 infection with human HLA and KIR genetic loci, we measured the frequencies of genital herpes simplex virus (HSV) DNA detection and of genital lesions in HSV-2 seropositive persons. We followed 267 HSV-2 seropositive persons who collected daily genital swabs and recorded lesions for ⩾30 days. All persons were laboratory-documented as HIV-seronegative, and all were Caucasian by self-report. HSV detection rate and lesion frequency were compared by genotype using Poisson regression. Overall, HSV was detected on 19.1% of days and lesions on 11.6% of days. The presence of HLA-A*01 was directly associated with HSV detection frequency, whereas the presence of HLA-C*12 was inversely associated with HSV detection frequency. The presence of HLA-A*01 was directly associated with lesion rate, while HLA-A*26, -C*01 and -DQB1*0106 were associated with decreased lesions. We observed an interaction between the absence of both 2DS4del and HLA-Bw4 and higher lesion rate. Heterozygosity of HLA was also associated with reduced lesion frequency. Immune control of genital HSV infection relies on multiple interacting immunogenetic elements, including epistatic interactions between HLA and KIR.

  8. Genital ulcer as a new clinical clue to PFAPA syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scattoni, R; Verrotti, A; Rinaldi, V E; Paglino, A; Carelli, A; D'Alonzo, R

    2015-04-01

    Vaginal ulcers can be associated with a number of different diseases. We describe two girls who presented genital ulcers as a persistent symptom of PFAPA (periodic fever, aphthous stomatitis, pharyngitis, cervical adenitis) syndrome. The possibility of considering this clinical manifestation as a clue for the diagnosis of PFAPA is discussed. © 2014 British Association of Dermatologists.

  9. Mothers' Perceptions of Female Genital Mutilation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahanonu, E. L.; Victor, O.

    2014-01-01

    The practice of female genital mutilation (FGM) is widespread in Nigeria. This study was conducted to assess the perceptions of FGM among mothers at a primary healthcare centre in Lagos, Nigeria. A convenience sample of 95 mothers completed the pre-tested, semi-structured questionnaires. Data analysis was carried out using descriptive statistics…

  10. The MAGIC syndrome (mouth and genital ulcers with inflamed cartilage).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orme, R L; Nordlund, J J; Barich, L; Brown, T

    1990-07-01

    We describe a 42-year-old man with features of both Behçet's disease and relapsing polychondritis. The term MAGIC syndrome (mouth and genital ulcers with inflamed cartilage) has previously been used to describe similarly affected patients. We discuss the diagnostic criteria and pathogenetic mechanisms.

  11. Voluntary Genital Ablations: Contrasting the Cutters and Their Clients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robyn A. Jackowich, BA

    2014-08-01

    Conclusions: This study may help identify individuals who are at risk of performing illegal castrations. That information may help healthcare providers protect individuals with extreme castration ideations from injuring themselves or others. Jackowich RA, Vale R, Vale K, Wassersug RJ, and Johnson TW. Voluntary genital ablations: Contrasting the cutters and their clients. Sex Med 2014;2:121–132.

  12. Genital Mycoplasma infection among Mexican women with systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Méndez-Martínez, Socorro; García-Carrasco, Mario; Cedillo-Ramírez, María L; Mendoza-Pinto, Claudia; Etchegaray-Morales, Ivet; Gil-Juárez, Constantino; Montiel-Jarquín, Álvaro J; Taboada-Cole, Alejandro; Jiménez-Herrera, Erick A; Muñóz-Guarneros, Margarita; Cervera, Ricard

    2017-07-01

    To assess the prevalence of genital Mycoplasma spp. among women with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and to identify factors associated with such infection. A cross-sectional study was conducted among patients with SLE and healthy women who attended a hospital in Puebla, Mexico, between July 29, 2014, and January 4, 2015. All participants were aged 18 years or older and sexually active. A structured interview assessed sociodemographic, obstetric, gynecologic, and clinical characteristics. Disease activity was evaluated using the Mexican SLE Disease Activity Index. Polymerase chain reaction was used to detect the presence of Mycoplasma spp. in genital samples. Ureaplasma urealyticum was the only genital mycoplasma detected; it was present in 32 (24.6%) of 130 patients with SLE and 12 (12.8%) of 94 healthy women. Patients with SLE had increased odds of infection (odds ratio 2.120, 95% confidence interval 1.046-4.296). Among patients with SLE, multiparity was more common in those with U. urealyticum infection (P=0.043). One-quarter of women with SLE had genital infection with U. urealyticum. An association was found between infection and multiparity among women with SLE. © 2017 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics.

  13. Newer trends in the management of genital herpes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nath Amiya

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Management of genital herpes is complex. Apart from using the standard antivirals, an ideal management protocol also needs to address various aspects of the disease, including the psychological morbidity. Oral acyclovir, valacyclovir or famciclovir are recommended for routine use. Long-term suppressive therapy is effective in reducing the number of recurrences and the risk of transmission to others. Severe or disseminated disease may require intravenous therapy. Resistant cases are managed with foscarnet or cidofovir. Genital herpes in human immunodeficiency virus-infected individuals usually needs a longer duration of antiviral therapy along with continuation of highly active anti retroviral therapy (HAART. Genital herpes in late pregnancy increases the risk of neonatal herpes. Antiviral therapy and/or cesarean delivery are indicated depending on the clinical circumstance. Acyclovir appears to be safe in pregnancy. But, there is limited data regarding the use of valacyclovir and famciclovir in pregnancy. Neonatal herpes requires a higher dose of acyclovir given intravenously for a longer duration. Management of the sex partner, counseling and prevention advice are equally important in appropriate management of genital herpes. Vaccines till date have been marginally effective. Helicase-primase inhibitors, needle-free mucosal vaccine and a new microbicide product named VivaGel may become promising treatment options in the future.

  14. Post-coital genital injury in healthy women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup, Birgitte Schmidt; Lykkebo, Annemette Wildfang

    2015-01-01

    Female genital injury following penile sexual intercourse in healthy women is a matter of importance and debate in many parts of society. However, the literature on the subject is sparse. There are a few studies regarding minor injury that does not require treatment in adult, pre-menopausal women...... consensual sexual intercourse in otherwise healthy women. Clin. Anat., 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc....

  15. Task Force: Routine Genital Herpes Screening Not Recommended

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160205.html Task Force: Routine Genital Herpes Screening Not Recommended Unless someone ... Aug. 2, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- A U.S. federal task force is prepared to recommend that teens, adults and ...

  16. Prediction of findings at defecography in patients with genital prolapse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roovers, JPWR; van der Bom, JG; van der Vaart, CH; Heintz, APM

    2005-01-01

    Objective Defecography may be useful in pre-operative assessment of patients with genital prolapse. Defecography is an invasive and embarrassing procedure for patients and little effort has been made to optimalise selection criteria for defecography. This study investigated whether discrimination of

  17. [Prevalence of genital anomalies in young football players].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mónaco, M; Verdugo, F; Bodell, M; Avendaño, E; Til, L; Drobnic, F

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of genital examination (GE) during the Pre-participation Physical Examination (PPE) is to identify the state of maturity, and rule out any genital pathology. To describe genital anomalies (GA) and estimate the awareness of GE in young football players. A descriptive, cross-sectional study was conducted in 280 elite football players from the results of PPE over two seasons. There was a detection rate of 5.4% GA, with varicocele being 3.2%, and of which only 13% were aware of their condition. Although this study shows a low incidence of genital abnormality in the study population, only 13% were aware of the GE prior to assessment. These findings demonstrate a low incidence of GA in this population. While GE is recommended during PPE, it is not a routine practice performed by family doctors or sports medicine specialists. This article attempts to raise awareness of the importance of GE in PPE as a preventive health strategy. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  18. INFANT-FEMALE GENITAL MUTILATION (IFGM) IN CITIES AND ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BLESSING

    Key words: female genital mutilation, child rights, health, postpartum birthing rituals, girl- ... countries like Canada, France Australia, United States, Sweden, Norway, .... and it also makes the girl to become too crazy about sex. ... “Many people continue the practice of FGM because, it is part of ..... similar/same as the foreskin.

  19. Surface water discharges from onshore stripper wells.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veil, J. A.

    1998-01-16

    Under current US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) rules, small onshore oil producers are allowed to discharge produced water to surface waters with approval from state agencies; but small onshore gas producers, however, are prohibited from discharging produced water to surface waters. The purpose of this report is to identify those states that allow surface water discharges from small onshore oil operations and to summarize the types of permitting controls they use. It is intended that the findings of this report will serve as a rationale to encourage the EPA to revise its rules and to remove the prohibition on surface water discharges from small gas operations.

  20. Genital infection caused by Entamoeba histolytica confirmed by polymerase chain reaction analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asano, Hiroshi; Kaneuchi, Masanori; Furuta, Itsuko; Yamaya, Yukie; Hatanaka, Kanako C; Takeda, Mahito; Matsuno, Yoshihiro; Sakuragi, Noriaki

    2014-05-01

    Entamoeba histolytica is estimated to infect approximately 1% of the global population. In Japan, the prevalence of amebic dysentery has been increasing, with more than 800 patients newly diagnosed annually. However, genital infection with E. histolytica is uncommon even in endemic areas. We present a case of vaginitis caused by E. histolytica. A 50-year-old Japanese woman without history of overseas travel presented to a nearby clinic with increased vaginal discharge. She had hemorrhagic erosion at the uterine cervix with yellowish vaginal discharge, and was referred to our hospital for exclusion of malignancy. Cervical cytology revealed periodic acid-Schiff-positive protozoa not aggregating around squamous cells, and thus amebic vaginitis was suspected. We performed polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analyses and identified E. histolytica. The vaginitis was treated with metronidazole, and the disappearance of amebic protozoa was confirmed by cytology and PCR. Therefore, it may be important to obtain early diagnosis by cervical cytology and PCR.

  1. Hematopoietic tumors of the female genital system: imaging features with pathologic correlation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salem, Usama; Menias, Christine O; Shaaban, Akram; Bhosale, Priya R; Youssef, Ayda; Elsayes, Khaled M

    2014-08-01

    Various hematopoietic neoplasms can involve the female genital system. The most common hematological malignancy that involves the female genital system is lymphoma and secondary involvement is more common than primary genital lymphoma. Rarely, leukemic infiltration and extramedullary plasmacytomas of the female genital tract may also occur. Being infrequent, these lesions are commonly misdiagnosed radiologically. Therefore, understanding these malignancies of the female genital system and recognizing their imaging features are of utmost clinical importance. Although definitive diagnosis can be made only by histological analysis, imaging of these tumors plays an important role in detecting lesion extensions, guiding biopsies, staging disease, planning therapy, and detecting recurrence.

  2. Adhesion Molecules Associated with Female Genital Tract Infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamal Qualai

    Full Text Available Efforts to develop vaccines that can elicit mucosal immune responses in the female genital tract against sexually transmitted infections have been hampered by an inability to measure immune responses in these tissues. The differential expression of adhesion molecules is known to confer site-dependent homing of circulating effector T cells to mucosal tissues. Specific homing molecules have been defined that can be measured in blood as surrogate markers of local immunity (e.g. α4β7 for gut. Here we analyzed the expression pattern of adhesion molecules by circulating effector T cells following mucosal infection of the female genital tract in mice and during a symptomatic episode of vaginosis in women. While CCR2, CCR5, CXCR6 and CD11c were preferentially expressed in a mouse model of Chlamydia infection, only CCR5 and CD11c were clearly expressed by effector T cells during bacterial vaginosis in women. Other homing molecules previously suggested as required for homing to the genital mucosa such as α4β1 and α4β7 were also differentially expressed in these patients. However, CD11c expression, an integrin chain rarely analyzed in the context of T cell immunity, was the most consistently elevated in all activated effector CD8+ T cell subsets analyzed. This molecule was also induced after systemic infection in mice, suggesting that CD11c is not exclusive of genital tract infection. Still, its increase in response to genital tract disorders may represent a novel surrogate marker of mucosal immunity in women, and warrants further exploration for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes.

  3. Medroxyprogesterone acetate and levonorgestrel increase genital mucosal permeability and enhance susceptibility to genital herpes simplex virus type 2 infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quispe Calla, N E; Vicetti Miguel, R D; Boyaka, P N; Hall-Stoodley, L; Kaur, B; Trout, W; Pavelko, S D; Cherpes, T L

    2016-11-01

    Depot-medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA) is a hormonal contraceptive especially popular in areas with high prevalence of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STI). Although observational studies identify DMPA as an important STI risk factor, mechanisms underlying this connection are undefined. Levonorgestrel (LNG) is another progestin used for hormonal contraception, but its effect on STI susceptibility is much less explored. Using a mouse model of genital herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) infection, we herein found that DMPA and LNG similarly reduced genital expression of the desmosomal cadherin desmoglein-1α (DSG1α), enhanced access of inflammatory cells to genital tissue by increasing mucosal epithelial permeability, and increased susceptibility to viral infection. Additional studies with uninfected mice revealed that DMPA-mediated increases in mucosal permeability promoted tissue inflammation by facilitating endogenous vaginal microbiota invasion. Conversely, concomitant treatment of mice with DMPA and intravaginal estrogen restored mucosal barrier function and prevented HSV-2 infection. Evaluating ectocervical biopsy tissue from women before and 1 month after initiating DMPA remarkably revealed that inflammation and barrier protection were altered by treatment identically to changes seen in progestin-treated mice. Together, our work reveals DMPA and LNG diminish the genital mucosal barrier; a first-line defense against all STI, but may offer foundation for new contraceptive strategies less compromising of barrier protection.

  4. Genital diseases awareness in young male students: Is information necessary to protect them?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Mondaini

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Few studies on the prevalence of male sexual diseases are currently available due to difficult application of observational studies or andrological disease prevention campaigns on large series of apparently healthy subjects. The medical check-up linked to compulsory military service represented in Italy a valid tool for epidemiological and observational study for 18 year old boys from 1861 to 2004. The stopping of compulsory military service and its related medical check-up could have determined an important social impact in terms of a lower level of attention and care on male genital/sexual diseases. The aim of the present observational study was to check the prevalence of genital/ sexual diseases among young male high-school students and promote an alternative campaign of information among young students. Methods: A prospective observational analytical study on young male students was conducted by 6 urological centres. Genital and sexually transmitted diseases were presented with slides to students in a general assembly. Some students were then counselled and filled out a short questionnaire on their lifestyle. Results: 12,535 students (10,432 males-83.6% followed the presentation. and 4,897 males (46.7% decided to be checked-up by the urologist and out of them 1554 (31.7% presented relevant andrological diseases. Five-hundred students completed the questionnaire concerning their lifestyle. Many of them had not yet experienced condom use during sexual intercourse (27.8%. Drug abuse was reported by 39.6% of subjects and alcohol consumption in 80.8% of them. Conclusions: These data suggest the need for a national information campaign on male sexual disorders to promote sexual health.

