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Sample records for reported experiencing unwanted

  1. Trends in youth reports of sexual solicitations, harassment and unwanted exposure to pornography on the Internet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Kimberly J; Wolak, Janis; Finkelhor, David

    2007-02-01

    This study was designed to track trends in reports of unwanted sexual solicitations, harassment, and unwanted exposure to pornography via the Internet between 2000 and 2005 across various demographic sub-groups of youth. Cross-sectional data was collected in two equivalent national telephone surveys of 1500 Internet users, ages 10 through 17 years. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were used to determine whether the percentage of youth reporting specific unwanted Internet experiences had changed in 2005, as compared with 2000. The overall incidence and 5-year trends of reporting unwanted sexual solicitations, harassment, and unwanted exposure to pornography varied by age, gender, race, and household income. In particular, the decline in the percentage of youth reporting sexual solicitations was apparent for both boys and girls, all age groups, but not among minority youth and those living in less affluent households. The increase in harassment among particular sub-groups of youth was largely explained by increases in amount of Internet use over the past five years. The increase in unwanted exposure to pornography was particularly apparent among 10- to 12-year-olds, 16- to 17-year-olds, boys, and White, non-Hispanic youth. The decline in the percentage of youth reporting sexual solicitations may be the effect of education and law enforcement activity on this issue in the intervening years. Targeted prevention efforts for minority youth and those living in less affluent households need to be developed. The rise in unwanted pornography exposure may reflect technological changes such as digital photography, faster Internet connections and computer storage capacities, as well as the more aggressive marketing strategies of pornography merchants.

  2. Unwanted pregnancies and Contraception in Chronic Renal Failure: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Batuhan Özmen

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Pregnancy is a rare condition in patients requiring dialysis with end-stage chronic renal disease (CRD. However successful pregnancies were reported in CRD, patients are encountering with great number of complications and aggressive acceleration\tof CRD by achieving pregnancy. The most crucial topic is unwanted pregnancies of these patients due to high complication rates described in the literature. Thus many authors were discussing safety of contraception in CRD patients requiring dialysis (hemodialysis, peritoneal dialysis and in patients with renal transplant. In this report medical termination of a twenty-two weeks gestational age unwanted pregnancy that was complicated with aggressive hypertension and severe renal insufficiency under\tdialysis in a 38 years-old end-stage CRD patient was reported.

  3. Unwanted Tattoos

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to Choose the Best Skin Care Products Unwanted Tattoos Tattoos are no longer considered permanent and irreversible ... and don'ts for tattoos . Why remove a tattoo A variety of social, cultural and physical life ...

  4. Negative Effects of Psychological Treatments: An Exploratory Factor Analysis of the Negative Effects Questionnaire for Monitoring and Reporting Adverse and Unwanted Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kottorp, Anders; Boettcher, Johanna; Andersson, Gerhard; Carlbring, Per

    2016-01-01

    Research conducted during the last decades has provided increasing evidence for the use of psychological treatments for a number of psychiatric disorders and somatic complaints. However, by focusing only on the positive outcomes, less attention has been given to the potential of negative effects. Despite indications of deterioration and other adverse and unwanted events during treatment, little is known about their occurrence and characteristics. Hence, in order to facilitate research of negative effects, a new instrument for monitoring and reporting their incidence and impact was developed using a consensus among researchers, self-reports by patients, and a literature review: the Negative Effects Questionnaire. Participants were recruited via a smartphone-delivered self-help treatment for social anxiety disorder and through the media (N = 653). An exploratory factor analysis was performed, resulting in a six-factor solution with 32 items, accounting for 57.64% of the variance. The derived factors were: symptoms, quality, dependency, stigma, hopelessness, and failure. Items related to unpleasant memories, stress, and anxiety were experienced by more than one-third of the participants. Further, increased or novel symptoms, as well as lack of quality in the treatment and therapeutic relationship rendered the highest self-reported negative impact. In addition, the findings were discussed in relation to prior research and other similar instruments of adverse and unwanted events, giving credence to the items that are included. The instrument is presently available in eleven different languages and can be freely downloaded and used from www.neqscale.com. PMID:27331907

  5. Negative Effects of Psychological Treatments: An Exploratory Factor Analysis of the Negative Effects Questionnaire for Monitoring and Reporting Adverse and Unwanted Events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozental, Alexander; Kottorp, Anders; Boettcher, Johanna; Andersson, Gerhard; Carlbring, Per

    2016-01-01

    Research conducted during the last decades has provided increasing evidence for the use of psychological treatments for a number of psychiatric disorders and somatic complaints. However, by focusing only on the positive outcomes, less attention has been given to the potential of negative effects. Despite indications of deterioration and other adverse and unwanted events during treatment, little is known about their occurrence and characteristics. Hence, in order to facilitate research of negative effects, a new instrument for monitoring and reporting their incidence and impact was developed using a consensus among researchers, self-reports by patients, and a literature review: the Negative Effects Questionnaire. Participants were recruited via a smartphone-delivered self-help treatment for social anxiety disorder and through the media (N = 653). An exploratory factor analysis was performed, resulting in a six-factor solution with 32 items, accounting for 57.64% of the variance. The derived factors were: symptoms, quality, dependency, stigma, hopelessness, and failure. Items related to unpleasant memories, stress, and anxiety were experienced by more than one-third of the participants. Further, increased or novel symptoms, as well as lack of quality in the treatment and therapeutic relationship rendered the highest self-reported negative impact. In addition, the findings were discussed in relation to prior research and other similar instruments of adverse and unwanted events, giving credence to the items that are included. The instrument is presently available in eleven different languages and can be freely downloaded and used from www.neqscale.com.

  6. Negative Effects of Psychological Treatments: An Exploratory Factor Analysis of the Negative Effects Questionnaire for Monitoring and Reporting Adverse and Unwanted Events.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Rozental

    Full Text Available Research conducted during the last decades has provided increasing evidence for the use of psychological treatments for a number of psychiatric disorders and somatic complaints. However, by focusing only on the positive outcomes, less attention has been given to the potential of negative effects. Despite indications of deterioration and other adverse and unwanted events during treatment, little is known about their occurrence and characteristics. Hence, in order to facilitate research of negative effects, a new instrument for monitoring and reporting their incidence and impact was developed using a consensus among researchers, self-reports by patients, and a literature review: the Negative Effects Questionnaire. Participants were recruited via a smartphone-delivered self-help treatment for social anxiety disorder and through the media (N = 653. An exploratory factor analysis was performed, resulting in a six-factor solution with 32 items, accounting for 57.64% of the variance. The derived factors were: symptoms, quality, dependency, stigma, hopelessness, and failure. Items related to unpleasant memories, stress, and anxiety were experienced by more than one-third of the participants. Further, increased or novel symptoms, as well as lack of quality in the treatment and therapeutic relationship rendered the highest self-reported negative impact. In addition, the findings were discussed in relation to prior research and other similar instruments of adverse and unwanted events, giving credence to the items that are included. The instrument is presently available in eleven different languages and can be freely downloaded and used from www.neqscale.com.

  7. The prevalence of unwanted and unlawful sexual experiences reported by Danish adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helweg-Larsen, Karin; Bøving Larsen, Helmer

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To obtain current data about child sexual abuse in Denmark and to assess abused children's own perception of early sexual experiences, which are unlawful according to the Danish Penal Code. METHODS: Multimedia computer-based self-administered questionnaires (CASI) were completed by a national...... representative sample of 15-16-y-olds. Child sexual abuse was defined according to the penal code and measured by questions defining specific sexual activities, the relationship between the older person and the child, and the youth's own perception of the incident. RESULTS: Among 5829 respondents, 11% reported...... unlawful sexual experiences, 7% of boys and 16% of girls. Only 1% of boys and 4% of girls felt that they "definitely" or "maybe" had been sexually abused. CONCLUSION: A relatively high percentage of Danish adolescents have early, unlawful sexual experiences. However, young people's own perception of sexual...

  8. An overview of unwanted female hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blume-Peytavi, U

    2011-12-01

    Unwanted facial hair (UFH) is an important but often overlooked issue, with over 40% of women experiencing some degree of UFH. In the female population a wide spectrum of unwanted hair concerns is represented - from biologically normal but undesirable to excessive unwanted hair with an underlying pathology. While women may seek to manage unwanted hair across their bodies, UFH is a particular concern, due to its negative impact on perceived femininity. There may not always be a direct correlation between degree of severity diagnosed objectively by the physician and level of concern and impact upon the patient. This review discusses the spectrum of facial hair experience and outlines the clinical approach to unwanted hair management including UFH. It highlights the importance of a treatment regimen which should respond to the causation factors and needs of the individual. This will lead to a holistic treatment approach including evaluation of the implementation of emotional coping strategies and on-going support, lifestyle modifications, pharmacological interventions (to address underlying pathologies) and the use of cosmetic hair removal methods as either a stand-alone or adjunct treatment as appropriate to the individual. © 2011 The Author. BJD © 2011 British Association of Dermatologists.

  9. Removal of unwanted fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subudhi, Sudhakar; Sreenivas, K. R.; Arakeri, Jaywant H.

    2013-01-01

    This work is concerned with the removal of unwanted fluid through the source-sink pair. The source consists of fluid issuing out of a nozzle in the form of a jet and the sink is a pipe that is kept some distance from the source pipe. Of concern is the percentage of source fluid sucked through the sink. The experiments have been carried in a large glass water tank. The source nozzle diameter is 6 mm and the sink pipe diameter is either 10 or 20 mm. The horizontal and vertical separations and angles between these source and sink pipes are adjustable. The flow was visualized using KMnO4 dye, planer laser induced fluorescence and particle streak photographs. To obtain the effectiveness (that is percentage of source fluid entering the sink pipe), titration method is used. The velocity profiles with and without the sink were obtained using particle image velocimetry. The sink flow rate to obtain a certain effectiveness increase dramatically with lateral separation. The sink diameter and the angle between source and the sink axes don't influence effectiveness as much as the lateral separation.

  10. Experiencing your own orthognathic surgery: A personal case report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mensink, Gertjan; Gooris, Peter; Mulder, Florine; Gooris-Kuipers, Christel; van Merkesteyn, Richard

    2015-01-01

    There has been much research on minimizing the side effects of orthognathic surgery. However, there are very few doctors and researchers who themselves have undergone this surgery. This case report describes the findings of a maxillofacial surgeon who underwent combined orthodontic and orthognathic

  11. Experiencing your own orthognathic surgery: a personal case report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mensink, G.; Gooris, P.; Mulder, F.; Gooris-Kuipers, C.; van Merkestyn, R.

    2015-01-01

    There has been much research on minimizing the side effects of orthognathic surgery. However, there are very few doctors and researchers who themselves have undergone this surgery. This case report describes the findings of a maxillofacial surgeon who underwent combined orthodontic and orthognathic

  12. LSD Flashbacks - The Appearance of New Visual Imagery Not Experienced During Initial Intoxication: Two Case Reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    G Lerner, Arturo; Goodman, Craig; Rudinski, Dmitri; Lev-Ran, Shaul

    2014-01-01

    A side effect associated with the use of synthetic hallucinogens such as lysergic acid diethylamide-(LSD) is the partial or total recurrence of perceptual disturbances which previously appeared during intoxication, despite absence of recent use. These are commonly referred to as "flashbacks" or Hallucinogen Persisting Perception Disorder (HPPD). Here we present two cases of patients with a prior history of LSD use who turned to psychiatric consultation following brief episodes of HPPD. Surprisingly, in both cases new visual imagery appeared during episodes of flashbacks which was not experienced during primary LSD use. Both subjects reported the ability to discern between LSD-associated visual disturbances and new visual imagery. This phenomenon did not cause functional impairment and in both cases caused gradual concern due to its persistence. Both patients refused medical treatment and continued psychiatric follow-up. At one year follow-up both patients reported almost complete spontaneous remission. To the best of our knowledge these are the first reported cases of LSD-related benign flashbacks in which new imagery is experienced. Reasons for this reversible and apparently harmless side effect are proposed. Conclusions from case reports should be taken with caution.

  13. Can skeletal image reporting be taught online: Perspectives of experienced reporting radiographers?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leishman, Lesley

    2013-01-01

    Background: Image interpretation relies upon expert clinical skill and comprehensive knowledge and understanding of the theories and concepts that underpin clinical practices. Traditionally, radiographer reporting education has been delivered using a blend of classroom based learning combined with workplace clinical practice. The direct and indirect costs of staff development and maintenance of the service has seen the incorporation of e-learning into courses in other health professions. Yet, despite its proven success, in the UK radiography has been resistant to progression into e-learning for reporting. This study aims to explore the perceptions of reporting radiographers to interactive online delivery of skeletal image reporting education. Method: Invitations to participate in the study were sent to 80 radiology departments in the UK. Reporting radiographers were asked to complete an online questionnaire to detail their reporting education experiences and to consider whether online delivery was a viable option. Results: A total of 86 radiographers participated in the study. They could see potential benefits of online delivery but agreed it would only be suitable for delivery of theoretical subjects, and that development of practical/clinical skills required interaction with experts in the field to enhance learning. Conclusion: Image reporting education is not suitable for entirely online delivery, and a blended learning solution, where online classroom based learning is combined with work based learning is more appropriate as it allows for interaction with experts in the field of reporting to facilitate the development of reporting skills enhance the overall learning experience

  14. Experiencing control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Monaci, G.; Braspenning, R.A.C.; Meerbeek, B.W.; Bingley, P.; Rajagopalan, R.; Triki, M.

    2009-01-01

    This report describes the activities carried out in the first part of the Experiencing Control project (2008-324). The guiding idea of the project is to make control part of the experience, exploring new interaction solutions for complex, engaging interactions with Philips devices in the living

  15. Uniting to prevent unwanted pregnancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, D

    1994-02-18

    In reading the column of Cal Thomas entitled "Speaking Truth to Power" it becomes clear that the forces aligned against each other on the issue of reproductive choice should work together in order to reduce the number of unwanted pregnancies. An estimated 400 million women are unable to limit their family size for economic reasons. More are inhibited by social or religious constraints. When family planning (FP) services are available, and the status and education levels of women are raised, abortion rates decrease. This is demonstrated in the Netherlands, where legal abortions and contraception are available. The abortion rate is less than 5/1000 women there, one of the lowest worldwide. Latin America, where abortion is illegal and FP services are lacking, has abortion rates of 30-60/1000. Furthermore, these illegal abortions usually have a tragic effect on the woman's health. Of an estimated 6 million pregnancies annually in the United States, approximately half are unintended. Of these, about 1.6 million are aborted. Of the women in the United States who become pregnant annually, 82% are unmarried, 25% are under 20 years of age, and 33% make less than $11,000 yearly. If industrialized nations made contraceptives and FP services available to the poor worldwide, the quality of life on earth would increase. Human misery, anarchy, and resource depletion would decrease. State and local governments should increase support of domestic FP activities, while the federal government should raise its funding of international FP services. In order to reach the goals set by the 1989 Amsterdam Declaration, which was signed by the US, the annual contribution of the United States needs to be doubled. 4% of the US foreign aid budget, $720 million, is less than 0.1% of its $1.5 trillion budget. This amounts to less than $3 per US citizen.

  16. Efficacy, patient-reported outcomes and safety profile of ATX-101 (deoxycholic acid), an injectable drug for the reduction of unwanted submental fat: results from a phase III, randomized, placebo-controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ascher, B; Hoffmann, K; Walker, P; Lippert, S; Wollina, U; Havlickova, B

    2014-12-01

    Unwanted submental fat (SMF) may result in an unattractive chin profile and dissatisfaction with appearance. An approved and rigorously tested non-surgical method for SMF reduction is lacking. To evaluate the efficacy and safety of ATX-101 for the pharmacological reduction of unwanted SMF in a phase III randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Patients (n = 360) with moderate or severe SMF were randomized to receive ATX-101 1 or 2 mg/cm(2) or placebo injected into their SMF for up to four treatments ~28 days apart, with a 12-week follow-up. Coprimary efficacy endpoints were the proportions of treatment responders, defined as a ≥1-point reduction in SMF on the Clinician-Reported Submental Fat Rating Scale (CR-SMFRS), and those satisfied with their appearance in association with their face and chin after treatment on the Subject Self-Rating Scale (SSRS score ≥4). Secondary efficacy endpoints included a ≥1-point improvement in SMF on the Patient-Reported Submental Fat Rating Scale (PR-SMFRS) and changes in the Patient-Reported Submental Fat Impact Scale (PR-SMFIS). Additional patient-reported outcomes and changes in the Skin Laxity Rating Scale were recorded. Adverse events (AEs) and laboratory test results were monitored. Compared with placebo, a greater proportion of patients treated with ATX-101 1 and 2 mg/cm(2) showed a ≥1-point improvement in CR-SMFRS (58.3% and 62.3%, respectively, vs. 34.5% with placebo; P < 0.001) and patient satisfaction (SSRS score ≥4) with the appearance of their face and chin (68.3% and 64.8%, respectively, vs. 29.3%; P < 0.001). Patient-reported secondary efficacy endpoints showed significant improvements in SMF severity (PR-SMFRS; P = 0.009 for ATX-101 1 mg/cm(2) , P < 0.001 for ATX-101 2 mg/cm(2) vs. placebo) and emotions and perceived self-image (PR-SMFIS; P < 0.001). No overall worsening of skin laxity was observed. AEs were mostly transient, mild to moderate in intensity and localized to the treatment area. ATX

  17. Excessive or unwanted hair in women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hypertrichosis; Hirsutism; Hair - excessive (women); Excessive hair in women; Hair - women - excessive or unwanted ... Women normally produce low levels of male hormones (androgens). If your body makes too much of this ...

  18. Women’s experiences of unwanted pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    Foroughossadat Mortazavi; Maryam Damghanian; Zahra Mottaghi; Mohammad Shariati

    2012-01-01

    Background: Despite expanded coverage of family planning in Iran, unwanted pregnancy is a common problem. The aim of this study was to explore women’s experiences of unwanted pregnancy in Shahroud public health centers.Methods: Purposive Sampling was conducted by means of focus group discussions (FGDs) and in-depth interviews and by a semi-constructed questionnaire in this qualitative research. Five (FGDs) with 23 women in third trimester in pregnancy and 4 in-depth interviews with women with...

  19. Unwanted sexual advances at work: variations by employment arrangement in a sample of working Australians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamontagne, Anthony D; Smith, Peter M; Louie, Amber M; Quinlan, Michael; Shoveller, Jean; Ostry, Aleck S

    2009-04-01

    We tested the hypothesis that the risk of experiencing unwanted sexual advances at work (UWSA) is greater for precariously-employed workers in comparison to those in permanent or continuing employment. A cross-sectional population-based telephone survey was conducted in Victoria (66% response rate, N=1,101). Employment arrangements were analysed using eight differentiated categories, as well as a four-category collapsed measure to address small cell sizes. Self-report of unwanted sexual advances at work was modelled using multiple logistic regression in relation to employment arrangement, controlling for gender, age, and occupational skill level. Forty-seven respondents reported UWSA in our sample (4.3%), mainly among women (37 of 47). Risk of UWSA was higher for younger respondents, but did not vary significantly by occupational skill level or education. In comparison to Permanent Full-Time, three employment arrangements were strongly associated with UWSA after adjustment for age, gender, and occupational skill level: Casual Full-Time OR = 7.2 (95% Confidence Interval 1.7-30.2); Fixed-Term Contract OR = 11.4 (95% CI 3.4-38.8); and Own-Account Self-Employed OR = 3.8 (95% CI 1.2-11.7). In analyses of females only, the magnitude of these associations was further increased. Respondents employed in precarious arrangements were more likely to report being exposed to UWSA, even after adjustment for age and gender. Greater protections from UWSA are likely needed for precariously employed workers.

  20. Experienced and anticipated discrimination reported by individuals in treatment for substance use disorders within the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Boekel, L.C.; Brouwers, E.P.M.; van Weeghel, J.; Garretsen, H.F.L.

    2016-01-01

    Experiences and expectations of discrimination (anticipated discrimination) may delay treatment seeking among people with substance use disorders. In addition, experienced and anticipated discrimination can be a barrier to successful recovery and rehabilitation. The aim of this study was to study

  1. Factors associated with unwanted sexual experiences of young Australian females: an observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subasinghe, Asvini K; Jayasinghe, Yasmin L; Wark, John D; Gorelik, Alexandra; Garland, Suzanne M

    2017-08-01

    Background Behavioural and lifestyle factors associated with childhood unwanted sexual experiences (USE) have yet to be investigated in Australian females aged less than 18 years. Women aged 16-25 years living in Victoria were recruited via targeted advertising on Facebook. A web-based validated questionnaire was used to collect information on participant demographics, mental health, USE and sexual behaviours. Multivariable logistic regression was used to determine associations between a history of childhood (<16 years) and adolescent (16-18 years) USE and indices of sexual orientation. Data were collected from 639 females (mean±s.d. age 22±3 years). Approximately 14% reported childhood USE and 15% reported adolescent USE. Approximately 37% of survivors of childhood USE reported penile-genital contact in relation to their USE. Participants who reported depression were almost four times as likely to have experienced childhood USE than those who did not report suffering from depression (odds ratio 3.6, 95% confidence interval 2.1-6.0, P<0.001). Positive associations between childhood USE, same-sex relationships and smoking were also detected. A strong relationship between childhood USE, depression and same-sex sexual behaviours was found, but results did not determine the direction of this association. Longitudinal studies should be conducted to investigate whether there are groups of individuals who are at a high risk of experiencing childhood USE, so that appropriate support systems can be put in place.

  2. Views on unwanted effects of leave-on emollients and experiences msurrounding their incidence

    OpenAIRE

    Oakley, Robert; Lawton, Sandra

    2016-01-01

    Background: The mainstay treatment for eczema is leave-on emollients. The aim of this study was to find out more about unwanted effects that have been reported with their use, as little is known due to a lack of formal reporting.\\ud \\ud Aims: To gain a greater understanding of eczema patients’ experiences of unwanted effects such as stinging, what influence unwanted effects had on their therapy, why subsequent variations in leave-on emollient adherence followed and what patients desire in the...

  3. Battered pets and domestic violence: animal abuse reported by women experiencing intimate violence and by nonabused women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ascione, Frank R; Weber, Claudia V; Thompson, Teresa M; Heath, John; Maruyama, Mika; Hayashi, Kentaro

    2007-04-01

    Women residing at domestic violence shelters (S group) were nearly 11 times more likely to report that their partner had hurt or killed pets than a comparison group of women who said they had not experienced intimate violence (NS group). Reports of threatened harm to pets were more than 4 times higher for the S group. Using the Conflict Tactics Scale, the authors demonstrated that severe physical violence was a significant predictor of pet abuse. The vast majority of shelter women described being emotionally close to their pets and distraught by the abuse family pets experienced. Children were often exposed to pet abuse, and most reported being distressed by these experiences. A substantial minority of S-group women reported that their concern for their pets' welfare prevented them from seeking shelter sooner. This seemed truer for women without children, who may have had stronger pet attachments. This obstacle to seeking safety should be addressed by domestic violence agencies.

  4. Legal Briefing: Unwanted Cesareans and Obstetric Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, Thaddeus Mason

    2017-01-01

    A capacitated pregnant woman has a nearly unqualified right to refuse a cesarean section. Her right to say "no" takes precedence over clinicians' preferences and even over clinicians' concerns about fetal health. Leading medical societies, human rights organizations, and appellate courts have all endorsed this principle. Nevertheless, clinicians continue to limit reproductive liberty by forcing and coercing women to have unwanted cesareans. This "Legal Briefing" reviews recent court cases involving this type of obstetric violence. I have organized these court cases into the following six categories: 1. Epidemic of Unwanted Cesareans 2. Court-Ordered Cesareans 3. Physician-Coerced Cesareans 4. Physician-Ordered Cesareans 5. Cesareans for Incapacitated Patients 6. Cesareans for Patients in a Vegetative State or Who Are Brain Dead. Copyright 2017 The Journal of Clinical Ethics. All rights reserved.

  5. Dual perspectives on stigma: reports of experienced and enacted stigma by those affected and unaffected by podoconiosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desta Ayode

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Disease-related stigma is a public health concern steadily gaining global attention. Evidence consistently shows that an individual’s attribution of disease cause can prompt or justify interpersonal stigma. However, few studies have explored causal beliefs about inherited disease and their influence on stigmatising behaviours in low and middle income countries. Design and methods: The study was conducted in 2013, in six communities in Wolaita zone, Southern Ethiopia. A total of 1800 respondents took part in the study, 600 were affected by an inherited disease and 1200 were unaffected neighbours. Two versions of the interviewer- administered survey were created, with measures assessed in parallel on experienced stigma for the affected and enacted stigma for unaffected respondents. Results: Mean levels of enacted stigma reported by unaffected respondents were slightly lower (2.0, SD=0.7 than experienced stigma reported by affected respondents [2.2 (standard deviation=1.1]. Beliefs that podoconiosis was hereditary were significantly and positively associated with levels of enacted stigma reported by unaffected respondents and experienced stigma reported by affected respondents (PConclusions: If stigma reduction interventions are to be successful, culturally tailored, gender inclusive and innovative health education programs are required, directed at the general community as well as individuals affected by inherited diseases.

  6. Correlation between lamivudine plasma concentrations and patient self-reported adherence to antiretroviral treatment in experienced HIV patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minzi OM

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available OM Minzi1, V Mugoyela2, LL Gustafsson31Unit of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, 2Department of Medicinal Chemistry, School of Pharmacy, Muhimbili University of Health and Allied Sciences, Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania; 3Division of Clinical Pharmacology, Department of Laboratory Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Karolinska University Hospital, Huddinge, Stockholm, SwedenBackground: Adherence to antiretroviral treatment (ART is important to achieve treatment success in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-infected patients. Most HIV clinics apply the patient self-report (PSR method. However, the reliability of this method in experienced HIV patients remains questionable.Purpose: To validate the PSR method for measuring adherence to ART using lamivudine (3TC plasma concentrations in experienced HIV patients.Methods: The study was conducted in Dar Es Salaam and involved 220 patients who were receiving ART services at HIV clinics for more than 12 months. Self-reported adherence information to ART was obtained on the day of HIV clinic visit. The patients were asked to mention the number of doses missed within the past 7 days. In addition, blood samples (2 mL were collected from each patient on the same day. The blood samples were determined for 3TC plasma concentrations. The target 3TC plasma concentration as indicator concentration for adherent patients was determined in 20 patients who took their evening dose of antiretrovirals under supervision. The blood from these patients was drawn 3 hours after drug administration.Results: Complete drug levels of 3TC and self-reported adherence data was obtained in 200 treatment-experienced HIV patients. Lamivudine plasma concentrations obtained in these patients ranged between 0.02–17.36 µg/mL. The mean time from dose administration to blood drawing was 3.1 ± 1.2 hours with coefficient of variation >39%. The mean 3TC plasma concentration obtained in 20 patients who took their antiretroviral dose under supervision was

  7. Reporting Misconduct of a Coworker to Protect a Patient: A Comparison between Experienced Nurses and Nursing Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abraham Mansbach

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Whistleblowing is the reporting of illegal, immoral, or illegitimate practices to persons or organizations that may affect the action. The current study compares experienced nurses to nursing students regarding their willingness to blow the whistle to protect a patient’s interests. Methods. 165 participants were divided into two groups: 82 undergraduate nursing students and 83 experienced nurses. Participants responded to two vignettes that described a colleague’s and a manager’s misconduct at work. Results. The nursing students perceived the severity of the misconduct significantly lower compared to the experienced nurses. The nursing students also ranked the internal and external whistleblowing indices higher than the nurses, but the differences did not reach statistical significance. For each of the examined internal and external indices, professional experience was found to be significant in multivariate regression analyses. Conclusions. Even though nursing students perceived the severity of the misconduct significantly lower than the experienced nurses, the students demonstrated a greater readiness to blow the whistle, both internally and externally. Recommendations for handling comparable situations are offered.

  8. Unintended and unwanted pregnancy in St. Lucia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denton, A B; Chase, W M; Scott, K

    1994-09-01

    Among 200 mothers interviewed in St. Lucia, 82.5% described their pregnancy as unintended and 44% as unwanted; 80% of women having an intended pregnancy and 94.6% having an unintended pregnancy were unmarried and 18.5% were teenagers. Mothers of unintended pregnancies were significantly younger, were of significantly higher parity and had begun sexual relations at a significantly earlier age than mothers of intended pregnancies; and, unlike mothers of planned pregnancies, their desired interpregnancy interval was significantly longer than the actual interval. These results and the sporadic and ineffective use of contraception in St. Lucia emphasize the need for improvements in fertility regulation in that country.

  9. The Benefits of Multi-Year Research Experiences: Differences in Novice and Experienced Students’ Reported Gains from Undergraduate Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiry, Heather; Weston, Timothy J.; Laursen, Sandra L.; Hunter, Anne-Barrie

    2012-01-01

    This mixed-methods study explores differences in novice and experienced undergraduate students’ perceptions of their cognitive, personal, and professional gains from engaging in scientific research. The study was conducted in four different undergraduate research (UR) programs at two research-extensive universities; three of these programs had a focus on the biosciences. Seventy-three entry-level and experienced student researchers participated in in-depth, semi-structured interviews and completed the quantitative Undergraduate Research Student Self-Assessment (URSSA) instrument. Interviews and surveys assessed students’ developmental outcomes from engaging in UR. Experienced students reported distinct personal, professional, and cognitive outcomes relative to their novice peers, including a more sophisticated understanding of the process of scientific research. Students also described the trajectories by which they developed not only the intellectual skills necessary to advance in science, but also the behaviors and temperament necessary to be a scientist. The findings suggest that students benefit from multi-year UR experiences. Implications for UR program design, advising practices, and funding structures are discussed. PMID:22949423

  10. Patients with 47, XXX karyotype who experienced premature ovarian failure (POF): two case reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugawara, Nobuo; Maeda, Machiko; Manome, Tomomi; Nagai, Rie; Araki, Yasuhisa

    2013-10-01

    Pubertal onset and sexual development are usually normal in 47, XXX individuals; however, we report two cases of premature ovarian failure (POF) in infertile women with trisomy X. Chromosome analysis was conducted with G-banding and fluorescence in situ hybridization using X- and Y-bearing probe. Hormonal administration was primarily Kaufmann's treatment or long-term estradiol treatment, followed by withdrawal bleeding from estrogen and progesterone. Two patients with trisomy X, aged 31 (patient 1) and 27 years (patient 2), were diagnosed with POF due to hypergonadotropic hypogonadism. Their ovaries were small. Patient 1 had a FSH level of 44.6 mIU/ml and patient 2 had a FSH level of 74.6 mIU/ml. In patient 1, with Kaufmann's treatment, the FSH decreased to 13.5 mIU/ml; however, follicle growth did not occur following HMG stimulation. In patient 2, FSH did not decrease despite Kaufmann's treatment; therefore, she was given a GnRH agonist and her FSH level decreased to 7.1 mIU/ml. However, her ovaries never responded to HMG stimulation. We report on two patients with a 47, XXX karyotype who became infertile due to POF. We recommend that when a patient is diagnosed with trisomy X, the possibility of POF must be strongly considered.

  11. Unwanted facial hair: affects, effects and solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blume-Peytavi, U; Gieler, U; Hoffmann, R; Lavery, S; Shapiro, J

    2007-01-01

    The following is a review of a satellite symposium held at the EHRS Meeting in June 2006. U.B.P. reminded the audience that unwanted facial hair (UFH) is an important issue; over 40% of the women in the general population have some degree of UFH, and its psychological and psychosocial impact should not be underestimated. The treatment of UFH involves many different disciplines, and the symposium offered the latest thinking in different aspects of the disorder. S.L. outlined the current concepts surrounding polycystic ovarian syndrome, and U.G. addressed the psychological aspects of UFH. J.S. described the current treatment options for UFH, followed by U.B.P.'s evidence-based therapy review. Finally, R.H. reviewed the latest trial results with Trichoscan, a method being investigated for assessing UFH removal. Copyright (c) 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. Risk factors for unplanned and unwanted teenage pregnancies occurring over two years of follow-up among a cohort of young South African women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christofides, Nicola J; Jewkes, Rachel K; Dunkle, Kristin L; McCarty, Frances; Jama Shai, Nwabisa; Nduna, Mzikazi; Sterk, Claire

    2014-01-01

    partners doubled the odds of reporting both an unplanned and unwanted pregnancy (OR 2.58 95% CI 1.07-6.25, and OR 2.21 95% CI 1.13-4.29). Although some of the measures of gender inequity were not associated with unplanned and unwanted pregnancies, there is evidence of the role of both gender power and socioeconomic status. This was evident in teenage girls who experienced physical violence being more likely to have an unwanted pregnancy. Interventions to prevent teenage pregnancies need to be tailored by socioeconomic status because some teenagers may see having a pregnancy as a way to have a more secure future. Interventions that engage with relationship dynamics of teenagers are essential if unwanted and unplanned pregnancies are to be prevented.

  13. Risk factors for unplanned and unwanted teenage pregnancies occurring over two years of follow-up among a cohort of young South African women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola J. Christofides

    2014-08-01

    that the teenage girl and her boyfriend were mutual main partners doubled the odds of reporting both an unplanned and unwanted pregnancy (OR 2.58 95% CI 1.07–6.25, and OR 2.21 95% CI 1.13–4.29. Conclusion: Although some of the measures of gender inequity were not associated with unplanned and unwanted pregnancies, there is evidence of the role of both gender power and socioeconomic status. This was evident in teenage girls who experienced physical violence being more likely to have an unwanted pregnancy. Interventions to prevent teenage pregnancies need to be tailored by socioeconomic status because some teenagers may see having a pregnancy as a way to have a more secure future. Interventions that engage with relationship dynamics of teenagers are essential if unwanted and unplanned pregnancies are to be prevented.

  14. Estimating the Availability of Potential Homes for Unwanted Horses in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Emily; Dolan, Emily D.; Mohan-Gibbons, Heather; Gramann, Shannon; Slater, Margaret R.

    2017-01-01

    Simple Summary There are approximately 200,000 unwanted horses annually in the United States. Many are shipped to slaughter, enter rescue facilities, or are held on federal lands. This study aimed to estimate a potential number of available homes for unwanted horses in order to examine broadly the viability of pursuing re-homing policies as an option for the thousands of unwanted horses in the U.S. The results of this survey suggest there could be an estimated 1.2 million homes who have both the perceived resources and desire to house an unwanted horse. This number exceeds the approximately 200,000 unwanted horses living each year in the United States. These data suggest that efforts to reduce unwanted horses could involve matching such horses with adoptive homes and enhancing opportunities to keep horses in the homes they already have. Abstract There are approximately 200,000 unwanted horses annually in the United States. This study aimed to better understand the potential homes for horses that need to be re-homed. Using an independent survey company through an Omnibus telephone (land and cell) survey, we interviewed a nationally projectable sample of 3036 adults (using both landline and cellular phone numbers) to learn of their interest and capacity to adopt a horse. Potential adopters with interest in horses with medical and/or behavioral problems and self-assessed perceived capacity to adopt, constituted 0.92% of the total sample. Extrapolating the results of this survey using U.S. Census data, suggests there could be an estimated 1.25 million households who have both the self-reported and perceived resources and desire to house an unwanted horse. This number exceeds the estimated number of unwanted horses living each year in the United States. This study points to opportunities and need to increase communication and support between individuals and organizations that have unwanted horses to facilitate re-homing with people in their community willing to adopt

  15. Experiencing variation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kobayashi, Sofie; Berge, Maria; Grout, Brian William Wilson

    2017-01-01

    This study contributes towards a better understanding of learning dynamics in doctoral supervision by analysing how learning opportunities are created in the interaction between supervisors and PhD students, using the notion of experiencing variation as a key to learning. Empirically, we have based...... the study on four video-recorded sessions, with four different PhD students and their supervisors, all from life sciences. Our analysis revealed that learning opportunities in the supervision sessions concerned either the content matter of research (for instance, understanding soil structure......), or the research methods— more specifically how to produce valid results. Our results illustrate how supervisors and PhD students create a space of learning together in their particular discipline by varying critical aspects of their research in their discussions. Situations where more openended research issues...

  16. Experiencing time

    CERN Document Server

    Prosser, Simon

    2018-01-01

    Our engagement with time is a ubiquitous feature of our lives. We are aware of time on many scales, from the briefest flicker of change to the way our lives unfold over many years. But to what extent does this encounter reveal the true nature of temporal reality? To the extent that temporal reality is as it seems, how do we come to be aware of it? And to the extent that temporal reality is not as it seems, why does it seem that way? These are the central questions addressed by Simon Prosser in Experiencing Time. These questions take on a particular importance in philosophy for two reasons. Firstly, there is a view concerning the metaphysics of time, known as the B-theory of time, according to which the apparently dynamic quality of change, the special status of the present, and even the passage of time are all illusions. Instead, the world is a four-dimensional space-time block, lacking any of the apparent dynamic features of time. If the B-theory is correct, as the book argues, then it must be explained why ...

  17. Unwanted Behaviors and Nuisance Behaviors Among Neighbors in a Belgian Community Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaux, Emilie; Groenen, Anne; Uzieblo, Katarzyna

    2015-06-30

    Unwanted behaviors between (ex-)intimates have been extensively studied, while those behaviors within other contexts such as neighbors have received much less scientific consideration. Research indicates that residents are likely to encounter problem behaviors from their neighbors. Besides the lack of clarity in the conceptualization of problem behaviors among neighbors, little is known on which types of behaviors characterize neighbor problems. In this study, the occurrence of two types of problem behaviors encountered by neighbors was explored within a Belgian community sample: unwanted behaviors such as threats and neighbor nuisance issues such as noise nuisance. By clearly distinguishing those two types of behaviors, this study aimed at contributing to the conceptualization of neighbor problems. Next, the coping strategies used to deal with the neighbor problems were investigated. Our results indicated that unwanted behaviors were more frequently encountered by residents compared with nuisance problems. Four out of 10 respondents reported both unwanted pursuit behavior and nuisance problems. It was especially unlikely to encounter nuisance problems in isolation of unwanted pursuit behaviors. While different coping styles (avoiding the neighbor, confronting the neighbor, and enlisting help from others) were equally used by the stalked participants, none of them was perceived as being more effective in reducing the stalking behaviors. Strikingly, despite being aware of specialized help services such as community mediation services, only a very small subgroup enlisted this kind of professional help. © The Author(s) 2015.

  18. A comparison between unwanted sexual behavior by teachers and by peers in secondary schools

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmerman, M.C.

    2002-01-01

    This study explores differences and similarities between sexual harassment of students by teachers and by peers. Respondents were adolescents in 22 secondary schools, randomly selected in 2 regions in the Netherlands. Of the 2808 students 512 (18%) reported unwanted sexual experiences at school in

  19. The co-occurrence of Internet harassment and unwanted sexual solicitation victimization and perpetration: associations with psychosocial indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ybarra, Michele L; Espelage, Dorothy L; Mitchell, Kimberly J

    2007-12-01

    Previous research in offline environments suggests that there may be an overlap in bullying and sexual harassment perpetration and victimization; however to what extent this may be true for perpetration and victimization of Internet harassment and unwanted sexual solicitation is unknown. The Growing Up with Media survey is a national cross-sectional online survey of 1,588 youth, 10-15 years old, who have used the Internet at least once in the last 6 months. Cluster analysis was conducted with four scales: Internet harassment perpetration, Internet harassment victimization, unwanted sexual solicitation perpetration, and unwanted sexual solicitation victimization. A four-cluster solution was identified: youth with little to no involvement (n = 1326; 81.7%); perpetrator-victims of Internet harassment (n = 205; 14.3%); victims of both Internet harassment and unwanted sexual solicitation (n = 45; 3.1%); and perpetrator-victims of Internet harassment and unwanted sexual solicitation (n = 12; .9%). Involvement in Internet harassment and unwanted sexual solicitation was associated with concurrent reports of psychosocial problems including substance use; involvement in offline victimization and perpetration of relational, physical, and sexual aggression; delinquent peers; a propensity to respond to stimuli with anger; poor emotional bond with caregivers; and poor caregiver monitoring as compared with youth with little to no involvement. This was especially true for perpetrator-victims of Internet harassment and unwanted sexual solicitation. Findings were replicated using a frequency-based definition of involvement, suggesting that cluster analysis is useful in identifying subgroups of youth and can be used to guide frequency-based definitions, which are easier to implement across study samples. The majority of youth are not frequently involved in Internet harassment or unwanted sexual solicitation either as victims or as perpetrators. Among those who are, however

  20. A risky boundary: Unwanted sexual behaviour among youth

    OpenAIRE

    Bruijn, Paula de; Burrie, Ingrid; Wel, Frits van

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this research was to explore unwanted sexual behaviour amongs young people. Sexual aggression was operationalized at three levels: ‘‘verbal’’, ‘‘non-verbal/intimidating’’ and ‘‘physically violent’’. A total of 1,700 Dutch adolescents completed a questionnaire that included six clusters of possible determinants of unwanted sexual behaviour: background characteristics, personality characteristics, family environment, school environment, friends and deviant behaviour and sexuality and...

  1. Determinants of unwanted pregnancies in India using matched case-control designs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dixit Priyanka

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In India, while the total fertility rate has been declined from 3.39 in 1992–93 to 2.68 in 2005–06, the prevalence of unintended pregnancy is still stagnant over the same period. A review of existing literature shows that within the country, there are variations in fertility preferences between different regions. Also there is a strong argument that the availability of a health facility at the village level plays an important role in reshaping the fertility behavior of women. Keeping in mind the fact that there is no information at the village level (which is the lowest geographical boundary in the recent round of National Family Health Survey (NFHS-3, the specific objective of this study is to examine the impact of individual and household level variables on unwanted pregnancies without controlling the village level variation. Further, once the village level variation (i.e. unobserved variation has been controlled, it is necessary to study whether there has been any alteration in the contribution of factors from earlier results of without adjusting the village level variation. Methods This paper attempts to examine the associated factors of unwanted pregnancies, without matching the village and after matching the village, by using the matched case–control design. Nationwide data from India’s latest NFHS-3 conducted during 2005–06 was used for the present study. Frequency and pair wise matching has been applied in the present paper and conditional logistic regression analysis was used to work out the models and to find out the factors associated with unwanted pregnancies. Results A major finding of this study was that 1:3 case–control study (without matching the village shows that women belonging to non Hindu/Muslim religion, Scheduled Tribe, women who have experienced child loss and if the previous birth interval is 24 through 36 months were significant predictors of unwanted pregnancy. However, this

  2. Disposal of unwanted pesticides in Stellenbosch, South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aqiel Dalvie, Mohamed; Africa, Algernon; London, Leslie

    2006-01-01

    Background: Unwanted pesticides in developing countries are major environmental health threats. This study followed-up a previous audit of unwanted and obsolete pesticides on farms in a rural district of South Africa six years after a National Retrieval Project (NPR) was undertaken. Methods: A descriptive survey of 37 farms that had been in possession of unwanted pesticides in a 1995 survey and a purposive sample of 34 neighbouring farms, was carried out. The survey data included farm details; details of unwanted pesticide stocks, volumes of empty containers and safety and hygiene of pesticide stores. In addition, management was asked if they had been informed about and participated in the 1997 NPR and similarly whether they were aware of the retrieval planned by the African Stockpiles Programme (ASP). Results: Forty (56%) farms were in possession of obsolete pesticides of which 24 (59%) were farms that had unwanted stocks in the previous survey. There were more than 9 tonnes of these pesticides, 50% more than in the previous survey, including 20 chemicals banned, withdrawn or restricted in South Africa or classified as WHO Class I toxicity. Over 2800 kg of pesticides (30%) were not identifiable. None of the farms participated in the NPR, although 47 knew of the initiative. Only six farmers (9%) knew of the ASP initiative. Fifty-nine farms (83%) had empty containers on the premises. Most pesticide stores (67%) had floors contaminated with chemicals. Conclusion: The survey found that despite the NPR, the problem of unwanted pesticides in the study area and probably throughout South Africa has deteriorated. National and international policies should control the problem at source and encourage more sustainable agriculture

  3. Unwanted sexual attention at work and long-term sickness absence: a follow-up register-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogh, Annie; Conway, Paul Maurice; Clausen, Thomas; Madsen, Ida Elisabeth Huitfeldt; Burr, Hermann

    2016-07-30

    The current understanding of the relationship between unwanted sexual attention at work and long-term sickness absence (LTSA) is limited for three reasons: 1) the under-researched role of unwanted sexual attention perpetrated by individuals outside the work organization; 2) a widespread use of self-reported measures of sickness absence, with an unclear identification of sickness absence episodes of long duration; 3) the cross-sectional design of most existing studies. The aim of this study was therefore to investigate the relationship between self-reported unwanted sexual attention at work and subsequent LTSA (≥3 weeks), stratifying by gender and source of exposure (i.e., colleagues, managers and/or subordinates vs. clients/customers/patients). This prospective study is based on a pooled sample of 14,605 employees from three Danish surveys conducted in 2000, 2004 and 2005, providing a total of 19,366 observations. A single questionnaire-based item was used to assess exposure to unwanted sexual attention. The pooled dataset was merged with Danish register data on LTSA. The risk of first-onset episode of LTSA (up to 18 months after baseline) in connection with unwanted sexual attention was examined using Cox proportional hazards models. We estimated Hazard ratios (HR) and 95 % confidence intervals (95 % CI) adjusted for age, influence at work, work pace, occupational group and mode of data collection. We also adjusted for repeated measures from individual respondents by stratifying the Cox models by wave of survey. Unwanted sexual attention from colleagues, managers and/or subordinates predicted LTSA among men (HR 2.66; 95 % CI 1.42-5.00). Among women, an elevated but non-statistically significant risk of LTSA (HR 1.18; 95 % CI 0.65-2.14) was found. Unwanted sexual attention from clients/customers/patients did not predict LTSA, neither among men nor among women. The findings indicate a significantly elevated risk of LTSA, among men only, in relation to

  4. Unwanted sexual attention at work and long-term sickness absence: a follow-up register-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annie Hogh

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The current understanding of the relationship between unwanted sexual attention at work and long-term sickness absence (LTSA is limited for three reasons: 1 the under-researched role of unwanted sexual attention perpetrated by individuals outside the work organization; 2 a widespread use of self-reported measures of sickness absence, with an unclear identification of sickness absence episodes of long duration; 3 the cross-sectional design of most existing studies. The aim of this study was therefore to investigate the relationship between self-reported unwanted sexual attention at work and subsequent LTSA (≥3 weeks, stratifying by gender and source of exposure (i.e., colleagues, managers and/or subordinates vs. clients/customers/patients. Methods This prospective study is based on a pooled sample of 14,605 employees from three Danish surveys conducted in 2000, 2004 and 2005, providing a total of 19,366 observations. A single questionnaire-based item was used to assess exposure to unwanted sexual attention. The pooled dataset was merged with Danish register data on LTSA. The risk of first-onset episode of LTSA (up to 18 months after baseline in connection with unwanted sexual attention was examined using Cox proportional hazards models. We estimated Hazard ratios (HR and 95 % confidence intervals (95 % CI adjusted for age, influence at work, work pace, occupational group and mode of data collection. We also adjusted for repeated measures from individual respondents by stratifying the Cox models by wave of survey. Results Unwanted sexual attention from colleagues, managers and/or subordinates predicted LTSA among men (HR 2.66; 95 % CI 1.42-5.00. Among women, an elevated but non-statistically significant risk of LTSA (HR 1.18; 95 % CI 0.65-2.14 was found. Unwanted sexual attention from clients/customers/patients did not predict LTSA, neither among men nor among women. Conclusions The findings indicate a significantly

  5. UNWANTED BEHAVIOUR AMONG YOUTH: INFLUENCE OF DIGITAL MEDIA CONSUMPTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mateja Rek

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In many cases of unwanted behaviour that we analysed (for instance in case of cheating on school tests, beating, being bullied, conflicts with parents, gambling, intentionally damaging or destroying property we found a statistically significant effect of the extent of digital media use on incidence of such behaviour. Youth, who are large digital media users, behave in such socially unwanted ways more often compared to smaller media users. A dominant share of youth isn’t involved in violent behaviour or vandalism at all. However, the incidence of violence or vandalism in the large media users group is significantly higher compared to low and medium users group.

  6. Social issues around advanced unwanted pregnancies in rural single women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chhabra, S; Palaparthy, S; Mishra, S

    2009-05-01

    This study covers issues on advanced unwanted pregnancies in rural single women in South-east Asia, with reference to age, education, occupation, person responsible (i.e. baby's father) and reasons for delay in seeking assistance. It describes single women with pregnancy beyond the time for abortion, as set by the Indian abortion law. The study involved 314 girls/women and was set in the Mahatma Gandhi Institute of Medical Sciences, Sevagram, India. The girls/women were admitted, provided with free facilities and had their babies looked after by hospital staff until given up for adoption, or otherwise. The outcomes of the study showed that most individuals (71.01%) were rural, less-literate, working girls. In 94.26% of cases, the baby's father was known; 24 (7.64%) reported rape (13 by a known person). A total of 66 individuals (21.02%) did not inform their parents about the pregnancy for up to 5 months. Five (1.59%) went to unqualified medical practitioners and 16.56% to private practitioners who did not give their services. A total of 47 (14.96%) had waited for the person responsible for their pregnancy before seeking assistance. There was a total of 315 babies born to 310 mothers (five twins); four absconded undelivered; 13 absconded after delivery (two with their babies, 11 leaving babies). The study found that pregnancies were often caused by rape and girls/women with no knowledge of abortion laws, shyness, fear, lack of desired privacy, lack of resources, misleading management at periphery all went beyond 20 weeks. Mostly, the babies were not accepted--the girls married the babies' fathers, but left their babies. Emergency contraception for unprotected sexual intercourse is essential.

  7. A Risky Boundary: Unwanted Sexual Behaviour among Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bruijn, Paula; Burrie, Ingrid; van Wel, Frits

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this research was to explore unwanted sexual behaviour amongst young people. Sexual aggression was operationalized at three levels: "verbal", "non-verbal/intimidating" and "physically violent". A total of 1,700 Dutch adolescents completed a questionnaire that included six clusters of possible determinants…

  8. A risky boundary : Unwanted sexual behaviour among youth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruijn, Paula de; Burrie, Ingrid; Wel, Frits van

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this research was to explore unwanted sexual behaviour amongs young people. Sexual aggression was operationalized at three levels: ‘‘verbal’’, ‘‘non-verbal/intimidating’’ and ‘‘physically violent’’. A total of 1,700 Dutch adolescents completed a questionnaire that included six clusters of

  9. Sexual Orientation Disparities in Mistimed and Unwanted Pregnancy Among Adult Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everett, Bethany G; McCabe, Katharine F; Hughes, Tonda L

    2017-09-01

    Many sexual minority women, regardless of sexual identity, engage in heterosexual behavior across the life course, which provides them opportunities to experience an unintended pregnancy. In addition, sexual minority women are more likely than others to report characteristics that may make them vulnerable to unintended pregnancy. Little research, however, has examined whether the risk of unintended pregnancy is elevated among these women. Using data from the 2006-2010 National Survey of Family Growth, logistic regression models were fitted to examine sexual orientation disparities in mistimed and unwanted pregnancies among 9,807 women aged 20-45; mixed-effects hazard models assessed disparities in the intention status of 5,238 pregnancies among these women by maternal sexual orientation. Compared with heterosexual women reporting only male partners, heterosexual women who have sex with women had higher odds of reporting a mistimed pregnancy (odds ratio, 1.4), and bisexual women had higher odds of reporting an unwanted pregnancy (1.8). When compared with pregnancies reported by heterosexual women with only male partners, those reported by heterosexual women who have sex with women were more likely to be mistimed (hazard ratio, 1.7), and those reported by bisexual and lesbian women were more likely to be unwanted (1.7-4.4). Compared with heterosexuals who have sex with men only, adult sexual minority women are at equal or greater risk of reporting an unintended pregnancy. More research addressing the reproductive health care needs of sexual minority women is needed to develop strategies to improve family planning for this population. Copyright © 2017 by the Guttmacher Institute.

  10. Experience of stigma and discrimination reported by people experiencing the first episode of schizophrenia and those with a first episode of depression: The FEDORA project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corker, Elizabeth A; Beldie, Alina; Brain, Cecilia; Jakovljevic, Miro; Jarema, Marek; Karamustafalioglu, Oguz; Marksteiner, Josef; Mohr, Pavel; Prelipceanu, Dan; Vasilache, Anamaria; Waern, Margda; Sartorius, Norman; Thornicroft, Graham

    2015-08-01

    To record and measure the nature and severity of stigma and discrimination experienced by people during a first episode of schizophrenia and those with a first episode of major depressive disorder. The Discrimination and Stigma Scale (DISC-12) was used in a cross-sectional survey to elicit service user reports of anticipated and experienced discrimination by 150 people with a diagnosis of first-episode schizophrenia and 176 with a diagnosis of first-episode major depressive disorder in seven countries (Austria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Poland, Romania, Sweden and Turkey). Participants with a diagnosis of major depressive disorder reported discrimination in a greater number of life areas than those with schizophrenia, as rated by the total DISC-12 score (p = .03). With regard to specific life areas, participants with depression reported more discrimination in regard to neighbours, dating, education, marriage, religious activities, physical health and acting as a parent than participants with schizophrenia. Participants with schizophrenia reported more discrimination with regard to the police compared to participants with depression. Stigma and discrimination because of mental illness change in the course of the mental diseases. Future research may take a longitudinal perspective to better understand the beginnings of stigmatisation and its trajectory through the life course and to identify critical periods at which anti-stigma interventions can most effectively be applied. © The Author(s) 2014.

  11. A demographic survey of unwanted horses in Ireland 2005-2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leadon DP

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Irish Horse Industry expanded during the Celtic Tiger boom years, then contracted in the current economic recession. High value horses were traditionally controlled through sale at public auction, private sales and sales to dealers; these are now also being reduced by decreases in production (> 40%, and increases in retirement, re-homing, euthanasia and disposal through Category 2 plants and abattoirs. The absence or banning of horse abattoirs has been shown to have very significant welfare social and economic consequences in the USA. This study described the currently available data on the demographics of unwanted horses in Ireland from 2005 to 2010. Results The majority of horses euthanised by practicing veterinarians are destroyed on medical grounds but the number euthanised at the request of welfare groups and the state, as well as welfare related calls and the number of horses involved in these calls and subsequent visits is increasing reflecting the increasing involvement of the veterinary profession in equine welfare. Welfare groups have limited resources and do not have a tradition of recording data, but they too have reported increasing calls, visits and numbers of horses per visit. Welfare groups provide significant service to equine welfare and the community. Local Authorities report similar trends. Over 300 horses were found dead or required immediate or subsequent euthanasia following welfare group and local authority visits in 2010, which is of national concern. The majority of local authority interfaces with unwanted horses are with urban (60% rather than rural (40% horses. Mortality figures are poor indicators of non-fatal neglect. More horses were admitted into the care of local authorities than welfare groups, reflecting significant state and taxpayer investment in the control of low value horses. Category 2 plants and abattoirs represent a significant state investment in licensing and control in the

  12. "Come on Baby. You Know I Love You": African American Women's Experiences of Communication with Male Partners and Disclosure in the Context of Unwanted Sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutzmer, Kyle; Ludwig-Barron, Natasha T; Wyatt, Gail E; Hamilton, Alison B; Stockman, Jamila K

    2016-05-01

    We examined African American women's experiences of communication with their male intimate partners a couple of hours before and after an incident of unwanted sex. We also examined women's experiences of disclosure following an incident of unwanted sex. Semi-structured qualitative interviews were conducted with a community-based sample of sexually active African American women (n = 19) reporting at least one incident of sexual coercion (i.e., being pressured into unwanted sex without consent) by an intimate male partner since the age of 18. Our analysis was guided by "the sexual division of power" from Connell's (1987) theory of gender and power. Data were analyzed inductively by examining the interviews for common themes in the following domains: communication before the unwanted sex, communication after the unwanted sex, and disclosure to others. Men pressured partners for unwanted sex through verbal and non-verbal tactics, ranging from pestering and blunt requests for sex to verbal bullying and violence. Many women responded by clearly saying no. However, many women also described eventually ceasing to resist their partners and engaging in unwanted sex. After the unwanted sex, men actively and passively avoided discussing the incident. Although many women discussed the unwanted sex with family and friends, less women disclosed to trained professionals. In some cases, women did not discuss the incident with anyone at all. These findings indicate that, when addressing sexual violence against women, there is a need to target men as well as the norms of masculinity that underpin physical and sexual violence against women.

  13. A comparison between girls' and boys' experiences of unwanted sexual behaviour in secondary schools

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmerman, G

    Background This study examines gender differences (and similarities) in the context, meaning and effects of unwanted sexual behaviour in secondary schools. Purpose First, the study's purpose is exploration of variables that discriminate between girls' and boys' experiences of unwanted sexual

  14. Characteristics of Women with Unwanted Pregnancies and Reasons for Contraceptive Methods Discontination: Sample of Rural Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Semra Ay

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available AIM: The aim of the study was to explore the prevalence and characteristics of women with unwanted pregnancy in rural area and to examine pregnant women’s contraceptive method preferences, satisfaction with the methods and reason the methods discontinuation. METHOD: This study was carried out in Manisa city rural area between the dates of January and June 2011 in women who agreed to participate in the study. The sample of the research is composed of 239 pregnant women. The research was a descriptive, cross-sectional and field study and the data was collected by using questionnaire which was prepared by researcher. Data was gathered through the face to face interview with the women at their home. Statistical analyses were undertaken using SPSS version 11.5. Descriptive analysis, Pearson’s Chi-square (χ² test, fisher exact test, and t-test were used statistical evaluation. RESULTS: Of the 239 pregnancies, 64 (26.8% were unwanted pregnancies. The mean age of women was respectively 25.0±5.0, and 29.0±5.4 years, for wanted, and unwanted pregnancies. Women with unwanted pregnancies were older, less educated, they had less educated husbands, had low income level, had more pregnancies, deliveries, had less than two years interval between their births. Unwanted pregnancies were observed in women using the coitus interrupts method (%53.1, effective contraceptive methods (%54.3 and not using any method (%16.3 (p<0.05. The most reasons for discontinuation were reported pregnant women as follows: side effects of methods, disapproval for husband, pregnancy occurs using the method, believe for ineffective contraceptive methods. CONCLUSION: In order to reduce the number of unwanted pregnancies and wanted abortions which reversely affect the women healthy; an appropriate contraception method must be employed. Health care providers should identify women with unwanted pregnancy to understand women's concerns and experiences using contraception. This

  15. Neuroticism explains unwanted variance in Implicit Association Tests of personality: Possible evidence for an affective valence confound

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika eFleischhauer

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Meta-analytic data highlight the value of the Implicit Association Test (IAT as an indirect measure of personality. Based on evidence suggesting that confounding factors such as cognitive abilities contribute to the IAT effect, this study provides a first investigation of whether basic personality traits explain unwanted variance in the IAT. In a gender-balanced sample of 204 volunteers, the Big-Five dimensions were assessed via self-report, peer-report, and IAT. By means of structural equation modeling, latent Big-Five personality factors (based on self- and peer-report were estimated and their predictive value for unwanted variance in the IAT was examined. In a first analysis, unwanted variance was defined in the sense of method-specific variance which may result from differences in task demands between the two IAT block conditions and which can be mirrored by the absolute size of the IAT effects. In a second analysis, unwanted variance was examined in a broader sense defined as those systematic variance components in the raw IAT scores that are not explained by the latent implicit personality factors. In contrast to the absolute IAT scores, this also considers biases associated with the direction of IAT effects (i.e., whether they are positive or negative in sign, biases that might result, for example, from the IAT’s stimulus or category features. None of the explicit Big-Five factors was predictive for method-specific variance in the IATs (first analysis. However, when considering unwanted variance that goes beyond pure method-specific variance (second analysis, a substantial effect of neuroticism occurred that may have been driven by the affective valence of IAT attribute categories and the facilitated processing of negative stimuli, typically associated with neuroticism. The findings thus point to the necessity of using attribute category labels and stimuli of similar affective valence in personality IATs to avoid confounding due to

  16. Outcomes of Percutaneous Coronary Interventions for Chronic Total Occlusion Performed by Highly Experienced Japanese Specialists: The First Report From the Japanese CTO-PCI Expert Registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Yoriyasu; Tsuchikane, Etsuo; Katoh, Osamu; Muramatsu, Toshiya; Muto, Makoto; Kishi, Koichi; Hamazaki, Yuji; Oikawa, Yuji; Kawasaki, Tomohiro; Okamura, Atsunori

    2017-11-13

    This report describes the registry and presents an initial analysis of outcomes for the different PCI approaches taken by the specialists. Strategies for percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) for chronic total occlusion (CTO) are complex. The Japanese Board of CTO Interventional Specialists has developed a prospective, nonrandomized registry of patients undergoing CTO-PCIs performed by 41 highly experienced Japanese specialists. Over the study period of January 2014 to December 2015, the registry included 2,846 consecutive CTO-PCI cases undertaken in Japan. The authors compared clinical outcomes between the different PCI approaches, following the intention-to-treat principle. The overall technical success rate of the procedures was 89.9%. The specialists frequently chose a retrograde approach as the primary CTO-PCI strategy (in 27.8% of cases). The technical success rate of the primary antegrade approach was significantly better than that of the primary retrograde approach (91.0% vs. 87.3%; p PCI with a high technical success rate (75.0% to 88.9%). Severe lesion calcification was a strong predictor of failed CTO-PCI. CTO-PCI performed by highly experienced specialists achieved a high technical success rate. Copyright © 2017 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Unwanted sexual experiences in young men: evidence from a survey of university students in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehrer, Jocelyn A; Lehrer, Evelyn L; Koss, Mary P

    2013-02-01

    The public health problem of unwanted sexual experiences (USE) in male youths has received little attention. In this study, we examined prevalence of USE, risk factors, contexts, and barriers to disclosure with data from a quantitative survey of students enrolled in General Education courses at a public university in Chile. This study focused on the male sample (N = 466). Approximately 20.4 % of participants reported some form of USE since age 14. Forced sex through physical coercion, forced sex through verbal coercion or while intoxicated, attempted forced sex, and less severe forms of USE were reported by 0.2, 10.1, 1.4, and 8.7 % of participants, respectively. USE before age 14 was reported by 9.4 % of participants and was a significant predictor of USE since age 14 (AOR 6.38, 95 % CI 3.22-12.65, p Chile and elsewhere.

  18. Correlates of Unwanted Births in Bangladesh: A Study through Path Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Tapan Kumar; Singh, Brijesh P

    2016-01-01

    Unwanted birth is an important public health concern due to its negative association with adverse outcomes of mothers and children as well as socioeconomic development of a country. Although a number of studies have been investigated the determinants of unwanted births through logistic regression analysis, an extensive assessment using path model is lacking. In the current study, we applied path analysis to know the important covariates for unwanted births in Bangladesh. The study used data extracted from Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey (BDHS) 2011. It considered sub-sample consisted of 7,972 women who had given most recent births five years preceding the date of interview or who were currently pregnant at survey time. Correlation analysis was used to find out the significant association with unwanted births. This study provided the factors affecting unwanted births in Bangladesh. The path model was used to determine the direct, indirect and total effects of socio-demographic factors on unwanted births. The result exhibited that more than one-tenth of the recent births were unwanted in Bangladesh. The differentials of unwanted births were women's age, education, age at marriage, religion, socioeconomic status, exposure of mass-media and use of family planning. In correlation analysis, it showed that unwanted births were positively correlated with women age and place of residence and these relationships were significant. On the contrary, unwanted births were inversely significantly correlated with education and social status. The total effects of endogenous variables such as women age, place of residence and use of family planning methods had favorable effect on unwanted births. Policymakers and program planners need to design programs and services carefully to reduce unwanted births in Bangladesh, especially, service should focus on helping those groups of women who were identified in the analysis as being at increased risks of unwanted births- older women

  19. Correlates of Unwanted Births in Bangladesh: A Study through Path Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tapan Kumar Roy

    Full Text Available Unwanted birth is an important public health concern due to its negative association with adverse outcomes of mothers and children as well as socioeconomic development of a country. Although a number of studies have been investigated the determinants of unwanted births through logistic regression analysis, an extensive assessment using path model is lacking. In the current study, we applied path analysis to know the important covariates for unwanted births in Bangladesh.The study used data extracted from Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey (BDHS 2011. It considered sub-sample consisted of 7,972 women who had given most recent births five years preceding the date of interview or who were currently pregnant at survey time. Correlation analysis was used to find out the significant association with unwanted births. This study provided the factors affecting unwanted births in Bangladesh. The path model was used to determine the direct, indirect and total effects of socio-demographic factors on unwanted births.The result exhibited that more than one-tenth of the recent births were unwanted in Bangladesh. The differentials of unwanted births were women's age, education, age at marriage, religion, socioeconomic status, exposure of mass-media and use of family planning. In correlation analysis, it showed that unwanted births were positively correlated with women age and place of residence and these relationships were significant. On the contrary, unwanted births were inversely significantly correlated with education and social status. The total effects of endogenous variables such as women age, place of residence and use of family planning methods had favorable effect on unwanted births.Policymakers and program planners need to design programs and services carefully to reduce unwanted births in Bangladesh, especially, service should focus on helping those groups of women who were identified in the analysis as being at increased risks of unwanted

  20. Physical functioning in patients with ankylosing spondylitis: comparing approaches of experienced ability with self-reported and objectively measured physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Genderen, Simon; van den Borne, Carlie; Geusens, Piet; van der Linden, Sjef; Boonen, Annelies; Plasqui, Guy

    2014-04-01

    Physical functioning can be assessed by different approaches that are characterized by increasing levels of individual appraisal. There is insufficient insight into which approach is the most informative in patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS) compared with control subjects. The objective of this study was to compare patients with AS and control subjects regarding 3 approaches of functioning: experienced ability to perform activities (Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Functional Index [BASFI]), self-reported amount of physical activity (PA) (Baecke questionnaire), and the objectively measured amount of PA (triaxial accelerometer). This case-control study included 24 AS patients and 24 control subjects (matched for age, gender, and body mass index). Subjects completed the BASFI and Baecke questionnaire and wore a triaxial accelerometer. Subjects also completed other self-reported measures on disease activity (Bath AS Disease Activity Index), fatigue (Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory), and overall health (EuroQol visual analog scale). Both groups included 14 men (58%), and the mean age was 48 years. Patients scored significantly worse on the BASFI (3.9 vs 0.2) than their healthy peers, whereas PA assessed by Baecke and the accelerometer did not differ between groups. Correlations between approaches of physical functioning were low to moderate. Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Functional Index was associated with disease activity (r = 0.49) and physical fatigue (0.73) and Baecke with physical and activity related fatigue (r = 0.54 and r = 0.54), but total PA assessed by accelerometer was not associated with any of these experience-based health outcomes. Different approaches of the concept physical functioning in patients with AS provide different information. Compared with matched control subjects, patients with AS report more difficulties but report and objectively perform the same amount of PA.

  1. [Unwanted adolescent pregnancy and post-partum utilization of contraceptive methods].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Núñez-Urquiza, Rosa María; Hernández-Prado, Bernardo; García-Barrios, Cecilia; González, Dolores; Walker, Dylis

    2003-01-01

    To describe the proportion of unwanted pregnancies among all pregnant adolescents, its association with sociodemographic characteristics, and the use of post-partum contraceptive methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 220 women between 13 and 19 years of age, in two semi-urban municipalities of the State of Morelos, Mexico, interviewed between 1992 and 1994. Women were interviewed at home, six to twelve weeks after their delivery date. Women were asked whether they had wanted their last pregnancy, and about knowledge and use of contraceptive methods after delivery. Adolescent pregnancies accounted for 17% of all births registered in these two municipalities. Among all adolescent mother 22.73% reported that their pregnancy had not been wanted. A positive association was found between the lack of access to health services provided by public medical insurance systems (Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social IMSS and Instituto de Seguridad y Servicios Sociales para los Trabajadores del Estado ISSSTE) and unwanted pregnancy (adjusted OR = 3.03, 95% CI (1.31, 7.) An association was also found between living in an urban community (adjusted OR = 2.16, 95% CI (1.08, 4.33) and an unwanted pregnancy. Among all adolescent mothers, 91.3% were familiar with "the pill" as a contraceptive method; 84.72% knew about the IUD, and 63.68% knew about the condom. However, only 35% of them were actually using an effective contraceptive method six weeks after delivery. No difference in frequency of contraceptive use was found among the adolescent mothers, according to whether they wanted their last pregnancy. Only 43.39% of mothers who delivered at hospitals or health centers were using an effective contraceptive method. These findings suggest that there is a great potential for family planning programs to target adolescents, and that the use of contraceptive methods after delivery should be promoted among adolescent mothers, especially those lacking access to public medical

  2. 2014 Service Academy Gender Relations Survey: Overview Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-09

    unwanted attempts to stroke, fondle, or kiss you” due to its similarity to unwanted sexual contact. Psychometric analysis indicated that the replacement...replace the item “Made unwanted attempts to stroke, fondle, or kiss you” (due to its similarity to unwanted sexual contact) with the following item...as sexual assault (Sadler, Booth , Cook, & Doebbeling, 2003). To measure this, those students who indicated that they had experienced one or more

  3. Back to Bentham? Explorations of Experienced Utility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Kahneman (Daniel); P.P. Wakker (Peter); R.K. Sarin (Rakesh)

    1997-01-01

    textabstractTwo core meanings of “utility” are distinguished. “Decision utility” is the weight of an outcome in a decision. “Experienced utility” is hedonic quality, as in Bentham’s usage. Experienced utility can be reported in real time (instant utility), or in retrospective evaluations of past

  4. Unwanted facial hair removal with laser treatment improves quality of life of patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maziar, Ali; Farsi, Nader; Mandegarfard, Manijeh; Babakoohi, Shahab; Gorouhi, Farzam; Dowlati, Yahya; Firooz, Alireza

    2010-02-01

    Unwanted facial hair can have adverse psychological effects on women and reduce their quality of life. To assess the effects of unwanted facial hair removal with laser on improving quality of life. In this study, 70 patients treated for unwanted facial hair by laser were assessed by Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI) questionnaire on admission and 3 months later after three sessions of laser treatment. The DLQI score before treatment was 9.42 +/- 5.99, which was reduced to 3.12 +/- 3.40 after laser treatment (p facial hair removal with laser can improve the quality of life of patients.