  5. The vagina dialogues: genital self-image and communication with physicians about sexual dysfunction and dissatisfaction among Jewish patients in a women's health clinic in southern Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yulevitch, Aviva; Czamanski-Cohen, Johanna; Segal, David; Ben-Zion, Izhak; Kushnir, Talma

    2013-12-01

    The health-care system offers a variety of solutions for problems related to sexual dysfunction. To gain access to treatment options, women must be willing to discuss these issues with their physicians. To examine the extent to which women discuss issues of sexual dysfunction with their physicians and to examine the contribution of aspects of sexual dysfunction, level of satisfaction, body image, and genital self-image to their comfort with communicating with physicians about these issues. One hundred ten secular-appearing, Hebrew-speaking Jewish women waiting for a routine gynecological appointment at a clinic in southern Israel responded to a self-report questionnaire. The Female Sexuality Function Index was used to assess sexual dysfunction, Gray's Modified Questionnaire to assess body image, and the Genital Self-Image Scale to assess genital self-image. We compiled a new measure to assess level of comfort in discussing sexual functioning and satisfaction with a physician. Forty-four percent of the women had discussed sexual functioning issues with a gynecologist. Of those, 91.7% reported that the gynecologist initiated the discussion. The proportion of participants who would consult a gynecologist about sexual dysfunction was 74.5%, but only 41% would consult a family physician. Half of the women would expect a gynecologist to initiate such consultations, but only 20% would expect a family physician to do so. In a multivariate regression analysis, genital self-image was the only significant predictor of women's comfort level with discussing sexual dysfunction with a gynecologist. The respondents perceived the gynecologist, rather than the family physician, as an appropriate professional to consult regarding sexual dysfunction. However, they expected the gynecologist to initiate the discussion. Women with a positive genital self-image are more comfortable in consulting about sexual dysfunction. Gynecologists should be made aware of their significant role in

  6. Post-Closure Monitoring Report for Corrective Action Unit 339: Area 12 Fleet Operations Steam Cleaning Discharge Area Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A. T. Urbon

    2001-08-01

    The Area 12 Fleet Operations Steam Cleaning site is located in the southeast portion of the Area 12 Camp at the Nevada Test Site (Figure 1). This site is identified in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO, 1996) as Corrective Action Site (CAS) 12-19-01 and is the only CAS assigned to Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 339. Post-closure sampling and inspection of the site were completed on March 23, 2001. Because of questionable representativeness and precision of the results, the site was resampled on June 12, 2001. Post-closure monitoring activities were scheduled biennially (every two years) in the Post-Closure Monitoring Plan provided in the December 1997 Closure Report for CAU 339: Area 12 Fleet Operations Steam Cleaning Discharge Area, Nevada Test Site (U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office [DOE/NV], 1997). If after six years the rate of degradation appears to be so slow that the greatest concentration of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) present at the site would not decay within 30 years of the site closure, the site will be reevaluated with consideration to enriching the impacted soil at the site to enhance the degradation process. A baseline for the site was established by sampling in 1997. Based on the recommendations from the 1999 post-closure monitoring report, samples were collected in 2000, earlier than originally proposed, because the 1999 sample results did not provide the expected decrease in TPH concentrations at the site. Sampling results from 2000 revealed favorable conditions for natural degradation at the CAU 339 site, but because of differing sample methods and heterogeneity of the soil, the data results from 2000 were not directly correlated with previous results. Post-closure monitoring activities for 2001 consisted of the following: Soil sample collection from three undisturbed plots (Plots A, B, and C, Figure 2); Sample analysis for TPH as oil and bio-characterization parameters (Comparative Enumeration Assay

  7. Incorporating uncertainty into mercury-offset decisions with a probabilistic network for National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permit holders: an interim report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Alexander

    2004-01-01

    This interim report describes an alternative approach for evaluating the efficacy of using mercury (Hg) offsets to improve water quality. Hg-offset programs may allow dischargers facing higher-pollution control costs to meet their regulatory obligations by making more cost effective pollutant-reduction decisions. Efficient Hg management requires methods to translate that science and economics into a regulatory decision framework. This report documents the work in progress by the U.S. Geological Surveys Western Geographic Science Center in collaboration with Stanford University toward developing this decision framework to help managers, regulators, and other stakeholders decide whether offsets can cost effectively meet the Hg total maximum daily load (TMDL) requirements in the Sacramento River watershed. Two key approaches being considered are: (1) a probabilistic approach that explicitly incorporates scientific uncertainty, cost information, and value judgments; and (2) a quantitative approach that captures uncertainty in testing the feasibility of Hg offsets. Current fate and transport-process models commonly attempt to predict chemical transformations and transport pathways deterministically. However, the physical, chemical, and biologic processes controlling the fate and transport of Hg in aquatic environments are complex and poorly understood. Deterministic models of Hg environmental behavior contain large uncertainties, reflecting this lack of understanding. The uncertainty in these underlying physical processes may produce similarly large uncertainties in the decisionmaking process. However, decisions about control strategies are still being made despite the large uncertainties in current Hg loadings, the relations between total Hg (HgT) loading and methylmercury (MeHg) formation, and the relations between control efforts and Hg content in fish. The research presented here focuses on an alternative analytical approach to the current use of safety factors and

  8. Foot amputation - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amputation - foot - discharge; Trans-metatarsal amputation - discharge ... You have had a foot amputation. You may have had an accident, or your foot may have had an infection or disease and doctors could not save ...

  9. Frequent genital HSV-2 shedding among women during labor in Soweto, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perti, Tara; Nyati, Mandisa; Gray, Glenda; De Bruyn, Guy; Selke, Stacy; Magaret, Amalia; Huang, Meei-Li; Velaphi, Sithembiso; Corey, Lawrence; Wald, Anna

    2014-01-01

    Despite high herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) incidence and prevalence among women in Africa, we are unaware of published neonatal herpes reports. To assess neonatal HSV transmission potential in South Africa, we investigated the frequency of the strongest risk factors: HSV acquisition in late pregnancy and HSV shedding during labor. Women admitted in early labor to a hospital in Soweto underwent HSV serologic testing and genital swab collection for HSV PCR. HSV-2 seronegative women were assessed for seroconversion 4-6 weeks after delivery. Of 390 women enrolled, 229 (58.7%) were HSV-2 seropositive. Genital HSV-2 was detected in 17.2% of HSV-2 seropositive women, including 26 of 115 HIV-positive and 13 of 110 HIV-negative women (22.6% versus 11.8%; RR, 1.91; 95% CI, 1.04-3.53; P = 0.038), but in none of 161 HSV-2 seronegative women. Among the 91 HSV-2 seronegative women followed after delivery, none seroconverted. HSV-2 reactivation is common among South African women during labor, especially those with HIV coinfection. To determine the epidemiology of neonatal herpes in South Africa and to investigate whether the lack of reported cases is due to alterations in immune control or HSV-2 virulence, studies evaluating acutely ill neonates for HSV and studies of maternal HSV-2 shedding patterns are needed.

  10. Human papillomavirus-related basaloid squamous cell carcinoma of the bladder associated with genital tract human papillomavirus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginori, Alessandro; Barone, Aurora; Santopietro, Rosa; Barbanti, Gabriele; Cecconi, Filippo; Tripodi, Sergio Antonio

    2015-02-01

    Basaloid squamous cell carcinoma is a biologically aggressive neoplasm mainly found in the head and neck region. Recently, four cases of basaloid squamous cell carcinoma of the bladder have been reported, and three of them occurred in patients with neurogenic bladder, repeated catheterizations and human papillomavirus infection of the urinary tract. To the best of our knowledge, none of the patients affected by basaloid squamous cell carcinoma of the bladder described in the literature had documented genital involvement by human papillomavirus. Herein, we describe the case of a woman with neurogenic bladder affected by basaloid squamous cell carcinoma of the bladder and by a concomitant genital tract human papillomavirus infection. © 2014 The Japanese Urological Association.

  11. Prevalence of pathogens of abnormal vaginal discharges in a Nigerian tertiary hospital

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Samue Nwadioha; Julie O Egesie; Henry Emejuo; Elizabeth Iheanacho

    2010-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the prevalence of pathogens of abnormal vaginal discharges and to improve the current syndromic management of abnormal vaginal discharge. Methods:A prospective study of pathogens of abnormal vaginal discharge was carried out from December 2007 to December 2008. Samples of female genital swabs were collected from Obstetrics and Gynecology Units of Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital, Kano, Nigeria, and analyzed by microscopy, culture and sensitivity test in Medical Microbiology Laboratory of Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital. Results:Microorganisms were detected in 70%(1 400) of a total 2 000 female genital swabs studied. Candida species peaked with 42.0% (840), followed by Gardnerella vaginalis, a pathogen of bacteria vaginosis with 26.0%. The distribution of abnormal vaginal discharge was highest in young adults aged from 21 to 30 years. Conclusions:The commonest Microorganisms of infective vaginal discharge were Candida species, followed by Gardnerella vaginalis, a pathogen of bacterial vaginosis. Vaginal discharge was prevalent among young adults. We recommend prevention, early diagnosis and prompt treatment of infected female, especially among the young, sexually active group in order to reduce the menace of HIV transmission.

  12. Arc discharge sliding over a conducting surface

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goor, van F.A.; Mitko, S.V.; Ochkin, V.N.; Paramonov, A.P.; Witteman, W.J.

    1997-01-01

    Results of experimental and theoretical studies of the arc discharge which slides over the surface of a conductor are reported. Experiments were performed in air and argon ambients at various pressures. It is found that the velocity of the discharge plasma front depends linearly on the strength of t

  13. High prevalence of genital HPV infection among long-term monogamous partners of women with cervical dysplasia or genital warts-Another reason for HPV vaccination of boys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rob, Filip; Tachezy, Ruth; Pichlík, Tomáš; Rob, Lukáš; Kružicová, Zuzana; Hamšíková, Eva; Šmahelová, Jana; Hercogová, Jana

    2017-01-01

    We conducted a cross-sectional study on the occurrence of a specific type of genital human papillomavirus (HPV) among long-term monogamous male partners of women with cervical dysplasia and genital warts. The purpose of the study was to improve knowledge with regards to the management of these couples. The presence of genital HPV-DNA was detected by PCR with broad spectrum primers followed by hybridization. 82 males met the study criteria, 41 in each group. Genital HPV-DNA prevalence was 67.5% in the genital warts group and 72.2% in the cervical dysplasia group. The prevalence of high risk HPVs was higher in the cervical dysplasia group, while low risk HPVs were more prevalent in the genital warts group (p HPV in males was independent of the duration of the relationship (73.5% for 6-24 months and 66.7% for longer relationships). In conclusion, our results suggest that the prevalence of the genital HPV infection in both groups of male partners is comparable and very high, but the spectrum of HPV types varies significantly. The presence of the genital HPV infection in male sexual partners seems to be independent of the duration of the relationship. Applying the HPV vaccination to boys may prevent this phenomenon.

  14. Extracorporeal Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (E-CPR) During Pediatric In-Hospital Cardiopulmonary Arrest Is Associated With Improved Survival to Discharge: A Report from the American Heart Association's Get With The Guidelines-Resuscitation (GWTG-R) Registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasa, Javier J; Rogers, Rachel S; Localio, Russell; Shults, Justine; Raymond, Tia; Gaies, Michael; Thiagarajan, Ravi; Laussen, Peter C; Kilbaugh, Todd; Berg, Robert A; Nadkarni, Vinay; Topjian, Alexis

    2016-01-12

    Although extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation (E-CPR) can result in survival after failed conventional CPR (C-CPR), no large, systematic comparison of pediatric E-CPR and continued C-CPR has been reported. Consecutive patients CPR events ≥10 minutes in duration reported to the Get With the Guidelines-Resuscitation registry between January 2000 and December 2011 were identified. Hospitals were grouped by teaching status and location. Primary outcome was survival to discharge. Regression modeling was performed, conditioning on hospital groups. A secondary analysis was performed with the use of propensity score matching. Of 3756 evaluable patients, 591 (16%) received E-CPR and 3165 (84%) received C-CPR only. Survival to hospital discharge and survival with favorable neurological outcome (Pediatric Cerebral Performance Category score of 1-3 or unchanged from admission) were greater for E-CPR (40% [237 of 591] and 27% [133 of 496]) versus C-CPR patients (27% [862 of 3165] and 18% [512 of 2840]). Odds ratios (ORs) for survival to hospital discharge and survival with favorable neurological outcome were greater for E-CPR versus C-CPR. After adjustment for covariates, patients receiving E-CPR had higher odds of survival to discharge (OR, 2.80; 95% confidence interval, 2.13-3.69; PCPR. This association persisted when analyzed by propensity score-matched cohorts (OR, 1.70; 95% confidence interval, 1.33-2.18; PCPR of ≥10 minutes duration, E-CPR was associated with improved survival to hospital discharge and survival with favorable neurological outcome compared with C-CPR. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  15. Female genital cosmetic surgery: a review of techniques and outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iglesia, Cheryl B; Yurteri-Kaplan, Ladin; Alinsod, Red

    2013-12-01

    The aesthetic and functional procedures that comprise female genital cosmetic surgery (FGCS) include traditional vaginal prolapse procedures as well as cosmetic vulvar and labial procedures. The line between cosmetic and medically indicated surgical procedures is blurred, and today many operations are performed for both purposes. The contributions of gynecologists and reconstructive pelvic surgeons are crucial in this debate. Aesthetic vaginal surgeons may unintentionally blur legitimate female pelvic floor disorders with other aesthetic conditions. In the absence of quality outcome data, the value of FGCS in improving sexual function remains uncertain. Women seeking FGCS need to be educated about the range and variation of labia widths and genital appearance, and should be evaluated for true pelvic support disorders such as pelvic organ prolapse and stress urinary incontinence. Women seeking FGCS should also be screened for psychological conditions and should act autonomously without coercion from partners or surgeons with proprietary conflicts of interest.

  16. Maternal Overweight and Obesity and Genital Anomalies in Male Offspring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arendt, Linn Håkonsen; Ramlau-Hansen, Cecilia Høst; Lindhard, Morten Søndergaard

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Overweight and obese pregnant women face higher risk of several critical birth outcomes, including an overall increased risk of congenital abnormalities. Only few studies have focused on associations between maternal overweight and the genital anomalies in boys, cryptorchidism.......58). A substantial proportion of the associations between BMI and the genital anomalies were mediated through preeclampsia. CONCLUSION: This large register-based study adds to the current literature and indicates that the occurrence of hypospadias and cryptorchidism increase with maternal overweight and obesity...... were mediated through obesity-related diseases. RESULTS: Of the 1 055 705 live-born singleton boys born from 1992 to 2012, 6807 (6.4 per 1000) were diagnosed with hypospadias and 16 469 (15.6 per 1000) were diagnosed with cryptorchidism, of which 9768 (9.3 per 1000) underwent corrective surgery...

  17. A rat uterine horn model of genital tract wound healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlaff, W D; Cooley, B C; Shen, W; Gittlesohn, A M; Rock, J A

    1987-11-01

    A rat uterine horn model of genital tract wound healing is described. Healing was reflected by acquisition of strength and elasticity, measured by burst strength (BS) and extensibility (EX), respectively. A tensiometer (Instron Corp., Canton, MA) was used to assess these characteristics in castrated and estrogen-supplemented or nonsupplemented animals. While the horn weights (HW), BS, and EX of contralateral horns were not significantly different, the intra-animal variation of HW was 7.2%, BS was 17.7% and EX was 38.2%. In a second experiment, one uterine horn was divided and anastomosed, and the animal given estrogen supplementation or a placebo pellet. Estrogen administration was found to increase BS and EX of anastomosed horns prior to 14 days, but had no beneficial effect at 21 or 42 days. The data suggest that estrogen may be required for optimal early healing of genital tract wounds.

  18. Female genital mutilation - postcircumcision vulval complications in Nigerians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adekunle, A O; Fakokunde, F A; Odukogbe, A A; Fawole, A O

    1999-11-01

    Female genital mutilation is a cultural practice that can adversely affect the health of women. Vulval complications of female circumcision in 39 patients managed at the University College Hospital, Ibadan, Nigeria over a period of 10 years were reviewed. The complications were: labial adhesions of varying degrees (51.3%) and clitoral retention cysts (48.7%). However, both types of complications occurred concurrently in two (5.1%) patients. All patients were treated surgically with good outcome. The only immediate complication of treatment was secondary haemorrhage in one patient with clitoral cyst. Regrettably, one patient with labial adhesion required a repeat surgical procedure 2 months later. The histological examination of all the retention cysts revealed epidermal inclusion cysts. Emphasising the reproductive health implications of female genital mutilation may prove an effective strategy towards eradication of the practice.

  19. [Differential diagnosis of papillomas in the area of the genitals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinrich, I; Heinrich, J

    1993-01-01

    Infection of the genital organs by human papillomavirus (HPV) is the most commonly diagnosed sexually transmitted disease. Papillomaviruses lead to a contact infection of the epithelium and present with different clinical and histological signs. With the exception of the best known clinical manifestation Condylomata acuminata, subclinical infections can be only diagnosed from a stepwise examination. Physiological results from both men and women may be falsely explained as being caused by viruses, and can lead to an incorrect therapy. Genital papilla (Papillae coronae vulvae et glandis) present as atavistic cutaneous papilla a normal situation but with functional significance. Differences in clinical symptoms as well as the possibilities of further differentiation can be obtained by means of pictures taken during colposcopy.

  20. The School Nurse's Role in Addressing Female Genital Mutilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, Barbara

    2016-09-01

    Female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C) is the practice in some immigrant populations of cutting or causing injury to the female genital organs for non-medical reasons. The incidence of FGM/C has increased by 314% in school-aged children according to a study published in 2016. The school nurse is in an optimal position to identify children at risk and build collaborative relationships to treat the students affected by the practice. FGM/C is child abuse and carries both federal and state legal consequences. It is important for the school nurse to understand the cultural context, legal guidance, and social consequences of this practice within the greater community. The school nurse should work to develop interagency guidelines to provide safe processes for the child and the family. The most effective programs use a combination of educational strategies for families and communities along with law enforcement to help abolish the practice.

  1. A microbiological study of genital ulcers in Kuala Lumpur.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zainah, S; Cheong, Y M; Sinniah, M; Gan, A T; Akbal, K

    1991-09-01

    The microbial aetiology of genital ulcers was studied in 249 patients (241 men and 8 women) attending a Sexually Transmitted Disease Clinic in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Herpes simplex virus type 2 was isolated in 48 (19.2%) patients, Haemophilus ducreyi from 22 (8.8%), Neisseria gonorrhoeae from seven (2.8%) and Chlamydia trachomatis from four (1.6%). Syphilis was diagnosed in 18 (7.2%) patients on the basis of dark field microscopy. Two (0.8%) patients were found to have both chancroid and syphilis and one (0.5%) had both gonorrhoea and syphilis. No organism was isolated in the remaining 151 (61.5%) patients. Overall, the accuracy of clinical diagnosis was 58% for single infection, 67% for herpes, 63% for syphilis, 47% for chancroid and 0% for lymphogranuloma venereum. Therefore, our study confirms the need for laboratory tests to diagnose accurately the aetiology of genital ulcer disease.

  2. Immunohistochemical investigations of genital ulcers caused by Haemophilus ducreyi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abeck, D; Freinkel, A L; Korting, H C; Szeimis, R M; Ballard, R C

    1997-09-01

    To gain information on the specific composition of the inflammatory infiltrate of genital ulcers caused by Haemophilus ducreyi, biopsies of 6 genital ulcers which were diagnosed as chancroid on clinical and microbiological grounds were subjected to immunohistochemical investigations after conventional haematoxylineosin staining. A variety of antibodies reactive against B- and T-cells, plasma cells and granulocytes were used with each tissue sections. The lymphocytic infiltrate of chancroid ulcers consisted of both B- and T-lymphocytes and showed a cluster-like formation. B-lymphocytes were preferentially localized perivascularly in the middle layer, T-lymphocytes mainly in the deep layer of the inflamed oedematous tissue. Results stress the importance of both B- and T-cell mediated immune responses in Haemophilus ducreyi infection.

  3. Human immunodeficiency virus infection and female lower genital tract malignancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhn, L; Sun, X W; Wright, T C

    1999-02-01

    The risk of lower genital tract neoplasia is increased in women infected with HIV. This has been best demonstrated in cervical squamous intraepithelial lesions, but has also been observed in vulvar and perianal intraepithelial lesions in some studies. Alterations in the prevalence and natural history of human papillomavirus infections of the lower genital tract appear to account for much of the increase. HIV-infected women are approximately four times more likely to be infected with human papillomavirus (including infection with high oncogenic risk human papillomavirus types) than are HIV-uninfected women, and these infections are more likely to be persistent. Human papilomavirus-associated lesions may be more difficult to treat in HIV-infected women. These data highlight the need to develop effective cervical cancer prevention programs for HIV-infected women.

  4. [Female victims of sexual abuse: coercive methods and non-genital injuries].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Jair Naves dos; Martin, Carmen Cinira Santos; Ferriani, Maria das Graças Carvalho

    2004-01-01

    This study aims to analyze the coercive methods used by sex offenders and the occurrence of non-genital injuries in female children, adolescent, and adult victims of sexual abuse reported to the Women's Police Precinct and examined at the Department of Forensic Medicine in Ribeirão Preto, São Paulo State, Brazil, from 1996 to 2000. Age distribution followed the criteria established by Brazil's Statute for Children and Adolescents (the prevailing legislation on issues pertaining to minors). Physical violence was the most frequently used form of coercion against adults (44.1%) and adolescents (25.0%), followed by serious threat in 36.5% and 17.0% of the cases, respectively. Presumed violence by innocentia consilii occurred in 94.1% of the children and 42.8% of the adolescents. Minor non-genital injuries were found in 7.8% of the cases, involving children (3.0%), adolescents (7.2%), and adults (14.4%), with no weapons involved in 75.0% of these cases. A decrease in the number of cases with injuries was observed in relation to knives (14.3%) and handguns (10.7%) used against adult and adolescent victims.

  5. Genital ulcers: etiology, clinical diagnosis, and associated human immunodeficiency virus infection in Kingston, Jamaica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behets, F M; Brathwaite, A R; Hylton-Kong, T; Chen, C Y; Hoffman, I; Weiss, J B; Morse, S A; Dallabetta, G; Cohen, M S; Figueroa, J P

    1999-05-01

    Individuals presenting consecutively with genital ulcers in Kingston, Jamaica, underwent serological testing for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, chlamydial infection, and syphilis. Ulcer material was analyzed by multiplex polymerase chain reaction (M-PCR) analysis. DNA from herpes simplex virus (HSV), Haemophilus ducreyi, and Treponema pallidum was detected in 158 (52.0%), 72 (23.7%), and 31 (10.2%) of 304 ulcer specimens. Of the 304 subjects, 67 (22%) were HIV-seropositive and 64 (21%) were T. pallidum-seroreactive. Granuloma inguinale was clinically diagnosed in nine (13.4%) of 67 ulcers negative by M-PCR analysis and in 12 (5.1%) of 237 ulcers positive by M-PCR analysis (P = .03). Lymphogranuloma venereum was clinically diagnosed in eight patients. Compared with M-PCR analysis, the sensitivity and specificity of a clinical diagnosis of syphilis, herpes, and chancroid were 67.7%, 53.8%, and 75% and 91.2%, 83.6%, and 75.4%, respectively. Reactive syphilis serology was 74% sensitive and 85% specific compared with M-PCR analysis. Reported contact with a prostitute in the preceding 3 months was associated with chancroid (P = .009), reactive syphilis serology (P = .011), and HIV infection (P = .007). The relatively poor accuracy of clinical and locally available laboratory diagnoses pleads for syndromic management of genital ulcers in Jamaica. Prevention efforts should be intensified.

  6. Perception of primary health professionals about Female Genital Mutilation: from healthcare to intercultural competence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fàbregas Ma Jose

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The practice of Female Genital Mutilation (FGM, a deeply-rooted tradition in 28 countries in Sub-Saharan Africa, carries important negative consequences for the health and quality of life of women and children. Migratory movements have brought this harmful traditional practice to our medical offices, with the subsequent conflicts related to how to approach this healthcare problem, involving not only a purely healthcare-related event but also questions of an ethical, cultural identity and human rights nature. Methods The aim of this study was to analyse the perceptions, degree of knowledge, attitudes and practices of the primary healthcare professionals in relation to FGM. A transversal, descriptive study was performed with a self-administered questionnaire to family physicians, paediatricians, nurses, midwives and gynaecologists. Trends towards changes in the two periods studied (2001 and 2004 were analysed. Results A total of 225 (80% professionals answered the questionnaire in 2001 and 184 (62% in 2004. Sixteen percent declared detection of some case in 2004, rising three-fold from the number reported in 2001. Eighteen percent stated that they had no interest in FGM. Less than 40% correctly identified the typology, while less than 30% knew the countries in which the practice is carried out and 82% normally attended patients from these countries. Conclusion Female genital mutilations are present in primary healthcare medical offices with paediatricians and gynaecologists having the closest contact with the problem. Preventive measures should be designed as should sensitization to promote stands against these practices.

  7. [Chronic genital ulcerations and HIV infection: 29 cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gbery, I P; Djeha, D; Kacou, D E; Aka, B R; Yoboue, P; Vagamon, B; Sangare, A; Kanga, J M

    1999-01-01

    Genital ulcers are common manifestations of infectious disease. The incidence of genital ulcers featuring a chronic course has increased since the beginning of the AIDS epidemic. The purpose of this 18-month cross-sectional study was to determine the main infectious causes of chronic genital ulcers (CGU) and their correlation with HIV infection. A total of 29 patients with CGU defined as an ulcer showing no sign of healing after more than one month were studied. Mean age ranged from 24 to 54 years. The male-to-female sex ratio was 1:5. The etiology was herpes in 19 cases (65.5 p. 100), chancroid in 6 cases (20.6 p. 100), streptococcal infection in 2 cases (6.8 p. 100), Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection in 1 case (3.4 p. 100) and cutaneous amibiasis in 1 case (3.4 p. 100). Twenty-two patients (75.8 p. 100) presented HIV infection including 16 with HIV1 and 6 with HIV1 and HIV2. All patients with herpes were HIV-positive. Eighteen of these patients were in stage C3 of HIV infection. Genital herpes was the main etiology of UGC in patients with HIV infection (p < 0.001). Conversely chancroid was the main etiology in patients without HIV infection (p < 0.05). This finding suggests that herpetic CGU is highly suggestive of AIDS whereas chancroid CGU is not. Although syphilis is widespread in Africa, it was not a cause of CGU in this study. Search for herpes simplex virus or Haemophilus ducreyi in patients with CGU is an important criteria for presumptive diagnosis of AIDS in Africa.

  8. Doctoring the Genitals: Towards Broadening the Meaning of Social Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shweder, Richard A

    2015-01-01

    Doctoring the genitals is compatible with a recognizable conception of social medicine. This commentary critically examines the distinction between medical and nonmedical procedures; presents an alternative account of Sohaila Bastami's personal reaction to the anonymous caller's request for referral information concerning hymen reconstruction surgery; and makes use of Yelp to simulate the caller's procedure for locating a helpful practitioner. Yelp is a very useful informational search engine that does not subject its users to a moral examination.

  9. Vestibular papillomatosis: a benign condition mimicking genital warts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonder, Margaret A; Hunter-Yates, Jennifer; Lawrence, W Dwayne; Telang, Gladys H

    2012-12-01

    Vestibular papillomatosis (VP) is a benign condition of the female genitalia that may be mistaken for condyloma acuminatum (genital warts). In contrast to condylomata, lesions of VP each grow from a distinct mucosal insertion; match the color of the surrounding mucosa; and are symmetrically distributed, limited to the inner labia minora and vaginal introitus. Recognition of this entity will help to prevent unnecessary stress, testing, and discomfort.

  10. Is incidence of multiple HPV genotypes rising in genital infections?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohrabi, Amir; Hajia, Masoud; Jamali, Firouzeh; Kharazi, Faranak

    2017-02-16

    Frequency of cervical cancer related to Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) has increased remarkably in less-developed countries. Hence, applying capable diagnostic methods is urgently needed, as is having a therapeutic strategy as an effective step for cervical cancer prevention. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of various multi-type HPV infection patterns and their possible rising incidence in women with genital infections. This descriptive study was conducted on women who attended referral clinical laboratories in Tehran for genital infections from January 2012 until December 2013. A total of 1387 archival cervical scraping and lesion specimens were collected from referred women. HPV genotyping was performed using approved HPV commercial diagnostic technologies with either INNO-LiPA HPV or Geno Array Test kits. HPV was positive in 563 cases (40.59%) with mean age of 32.35±9.96. Single, multiple HPV genotypes and untypable cases were detected in 398 (70.69%), 160 (28.42%) and 5 (0.89%) cases, respectively. Multiple HPV infections were detected in 92 (57.5%), 42 (26.2%), 17 (10.6%) and 9 (5.7%) cases as two, three, four and five or more genotypes, respectively. The prevalence of 32 HPV genotypes was determined one by one. Seventeen HPV genotypes were identified in 95.78% of all positive infections. Five dominant genotypes, HPV6, 16, 53, 11 and 31, were identified in a total of 52.35%of the HPV positive cases. In the present study, we were able to evaluate the rate of multiple HPV types in genital infections. Nevertheless, it is necessary to evaluate the role of the dominant HPV low-risk types and the new probably high-risk genotypes, such as HPV53, in the increasing incidences of genital infections.

  11. Pregnancy and genital sarcoma: a systematic review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuo, Koji; Eno, Michele L; Im, Dwight D; Rosenshein, Neil B

    2009-08-01

    We conducted a literature review to determine the clinical characteristics of genital sarcoma during pregnancy. The systematic literature search was conducted using the search engines PubMed and MEDLINE with keywords "sarcoma" and "pregnancy" and was limited to female genital organs such as ovary, uterus, cervix, vagina, vulva, and retroperitoneal sarcoma. Kaposi's sarcoma, metastatic sarcoma, history of sarcoma, bone sarcoma located in pelvis, and fetal sarcoma were excluded in this study. There were 40 cases of genital sarcoma during pregnancy between 1955 and 2007. The majority of the cases were uterine sarcoma (37.5%), followed by retroperitoneal sarcoma (27.5%), vulvar sarcoma (22.5%), and vaginal sarcoma (12.5%). Mean age of the patient was 27.8 +/- 7.0. The distribution in the onset of symptoms had two peaks: first trimester (27.5%) and third trimester (50.0%). Growing mass (42.5%), abdominal pain (30.0%), and vaginal bleeding (22.5%) were the three most common symptoms. Incidental diagnosis was made in 22.5% and included during cesarean section (12.5%) and routine pelvic exam (7.5%). The cases initially not suspicious for malignancy were 42.5%. Thirty-three (82.5%) cases had live-born infants with term delivery in 55.2%. Mean birth weight was 2843 +/- 791 g, and male infants were more common (66.7%). Intrauterine growth retardation was seen in 12.5% of cases. Preterm labor was a common complication. Median survival period was 2.5 years (95% confidence, 1.9 to 3.1). The 2-, 3-, and 5-year cumulative survival rates were 60%, 38%, and 17%, respectively. Genital sarcomas in pregnancy are rare. There is a delay in diagnosis due to low index of suspicion. A majority had live births, and the 5-year survival is similar to that of advanced-stage sarcoma in nonpregnant women.

  12. Final Report DE-FG02-00ER54583: "Physics of Atmospheric Pressure Glow Discharges" and "Nanoparticle Nucleation and Dynamics in Low-Pressure Plasmas"

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uwe Kortshagen; Joachim Heberlein; Steven L. Girshick

    2009-06-01

    This project was funded over two periods of three years each, with an additional year of no-cost extension. Research in the first funding period focused on the physics of uniform atmospheric pressure glow discharges, the second funding period was devoted to the study of the dynamics of nanometer-sized particles in plasmas.