  5. COUNTERMEASURE FOR MINIMIZE UNWANTED ALARM OF AUTOMATIC FIRE NOTIFICATION SYSTEM IN THE REPUBLIC OF KOREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasung Kong

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article investigated the cause of error through survey to building officials for minimizing the unwanted alarm of automatic fire notification and suggested countermeasure for minimizing the unwanted alarm. The main cause of the unwanted alarm is defective fire detector, interlocking with automatic fire detection system, lack in fire safety warden’s ability, worn-out fire detect receiving system. The countermeasure for minimizing unwanted alarm is firstly, tightening up the standard of model approval, Secondly, interlocking with cross-section circuit method fire extinguishing system or realizing automatic fire notification system interlocking with home network, thirdly, tightening up licensing examination of fire safety warden, lastly, it suggested term of use rule of fire detect receiving system. 

  6. COUNTERMEASURE FOR MINIMIZE UNWANTED ALARM OF AUTOMATIC FIRE NOTIFICATION SYSTEM IN THE REPUBLIC OF KOREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasung Kong

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article investigated the cause of error through survey to building officials for minimizing the unwanted alarm of automatic fire notification and suggested countermeasure for minimizing the unwanted alarm. The main cause of the unwanted alarm is defective fire detector, interlocking with automatic fire detection system, lack in fire safety warden’s ability, worn-out fire detect receiving system. The countermeasure for minimizing unwanted alarm is firstly, tightening up the standard of model approval, Secondly, interlocking with cross-section circuit method fire extinguishing system or realizing automatic fire notification system interlocking with home network, thirdly, tightening up licensing examination of fire safety warden, lastly, it suggested term of use rule of fire detect receiving system.

  7. The extent of unwanted infrared photoacoustic signals from polymer sampling tubings exposed to ultraviolet radiation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bicanic, D.; Solyom, A.; Angeli, G.; Wegh, H.; Postumus, M.; Jalink, H.

    1995-01-01

    The extent of unwanted photoacoustic (PA) signals due to volatiles released from various polymer tubing materials [transparent, red and black polyethylene (PE), polymer of tetrafluorethylene (PTFE) and copolymer of tetrafluorethylene and hexafluorethylene (FEP)] when exposed to 245 nm radiation was

  8. Are you experienced?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Michael Slavensky; Reichstein, Toke

    This paper investigates the relationship between the level of experience of managers and founders, and the likelihood of survival of their new firms. We take advantage of a comprehensive dataset covering the entire Danish labor market from 1980-2000. This is used to trace the activities of top...... ranked members of start-ups prior to their founding, and follow the fate of these firms. More specifically, we compare the survival of spin-offs from surviving parents, spin-offs from exiting parents, and other start-ups. Moreover, we investigate whether firms managed and founded by more experienced....... We also find that spin-offs from parent companies that exit are less likely to survive than either spin-offs from surviving parents or other start-ups. These findings support the theoretical arguments that organizational heritage is important for the survival of new organizations. We found no similar...

  9. Inhibitors and Facilitators of Unwanted Adolescent Pregnancy in Iran and the World: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzaneh Rashidi Fakari

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Approximately 16 million adolescent girls aged 15 to 19 years and 1 million teenage girls less than 15 years of age become pregnant worldwide annually, and the majority of these pregnancies are unintended. Unwanted adolescent pregnancy coupled with impaired and inadequate physical and mental health can lead to slow progression of the community and the short- and long-term negative consequences. Aim: This study aimed to investigate the inhibitors and facilitators of unwanted adolescent pregnancy in Iran and across the globe. Method: The current narrative review was conducted using the keywords of "pregnancy", "unwanted", and "adolescent" in both Persian and English articles published from 2000 to 2016. The searched databases included Google Scholar, PubMed, Elsevier, Scopus, ProQuest, Irandoc, Scientific Information Database (SID, and Magiran. Results: Twenty-nine articles related to the study objectives were selected. Our investigations indicated that the inhibitors of unwanted adolescent pregnancy could be classified into four main categories of abstinence, religious beliefs, adolescent employment program, and parent-adolescent relationship. Further, the facilitators of unwanted adolescent pregnancy were categorized into eight categories of pornography on the Internet and media, peer pressure, lack of knowledge and information, drug and alcohol abuse, violence, adherence to fashion in clothing, economic and income status and family structure. Implications for Practice: The findings of this review revealed that more studies were conducted to explore the facilitators of unwanted adolescent pregnancy in comparison with inhibitors. Shortage of knowledge and information among adolescents plays a major role in unwanted adolescent pregnancy. However, a definitive judgment on the contribution of each factor to unwanted adolescent pregnancy requires further in-depth studies.

  10. Prediction of unwanted pregnancies using logistic regression, probit regression and discriminant analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimzadeh, Farzad; Hajizadeh, Ebrahim; Vahabi, Nasim; Almasian, Mohammad; Bakhteyar, Katayoon

    2015-01-01

    Unwanted pregnancy not intended by at least one of the parents has undesirable consequences for the family and the society. In the present study, three classification models were used and compared to predict unwanted pregnancies in an urban population. In this cross-sectional study, 887 pregnant mothers referring to health centers in Khorramabad, Iran, in 2012 were selected by the stratified and cluster sampling; relevant variables were measured and for prediction of unwanted pregnancy, logistic regression, discriminant analysis, and probit regression models and SPSS software version 21 were used. To compare these models, indicators such as sensitivity, specificity, the area under the ROC curve, and the percentage of correct predictions were used. The prevalence of unwanted pregnancies was 25.3%. The logistic and probit regression models indicated that parity and pregnancy spacing, contraceptive methods, household income and number of living male children were related to unwanted pregnancy. The performance of the models based on the area under the ROC curve was 0.735, 0.733, and 0.680 for logistic regression, probit regression, and linear discriminant analysis, respectively. Given the relatively high prevalence of unwanted pregnancies in Khorramabad, it seems necessary to revise family planning programs. Despite the similar accuracy of the models, if the researcher is interested in the interpretability of the results, the use of the logistic regression model is recommended.

  11. Older Adults Can Suppress Unwanted Memories When Given an Appropriate Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Memory suppression refers to the ability to exclude distracting memories from conscious awareness, and this ability can be assessed with the think/no-think paradigm. Recent research with older adults has provided evidence suggesting both intact and deficient memory suppression. The present studies seek to understand the conditions contributing to older adults’ ability to suppress memories voluntarily. We report 2 experiments indicating that the specificity of the think/no-think task instructions contributes to older adults’ suppression success: When older adults receive open-ended instructions that require them to develop a retrieval suppression strategy on their own, they show diminished memory suppression compared with younger adults. Conversely, when older adults receive focused instructions directing them to a strategy thought to better isolate inhibitory control, they show suppression-induced forgetting similar to that exhibited by younger adults. Younger adults demonstrate memory suppression regardless of the specificity of the instructions given, suggesting that the ability to select a successful suppression strategy spontaneously may be compromised in older adults. If so, this deficit may be associated with diminished control over unwanted memories in naturalistic settings if impeded strategy development reduces the successful deployment of inhibitory control. PMID:25602491

  12. Back to Bentham? Explorations of Experienced Utility

    OpenAIRE

    Kahneman, Daniel; Wakker, Peter; Sarin, Rakesh

    1997-01-01

    textabstractTwo core meanings of “utility” are distinguished. “Decision utility” is the weight of an outcome in a decision. “Experienced utility” is hedonic quality, as in Bentham’s usage. Experienced utility can be reported in real time (instant utility), or in retrospective evaluations of past episodes (remembered utility). Psychological research has documented systematic errors in retrospective evaluations, which can induce a preference for dominated options. We propose a formal normative ...

  13. Unwanted effects: Is there a negative side of meditation? A multicentre survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ausiàs Cebolla

    Full Text Available Despite the long-term use and evidence-based efficacy of meditation and mindfulness-based interventions, there is still a lack of data about the possible unwanted effects (UEs of these practices. The aim of this study was to evaluate the occurrence of UEs among meditation practitioners, considering moderating factors such as the type, frequency, and lifetime duration of the meditation practices.An online survey was developed and disseminated through several websites, such as Spanish-, English- and Portuguese-language scientific research portals related to mindfulness and meditation. After excluding people who did not answer the survey correctly or completely and those who had less than two months of meditation experience, a total of 342 people participated in the study. However, only 87 reported information about UEs.The majority of the practitioners were women from Spain who were married and had a University education level. Practices were more frequently informal, performed on a daily basis, and followed by focused attention (FA. Among the participants, 25.4% reported UEs, showing that severity varies considerably. The information requested indicated that most of the UEs were transitory and did not lead to discontinuing meditation practice or the need for medical assistance. They were more frequently reported in relation to individual practice, during focused attention meditation, and when practising for more than 20 minutes and alone. The practice of body awareness was associated with UEs to a lesser extent, whereas focused attention was associated more with UEs.This is the first large-scale, multi-cultural study on the UEs of meditation. Despite its limitations, this study suggests that UEs are prevalent and transitory and should be further studied. We recommend the use of standardized questionnaires to assess the UEs of meditation practices.

  14. Unwanted effects: Is there a negative side of meditation? A multicentre survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cebolla, Ausiàs; Demarzo, Marcelo; Martins, Patricia; Soler, Joaquim; Garcia-Campayo, Javier

    2017-01-01

    Despite the long-term use and evidence-based efficacy of meditation and mindfulness-based interventions, there is still a lack of data about the possible unwanted effects (UEs) of these practices. The aim of this study was to evaluate the occurrence of UEs among meditation practitioners, considering moderating factors such as the type, frequency, and lifetime duration of the meditation practices. An online survey was developed and disseminated through several websites, such as Spanish-, English- and Portuguese-language scientific research portals related to mindfulness and meditation. After excluding people who did not answer the survey correctly or completely and those who had less than two months of meditation experience, a total of 342 people participated in the study. However, only 87 reported information about UEs. The majority of the practitioners were women from Spain who were married and had a University education level. Practices were more frequently informal, performed on a daily basis, and followed by focused attention (FA). Among the participants, 25.4% reported UEs, showing that severity varies considerably. The information requested indicated that most of the UEs were transitory and did not lead to discontinuing meditation practice or the need for medical assistance. They were more frequently reported in relation to individual practice, during focused attention meditation, and when practising for more than 20 minutes and alone. The practice of body awareness was associated with UEs to a lesser extent, whereas focused attention was associated more with UEs. This is the first large-scale, multi-cultural study on the UEs of meditation. Despite its limitations, this study suggests that UEs are prevalent and transitory and should be further studied. We recommend the use of standardized questionnaires to assess the UEs of meditation practices.

  15. Experiencing Security in Interaction Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiasen, Niels Raabjerg; Bødker, Susanne

    2011-01-01

    Security is experienced differently in different contexts. This paper argues that in everyday situations, users base their security decisions on a mix of prior experiences. When approaching security and interaction design from an experience approach, tools that help bring out such relevant...... experiences for design are needed. This paper reports on how Prompted exploration workshops and Acting out security were developed to target such experiences when iteratively designing a mobile digital signature solution in a participatory design process. We discuss how these tools helped the design process...... and illustrate how the tangibility of such tools matters. We further demonstrate how the approach grants access to non-trivial insights into people's security experience. We point out how the specific context is essential for exploring the space between experience and expectations, and we illustrate how people...

  16. Investigating social consequences of unwanted pregnancy and unsafe abortion in Malawi: the role of stigma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levandowski, Brooke A; Kalilani-Phiri, Linda; Kachale, Fannie; Awah, Paschal; Kangaude, Godfrey; Mhango, Chisale

    2012-09-01

    Malawian women in all sectors of society are suffering from social implications of unwanted pregnancy and unsafe abortion. Unwanted pregnancies occur among women who have limited access to family planning and safe abortion. A legally restrictive setting for safe abortion services leads many women to unsafe abortion, which has consequences for them and their families. In-depth interviews were conducted with 485 Malawian stakeholders belonging to different political and social structures. Interviewees identified the impact of unwanted pregnancy and unsafe abortion to be the greatest on young women. Premarital and extramarital pregnancies were highly stigmatized; stigma directly related to abortion was also found. Community-level discussions need to focus on reduction of stigma. Copyright © 2012 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Does abortion reduce the mental health risks of unwanted or unintended pregnancy? A re-appraisal of the evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fergusson, David M; Horwood, L John; Boden, Joseph M

    2013-09-01

    There have been debates about the linkages between abortion and mental health. Few reviews have considered the extent to which abortion has therapeutic benefits that mitigate the mental health risks of abortion. The aim of this review was to conduct a re-appraisal of the evidence to examine the research hypothesis that abortion reduces rates of mental health problems in women having unwanted or unintended pregnancy. Analysis of recent reviews (Coleman, 2011; National Collaborating Centre for Mental Health, 2011) identified eight publications reporting 14 adjusted odds ratios (AORs) spanning five outcome domains: anxiety; depression; alcohol misuse; illicit drug use/misuse; and suicidal behaviour. For each outcome, pooled AORs were estimated using a random-effects model. There was consistent evidence to show that abortion was not associated with a reduction in rates of mental health problems (p>0.75). Abortion was associated with small to moderate increases in risks of anxiety (AOR 1.28, 95% CI 0.97-1.70; pabortion has therapeutic effects in reducing the mental health risks of unwanted or unintended pregnancy. There is suggestive evidence that abortion may be associated with small to moderate increases in risks of some mental health problems.

  18. Relationship between Unwanted Pregnancy and Health-Related Quality of Life in Pregnant Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Azizi

    2016-06-01

    To determine the relationship between unwanted pregnancy and health-related quality of life in pregnant women. Case-control study. Department of Community Medicine, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran, from October 2013 to July 2014. Of the pregnant women who presented to primary healthcare centers of Kermanshah, Iran to receive prenatal care at 6 - 10 weeks of their pregnancy, those with unwanted pregnancy were selected as cases and those with wanted pregnancy were selected as control group. The selection process was done using multi-stage stratified random sampling. Frequency matching was applied to match the two groups. Quality of life was measured by the SF-36 questionnaire and was compared by the t-test. Relationship power between pregnancy type (wanted or unwanted pregnancy) and impairment of quality of life subscales as the outcome was assessed using odds ratio (OR). Frequency distribution of matched variables was not statistically different between the two studied groups. Mean scores of mental component summary and physical component summary as well as eight subscales (physical functioning, role, bodily pain, general health, vitality, social functioning, role emotional, and mental health) were lower in the unwanted pregnancy group compared to women with wanted pregnancy (p < 0.001). The highest high impairment odds ratio was highest for the mental component summary (MCS) (OR = 9.19; 95% CI = 5.17- 16.32) and vitality subscale (OR = 5.2; 95% CI = 2.89- 9.33). Mental health of the pregnant women with unwanted pregnancy is affected more than their physical health. Mental health in women with unwanted pregnancy is 9.19 times more likely to be reduced. Among mental health subscales, vitality (energy/fatigue) showed the highest decrease.

  19. Relationship Between Unwanted Pregnancy And Health-related Quality Of Life In Pregnant Women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, A.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To determine the relationship between unwanted pregnancy and health-related quality of life in pregnant women. Study Design: Case-control study. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Community Medicine, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran, from October 2013 to July 2014. Methodology: Of the pregnant women who presented to primary healthcare centers of Kermanshah, Iran to receive prenatal care at 6 - 10 weeks of their pregnancy, those with unwanted pregnancy were selected as cases and those with wanted pregnancy were selected as control group. The selection process was done using multi-stage stratified random sampling. Frequency matching was applied to match the two groups. Quality of life was measured by the SF-36 questionnaire and was compared by the t-test. Relationship power between pregnancy type (wanted or unwanted pregnancy) and impairment of quality of life subscales as the outcome was assessed using odds ratio (OR). Result: Frequency distribution of matched variables was not statistically different between the two studied groups. Mean scores of mental component summary and physical component summary as well as eight subscales (physical functioning, role, bodily pain, general health, vitality, social functioning, role emotional, and mental health) were lower in the unwanted pregnancy group compared to women with wanted pregnancy (p < 0.001). The highest high impairment odds ratio was highest for the mental component summary (MCS) (OR = 9.19; 95 percentage CI = 5.17- 16.32) and vitality subscale (OR = 5.2; 95 percentage CI = 2.89- 9.33). Conclusion: Mental health of the pregnant women with unwanted pregnancy is affected more than their physical health. Mental health in women with unwanted pregnancy is 9.19 times more likely to be reduced. Among mental health subscales, vitality (energy/fatigue) showed the highest decrease. (author)

  20. Evaluation of the National Return of unwanted medicines (RUM) program in Australia: a study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Amanda J; Spinks, Jean; Bettington, Emilie; Kelly, Fiona

    2017-01-01

    The National Return of Unwanted Medicines (NatRUM) program in Australia is one of the few nationally coordinated, free-to-consumer schemes to dispose of unwanted medicines globally. This scheme has been in operation since 1996, however, little is known about public awareness of the scheme and its effectiveness in reducing unsafe disposal practices. The study objectives are to undertake a review of (1) the current use of the NatRUM scheme by consumers; and (11) to investigate disposal practices and beliefs of the general population. A two-stage, mixed-methods study will be undertaken. Stage One will include a nation-wide audit of a representative sample of unwanted medicine bins, collected by community pharmacies, for incineration. The audit will detail the type and amount of unwanted medicines collected and if they are subsidised on the national formulary (Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme). Stage Two will include: (i) a large, representative, general population survey; and (ii) more detailed interviews with a sub-set of this sample, who take five or more medications. Results will quantitatively describe the awareness of the NatRUM scheme, disposal practices and the volume of unwanted medicines stored in the home. It will qualitatively describe beliefs and perceptions about storage and disposal practices. It is anticipated that this study will provide valuable insights about how Australians dispose of unwanted medicines, their awareness of the NatRUM scheme and how the scheme might be strengthened. Results will inform the Federal Department of Health and NatRUM Ltd. Board at a local level, as well as other countries who are yet to develop or implement coordinated disposal schemes. A number of challenges are expected, including ensuring the consistency of medicines terminology during the bin audit and recruiting a representative sample of Australians for the general population survey. Results of this study will be widely disseminated to support the translation of

  1. Workplace violence experienced by nursing students: A UK survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tee, Stephen; Üzar Özçetin, Yeter Sinem; Russell-Westhead, Michele

    2016-06-01

    To appreciate the nature and scope of workplace violence amongst a sample of the UK nursing student population during clinical placement and to recommend strategies universities can implement to successfully manage the impact. Workplace violence is defined as a violent act(s) directed toward workers and can include physical, psychological or verbal behaviour. It is prevalent in nursing and causes victims work-based stress that can affect not only the individual but also the quality of care. Similar negative experiences amongst students can have a direct impact on the development of future professional skills. This study employed a cross-sectional survey design. Questions were uploaded in the format of a commercial internet survey provider (SurveyMonkey.com) and distributed across a sample of nursing schools in the UK. The survey was voluntary and employed a validated tool to assess workplace violence and was based on a similar study in Australia. The number of respondents was 657. This paper reports on the quantitative results. Nearly half of the students (42.18%) indicated they had experienced bullying/harassment in the past year while on clinical placement. One-third (30.4%) had witnessed bullying/harassment of other students and 19.6% of incidents involved a qualified nurse. The unwanted behaviours made some students consider leaving nursing (19.8%). Some respondents said the standard of patient care (12.3%) and their work with others (25.9%) were negatively affected. Workplace violence can influence nursing students' attitude toward the profession and their level of satisfaction with the work. Whilst it was reassuring to note that the majority of the participants knew where/how to report, only one fifth had actively reported an episode of bullying/harassment. Current students are the nurses and leaders of the future and have a key role in shaping the culture of generations to come. Universities and clinical providers need to work together to reduce the

  2. Unwanted pregnancy: The outer boundary of "treatment injury" in the New Zealand accident compensation scheme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobin, Rosemary

    2015-09-01

    The New Zealand accident compensation scheme has undergone many changes over the years and these changes are reflected in the way unwanted pregnancy claims have been dealt with under the regime. The New Zealand Supreme Court has now confirmed that pregnancy as a result of medical misadventure can be classified as a personal injury under the scheme with the result that the woman patient is entitled to the benefits of the scheme and may not pursue a common law claim against the medical practitioner. This article analyses two recent decisions in the context of consideration of the changing fortunes of the unwanted pregnancy claims.

  3. Predictors of unwanted exposure to online pornography and online sexual solicitation of youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Fong-Ching; Chiu, Chiung-Hui; Miao, Nae-Fang; Chen, Ping-Hung; Lee, Ching-Mei; Chiang, Jeng-Tung

    2016-06-01

    This study examined factors associated with the unwanted exposure to online pornography and unwanted online sexual solicitation victimization and perpetration of youth in Taiwan. A total of 2315 students from 26 high schools were assessed in the 10th grade, with follow-up performed in the 11th grade. Self-administered questionnaires were collected. Multivariate analysis results indicated that higher levels of online game use, pornography media exposure, Internet risk behaviors, depression, and cyberbullying experiences predicted online sexual solicitation victimization, while higher levels of Internet chat room use, pornography media exposure, Internet risk behaviors, cyberbullying experiences, and offline sexual harassment predicted online sexual solicitation perpetration. © The Author(s) 2014.

  4. Performance outcomes and unwanted side effects associated with energy drinks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora-Rodriguez, Ricardo; Pallarés, Jesús G

    2014-10-01

    Energy drinks are increasingly popular among athletes and others. Advertising for these products typically features images conjuring great muscle power and endurance; however, the scientific literature provides sparse evidence for an ergogenic role of energy drinks. Although the composition of energy drinks varies, most contain caffeine; carbohydrates, amino acids, herbs, and vitamins are other typical ingredients. This report analyzes the effects of energy drink ingredients on prolonged submaximal (endurance) exercise as well as on short-term strength and power (neuromuscular performance). It also analyzes the effects of energy drink ingredients on the fluid and electrolyte deficit during prolonged exercise. In several studies, energy drinks have been found to improve endurance performance, although the effects could be attributable to the caffeine and/or carbohydrate content. In contrast, fewer studies find an ergogenic effect of energy drinks on muscle strength and power. The existing data suggest that the caffeine dose given in studies of energy drinks is insufficient to enhance neuromuscular performance. Finally, it is unclear if energy drinks are the optimal vehicle to deliver caffeine when high doses are needed to improve neuromuscular performance. © 2014 International Life Sciences Institute.

  5. Laboratory medicine handoff gaps experienced by primary care practices: A report from the shared networks of collaborative ambulatory practices and partners (SNOCAP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, David R; James, Katherine A; Fernald, Douglas H; Zelie, Claire; Smith, Maxwell L; Raab, Stephen S

    2014-01-01

    The majority of errors in laboratory medicine testing are thought to occur in the pre- and postanalytic testing phases, and a large proportion of these errors are secondary to failed handoffs. Because most laboratory tests originate in ambulatory primary care, understanding the gaps in handoff processes within and between laboratories and practices is imperative for patient safety. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to understand, based on information from primary care practice personnel, the perceived gaps in laboratory processes as a precursor to initiating process improvement activities. A survey was used to assess perceptions of clinicians, staff, and management personnel of gaps in handoffs between primary care practices and laboratories working in 21 Colorado primary care practices. Data were analyzed to determine statistically significant associations between categorical variables. In addition, qualitative analysis of responses to open-ended survey questions was conducted. Primary care practices consistently reported challenges and a desire/need to improve their efforts to systematically track laboratory test status, confirm receipt of laboratory results, and report results to patients. Automated tracking systems existed in roughly 61% of practices, and all but one of those had electronic health record-based tracking systems in place. One fourth of these electronic health record-enabled practices expressed sufficient mistrust in these systems to warrant the concurrent operation of an article-based tracking system as backup. Practices also reported 12 different procedures used to notify patients of test results, varying by test result type. The results highlight the lack of standardization and definition of roles in handoffs in primary care laboratory practices for test ordering, monitoring, and receiving and reporting test results. Results also identify high-priority gaps in processes and the perceptions by practice personnel that practice improvement

  6. Botulinum Toxin and Muscle Atrophy: A Wanted or Unwanted Effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durand, Paul D; Couto, Rafael A; Isakov, Raymond; Yoo, Donald B; Azizzadeh, Babak; Guyuron, Bahman; Zins, James E

    2016-04-01

    While the facial rejuvenating effect of botulinum toxin type A is well known and widespread, its use in body and facial contouring is less common. We first describe its use for deliberate muscle volume reduction, and then document instances of unanticipated and undesirable muscle atrophy. Finally, we investigate the potential long-term adverse effects of botulinum toxin-induced muscle atrophy. Although the use of botulinum toxin type A in the cosmetic patient has been extensively studied, there are several questions yet to be addressed. Does prolonged botulinum toxin treatment increase its duration of action? What is the mechanism of muscle atrophy and what is the cause of its reversibility once treatment has stopped? We proceed to examine how prolonged chemodenervation with botulinum toxin can increase its duration of effect and potentially contribute to muscle atrophy. Instances of inadvertent botulinum toxin-induced atrophy are also described. These include the "hourglass deformity" secondary to botulinum toxin type A treatment for migraine headaches, and a patient with atrophy of multiple facial muscles from injections for hemifacial spasm. Numerous reports demonstrate that muscle atrophy after botulinum toxin type A treatment occurs and is both reversible and temporary, with current literature supporting the notion that repeated chemodenervation with botulinum toxin likely responsible for both therapeutic and incidental temporary muscle atrophy. Furthermore, duration of response may be increased with subsequent treatments, thus minimizing frequency of reinjection. Practitioners should be aware of the temporary and reversible effect of botulinum toxin-induced muscle atrophy and be prepared to reassure patients on this matter. © 2016 The American Society for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery, Inc. Reprints and permission: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Correlates of self-reported pelvic inflammatory disease treatment in sexually experienced reproductive-aged women in the United States, 1995 and 2006-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leichliter, Jami S; Chandra, Anjani; Aral, Sevgi O

    2013-05-01

    Few studies have examined recent temporal trends in self-reported receipt of pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) treatment. We assessed trends in receipt of PID treatment and associated correlates using national survey data. We used data from the National Survey of Family Growth, a multistage national probability survey of 15- to 44-year-old women. We examined trends in self-reported receipt of PID treatment from 1995, 2002, to 2006-2010. In addition, we examined correlates of PID treatment in 1995 and 2006-2010 in bivariate and adjusted analyses. From 1995 to 2002, receipt of PID treatment significantly declined from 8.6% to 5.7% (P < 0.0001); however, there was no difference from 2002 to 2006-2010 (5.0%, P = 0.16). In bivariate analyses, racial differences in PID treatment declined across time; in 2006-2010, there was no significant difference between racial/ethnic groups (P = 0.22). Also in bivariate analyses, similar to 1995, in 2006 to 2010, some of the highest reports of receipt of PID treatment were women who were 35 to 44 years old (5.6%), had an income less than 150% of poverty level (7.5%), had less than high school education (6.7%), douched (7.7%), had intercourse before age 15 years (10.3%), and had 10 or more lifetime partners (8.0%). In adjusted analyses, differing from 1995, women at less than 150% of the poverty level were more likely (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 2.60; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.79-3.76) than women at 300% or more of the poverty level to have received PID treatment in 2006-2010. Receipt of PID treatment declined from 1995 to 2006-2010, with the burden affecting women of lower socioeconomic status.

  8. Reflood completion report: Volume 1. A phenomenological thermal-hydraulic model of hot rod bundles experiencing simultaneous bottom and top quenching and an optimization methodology for closure development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, R.A. Jr.; Pimentel, D.A.; Jolly-Woodruff, S.; Spore, J.

    1998-04-01

    In this report, a phenomenological model of simultaneous bottom-up and top-down quenching is developed and discussed. The model was implemented in the TRAC-PF1/MOD2 computer code. Two sets of closure relationships were compared within the study, the Absolute set and the Conditional set. The Absolute set of correlations is frequently viewed as the pure set because the correlations is frequently viewed as the pure set because the correlations utilize their original coefficients as suggested by the developer. The Conditional set is a modified set of correlations with changes to the correlation coefficient only. Results for these two sets indicate quite similar results. This report also summarizes initial results of an effort to investigate nonlinear optimization techniques applied to the closure model development. Results suggest that such techniques can provide advantages for future model development work, but that extensive expertise is required to utilize such techniques (i.e., the model developer must fully understand both the physics of the process being represented and the computational techniques being employed). The computer may then be used to improve the correlation of computational results with experiments

  9. When is a medicine unwanted, how is it disposed, and how might safe disposal be promoted? Insights from the Australian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bettington, Emilie; Spinks, Jean; Kelly, Fiona; Gallardo-Godoy, Alejandra; Nghiem, Son; Wheeler, Amanda J

    2017-12-19

    Objective The aim of the present study was to explore disposal practices of unwanted medicines in a representative sample of Australian adults, compare this with previous household waste surveys and explore awareness of the National Return and Disposal of Unwanted Medicines (RUM) Project. Methods A 10-min online survey was developed, piloted and conducted with an existing research panel of adult individuals. Survey questions recorded demographics, the presence of unwanted medicines in the home, medicine disposal practices and concerns about unwanted medicines. Descriptive statistical analyses and rank-ordered logit regression were conducted. Results Sixty per cent of 4302 respondents reported having unwanted medicines in their household. Medicines were primarily kept just in case they were needed again and one-third of these medicines were expired. Two-thirds of respondents disposed of medicines with the household garbage and approximately one-quarter poured medicines down the drain. Only 17.6% of respondents had heard of the RUM Project, although, once informed, 91.7% stated that they would use it. Respondents ranked the risk of unintended ingestion as the most important public health message for future social marketing campaigns. Conclusions Respondents were largely unaware of the RUM Project, yet were willing to use it once informed. Limited awareness could lead to environmental or public health risks, and targeted information campaigns are needed. What is known about the topic? There is a growing international evidence base on how people dispose of unwanted medicines and the negative consequences, particularly the environmental effects of inappropriate disposal. Although insight into variation in disposal methods is increasing, knowledge of how people perceive risks and awareness of inappropriate disposal methods is more limited. What does this paper add? This study provides evidence of inappropriate medicines disposal and potential stockpiling of medicines in

  10. Acoustics in Research Facilities--Control of Wanted and Unwanted Sound. Laboratory Design Notes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Robert B.

    Common and special acoustics problems are discussed in relation to the design and construction of research facilities. Following a brief examination of design criteria for the control of wanted and unwanted sound, the technology for achieving desired results is discussed. Emphasis is given to various design procedures and materials for the control…

  11. Factors Affecting Unwanted Pregnancies in Urban Areas of Kohgiloyeh and Boyer Ahmad Province in 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z Tabeshfar

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Unwanted pregnancies and its complications are one of the most important global problems related to mothers. The aim of the present study was to determine the factors affecting unwanted pregnancies in urban areas of the Kohgiloyeh and Boyer Ahmad province. Materials & Methods: In this case – control study conducted at Yasuj University of Medical Sciences in 2008 ,350 women were chosen as the case group, and 700 women as the control group. During the study, data collection forms were completed by each group. Subsequently, the collected data was analyzed using SPSS version 16 by using the logistic regression, univariate, and multivariate analysis. Results: According to the results of univariate analysis, the variables husband’s education in primary school , age of the last child under one, uncertain prevention methods and receiving means of prevention from the private sector revealed that significant differences existed between the two groups (P Value<0/05. Finally, the multivariate analysis beetwen husband education variables, age of the last child , prevention methods, and receiving a contraceptive device, a significant correlation was observed with unwanted pregnancy(P Value<0/05. Conclusion: Results of this study determined that three variables (contraceptive method, the place of obtaining means, and level of her husband education are the most important variables which affect the chance of increasing of unwanted pregnancy in users of contraceptive methods.

  12. Adolescents' Psychological Health and Experiences with Unwanted Sexual Behavior at School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmerman, Greetje

    2004-01-01

    This paper examines the relationship between experiences with unwanted sexual behavior at school and adolescents' health. Adolescent boys and girls (N = 2,808) participated in a 1998/1999 survey of secondary school students in two regions of The Netherlands. The psychological issues investigated included psychosomatic problems and self-esteem. It…

  13. Adolescents' psychological health and experiences with unwanted sexual behavior at school

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmerman, G

    2004-01-01

    This paper examines the relationship between experiences with unwanted sexual behavior at school and adolescents' health. Adolescent boys and girls (N = 2,808) participated in a 1998/1999 survey of secondary school students in two regions of The Netherlands. The psychological issues investigated

  14. Unwanted heat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benka, M.

    2006-01-01

    The number of small heating plants using biomass is growing. According to TREND's information, Hrinovska energeticka, is the only one that controls the whole supplier chain in cooperation with its parent company in Bratislava. Starting with the collection and processing of wood chips by burning, heat production and heat distribution to the end user. This gives the company better control over costs and consequently its own prices. Last year, the engineering company, Hrinovske storjarne, decided to focus only on its core business and sold its heating plant, Hrinovske tepelne hospodarstvo, to Intech Slovakia and changed the company name to Hrinovska energeticka. Local companies and inhabitants were concerned that the new owner would increase prices. But the company publicly declared and kept promises that the heat price for households would remain at 500 Slovak crowns/gigajoule (13.33 EUR/gigajoule ), one of the lowest prices in Slovakia. This year the prices increased slightly to 570 Slovak crowns (15.2 EUR). 'We needed - even at the cost of lower profit - to satisfy our customers so that we would not lose them. We used this time for transition to biomass. This will allow us to freeze our prices in the coming years,' explained the statutory representative of the company, Ivan Dudak. (authors)

  15. Unwanted Immunology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.V. Supotnytskyi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers the role of antigenic imprin­ting phenomena and antibody-dependent enhancement of infection in epidemic, infectious and postvaccinal processes. Based on published experimental data, it is shown that both phenomena are directly related to the laws of development and course of epide­mics, the pathogenesis of infectious diseases and safe use of vaccines. Their ignoring by researchers has led to failures in the design of vaccines against HIV/AIDS, dengue fever, influenza, malaria, hemorrhagic fever and encephalitis. These data show that, without taking into account the two phenomena, the further development of immunology and epidemiology in the direction of breakthrough discoveries in there areas of science are impossible.

  16. Unwanted Tattoos

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Back Injectable Deoxycholic Acid Injectable Hyaluronic Acid Injectable Poly-l-lactic Acid Injectable Polymethylmethacrylate + Bovine Collagen Filler ... procedure? Does tattoo removal hurt? What are my pain management and anesthesia options? How long is the ...

  17. Abortion and Crime: Unwanted Children and Out-of-Wedlock Births

    OpenAIRE

    John R. Lott, Jr.; John Whitley

    2001-01-01

    Abortion may prevent the birth of ''unwanted'' children, who would have relatively small investments in human capital and a higher probability of crime. On the other hand, some research suggests that legalizing abortion increases out-of-wedlock births and single parent families, which implies the opposite impact on investments in human capital and thus crime. The question is: what is the net impact? We find evidence that legalizing abortion increased murder rates by around about 0.5 to 7 perc...

  18. Unwanted Sexual Attention in Licensed Venues: Considering LGBTIQ Young Adults’ Experiences and Perceptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianca Fileborn

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Sexual violence within the lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender/transsexual, intersex and queer (LGBTIQ communities remains largely under-researched and under-theorised. Yet, emerging research suggests that sexual violence is a significant issue within the LGBTIQ communities. Additionally, the occurrence of sexual violence and unwanted sexual attention within specific social and cultural contexts is, for the most part, insufficiently examined. This article draws on research exploring young LGBTIQ adults’ perceptions and experiences of unwanted sexual attention in licensed venues. Firstly, I consider the theoretical and conceptual underpinnings of ‘unwanted sexual attention’ as a category of analysis. I then move on to consider participants’ use of licensed venues, the particular significance of pubs and clubs to LGBTIQ young people, and their perceptions and experiences of unwanted sexual attention. Finally, I discuss the implications of these findings for theoretical and conceptual understandings of unwanted sexual attention and sexual violence. En general, se ha investigado y teorizado muy poco sobre la violencia sexual dentro de las comunidades de lesbianas, gays, bisexuales, transgénero / transexuales, intersex y queer (LGBTIQ. Sin embargo, investigaciones recientes sugieren que la violencia sexual es un problema importante en estas comunidades. Además, la incidencia de la violencia sexual y atención sexual no deseada dentro de contextos sociales y culturales específicos no está, en su mayor parte, suficientemente examinada. Este artículo se basa en la investigación de la percepción y experiencias de atención sexual no deseada en locales con licencia para vender alcohol. En primer lugar, se tienen en cuenta los fundamentos teóricos y conceptuales de “atención sexual no deseada” como una categoría de análisis. A continuación, se considera el uso de locales con licencia por parte de los participantes, el significado

  19. Dative experiencer predicates in Hungarian

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rákosi, G.

    2006-01-01

    Dative experiencer predicates in Hungarian investigates the argument structure and the syntax of appeal to- and important-type predicates in Hungarian. Couched in terms of Reinhart’s (2000, 2002) Theta System, the thesis presents arguments for the need to resort to the lexicon in setting up

  20. The Occupational Wellbeing of People Experiencing Homelessness

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas, Yvonne; Gray, M.; McGinty, S.

    2017-01-01

    This paper reports findings of a study that utilised an occupational perspective to explore how wellbeing was achieved and sustained by the occupations of people experiencing homelessness in Australia. Thirty three in-depth qualitative interviews were conducted with homeless individuals in a regional city in Australia. Data from the interviews were thematically analysed to understand the relationship between wellbeing, as defined by the individual, and the occupations engaged in by people exp...

  1. Unwanted detachment of the Solitaire device during mechanical thrombectomy in acute ischemic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castaño, C; Dorado, L; Remollo, S; García-Bermejo, P; Gomis, M; Pérez de la Ossa, N; Millán, M; García-Sort, M R; Hidalgo, C; López-Cancio, E; Cubells, C; Dávalos, A

    2016-01-27

    The use of retrievable stents for endovascular clot retrieval has dramatically improved successful revascularization and clinical outcome in selected patients with acute stroke. To describe the rate and clinical consequences of unwanted spontaneous detachment of these devices during mechanical thrombectomy. We studied 262 consecutive patients treated with the retrievable stent, Solitaire, for acute ischemic stroke between November 2008 and April 2015. Clinical, procedural, and outcome variables were compared between patients with and without unexpected detachment of this device. Detachment was classified as proximal to the stent proximal marker (type A) or distal to the marker (type B). Poor functional outcome was defined as modified Rankin scale score >2 at 90 days. Unwanted detachment occurred in 6/262 (2.3%) cases, four of type A and two of type B. Stent recovery was possible in three patients, all of 'type A', but in none of 'type B'. The number of prior passes was higher in patients with undesired detachment (3 (2-5) vs 2 (1-3), p=0.007). Detachment was associated with higher rate of symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage (SICH) (33.3% vs 4.3%, p=0.001), poorer outcome (100% vs 54.8%, p=0.028), and higher mortality rate at 90 days (50% vs 17%, p=0.038). Unwanted detachment of a Solitaire is an uncommon complication during mechanical thrombectomy in patients with acute ischemic stroke and is associated with the clot retrieval attempts, SICH, poor outcome, and higher mortality. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  2. Scaling up postabortion contraceptive service--results from a study conducted among women having unwanted pregnancies in urban and rural Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasch, Vibeke; Yambesi, Fortunata; Kipingili, Rose

    2005-01-01

    Tanzania and 42% in rural Tanzania stated that their pregnancy was unwanted. Contraceptive acceptance among women with unwanted pregnancies was high; 93% in urban Tanzania and 71% in rural Tanzania left with a contraceptive method. CONCLUSION: The high proportion of women with unwanted pregnancies in urban...... and rural Tanzania underlines the need of scaling up postabortion contraceptive service....

  3. Contraceptive challenges experienced by women who requested ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... of contraceptives over weekends and during lunch breaks could enable more women to prevent unwanted pregnancies, reducing the number of requests for TOP services. Keywords: abortions; accessibility of contraceptives; contraceptive challenges; contraceptives' side-effects; emergency contraceptives; termination of ...

  4. Unwanted horses: The role of nonprofit equine rescue and sanctuary organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holcomb, K E; Stull, C L; Kass, P H

    2010-12-01

    Closure of US equine slaughter facilities in 2007 along with the concomitant economic recession have contributed to a sharp increase in the number of unwanted horses throughout the United States, with estimates totaling 100,000 horses per year. The objective of the study was to obtain comprehensive data regarding nonprofit organizations caring for unwanted horses, along with the characteristics and outcome of horses relinquished to these organizations. Nonprofit organizations that accept relinquished equines were contacted to participate in a 90-question survey. Responding organizations (144 of 326 eligible) in 37 states provided information on 280 cases representative of the 7,990 horses relinquished between 2007 and 2009. Data collected characterized these organizations as being in existence for 6 yr, financially supported through donations and personal funds, dedicated to the care of only 10 to 20 horses on a property of just over 30 acres, and reliant on volunteers for help. Funding was the greatest challenge to continued operation of nonprofit equine organizations, with maintenance costs for the care of a relinquished horse averaging $3,648 per year. Financial hardship, physical inability, or lack of time to care for the horses by owners were the most common reasons for relinquishment, followed by seizure through law enforcement agencies for alleged neglect or abuse. Relinquished horses consisted of mostly light horse breeds (79.3%), with Thoroughbreds and Quarter Horses as the most represented breeds. The age of relinquished horses ranged from 3 d to 42 yr old (12.4 ± 0.5 yr). About one-half of the horses entered in the survey were considered unhealthy due to illness, injury, lameness, or poor body condition. For every 4 horses relinquished to a nonprofit organization, only 3 horses were adopted or sold between 2006 and 2009, and many organizations had refused to accept additional horses for lack of resources. The estimated maximum capacity for the 326

  5. Especial Skills in Experienced Archers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabavinik, Mahdi; Abaszadeh, Ali; Mehranmanesh, Mehrab; Rosenbaum, David A

    2017-09-05

    Especial skills are skills that are distinctive by virtue of massive practice within the narrow contexts in which they are expressed. In the first demonstration of especial skills, Keetch, Schmidt, Lee, and Young (2005) showed that experienced basketball players are better at shooting baskets from the foul line, where they had massive amounts of practice, than would expected from their success at other locations closer to or farther from the basket. Similar results were obtained for baseball throwing. The authors asked whether especial skills hold in archery, a sport requiring less movement. If the emergence of especial skills depends on large-scale movement, one would expect archery to escape so-called especialism. But if the emergence of especial skills reflects a more general tendency for highly specific learning, experienced archers should show especial skills. The authors obtained evidence consistent with the latter prediction. The expert archers did much better at their most highly practiced distance than would be expected by looking at the overall function relating shooting score to distance. We offer a mathematical model to account for this result. The findings attest to the generality of the especial skills phenomenon.

  6. Interoceptive awareness in experienced meditators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalsa, Sahib S; Rudrauf, David; Damasio, Antonio R; Davidson, Richard J; Lutz, Antoine; Tranel, Daniel

    2008-07-01

    Attention to internal body sensations is practiced in most meditation traditions. Many traditions state that this practice results in increased awareness of internal body sensations, but scientific studies evaluating this claim are lacking. We predicted that experienced meditators would display performance superior to that of nonmeditators on heartbeat detection, a standard noninvasive measure of resting interoceptive awareness. We compared two groups of meditators (Tibetan Buddhist and Kundalini) to an age- and body mass index-matched group of nonmeditators. Contrary to our prediction, we found no evidence that meditators were superior to nonmeditators in the heartbeat detection task, across several sessions and respiratory modulation conditions. Compared to nonmeditators, however, meditators consistently rated their interoceptive performance as superior and the difficulty of the task as easier. These results provide evidence against the notion that practicing attention to internal body sensations, a core feature of meditation, enhances the ability to sense the heartbeat at rest.

  7. Customer-experienced rapid prototyping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lijuan; Zhang, Fu; Li, Anbo

    2008-12-01

    In order to describe accurately and comprehend quickly the perfect GIS requirements, this article will integrate the ideas of QFD (Quality Function Deployment) and UML (Unified Modeling Language), and analyze the deficiency of prototype development model, and will propose the idea of the Customer-Experienced Rapid Prototyping (CE-RP) and describe in detail the process and framework of the CE-RP, from the angle of the characteristics of Modern-GIS. The CE-RP is mainly composed of Customer Tool-Sets (CTS), Developer Tool-Sets (DTS) and Barrier-Free Semantic Interpreter (BF-SI) and performed by two roles of customer and developer. The main purpose of the CE-RP is to produce the unified and authorized requirements data models between customer and software developer.

  8. From unwanted pregnancy to safe abortion: Sharing information about abortion in Asia through animation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Shweta; Dalvie, Suchitra

    2015-05-01

    Although unsafe abortion continues to be a leading cause of maternal mortality in many countries in Asia, the right to safe abortion remains highly stigmatized across the region. The Asia Safe Abortion Partnership, a regional network advocating for safe abortion, produced an animated short film entitled From Unwanted Pregnancy to Safe Abortion to show in conferences, schools and meetings in order to share knowledge about the barriers to safe abortion in Asia and to facilitate conversations on the right to safe abortion. This paper describes the making of this film, its objectives, content, dissemination and how it has been used. Our experience highlights the advantages of using animated films in addressing highly politicized and sensitive issues like abortion. Animation helped to create powerful advocacy material that does not homogenize the experiences of women across a diverse region, and at the same time emphasize the need for joint activities that express solidarity. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Planning to break unwanted habits: habit strength moderates implementation intention effects on behaviour change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Thomas L; Sheeran, Paschal; Luszczynska, Aleksandra

    2009-09-01

    Implementation intention formation promotes effective goal striving and goal attainment. However, little research has investigated whether implementation intentions promote behaviour change when people possess strong antagonistic habits. Experiment 1 developed relatively habitual responses that, after a task switch, had a detrimental impact on task performance. Forming an if-then plan reduced the negative impact of habit on performance. However, the effect of forming implementation intentions was smaller among participants who possessed strong habits as compared to participants who had weaker habits. Experiment 2 provided a field test of the role of habit strength in moderating the relationship between implementation intentions and behaviour in the context of smoking. Implementation intentions reduced smoking among participants with weak or moderate smoking habits, but not among participants with strong smoking habits. In summary, habit strength moderates the effectiveness of if-then plan formation in breaking unwanted habits.

  10. Ethical Conflicts Experienced by Medical Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Mendes Menezes

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The current study aimed to identify and analyze the prevalence of ethical conflicts experienced by medical students. This study is a cross-sectional and analytical research that was conducted in a public school in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. The instrument used for the data collection was a self-administered questionnaire. The data collected were presented in absolute and percentage values. For the analytical statistical treatment of the data, the level of significance was considered p <0.05. The outcome variables were: Experiences of ethical conflicts in interpersonal relations within the medical course and Ethical conduct in health care. The identification of the prevalence of ethical conflicts in the undergraduate program adopted the perspective of different interpersonal relations (academic-teaching, academic-academic, academic-employee, academic-patient, teacher-teacher, teacher-patient, teacher-employee and employee-patient. (Importance of identifying themselves to the health services user and requesting consent to perform the physical examination, assistance without the supervision of the teacher, issuance of health documents without the signature of the professional responsible and use of social networks to share data Of patient. It was verified the association of the outcome variables with sex, year of graduation and course evaluation. A total of 281 undergraduate students enrolled in all undergraduate courses in Medicine of both sexes, with a predominance of female (52.7%. The students reported having experienced conflicting situations in interpersonal relations with teachers (59.6%, provided assistance without proper supervision of a teacher (62.6%, reported having issued health documents without the accompaniment of teachers (18, 5%. The highest frequency was observed among those enrolled in the most advanced years of the undergraduate program (p <0.05. The use of social networks for the purpose of sharing patient

  11. Discrimination and abuse experienced by general internists in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, D J; Griffith, L E; Cohen, M; Guyatt, G H; O'Brien, B

    1995-10-01

    To identify the frequency of psychological and emotional abuse, gender discrimination, verbal sexual harassment, physical sexual harassment, physical assault, and homophobia experienced by general internists. Cross-sectional survey. Canadian general internal medicine practices. The overall response rate was 70.6% (984/1,393); the 501 respondents who classified themselves as general internists were studied. Three-fourths of the internists experienced psychological and emotional abuse at the hands of patients, and 38% of the women and 26% of the men experienced physical assault by patients. The majority of the female internists experienced gender discrimination by patients (67%) and by physician peers (56%). Forty-five percent of the women experienced verbal sexual harassment by patients, and 22% experienced physical sexual harassment by patients. The male internists experienced verbal sexual harassment from nurses slightly more often than the female internists did (19% vs 13%, p > 0.05). Verbal sexual harassment by male colleagues was reported by 35% of the female internists, and physical sexual harassment was reported by 11%. Approximately 40% of general internists reported homophobic remarks by both health care team members and patients. Abuse, discrimination, and homophobia are prevalent in the internal medicine workplace. A direct, progressive, multidisciplinary approach is necessary to label and address these problems.

  12. Experiencing sexuality after intestinal stoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Angela Boccara de Paula

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Identify the Social Representations (SR of ostomized people in terms of sexuality after the stoma. METHODS: An exploratory, descriptive, qualitative study using the Social Representation Theory with 15 ostomized people (8 females, mean age of 57.9 years, between August and September 2005. Data obtained from transcribed interviews were submitted to content analysis, resulting in the thematic unit "Giving new meaning to sexuality" and subthemes. RESULTS: The study demonstrated that the intestinal stoma interferes in the sexuality experience, showing that the meanings attributed to this experience are based on individual life stories, quality of personal relationships established in practice and perception of sexuality, despite the stoma. CONCLUSIONS: The Social Representations, in terms of experiencing sexuality after the stoma, are based on meanings attributed to the body, associated with daily life and present in the social imaginary. It is influenced by other factors, such as physiological changes resulting from the surgery and the fact of having or not a partner. Care taken during sexual practices provide greater security and comfort in moments of intimacy, resembling the closest to what ostomized people experienced before the stoma. The self-irrigation technique associated or not with the use of artificial occluder, has been attested by its users as a positive element that makes a difference in sexual practice after the stoma. The support to ostomized people should be comprehensive, not limited to technical care and disease, which are important, but not sufficient. The interdisciplinary health team should consider all aspects of the person, seeking a real meeting between subjects.OBJETIVO: Identificar as Representações Sociais (RS da pessoa estomizada intestinal sobre vivência da sexualidade após confecção do estoma. MÉTODOS: Estudo exploratório, descritivo, qualitativo do ponto de vista do referencial da Representa

  13. Physics Climate as Experienced by LGBT+ Physicists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Elena

    2012-02-01

    In 2009, Elena Long created the LGBT+ Physicists website (http://lgbtphysicists.x10hosting.com) as a warehouse for resources useful for sexual and gender minorities working in physics. This resource has grown to include networking resources, lists of LGBT-friendly universities and localities, recommendations for enacting positive change in physics communities, and out-reach to other STEM-oriented LGBT organizations. This has been possible in large part by the dynamic community of LGBT+ physicists and allies looking to make physics more welcoming towards our community. In 2011, Elena used hir position as Member at Large on the executive committee of the Forum of Graduate Student Affairs (FGSA) to conduct a climate survey that included, among other things, the first serious look at LGBT+ demographics in physics. The survey focused particularly on issues of language heard and harassment experienced by physicists and was broken down into categories based on race, physical and mental ability, gender, and sexuality. Furthermore, it examined the outcomes of experienced harassment and the reasons for when harassment was not reported. Due to the nature of the study, overlapping demographics, especially ``multiple minorities,'' were also explored. This talk will give a brief history of the LGBT+ Physicists resource as well as an overview of the FGSA study.

  14. Abortion and mental health : A longitudinal study of common mental disorders among women who terminated an unwanted pregnancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ditzhuijzen, J.M.

    2017-01-01

    In the last decade there has been renewed interest in the question whether termination of an unwanted pregnancy is linked to subsequent mental health disorders. Most research in this field is characterized by methodological limitations, and conclusions often remain disputable. To offer insight in

  15. Reducing or Eliminating Polysorbate Induced Anaphylaxis and Unwanted Immunogenicity in Biotherapeutics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward Maggio

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The increasing use of biotherapeutics across a growing spectrum of neoplastic, autoimmune, and inflammatory diseases has resulted in a corresponding increase in hypersensitivity reactions. The origins of anaphylaxis are often attributed to undefined intrinsic properties of the biotherapeutic protein itself, ignoring the broader potential negative contributions of functional excipients, in particular polyoxyethylene containing surfactants such as polysorbate 80 and polysorbate 20 (Tween 80 and Tween 20. These surfactants allow biotherapeutics to meet the stringent challenges of extended shelf-life, increased solubility, protein aggregation prevention, reduced administration volume, and satisfactory reconstitution properties in the case of lyophilized biotherapeutics. The potential negative impact of certain functional excipients on product performance characteristics such as anaphylaxis and immunogenicity is often overlooked. While regulatory authorities understandably focus heavily on comparable efficacy in evaluating biosimilars, similar efficacy does not necessarily imply a similar safety profile between the originator and biosimilar products. Both unwanted immunogenicity and anaphylaxis do comprise major components of safety assessment, however, few if any attempts are made to differentiate drug-related from excipient-related anaphylaxis. Replacement of anaphylactogenic and immunogenic functional excipients with equally effective but safer alternatives will allow biotherapeutic developers to differentiate their biotherapeutic, biosimilar, or biobetter from the large number of nearly identical competitor products, simultaneously providing a substantial commercial benefit as well as critical clinical benefits for all concerned – patients, physicians, and third party payers.

  16. HIV, unwanted pregnancy and abortion--where is the human rights approach?

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bruyn, Maria

    2012-12-01

    The HIV/AIDS field is addressing how legal and policy restrictions affect access to health promotion and care, e.g., in relation to criminalization of HIV transmission, drug use and sex work. Work to address the reproductive rights of women living with HIV, particularly regarding unwanted pregnancy and abortion, has nevertheless lagged behind, despite its potential to contribute to broader advocacy for access to comprehensive reproductive health information and services for all women. It is in that context that this paper examines abortion in relation to the rights of women and girls living with HIV. The paper first presents findings from recent research on HIV-positive women's reasons for seeking abortions and experiences with abortion-related care. This is followed by a discussion of abortion in relation to human rights and how this has been both addressed and neglected in policy and guidance related to the reproductive health of women living with HIV. The concluding remarks offer recommendations for expanding efforts to provide comprehensive, human rights-based sexual and reproductive health care to women living with HIV by including abortion-related information and services. Copyright © 2012 Reproductive Health Matters. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Cognitive dissonance experienced by nurse practitioner faculty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontenot, Holly B; Hawkins, Joellen W; Weiss, Josie A

    2012-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to explicate the concept of cognitive dissonance as experienced and reported by nurse practitioner (NP) faculty members. Responses from NP faculty members to an online survey about their experiences with cognitive dissonance. The respondents detailed their experiences with cognitive dissonance, citing differences between expectations for which they are rewarded and those for which they are paid. Expecting all faculty members to excel in practice, research, teaching, and service may create unrealistic workloads for NP faculty members. Examining expectations and considering creation of a clinical track for faculty who practice may be options administrators of NP programs might explore. ©2012 The Author(s) Journal compilation ©2012 American Academy of Nurse Practitioners.

  18. The position of the Bureau of International Recycling on unwanted radioactivity and scrap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neenan, P.; Bartley, R.

    1999-01-01

    The Bureau of International Recycling (BIR) speaks as the unified voice of the international recycling industry on a world level, promoting free-trade in non-hazardous recyclables and the increased usage of recycled goods. In October 1998, BIR presented its 'Guide to Radioactivity' to its members in order to explain the basics of radioactivity, to help determine what actions material recyclers should take and to provide an initial contact guide for summoning expert help. The Guide was promulgated together with a survey questionnaire; initial results of this survey have been collated. BIR members do not trade in radioactive materials and do not wish to receive hazardous radioactive contaminated materials. Furthermore it is very uncommon to find this unwelcome and unwanted material. The burden of handling contaminated materials should not rest on the recycling industry alone, however, as the hazards associated with processing contaminated materials are potentially extreme, recyclers have a role to help safeguard both their workforce and subsequent customers. Some BIR members have invested in in-plant detection equipment of various types from a variety of suppliers to detect contamination from 'lost' sources or from naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM). Strict State control on sources in use would be very welcome to limit these ' losses'. Not all BIR members are in a position to provide or operate detection equipment; therefore, BIR would welcome States providing detection and control at sea ports and at border checkpoints on railways and roads. Some states have proposed permitting requirements for the handling of radioactive contaminated materials and have tried, inappropriately, to impose on the mainstream recycling industry, permits designed for the specialist decontamination or decommissioning industry. Current discussions on applying the transport of dangerous goods regulations would lead to unnecessary and impracticable additional restraints to

  19. Reduction of unwanted submental fat with ATX-101 (deoxycholic acid), an adipocytolytic injectable treatment: results from a phase III, randomized, placebo-controlled study*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rzany, B; Griffiths, T; Walker, P; Lippert, S; McDiarmid, J; Havlickova, B

    2014-01-01

    Summary Background Unwanted submental fat (SMF) is aesthetically unappealing, but methods of reduction are either invasive or lack evidence for their use. An injectable approach with ATX-101 (deoxycholic acid) is under investigation. Objectives To evaluate the efficacy and safety of ATX-101 for the reduction of unwanted SMF. Methods In this double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase III study, 363 patients with moderate/severe SMF were randomized to receive ATX-101 (1 or 2 mg cm−2) or placebo injections into their SMF at up to four treatment sessions ∽28 days apart, with a 12-week follow-up. The co-primary efficacy endpoints were the proportions of treatment responders [patients with ≥ 1-point improvement in SMF on the 5-point Clinician-Reported Submental Fat Rating Scale (CR-SMFRS)] and patients satisfied with their face and chin appearance on the Subject Self-Rating Scale (SSRS). Secondary endpoints included skin laxity, calliper measurements and patient-reported outcomes. Adverse events were monitored. Results Significantly more ATX-101 recipients met the primary endpoint criteria vs. placebo: on the clinician scale, 59·2% and 65·3% of patients treated with ATX-101 1 and 2 mg cm−2, respectively, were treatment responders vs. 23·0% for placebo (CR-SMFRS;P < 0·001); on the patient scale, 53·3% and 66·1%, respectively, vs. 28·7%, were satisfied with their face/chin appearance (SSRS;P < 0·001). Calliper measurements showed a significant reduction in SMF (P < 0·001), skin laxity was not worsened and patients reported improvements in the severity and psychological impact of SMF with ATX-101 vs. placebo. Most adverse events were transient and associated with the treatment area. Conclusions ATX-101 was effective and well tolerated for nonsurgical SMF reduction. What's already known about this topic? Unwanted submental fat (SMF) is considered aesthetically unappealing. Liposuction and face-lift are effective treatments for SMF reduction but are

  20. Experienced and anticipated discrimination against people with schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milačić-Vidojević Ivona

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim of this research was to describe the nature, direction and severity of anticipated and experienced discrimination reported by people with schizophrenia. We applied interview to 50 patients with diagnosis of schizophrenia in two psychiatric hospitals in Belgrade. Discrimination was measured with discrimination and stigma scale (DISC which produce 3 subscores, positive experienced discrimination, negative experienced discrimination and anticipated discrimination. The same scale was used in cross-cultural research in 27 european countries. Results have shown that participants from Serbia do not recognize discrimination in all areas of life equally. The discrimination recognized is more frequentlly negative then positive and is associated with existentially important realms of life. Due to anticipated discrimination participants in our study prevent themselves from looking for a close relationship. Anticipated discrimination could not be predicted on the grounds of experienced, positive or negative discrimination.

  1. Did abortion legalization reduce the number of unwanted children? Evidence from adoptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitler, Marianne; Madeline, Zavodny

    2002-01-01

    The legalization of abortion in the United States led to well-known changes in reproductive behavior, but its effect on adoptions has not been investigated. Variation across states in the timing and extent of abortion legalization is used to identify the effects of changes in the legal status of abortion on adoption rates from 1961 to 1975. These effects are estimated in regression analyses that control for states' economic, demographic and political characteristics, as well as for health care availability within states. The rate of adoptions of children born to white women declined by 34-37% in states that repealed restrictive abortion laws before Roe v. Wade. The effect was concentrated among adoptions by petitioners not related to the child. Legal reforms resulting in small increases in access, such as in cases of rape and incest, were associated with a 15-18% decline in adoptions of children born to nonwhite women; however, this decline may have been due to other changes in the policy environment for such adoptions. Rates of adoption of children born to white women appear to have declined after Roe v. Wade, but this association is not statistically significant. The estimated effect of abortion legalization on adoption rates is sizable and can account for much of the decline in adoptions, particularly of children born to white women, during the early 1970s. These findings support previous studies' conclusions that abortion legalization led to a reduction in the number of "unwanted" children; such a reduction may have improved average infant health and children's living conditions.

  2. Abortion and mental health : A longitudinal study of common mental disorders among women who terminated an unwanted pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    van Ditzhuijzen, J.M.

    2017-01-01

    In the last decade there has been renewed interest in the question whether termination of an unwanted pregnancy is linked to subsequent mental health disorders. Most research in this field is characterized by methodological limitations, and conclusions often remain disputable. To offer insight in the mental health of women who have abortions, both before and after the pregnancy termination, a prospective longitudinal cohort study was conducted, the “Dutch Abortion and Mental Health Study” (DA...

  3. Game Theoretic Analysis of Pricing and Cooperative Advertising in a Reverse Supply Chain for Unwanted Medications in Households

    OpenAIRE

    Meina Hua; Huajun Tang; Ivan Ka Wai Lai

    2017-01-01

    Improper disposal of household unwanted medications (UMs) is an emergency problem around the world that adversely affects the sustainability of the environment and human’s health. However, the current disposal practices, mainly based on advertising and collecting status, are unsatisfactory in most countries and regions. Thus, some scholars proposed an alternative disposal practice that is to provide incentives to customers. This study aims to compare a Single Model (advertising only) with a J...

  4. More Power, Less SympathyThe Response of IGOs in Western Europe to Unwanted Migration during Economic Crises Compared

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irial Glynn

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This article chronicles the influence of intergovernmental organisations (IGOs over unwanted migration in Western Europe since the 1930s. It pays particular attention to what occurred during times of economic crisis, especially the Great Depression in the 1930s, the recession-hit 1970s and early 1980s, and the current global financial difficulties. The IGOs under consideration are the League of Nations during the 1930s and the European Commission from the 1970s onwards. The European Commission’s ability to influence West European states’ policies on unwanted migration has grown considerably since the League of Nations’ unsuccessful attempts in the 1930s, especially in the lead-up to the current economic crisis. This increase in power has been offset, however, by a decrease in the European Commission’s sympathy as Brussels increasingly regards unwanted migration as a security and justice issue rather than as a social and cultural one in a move that bears close resemblance to the stance of West European states.

  5. Experienced discrimination amongst European old citizens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Heuvel, Wim J. A.; van Santvoort, Marc M.

    2011-01-01

    This study analyses the experienced age discrimination of old European citizens and the factors related to this discrimination. Differences in experienced discrimination between old citizens of different European countries are explored. Data from the 2008 ESS survey are used. Old age is defined as

  6. Experienced General Music Teachers' Instructional Decision Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Daniel C.; Matthews, Wendy K.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this descriptive study was to explore experienced general music teachers' decision-making processes. Participants included seven experienced, American general music teachers who contributed their views during two phases of data collection: (1) responses to three classroom scenarios; and (2) in-depth, semi-structured, follow-up…

  7. The nature of workplace bullying experienced by teachers and the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article reports on the nature of workplace bullying experienced by teachers in South African schools and the biopsychosocial health effects that may arise from such victimisation. Voluntary victimised teachers who wanted to share their experiences were sampled using a lifestyle magazine and online articles.

  8. Hearing Voices: Qualitative Research with Postsecondary Students Experiencing Mental Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venville, Annie; Street, Annette F.

    2014-01-01

    Vocational Education and Training (VET) students experiencing mental illness have been described as one of the most vulnerable student groups in the Australian post-secondary sector. This vulnerability can be attributed to the impacts of illness, the oft-reported experiences of stigma and discrimination, and low educational outcomes. There is…

  9. Estimation of the workload added on the health system due to unwanted pregnancies and Children born of these pregnancies in kohgiloyeh Boyrahmad province 2010-2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    zebaneh Tabeshfar

    2015-02-01

    Results: An overall 350 unwanted pregnancy cases were identified. Assuming the same unwanted pregnancies in the first half and the second year of 2009 total of 21,140 times the equivalent of 3696 hours of extra work visit were added to the labor working primary health care centers in the city. Conclusion: Unwanted pregnancies resulting in increased staff workload of health centers, and if not provided with sufficient manpower, it may lead to the reduction of maternal and child health care qualities of these centers.

  10. Reduction of unwanted submental fat with ATX-101 (deoxycholic acid), an adipocytolytic injectable treatment: results from a phase III, randomized, placebo-controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rzany, B; Griffiths, T; Walker, P; Lippert, S; McDiarmid, J; Havlickova, B

    2014-02-01

    Unwanted submental fat (SMF) is aesthetically unappealing, but methods of reduction are either invasive or lack evidence for their use. An injectable approach with ATX-101 (deoxycholic acid) is under investigation. To evaluate the efficacy and safety of ATX-101 for the reduction of unwanted SMF. In this double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase III study, 363 patients with moderate/severe SMF were randomized to receive ATX-101 (1 or 2 mg cm(-2) ) or placebo injections into their SMF at up to four treatment sessions ~28 days apart, with a 12-week follow-up. The co-primary efficacy endpoints were the proportions of treatment responders [patients with ≥ 1-point improvement in SMF on the 5-point Clinician-Reported Submental Fat Rating Scale (CR-SMFRS)] and patients satisfied with their face and chin appearance on the Subject Self-Rating Scale (SSRS). Secondary endpoints included skin laxity, calliper measurements and patient-reported outcomes. Adverse events were monitored. Significantly more ATX-101 recipients met the primary endpoint criteria vs. placebo: on the clinician scale, 59·2% and 65·3% of patients treated with ATX-101 1 and 2 mg cm(-2) , respectively, were treatment responders vs. 23·0% for placebo (CR-SMFRS; P < 0·001); on the patient scale, 53·3% and 66·1%, respectively, vs. 28·7%, were satisfied with their face/chin appearance (SSRS; P < 0·001). Calliper measurements showed a significant reduction in SMF (P < 0·001), skin laxity was not worsened and patients reported improvements in the severity and psychological impact of SMF with ATX-101 vs. placebo. Most adverse events were transient and associated with the treatment area. ATX-101 was effective and well tolerated for nonsurgical SMF reduction. © 2013 The Authors. British Journal of Dermatology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of British Association of Dermatologists.

  11. Breaking up Romantic Relationships: Costs Experienced and Coping Strategies Deployed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carin Perilloux

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examined differences between men and women, and between individuals experiencing rejection (Rejectees and individuals doing the rejecting (Rejectors in romantic relationship break-ups. We tested fourteen evolution-based predictions about romantic breakups using data from 193 participants; ten received support. Women more than men, for example, experienced costly sequelae such as the loss of a mate's physical protection and harmful post-breakup stalking by the ex-partner. Both men and women who were rejected, compared with those who did the rejecting, experienced more depression, loss of self-esteem, and rumination. Rejectors, on the other hand, experienced the reputational cost of being perceived by others as cruel. Exploratory data analyses revealed that women more than men reported experiencing negative emotions after a breakup, particularly feeling sad, confused, and scared. Both sexes used an array of strategies to cope with the breakup, ranging from high base-rate strategies such as discussing the breakup with friends to low base-rate strategies such as threatening suicide. The largest sex difference in coping strategies centered on the act of shopping, used by women Rejectors as well as women Rejectees, likely a strategy of appearance enhancement prior to reentering the mating market. Discussion focuses on the adaptive significance of sex differences and individual differences based on rejection status.