  13. Effect of female genital mutilation/cutting on sexual functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biglu, Mohammad-Hossein; Farnam, Alireza; Abotalebi, Parvaneh; Biglu, Sahar; Ghavami, Mostafa

    2016-12-01

    Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting (FGM/C) or female circumcision is the procedure of eliminating some or all parts of the external female genitalia. FGM/C is carried out by traditional circumcisers. They usually use cutting tools like a blade or straight-razor. Although FGM/C is well described in the African continent and some Arabic countries, data from Iran are scarce. The major objective of this current study was to investigate the effects of FGM/C on the female sexual function of married women compared to the non-circumcised women in the Kurdistan province of Iran. A case-control study was conducted in a sample of 280 married women (140 circumcised-women and 140 non-circumcised-women) who referred to the healthcare centers for vaccination, midwifery, or family planning services. Participants were requested to complete the Persian-translated version of the Female Sexual Function Index. The total score of the FSFI and its individual domains. Of the circumcised women, 51.4% reported circumcision procedures before the age of 3 years. Religion motivation (53.6%) was mentioned as the most important factor for the family leading to FGM/C. Almost all operations were performed by traditional circumcisers. Non-circumcised women had significantly higher Persian-FSFI total score (25.3 ± 4.34) compared to the circumcised women (17.9 ± 5.39). Sexual function in women with FGM/C is adversely altered. In Kurdistan province women, FGM/C is associated with reduction of scores of Persian-FSFI on all domain scores. Education in general and informing the people that FGM/C is not a religious Hadith certainly would have a great impact on the suffering of the women from FGM/C as well as the level of "desire, arousal, lubrication, orgasm, satisfaction, and pain in the sexual function of women". Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Ano-Genital Warts and HIV Status– A Clinical Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Shimpa; Gulbake, Arvind

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Ano-Genital Warts (AGW) like other Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STD) is associated with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection. This study of AGW was done in HIV positive and HIV negative patients. Aim To study the risk factors and clinical presentations of ano-genital warts in HIV positive and negative patients. Materials and Methods A comparative, cross-sectional, descriptive study of 25 HIV positive and 25 HIV negative (n=50) AGW patients between 15-60 years of both sex was conducted in Dr. D. Y. Patil Hospital and Research Centre from July 2014 to July 2016. Results Significant association of HIV positivity (phomosexuality (p0.05). No patient presented with changes of malignancy. Four were adolescents below 19 years. Two patients had atypical presentations of giant condylomata i.e., Buschke-Lowenstein Tumour (BLT). Conclusion HIV positivity was significantly associated with the risk factors of age below 30 years, homo sexuality and multiple sexual partners. Anal warts were significantly common in HIV positive patients. Four adolescents with AGW underline the need for high risk behaviour counselling. No patient had malignant ano-genital warts. Follow up of these patients with Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) sub-typing is necessary. PMID:28274028

  15. PAX8 and PAX2 immunostaining facilitates the diagnosis of primary epithelial neoplasms of the male genital tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Guo-Xia; Memeo, Lorenzo; Colarossi, Cristina; Hamele-Bena, Diane; Magi-Galluzzi, Cristina; Zhou, Ming; Lagana, Stephen M; Harik, Lara; Oliver-Krasinski, Jennifer M; Mansukhani, Mahesh; Falcone, Lorenzo; Hibshoosh, Hanina; O'Toole, Kathleen

    2011-10-01

    PAX8 and PAX2 are cell-lineage-specific transcription factors that are essential for the development of Wolffian and Müllerian ducts and have recently emerged as specific diagnostic markers for tumors of renal or Müllerian origin. Little is known about their expression in the Wolffian duct-derived human male genital tract. We report our findings of PAX8 and PAX2 expression in the epithelium of the normal male genital tract and in epithelial tumors derived therefrom using immunohistochemistry (IHC). We found that PAX8 and PAX2 were expressed in the epithelium of the male genital tract from the rete testis to the ejaculatory duct. Rare glands in the prostatic central zone, a tissue of purported Wolffian duct origin, were focally positive for PAX2, but no PAX8 was detected in this area, a finding that may warrant further study. We found diffuse expression of PAX8 and PAX2 in 1 case each of serous cystadenoma of the epididymis, carcinoma of the rete testis, Wolffian adnexal tumor of the seminal vesicle, and endometrioid carcinoma of the seminal vesicle. Neither PAX8 nor PAX2 was detected in the seminiferous tubules and interstitium of the normal testis, nor in Leydig cell tumors (n=6), Sertoli cell tumors (n=2), or 48 of 49 germ cell tumors. One pediatric yolk sac tumor showed focal and weak staining for PAX8. Tumors of mesothelial origin, that is, adenomatoid tumors (n=3) and peritoneal malignant mesotheliomas (n=37) in men, were negative for PAX2 and PAX8. Neither PAX2 nor PAX8 was present in other areas of the prostate. Expression of PAX8 and PAX2 in these primary epithelial neoplasms of the male genital tract is due to their histogenetic relationship with Wolffian or Müllerian ducts. PAX8 and PAX2 IHC may facilitate the diagnosis of these tumors and should be included in the differential diagnostic IHC panel.

  16. A missense mutation of HOXA13 underlies hand-foot-genital syndrome in a Chinese family

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    LIHUA CAO; CHEN CHEN; YUNJI LENG; LULU YAN; SHUSEN WANG; XUE ZHANG; YANG LUO

    2017-09-01

    Hand-foot-genital syndrome (HFGS) is a rare autosomal dominant inherited syndrome characterized by limb malformations and urogenital defects. HFGS is caused by mutations in the HOXA13 gene. The aim of this study was to identifycausative mutations in individuals and to explore the molecular pathogenesis in a Chinese family with HFGS. We performed Sanger sequencing and identified a recurrent missense mutation in the homeodomain (c.1123G>T, p.V375F) of HOXA13, molecular modelling predicted the mutation would affect DNA binding, and a luciferase reporter assay indicated that it impaired the ability ofHOXA13 to activate transcription of the human EPHA7 promoter. This is the first report of the molecular basis for HFGS caused by missense mutations of HOXA13.

  17. Epidermal inclusion cyst of the clitoris 30 years after female genital mutilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asante, Albert; Omurtag, Kenan; Roberts, Carla

    2010-08-01

    To present a case report of a patient with epidermal inclusion cyst as a late complication of female circumcision, the management of the patient, and a review of the literature. Case report and literature review. University hospital. A 37-year-old female from Guinea with a large clitoral mass of 6 months' duration. Complete history and physical exam of the patient and subsequent surgical resection of the cyst. Diagnosis, surgical management, and postoperative sexual function and emotional well-being. Resolution of swelling and discomfort, satisfactory postoperative sexual function and emotional well-being. There should be awareness of one of the relatively common delayed complications of female genital circumcision and familiarity with its surgical management. Overall, surgical management appears to be effective, and there is no documented risk of recurrence.

  18. The subject genitive in the standard Serbian language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonić Ivana

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a review of syntactic-semantic structures with the so-called subject genitive, it describes and in a specific way compares all syntactic-semantic models with this type of genitive and discusses the necessary syntactic-semantic conditions which influence its appearance with the comment on the necessary pragmatic conditions where it is relevant. In comparison with the interpretations existing so far, this category is somewhat extended, and the appearance of genitive in specific models mentioned by other authors, too - is explicitly classified into this category, which has not been the case before. Subject genitive, as an exponent of the grammatical subject in the deep predication (full verbal lexeme [condensed by the deverbal noun] or copulative with the adjective as a semantic core [condensed by the deadjectival noun], or the predication of the reduced relative clause in the function of the restrictive identifier of the basic noun of the type nomina loci and nomina collectiva or as a denotator of the semantic subject, in both cases with the meaning of agent - the direct performer of the activity or an intermediary, but also a pseudo-agent, e.g. the indicator of a characteristic, of existence, objects instrument, of the entity created in the process of the verb activity possessor, causer, indicator of a state or feeling, disponent (temporary possessor - is realized equally in nominal and verbal structures, and in a particular instance also in the occasional variant of the sentence with one type of modal particles (evo, eto, eno, gle in a specific pragmatic situation. In the Standard Serbian Language the subject genitive is the element of the secondary syntactic-semantic structures - generated from the basic deep, prototypical, structures (all models except the model with the personal and the model with the medial predication, or the element of the basic syntactic-semantic structures but so-called converse structures (the model

  19. Genital Mycoplasma and Chlamydia trachomatis infections in patients with genital tract infections attending a tertiary care hospital of North India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karnika Saigal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Limited data are available on the prevalence of genital mycoplasmas and Chlamydia trachomatis (CT among Indian patients with genital tract infections. The objectives of the study were to determine the prevalence of Ureaplasma urealyticum (UU, Mycoplasma hominis (MH, Mycoplasma genitalium (MG, and CT in patients with genital tract infections. The antimicrobial susceptibilities of UU and MH were also assessed. Endocervical swabs/urethral swabs and first void urine samples of patients (n = 164 were collected. UU and MH were detected by culture and multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR. MG and CT were identified by PCR. Ureaplasma isolates were further biotyped and serotyped. Antimicrobial susceptibility was done by microbroth dilution method. UU, MH, MG, and CT were detected in 15.2%, 5.4%, 1.2%, and 6% patients, respectively. Ureaplasma parvum serovar 3/14 was the most prevalent. All isolates of UU and MH were uniformly susceptible to doxycycline and josamycin. Routine screening for these pathogens and antimicrobial susceptibility testing is warranted to prevent sequel of infections and formulate treatment guidelines.

  20. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease - adults - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    COPD - adults - discharge; Chronic obstructive airways disease - adults - discharge; Chronic obstructive lung disease - adults - discharge; Chronic bronchitis - adults - discharge; Emphysema - adults - discharge; Bronchitis - ...

  1. Infecções genitais em mulheres atendidas em Unidade Básica de Saúde: prevalência e fatores de risco Genital infections in women attending a Primary Unit of Health: prevalence and risk behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mara Rejane Barroso Barcelos

    2008-07-01

    de medidas de prevenção, como o rastreamento de infecções sexualmente transmissíveis e programas de redução de risco em mulheres que procuram o serviço ginecológico de rotina.PURPOSE: to describe the prevalence and behavioral profile of genital infections in women attended at a Primary Health Unit in Vitoria, ES. METHODS: a transversal study including 14 to 49-year-old women attended by the Family Health Program (FHP. Exclusion criteria were: having been submitted to gynecological examination in less than one year before, and history of recent treatment (in the last three months for genital infections. An interview including socio-demographic, clinical and behavioral data was applied. Genital specimens were collected for cytology, GRAM bacterioscopy and culture, and urine sample for molecular biological test for Chlamydia trachomatis. RESULTS: two hundred and ninety-nine women took part in the study. The median age was 30.0 (interquartile interval: 24;38 years old; the average age of the first intercourse was 17.3 (sd=3.6 years old. The first pregnancy average age was 19.2 (3.9 years old. About 70% reported up to 8 years of schooling; 5% reported previous Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STD, and 8%, the use of illicit drugs. Only 23.7% reported consistent use of condoms. Clinical complaints were: genital ulcer (3%; dysuria (7.7%; vaginal discharge (46.6%: pruritus (20% and pelvic pain (18%. Prevalence rates were: Chlamydia trachomatis 7.4%; gonorrhea 2%; trichomoniasis 2%; bacterial vaginosis 21.3%; candidiasis 9.3%; and cytological changes suggestive of HPV 3.3%. In the final logistic regression model, the factors independently associated to genital infections were: abnormal cervical mucus, OR=9.7 (CI95%=5.6-13.7, previous HIV testing, OR=6.5 (CI95%=4.0-8.9, having more than one partner during the previous year, OR=3.9 (CI95%=2.7-5.0, and having more than one partner in life, OR=4.7 (CI95%=2.4-6.8. CONCLUSIONS: results show a high rate of genital infections

  2. Limited evidence of the effect of prophylactic pelvic floor training on genital prolapse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boie, Sidsel; Jeppesen, Ulla; Bor, Isil Pinar

    2012-01-01

    Abstract A growing number of women are bothered by genital prolapse. The treatment of genital prolapse includes pelvic floor exercise in variable extent, but only few data are published. Variations in interventions, follow-up time, outcome etc. complicates a comparison. Because of the very limited...... material it is difficult to conclude if pelvic floor exercises have any effect on genital prolapse. There is need for studies concerning the clinical relevance and a cost-benefit analysis....

  3. The World Health Organization work and experiences in combating female genital mutilation in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Mladonova, Anna

    2007-01-01

    This thesis is dedicated to a better understanding of World Health Organization contribution to process of combating female genital mutilation in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. The World Health Organization is well known all over the world for their work in public health. This organization is dealing with many issues concerning health and well being of people, the one of these issues is combating female genital mutilation. The practice of female circumcision/female genital mutilation is practic...

  4. Positive Perceptions of Genital Appearance and Feeling Sexually Attractive: Is It a Matter of Sexual Esteem?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amos, Natalie; McCabe, Marita

    2016-07-01

    The present study examined the relationship between perceptions of genital appearance and self-perceived sexual attractiveness. The study sample included men and women (aged 18-45 years, M = 23.7, SD = 4.98) who identified as heterosexual (n = 1017), gay or lesbian (n = 1225), or bisexual (n = 651). Participants responded to an online survey assessing their self-perceived sexual attractiveness, genital self-image, genital self-consciousness during sexual activity, and sexual esteem. Based on previous findings, we hypothesized a positive link between genital self-perceptions and self-perceived sexual attractiveness, with sexual esteem acting as a mediator. We tested this hypothesis using structural equation modeling. Analyses revealed a significant association between both genital self-image and genital self-consciousness and self-perceived sexual attractiveness. However, these relationships were at least partially mediated by sexual esteem, across both gender and sexual orientation. The findings suggest that, regardless of gender or sexual orientation, individuals who maintain a positive genital self-image or lack genital self-consciousness, are more likely to experience greater sexual esteem, and in turn, feel more sexually attractive. The findings have implications for the importance of genital appearance perceptions and improving individuals' sexual esteem and self-perceived sexual attractiveness.

  5. The development of the genital peritoneum in domestic mammals. An analysis of the literature and nomenclature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, E

    1995-12-01

    This review presents and discusses the reasons for the currently employed anatomical terminology relating to the genital peritoneum of various domestic species, based upon its prenatal development. When reviewing the development of genital organs, attention must be paid to changes in the related peritoneum in order to define currently used terminology more clearly. The relevance of some terms such as Caudal genital ligament, Plica gubernaculi, Plica iguinalis and genital fold is considered. A system of serosal folds, the Plica gonadoinguinalis or genitoinguinalis, seems to be a useful term to be added to the Nomina Embryologica Veterinaria.

  6. THALIDOMIDE: A THERAPEUTIC BOON IN THE MANAGEMENT OF RECURRENT GENITAL APHTHOUS ULCERATION IN AN IMMUNOCOMPROMISED INDIVIDUAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhubabu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Genital lesions are common in Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV positive patients. Aetiology of the genital lesions are mainly due to Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV, Human Papilloma Virus (HPV and non-specific genital ulcers. They usually respond to the antiviral and antibacterial agents. We are presenting a young unmarried HIV positive and Hepatitis-B positive patient who presented with non-healing genital ulcer lesions while on antiretroviral therapy and showed variable response and challenges to treatment with antivirals, steroids, antibacterials and change of ART and finally dramatic response with Thalidomide therapy which is rarely described in the literature.

  7. Intersex (ix) mutations of Drosophila melanogaster cause nonrandom cell death in genital disc and can induce tumours in genitals in response to decapentaplegic (dppdisk) mutations

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. N. chatterjee; P. Chatterjee; S. Kuthe; M. Acharyya-Ari; R. Chatterjee

    2015-06-01

    In Drosophila melanogaster, the intersex (ix) is a terminally positioned gene in somatic sex determination hierarchy and function with the female specific product of double sex (DSXF) to implement female sexual differentiation. The null phenotype of ix is to transform diplo-X individuals into intersexes while leaving haplo-X animals unaffected. This study on the effect of different intersex mutations on genital disc development provides the following major results: (i) similar range of a characteristic array of morphological structures (from almost double sex terminalia to extreme reduction of terminal appendages) was displayed by the terminalia of XX ix1/ix1, XX ix2/ix2 and XX ix5/ix5 individuals; (ii) an increased number of apoptotic cells were found to occur in a localized manner in mature third instar larval genital discs of ix individuals; (iii) ix mutations can induce high frequency of neoplastic tumours in genitals in the presence of decapentaplegic (dppdisk) mutations; and (iv) heteroallelic combinations of dppdisk mutations can also induce tumours in intersex genitals with variable expressivity. On the basis of these findings, we suggest that: (i) loss of function of ix causes massive cell death in both male and female genital primordia of genital discs, resulting phenotype mimicking in male and female characteristics in genitals; and (ii) at the discs, the apoptotic cells persist as ‘undead’ cells that can induce oncogenic transformation in the neighbouring disc cells when dpp signalling is blocked or reduced by dppdisk mutations.