  12. Standardizing terms, definitions and concepts for describing and interpreting unwanted immunogenicity of biopharmaceuticals: recommendations of the Innovative Medicines Initiative ABIRISK consortium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rup, B.; Pallardy, M.; Sikkema, D.; Albert, T.; Allez, M.; Broet, P.; Carini, C.; Creeke, P.; Davidson, J.; de Vries, N. [=Niek; Finco, D.; Fogdell-Hahn, A.; Havrdova, E.; Hincelin-Mery, A.; C Holland, M.; H Jensen, P. E.; Jury, E. C.; Kirby, H.; Kramer, D.; Lacroix-Desmazes, S.; Legrand, J.; Maggi, E.; Maillère, B.; Mariette, X.; Mauri, C.; Mikol, V.; Mulleman, D.; Oldenburg, J.; Paintaud, G.; R Pedersen, C.; Ruperto, N.; Seitz, R.; Spindeldreher, S.; Deisenhammer, F.

    2015-01-01

    Biopharmaceuticals (BPs) represent a rapidly growing class of approved and investigational drug therapies that is contributing significantly to advancing treatment in multiple disease areas, including inflammatory and autoimmune diseases, genetic deficiencies and cancer. Unfortunately, unwanted

  13. The role of empathy in experiencing vicarious anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Jocelyn; Hassell, Samuel; Weber, Jochen; Ochsner, Kevin N; Mobbs, Dean

    2017-08-01

    With depictions of others facing threats common in the media, the experience of vicarious anxiety may be prevalent in the general population. However, the phenomenon of vicarious anxiety-the experience of anxiety in response to observing others expressing anxiety-and the interpersonal mechanisms underlying it have not been fully investigated in prior research. In 4 studies, we investigate the role of empathy in experiencing vicarious anxiety, using film clips depicting target victims facing threats. In Studies 1 and 2, trait emotional empathy was associated with greater self-reported anxiety when observing target victims, and with perceiving greater anxiety to be experienced by the targets. Study 3 extended these findings by demonstrating that trait empathic concern-the tendency to feel concern and compassion for others-was associated with experiencing vicarious anxiety, whereas trait personal distress-the tendency to experience distress in stressful situations-was not. Study 4 manipulated state empathy to establish a causal relationship between empathy and experience of vicarious anxiety. Participants who took an empathic perspective when observing target victims, as compared to those who took an objective perspective using reappraisal-based strategies, reported experiencing greater anxiety, risk-aversion, and sleep disruption the following night. These results highlight the impact of one's social environment on experiencing anxiety, particularly for those who are highly empathic. In addition, these findings have implications for extending basic models of anxiety to incorporate interpersonal processes, understanding the role of empathy in social learning, and potential applications for therapeutic contexts. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. Ecological Understanding 1: Ways of Experiencing Photosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlsson, Britta

    2002-01-01

    Investigates 10 student teachers' understanding of the different ways in which the function of the ecosystem could be experienced. Explores the functional aspects of the ecosystem using a system approach. Concludes that the idea of transformation is crucial to more complex ways of understanding photosynthesis. (Contains 62 references.) (Author/YDS)

  15. Experienced teachers' informal learning from classroom teaching

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekstra, A.; Beijaard, D.; Brekelmans, M.; Korthagen, F.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to explore how experienced teachers learn informally, and more specifically, how they learn through the activities they undertake when teaching classes. Regarding these activities we studied four aspects: behaviour, cognition, motivation and emotion. During one year,

  16. Preparing Experienced Elementary Teachers as Mathematics Specialists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickerson, Susan D.

    2010-01-01

    High quality teaching is critical to student learning, yet takes considerable time to develop in particular content areas. Students in high-poverty, urban settings are less likely to encounter experienced and trained teachers. Administrators from a large school district and university mathematics education faculty partnered and attempted to…

  17. Novice and experienced teachers’ views on professionalism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Okas, Anne; van der Schaaf, Marieke; Krull, Edgar

    2014-01-01

    This article discusses teachers’ practical knowledge and beliefs of their profession based on reflective writings of twenty Estonian teachers.Ten novice and ten experienced teachers participated in the study. They put together their professional portfolios, which among other documents included

  18. On value differences experienced by sector switchers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Graaf, G.; van der Wal, Z.

    2008-01-01

    This article examines experienced differences in values between employees in the public and private sector. To elucidate them, the authors interviewed 30 employees of the public sector previously employed in the private sector and 30 employees of the private sector previously employed in the public

  19. Experienced Teachers' Informal Learning from Classroom Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoekstra, Annemarieke; Beijaard, Douwe; Brekelmans, Mieke; Korthagen, Fred

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to explore how experienced teachers learn informally, and more specifically, how they learn through the activities they undertake when teaching classes. Regarding these activities we studied four aspects: behaviour, cognition, motivation and emotion. During one year, data were collected through observations of and…

  20. Experienced discrimination in home mortgage lending

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Secchi, Davide; Seri, Raffaello

    2017-01-01

    This article proposes a framework for the analysis of experienced discrimination in home mortgages. It addresses the problem of home mortgage lending discrimination in one of the richest areas of northern Italy. Employees of a local hospital were interviewed to study their perception (or experien...

  1. The association between pregnancy intendedness and experiencing symptoms of postpartum depression among new mothers in the United States, 2009 to 2011: A secondary analysis of PRAMS data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauthreaux, Christina; Negron, Jenesis; Castellanos, Daniel; Ward-Peterson, Melissa; Castro, Grettel; Rodríguez de la Vega, Pura; Acuña, Juan Manuel

    2017-02-01

    Postpartum depression (PPD) is a form of major depressive disorder affecting approximately 13% of women worldwide. Unintended pregnancies, reaching close to 50% of the pregnancies in the United States, have become a major health concern. While many physiologic and psychosocial causes have been analyzed, few studies have examined the relationship between unintended pregnancy and symptoms of PPD.A cross-sectional study was conducted using surveillance data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (PRAMS) from 2009 to 2011. The PRAMS population-based random sample included women who have had recent live births and is representative of 78% of the United States population. The chi-squared test was used to examine bivariate associations. Binary logistic regression was utilized to study unadjusted and adjusted associations between PPD and pregnancy intendedness, as well as other demographic and clinical characteristics of mothers in the sample. Multicollinearity in the adjusted model was evaluated using variance inflation factors. Sampling weights were used to account for PRAMS' complex sampling design.Of the 110,231 mothers included in the sample, only 32.3% reported desiring the pregnancy at the time of conception. Women with pregnancies categorized as mistimed: desired sooner, mistimed: desired later, or unwanted were 20% (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.2; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.1-1.3), 30% (AOR = 1.3; 95% CI: 1.2-1.4), and 50% (AOR = 1.5; 95% CI: 1.3-1.7) more likely to experience symptoms of PPD, respectively, compared to women with desired pregnancies. Other factors found to be associated with experiencing symptoms of PPD were a gestational age of pregnancy (AOR = 1.6; 95% CI: 1.4-2.0).We found that women with mistimed or unwanted pregnancies were more likely to experience symptoms of PPD. Our findings support the current US Preventive Services Task Force and American Academy of

  2. Hypoxia training: symptom replication in experienced military aircrew.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Ben J; Iremonger, Gareth S; Hunt, Sheena; Beattie, Elizabeth

    2012-10-01

    Military aircrew are trained to recognize the signs and symptoms of hypoxia in a safe environment using a variety of methods to simulate altitude. In order to investigate the effectiveness of hypoxia training, this study compared the recall of hypoxia symptoms in military aircrew between two consecutive hypobaric chamber hypoxia training sessions conducted, on average, 4.5 yr apart. Previously trained subjects completed a questionnaire immediately before and after they underwent refresher hypoxia training and recorded the occurrence, order, and severity of symptoms experienced. Responses from refresher training were compared with their recall of symptoms experienced during previous training. There was no difference in the recall of most hypoxia symptoms between training sessions. Slurred speech was recalled more frequently from previous training compared to refresher training (14 vs. 4 subjects), whereas hot/cold flushes were recalled less frequently from previous training compared to refresher training (5 vs. 17 subjects). There was a statistically significant difference in overall hypoxia score (10.3 vs. 8.3), suggesting that from memory subjects may underestimate the level of hypoxia experienced in previous training. A high level of similarity between the recall of previously experienced hypoxia symptoms and recent experience supports the effectiveness of hypoxia training. These results replicate the finding of a 'hypoxia signature' reported by a previous study. Small differences in the recall of some symptoms and in overall hypoxia score highlight the importance of drawing attention to the more subtle symptoms of early hypoxia, and of using training techniques which optimize aircrew recall.

  3. Early initiation of sexual activity: a risk factor for sexually transmitted diseases, HIV infection, and unwanted pregnancy among university students in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravari Shahrzad

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To explore any association between the timing of the initiation of sexual activity and sexual behaviors and risks among university students in China. Methods Data were derived from a cross-sectional study on sexual behavior among university students conducted in Ningbo municipality, China, at the end of 2003. Students completed a self-administered, structured questionnaire. Of 1981 sexually active male students, 1908 (96.3% completed the item for timing of the initiation of sexual activity and were included in bivariate trend analyses and multiple logistic regression analyses to compare the association between this timing and sexual behavior and risks. Results Male early sexual initiators had a significantly higher risk profile, including a significantly higher proportion reporting non-regular partners (i.e., casual or commercial partners, multiple partners, diagnosis with a sexually transmitted disease (STD, partner history of pregnancy, partner history of induced abortion, and less condom and oral contraceptive use, compared with late initiators. Multivariate analyses confirmed the increased likelihood of these risks in early initiators versus late initiators, other than partner type during the last year. Conclusion Our results showed that, compared to late initiators, people who initiated sexual activity early engaged in more risky behaviors that could lead to elevated risks of unwanted pregnancies and STDs or human immunodeficiency virus infection. Sex-education strategies should be focused on an earlier age, should include advice on delaying the age of first sexual activity, and should target young people who continue to take sexual risks.

  4. $36 Million Command and Control Facility at Camp Leatherneck, Afghanistan: Unwanted, Unneeded, and Unused

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-01

    Memorandum of Major Danisha L. Morris , JA, Chief, Contract and Fiscal Law (June 29, 2010). SIGAR-15-57-SP Report: $36 Million Command and Control...Facility at Camp Leatherneck, Afghanistan Page 60 EXHIBIT 10 -----Original Message----- From: Mills LtGen Richard P Sent: Tuesday , February 11

  5. Safe Schools and Sexual Harassment: The Relationship between School Climate and Coping with Unwanted Sexual Behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmerman, M. C.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To explore the impact of the school climate on adolescents' reporting of sexual harassment. Design: A quantitative survey among students in their 4th year of secondary education. Setting: Questionnaires were completed in a class setting. Method: An a-select sampling strategy was used to select 2808 students in 22 schools. Results:…

  6. Deprivation as un-experienced harm?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keerus, Külli; Gjerris, Mickey; Röcklinsberg, Helena

    2017-01-01

    Tom Regan encapsulated his principle of harm as a prima facie direct duty not to harm experiencing subjects of a life. However, his consideration of harm as deprivation, one example of which is loss of freedom, can easily be interpreted as a harm, which may not be experienced by its subject....... This creates a gap between Regan’s criterion for moral status and his account of what our duties are. However, in comparison with three basic paradigms of welfare known in nonhuman animal welfare science, Regan’s understanding coheres with a modified version of a feelings-based paradigm: not only the immediate...... feelings of satisfaction, but also future opportunities to have such feelings, must be taken into account. Such an interpretation is compatible with Regan’s understanding of harm as deprivation. The potential source of confusion, however, lies in Regan’s own possible argumentative mistakes....

  7. Effects of planned, mistimed and unwanted pregnancies on the use of prenatal health services in sub-Saharan Africa: a multicountry analysis of Demographic and Health Survey data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amo-Adjei, Joshua; Anamaale Tuoyire, Derek

    2016-12-01

    We analysed the extent of planned, mistimed and unwanted pregnancies and how they predict optimal use of prenatal (timing and number of antenatal) care services in 30 African countries. We pooled data from Demographic and Health Surveys conducted in 30 African countries between 2006 and 2015. We described the extent of mistimed and unwanted pregnancies and further used mixed effects logistic and Poisson regression estimation techniques to examine the impacts of planned, mistimed and unwanted pregnancies on the use of prenatal health services. In total, 73.65% of pregnancies in all countries were planned. Mistimed pregnancy ranged from 7.43% in Burkina Faso to 41.33% in Namibia. Unwanted pregnancies were most common in Swaziland (39.54%) and least common in Niger (0.74%). Timely (first trimester) initiation of ANC was 37% overall in all countries; the multicountry average number of ANC visits was optimal [4.1; 95% CI: 4.1-4.2] but with notable disparities between countries. Overall, mistimed and unwanted pregnancies were strongly associated with late ANC attendance and fewer visits women made in the pooled analysis. Unintended pregnancies are critical risks to achieving improved maternal health in respect of early and optimal ANC coverage for women in Africa. Programmes targeted at advancing coverage of ANC in Africa need to deploy contextually appropriate mechanisms to prevent unintended pregnancies. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Burnout among Low and High Experienced Teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyedehhava Mousavy

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Burnout is a serious psychological syndrome that can affect not only an individual’s well-being, but also the functioning of whole organisations, such as schools. It is characterized by emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and decreased personal accomplishment.The level of burnout among teachers in the field of education has a negative impact on student success. The present investigation examines the level of burn out among high and low experienced teachers. It focused on a group of English teachers from different nationalities: Iranian, and Malaysian at UPM to examine if there is any relation between burnout and experience level. The sample consisted of 30 English teachers. Two instruments namely, The Maslach Burnout Inventory and Demographic Questionnaire were used to collect data. Data analysis revealed that there is no significant difference in depersonalization and personal accomplishment scores between low and high experienced teachers. But the result of this study also revealed that there is a significant difference in Emotional Exhaustion scores between low and high experienced teachers. Further research is required to explore the roots and the causes of burnout.

  9. Unwanted Guests: The Impact of Iraqi Refugees on Jordan’s Economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-13

    The International Crisis Group, a non-governmental organization, interviewed Iraqi refugees in 2007 and reported a number of instances of harassment ...process: Before they can be legally employed, Iraqi refugees must obtain a work permit from the Ministry of Labour . To be eligible for a work permit...Minister of the Interior and the Minister of Labour , respectively. Jordanian law also requires potential employers to provide a litany of documents and

  10. MODIFIED APPROACH FOR SITE SELECTION OF UNWANTED RADIOACTIVE SEALED SOURCES DISPOSAL IN ARID COUNTRIES (CASE STUDY - EGYPT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ABDEL AZIZ, M.A.H.; COCHRAN, J.R.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study is to present a systematic methodology for siting of radioactive sealed sources disposal in arid countries and demonstrate the use of this methodology in Egypt. Availing from the experience gained from the greater confinement disposal (GCD) boreholes in Nevada, USA, the IAEA's approach for siting of near disposal was modified to fit the siting of the borehole disposal which suits the unwanted radioactive sealed sources. The modifications are represented by dividing the surveyed area into three phases; the exclusion phase in which the areas that meet exclusion criteria should be excluded, the site selection phase in which some potential sites that meet the primary criteria should be candidate and the preference stage in which the preference between the potential candidate sites should be carried out based on secondary criteria to select one or two sites at most. In Egypt, a considerable amount of unwanted radioactive sealed sources wastes have accumulated due to the peaceful uses of radio-isotopes.Taking into account the regional aspects and combining of the proposed developed methodology with geographic information system (GIS), the Nile Delta and its valley, the Sinai Peninsula and areas of historical heritage value are excluded from our concern as potential areas for radioactive waste disposal. Using the primary search criteria, some potential sites south Kharga, the Great Sand Sea, Gilf El-Kebear and the central part of the eastern desert have been identified as candidate areas meeting the primary criteria of site selection. More detailed studies should be conducted taking into account the secondary criteria to prefer among the above sites and select one or two sites at most

  11. Exposure to unwanted intrusions, neutralizing and their effects on self-worth and obsessive-compulsive phenomena.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahern, Claire; Kyrios, Michael; Meyer, Denny

    2015-12-01

    Although there is a growing body of literature to support the importance of understanding self processes in the experience of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), no experimental research has directly examined the relationship between self-construals and phenomena central to OCD. The current study examined the effect that unwanted intrusions and neutralizing responses have on self-worth, distress and urge to neutralize. After listening to repeated audio recordings of idiosyncratic unwanted intrusions, a combined nonclinical and clinical OCD sample were asked to respond with either their chosen neutralizing strategy (experimental) or a refocus counting strategy (control). Each condition comprised of a 12-min responding period (respond) followed by an equivalent non-response period (listen). Participants completed each condition, and were randomly allocated into the condition completed first. Ratings of discomfort, urge to neutralize, and self-worth were measured throughout. Neutralizing and refocussing responses were both associated with decreases in discomfort and higher self-worth. The expected rebound effect for discomfort and urge to neutralize for the listen period after neutralizing was found. Methodological problems lead to missing data, although this was corrected with the use of Multi Level Modelling (MLM) analysis on a combined sample. The small clinical sample meant that comparison between the two populations was not possible. Findings support cognitive accounts that neutralizing is involved in the development and maintenance of OCD, and suggest that neutralizing is a purposeful response aimed to help reinstate self-worth. Implications and directions for future research are discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Workplace violence experienced by registered nurses: a concept analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventura-Madangeng, Judee; Wilson, Denise

    2009-11-01

    Workplace violence toward nurses has increased during the last decade with serious consequences that may extend beyond individual nurses to an entire health care organisation. The variety of definitions of workplace violence experienced by registered nurses contribute to a lack of clarity about what it constitutes, which in turn jeopardizes the reporting of incidences by nurses. Drawing on the relevant literature from 1990 to 2005, a concept analysis using Walker and Avant's framework was undertaken to develop an operational definition of this phenomenon as experienced by registered nurses (excluding mental health nurses). Having a clear understanding of workplace violence assists with the creation of strategies aimed at preventing and/or resolving this problem.

  13. Microaggressions experienced by persons with mental illnesses: An exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales, Lauren; Davidoff, Kristin C; Nadal, Kevin L; Yanos, Philip T

    2015-09-01

    Microaggressions are subtle verbal or behavioral communications of disparaging messages to people based upon membership in a socially marginalized group. Their negative impact has been demonstrated for racial/ethnic groups, gender, sexual orientation, and physical disability, but currently no research exists on microaggressions as experienced by persons with mental illnesses. Qualitative data were gathered from 4 focus groups with 2 samples: adult mental health consumers in an assertive community treatment program and college students with mental illness diagnoses. Focus group transcripts were then analyzed using an open coding approach (Strauss & Corbin, 1990) to identify hierarchical themes and categories. Five major themes were identified, including invalidation, assumption of inferiority, fear of mental illness, shaming of mental illness, and second class citizen. Perpetrators of microaggressions were most commonly identified as being close friends, family members, and authority figures. Importantly, participants reported experiencing more overt discrimination experiences than subtle microaggression experiences. Reported negative outcomes related to microaggression experiences included isolation, negative emotions, and treatment nonadherence. Reported consequences of microaggressions have important implications for mental health treatment, especially as perpetrators were reported to include treatment providers and were usually unaware of such negative social exchanges. Loss of social support reported by participants and the frequent occurrence of microaggressions within close relationships implies these experiences could contribute to internalization of stigmatizing attitudes toward mental illness. Directions for future research include an investigation of motivation and reasoning behind perpetration of microaggressions against persons with mental illnesses. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. Reasons why undergraduate women comply with unwanted, non-coercive sexual advances: A serial indirect effect model integrating sexual script theory and sexual self-control perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn-Nilas, Christopher; Kennett, Deborah J

    2018-01-16

    This study explored the predictors of young women's compliance with unwanted sexual activities, integrating the social with the cognitive and behavioral correlates of sexual compliance. In total, 222 young heterosexual women completed measures examining the Sexual Self-Control model, including reasons for consenting, sexual resourcefulness, and compliance with unwanted sex, as well as gender role measures pertaining to sexual script theory, including the sexual double standard, gender role stress, and virginity scripts. An exploratory analysis of serial indirect effects demonstrated that women scoring lower in sexual resourcefulness endorsed higher female gender role stress, which in turn was associated with higher endorsement of reasons for consent, translating into more frequent compliance with unwanted sexual activities. The relationship between one's ability to refuse and their decision to refuse appears quite complex. Understanding one's decision requires consideration of the social aspects of gender role endorsement.

  15. The role of poor sleep in the relation between workplace bullying/unwanted sexual attention and long-term sickness absence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nabe-Nielsen, Kirsten; Grynderup, Matias Brødsgaard; Lange, Theis

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: While exposure to bullying and unwanted sexual attention was previously found to increase the risk of sickness absence, the underlying mechanisms are largely unknown. Poor sleep can be a consequence of stressful exposures and a cause of poor health, and poor sleep is also a determinant...... of insufficient recovery. Therefore, the present study investigated whether poor sleep mediates and/or moderates the association between bullying and unwanted sexual attention, on the one hand, and long-term sickness absence (LTSA), on the other hand. Methods: We used questionnaire data from 7650 individuals...... contributing with 15,040 2-year observation periods. Workplace bullying, unwanted sexual attention, disturbed sleep, and difficulties awakening were measured at three time points, and participants were followed in registers to measure the occurrence of LTSA, defined as ≥30 consecutive days of sickness absence...

  16. ‘Bobo-Newton Syndrome’: An Unwanted Gift from Man’s Best Friend

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristin Y Popiel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Capnocytophaga canimorsus is a facultative Gram-negative bacillus that is typically a constituent of the oral flora of dogs and cats. It was first isolated by Bobo and Newton in 1976 from a man presenting with meningitis following a dog bite. Transmission to humans follows various animal-related injuries, which may be gross or subtle. C canimorsus can cause a spectrum of syndromes ranging from skin and soft tissue infection to invasive disease such as meningitis or endocarditis. The present article reports a case of C canimorsus meningitis in a patient with the classic risk factor of alcoholic liver cirrhosis. Clinical suspicion was confirmed by culture and genetic identification of the blood isolate. The present article reviews the Capnocytophaga genus, the clinical syndromes most commonly associated with this zoonotic organism, its laboratory identification and treatment.

  17. The role of poor sleep in the relation between workplace bullying/unwanted sexual attention and long-term sickness absence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabe-Nielsen, Kirsten; Grynderup, Matias Brødsgaard; Lange, Theis; Andersen, Johan Hviid; Bonde, Jens Peter; Conway, Paul Maurice; Garde, Anne Helene; Høgh, Annie; Kaerlev, Linda; Rugulies, Reiner; Hansen, Åse Marie

    2016-08-01

    While exposure to bullying and unwanted sexual attention was previously found to increase the risk of sickness absence, the underlying mechanisms are largely unknown. Poor sleep can be a consequence of stressful exposures and a cause of poor health, and poor sleep is also a determinant of insufficient recovery. Therefore, the present study investigated whether poor sleep mediates and/or moderates the association between bullying and unwanted sexual attention, on the one hand, and long-term sickness absence (LTSA), on the other hand. We used questionnaire data from 7650 individuals contributing with 15,040 2-year observation periods. Workplace bullying, unwanted sexual attention, disturbed sleep, and difficulties awakening were measured at three time points, and participants were followed in registers to measure the occurrence of LTSA, defined as ≥30 consecutive days of sickness absence during the subsequent 2 years. The odds of LTSA were significantly increased by workplace bullying (OR 1.77; 95 % CI 1.50-2.12) and unwanted sexual attention (OR 1.55; 95 % CI 1.06-2.29). Together, disturbed sleep and difficulties awakening mediated 12.8 % (95 % CI 8.1-19.8) of the association between bullying and long-term sickness absence, and 8.5 % (95 % CI -0.45 to 37.1) of the association between unwanted sexual attention and long-term sickness absence in the fully adjusted model. Neither disturbed sleep nor difficulties awakening moderated these associations. As expected, bullying and unwanted sexual attention were prospectively associated with long-term sickness absence. Only a small part of this association was mediated by poor sleep.

  18. Physicians Experiencing Intense Emotions While Seeing Their Patients: What Happens?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Joana Vilela Da; Carvalho, Irene

    2016-01-01

    Physicians often deal with emotions arising from both patients and themselves; however, management of intense emotions when they arise in the presence of patients is overlooked in research. The aim of this study is to inspect physicians' intense emotions in this context, how these emotions are displayed, coping strategies used, adjustment behaviors, and the impact of the emotional reactions on the physician-patient relationship. A total of 127 physicians completed a self-report survey, built from a literature review. Participants were recruited in 3 different ways: through a snowball sampling procedure, via institutional e-mails, and in person during service meetings. Fifty-two physicians (43.0%) reported experiencing intense emotions frequently. Although most physicians (88.6%) tried to control their reactions, several reported not controlling themselves. Coping strategies to deal with the emotion at the moment included behavioral and cognitive approaches. Only the type of reaction (but not the emotion's valence, duration, relative control, or coping strategies used) seemed to affect the physician-patient relationship. Choking-up/crying, touching, smiling, and providing support were significantly associated with an immediate positive impact. Withdrawing from the situation, imposing, and defending oneself were associated with a negative impact. Some reactions also had an extended impact into future interactions. Experiencing intense emotions in the presence of patients was frequent among physicians, and the type of reaction affected the clinical relationship. Because many physicians reported experiencing long-lasting emotions, these may have important clinical implications for patients visiting physicians while these emotions last. Further studies are needed to clarify these results.

  19. Experiencing Instigations and Trait Aggression Contribute to Harsh Parenting Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Randy J

    2017-01-01

    Three studies (total N = 1777 parents) examined whether harsh parenting behaviors would increase when parents experienced an instigation and whether this increase would be especially pronounced for parents who were high in trait aggression. These predictions were tested both when parents' experience of an instigation was manipulated (Studies 1 and 2) and when parents' perceptions of their child's instigating behavior was reported (Study 3). Further, these predictions were tested across a variety of measures of parents' harsh behaviors: (1) asking parents to report their likelihood of behaving harshly (Study 1), (2) using proxy tasks for parents' inclinations to behave harshly (Study 2), and (3) having parents report their past child-directed behaviors, some of which were harsh (Study 3). Both child instigations and parents' trait aggression were consistently associated with parents' child-directed harsh behaviors. However, parents' trait aggression only moderated the extent to which the instigation was associated with their harsh parenting for self-reported physical harsh behaviors (Study 1). The results of the current studies demonstrate that both situational factors, such as experiencing an instigation, and individual difference variables, such as trait aggression, affect parents' likelihood to exhibit harsh behaviors, but found little evidence these factors interact.

  20. Benign Ancient Schwannoma of the abdominal wall: An unwanted birthday present

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ram Manisha

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There has been a recent growth in the use of whole body Computerised Tomography (CT scans in the private sector as a screening test for asymptomatic disease. This is despite scant evidence to show any positive effect on morbidity or mortality. There has been concern raised over the possible harms of the test in terms of radiation exposure as well as the risk and anxiety of further investigation and treatment for the large numbers of benign lesions identified. Case Presentation A healthy 64 year old lady received a privately funded whole body CT scan for her birthday which revealed an incidental mass in the right iliac fossa. This was investigated with further imaging and colonoscopy and as confident diagnosis could not be made, eventually excised. Histology demonstrated this to be a benign ancient schwannoma and we believe this to be the first reported case of an abdominal wall schwannoma in the English literature Conclusions Ancient schwannomas are rare tumours of the peripheral nerve sheaths more usually found in the head, neck and flexor surfaces of extremities. They are a subtype of classical schwannomas with a predominance of degenerative changes. Our case highlights the pitfalls of such screening tests in demonstrating benign disease and subjecting patients to what turns out to be unnecessary invasive investigation and treatment. It provides evidence as to the consequences of the large number of false positive results that are created by blind CT scanning of asymptomatic patients i.e. its tendency to detect pseudodiesease rather than affect survival rates. Should the number of scans increase there may be an unnecessary burden on NHS resources due to the large numbers of benign lesions picked up, that are then referred for further investigation.

  1. Ethical problems experienced by oncology nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Luz, Kely Regina; Vargas, Mara Ambrosina de Oliveira; Schmidtt, Pablo Henrique; Barlem, Edison Luiz Devos; Tomaschewski-Barlem, Jamila Geri; da Rosa, Luciana Martins

    2015-01-01

    To know the ethical problems experienced by oncology nurses. Descriptive and exploratory study with a qualitative approach, performed in inpatient units and in chemotherapy out-patients units that provide assistance to oncological patients in two capitals in the South region of Brazil. Eighteen nurses participated in this study, selected by snowball sampling type. For data collection, semi-structured interviews were carried out, which were recorded and transcribed, and then analyzed by thematic analysis. Two categories were established: when informing or not becomes a dilemma - showing the main difficulties related to oncological treatment information regarding health staff, health system, and infrastructure; to invest or not - dilemmas related to finitude - showing situations of dilemmas related to pain and confrontation with finitude. For the effective confrontation of the ethical problems experienced by oncology nurses to occur, it is important to invest in the training of these professionals, preparing them in an ethical and human way to act as lawyers of the patient with cancer, in a context of dilemmas related mainly to the possibility of finitude.

  2. Training Impact on Novice and Experienced Research Coordinators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behar-Horenstein, Linda S; Potter, JoNell Efantis; Prikhidko, Alena; Swords, Stephanie; Sonstein, Stephen; Kolb, H Robert

    2017-12-01

    Competency-based training and professional development is critical to the clinical research enterprise. Understanding research coordinators' perspectives is important for establishing a common core curriculum. The purpose of this study was to describe participants' perspectives regarding the impact of online and classroom training sessions. 27 participants among three institutions, completed a two-day classroom training session. 10 novice and seven experienced research coordinators participated in focus group interviews. Grounded theory revealed similarities in novice and experienced coordinator themes including Identifying Preferences for Instruction and Changing Self Perceptions. Differences, seen in experienced participants, focused on personal change, in the theme of Re-Assessing Skills. Infrastructure and cultural issues were evident in their theme, Promoting Leadership and Advocacy. Novice participants recommended ways to improve training via their theme of Making Programmatic Improvements. Participants reported a clear preference for classroom learning. Training played an influential role in changing participants' self-perceptions by validating their experiences. The findings provided guidance for developing a standardized curriculum. Training must be carefully tailored to the needs of participants while considering audience needs based on work experience, how technology can be used and offering content that is most urgently needed.

  3. Meaning in life in psychotherapy: The perspective of experienced psychotherapists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Clara E; Kanazawa, Yoshi; Knox, Sarah; Schauerman, Iris; Loureiro, Darren; James, Danielle; Carter, Imani; King, Shakeena; Razzak, Suad; Scarff, Melanie; Moore, Jasmine

    2017-07-01

    Our goal was to explore the meaning experienced psychotherapists derive from providing psychotherapy, their beliefs about the role of meaning in life (MIL) in psychotherapy, how they worked with MIL with a client who explicitly presented concerns about MIL, and how they worked with a different client for whom MIL was a secondary and more implicit concern. Thirteen experienced psychotherapists were interviewed and data were analyzed using consensual qualitative research. Therapists derived self-oriented meaning (e.g., feeling gratified, fulfilled, connected) and other-oriented meaning (helping others, making the world a better place) from providing psychotherapy. They believed that MIL is fundamental and underlies all human concerns, including those brought to therapy. In contrast to the clients who had implicit MIL concerns, clients who explicitly presented MIL concerns were reported to have more interpersonal problems and physical problems, but about the same amount of psychological distress and loss/grief. Therapists used insight-oriented interventions, support, action-oriented interventions, and exploratory interventions to work with MIL with both types of clients, but used more exploratory interventions with implicit than explicit MIL clients. MIL is a salient topic for experienced, existentially oriented psychotherapists; they work with MIL extensively with some clients in psychotherapy. We recommend that therapists receive training to work with MIL in therapy, and that they pay attention to MIL concerns when they conduct psychotherapy. We also recommend additional research on MIL in psychotherapy.

  4. Problems experienced by older people when opening medicine packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philbert, Daphne; Notenboom, Kim; Bouvy, Marcel L; van Geffen, Erica C G

    2014-06-01

    Medicine packages can cause problems in daily practice, especially among older people. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of problems experienced by older people when opening medicine packaging and to investigate how patients manage these problems. A convenience sample of 30 community pharmacies participated in this study. They selected a systematic sample of 30 patients over 65 years old with a recent omeprazole prescription, and a questionnaire was administered by telephone for at least 10 patients per pharmacy. A total of 317 patients completed the questionnaire. They received their omeprazole in a bottle (n = 179, 56.5%), push-through blister pack (n = 102, 32.2%) or peel-off blister pack (n = 36, 11.4%). Some 28.4% of all patients experienced one or more problems with opening their omeprazole packaging; most problems occurred with peel-off blisters (n = 24, 66.7% of all respondents using peel-off blisters), followed by push-through blisters (n = 34, 33.3%) and finally bottles (n = 32, 17.9%). The risk of experiencing problems with peel-off blisters and push-through blisters was higher [relative risk 3.7 (95% confidence interval 2.5-5.5) and 1.9 (1.2-2.8), respectively] than the risk of experiencing problems with opening bottles. Two-thirds of respondents reported management strategies for their problems. Most were found for problems opening bottles (n = 24, 75%), followed by push-through blisters (n = 24, 70.6%) and peel-off blisters (n = 14, 58.3%). One in four patients over 65 experienced difficulties opening their omeprazole packaging and not all of them reported a management strategy for their problems. Manufacturers are advised to pay more attention to the user-friendliness of product packaging. In addition, it is important that pharmacy staff clearly instruct patients on how to open their medicine packaging, or assist them in choosing the most appropriate packaging. © 2013 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  5. Women in a hidrogymnastic class: experienced the grouping Interrelationship

    OpenAIRE

    Vládia Teles Moreira; Maria Gorette Andrade Bezerra; Karla Maria Carneiro Rolim; Maria de Fátima Maciel Araújo

    2004-01-01

    This study reports the practice experienced by nurses whose goal was to contribute with theuse of dynamic’s groups promoting a reflection about the self-care in health, in a group of women with the age between 60 and 80 years old who were joining the hydro gymnastic class. The experience was developed during the months of May and June of 2002, at an Olympic park of a sport center of a private school in Fortaleza, Ceara. The methodology of the process was developed through educational workshop...

  6. Experiencing the enchantment of place and mobility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bærenholdt, Jørgen Ole

    2016-01-01

    in several layers of reality. To better understand experiences taking place in intersections between realities, J.R.R. Tolkien’s concept of how real enchantment produces a Secondary World suggests that we see fantasy as real, and this proposition is compared to Georg Simmel’s more modernist suggestion......Experiences of place and mobility play central roles not only in what was traditionally understood as tourism, but also in the broader practices of travelling and visiting sites and sights. On the one hand, such experiences are performed to an extent where it is difficult to isolate the sites...... and movements experienced per se, since visitors and travellers take part in ‘doing’ places and mobility. On the other, experience sites and routes stand out with specific traces and characteristics affording some – and not other – experiences. This paper discusses conceptual understandings that may help...

  7. Challenges experienced by debt counsellors in Gauteng

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kgomotso Masilo

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Gauteng, Province of South Africa is experiencing a decreasing number of registered and practising debt counsellors. This paper investigates and assesses the challenges that debt counsellors in Gauteng experiences. Fifteen debt counsellors from three municipalities of Gauteng were interviewed. Data was analysed using ATLAS ti. The paper concluded that though debt counsellors are complying with the regulations in rendering debt counselling service, they still had challenges regarding backlogs in debt review. The paper recommends that debt counsellors should be adequately trained and should restructure their rehabilitation methods on the one hand and the National Credit Regulator should monitor debt counsellors’ practices and assist them with their queries on the other hand.

  8. Mitigation of unwanted direct and indirect land-use change - an integrated approach illustrated for palm oil, pulpwood, rubber and rice production in North and East Kalimantan, Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Laan, Carina; Wicke, Birka; Verweij, Pita A.; Faaij, André P C

    2017-01-01

    The widespread production of cash crops can result in the decline of forests, peatlands, rice fields and local community land. Such unwanted land-use and land-cover (LULC) change can lead to decreased carbon stocks, diminished biodiversity, displaced communities and reduced local food production. In

  9. Suppressing Unwanted Autobiographical Memories Reduces Their Automatic Influences: Evidence From Electrophysiology and an Implicit Autobiographical Memory Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xiaoqing; Bergström, Zara M; Bodenhausen, Galen V; Rosenfeld, J Peter

    2015-07-01

    The present study investigated the extent to which people can suppress unwanted autobiographical memories in a memory-detection context involving a mock crime. Participants encoded sensorimotor-rich memories by enacting a lab-based crime (stealing a ring) and received instructions to suppress memory of the crime in order to evade guilt detection in a brain-wave-based concealed-information test. Aftereffects of suppression on automatic memory processes were measured in an autobiographical Implicit Association Test. Results showed that suppression attenuated brain-wave activity (the P300) associated with crime-relevant memory retrieval, which rendered waveforms from innocent and guilty participants indistinguishable. However, the two groups could nevertheless be discriminated via the late-posterior-negative slow wave, which may reflect the need to monitor response conflict arising between voluntary suppression and automatic recognition processes. Finally, extending recent findings that suppression can impair implicit memory processes, we provide novel evidence that suppression reduces automatic cognitive biases often associated with actual autobiographical memories. © The Author(s) 2015.

  10. Game Theoretic Analysis of Pricing and Cooperative Advertising in a Reverse Supply Chain for Unwanted Medications in Households

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meina Hua

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Improper disposal of household unwanted medications (UMs is an emergency problem around the world that adversely affects the sustainability of the environment and human’s health. However, the current disposal practices, mainly based on advertising and collecting status, are unsatisfactory in most countries and regions. Thus, some scholars proposed an alternative disposal practice that is to provide incentives to customers. This study aims to compare a Single Model (advertising only with a Joint Model (advertising with take-back pricing in a two-echelon reverse supply chain (RSC that is composed of one disposer and one collector. In each model, four games (non-cooperative, collector as the Stackelberg leader, disposer as the Stackelberg leader, and cooperative were established in order to identify the optimal pricing and advertising strategies for both members. The results of the study indicate that there is a Pareto dominant range for Joint Model compared to Single Model, whereas Single Model has no Pareto improvement in any games. Furthermore, in non-cooperative games of Joint Model, it is better to implement the leader-follower structure rather than simultaneous movement structure. Additionally, it is verified that the cooperative game is feasible, which leads to the cooperation between the disposer and the collector, and the extra profit from the cooperation can be shared based on the Nash bargaining game. However, in Single Model, it is better for the disposer to act as a channel leader and the collector figures the follower.

  11. Knowledge and attitude of young people regarding HIV prevention and unwanted pregnancy in Bobo-Dioulasso, Burkina Faso

    Science.gov (United States)

    Come Yélian Adohinzin, Clétus; Meda, Nicolas; Anicet Ouédraogo, Georges; Gaston Belem, Adrien Marie; Sombié, Issiaka; Berthé, Abdramane; Bakwin Kandala, Ngianga; Damienne Avimadjenon, Georgette; Fond-Harmant, Laurence

    2016-10-19

    Introduction: Despite health education efforts, young people are still faced with major health problems. The objective of this study was to assess the knowledge and attitude regarding HIV prevention and unwanted pregnancy among young people in Bobo-Dioulasso, Burkina Faso. Methods: Based on two-level sampling, representing 94,947 households in the Bobo-Dioulasso municipality, 573 young people between the ages of 15 and 24 years were interviewed. This data collection was conducted from September 2014 to January 2015 in the three districts of the municipality. A questionnaire was used to assess the knowledge and attitudes of young people. Results: The interviewees had a poor knowledge about HIV transmission and prevention and contraception Very few young people (9%) had complete knowledge about the modes of transmission and 5% had no knowledge. Persistent misperceptions about the effectiveness of condoms (25%) and contraception (32%) did not prevent some young people from using them (79% used condoms and 46% used contraceptives). Knowledge and attitudes of young people regarding HIV and contraception varied according to age, sex, education level and type of parental supervision. Conclusion: A significant proportion of young people still has incomplete knowledge about HIV/AIDS and contraception. Actions designed to reinforce the knowledge of young people are of paramount importance. The capacities of parents and healthcare providers also need to be reinforced to improve the quality of relationship with young people.

  12. Subjective expansion of extended time-spans in experienced meditators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc eWittmann

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Experienced meditators typically report that they experience time slowing down in meditation practise as well as in everyday life. Conceptually this phenomenon may be understood through functional states of mindfulness, i.e. by attention regulation, body awareness, emotion regulation, and enhanced memory. However, hardly any systematic empirical work exists regarding the experience of time in meditators. In the current cross-sectional study, we investigated whether 42 experienced mindfulness meditation practitioners (with on average 10 years of experience showed differences in the experience of time as compared to 42 controls without any meditation experience matched for age, sex and education. The perception of time was assessed with a battery of psychophysical tasks assessing the accuracy of prospective time judgments in duration discrimination, duration reproduction and time estimation in the milliseconds to minutes range as well with several psychometric instruments related to subjective time such as the Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory, the Barrett Impulsivity Scale and the Freiburg Mindfulness Inventory. In addition, subjective time judgments on the current passage of time and retrospective time ranges were assessed. While subjective judgements of time were found to be significantly different between the two groups on several scales, no differences in duration estimates in the psychophysical tasks were detected. Regarding subjective time, mindfulness meditators experienced less time pressure, more time dilation, and a general slower passage of time. Moreover, they felt that the last week and the last month passed more slowly. Overall, although no intergroup differences in psychophysical tasks were detected, the reported findings demonstrate a close association between mindfulness meditation and the subjective feeling of the passage of time captured by psychometric instruments.

  13. RECEIVING UNWANTED EMAIL?

    CERN Multimedia

    Denise Heagerty

    2002-01-01

    Unsolicited email, commonly known as SPAM, is a growing problem across the Internet at large. You are recommended to delete it. If the email looks suspicious, do not even open it (from Outlook you can delete email using the right button of your mouse to select the message and then selecting delete). Viruses are often hidden inside attachments, so do not open attachments in unsolicited email. SPAM and virus emails can be disguised to trick you into reading the email and/or performing an action. Here are examples of some techniques to help you recognise them: fake email addresses: emails can appear to be from people you know or even from yourself. Your own email address can appear in emails which you did not send, resulting in non-delivery messages or unexpected replies. Fake addresses may be used to send viruses. If the email looks suspicious then delete it and do not open the attachments. If you are unsure then check with the sender first. enticing subjects: the email subject uses words to make you curious...

  14. Episodic Memory Development: Theory of Mind Is Part of Re-Experiencing Experienced Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perner, Josef; Kloo, Daniela; Gornik, Edith

    2007-01-01

    Two experiments with 3 1/2- to 6 1/2-year-old children showed that theory-of-mind development is associated with the growth of episodic memory. Episodic memory was assessed by manipulating informational conditions such that they permit or prevent the formation of episodic memories in terms of re-experiencing the recalled event. Only experienced…

  15. Women experiencing the intergenerationality of conjugal violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilvânia Patrícia do Nascimento Paixão

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to analyze the family relationship, in childhood and adolescence, of women who experience conjugal violence.Method: qualitative study. Interviews were held with 19 women, who were experiencing conjugal violence, and who were resident in a community in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil. The project was approved by the Research Ethics Committee (N. 42/2011.Results: the data was organized using the Discourse of the Collective Subject, identifying the summary central ideas: they witnessed violence between their parents; they suffered repercussions from the violence between their parents: they were angry about the mother's submission to her partner; and they reproduced the conjugal violence. The discourse showed that the women witnessed, in childhood and adolescence, violence between their parents, and were injured both physically and psychologically. As a result of the mother's submission, feelings of anger arose in the children. However, in the adult phase of their own lives, they noticed that their conjugal life resembled that of their parents, reproducing the violence.Conclusion: investment is necessary in strategies designed to break inter-generational violence, and the health professionals are important in this process, as it is a phenomenon with repercussions in health. Because they work in the Family Health Strategy, which focuses on the prevention of harm and illness, health promotion and interdepartmentality, the nurses are essential in the process of preventing and confronting this phenomenon.

  16. Embarazo no deseado en adolescentes, y utilización de métodos anticonceptivos posparto Unwanted adolescent pregnancy and post-partum utilization of contraceptive methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa María Núñez-Urquiza

    2003-01-01

    potencial de cobertura aún no alcanzado entre el grupo de adolescentes, especialmente entre las que viven en áreas suburbanas y entre las no derechohabientes de la seguridad social. Asimismo, sugiere la necesidad de insistir en la promoción de la utilización de métodos anticonceptivos posparto en este grupo considerado de alto riesgo reproductivo. Además, se evidencia la necesidad de investigar sobre métodos de educación sexual y reproductiva que puedan introducirse en el sistema escolar desde el nivel primario.OBJECTIVE: To describe the proportion of unwanted pregnancies among all pregnant adolescents, its association with sociodemographic characteristics, and the use of post-partum contraceptive methods. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 220 women between 13 and 19 years of age, in two semi-urban municipalities of the State of Morelos, Mexico, interviewed between 1992 and 1994. Women were interviewed at home, six to twelve weeks after their delivery date. Women were asked whether they had wanted their last pregnancy, and about knowledge and use of contraceptive methods after delivery. RESULTS: Adolescent pregnancies accounted for 17% of all births registered in these two municipalities. Among all adolescent mother 22.73% reported that their pregnancy had not been wanted. A positive association was found between the lack of access to health services provided by public medical insurance systems (Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social IMSS and Instituto de Seguridad y Servicios Sociales para los Trabajadores del Estado ISSSTE and unwanted pregnancy (adjusted OR=3.03, 95% CI (1.31, 7. An association was also found between living in an urban community (adjusted OR=2.16, 95% CI (1.08, 4.33 and an unwanted pregnancy. Among all adolescent mothers, 91.3% were familiar with "the pill" as a contraceptive method; 84.72% knew about the IUD, and 63.68% knew about the condom. However, only 35% of them were actually using an effective contraceptive

  17. Engineering a segmented dual-reservoir polyurethane intravaginal ring for simultaneous prevention of HIV transmission and unwanted pregnancy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin T Clark

    Full Text Available The HIV/AIDS pandemic and its impact on women prompt the investigation of prevention strategies to interrupt sexual transmission of HIV. Long-acting drug delivery systems that simultaneously protect womenfrom sexual transmission of HIV and unwanted pregnancy could be important tools in combating the pandemic. We describe the design, in silico, in vitro and in vivo evaluation of a dual-reservoir intravaginal ring that delivers the HIV-1 reverse transcriptase inhibitor tenofovir and the contraceptive levonorgestrel for 90 days. Two polyether urethanes with two different hard segment volume fractions were used to make coaxial extruded reservoir segments with a 100 µm thick rate controlling membrane and a diameter of 5.5 mm that contain 1.3 wt% levonorgestrel. A new mechanistic diffusion model accurately described the levonorgestrel burst release in early time points and pseudo-steady state behavior at later time points. As previously described, tenofovir was formulated as a glycerol paste and filled into a hydrophilic polyurethane, hollow tube reservoir that was melt-sealed by induction welding. These tenofovir-eluting segments and 2 cm long coaxially extruded levonorgestrel eluting segments were joined by induction welding to form rings that released an average of 7.5 mg tenofovir and 21 µg levonorgestrel per day in vitro for 90 days. Levonorgestrel segments placed intravaginally in rabbits resulted in sustained, dose-dependent levels of levonorgestrel in plasma and cervical tissue for 90 days. Polyurethane caps placed between segments successfully prevented diffusion of levonorgestrel into the tenofovir-releasing segment during storage.Hydrated rings endured between 152 N and 354 N tensile load before failure during uniaxial extension testing. In summary, this system represents a significant advance in vaginal drug delivery technology, and is the first in a new class of long-acting multipurpose prevention drug delivery systems.

  18. Removal of unwanted variation reveals novel patterns of gene expression linked to sleep homeostasis in murine cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason R. Gerstner

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Why we sleep is still one of the most perplexing mysteries in biology. Strong evidence indicates that sleep is necessary for normal brain function and that sleep need is a tightly regulated process. Surprisingly, molecular mechanisms that determine sleep need are incompletely described. Moreover, very little is known about transcriptional changes that specifically accompany the accumulation and discharge of sleep need. Several studies have characterized differential gene expression changes following sleep deprivation. Much less is known, however, about changes in gene expression during the compensatory response to sleep deprivation (i.e. recovery sleep. Results In this study we present a comprehensive analysis of the effects of sleep deprivation and subsequent recovery sleep on gene expression in the mouse cortex. We used a non-traditional analytical method for normalization of genome-wide gene expression data, Removal of Unwanted Variation (RUV. RUV improves detection of differential gene expression following sleep deprivation. We also show that RUV normalization is crucial to the discovery of differentially expressed genes associated with recovery sleep. Our analysis indicates that the majority of transcripts upregulated by sleep deprivation require 6 h of recovery sleep to return to baseline levels, while the majority of downregulated transcripts return to baseline levels within 1–3 h. We also find that transcripts that change rapidly during recovery (i.e. within 3 h do so on average with a time constant that is similar to the time constant for the discharge of sleep need. Conclusions We demonstrate that proper data normalization is essential to identify changes in gene expression that are specifically linked to sleep deprivation and recovery sleep. Our results provide the first evidence that recovery sleep is comprised of two waves of transcriptional regulation that occur at different times and affect functionally

  19. Construction loads experienced by plastic composite ties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-01

    Damage to plastic composite ties during handling and track installation has been reported by a number of railroads. Results from : a survey conducted to identify specific handling issues were used to develop field and laboratory tests to measure the ...

  20. [A Model for Predicting Career Satisfaction of Nurses Experiencing Rotation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Sook; Yu, Mi

    2017-08-01

    This study aimed to present and test a structural model for describing and predicting the factors affecting subjective career satisfaction of nurses experiencing rotation and to develop human resources management strategies for promoting their career satisfaction related to rotation. In this cross-sectional study, we recruited 233 nurses by convenience sampling who had over 1 year of career experience and who had experienced rotation at least once at G university hospital. Data were collected from August to September in 2016 using self-reported questionnaires. The exogenous variables consisted of rotation perception and rotation stress. Endogenous variables consisted of career growth opportunity, work engagement, and subjective career satisfaction. A hypothetical model was tested by asymptotically distribution-free estimates, and model goodness of fit was examined using absolute fit, incremental fit measures. The final model was approved and had suitable fit. We found that subjective career satisfaction was directly affected by rotation stress (β=.20, p=.019) and work engagement (β=.58, pcareer growth opportunity and work engagement. However, there was no total effect of rotation stress on subjective career satisfaction (β=-.09, p=.270). Career growth opportunity directly and indirectly affected subjective career satisfaction (β=.29, pcareer satisfaction. The results of this study suggest that it is necessary to establish systematic and planned criteria for rotation so that nurses can grow and develop through sustained work and become satisfied with their career. © 2017 Korean Society of Nursing Science

  1. Views on Values Education: From Teacher Candidates to Experienced Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iscan, Canay Demirhan

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to identify the views of experienced class teachers and class teacher candidates on values education. It conducted standard open-ended interviews with experienced class teachers and teacher candidates. The study group comprised 9 experienced class teachers from different socio-economic levels and 9 teacher candidates with…

  2. PreciseMail anti-spam gateway allows users more control over spam definitions; unwanted email is eliminated with no false positives

    CERN Multimedia

    ten Bruggencate, J

    2003-01-01

    "PreciseMail Anti-Spam Gateway uses a combination of proven heuristic (rules-based) and artificial intelligence technologies that eliminates unwanted spam e-mail at an Internet gateway without filtering critical e-mail messages. Its highly effective filtering engine identifies spam and allows multiple levels of tuning and customization to meet each user's personal e-mail spam filtering requirements" (1 page).

  3. Critical thinking ability of new graduate and experienced nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fero, Laura J; Witsberger, Catherine M; Wesmiller, Susan W; Zullo, Thomas G; Hoffman, Leslie A

    2009-01-01

    This paper is a report of a study to identify critical thinking learning needs of new and experienced nurses. Concern for patient safety has grown worldwide as high rates of error and injury continue to be reported. In order to improve patient safety, nurses must be able to recognize changes in patient condition, perform independent nursing interventions, anticipate orders and prioritize. In 2004-2006, a consecutive sample of 2144 newly hired nurses in a university-affiliated healthcare system completed the Performance Based Development System Assessment consisting of 10 videotaped vignettes depicting change in patient status. Results were reported as meeting or not meeting expectations. For nurses not meeting expectations, learning needs were identified in one of six subcategories. Overall, 74.9% met assessment expectations. Learning needs identified for nurses not meeting expectations included initiating independent nursing interventions (97.2%), differentiation of urgency (67%), reporting essential clinical data (65.4%), anticipating relevant medical orders (62.8%), providing relevant rationale to support decisions (62.6%) and problem recognition (57.1%). Controlling for level of preparation, associate (P=0.007) and baccalaureate (Por=10 years experience (P=0.046). Patient safety may be compromised if a nurse cannot provide clinically competent care. Assessments such as the Performance Based Development System can provide information about learning needs and facilitate individualized orientation targeted to increase performance level.

  4. Problems experienced by people with arthritis when using a computer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Nancy A; Rogers, Joan C; Rubinstein, Elaine N; Allaire, Saralynn H; Wasko, Mary Chester

    2009-05-15

    To describe the prevalence of computer use problems experienced by a sample of people with arthritis, and to determine differences in the magnitude of these problems among people with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), osteoarthritis (OA), and fibromyalgia (FM). Subjects were recruited from the Arthritis Network Disease Registry and asked to complete a survey, the Computer Problems Survey, which was developed for this study. Descriptive statistics were calculated for the total sample and the 3 diagnostic subgroups. Ordinal regressions were used to determine differences between the diagnostic subgroups with respect to each equipment item while controlling for confounding demographic variables. A total of 359 respondents completed a survey. Of the 315 respondents who reported using a computer, 84% reported a problem with computer use attributed to their underlying disorder, and approximately 77% reported some discomfort related to computer use. Equipment items most likely to account for problems and discomfort were the chair, keyboard, mouse, and monitor. Of the 3 subgroups, significantly more respondents with FM reported more severe discomfort, more problems, and greater limitations related to computer use than those with RA or OA for all 4 equipment items. Computer use is significantly affected by arthritis. This could limit the ability of a person with arthritis to participate in work and home activities. Further study is warranted to delineate disease-related limitations and develop interventions to reduce them.

  5. Sexual abuse experienced by married Egyptian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elnashar, A M; El-Dien Ibrahim, M; Eldesoky, M M; Aly, O M; El-Sayd Mohamed Hassan, M

    2007-12-01

    To assess the prevalence of sexual abuse (SA) and associated factors among married women in Lower Egypt. A cross-sectional clinic- and hospital-based survey was designed for married women aged between 16 and 49 years. The study was conducted with 936 women from the Dakahlia Governorate, which is considered representative of Lower Egypt. Data were collected by personal interview using a questionnaire. The response rate was 93.6%. The most commonly reported frequency of sexual intercourse was 2 to 4 times per week. More than one-third of the women (36.2%) thought this was too frequent, and 11.5% reported being sexually abused in addition to other sexual problems. The educational level of the women; the presence of genital mutilation; parity, especially for those who had more than 5 deliveries; number of gynecologic visits; and history of gynecologic interventions were significantly or highly significantly associated with SA. The husbands' educational level and age were highly significantly correlated with their wives reporting SA, particularly when the men were illiterate or were smokers or drug users. The study's findings demonstrate an immediate need for the prevention of SA in Lower Egypt.

  6. Postpartum depression among women who have experienced intimate partner violence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rogathi, Jane J.; Manongi, Rachael; Mushi, Declare

    2017-01-01

    Depression Scale (EPDS) and self-reported IPV experiences were assessed using structured questions adopted from the WHO's Multi-country Study on Women's Health and Domestic Violence; 3) Assessment for postpartum depression using EPDS was repeated at 40 days post-partum. Data were analyzed using bivariate......BACKGROUND: Post-partum depression (PPD) in many low-income countries, including Tanzania, is not well recognized, and the underlying predictors and causes of PPD remain unclear. Results from previous studies suggest that PPD is associated with intimate partner violence (IPV) experienced during.......10; 95% CI: 2.04-4.40) as compared to those women who were not exposed to IPV during their pregnancy. Stratified analyses showed that this risk of PPD was highest among younger women (aged 18-24 years) who were exposed to physical violence (AOR=3.75; 95% CI: 1.21-11.67). Among women exposed to emotional...

  7. Potential hazards to embryo implantation: A human endometrial in vitro model to identify unwanted antigestagenic actions of chemicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, L.; Deppert, W.R.; Pfeifer, D.; Stanzel, S.; Weimer, M.; Hanjalic-Beck, A.; Stein, A.; Straßer, M.; Zahradnik, H.P.; Schaefer, W.R.

    2012-01-01

    Embryo implantation is a crucial step in human reproduction and depends on the timely development of a receptive endometrium. The human endometrium is unique among adult tissues due to its dynamic alterations during each menstrual cycle. It hosts the implantation process which is governed by progesterone, whereas 17β-estradiol regulates the preceding proliferation of the endometrium. The receptors for both steroids are targets for drugs and endocrine disrupting chemicals. Chemicals with unwanted antigestagenic actions are potentially hazardous to embryo implantation since many pharmaceutical antiprogestins adversely affect endometrial receptivity. This risk can be addressed by human tissue-specific in vitro assays. As working basis we compiled data on chemicals interacting with the PR. In our experimental work, we developed a flexible in vitro model based on human endometrial Ishikawa cells. Effects of antiprogestin compounds on pre-selected target genes were characterized by sigmoidal concentration–response curves obtained by RT-qPCR. The estrogen sulfotransferase (SULT1E1) was identified as the most responsive target gene by microarray analysis. The agonistic effect of progesterone on SULT1E1 mRNA was concentration-dependently antagonized by RU486 (mifepristone) and ZK137316 and, with lower potency, by 4-nonylphenol, bisphenol A and apigenin. The negative control methyl acetoacetate showed no effect. The effects of progesterone and RU486 were confirmed on the protein level by Western blotting. We demonstrated proof of principle that our Ishikawa model is suitable to study quantitatively effects of antiprogestin-like chemicals on endometrial target genes in comparison to pharmaceutical reference compounds. This test is useful for hazard identification and may contribute to reduce animal studies. -- Highlights: ► We compare progesterone receptor-mediated endometrial effects of chemicals and drugs. ► 4-Nonylphenol, bisphenol A and apigenin exert weak

  8. Potential hazards to embryo implantation: A human endometrial in vitro model to identify unwanted antigestagenic actions of chemicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, L.; Deppert, W.R. [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University Hospital Freiburg (Germany); Pfeifer, D. [Department of Hematology and Oncology, University Hospital Freiburg (Germany); Stanzel, S.; Weimer, M. [Department of Biostatistics, German Cancer Research Center, Heidelberg (Germany); Hanjalic-Beck, A.; Stein, A.; Straßer, M.; Zahradnik, H.P. [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University Hospital Freiburg (Germany); Schaefer, W.R., E-mail: wolfgang.schaefer@uniklinik-freiburg.de [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University Hospital Freiburg (Germany)

    2012-05-01

    Embryo implantation is a crucial step in human reproduction and depends on the timely development of a receptive endometrium. The human endometrium is unique among adult tissues due to its dynamic alterations during each menstrual cycle. It hosts the implantation process which is governed by progesterone, whereas 17β-estradiol regulates the preceding proliferation of the endometrium. The receptors for both steroids are targets for drugs and endocrine disrupting chemicals. Chemicals with unwanted antigestagenic actions are potentially hazardous to embryo implantation since many pharmaceutical antiprogestins adversely affect endometrial receptivity. This risk can be addressed by human tissue-specific in vitro assays. As working basis we compiled data on chemicals interacting with the PR. In our experimental work, we developed a flexible in vitro model based on human endometrial Ishikawa cells. Effects of antiprogestin compounds on pre-selected target genes were characterized by sigmoidal concentration–response curves obtained by RT-qPCR. The estrogen sulfotransferase (SULT1E1) was identified as the most responsive target gene by microarray analysis. The agonistic effect of progesterone on SULT1E1 mRNA was concentration-dependently antagonized by RU486 (mifepristone) and ZK137316 and, with lower potency, by 4-nonylphenol, bisphenol A and apigenin. The negative control methyl acetoacetate showed no effect. The effects of progesterone and RU486 were confirmed on the protein level by Western blotting. We demonstrated proof of principle that our Ishikawa model is suitable to study quantitatively effects of antiprogestin-like chemicals on endometrial target genes in comparison to pharmaceutical reference compounds. This test is useful for hazard identification and may contribute to reduce animal studies. -- Highlights: ► We compare progesterone receptor-mediated endometrial effects of chemicals and drugs. ► 4-Nonylphenol, bisphenol A and apigenin exert weak

  9. Unwanted pregnancy, pregnancy loss, and other risk factors for intimate partner violence in the Democratic Republic of the Congo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiruneh, Fentanesh Nibret; Chuang, Kun-Yang; Ntenda, Peter A M; Chuang, Ying-Chih

    2017-11-07

    The Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) has one of the highest rates of violence against women in the world; however, few studies have focused on this issue. In this study, we assessed the interrelationship among intimate partner violence (IPV), unintended pregnancy, pregnancy loss, and other sociodemographic factors in the DRC. Our analyses were based on data from the DRC demographic and health survey, conducted from November 2013 to February 2014. We constructed generalized estimating equation models to analyze the data from a sample of 5,120 married women. Our results showed that having a husband or partner who exhibited controlling behaviors, women who justified wife-beating, having a mother who had experienced IPV, and having a husband or partner who consumed alcohol were positively associated with IPV, whereas decision-making autonomy among women was negatively associated with IPV. In the community, the proportion of women who had experienced IPV and that of those who had completed secondary or higher education were positively and negatively associated with any IPV type, respectively. In addition, emotional IPV and any IPV type were positively associated with pregnancy loss. Our results indicate the necessity of implementing programs targeting gender equality at both individual and community levels.

  10. Use of analogies by novice and experienced design engineers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmed, Saeema; Christensen, Bo T.

    2008-01-01

    industry. The findings indicate a significant difference in both the functions and reasoning by novices and experienced designers. Novices were found to predominantly transfer information without explicit reference to design issues, whereas experienced designers tended to either solve or identify problems....... Experienced designers were found to reason about the function of a component and to some degree the predicted behaviour of the component, whereas the novices seem to lack such reasoning processes....

  11. Cultural Modes of Expressing Emotions Influence How Emotions Are Experienced

    Science.gov (United States)

    Immordino-Yang, Mary Helen; Yang, Xiao-Fei; Damasio, Hanna

    2016-01-01

    The brain’s mapping of bodily responses during emotion contributes to emotional experiences, or feelings. Culture influences emotional expressiveness, i.e. the magnitude of individuals’ bodily responses during emotion. So, are cultural influences on behavioral expressiveness associated with differences in how individuals experience emotion? Chinese and American young adults reported how strongly admiration and compassion-inducing stories made them feel, first in a private interview and then during fMRI. As expected, Americans were more expressive in the interview. While expressiveness did not predict stronger reported feelings or neural responses during fMRI, in both cultural groups more expressive people showed tighter trial-by-trial correlations between their experienced strength of emotion and activations in visceral-somatosensory cortex, even after controlling for individuals’ overall strength of reactions (neural and felt). Moreover, expressiveness mediated a previously described cultural effect in which activations in visceral-somatosensory cortex correlated with feeling strength among Americans but not among Chinese. Post-hoc supplementary analyses revealed that more expressive individuals reached peak activation of visceral-somatosensory cortex later in the emotion process and took longer to decide how strongly they felt. The results together suggest that differences in expressiveness correspond to differences in how somatosensory mechanisms contribute to constructing conscious feelings. By influencing expressiveness, culture may therefore influence how individuals know how strongly they feel, what conscious feelings are based on, or possibly what strong versus weak emotions “feel like.” PMID:27270077

  12. Contraceptive Patterns of College Students Who Experienced Early Coitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Murray L.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    A study investigated the coital behavior, contraceptive use, and attitudes of 20-year-old male and female college students who experienced sexual intercourse early in adolescence (at 16 or younger) as contrasted to those who experienced coitus in late adolescence. Results indicate that older adolescents were more likely to use contraceptives and,…

  13. The Job Realities of Beginning and Experienced Assistant Principals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Bruce G.; Shoho, Alan R.; Oleszewski, Ashley M.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the perceptions of a cross section of new and experienced assistant principals regarding the realities of their jobs. Findings indicated that their challenges pertain to workload and task management, conflicts with adults and students, and curriculum and instruction issues. Novice and experienced assistant principals' responses…

  14. Recruiting Experienced Educators: A Model and a Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Paul A.

    1996-01-01

    A model was developed for recruiting experienced educators, extending the recruitment-as-marketing theory. To assess the model's utility, 168 experienced female teachers posed as job applicants responding to position advertisements. Participant reactions were more favorable when advertisements contained intrinsic job attributes, a personal tone,…

  15. Five Years on: Leadership Challenges of an Experienced CEO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarros, James C.; Sarros, Anne M.

    2011-01-01

    Experienced leaders face challenges that demand different leadership approaches to those of inexperienced leaders. The purposes of this article are to: (1) explore the leadership initiatives prominent for experienced leaders compared with inexperienced leaders; (2) examine the relationship between transformational leadership and these initiatives;…

  16. Young Children Experiencing Homelessness: The Overlooked Medium of Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlembach, Sue

    2017-01-01

    The number of mothers with young children experiencing homelessness and seeking shelter has increased in the USA over the past decade. Shelters are often characterized as environments offering few opportunities for appropriate play experiences. This article delineates the important role of play for young children experiencing homelessness and…

  17. Workplace injustice and self-reported disease and absenteeism in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Jin-Young; Park, Shin-Goo; Kim, Seung-Sup; Min, Kyoung-Bok

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated whether experience of workplace injustice was associated with self-reported occupational health using a nationally representative sample of Korean workers. We used the first wave of the Korean Working Conditions Survey (KWCS) and included 7,007 wage employees as the study population. Workplace injustice included the experience of discrimination, violence, or harassment, and occupational health was measured as self-reported health problems and absenteeism. Personal, occupational, and job-related characteristics were included as covariates. An average of 7.2% of workers reported experiencing at least one workplace injustice over the past 12 months. Female workers were significantly more likely to experience age and gender discrimination, and unwanted sexual attention than male workers. Both male and female workers who experienced any workplace injustice (i.e., discrimination, harassment, or violence) reported approximately two- to threefold increased risk for physical and mental health problems (i.e., backaches, muscular pain, stomach pain, overall fatigue, headaches, anxiety/depression, sleeping problems, and injury) and absenteeism due to accidents or due to health problems. Perceived injustice at work was significantly associated with an increased risk of occupational disease and absenteeism for Korean wage employees. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Violence experienced by nurses at six university hospitals in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ünsal Atan, S; Baysan Arabaci, L; Sirin, A; Isler, A; Donmez, S; Unsal Guler, M; Oflaz, U; Yalcinkaya Ozdemir, G; Yazar Tasbasi, F

    2013-12-01

    This research was conducted to analyse the violence experienced by nurses employed at six university hospitals. A descriptive and cross-sectional study was conducted. The research sample consisted of 441 nurses who worked in the emergency, intensive care and psychiatry units of six university hospitals in Turkey between June 2008 and June 2009 and who voluntarily agreed to participate. It was found that 60.8% of the nurses were subjected to verbal violence and/or physical violence from patients, visitors or health staff. Of the nurses who were subjected to workplace violence, 42.9% stated that their experience of verbal and/or physical violence had a negative impact on their physical and/or psychological health, and 42.9% stated that their work performance was negatively affected. Of these nurses, 1.8% stated that they received professional help, 13.6% stated that a report was made and 9.5% stated that they contacted the hospital police in some way. According to the findings of this research, similar to the situation worldwide, nurses in Turkey are subjected to verbal and/or physical violence from patients, visitors and health staff. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Public Attitudes and Feelings of Warmth Toward Women and Men Experiencing Depression During the Perinatal Period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felder, Jennifer N; Banchefsky, Sarah; Park, Bernadette; Dimidjian, Sona

    2017-08-01

    Depression is a major public health concern and often goes untreated. In response to a growing body of research documenting stigma as a barrier to depression care, this study focused on examining public stigma toward potentially vulnerable subpopulations. Participants (N=241) were recruited from Amazon's Mechanical Turk and randomly assigned to provide anonymous ratings on attitudes and feelings of warmth toward pregnant women and expectant fathers experiencing depression, mothers and fathers experiencing postpartum depression, or women and men experiencing depression during nonperinatal periods. Participants reported significantly more negative attitudes about depressed men than women, and male participants reported significantly more negative attitudes than female participants toward depressed individuals. Similarly, participants felt significantly less warmth toward depressed men than women, and male participants expressed significantly less warmth than female participants toward depressed individuals. Male participants felt equally warm toward men and women who experienced depression during nonperinatal periods, whereas female participants felt significantly warmer toward women who experienced depression during nonperinatal periods compared with men. Results indicate that the public views depressed men more negatively than depressed women and that males are more likely to hold stigmatizing attitudes toward depression, suggesting the importance of reducing stigma directed toward men with depression and stigma held by men toward persons with depression. Attitudes and feelings toward depressed individuals did not consistently vary by perinatal status. These findings are an initial step in improving depression treatment engagement strategies and in identifying those who would benefit most from stigma reduction programs.