  8. Actinomycosis of the female genital tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lomax, C W; Harbert, G M; Thornton, W N

    1976-09-01

    Four cases of actinomycosis involving the uterus and adnexal structures are reported. In 2 cases the infection was transmitted from a ruptured appendix. Ascending actinomycosis involving the endometrium and resulting in adnexal abscesses was associated with the use of an IUD in 2 patients. This infection should be suspected in any patient who develops a pelvic abscess with an IUD in place. Culture and histologic examination of tissue removed with the IUD may be a means of early diagnosis. The nature of these infections became apparent only after serious complications developed. Each patient required several surgical procedures. The diagnosis remained unsuspected until repeated laboratory examinations detected the fungus. The difficulty encountered identifying Actinomyces israeli indicates the infection is often undetected. Gallium scans were helpful in localizing occult abscesses in 2 patients.

  9. Female genital mutilation and intimate partner violence in the Ivory Coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltzer, Karl; Pengpid, Supa

    2014-01-22

    Serious forms of violence against women include Female Genital Mutilation (FGM) and Intimate Partner Violence (IPV). The aim of this study was to determine if FGM is associated with IPV, using data obtained from the Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) 2012 in Ivory Coast. Participants for this study were drawn from the 2011-12 Ivory Coast Demographic and Health Survey (CDHS), a nationally representative sample of 10060 women aged 15 to 49 years. The analysis of this paper is restricted to the sample of women who responded to the FGM and domestic violence modules (N = 5005). The lifetime prevalence of physical violence was 24.8%, sexual violence, 5.7%, and emotional violence, 19.0%, and the prevalence of any lifetime IPV was 32.1%. In all, 40.6% reported female genital cutting or mutilation (FGM). Women reporting FGM were two times as likely to experience sexual IPV (AOR: 1.96, CI: 1.29-2.98), while other subtypes of IPV were higher in women reporting FGM but they were not significant. Of the socio-demographic covariates, urban residence and having a primary education were associated with most subtypes of IPV, while being a Muslim seemed protective from any type, sexual and emotional IPV. Having seen the father beating the mother was positively associated with most IPV subtypes, and having been diagnosed with a sexually transmitted infection (STI) in the previous 12 months was associated with physical and sexual IPV. Significant rates of FGM and IPV were found among this sample of Ivorian women calling for the need for multiple strategies to reduce FGM and IPV.

  10. Evaluation of genital self-sampling methods for HPV detection in males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Brenda Y; Wilkens, Lynne R; Unger, Elizabeth R; Steinau, Martin; Markowitz, Lauri; Garvin, Keiko; Thompson, Pamela J; Shvetsov, Yurii B; O'Dillon, Kristen; Dunne, Eileen F

    2013-09-01

    There are no population-based HPV prevalence estimates in males because optimal sampling methods are unclear. To evaluate the acceptability, feasibility, and validity of different male genital self-sampling methods for HPV detection. A total of 450 males, 14-59 years old, were randomly assigned to one of three genital sampling methods: (1) dry polyester-tipped swab; (2) dry foam swab; and (3) emery paper and wetted polyester-tipped swab. Samples were both self-collected and collected by a clinician. Subjects were queried on the acceptability of sampling methods. HPV was genotyped using an L1 consensus PCR assay. Specimen adequacy (92-96%, p=0.28) and HPV detection (44-49%, p=0.68) were comparable across the three methods. Concordance for HPV detection was observed between self- and clinician-collected specimen pairs for all methods (κ=0.70-0.80). The collection procedure was reported to be very easy by 69% of dry polyester-tipped swab users and 64% of dry foam swab users compared to 48% of emery-wet swab users (p=0.004). Similarly, 43-44% of dry swab and foam users reported the collection to be very comfortable compared to 24% of emery-wet swab users (p=0.002). Pain was reported by 10% of emery-wet swab users compared to 3% and 5% of dry swab and foam users, respectively (p=0.03). Self-collection by the emery-wet swab method required an average of 6 min compared to 3.3-3.5 min for the two dry methods (pmethods are optimal for use in large epidemiologic studies or surveillance efforts based on their acceptability and feasibility. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Predicting tile drainage discharge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Bo Vangsø; Kjærgaard, Charlotte; Petersen, Rasmus Jes;

    of the water load coming from the tile drainage system is therefore essential. This work aims at predicting tile drainage discharge using dynamic as well as a statistical predictive models. A large dataset of historical tile drain discharge data, daily discharge values as well as yearly average values were......More than 50 % of Danish agricultural areas are expected to be artificial tile drained. Transport of water and nutrients through the tile drain system to the aquatic environment is expected to be significant. For different mitigation strategies such as constructed wetlands an exact knowledge...... used in the analysis. For the dynamic modelling, a simple linear reservoir model was used where different outlets in the model represented tile drain as well as groundwater discharge outputs. This modelling was based on daily measured tile drain discharge values. The statistical predictive model...

  12. CO-AXIAL DISCHARGES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luce, J.S.; Smith, L.P.

    1960-11-22

    A method and apparatus are given for producing coaxial arc discharges in an evacuated enclosure and within a strong, confining magnetic field. The arcs are maintained at a high potential difference. Electrons will diffuse to the more positive arc from the negative arc, and positive ions will diffuse from the more positive arc to the negative arc. Coaxial arc discharges have the advantage that ions which return to strike the positive arc discharge will lose no energy since they do not strike a solid wall or electrode. Those discharges are useful in confining an ionized plasma between the discharges, and have the advantage of preventing impurities from the walls of the enclosure from entering ihe plasma area because of the arc barrier set up bv the cylindrical outer arc.

  13. EFFECTIVE DISCHARGE CALCULATION GUIDE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    D.S.BIEDENHARN; C.R.THORNE; P.J.SOAR; R.D.HEY; C.C.WATSON

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents a procedure for calculating the effective discharge for rivers with alluvial channels.An alluvial river adjusts the bankfull shape and dimensions of its channel to the wide range of flows that mobilize the boundary sediments. It has been shown that time-averaged river morphology is adjusted to the flow that, over a prolonged period, transports most sediment. This is termed the effective discharge.The effective discharge may be calculated provided that the necessary data are available or can be synthesized. The procedure for effective discharge calculation presented here is designed to have general applicability, have the capability to be applied consistently, and represent the effects of physical processes responsible for determining the channel, dimensions. An example of the calculations necessary and applications of the effective discharge concept are presented.

  14. The Laboratory Diagnosis of Genital Human Papillomavirus Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François Coutlee

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Human papillomaviruses (HPVs are the etiological agents of several genital cancers, including cancer of the uterine cervix. The detection of HPV infection in genital samples may increase the sensitivity of primary and secondary screenings of cervical cancer. HPV testing may also improve the specificity of screening programs, resulting in the avoidance of overtreatment and cost savings for confirmatory procedures. The major determinants of clinical progression of HPV infection include persistence of HPV infection, involvement of high-risk HPV types, high HPV viral load, integration of viral DNA and presence of several potential cofactors. Signal amplification HPV-DNA detection techniques (Hybrid Capture II, Digene Corporation, USA are standardized, commercially available, and capable of detecting several high-risk HPV types. They also increase the sensitivity of screening for high-grade lesions in combination with cytology. The sensitivity of these techniques to detect high-grade lesions is higher than that of cytology, but the referral rate for colposcopy is greater. These techniques are approved for the triage to colposcopy of women with cervical smears interpreted as atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance. Triage and screening for cervical cancer using HPV will probably be restricted to women aged 30 years or older because of the high prevalence of infection in younger women. Amplification techniques are ideal for epidemiological studies because they minimize the misclassification of HPV infection status. These techniques can detect low HPV burden infections. Consensus primers amplify most genital types in one reaction, and the reverse hybridization of amplicons with type-specific probes allows for the typing of HPV-positive samples. Consensus PCR assays are currently under evaluation for diagnostic purposes. HPV testing is currently implemented for the clinical management of women.

  15. Ulcus vulvae acutum — A case of genital ulcers in adolescent girl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Visentin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Ulcus vulvae acutum is a rare clinical condition characterized by the presence of multiple acute painful genital ulcers of non-venereal origin associated with systemic symptoms in young women. The aetiopathogenesis of the disease is not fully understood, although recent reports have associated it with the Epstein–Barr virus. Diagnosis is difficult and generally made by exclusion after venereal diseases, and autoimmune, inflammatory, traumatic, and neoplastic causes. We describe a case of adolescent female with an episode of ulcus vulvae acutum associated with infectious mononucleosis. The diagnosis was supported by the clinical symptoms, elevated circulating levels of liver enzymes, positive EBV serology, cervical and inguinal lymphadenomegaly, and hepatosplenomegaly. The patient presented a history of aphthous stomatitis. Negative Pathergy test and the absence of any other related symptoms allowed us to exclude the Behçhet syndrome. Lesions healed with no sequelae or recurrences.

  16. Genital self-amputation or the Klingsor syndrome: Successful non-microsurgical penile replantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Harrech, Y; Abaka, N; Ghoundale, O; Touiti, D

    2013-10-01

    Self-mutilations of the external genitals in psychiatric patients also known as Klingsor syndrome is a rare urologic trauma. Men with religious conflicts, low self-esteem, unresolved transsexual issues and feelings of guilt are the most vulnerable. This condition requires immediate surgical intervention. Currently replantation involves meticulous microsurgery and has become the primary method for managing these patients. In this paper, we report a case of self amputation of penis in a patient with a psychiatric history significant for schizopfrenia. Because of the unavailability of a microscope in our department, a non-microsurgical replantation without microscopic magnification was attempted. After surgery, normal appearance and function including a good normal voiding, sensation, and erections were observed.

  17. [Synchronous tumors of the female genital tract: triple malignant and one benign tumor].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudnyikova, Anna; Vereczkey, Ildikó; Pete, Imre

    2012-03-01

    Synchronous tumors of the female genital tract are rare, accounting for 0.7-1.8% of all cases. Double synchronous tumors are most often mentioned in the literature. Reviewing the English literature on this topic, we have found only one case report of a triple synchronous tumor. The 55-year-old patient mentioned in our case has had advanced diabetes mellitus, and has been treated with corticosteroid therapy for a long time because of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). She was examined because of her vulvar tumor. During the diagnostic procedure, cervical and endometrial malignant tumors and a benign ovarian cyst have also been found. This event brings to our attention the fact that we should be prepared to manage synchronous even triple malignant gynecological tumors.

  18. Sclerosing variant of perivascular epithelioid cell tumor in the female genital organs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Yuichi; Yamamoto, Hidetaka; Ohishi, Yoshihiro; Nishiyama, Kenichi; Fukuhara, Masao; Saitou, Toshiaki; Tsuneyoshi, Masazumi; Oda, Yoshinao

    2011-12-01

    Perivascular epithelioid cell tumor (PEComas), other than angiomyolipoma, clear cell 'sugar' tumor of the lung, and lymphangioleiomyomatosis, is an uncommon mesenchymal neoplasm that arises in the soft tissue and visceral organs. We report herein two cases of sclerosing PEComa; a distinctive variant of PEComa, which is characterized by extensive stromal hyalinization, occurring in the uterus and broad ligament. The patients were 34- and 51-year-old females with no family history of tuberous sclerosis complex. Macroscopically, the tumors had white to gray cut surfaces and were microscopically composed of predominantly spindle- to polygon-shaped cells with clear to slightly eosinophilic cytoplasm and pleomorphic nuclei focally arranged in a perivascular pattern, accompanied by marked stromal hyalinization. These tumor cells were immunohistochemically positive for HMB45 and α-smooth muscle actin. Although this variant of PEComa is very rare, this entity should be considered as a potential primary neoplasm of the female genital organs.

  19. Genital self-amputation or the Klingsor syndrome: Successful non-microsurgical penile replantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y El harrech

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Self-mutilations of the external genitals in psychiatric patients also known as Klingsor syndrome is a rare urologic trauma. Men with religious conflicts, low self-esteem, unresolved transsexual issues and feelings of guilt are the most vulnerable. This condition requires immediate surgical intervention. Currently replantation involves meticulous microsurgery and has become the primary method for managing these patients. In this paper, we report a case of self amputation of penis in a patient with a psychiatric history significant for schizopfrenia. Because of the unavailability of a microscope in our department, a non-microsurgical replantation without microscopic magnification was attempted. After surgery, normal appearance and function including a good normal voiding, sensation, and erections were observed.

  20. Typical and unusual cases of female genital tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulchavenya, E; Dubrovina, S

    2014-01-01

    Tuberculosis is a disease with myriad presentations and manifestations; it can affect any organ or tissue, excluding only hair and nails. Doctors who are not familiar with extrapulmonary tuberculosis often overlook this disease. Urogenital tuberculosis (UGTB) is the second most common form of TB in countries with severe epidemic situation and the third most common form in regions with low incidence of TB. The term "Urogenital tuberculosis" includes kidney tuberculosis; male and female tuberculosis and urinary tract tuberculosis as complication of kidney tuberculosis. We describe rarest case of tuberculosis of a placenta in young woman, suffered from genital tuberculosis, which was overlooked before delivery, as well as typical tubo-ovarian tuberculomas.

  1. [The effect of spermicides on physiological and pathogenic genital flora].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurner, J; Poitschek, C; Kopp, W

    1983-05-31

    In vitro-studies concerning the influence of commercially available spermicides on lactobacillus acidophilus as well as on pathogenic organisms of the genital tract revealed, that the preparations had only weak antimicrobial effect on Döderlein's bacteria and pathogenic fungi. However, all four preparations tested, revealed a good inhibition effect on neisseria gonorrhoeae, treponema pallidum and trichomonas vaginalis. Irreversible damage to gonococci and trichomonas vaginalis. Irreversible damage to gonococci and trichomonas was subject to considerable variation, probably due to the different chemical composition of the commercially in Austria available spermicides.

  2. Bibliometric analysis of literature on female genital mutilation: (1930 - 2015).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweileh, Waleed M

    2016-10-10

    Female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C) is a common harmful traditional practice in many communities in Africa and to a lesser extent in Middle East and other regions in the world. In order to better understand publishing on this topic, we conducted a bibliometric study on FGM/C. Bibliometric analyses can be used as an indicator of the extent of interaction of researchers, health authorities, and communities with a particular health issue. Scopus database was used to retrieve data on FGM/C. Keywords used were "female genital mutilation", "female genital circumcision", "female genital cutting" and "female circumcision". Specifically, the number of publications, top productive countries and institutions, highly cited articles, citation analysis, co-authorships, international collaboration, role of African countries, top active authors, and journals involved in publishing articles on FGM/C were reviewed and analyzed. We indirectly assessed the impact of publications using total number of citations received, average number of citations per article, Hirsch-index, percentage of highly cited articles, and journal's impact factor. One thousand and thirty-five publications on FGM/C were retrieved. The h-index of retrieved articles was 37. A steep rise in number of publications was noticed in mid-1990s and again in 2012. More than half of retrieved articles were published from 2006 - 2015. A total of 65 countries contributed. The top ten productive countries included ones from Northern America, Europe and Africa. Nigeria and Egypt were the most active African countries in FGM/C publications. At least nine African academic institutions were actively involved on FGM/C publications. Articles on FGM/C that received the highest number of citations were those that focused on negative physical and psychosexual consequences of FGM/C. Journal topic areas were obstetrics/gynecology, public health, and psychological sociology. Collaboration between African and European countries on

  3. What nurses need to know about female genital mutilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momoh, Comfort; Olufade, Olamide; Redman-Pinard, Patrice

    Female genital mutilation, also known as female circumcision (FGM/C) is a deep-rooted practice in some countries that needs to be addressed if the health needs of women and girls are to be met. FGM/C has no medical or health benefits. This article will discuss the different types of FGM/C, the law and legal implications and urological complications. Urology nurses need to be aware of what their medical roles and legal responsibilities are so that they are able to sensitively and holistically care for girls and women living with or at risk of FGM/C.

  4. Prevalence of Genital Human Papillomavirus among Men in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hebnes, Julie B; Olesen, Tina B; Duun-Henriksen, Anne Katrine

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Human papillomavirus (HPV) is the commonest sexually transmitted infection worldwide and causes substantial morbidity in both sexes. Most European countries offer HPV vaccination for girls, but vaccine recommendations for boys are warranted. AIMS: The aims of this study were...... influencing prevalence in general and high-risk male populations in Europe. RESULTS: We included 31 articles that gave the prevalence of genital HPV DNA among men in northern, southern and western Europe; no studies from eastern Europe were identified. The pooled HPV prevalence among 1,863 men representing...

  5. For the sake of purity (and control). Female genital mutilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, D

    1993-01-01

    In 1973 approximately 1 million girls will be victimized by female genital mutilation (FGM), widely practiced in more than 20 African nations from Mauritania to the Ivory Coast in the west, to Egypt and North Tanzania in the east, as well as in Oman, Bahrain, North and South Yemen, and the United Arab Emirates. FGM takes place among the Moslem populations of the Philippines, Indonesia, and Malaysia and the Jewish Falashas in Ethiopia. FGM is practiced on babies just a few days old to girls right before marriage or young women pregnant with their first child. The most extreme mutilation is called infibulation. In Somalia, almost 100% of the women are infibulated, and so are more than 80% of the women in north and central Sudan. In Ethiopia/Eritrea, Mali, and Sierra Leone, 90% of the women have undergone some form of genital mutilation. The rate reaches 70% in Burkina Faso; 60% in Kenya, Gambia, and the Ivory Coast; and 50% in Senegal, Egypt, Guinea Bissau, and Nigeria. The mutilation often results in accumulation of menstrual blood and pelvic inflammatory disease often leading to infertility. Between 20% and 25% of infertility in Sudan has been attributed to female genital mutilation. The practice of FGM has existed for centuries, and some claim it originated in the Nile Valley during the Pharaonic era. On the other hand, Muslim countries like Iraq, Syria, and Tunisia do not practice FGM. The London Black Women's Health Action Project set up an educational network to prevent mutilations and to dispel the myth of religion about FGM. FORWARD convened the First Study Conference on Genital Mutilation of Girls in Europe in 1992 and deemed FGM a form of child abuse. Local campaigns in Africa, Asia, and the Arab world educate against FGM. The Inter-Africa Committee on Traditional Practices Affecting the Health of Women and Children, based in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, has offices in more than 20 African nations to sensitize the public about the harmful effects of FGM. In

  6. An Overview of Female Genital Mutilation in Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Okeke, TC; Anyaehie, USB; Ezenyeaku, CCK

    2012-01-01

    Nigeria, due to its large population, has the highest absolute number of female genital mutilation (FGM) worldwide, accounting for about one-quarter of the estimated 115–130 million circumcised women in the world. The objective of this review is to ascertain the current status of FGM in Nigeria. Pertinent literature on FGM retrieved from internet services [Google search on FGM in Nigeria, www.online Nigeria, PubMed of the national library of medicine www.medconsumer. Info/tropics/fgm.htm, Bio...

  7. Surfactant protein D in the female genital tract

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leth-Larsen, Rikke; Floridon, C; Nielsen, O;

    2004-01-01

    Surfactant protein D (SP-D) plays a role in innate immunity against various pathogens and in vivo studies have demonstrated that SP-D also has anti-inflammatory properties. SP-D was originally demonstrated in alveolar type II cells, but recent studies have shown extrapulmonary expression of SP......-D indicating a systemic role for the protein. This study describes the presence of SP-D in the female genital tract, the placenta and in amniotic fluid using immunohistochemistry and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. SP-D was observed in cells lining surface epithelium and secretory glands in the vagina...

  8. A Case of Genital Self-mutilation Committed Before Suicide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Yadukul

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Male genital self-mutilation (GSM is a rare, but serious phenomenon. Some of the risk factors for this act are: presence of religious delusions, command hallucinations, low self-esteem and feelings of guilt associated with sexual offences. Other risk factors include failures in the male role, problems in the early developmental period, such as experiencing difficulties in male identification and persistence of incestuous desires; depression and having a history of GSM. We present a case of a suicide wherein the deceased before committing the suicidal act had GSM.

  9. Facts and controversies on female genital mutilation and Islam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouzi, Abdulrahim A

    2013-02-01

    Female genital mutilation (FGM) is a very ancient traditional and cultural ritual. Strategies and policies have been implemented to abandon this practice. However, despite commendable work, it is still prevalent, mainly in Muslim countries. FGM predates Islam. It is not mentioned in the Qur'an (the verbatim word of God in Islam). Muslim religious authorities agree that all types of mutilation, including FGM, are condemned. 'Sensitivity' to cultural traditions that erroneously associate FGM with Islam is misplaced. The principle of 'do no harm', endorsed by Islam, supersedes cultural practices, logically eliminating FGM from receiving any Islamic religious endorsement.

  10. Hospital discharge of respiratory-technology-dependent children: role of a dedicated respiratory care discharge coordinator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tearl, Donna K; Cox, Timothy J; Hertzog, James H

    2006-07-01

    Preparation of respiratory-technology-dependent children for hospital discharge presents many challenges. Adequate training and education of parental caregivers, discharge planning, and coordination with the durable-medical-equipment and home-nursing companies must be completed. A process using multiple respiratory therapists (RTs) to achieve this may not be efficient. We evaluated our model, in which a dedicated RT discharge coordinator provides education and coordinates discharge planning of respiratory-technology-dependent pediatric patients. This system provides a single contact for caregivers and outside agencies, a single respiratory-care educator for the caregivers, and a clinical pathway that involves the entire multidisciplinary team. Patient length of stay and customer satisfaction were evaluated before and after implementation of the discharge-coordinator program. Our dedicated-RT-discharge-coordinator model was associated with rapid initiation of frequent family-training sessions. Durable-medical-equipment-company personnel reported that they had increased satisfaction with the quality of training of the family caregivers. The members of the hospital multidisciplinary team had increased satisfaction with the discharge process. Patient length of stay nonsignificantly decreased after the implementation of the discharge-coordinator program. There are several advantages to using a dedicated RT-discharge-coordinator system for home-discharge preparation of respiratory-technology-dependent children.

  11. Filament Discharge Phenomena in Fingerprint Acquisition by Dielectric Barrier Discharge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WENG Ming; XU Weijun; LIU Qiang

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, the dielectric barrier discharge fingerprint acquisition technique is introduced. The filament discharge phenomena were observed in the process of fingerprint acquisition. The filament discharge reduced the quality of fingerprint images. Obviously, it was necessary to eliminate streamer discharges in order to get good fingerprint images. The streamer discharge was considered to be the cause of the filament discharge in the experiment. The relationship between the critical electric field and the discharge gap was calculated with the Raether's model of streamer discharge. The calculated results and our experiment proved that it would be difficult for the streamer discharge to occur when the discharge gap was narrow. With a narrow discharge gap, the discharge was homogeneous, and the fingerprint images were clear and large in area. The images obtained in the experiment are very suitable for fingerprint identification as they contain more information.

  12. The Gonococcal Transcriptome during Infection of the Lower Genital Tract in Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClure, Ryan; Nudel, Kathleen; Massari, Paola; Tjaden, Brian; Su, Xiaohong; Rice, Peter A; Genco, Caroline A

    2015-01-01

    Gonorrhea is a highly prevalent disease resulting in significant morbidity worldwide, with an estimated 106 cases reported annually. Neisseria gonorrhoeae, the causative agent of gonorrhea, colonizes and infects the human genital tract and often evades host immune mechanisms until successful antibiotic treatment is used. The alarming increase in antibiotic-resistant strains of N. gonorrhoeae, the often asymptomatic nature of this disease in women and the lack of a vaccine directed at crucial virulence determinants have prompted us to perform transcriptome analysis to understand gonococcal gene expression patterns during natural infection. We sequenced RNA extracted from cervico-vaginal lavage samples collected from women recently exposed to infected male partners and determined the complete N. gonorrhoeae transcriptome during infection of the lower genital tract in women. On average, 3.19% of total RNA isolated from female samples aligned to the N. gonorrhoeae NCCP11945 genome and 1750 gonococcal ORFs (65% of all protein-coding genes) were transcribed. High expression in vivo was observed in genes encoding antimicrobial efflux pumps, iron response, phage production, pilin structure, outer membrane structures and hypothetical proteins. A parallel analysis was performed using the same strains grown in vitro in a chemically defined media (CDM). A total of 140 genes were increased in expression during natural infection compared to growth in CDM, and 165 genes were decreased in expression. Large differences were found in gene expression profiles under each condition, particularly with genes involved in DNA and RNA processing, iron, transposase, pilin and lipoproteins. We specifically interrogated genes encoding DNA binding regulators and iron-scavenging proteins, and identified increased expression of several iron-regulated genes, including tbpAB and fbpAB, during infection in women as compared to growth in vitro, suggesting that during infection of the genital tract in

  13. The Gonococcal Transcriptome during Infection of the Lower Genital Tract in Women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan McClure

    Full Text Available Gonorrhea is a highly prevalent disease resulting in significant morbidity worldwide, with an estimated 106 cases reported annually. Neisseria gonorrhoeae, the causative agent of gonorrhea, colonizes and infects the human genital tract and often evades host immune mechanisms until successful antibiotic treatment is used. The alarming increase in antibiotic-resistant strains of N. gonorrhoeae, the often asymptomatic nature of this disease in women and the lack of a vaccine directed at crucial virulence determinants have prompted us to perform transcriptome analysis to understand gonococcal gene expression patterns during natural infection. We sequenced RNA extracted from cervico-vaginal lavage samples collected from women recently exposed to infected male partners and determined the complete N. gonorrhoeae transcriptome during infection of the lower genital tract in women. On average, 3.19% of total RNA isolated from female samples aligned to the N. gonorrhoeae NCCP11945 genome and 1750 gonococcal ORFs (65% of all protein-coding genes were transcribed. High expression in vivo was observed in genes encoding antimicrobial efflux pumps, iron response, phage production, pilin structure, outer membrane structures and hypothetical proteins. A parallel analysis was performed using the same strains grown in vitro in a chemically defined media (CDM. A total of 140 genes were increased in expression during natural infection compared to growth in CDM, and 165 genes were decreased in expression. Large differences were found in gene expression profiles under each condition, particularly with genes involved in DNA and RNA processing, iron, transposase, pilin and lipoproteins. We specifically interrogated genes encoding DNA binding regulators and iron-scavenging proteins, and identified increased expression of several iron-regulated genes, including tbpAB and fbpAB, during infection in women as compared to growth in vitro, suggesting that during infection of

  14. Peripheral Female Genital Arousal as Assessed by Thermography Following Topical Genital Application of Alprostadil vs Placebo Arousal Gel: A Proof-of-Principle Study Without Visual Sexual Stimulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sue W. Goldstein, BA, CCRC, IF

    2016-09-01

    Conclusion: Topical alprostadil administered to healthy premenopausal women induced statistically significant, sustained increases in genital temperatures of the vestibule, clitoris, and vulva within 20 minutes compared with OTC lubricant.

  15. Capacitor discharge engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Früngel, Frank B A

    1976-01-01

    High Speed Pulse Technology, Volume III: Capacitor Discharge Engineering covers the production and practical application of capacitor dischargers for the generation and utilization of high speed pulsed of energy in different forms. This nine-chapter volume discusses the principles of electric current, voltage, X-rays, gamma rays, heat, beams of electrons, neutrons and ions, magnetic fields, sound, and shock waves in gases and liquids. Considerable chapters consider the applications of capacitor discharges, such as impulse hardening of steel, ultrapulse welding of precision parts, X-ray flash t

  16. The prevalence and practice of female genital mutilation in Nnewi, Nigeria: the impact of female education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igwegbe, A O; Egbuonu, I

    2000-09-01

    Three hundred and twenty-five consecutive live female deliveries at Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital, Nnewi were followed up for 9 months for evidence of any genital mutilation. Their mothers were examined for genital mutilation and a questionnaire based on face-to-face interview of the mothers was also administered. There was no genital mutilation observed among the 200 female babies whose mothers completed the 9 months follow up, The prevalence of genital mutilation among the mothers was 48%. The prevalence of female genital mutilation among the mothers increased with age. The circumcision index C.I. was zero and 3.0 at 16-20 years and 31-35 years age groups, respectively. Also the prevalence decreased with increasing level of education. The circumcision index was 1.0 for mothers at primary level education and least 0.33 at tertiary level of education. There was no relationship with parity. None of the mothers was willing to allow genital mutilation to be performed on her baby but 36% applied local treatment to the clitoris especially powder (28%). Dystocia was the commonest complication in the mothers and the knowledge about female genital mutilation was acquired informally from fellow women. Female education is paramount in the campaign and advocacy against female genital mutilation.

  17. Human immunodeficiency virus, genital ulcers and the male foreskin: synergism in HIV-1 transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jessamine, P G; Plummer, F A; Ndinya Achola, J O; Wainberg, M A; Wamola, I; D'Costa, L J; Cameron, D W; Simonsen, J N; Plourde, P; Ronald, A R

    1990-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies in Nairobi and elsewhere in Africa, have shown that men infected with HIV-1 more commonly have a history of genital ulcer disease compared to uninfected men. In one study, HIV infected men were three times as likely to have a recent history of genital ulcers. In a prospective study of seronegative men, those presenting with chancroid had a five-fold risk of seroconversion during follow-up compared to men presenting with urethritis. Uncircumcised men had an increased risk of seroconversion which was independent of their risk of genital ulcer disease. Over 95% of attributable risk in men with STD was either genital ulceration or the presence of a foreskin. Genital ulcers are a major risk factor for HIV infection among prostitutes. The increased risk is about 10-fold among prostitutes with ulcers compared to a cohort who did not. We hypothesize from these studies that genital ulcers are the major portals of entry for HIV infection and also increased shedding of virus infected cells into the vaginal secretions. HIV seropositive prostitutes are more susceptible to chancroid with a two-fold increase in the prevalence of genital ulcers as compared to HIV negative women. The use of condoms by their clients prevents both genital ulcer disease and HIV acquisition among prostitutes. Chancroid is more difficult to treat in HIV infected men with one-third of patients failing single dose treatment regimens as compared to less than five percent of men without HIV infection.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  18. Prevalence of Human Papillomavirus in Anal and Oral Sites Among Patients with Genital Warts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kofoed, Kristian; Sand, Carsten; Forslund, Ola

    2014-01-01

    Genital warts are caused by human papillomavirus (HPV). HPV is a leading cause of anogenital malignancies and a role of HPV in the aetiology of oro-pharyngeal cancers has been demonstrated. The frequency of oral HPV infection in patients with genital warts and the association between concomitant...... genital, anal and oral infection is unclear. A total of 201 men and women with genital wart-like lesions were recruited. Swab samples were obtained from the genital warts and the anal canal and an oral rinse was collected. Anal HPV was found in 46.2% and oral HPV in 10.4% of the participants. Concordance...... between anal and genital wart HPV types was 78.1%, while concordance between oral and genital wart types was 60.9%. A lower concordance of 21.7% was observed between anal and oral HPV types. Significantly more women than men had multiple HPV types and anal HPV. In conclusion, extra genital HPV is common...