  20. Interventions that promote retention of experienced registered nurses in health care settings: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lartey, Sarah; Cummings, Greta; Profetto-McGrath, Joanne

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this review was to report the effectiveness of strategies for retaining experienced Registered Nurses. Nursing researchers have noted that the projected nursing shortage, if not rectified, is expected to affect healthcare cost, job satisfaction and quality patient care. Retaining experienced nurses would help to mitigate the shortage, facilitate the transfer of knowledge and provision of quality care to patients. A systematic review of studies on interventions that promote the retention of experienced Registered Nurses in health care settings. Twelve studies were included in the final analysis. Most studies reported improved retention as a result of the intervention. Team work and individually targeted strategies including mentoring, leadership interest and in-depth orientation increased job satisfaction and produced higher retention results. Few published studies have examined interventions that promote the retention of experienced Registered Nurses in healthcare. Retention was highest when multiple interventions were used. Further research is needed to inform nurse leaders of ways to retain nurses and to maintain quality care in health care settings. Programmes targeting the retention of experienced nurses need to be considered when implementing measures to decrease the nursing shortage and its effects on quality care. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. The Nature of Workplace Bullying Experienced by Teachers and the Biopsychosocial Health Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vos, J.; Kirsten, G. J. C.

    2015-01-01

    This article reports on the nature of workplace bullying experienced by teachers in South African schools and the biopsychosocial health effects that may arise from such victimisation. Voluntary victimised teachers who wanted to share their experiences were sampled using a lifestyle magazine and online articles. Twenty-seven teachers participated…

  2. Individual differences in experiencing intrusive memories : The role of the ability to resist proactive interference

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verwoerd, Johan; Wessel, Ineke; de Jong, Peter J.

    This study explored whether a relatively poor ability to resist or inhibit interference from irrelevant information in working memory is associated with experiencing undesirable intrusive memories. Non-selected participants (N = 91) completed a self-report measure of intrusive memories, and carried

  3. Reflective Lesson Planning in Refresher Training Programs for Experienced Physics Teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, C. M.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Reports on a refresher training program that introduces experienced physics teachers to a reflective lesson-planning model and a more constructivist approach to physics teaching. Three instructional strategies developed by participants in the program and the corresponding suggestions made by their peers are presented and analyzed. (29 references)…

  4. Bridging the gap from university research to high-tech venture via experienced entrepreneurs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broeng, Jes; Kramer Overgaard, Majken; Murdock, Karen

    2015-01-01

    We report a new model for development of sustainable growth companies based on research from universities via systematic collaboration with experienced, external entrepreneurs having spin-out experience and market insight. The research has identified university structures that support the spinning...

  5. Affective Load and Engagement in Second Life: Experiencing Urgent, Persistent, and Long-Term Information Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahl, Diane

    2010-01-01

    New users of virtual environments face a steep learning curve, requiring persistence and determination to overcome challenges experienced while acclimatizing to the demands of avatar-mediated behavior. Concurrent structured self-reports can be used to monitor the personal affective and cognitive struggles involved in virtual world adaptation to…

  6. Cultural modes of expressing emotions influence how emotions are experienced.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Immordino-Yang, Mary Helen; Yang, Xiao-Fei; Damasio, Hanna

    2016-10-01

    The brain's mapping of bodily responses during emotion contributes to emotional experiences, or feelings. Culture influences emotional expressiveness, that is, the magnitude of individuals' bodily responses during emotion. So, are cultural influences on behavioral expressiveness associated with differences in how individuals experience emotion? Chinese and American young adults reported how strongly admiration- and compassion-inducing stories made them feel, first in a private interview and then during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). As expected, Americans were more expressive in the interview. Although expressiveness did not predict stronger reported feelings or neural responses during fMRI, in both cultural groups more-expressive people showed tighter trial-by-trial correlations between their experienced strength of emotion and activations in visceral-somatosensory cortex, even after controlling for individuals' overall strength of reactions (neural and felt). Moreover, expressiveness mediated a previously described cultural effect in which activations in visceral-somatosensory cortex correlated with feeling strength among Americans but not among Chinese. Post hoc supplementary analyses revealed that more-expressive individuals reached peak activation of visceral-somatosensory cortex later in the emotion process and took longer to decide how strongly they felt. The results together suggest that differences in expressiveness correspond to differences in how somatosensory mechanisms contribute to constructing conscious feelings. By influencing expressiveness, culture may therefore influence how individuals know how strongly they feel, what conscious feelings are based on, or possibly what strong versus weak emotions "feel like." (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. Depression and parenting by nonoffending mothers of children who experienced sexual abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santa-Sosa, Eileen J; Steer, Robert A; Deblinger, Esther; Runyon, Melissa K

    2013-01-01

    Parenting may be one mechanism by which depression in nonoffending mothers impacts child emotional and behavioral adjustment after sexual abuse. This study examined the relationship between self-reported maternal depression and parenting behaviors by nonoffending mothers of children who experienced sexual abuse. The participants were 204 nonoffending biological mother-child pairs recruited from a clinic providing services for children who experienced sexual abuse. The mothers completed pretreatment self-report measures of demographic information, depression, and parenting behaviors. Children (7 to 17 years) completed a measure of mothers' parenting behaviors. Mothers with clinically high levels of self-reported depression employed more inconsistent parenting behavior and provided poorer monitoring/supervision of their children than mothers without clinically high levels of self-reported depression. Implications for clinical practice and future research are discussed.

  8. Impact of experienced professionalism on professional culture in probation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Butter, R.; Hermanns, J.

    2011-01-01

    The level of work engagement is an important aspect of organizational culture. In this empirical study the relation between engagement and experienced professionalism of probation officers is investigated. Starting from ideal-typical theories on professionalism, a psychometric instrument for

  9. Problems experienced by women re-entering the education profession

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Problems experienced by women re-entering the education profession: a South ... in maternity benefits, as well as the introduction of paternity and childcare leave, should be introduced to assist women educators to combine work and family ...

  10. Children with sickle cell disease who are experiencing psychosocial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Children with sickle cell disease who are experiencing psychosocial problems concurrently with their mothers: a Nigerian study. ... you can download the PDF file directly to your computer, from where it can be opened using a PDF reader.

  11. Advance Selling in the Presence of Experienced Consumers

    OpenAIRE

    Oksana Loginova; X. Hnery Wang; Chenhang Zeng

    2011-01-01

    The advance selling strategy is implemented when a firm offers consumers the opportunity to order its product in advance of the regular selling season. Advance selling reduces uncertainty for both the firm and the buyer and enables the firm to update its forecast of future demand. The distinctive feature of the present theoretical study of advance selling is that we divide consumers into two groups, experienced and inexperienced. Experienced consumers know their valuations of the product in a...

  12. Experienced and potential medical tourists' service quality expectations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guiry, Michael; Scott, Jeannie J; Vequist, David G

    2013-01-01

    The paper's aim is to compare experienced and potential US medical tourists' foreign health service-quality expectations. Data were collected via an online survey involving 1,588 US consumers engaging or expressing an interest in medical tourism. The sample included 219 experienced and 1,369 potential medical tourists. Respondents completed a SERVQUAL questionnaire. Mann-Whitney U-tests were used to determine significant differences between experienced and potential US medical tourists' service-quality expectations. For all five service-quality dimensions (tangibles, reliability, responsiveness, assurance and empathy) experienced medical tourists had significantly lower expectations than potential medical tourists. Experienced medical tourists also had significantly lower service-quality expectations than potential medical tourists for 11 individual SERVQUAL items. Results suggest using experience level to segment medical tourists. The study also has implications for managing medical tourist service-quality expectations at service delivery point and via external marketing communications. Managing medical tourists' service quality expectations is important since expectations can significantly influence choice processes, their experience and post-consumption behavior. This study is the first to compare experienced and potential US medical tourist service-quality expectations. The study establishes a foundation for future service-quality expectations research in the rapidly growing medical tourism industry.

  13. Experienced job autonomy among maternity care professionals in The Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perdok, Hilde; Cronie, Doug; van der Speld, Cecile; van Dillen, Jeroen; de Jonge, Ank; Rijnders, Marlies; de Graaf, Irene; Schellevis, François G; Verhoeven, Corine J

    2017-11-01

    High levels of experienced job autonomy are found to be beneficial for healthcare professionals and for the relationship with their patients. The aim of this study was to assess how maternity care professionals in the Netherlands perceive their job autonomy in the Dutch maternity care system and whether they expect a new system of integrated maternity care to affect their experienced job autonomy. A cross-sectional survey. The Leiden Quality of Work Life Questionnaire was used to assess experienced job autonomy among maternity care professionals. Data were collected in the Netherlands in 2015. 799 professionals participated of whom 362 were primary care midwives, 240 obstetricians, 93 clinical midwives and 104 obstetric nurses. The mean score for experienced job autonomy was highest for primary care midwives, followed by obstetricians, clinical midwives and obstetric nurses. Primary care midwives scored highest in expecting to lose their job autonomy in an integrated care system. There are significant differences in experienced job autonomy between maternity care professionals. When changing the maternity care system it will be a challenge to maintain a high level of experienced job autonomy for professionals. A decrease in job autonomy could lead to a reduction in job related wellbeing and in satisfaction with care among pregnant women. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Ethical and methodological issues in research with Sami experiencing disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melbøe, Line; Hansen, Ketil Lenert; Johnsen, Bjørn-Eirik; Fedreheim, Gunn Elin; Dinesen, Tone; Minde, Gunn-Tove; Rustad, Marit

    2016-01-01

    A study of disability among the indigenous Sami people in Norway presented a number of ethical and methodological challenges rarely addressed in the literature. The main study was designed to examine and understand the everyday life, transitions between life stages and democratic participation of Norwegian Sami people experiencing disability. Hence, the purpose of this article is to increase the understanding of possible ethical and methodological issues in research within this field. The article describes and discusses ethical and methodological issues that arose when conducting our study and identifies some strategies for addressing issues like these. The ethical and methodological issues addressed in the article are based on a qualitative study among indigenous Norwegian Sami people experiencing disability. The data in this study were collected through 31 semi-structured in-depth interviews with altogether 24 Sami people experiencing disability and 13 next of kin of Sami people experiencing disability (8 mothers, 2 fathers, 2 sister and 1 guardian). The researchers identified 4 main areas of ethical and methodological issues. We present these issues chronologically as they emerged in the research process: 1) concept of knowledge when designing the study, 2) gaining access, 3) data collection and 4) analysis and accountability. The knowledge generated from this study has the potential to benefit future health research, specifically of Norwegian Sami people experiencing disability, as well as health research concerning indigenous people in general, providing scientific-based insight into important ethical and methodological issues in research with indigenous people experiencing disability.

  15. Making Sense of Experienced Teachers’ Interactive Decisions: Implications for Expertise in Teaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahar Gün

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Teachers’ decision making has always been an area of curiosity in many studies related to teachers and teaching. One approach to understanding teachers’ decisions is through the analysis of their reflection-in-action behaviours. This study, based on the premise that one can gain understanding from examining experienced teachers’ classroom performances, focuses on the interactive decisions made by ten experienced language teachers. The study presents the findings of an analysis of similarities in the motivations behind teachers’ interactive decisions, as demonstrated in their verbal reports following the video recorded lesson observations. These findings show that there are both shared pedagogical and affective attributes among participant teachers. These results, and the insight they give into experienced teachers’ decision making are potentially beneficial for all pre-service and practising teachers.

  16. Ethnicity and cultural values as predictors of the occurrence and impact of experienced workplace incivility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welbourne, Jennifer L; Gangadharan, Ashwini; Sariol, Ana M

    2015-04-01

    Workplace incivility is a subtle type of deviant work behavior that is low in intensity and violates workplace norms of respect. Past research demonstrates the harmful impact of incivility on work attitudes and employee wellbeing; however, little is known about how incivility is experienced by individuals of different ethnicities and cultural orientations. In the current study, we compared the amount and impact of workplace incivility that was experienced by Hispanic and white, non-Hispanic employees. Further, we examined whether cultural dimensions of vertical and horizontal individualism and collectivism moderated the relationships between workplace incivility and work and health outcomes. A sample of 262 university employees (50% Hispanic; 63% female) provided self-reports of experienced incivility, burnout, job satisfaction, and cultural values. Although male Hispanic employees experienced more incivility, female Hispanic employees experienced less incivility than non-Hispanic employees of the same gender. Hispanic employees displayed greater resilience against the impact of incivility on job satisfaction and burnout, compared with non-Hispanic employees. Additionally, employees with strong horizontal collectivism values (emphasizing sociability) were more resilient against the impact of incivility on burnout, whereas employees with strong horizontal individualism values (emphasizing self-reliance) were more susceptible to burnout and dissatisfaction when faced with incivility. These findings suggest that employees' ethnicity and cultural values may increase or decrease their vulnerability to the impact of incivility at work. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. Postincident Support for Healthcare Workers Experiencing Occupational Violence and Aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shea, Tracey; Cooper, Brian; De Cieri, Helen; Sheehan, Cathy; Donohue, Ross; Lindsay, Sarah

    2018-05-10

    To investigate the relative contributions of workplace type, occupational violence and aggression (OVA) strategies and interventions along with perceptions of the occupational health and safety (OHS) environment on the likelihood of receiving postincident support following the experience of OVA. We used a cross-sectional study design with an online survey to collect data from employees in nursing and midwifery in Victoria, Australia. Survey data collected from 3,072 members of the Australian Nursing and Midwifery Federation (Victorian branch) were analyzed using logistic regression. Of the 3,072 respondents who had experienced OVA in the preceding 12 months, 1,287 (42%) reported that they had received postincident support. Hierarchical logistic regression revealed that the OHS environment was the dominant factor that predicted the likelihood of workers receiving postincident support. Working in a positive OHS environment characterized by higher levels of leading indicators of OHS, prioritization of OHS, supervisor support for safety, and team psychological safety was the stronger predictor of postincident support. Being employed in a workplace that offered training in the management and prevention of OVA also increased the likelihood of receiving postincident support. While training in the management and prevention of OVA contributed to the likelihood of receiving postincident support, a greater emphasis on the OHS environment was more important in predicting the likelihood that workers received support. This study identifies workplace practices that facilitate the provision of postincident support for healthcare workers. Facilitating effective postincident support could improve outcomes for workers, their patients and workplaces, and society in general. © 2018 Sigma Theta Tau International.

  18. Standardizing terms, definitions and concepts for describing and interpreting unwanted immunogenicity of biopharmaceuticals: recommendations of the Innovative Medicines Initiative ABIRISK consortium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rup, B; Pallardy, M; Sikkema, D; Albert, T; Allez, M; Broet, P; Carini, C; Creeke, P; Davidson, J; De Vries, N; Finco, D; Fogdell-Hahn, A; Havrdova, E; Hincelin-Mery, A; C Holland, M; H Jensen, P E; Jury, E C; Kirby, H; Kramer, D; Lacroix-Desmazes, S; Legrand, J; Maggi, E; Maillère, B; Mariette, X; Mauri, C; Mikol, V; Mulleman, D; Oldenburg, J; Paintaud, G; R Pedersen, C; Ruperto, N; Seitz, R; Spindeldreher, S; Deisenhammer, F

    2015-09-01

    Biopharmaceuticals (BPs) represent a rapidly growing class of approved and investigational drug therapies that is contributing significantly to advancing treatment in multiple disease areas, including inflammatory and autoimmune diseases, genetic deficiencies and cancer. Unfortunately, unwanted immunogenic responses to BPs, in particular those affecting clinical safety or efficacy, remain among the most common negative effects associated with this important class of drugs. To manage and reduce risk of unwanted immunogenicity, diverse communities of clinicians, pharmaceutical industry and academic scientists are involved in: interpretation and management of clinical and biological outcomes of BP immunogenicity, improvement of methods for describing, predicting and mitigating immunogenicity risk and elucidation of underlying causes. Collaboration and alignment of efforts across these communities is made difficult due to lack of agreement on concepts, practices and standardized terms and definitions related to immunogenicity. The Innovative Medicines Initiative (IMI; www.imi-europe.org), ABIRISK consortium [Anti-Biopharmaceutical (BP) Immunization Prediction and Clinical Relevance to Reduce the Risk; www.abirisk.eu] was formed by leading clinicians, academic scientists and EFPIA (European Federation of Pharmaceutical Industries and Associations) members to elucidate underlying causes, improve methods for immunogenicity prediction and mitigation and establish common definitions around terms and concepts related to immunogenicity. These efforts are expected to facilitate broader collaborations and lead to new guidelines for managing immunogenicity. To support alignment, an overview of concepts behind the set of key terms and definitions adopted to date by ABIRISK is provided herein along with a link to access and download the ABIRISK terms and definitions and provide comments (http://www.abirisk.eu/index_t_and_d.asp). © 2015 British Society for Immunology.

  19. Mapping Discrimination Experienced by Indonesian Trans* FtM Persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Danny; Pratama, Mario Prajna

    2017-01-01

    This work sought to document how Indonesian trans* FtM persons experienced discrimination across the interlinked domains of social networks, religious and educational institutions, employment and the workplace, and health care institutions. Objectives were (1) to map the discrimination experienced by trans* FtM individuals in Indonesia, and (2) to establish the specific priorities of the Indonesian trans* FtM community. In-depth interviews, focus groups, and participant observation was used involving 14 respondents. Findings revealed that respondents experienced othering through rejection, misidentification, harassment, "correction," and bureaucratic discrimination across the five preestablished domains. Health care and a lack of information emerged as areas of particular concern for respondents. This work calls for health care that is sensitive to the needs of trans* FtM people coupled with high-quality information to alleviate the cycles through which discrimination is sustained.

  20. Depression, quality of life, work productivity, resource use, and costs among women experiencing menopause and hot flashes: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dibonaventura, Marco Dacosta; Wagner, Jan-Samuel; Alvir, Jose; Whiteley, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    To examine the effect of depression on health-related quality of life, work productivity, resource use, and costs among women experiencing menopausal symptoms, including hot flashes. The study included data from the 2005 US National Health and Wellness Survey (N = 41,184), a cross-sectional, Internet-based survey representative of the adult US population. Among women who reported experiencing menopausal symptoms, including hot flashes, women who reported experiencing depression in the last year (n = 1,165) were compared with women who did not report experiencing depression in the last year (n = 2,467), controlling for demographic and health characteristics. Outcome measures included health-related quality of life (Medical Outcomes Study 8-item Short-Form Health Survey [SF-8]), work productivity within the past 7 days, self-reported health care resource use within the past 6 months, and indirect and direct costs. Women experiencing depression were significantly more likely to be white, to be unemployed, to be uninsured, to currently smoke, to not exercise, and to be obese (all P women experiencing depression reported significantly lower mental (39.66 vs 50.85, P work (5.31% vs 2.80%, P work (25.00% vs 14.32%, P women experiencing depression. The numbers of physician visits (2.47 vs 1.77, P women experiencing depression. Per woman per year indirect and direct costs were $3,066 and $1,075 higher, respectively, for women experiencing depression compared with those not experiencing depression. Approximately one-third of women experiencing menopausal symptoms, including hot flashes, also reported experiencing depression. These women reported significantly worse quality of life and significantly greater work productivity loss, health care resource use, and costs. Given the prevalence and burden, these findings suggest that proper assessment and management of depressive symptoms among women with menopause may have an important humanistic and economic benefit.

  1. Experiencing WPS services in several application domains: opportunities and challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    lovergine, francesco paolo; tarantino, cristina; d'addabbo, annarita; adamo, patrizia; giuseppe, satalino; refice, alberto; blonda, palma; vicario, saverio

    2016-04-01

    Experiencing WPS services in several application domains: opportunities and challenges ====================================================================================== The implementation of OGC web services and specifically of WPS services revealed itself as a key aspect in order to encourage openess attitude of scientific investigators within several application domains. It can benefit scientific research under different regards, even considering the possibility to promote interoperability, modularity, and the possibility opened by web modeling and the workflow paradigm explotation. Nevertheless it is still a challenging activity and specifically processing services still seem being at an early stage of maturity. This work is about exploitation activities conducted within the GEO GEOSS AIP-8 call by focusing on several applications, such as biodiversity, flood monitoring and soil moisture computation, with implementations based on the pyWPS framework for WPS 1.0 as available at the time of this work. We will present results, lessons learnt and limits found in using those services for distributing demo processing models, along with pro and cons in our experience. References: Refice, A., Capolongo, D., Pasquariello, G., D'Addabbo, A., Bovenga, F., Nutricato, Lovergine F.P., R., Pietranera, L. (2014). SAR and InSAR for Flood Monitoring: Examples With COSMO-SkyMed Data. IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Applied Earth Observations and Remote Sensing, 7(7), 2711--722. F. Mattia, G. Satalino, A. Balenzano, V. Pauwels, E. De Lathauwer, "GMES Sentinel-1 soil moisture algorithm development", Final report for the European Space Agency, ESA ESTEC Contract No. 4000101352/10 /NL/MP/ef, 30 Nov. 2011. V. Tomaselli, P. Dimopoulos, C. Marangi, A. S. Kallimanis, M. Adamo, C. Tarantino, M. Panitsa, M. Terzi, G. Veronico, F. Lovergine, H. Nagendra, R. Lucas, P. Mairota, C.A. Mucher, P. Blonda, "Translating land cover/land use classifications to habitat taxonomies for landscape

  2. Experienced job autonomy among maternity care professionals in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perdok, H.; Cronie, D.; Speld, C. van der; Dillen, J. van; Jonge, A . de; Rijnders, M.; Graaf, I. de; Schellevis, F.G.; Verhoeven, C.J.

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: High levels of experienced job autonomy are found to be beneficial for healthcare professionals and for the relationship with their patients. The aim of this study was to assess how maternity care professionals in the Netherlands perceive their job autonomy in the Dutch maternity care

  3. Experienced job autonomy among maternity care professionals in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perdok, Hilde; Cronie, Doug; van der Speld, Cecile; van Dillen, Jeroen; de Jonge, Ank; Rijnders, Marlies; de Graaf, Irene; Schellevis, François G.; Verhoeven, Corine J.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: High levels of experienced job autonomy are found to be beneficial for healthcare professionals and for the relationship with their patients. The aim of this study was to assess how maternity care professionals in the Netherlands perceive their job autonomy in the Dutch maternity care

  4. Experienced job autonomy among maternity care professionals in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perdok, H.; Cronie, D.; Speld, C. van der; Dillen, J. van; Jonge, A. de; Rijnders, M.; Graaf, I. de; Schellevis, F.G.; Verhoeven, G.

    2017-01-01

    Objective High levels of experienced job autonomy are found to be beneficial for healthcare professionals and for the relationship with their patients. The aim of this study was to assess how maternity care professionals in the Netherlands perceive their job autonomy in the Dutch maternity care

  5. Experienced job autonomy among maternity care professionals in The Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perdok, H.; Cronie, D.; Speld, C. van der; Dillen, J. van; Jonge, A. de; Rijnders, M.; Graaf, J. de; Schellevis, F.; Verhoeven, C.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: High levels of experienced job autonomy are found to be beneficial for healthcare professionals and for the relationship with their patients. The aim of this study was to assess how maternity care professionals in the Netherlands perceive their job autonomy in the Dutch maternity care

  6. Effective Pedagogical Practices for Online Teaching: Perception of Experienced Instructors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Craig J.; Card, Karen A.

    2009-01-01

    Institutions have focused on providing faculty with technological training to enhance their online teaching, but many online instructors would like to learn more effective pedagogical practices. This phenomenological study determines what experienced, award-winning South Dakota e-learning instructors perceive to be effective pedagogical practices.…

  7. Do in-car devices affect experienced users' driving performance?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knapper, A.S.; Hagenzieker, M.P.; Brookhuis, K.A.

    2014-01-01

    Distracted driving is considered to be an important factor in road safety. To investigate how experienced user's driving behaviour is affected by in-vehicle technology, a fixed-base driving simulator was used. 20 participants drove twice in a rich simulated traffic environment while performing

  8. Do in-car devices affect experienced users' driving performance?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knapper, A.S. Hagenzieker, M.P. & Brookhuis, K.A.

    2015-01-01

    Distracted driving is considered to be an important factor in road safety. To investigate how experienced user's driving behaviour is affected by in-vehicle technology, a fixed-base driving simulator was used. 20 participants drove twice in a rich simulated traffic environment while performing

  9. Common difficulties experienced by grade 12 students in learning ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to examine the nature and causes of common difficulties experienced by grade twelve students in learning chemistry in Ebinat preparatory school. A qualitative method was employed to investigate the questions, which used interviews and questionnaires with students and teachers. The key ...

  10. On Mathematical Understanding: Perspectives of Experienced Chinese Mathematics Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Jinfa; Ding, Meixia

    2017-01-01

    Researchers have long debated the meaning of mathematical understanding and ways to achieve mathematical understanding. This study investigated experienced Chinese mathematics teachers' views about mathematical understanding. It was found that these mathematics teachers embrace the view that understanding is a web of connections, which is a result…

  11. Mission Impossible? Physical Activity Programming for Individuals Experiencing Homelessness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregg, Melanie J.; Bedard, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: A pilot study was conducted to describe the physical activity experiences and perceived benefits of and barriers to physical activity participation for patrons of a homeless shelter. The resulting pilot data may be used to inform the creation of and support for physical activity and sport programs for those experiencing homelessness.…

  12. Music and the Expressive Arts with Children Experiencing Trauma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Keith M.

    2010-01-01

    The creative and expressive use of music can be a powerful therapeutic intervention with children and adolescents who have experienced trauma. In this article, a model for increasing self-awareness and self-understanding including materials, facilitation, and processing of musical activities in group format is presented. Creative activities such…

  13. Students' Ways of Experiencing Human-Centered Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoltowski, Carla B.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the qualitatively different ways which students experienced human-centered design. The findings of this research are important in developing effective design learning experiences and have potential impact across design education. This study provides the basis for being able to assess learning of human-centered design which…

  14. Expected usability is not a valid indicator of experienced usability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meinald T. Thielsch

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Usability is a core construct of website evaluation and inherently defined as interactive. Yet, when analysing first impressions of websites, expected usability, i.e., before use, is of interest. Here we investigate to what extend ratings of expected usability are related to (a experienced usability, i.e., ratings after use, and (b objective usability measures, i.e., task performance. Furthermore, we try to elucidate how ratings of expected usability are correlated to aesthetic judgments. In an experiment, 57 participants submitted expected usability ratings after the presentation of website screenshots in three viewing-time conditions (50, 500, and 10,000 ms and after an interactive task (experienced usability. Additionally, objective usability measures (task completion and duration and subjective aesthetics evaluations were recorded for each website. The results at both the group and individual level show that expected usability ratings are not significantly related either to experienced usability or objective usability measures. Instead, they are highly correlated with aesthetics ratings. Taken together, our results highlight the need for interaction in empirical website usability testing, even when exploring very early usability impressions. In our study, user ratings of expected usability were no valid proxy neither for objective usability nor for experienced website usability.

  15. 30 CFR 48.6 - Experienced miner training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... of accidents. The course must include a review of the general causes of accidents applicable to the mine environment, causes of specific accidents at the mine, and instruction in accident prevention in... health measurements, where (11) Health and safety aspects of the tasks to which the experienced miner is...

  16. Apparent and Actual Use of Observational Frameworks by Experienced Teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satern, Miriam N.

    This study investigated observational strategies that were used by six experienced physical education teachers when viewing a videotape of motor skills (standing vertical jump, overarm throw, tennis serve, basketball jump shot and dance sequence). Four observational frameworks were proposed as being representative of subdisciplinary knowledge…

  17. Sources of marital stress experienced by married people as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study investigated sources of marital stress experienced by married people as perceived by lecturers of College of Education. Respondents were stratified into different strata of gender, age group, educational qualification and number of children, after which simple random sampling technique was used for selecting 20 ...

  18. Experiencing the changing climate on the shores of Lake Superior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akerlof, K.; Maibach, E.

    2011-12-01

    The Great Lakes of the United States - the largest freshwater system in the world - have been termed "the canary in the coal mine" of environmental change. To assess if and how residents of Alger County, Michigan are experiencing changes in climate on the shores of Lake Superior, during the summer of 2010 we conducted a representative household mail survey in collaboration with a national lakeshore and watershed partnership. A total of 765 adult residents (18 years or older) responded to the survey; a 57% survey completion rate. We content analyzed respondents' open-ended characterizations of how they have personally experienced global warming, and compared the results with land surface and storm data for the same geographic region to see whether public perceptions of local changes match trends in National Climatic Data Center data. Just over a quarter of residents (27%) indicated that they had personally experienced global warming. Those who had were most likely to say that they had experienced global warming locally (as opposed to in other locations of the country or globally), and most frequently cited changes in seasons, weather, lake levels, and animals or plant species. However, some local public perceptions appeared to conflict with weather records. For example, residents were more likely to say that they had been experiencing less snow in the winters, while NCDC data suggests the reverse is true. As climate changes differentially in regions across the United States, the public will in turn experience its physical impacts in distinct ways that are unique to each landscape. This may be counter-intuitive to a public that increasingly experiences the world, and issues such as climate change, through sources of information such as national news media that operate at much larger geographic scales. Understanding where these forms of cognitive dissonance may arise may assist researchers, educators, and communicators in furthering discourses with the public about

  19. [Professional Development Processes of Trainee and Experienced Psychotherapists in Turkey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilican, F Işıl; Soygüt, Gonca

    2015-01-01

    This study explored professional characteristics of psychotherapists in Turkey, examined the changes in their professional developmental processes, and compared the professional characteristics of the trainees and experienced therapists. The participants were 88 psychotherapists, including trainee (N=37) and experienced (N=51) psychotherapists in Turkey. They completed the Development of Psychotherapists International Study-Common Core Questionnaire (DPCCQ), developed by the Collaborative Research Network. The participants identified with the cognitive theoretical orientation most often. 30% of the participants had more than two salient orientations. The most prevalent therapy modality was individual, followed by couples, family, and group psychotherapy. Ongoing supervision rate was 44%. Trainees scored lower on effectiveness in engaging patients in a working alliance, feeling natural while working with patients, effectiveness in communicating their understanding and concern to their patients, and feeling confident in their role as a therapist. Experienced therapists made changes in the therapeutic contract and invited collaboration from families more compared to the trainees. 63% of the variance in Healing Involvement was explained by Overall Career Development, Currently Experienced Growth, being influenced by the humanistic approach, and the impact of the main therapeutic environment; 26% of the variance in Stressful Involvement was explained by the length of official supervision received and having control over the length of therapy sessions. Therapists were more cognitively oriented, less eclectic, and had less supervision compared to their international counterparts. Experienced therapists were more flexible, natural, and confident than the trainees. Supervision, a supportive work environment, the humanistic approach, and investing in career development were essential to providing a healing experience.

  20. Differences in Strike Index Between Treadmill and Aquatic Treadmill Running in Experienced Distance Runners

    OpenAIRE

    Hoover, James Paul, Jr.

    2014-01-01

    Strike index (SI) quantifies how one’s foot contacts the ground at the beginning of the stance phase of gait. SI is reported as a percentage of the total foot length, with lower percentages indicating a more posterior point of contact, while greater percentages indicate a more anterior point of contact along the foot. Differences in SI may be related to running-related injuries, such that experienced distance runners who are rearfoot (posterior) strikers may have approximately twice the rate ...

  1. Older people experiencing homelessness show marked impairment on tests of frontal lobe function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogoz, Astrid; Burke, David

    2016-03-01

    Reported rates of mild and moderate cognitive impairment in older people experiencing homelessness range from 5-80%. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence and characteristics of cognitive impairment in older people experiencing homelessness in the inner city of Sydney, Australia. Men and women experiencing homelessness aged 45 years and over in the inner city were screened for cognitive impairment. Participants who scored 26 or below on the mini-mental state examination and/or were impaired on any one of the clock-drawing test, the verbal fluency test and the trail-making test, part B were then assessed with a semi-structured interview, including the 21-item Depression Anxiety Stress Scale and the 12-item General Health Questionnaire. Screening of 144 men and 27 women aged between 45 years and 93 years identified cognitive impairment in 78%. Subsequently, high rates of mental and physical illness were identified, and 75% of subjects who were cognitively impaired performed poorly on frontal lobe tests. The trail-making test, part B was the most sensitive measure of frontal function. This study demonstrated that a large majority of older people experiencing homelessness, in the inner city of a high-income country, showed impairment on tests of frontal lobe function, a finding that could have significant implications for any medical or psychosocial intervention. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Sexual Violence Experienced in the Sport Context by a Representative Sample of Quebec Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parent, Sylvie; Lavoie, Francine; Thibodeau, Marie-Ève; Hébert, Martine; Blais, Martin

    2016-01-01

    This is the first study to report the prevalence of sexual violence perpetrated by a sport coach within a representative sample of the general population of adolescents aged between 14 and 17 years (N = 6 450). The questionnaire administered in high schools includes self-reported measures on a variety of dimensions relevant to the study of victimization, including sexual abuse, sexual contacts perceived as consensual, sexual harassment and involvement in an organized sport context. Descriptive and chi-square analyses were performed. The results show that 0.5% of adolescents experienced sexual abuse involving a coach. When considering all adolescents who experienced sexual abuse in their lifetime (10.2%), it appears that 5.3% of them were victims of sexual abuse by a coach. Participants also reported experiencing sexual harassment from a coach (0.4%) and consensual sexual contacts (1.2%) with a coach in the 12 months preceeding the study. Questions are raised on the overrepresentation of boys in situations of sexual victimization experiences in an organized sport context. PMID:25873593

  3. A tunable sub-100 nm silicon nanopore array with an AAO membrane mask: reducing unwanted surface etching by introducing a PMMA interlayer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Namsoo; Pak, Yusin; Kim, Jin Tae; Hwang, Youngkyu; Lee, Ryeri; Kumaresan, Yogeenth; Myoung, Nosoung; Ko, Heung Cho; Jung, Gun Young

    2015-08-01

    Highly ordered silicon (Si) nanopores with a tunable sub-100 nm diameter were fabricated by a CF4 plasma etching process using an anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) membrane as an etching mask. To enhance the conformal contact of the AAO membrane mask to the underlying Si substrate, poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) was spin-coated on top of the Si substrate prior to the transfer of the AAO membrane. The AAO membrane mask was fabricated by two-step anodization and subsequent removal of the aluminum support and the barrier layer, which was then transferred to the PMMA-coated Si substrate. Contact printing was performed on the sample with a pressure of 50 psi and a temperature of 120 °C to make a conformal contact of the AAO membrane mask to the Si substrate. The CF4 plasma etching was conducted to transfer nanopores onto the Si substrate through the PMMA interlayer. The introduced PMMA interlayer prevented unwanted surface etching of the Si substrate by eliminating the etching ions and radicals bouncing at the gap between the mask and the substrate, resulting in a smooth Si nanopore array.Highly ordered silicon (Si) nanopores with a tunable sub-100 nm diameter were fabricated by a CF4 plasma etching process using an anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) membrane as an etching mask. To enhance the conformal contact of the AAO membrane mask to the underlying Si substrate, poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) was spin-coated on top of the Si substrate prior to the transfer of the AAO membrane. The AAO membrane mask was fabricated by two-step anodization and subsequent removal of the aluminum support and the barrier layer, which was then transferred to the PMMA-coated Si substrate. Contact printing was performed on the sample with a pressure of 50 psi and a temperature of 120 °C to make a conformal contact of the AAO membrane mask to the Si substrate. The CF4 plasma etching was conducted to transfer nanopores onto the Si substrate through the PMMA interlayer. The introduced PMMA interlayer

  4. Profile analysis of after-effects experienced during exposure to several virtual reality environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Robert S.; Jones, Marshall B.; Lilienthal, Michael G.; Harm, Deborah L.