  19. Incidence of genital warts among the Hong Kong general adult population

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background The objective of this study is to estimate the incidence of genital warts in Hong Kong and explore a way to establish a surveillance system for genital warts among the Hong Kong general population. Methods A total of 170 private doctors and all doctors working in the 5 local Social Hygiene Clinics (SHC) participated in this study. During the 14-day data collection period (January 5 through18, 2009), the participating doctors filled out a log-form on a daily basis to record the number of patients with genital warts. The total number of new cases of genital warts presented to private and public doctors in Hong Kong was projected using the stratification sampling method. Results A total of 721 (0.94%) adults presented with genital warts to the participating doctors during the two-week study period, amongst them 73 (10.1%) were new cases. The projected number of new cases of genital warts among Hong Kong adults was 442 (297 male and 144 female) during the study period. The incidence of genital warts in Hong Kong was estimated to be 203.7 per 100,000 person-years (respectively 292.2 and 124.9 per 100,000 person-years for males and females). Conclusions The incidence of genital warts is high among adults in Hong Kong. The study demonstrates the importance of collecting surveillance data from both private and public sectors. PMID:20849578

  20. Persistent Genital Hyperinnervation Following Progesterone Administration to Adolescent Female Rats1

    OpenAIRE

    Liao, Zhaohui; Smith, Peter G.

    2014-01-01

    Provoked vestibulodynia, a female pelvic pain syndrome affecting substantial numbers of women, is characterized by genital hypersensitivity and sensory hyperinnervation. Previous studies have shown that the risk of developing provoked vestibulodynia is markedly elevated following adolescent use of oral contraceptives with high progesterone content. We hypothesized that progesterone, a steroid hormone with known neurotropic properties, may alter genital innervation through direct or indirect a...

  1. Female genital mutilation : a hidden epidemic (statement from the European Academy of Paediatrics)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sauer, Pieter J. J.; Neubauer, David

    2014-01-01

    Female genital mutilation or female circumcision is frequently performed worldwide. It is estimated by the World Health Organisation that worldwide, 100-140 million girls and women currently have to live with the consequences of female genital mutilation. The article argues that the tradition is one

  2. Proteomic profiling of epididymis and vas deferens: identification of proteins regulated during rat genital tract development.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Umar (Arzu); M.P. Ooms (Marja); T.M. Luider (Theo); J.A. Grootegoed (Anton); A.O. Brinkmann (Albert)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractEpididymis and vas deferens form part of the male internal genital tract and are dependent on androgens for their growth and development. To better understand the molecular action of androgens during male genital tract development, protein expression profiles were gener

  3. Impact of genital warts on emotional and sexual well-being differs by gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vriend, Henrike J; Nieuwkerk, Pythia T; van der Sande, Marianne A B

    2014-11-01

    To assess gender-specific impact of genital warts on health-related quality of life (HRQoL), and to explore to what extent sexual characteristics and clinical symptoms influenced the impact on emotional and sexual well-being of both sexes. We conducted a survey of sexual and clinical characteristics from persons diagnosed with genital warts at STI clinics. HRQoL was measured using two measurement tools: 1) the generic EQ-5D; and 2) the genital warts-specific CECA-10 including an emotional well-being and a sexual activity dimension. The EQ-5D scores were compared with scores of the general population. Descriptive analyses were used to explore characteristics associated with HRQoL scores stratified for gender. The HRQoL-measurement tools showed that genital warts have especially an emotional impact. The impact of genital warts on HRQoL was greater for women than for men. In addition, the CECA-10 showed that in women the impact of genital warts on sexual activity was influenced by age, relationship status and number of warts. No related factors were seen in men. Genital warts have a greater impact on women than on men. In women, sexual and clinical factors influenced the impact of genital warts on well-being, whereas in men no such factors were found.

  4. In Their Own Words: A Qualitative Content Analysis of Women's and Men's Preferences for Women's Genitals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullinax, Margo; Herbenick, Debby; Schick, Vanessa; Sanders, Stephanie A.; Reece, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Research increasingly shows that genital attitudes have an impact on sexual well-being and health-seeking behaviours. This study explored what women and men like and dislike about women's genitals. Data are from open-ended items, part of a cross-sectional internet-based survey anonymously completed by 496 women and 198 men. Overall, both women and…

  5. [Long-lasting disease after serious genital actinomycosis in a former IUD user].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravn, Pernille; Staer-Jensen, Jette E; Antonsen, Annemarie

    2002-09-23

    A previous IUD user underwent surgery on suspicion of ovarian cancer. No malignancy was found and genital actinomycosis was diagnosed on the histology and a history of previously verified, but inadequately treated, actinomycosis of the internal genitals. Actinomycosis is a rare disease with a potentially high morbidity. Diagnosis is difficult, as symptoms are non-specific and culture is often negative.

  6. Vulvar Epidermoid Cyst and Type 2 Radical Genital Mutilation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozer Birge

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available About 100 million women are estimated to be circumcised globally. Various rates of complications have been encountered, especially after circumcision, such as bleeding, infection, shock, menstrual irregularity, difficulty in urination or common urinary tract infections, inguinal pain, difficulty in sexual intercourse, and genital circumcision scar especially at the vulvar region, and cystic or solid character mass in short and long term. Furthermore, the maternal-fetal morbidity and mortality increase due to bleeding and fistula, which develop after prolonged labor, travail, and difficult labors. Our aim in this paper was to discuss a 42-year-old multiparous female case who had undergone type 2 radical genital mutilation (circumcision when she was 7 years of age, along with the literature, which has been evaluated for the gradually growing mass at the left inguinal canal region in the last 10 years and diagnosed as epidermoid inclusion cyst developing secondary to postcircumcision surgical ground trauma, since there was no other case found in the literature search that had been circumcised at such an early age and developing after circumcision at such advanced age, and, therefore, this is suggested to be the first case on this subject.

  7. Long term health consequences of Female Genital Mutilation (FGM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reisel, Dan; Creighton, Sarah M

    2015-01-01

    Female Genital Mutilation (FGM) comprises various procedures which remove or damage the external female genital organs for no medical reason. FGM has no health benefits and is recognised to cause severe short and long term damage to both physical and psychological health. Although FGM is primarily performed in Africa, Asia and the Middle East, migration of FGM practising communities means that the health complications of FGM will have a global impact. It is important that health professionals world wide are aware of the damage FGM causes to long term health. In some cases it may be possible to offer interventions that will alleviate or improve symptoms. However whilst there is some high quality research on FGM and pregnancy outcomes, little is known about the effects on gynaecological, psychological and sexual function. Research is hampered by the problems of data collection on such a sensitive topic as well as the practical difficulties of analysis of studies based mainly on retrospect recall. Well planned hospital based studies of the impact of FGM on physical and psychological health are urgently need but are currently absent from the medical literature. Such studies could generate robust evidence to allow clinicians to benchmark clinical effectiveness and high quality medical care for survivors of FGM.

  8. Campaigning against female genital mutilation in Ethiopia using popular education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spadacini, B; Nichols, P

    1998-07-01

    In Ethiopia, the Italian Association for Women in Development (AIDOS) has been working with Ethiopia's National Committee on Traditional Practices Affecting the Health of Women and Children for 5 years. AIDOS began working on female genital mutilation in the early 1980s and rejects charges of cultural imperialism that are applied to Northern organizations attempting to help African organizations address this violation of universal human rights. In Ethiopia, 85% of women are mutilated, with most undergoing Sunna, or removal of the prepuce of the clitoris. The joint project seeks to increase awareness about the health consequences of female genital mutilation in the target group. The primary technique used is provision of training of trainers courses and presentation of four modular units and audiovisual materials specifically designed for use with socially influential women, male and female secondary school students, community leaders, and health workers. In addition, an information/education campaign uses videos and sound and slide shows with accompanying story books. A second category of communication tools was developed for a mass information campaign, including radio spots, posters, information leaflets, and a newsletter. When the project was ready for expansion into the southern region of the country, it became clear that a new participatory communication strategy was required to stimulate discussion, such as the use of role playing and theater. Working together, the two organizations have successfully confronted project constraints such as the difficulty in assessing project impact, scheduling problems, and gender-biased assess to information.

  9. Vulvar Epidermoid Cyst and Type 2 Radical Genital Mutilation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birge, Ozer; Ozbey, Ertugrul Gazi; Arslan, Deniz; Erkan, Mustafa Melih; Demir, Feyza; Akgor, Utku

    2015-01-01

    About 100 million women are estimated to be circumcised globally. Various rates of complications have been encountered, especially after circumcision, such as bleeding, infection, shock, menstrual irregularity, difficulty in urination or common urinary tract infections, inguinal pain, difficulty in sexual intercourse, and genital circumcision scar especially at the vulvar region, and cystic or solid character mass in short and long term. Furthermore, the maternal-fetal morbidity and mortality increase due to bleeding and fistula, which develop after prolonged labor, travail, and difficult labors. Our aim in this paper was to discuss a 42-year-old multiparous female case who had undergone type 2 radical genital mutilation (circumcision) when she was 7 years of age, along with the literature, which has been evaluated for the gradually growing mass at the left inguinal canal region in the last 10 years and diagnosed as epidermoid inclusion cyst developing secondary to postcircumcision surgical ground trauma, since there was no other case found in the literature search that had been circumcised at such an early age and developing after circumcision at such advanced age, and, therefore, this is suggested to be the first case on this subject. PMID:26682078

  10. Clinical and microbiologic studies of genital ulcers in Kenyan women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plummer, F A; D'Costa, L J; Nsanze, H; Karasira, P; MacLean, I W; Piot, P; Ronald, A R

    1985-01-01

    The etiology of genital ulcers in women in tropical regions is poorly understood. Eighty-nine women, presenting to a sexually transmitted disease clinic in Nairobi (Kenya) with a primary complaint of genital ulcers, were evaluated prospectively in a clinical and laboratory study. A final etiologic diagnosis was possible for 60 (67%) of the women. Culture for Haemophilus ducreyi was positive for 43 women, eight had secondary syphilis with ulcerated condyloma latum, three had primary syphilis, one had both chancroid and syphilis, two had moniliasis, two had herpetic ulceration, and one had a traumatic ulcer. The clinical characteristics that best distinguished chancroid from secondary syphilis were ulcer excavation and a rough ulcer base. No etiologic diagnosis was established for 29 patients. However, the clinical and epidemiologic features of these patients suggested that they were similar if not identical to the patients with H. ducreyi culture-positive chancroid. Further studies are necessary to determine the etiology of ulcers in females in whom no pathogen was identified.

  11. [Transfer factor effectiveness patients with persistent genital human papillomavirus infection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morfin-Maciel, Blanca María; Sotelo-Ortiz, Julieta Margarita

    2012-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is one of the most common sexually transmitted infections worldwide. Most HPV infections are cleared within two years by the immune system. Only in 5% to 10% of infected women the infection persists determining a high risk of developing cervical intraepithelial neoplasia. The transfer factor (TF) or dialyzable leukocyte extract is an immunomodulator that has been successfully used as an adjuvant in the treatment of intracelular infections such as recurrent herpes virus diseases. One daily dose of transfer factor was given for five days and subsequently each week for five weeks to a group of women with persistent genital papillomavirus infection. We included 13 patients, aged 19 to 45 years, with first intercourse between the ages of 14 to 23, and a mean of three sexual partners in their lifetime. All of them had persistent HPV that had been treated before with local and ablative therapeutic options, including cervical freezing, cervical conization, cauterizing loop, imiquimod and podophyllin. Transfer factor was administered daily for 5 days, and subsequently at 7-day intervals for 5 weeks. We found a clinical significant improvement in the gynaecological evaluation of cervical, vaginal, vulvar and perineal lesions. No recurrences have developed for at least 1 year of follow-up. The use of transfer factor in women with HPV showed resolution of genital lesions, without recurrences for at least one year after the treatment was ended.

  12. Interrelationships Within the Bacterial Flora of the Female Genital Tract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry J. Carson

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of 240 consecutive vaginal swabs using the compatibility profile technique revealed that only 2 bacteria have the ability to be a sole isolate and as such a candidate to be a major aerobic regulator of the bacterial flora of the female genital tract (BFFGT. Compatibility profiles of Lactobacillus and Gardnerella vaginalis have shown that these organisms shared compatibility profiling for the majority of the normal bacterial constituents of the female genital tract. Dominance disruption appears to come from the addition of compatible co-isolates and presumed loss of numerical superiority. These phenomena appear to be the keys to reregulation of BFFGT. Lactobacillus appears to be the major regulator of both G. vaginalis and anaerobic bacteria. When additional organisms are added to the bacterial flora, they may add to or partially negate the inhibitory influence of Lactobacillus on the BFFGT. Inhibitor interrelationships appear to exist between coagulase-negative staphylococci and Staphylococcus aureus and the group B streptococci (GBS and other beta hemolytic streptococci. Facilitating interrelationships appear to exist between S. aureus and the GBS and selected Enterobacteriaceae.

  13. Genital ulcers, other sexually transmitted diseases, and the sexual transmission of HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piot, P; Laga, M

    1989-03-11

    There is increasing evidence that genital ulceration, including syphilis, chancroid, and herpes simplex type 2, increases susceptibility to HIV infection. It may be that the HIV penetrates more easily through ulcerated membranes or that the lymphocytes associated with the inflammatory response present target cells for HIV infection. There is also evidence that HIV-infected women with genital ulcers are themselves more infective due to shedding of the virus in the genital tract. Nonulcerative sexually-transmitted diseases have also been associated as cofactors of HIV infection. Programs for the control of sexually transmitted diseases should be strengthened and should focus on eliminating chancroid, which is easily treated with antibiotics. Patients with genital ulcer disease should receive counseling, so that they will know that untreated genital ulcers increase the risk of HIV infection.

  14. Abdominal radiation - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radiation - abdomen - discharge; Cancer - abdominal radiation; Lymphoma - abdominal radiation ... When you have radiation treatment for cancer, your body goes through changes. About 2 weeks after radiation treatment starts, you might notice changes ...

  15. Chest radiation - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radiation - chest - discharge; Cancer - chest radiation; Lymphoma - chest radiation ... When you have radiation treatment for cancer, your body goes through changes. About 2 weeks after your first treatment: It may be hard ...

  16. Breast radiation - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radiation - breast - discharge ... away around 4 to 6 weeks after the radiation treatment is over. You may notice changes in ... breast looks or feels (if you are getting radiation after a lumpectomy). These changes include: Soreness or ...

  17. Corneal transplant - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000243.htm Corneal transplant - discharge To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. You had a corneal transplant. Most of the tissue of your cornea (the ...

  18. Brain radiation - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radiation - brain - discharge; Cancer-brain radiation; Lymphoma - brain radiation; Leukemia - brain radiation ... Decadron) while you are getting radiation to the brain. It may make you hungrier, cause leg swelling ...

  19. Pneumonia - children - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000011.htm Pneumonia in children - discharge To use the sharing features ... this page, please enable JavaScript. Your child has pneumonia, which is an infection in the lungs. In ...

  20. Pneumonia - adults - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000017.htm Pneumonia in adults - discharge To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. You have pneumonia, which is an infection in your lungs. In ...

  1. Inguinal hernia - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000274.htm Inguinal hernia repair - discharge To use the sharing features on ... your child had surgery to repair an inguinal hernia caused by a weakness in the abdominal wall ...

  2. Cosmetic breast surgery - discharge

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    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000273.htm Cosmetic breast surgery - discharge To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. You had cosmetic breast surgery to change the size or shape ...

  3. Pectus excavatum - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000298.htm Pectus excavatum - discharge To use the sharing features on this ... You or your child had surgery to correct pectus excavatum. This is a deformity of the front of ...

  4. Hip fracture - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000168.htm Hip fracture - discharge To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Hip fracture surgery is done to repair a break in ...

  5. Pelvic radiation - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radiation of the pelvis - discharge; Cancer treatment - pelvic radiation; Prostate cancer - pelvic radiation; Ovarian cancer - pelvic radiation; Cervical cancer - pelvic radiation; Uterine cancer - pelvic radiation; Rectal cancer - pelvic radiation

  6. Identifying discharge practice training needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lees, L; Emmerson, K

    A training needs analysis tool was developed to identify nurses' discharge training needs and to improve discharge practice. The tool includes 49 elements of discharge practice subdivided into four areas: corporate, operational, clinical and nurse-led discharge. The tool was disseminated to 15 wards on two hospital sites with assistance from the practice development team. Analysis of discharge training is important to assess discharge training needs and to identify staff who may assist with training.

  7. Female genital morphology and mating behavior of Orchestina (Arachnida: Araneae: Oonopidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Matthias; Izquierdo, Matías; Carrera, Patricia

    2010-03-01

    The unusual reproductive biology of many spider species makes them compelling targets for evolutionary investigations. Mating behavior studies combined with genital morphological investigations help to understand complex spider reproductive systems and explain their function in the context of sexual selection. Oonopidae are a diverse spider family comprising a variety of species with complex internal female genitalia. Data on oonopid phylogeny are preliminary and especially studies on their mating behavior are very rare. The present investigation reports on the copulatory behavior of an Orchestina species for the first time. The female genitalia are described by means of serial semi-thin sections and scanning electron microscopy. Females of Orchestina sp. mate with multiple males. On average, copulations last between 15.4 and 23.54min. During copulation, the spiders are in a position taken by most theraphosids and certain members of the subfamily Oonopinae: the male pushes the female back and is situated under her facing the female's sternum. Males of Orchestina sp. possibly display post-copulatory mate-guarding behavior. The female genitalia are complex. The genital opening leads into the uterus externus from which a single receptaculum emerges. The dorsal wall of the receptaculum forms a sclerite serving as muscle attachment. A sclerotized plate with attached muscles lies in the posterior wall of the uterus externus. The plate might be used to lock the uterus during copulation. The present study gives no direct evidence for cryptic female choice in Orchestina sp. but suggests that sexual selection occurs in the form of sperm competition through sperm mixing.

  8. Repeated evolution of male sacrifice behavior in spiders correlated with genital mutilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Jeremy A

    2007-06-01

    According to sexual cannibalism theory, male complicity in terminal mating can be adaptive when the male's future reproductive value is low relative to the benefits of self sacrifice. Spiders and insects that exhibit male sacrifice behavior (either complicity in cannibalism or spontaneous death associated with copulation) often also have male genitalia that stereotypically become broken or disfigured the first time they are used for copulation, potentially lowering his future reproductive value. Theoretical work on monogamy has identified male bias in the effective sex ratio as a precursor to the evolution of monogamy (including male sacrifice) as an adaptive form of paternity protection. Using phylogeny-based statistics and drawing on several phylogenetic studies of araneoid spiders, I investigate relationships between male sacrifice behavior, genital mutilation, extreme sexual size dimorphism, and the accumulation of multiple males in the female web (as an indicator of a male-based effective sex ratio). This investigation focuses on araneoid spiders because several independent origins of sacrifice behavior are known for this group and the phylogenetic structure of the lineage is relatively well studied. I report that male genital mutilation is significantly correlated with sacrifice behavior and argue that this finding is consistent with sexual cannibalism theory. Male sacrifice behavior is also correlated with male accumulation, a result that is consistent with theoretical work on the evolution of monogamy. Male accumulation and extreme sexual size dimorphism are correlated suggesting that sex-based differences in maturation time can lead to a male biased effective sex ratio. Similar patterns of correlated characters may hold for some insect taxa. Studying traits that have appeared independently in multiple lineages is a powerful method for developing general theories about the evolution of biological phenomena.

  9. Computing discharge using the index velocity method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levesque, Victor A.; Oberg, Kevin A.

    2012-01-01

    Application of the index velocity method for computing continuous records of discharge has become increasingly common, especially since the introduction of low-cost acoustic Doppler velocity meters (ADVMs) in 1997. Presently (2011), the index velocity method is being used to compute discharge records for approximately 470 gaging stations operated and maintained by the U.S. Geological Survey. The purpose of this report is to document and describe techniques for computing discharge records using the index velocity method. Computing discharge using the index velocity method differs from the traditional stage-discharge method by separating velocity and area into two ratings—the index velocity rating and the stage-area rating. The outputs from each of these ratings, mean channel velocity (V) and cross-sectional area (A), are then multiplied together to compute a discharge. For the index velocity method, V is a function of such parameters as streamwise velocity, stage, cross-stream velocity, and velocity head, and A is a function of stage and cross-section shape. The index velocity method can be used at locations where stage-discharge methods are used, but it is especially appropriate when more than one specific discharge can be measured for a specific stage. After the ADVM is selected, installed, and configured, the stage-area rating and the index velocity rating must be developed. A standard cross section is identified and surveyed in order to develop the stage-area rating. The standard cross section should be surveyed every year for the first 3 years of operation and thereafter at a lesser frequency, depending on the susceptibility of the cross section to change. Periodic measurements of discharge are used to calibrate and validate the index rating for the range of conditions experienced at the gaging station. Data from discharge measurements, ADVMs, and stage sensors are compiled for index-rating analysis. Index ratings are developed by means of regression

  10. 34 CFR 685.216 - Unpaid refund discharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION WILLIAM D. FORD FEDERAL DIRECT LOAN PROGRAM Borrower Provisions § 685.216... reports the discharge of a portion of a loan under this section to all credit reporting agencies to which the Secretary previously reported the status of the loan. (c) Borrower qualification for discharge....

  11. Antigen specific immune response in Chlamydia muridarum genital infection is dependent on murine microRNAs-155 and -182.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Rishein; Arkatkar, Tanvi; Keck, Jonathon; Koundinya, Gopala Krishna Lanka; Castillo, Kevin; Hobel, Sabrina; Chambers, James P; Yu, Jieh-Juen; Guentzel, M Neal; Aigner, Achim; Christenson, Lane K; Arulanandam, Bernard P

    2016-10-04

    Anti-chlamydial immunity involves efficient presentation of antigens (Ag) to effector cells resulting in Ag-specific immune responses. There is limited information on inherent underlying mechanisms regulating these events. Previous studies from our laboratory have established that select microRNAs (miRs) function as molecular regulators of immunity in Chlamydia muridarum (Cm) genital infection. In this report, we investigated immune cell type-specific miRs, i.e. miR-155 and -182, and the role in Ag-specific immunity. We observed significant up-regulation of miR-155 in C57BL/6 bone marrow derived dendritic cells (BMDC), and miR-182 in splenic Ag-specific CD4+ T-cells. Using mimics and inhibitors, we determined that miR-155 contributed to BMDC activation following Cm infection. Co-cultures of miR-155 over-expressed in BMDC and miR-182 over-expressed in Ag-specific CD4+ T-cells, or miR-155-/- BMDC with miR-182 inhibitor treated Ag-specific CD4+ T-cells, resulted in IFN-γ production comparable to Ag-specific CD4+ T-cells isolated from Cm infected mice. Additionally, miR-182 was significantly up-regulated in intranasally vaccinated mice protected against Cm infection. In vivo depletion of miR-182 resulted in reduction in Ag-specific IFN-γ and genital pathology in Cm infected mice. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to report an interaction of miR-155 (in Cm infected DC) and miR-182 (in CD4+ T-cell) resulting in Ag specific immune responses against genital Cm.

  12. Transtorno da excitação genital persistente: uma revisão da literatura Persistent genital arousal disorder: a literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeska Martinho Pereira

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Realizar uma revisão da literatura sobre o transtorno da excitação genital persistente (TEGP, um quadro clínico que acomete somente mulheres, recentemente descrito na literatura, caracterizado por sinais fisiológicos de excitação sexual sem a presença de desejos ou estímulos sexuais. MÉTODOS: Foi realizada revisão sistemática com busca nas bases científicas PubMed, ISI, SciELO e PsycInfo. Do total de artigos encontrados, 27 foram selecionados para integrar esta revisão. RESULTADOS: Os artigos, em sua maioria, são relatos de casos. Apesar de algumas hipóteses diagnósticas terem sido propostas, ainda não existe consenso sobre etiologia, fatores de risco e epidemiologia desse transtorno. A literatura aponta para uma correlação positiva entre a presença do transtorno e quadros depressivos, ansiosos e sintomas obsessivo-compulsivos. CONCLUSÃO: Há necessidade de estudos mais amplos para o melhor entendimento desse quadro clínico. É possível que muitos casos passem despercebidos pelos profissionais de saúde por desconhecimento dos critérios diagnósticos.OBJECTIVE: To review the literature on persistent genital arousal disorder, a clinical syndrome that affects only women, recently described in the literature, characterized by symptoms of physiological arousal in the absence of desire or sexual stimulation. METHODS: We performed a systematic review and search of the scientific basis PubMed, ISI, SciELO and PsycInfo. Of the total number of articles found, 27 were selected to incorporate this review. RESULTS: Most articles are reports of cases. Although some diagnostic hypotheses have been proposed, there is no consensus yet on the etiology, risk factors, and epidemiology of the disorder. The literature suggests a positive relationship between the presence of the disorder and depression, anxiety and obsessive-compulsive symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: There is a need for further studies for better understanding of this

  13. Prevalence and Correlates of Genital Warts in Kenyan Female Sex Workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavanaugh, Barbara E.; Odem-Davis, Katherine; Jaoko, Walter; Estambale, Benson; Kiarie, James N.; Masese, Linnet N.; Deya, Ruth; Manhart, Lisa E.; Graham, Susan M.; McClelland, R. Scott

    2012-01-01

    Background Our goal in the present study was to investigate the prevalence and correlates of genital warts in a population of female sex workers in Mombasa, Kenya. Because of the high prevalence of HIV-1 in this population, we were particularly interested in the association between HIV-1 infection and genital warts. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study of the prevalence and correlates of genital warts among high-risk women in Mombasa, Kenya. Between 2001 and 2007, 1182 women were enrolled, of whom 613 (51.4%) were HIV-1-seropositive. Chi square tests and logistic regression were used to examine the associations between genital warts and potential correlates. Results Genital warts were identified on clinical examination in 27 (2.3%) women. Women who were HIV-1-seropositive were nearly 8 times as likely to have genital warts compared to HIV-1-seronegative women (OR 7.69, 95% CI 2.30–25.6). Conclusion Understanding the prevalence and correlates of genital warts will help to determine whether coverage for the wart-inducing subtypes 6 and 11 in an HPV vaccine is an important consideration in resource-limited countries. PMID:23060082

  14. Female genital cutting in Hargeisa, Somaliland: is there a move towards less severe forms?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunde, Ingvild Bergom; Sagbakken, Mette

    2014-05-01

    According to several sources, little progress is being made in eliminating the cutting of female genitalia. This paper, based on qualitative interviews and observations, explores perceptions of female genital cutting and elimination of the phenomenon in Hargeisa, Somaliland. Two main groups of participants were interviewed: (1) 22 representatives of organisations whose work directly relates to female genital cutting; and (2) 16 individuals representing different groups of society. It was found that there is an increasing use of medical staff and equipment when a girl undergoes the procedure of female genital cutting; the use of terminology is crucial in understanding current perceptions of female genital cutting; religion is both an important barrier and facilitator of elimination; and finally, traditional gender structures are currently being challenged in Hargeisa. The findings of this study suggest that it is important to consider current perceptions on practices of female genital cutting and on abandonment of female genital cutting, in order to gain useful knowledge on the issue of elimination. The study concludes that elimination of female genital cutting is a multifaceted process which is constantly negotiated in a diversity of social settings.

  15. Typical and unusual cases of female genital tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Kulchavenya

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis is a disease with myriad presentations and manifestations; it can affect any organ or tissue, excluding only hair and nails. Doctors who are not familiar with extrapulmonary tuberculosis often overlook this disease. Urogenital tuberculosis (UGTB is the second most common form of TB in countries with severe epidemic situation and the third most common form in regions with low incidence of TB. The term “Urogenital tuberculosis” includes kidney tuberculosis; male and female tuberculosis and urinary tract tuberculosis as complication of kidney tuberculosis. We describe rarest case of tuberculosis of a placenta in young woman, suffered from genital tuberculosis, which was overlooked before delivery, as well as typical tubo-ovarian tuberculomas.

  16. Reconciling female genital circumcision with universal human rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, John-Stewart

    2017-09-18

    One of the most challenging issues in cross-cultural bioethics concerns the long-standing socio-cultural practice of female genital circumcision (FGC), which is prevalent in many African countries and the Middle East as well as in some Asian and Western countries. It is commonly assumed that FGC, in all its versions, constitutes a gross violation of the universal human rights of health, physical integrity, and individual autonomy and hence should be abolished. This article, however, suggests a mediating approach according to which one form of FGC, the removal of the clitoris foreskin, can be made compatible with the high demands of universal human rights. The argument presupposes the idea that human rights are not absolutist by nature but can be framed in a meaningful, culturally sensitive way. It proposes important limiting conditions that must be met for the practice of FGC to be considered in accordance with the human rights agenda. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Genital lichen planus: update on diagnosis and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zendell, Kathleen

    2015-12-01

    Lichen planus (LP) is an inflammatory autoimmune disease that affects both glabrous and mucosal skin. Although pathophysiology has not yet been fully defined, LP is a T-cell mediated disorder that demonstrates an increased Th1 cytokine expression as well as T-cell reactivity against basement membrane zone components. In males, genital LP often takes its more classic form as pink, shiny, flat-topped papules on the glans and coronal sulcus. In women, erosive disease is most common and often leads to significant scarring and sexual dysfunction. Therapeutic management is challenging, and control rather than cure is the goal. Topical corticosteroids remain first-line therapy, but some women will require systemic immunosuppressants to achieve remission. Surgery is less common for women with significant scarring who wish to resume sexual activity. Further research is needed on pathogenesis, and randomized controlled trials are necessary to better define best treatments for this chronic disease.

  18. The Jewish and Christian view on female genital mutilation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. El-Damanhoury

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Female genital mutilation (FGM is a practice involving the removal of all or parts of the female external genitalia. It has been documented in 28 African countries and in some countries in Asia and the Middle East, but due to increasing immigration from these countries to the western world, FGM has become a worldwide human rights and health issue. Contrary to the belief that it is a practice carried out by Muslims only, it is also practiced by Christians and a minority group of Ethiopian Jews. However, FGM is neither mentioned in the Torah, nor in the Gospels, and – like in Islam – bodily mutilation is condemned by both religions. In fact, FGM is a mix of mainly cultural and social factors which may put tremendous pressure on the members of the society in question.

  19. Female genital mutilation: what every paediatrician should know.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creighton, Sarah M; Hodes, Deborah

    2016-03-01

    Female genital mutilation (FGM) is almost always performed on children and consequently paediatricians should have a central role in the detection and prevention of FGM. FGM has no health benefits and can cause lifelong damage to physical and psychological health. Extensive migration of FGM practising communities means that FGM is now a global problem. Paediatricians worldwide need to be familiar with the identification and classification of FGM and its impact upon health as well as current trends in practice. However information about FGM is hampered by the secrecy surrounding the procedure and a lack of rigorous evidence based research. This review summarises what is currently known about the health aspects of FGM and how paediatricians should manage children with FGM in their clinical practice.

  20. [Microbiological study of male genital ulcers. Apropos of 75 cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casin, I; Bianchi, A; Ramel, F; Lajoie, C; Chastang, C; Scieux, C; Ferchal, F; Janier, M; Morel, P; Perol, Y

    1990-09-01

    Between November 1986 and June 1987, the microbial aetiology of genital ulcers was assessed in 75 male patients attending the Sexually Transmitted Disease (STD) clinic in Hôpital Saint-Louis, Paris. Evidence of Haemophilus ducreyi was found in 18 patients (24%), Herpes simplex virus in 19 (25.3%). Syphilis was diagnosed on the basis of dark field microscopy and/or positive serology test in 19 patients (25.3%). Lymphogranuloma venereum was not diagnosed in any patient. Primary pathogens were not identified from the remaining 19 (25.3%) men. Neisseria gonorrhoea was isolated in five patients, from the ulcer in three cases, from the urethra in two. Asymptomatic urethral carriage of Chlamydia trachomatis was culture proven in seven cases. The presence of IgM antibodies to C. trachomatis at a titre greater than 40 found in 17 patients was a indication of a current chlamydial infection. Three patients (4%) were discovered to be HIV-1 positive.