    1994-01-01

    Motion sickness symptoms are an unwanted by-product of exposure to virtual environments. This problem is not new and was reported in the early flight simulators and experiments on ego motions and vection. The cardinal symptom of motion sickness is, of course, vomiting, but this symptom is ordinarily preceded by a variety of other symptoms. In his classic studies of motion sickness conducted before and during World War II, G. R. Wendt introduced a three point scale to score motion sickness beyond a vomit/no vomit dichotomy. Later, Navy scientists developed a Motion Sickness Questionnaire (MSQ), originally for use in a slowly rotating room. In the last 20 years the MSQ has been used in a series of studies of air, sea, and space sickness. Only recently, however, has it been appreciated that symptom patterns in the MSQ are not uniform but vary with the way sickness is induced. In seasickness, for example, nausea is the most prominent symptom. In Navy simulators, however, the most common symptom is eye strain, especially when cathode ray tubes are employed in the simulation. The latter result was obtained in a survey of over 1,500 pilot exposures. Using this database, Essex scientists conducted a factor analysis of the MSQ. We found that signs and symptoms of motion sickness fell mainly into three clusters: 1) oculomotor disturbance, 2) nausea and related neurovegetative problems, and 3) disorientation, ataxia, and vertigo. We have since rescored the MSQ results obtained in Navy simulators in terms of these three components. We have also compared these and other profiles obtained from three different vitual reality systems to profiles obtained in sea sickness, space sickness, and alcohol intoxication. We will show examples of these various profiles and point out simularities and differences among them which indicate aspects of what might be called 'virtual-reality sickness'.

  5. Clinical decision making of experienced and novice nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabak, N; Bar-Tal, Y; Cohen-Mansfield, J

    1996-10-01

    Decision making is an important daily nursing activity. Given contradictory past findings concerning the ease of use cognitive schema for reaching decisions among experts and novices, we chose to examine consistency of information as a parameter that may clarify the process of decision making. Ninety-two experienced nurses and 65 nursing students rated their decisional difficulty and levels of certainty in reaching a diagnosis for two scenarios: one including consistent information and one providing information that was partly inconsistent with the given diagnosis. For the consistent information, students showed more difficulty and less certainty in the given diagnosis than the experienced nurses. The inconsistent scenario was perceived as more difficult by nurses in comparison to students. The cognitive processes responsible for these results are discussed.

  6. Anticipated and experienced emotions in environmental risk perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisela Bohm

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Affective forecasting with respect to two environmental risks (ozone depletion, air pollution was investigated by studying tourists who travelled to either Australia or Bangkok and were thus confronted with one of these risks. We measured anticipated outcome and anticipated emotions before the journey, actually experienced outcome and actually experienced emotions during the journey, and anticipated outcome and emotions concerning a future encounter with the same risk after the journey. Results indicate that tourists underestimate (air pollution or correctly predict (ozone depletion both the seriousness of the outcome and their emotional reactions. The relationship between actual outcome and actual emotions is stronger than that between anticipated outcome and anticipated emotions. Furthermore, tourists learn from their travel experience and adjust their anticipations concerning future encounters with the environmental risk. Findings suggest that the domain of environmental risks differs from personal outcomes with respect to the process of affective forecasting.

  7. Do in-car devices affect experienced users' driving performance?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allert S. Knapper

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Distracted driving is considered to be an important factor in road safety. To investigate how experienced user's driving behaviour is affected by in-vehicle technology, a fixed-base driving simulator was used. 20 participants drove twice in a rich simulated traffic environment while performing secondary, i.e. mobile phone and navigation system tasks. The results show that mean speed was lower in all experimental conditions, compared to baseline driving, while subjective effort increased. Lateral performance deteriorated only during visual–manual tasks, i.e. texting and destination entry, in which the participants glanced off the forward road for a substantial amount of time. Being experienced in manipulating in-car devices does not solve the problem of dual tasking when the primary task is a complex task like driving a moving vehicle. The results and discussion may shed some light on the current debate regarding phone use hazards.

  8. Regulation of experienced and anticipated regret in daily decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjälkebring, Pär; Västfjäll, Daniel; Svenson, Ola; Slovic, Paul

    2016-04-01

    Decisions were sampled from 108 participants during 8 days using a web-based diary method. Each day participants rated experienced regret for a decision made, as well as forecasted regret for a decision to be made. Participants also indicated to what extent they used different strategies to prevent or regulate regret. Participants regretted 30% of decisions and forecasted regret in 70% of future decisions, indicating both that regret is relatively prevalent in daily decisions but also that experienced regret was less frequent than forecasted regret. In addition, a number of decision-specific regulation and prevention strategies were successfully used by the participants to minimize regret and negative emotions in daily decision making. Overall, these results suggest that regulation and prevention of regret are important strategies in many of our daily decisions. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  9. Perceptions of masculinity and fatherhood among men experiencing homelessness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Alexander; Kim, Ji Youn Cindy; Nguyen, Christopher; Liu, William Ming; Fall, Kevin; Galligan, Patrick

    2017-05-01

    This study explored the perceptions of fatherhood held by 11 men living in a homeless shelter. Using consensual qualitative research methodology (CQR; Hill, 2012), we investigated perceptions of masculinity and fatherhood among fathers experiencing homelessness. Participants described (a) their perceptions of masculinity and fatherhood and changes resulting from homelessness, (b) physical and psychological challenges of being a father experiencing homelessness, and (c) expectations of homeless fathers. The fathers generally expressed feelings of low self-esteem related to their perceived difficulty fulfilling the role of providers for their family; however, they also adapted their view of fatherhood to include roles suited to their situation, such as that of guide, teacher, and role model. Suggestions are made for clinicians in helping fathers navigate and develop these roles, and limitations and directions for future research are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. Experiencing Physical Pain Leads to More Sympathetic Moral Judgments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Qianguo; Zhu, Yi; Luo, Wen-bo

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that observing another’s pain can evoke other-oriented emotions, which instigate empathic concern for another’s needs. It is not clear whether experiencing first-hand physical pain may also evoke other-oriented emotion and thus influence people’s moral judgment. Based on the embodied simulation literature and neuroimaging evidence, the present research tested the idea that participants who experienced physical pain would be more sympathetic in their moral judgments. Study 1 showed that ice-induced physical pain facilitated higher self-assessments of empathy, which motivated participants to be more sympathetic in their moral judgments. Study 2 confirmed findings in study 1 and also showed that State Perspective Taking subscale of the State Empathy Scale mediated the effects of physical pain on moral judgment. These results provide support for embodied view of morality and for the view that pain can serve a positive psychosocial function. PMID:26465603

  11. On avoiding framing effects in experienced decision makers.

    OpenAIRE

    Garcia-Retamero, R; Dhami, MK

    2012-01-01

    The present study aimed to (a) demonstrate the effect of positive-negative framing on experienced criminal justice decision makers, (b) examine the debiasing effect of visually structured risk messages, and (c) investigate whether risk perceptions mediate the debiasing effect of visual aids on decision making. In two phases, 60 senior police officers estimated the accuracy of a counterterrorism technique in identifying whether a known terror suspect poses an imminent danger and decided whethe...

  12. The characteristics of failure among students who experienced pseudo thinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anggraini, D.; Kusmayadi, T. A.; Pramudya, I.

    2018-04-01

    The purpose of this research is to describe the thinking process of students who experienced pseudo thinking when solving the straight line equation. The result of this study shows the characteristics of error that caused students to experience pseudo thinking when solving the problem and their relation with students’ metacognition skill. This qualitative research was conducted in State 16 Junior High School in Surakarta, Indonesia during the odd semester of 2017/2018 academic year. The subjects of the study were students Junior High School students of 8th grade chosen using purposive sampling technique. Data were collected through the administration of think aloud method. The result showed that the characteristics of errors among the subjects are: 1) the answers resulted from pseudo thinking when solving the problem were obtained from the spontaneous, fast, unconscious and uncontrolled thinking process; 2) students had misconception; 3) students had tendency to memorize the formula and imitate the completion procedure; 4) students experienced fuzzy memory when solving the problem. From the mistakes among students who experienced pseudo thinking, their metacognition ability could be inferred.

  13. Experienced Barriers to Lean in Swedish Manufacturing and Health Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bengt Halling

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose is to compare similarities and divergences in how the concepts of Lean and barriers to Lean are described by key informants at a production unit in a large manufacturing company and two emergency health care units in Sweden. Data was collected via semi-structured interviews and analyzed with the constant comparative method (CCM and Porras and Robertson’s (1992 change model. : In both organizations, the view of Lean changed from a toolbox to a human behavior view. Eight barriers were experienced in both organizations. Three barriers were unique to manufacturing or to health care, respectively. Nine barriers were elements of social factors; five were elements of organizing arrangements. Only people practically involved and responsible for the implementation at the two organizations participated in the study. Persons responsible for implementing Lean should consider organizational arrangements and social factors in order to limit barriers to successful implementation. Most research on Lean has been about successful Lean implementations. This study focuses on how Lean is viewed and what barriers personnel in manufacturing and health care have experienced. In comparing the barriers to Lean experienced in the two groups, common, archetypical, and unique barriers for manufacturing and health care can be identified, thus contributing to knowledge about barriers to Lean implementation.

  14. Experienced physicians benefit from analyzing initial diagnostic hypotheses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bass, Adam; Geddes, Colin; Wright, Bruce; Coderre, Sylvain; Rikers, Remy; McLaughlin, Kevin

    2013-01-01

    Background Most incorrect diagnoses involve at least one cognitive error, of which premature closure is the most prevalent. While metacognitive strategies can mitigate premature closure in inexperienced learners, these are rarely studied in experienced physicians. Our objective here was to evaluate the effect of analytic information processing on diagnostic performance of nephrologists and nephrology residents. Methods We asked nine nephrologists and six nephrology residents at the University of Calgary and Glasgow University to diagnose ten nephrology cases. We provided presenting features along with contextual information, after which we asked for an initial diagnosis. We then primed participants to use either hypothetico-deductive reasoning or scheme-inductive reasoning to analyze the remaining case data and generate a final diagnosis. Results After analyzing initial hypotheses, both nephrologists and residents improved the accuracy of final diagnoses (31.1% vs. 65.6%, p inductive reasoning (odds ratio [95% confidence interval] 5.69 [1.59, 20.33], p = 0.07), whereas the performance of experienced nephrologists did not differ between strategies (odds ratio 0.57 [0.23, 1.39], p = 0.20). Discussion Experienced nephrologists and nephrology residents can improve their performance by analyzing initial diagnostic hypotheses. The explanation of the interaction between experience and the effect of different reasoning strategies is unclear, but may relate to preferences in reasoning strategy, or the changes in knowledge structure with experience. PMID:26451203

  15. Efficacy and safety of fractional carbon dioxide laser for treatment of unwanted facial freckles in phototypes II-IV: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Zawahry, Bakr; Zaki, Naglaa; Hafez, Vanessa; Abdel Hay, Rania; Hay, Rania Abdel; Fahim, Aya

    2014-11-01

    Facial freckles are a cosmetic concern to Egyptians, particularly young females. Several therapeutic lines exist with variable response rates and limitations. Fractional carbon dioxide (FCO2) laser provides minimal ablation and therefore less down time and less side effects. The efficacy and safety of this laser technology have still not been studied in freckles. The aim of this study is to assess the efficacy and safety of FCO2 laser in the treatment of unwanted facial freckles in Egyptians. Twenty patients undergone a single session of FCO2 laser and then were followed up clinically a month later. Photographs were taken before treatment and at follow-up visit and were assessed by three blinded investigators. Percent of global improvement was measured on a 4-point grading scale. Patient's satisfaction and adverse events were recorded. Two patients (10 %) showed grade 1 improvement, while eight patients (40 %) showed grade 2 improvement. Nine patients (45 %) showed grade 3 improvement, and only one patient (5 %) showed grade 4 improvement. FCO2 laser resurfacing is effective and safe in treatment of facial freckles in skin phototypes II-IV. It can offer a more practical alternative to topical treatments, and a cheaper alternative to Q-switched lasers.

  16. Dynamic terahertz spectroscopy of gas molecules mixed with unwanted aerosol under atmospheric pressure using fibre-based asynchronous-optical-sampling terahertz time-domain spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Yi-Da; Nakamura, Shota; Abdelsalam, Dahi Ghareab; Minamikawa, Takeo; Mizutani, Yasuhiro; Yamamoto, Hirotsugu; Iwata, Tetsuo; Hindle, Francis; Yasui, Takeshi

    2016-06-01

    Terahertz (THz) spectroscopy is a promising method for analysing polar gas molecules mixed with unwanted aerosols due to its ability to obtain spectral fingerprints of rotational transition and immunity to aerosol scattering. In this article, dynamic THz spectroscopy of acetonitrile (CH3CN) gas was performed in the presence of smoke under the atmospheric pressure using a fibre-based, asynchronous-optical-sampling THz time-domain spectrometer. To match THz spectral signatures of gas molecules at atmospheric pressure, the spectral resolution was optimized to 1 GHz with a measurement rate of 1 Hz. The spectral overlapping of closely packed absorption lines significantly boosted the detection limit to 200 ppm when considering all the spectral contributions of the numerous absorption lines from 0.2 THz to 1 THz. Temporal changes of the CH3CN gas concentration were monitored under the smoky condition at the atmospheric pressure during volatilization of CH3CN droplets and the following diffusion of the volatilized CH3CN gas without the influence of scattering or absorption by the smoke. This system will be a powerful tool for real-time monitoring of target gases in practical applications of gas analysis in the atmospheric pressure, such as combustion processes or fire accident.

  17. PSA-NCAM-Negative Neural Crest Cells Emerging during Neural Induction of Pluripotent Stem Cells Cause Mesodermal Tumors and Unwanted Grafts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dongjin R.; Yoo, Jeong-Eun; Lee, Jae Souk; Park, Sanghyun; Lee, Junwon; Park, Chul-Yong; Ji, Eunhyun; Kim, Han-Soo; Hwang, Dong-Youn; Kim, Dae-Sung; Kim, Dong-Wook

    2015-01-01

    Summary Tumorigenic potential of human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) is an important issue in clinical applications. Despite many efforts, PSC-derived neural precursor cells (NPCs) have repeatedly induced tumors in animal models even though pluripotent cells were not detected. We found that polysialic acid-neural cell adhesion molecule (PSA-NCAM)− cells among the early NPCs caused tumors, whereas PSA-NCAM+ cells were nontumorigenic. Molecular profiling, global gene analysis, and multilineage differentiation of PSA-NCAM− cells confirm that they are multipotent neural crest stem cells (NCSCs) that could differentiate into both ectodermal and mesodermal lineages. Transplantation of PSA-NCAM− cells in a gradient manner mixed with PSA-NCAM+ cells proportionally increased mesodermal tumor formation and unwanted grafts such as PERIPHERIN+ cells or pigmented cells in the rat brain. Therefore, we suggest that NCSCs are a critical target for tumor prevention in hPSC-derived NPCs, and removal of PSA-NCAM− cells eliminates the tumorigenic potential originating from NCSCs after transplantation. PMID:25937368

  18. Internet and Social Media Access Among Youth Experiencing Homelessness: Mixed-Methods Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VonHoltz, Lauren A Houdek; Frasso, Rosemary; Golinkoff, Jesse M; Lozano, Alicia J; Hanlon, Alexandra; Dowshen, Nadia

    2018-05-22

    Youth experiencing homelessness are at a risk for a variety of adverse outcomes. Given the widespread use of the internet and social media, these new technologies may be used to address their needs and for outreach purposes. However, little is known about how this group uses these resources. This study investigated how homeless adolescents use these technologies for general and health-related purposes, whether the scope of their use changes with housing status, and their interest in a website dedicated to youth experiencing homelessness. A convenience sample of youth aged 18 to 21 years was recruited from a youth-specific homeless shelter. All participants completed a 47-item survey, with 10 individuals completing a semistructured interview. Descriptive statistics, exact testing, logistic regression, and generalized estimating equation modeling was performed for quantitative data analysis. Interviews were transcribed verbatim, and NVivo 10 (QSR International) was employed to facilitate double coding and thematic analysis. A total of 87 participants completed the survey with a mean age of 19.4 (SD 1.1) years. While experiencing homelessness, 56% (49/87) accessed the internet at least once a day, with 86% (75/87) accessing once a week. Access to a smartphone was associated with a 3.03 greater odds of accessing the internet and was the most frequently used device (66% of participants, 57/87). While experiencing homelessness, subjects reported a 68% decreased odds in internet access frequency (odds ratio [OR] 0.32, Psocial media use (OR 0.13, P=.01). Ten participants completed the semistructured interview. Several themes were identified, including (1) changes in internet behaviors while experiencing homelessness, (2) health status as a major concern and reason for Internet use, and (3) interest in a website dedicated to youth experiencing homelessness. While experiencing homelessness, participants indicated their behaviors were more goal-oriented and less focused on

  19. Unwanted pregnancy and mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-04-11

    This article deals with a study carried out in Glasgow of 132 referrals for psychiatric opinion on termination of pregnancy with a follow-up 9 months later. A questionnaire was completed by the consultant at the time of examination and a follow-up letter was sent to the patient's family doctor 9 months later. Of the 132 women, 84 were given an abortion and 48 were refused. Of the 84 recommended for abortion, 53 were married, 25 single, and 6 widowed or divorced. 19 were childless and 65 had 1 or more children. 25% were Roman Catholic. Continuing psychiatric symptoms were noted in 8, but only in 4 did they seem to result from the abortion. Severe social problems were recorded in 9 but they had existed in 7 before and probably would have worsened had the abortion not been carried out. Only 14 went to their general practitioner for contraceptive advice. Of the 48 patients refused an abortion, only 25 continued the pregnancy to term. 15 had abortions privately. Definite psychiatric sequelae occurred in 3 cases, none needing psychiatric referral. Social problems arose in 4 cases. There was apparently no evidence of psychiatric complications following abortion, but in the group refused abortion, there were cases of depression and social distress.

  20. Unwanted parenthood: Romanticism and Kant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krstić Predrag

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the Romantic reception of Kant, the author attempts to show a relationship between the Romanticism and the Enlightenment. First part of the paper reconstructs the social conditions that created the strange path of transformation of parts of Kant’s teachings in the romantic motifs. The second part follows the theoretical precomposition of Kant’s thought in Fichte and expressly deviation from it in Novalis and Schlegel. Third section presents the key moments of the Romantic critique of the Enlightenment mind, and fourth its ambiguous pracital-political effects. In conclusion, it is suggested that Romanticism tested and testified the transcending of limits of the very freedom for which Kant believed that man becomes worthy of only if it is used in a lawful and purposeful manner.

  1. Non-technical skills of surgical trainees and experienced surgeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gostlow, H; Marlow, N; Thomas, M J W; Hewett, P J; Kiermeier, A; Babidge, W; Altree, M; Pena, G; Maddern, G

    2017-05-01

    In addition to technical expertise, surgical competence requires effective non-technical skills to ensure patient safety and maintenance of standards. Recently the Royal Australasian College of Surgeons implemented a new Surgical Education and Training (SET) curriculum that incorporated non-technical skills considered essential for a competent surgeon. This study sought to compare the non-technical skills of experienced surgeons who completed their training before the introduction of SET with the non-technical skills of more recent trainees. Surgical trainees and experienced surgeons undertook a simulated scenario designed to challenge their non-technical skills. Scenarios were video recorded and participants were assessed using the Non-Technical Skills for Surgeons (NOTSS) scoring system. Participants were divided into subgroups according to years of experience and their NOTSS scores were compared. For most NOTSS elements, mean scores increased initially, peaking around the time of Fellowship, before decreasing roughly linearly over time. There was a significant downward trend in score with increasing years since being awarded Fellowship for six of the 12 NOTSS elements: considering options (score -0·015 units per year), implementing and reviewing decisions (-0·020 per year), establishing a shared understanding (-0·014 per year), setting and maintaining standards (-0·024 per year), supporting others (-0·031 per year) and coping with pressure (-0·015 per year). The drop in NOTSS score was unexpected and highlights that even experienced surgeons are not immune to deficiencies in non-technical skills. Consideration should be given to continuing professional development programmes focusing on non-technical skills, regardless of the level of professional experience. © 2017 BJS Society Ltd Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Caffeine Improves Basketball Performance in Experienced Basketball Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Puente

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the effect of caffeine intake on overall basketball performance in experienced players. A double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized experimental design was used for this investigation. In two different sessions separated by one week, 20 experienced basketball players ingested 3 mg of caffeine/kg of body mass or a placebo. After 60 min, participants performed 10 repetitions of the following sequence: Abalakov jump, Change-of-Direction and Acceleration Test (CODAT and two free throws. Later, heart rate, body impacts and game statistics were recorded during a 20-min simulated basketball game. In comparison to the placebo, the ingestion of caffeine increased mean jump height (37.3 ± 6.8 vs. 38.2 ± 7.4 cm; p = 0.012, but did not change mean time in the CODAT test or accuracy in free throws. During the simulated game, caffeine increased the number of body impacts (396 ± 43 vs. 410 ± 41 impacts/min; p < 0.001 without modifying mean or peak heart rate. Caffeine also increased the performance index rating (7.2 ± 8.6 vs. 10.6 ± 7.1; p = 0.037 during the game. Nevertheless, players showed a higher prevalence of insomnia (19.0 vs. 54.4%; p = 0.041 after the game. Three mg of caffeine per kg of body mass could be an effective ergogenic substance to increase physical performance and overall success in experienced basketball players.

  3. Experienced physicians benefit from analyzing initial diagnostic hypotheses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Bass

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Most incorrect diagnoses involve at least one cognitive error, of which premature closure is the most prevalent. While metacognitive strategies can mitigate premature closure in inexperienced learners, these are rarely studied in experienced physicians. Our objective here was to evaluate the effect of analytic information processing on diagnostic performance of nephrologists and nephrology residents. Methods: We asked nine nephrologists and six nephrology residents at the University of Calgary and Glasgow University to diagnose ten nephrology cases. We provided presenting features along with contextual information, after which we asked for an initial diagnosis. We then primed participants to use either hypothetico-deductive reasoning or scheme-inductive reasoning to analyze the remaining case data and generate a final diagnosis. Results: After analyzing initial hypotheses, both nephrologists and residents improved the accuracy of final diagnoses (31.1% vs. 65.6%, p < 0.001, and 40.0% vs. 70.0%, p < 0.001, respectively. We found a significant interaction between experience and analytic processing strategy (p = 0.002: nephrology residents had significantly increased odds of diagnostic success when using scheme-inductive reasoning (odds ratio [95% confidence interval] 5.69 [1.59, 20.33], p = 0.007, whereas the performance of experienced nephrologists did not differ between strategies (odds ratio 0.57 [0.23, 1.39], p = 0.2. Discussion: Experienced nephrologists and nephrology residents can improve their performance by analyzing initial diagnostic hypotheses. The explanation of the interaction between experience and the effect of different reasoning strategies is unclear, but may relate to preferences in reasoning strategy, or the changes in knowledge structure with experience.

  4. Experiencing mathematics what do we do, when we do mathematics?

    CERN Document Server

    Hersh, Reuben

    2014-01-01

    The question "What am I doing?" haunts many creative people, researchers, and teachers. Mathematics, poetry, and philosophy can look from the outside sometimes as ballet en pointe, and at other times as the flight of the bumblebee. Reuben Hersh looks at mathematics from the inside; he collects his papers written over several decades, their edited versions, and new chapters in his book Experiencing Mathematics, which is practical, philosophical, and in some places as intensely personal as Swann's madeleine. -Yuri Manin, Max Planck Institute, Bonn, Germany What happens when mid-career a mathemat

  5. Perspectives of Individuals who Experienced Bullying during Childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivia Byjos

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The objective of the qualitative study was to describe the perspectives of adults who experienced bullying at school during childhood or adolescence. Method: Data was collected through semi-structured interviews (n = 8 and analyzed using the constant comparative method. Results: Three major themes emerged: (a the school should have done something, (b it still affects me, and (c there needs to be prevention. Conclusion: Based on their unique expertise, occupational therapy practitioners may be able to collaborate with interprofessional teams to address the needs of individuals who bully and those who are being bullied at school.

  6. Acceleration experienced by thermal converter implanted in calves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koshino, I.; Sukalac, R.; Jacobs, G.; Kiraly, R.J.; Nose, Y.

    1976-02-01

    The objective of this study was to determine acceleration levels experienced by the ERDA thermal converter unit implanted abdominally in a calf. A full-scale weighted mock-up of the thermal converter was fabricated containing a triaxial accelerometer. The mock-up was implanted in calf cadavers which were subjected to falls from an operating table. Highest acceleration recorded was 34 g. The mock-up was implanted in living animals and acceleration measurements made under various maneuvers including walking, standing from a laying position, walking up and down stairs, jumping, and falling from a standing position. Maximum acceleration recorded was 8 g and occurred in the falling maneuver

  7. Stigma Perceived and Experienced by Adults with Type 1 Diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ulla Møller; Willaing, Ingrid; Ventura, Adriana D

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: We aimed to (a) culturally and linguistically adapt the Type 1 Diabetes Stigma Assessment Scale (DSAS-1) from English (for Australia) into Danish and (b) examine psychometric properties of the measure among Danish adults with type 1 diabetes. METHODS: We performed a forward......-backward translation, face validity interviews with experts and cognitive debriefing of the Danish version (DSAS-1 DK) with ten adults from the target group. The DSAS-1 DK was then completed by 1594 adults with type 1 diabetes. Electronic clinical records provided age, diabetes duration, diabetes-related complications...... to advance research into the stigma perceived and experienced by adults with type 1 diabetes in a Danish context....

  8. Preferential Treatment or Unwanted in Mainstream Schools? The Perceptions of Parents and Teachers with Regards to Pupils with Special Educational Needs and Challenging Behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broomhead, Karen E.

    2013-01-01

    This study explored the perceptions of parents and teachers regarding the differential treatment or stigma experienced by pupils with challenging behaviour--more specifically, those with behavioural, emotional and social difficulties (BESD), as well as children with visible special educational needs (Down's syndrome and/or profound and multiple…

  9. Methods for removal of unwanted signals from gravity time-series: Comparison using linear techniques complemented with analysis of system dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valencio, Arthur; Grebogi, Celso; Baptista, Murilo S.

    2017-10-01

    The presence of undesirable dominating signals in geophysical experimental data is a challenge in many subfields. One remarkable example is surface gravimetry, where frequencies from Earth tides correspond to time-series fluctuations up to a thousand times larger than the phenomena of major interest, such as hydrological gravity effects or co-seismic gravity changes. This work discusses general methods for the removal of unwanted dominating signals by applying them to 8 long-period gravity time-series of the International Geodynamics and Earth Tides Service, equivalent to the acquisition from 8 instruments in 5 locations representative of the network. We compare three different conceptual approaches for tide removal: frequency filtering, physical modelling, and data-based modelling. Each approach reveals a different limitation to be considered depending on the intended application. Vestiges of tides remain in the residues for the modelling procedures, whereas the signal was distorted in different ways by the filtering and data-based procedures. The linear techniques employed were power spectral density, spectrogram, cross-correlation, and classical harmonics decomposition, while the system dynamics was analysed by state-space reconstruction and estimation of the largest Lyapunov exponent. Although the tides could not be completely eliminated, they were sufficiently reduced to allow observation of geophysical events of interest above the 10 nm s-2 level, exemplified by a hydrology-related event of 60 nm s-2. The implementations adopted for each conceptual approach are general, so that their principles could be applied to other kinds of data affected by undesired signals composed mainly by periodic or quasi-periodic components.

  10. Risk factors and the choice of long-acting reversible contraception following medical abortion: effect on subsequent induced abortion and unwanted pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korjamo, Riina; Heikinheimo, Oskari; Mentula, Maarit

    2018-04-01

    To analyse the post-abortion effect of long-acting reversible contraception (LARC) plans and initiation on the risk of subsequent unwanted pregnancy and abortion. retrospective cohort study of 666 women who underwent medical abortion between January-May 2013 at Helsinki University Hospital, Finland. Altogether 159 (23.8%) women planning post-abortion use of levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system (LNG-IUS) participated in a randomized study and had an opportunity to receive the LNG-IUS free-of-charge from the hospital. The other 507 (76.2%) women planned and obtained their contraception according to clinical routine. Demographics, planned contraception, and LARC initiation at the time of the index abortion were collected. Data on subsequent abortions were retrieved from the Finnish Abortion Register and electronic patient files until the end of 2014. During the 21 months ([median], IQR 20-22) follow-up, 54(8.1%) women requested subsequent abortions. When adjusted for age, previous pregnancies, deliveries, induced abortions and gestational-age, planning LARC for post-abortion contraception failed to prevent subsequent abortion (33 abortions/360 women, 9.2%) compared to other contraceptive plans (21/306, 6.9%) (HR 1.22, 95% CI 0.68-2.17). However, verified LARC initiation decreased the abortion rate (4 abortions/177 women, 2.3%) compared to women with uncertain LARC initiation status (50/489, 10.2%) (HR 0.17, 95% CI 0.06-0.48). When adjusted for LARC initiation status, age abortion (27 abortions/283 women, 9.5%) compared to women ≥25 years (27/383, 7.0%, HR1.95, 95% CI 1.04-3.67). Initiation of LARC as part of abortion service at the time of medical abortion is an important means to prevent subsequent abortion, especially among young women.

  11. Hemodynamic response during aneurysm clipping surgery among experienced neurosurgeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunevicius, Adomas; Bilskiene, Diana; Macas, Andrius; Tamasauskas, Arimantas

    2016-02-01

    Neurosurgery is a challenging field associated with high levels of mental stress. The goal of this study was to investigate the hemodynamic response of experienced neurosurgeons during aneurysm clipping surgery and to evaluate whether neurosurgeons' hemodynamic responses are associated with patients' clinical statuses. Four vascular neurosurgeons (all male; mean age 51 ± 10 years; post-residency experience ≥7 years) were studied during 42 aneurysm clipping procedures. Blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR) were assessed at rest and during seven phases of surgery: before the skin incision, after craniotomy, after dural opening, after aneurysm neck dissection, after aneurysm clipping, after dural closure and after skin closure. HR and BP were significantly greater during surgery relative to the rest situation (p ≤ 0.03). There was a statistically significant increase in neurosurgeons' HR (F [6, 41] = 10.88, p neurosurgeon experience, the difference in BP as a function of aneurysm rupture was not significant (p > 0.08). Aneurysm location, intraoperative aneurysm rupture, admission WFNS score, admission Glasgow Coma Scale scores and Fisher grade were not associated with neurosurgeons' intraoperative HR and BP (all p > 0.07). Aneurysm clipping surgery is associated with significant hemodynamic system activation among experienced neurosurgeons. The greatest HR and BP were after aneurysm neck dissection and clipping. Aneurysm location and patient clinical status were not associated with intraoperative changes of neurosurgeons' HR and BP.

  12. The meaning of caring in five experienced physical therapists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenfield, Bruce H

    2006-09-01

    Caring has been identified as a desirable indicator of professional behavior in the physical therapy profession and as a necessary value for good patient care. Yet caring is an elusive concept with multiple meanings. The present aim was to describe the nature of caring in the clinical practice of five experienced physical therapists. Purposive sampling was used to recruit five experienced physical therapists. Each physical therapist underwent a series of in-depth, open-ended interviews that were transcribed and coded for themes based on similarities and differences. The analysis resulted in three themes: ethics of caring, risks and conflicts of caring, and learning to care. The data indicated for four of the five participants that caring constituted an ethics of practice or moral orientation. Their moral orientation influenced moral judgment that was integrated throughout their clinical and ethical decision-making practice. The findings stress the difficulty of caring in a managed care health care environment that results in conflicting demands for physical therapists to care for their patients in a system that increasingly values cost control and profit margin. However, the findings also describe the ultimate rewards associated with the practice of an ethics of caring in physical therapy practice.

  13. Caffeine Improves Basketball Performance in Experienced Basketball Players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puente, Carlos; Areces, Francisco

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of caffeine intake on overall basketball performance in experienced players. A double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized experimental design was used for this investigation. In two different sessions separated by one week, 20 experienced basketball players ingested 3 mg of caffeine/kg of body mass or a placebo. After 60 min, participants performed 10 repetitions of the following sequence: Abalakov jump, Change-of-Direction and Acceleration Test (CODAT) and two free throws. Later, heart rate, body impacts and game statistics were recorded during a 20-min simulated basketball game. In comparison to the placebo, the ingestion of caffeine increased mean jump height (37.3 ± 6.8 vs. 38.2 ± 7.4 cm; p = 0.012), but did not change mean time in the CODAT test or accuracy in free throws. During the simulated game, caffeine increased the number of body impacts (396 ± 43 vs. 410 ± 41 impacts/min; p basketball players. PMID:28925969

  14. On avoiding framing effects in experienced decision makers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Retamero, Rocio; Dhami, Mandeep K

    2013-01-01

    The present study aimed to (a) demonstrate the effect of positive-negative framing on experienced criminal justice decision makers, (b) examine the debiasing effect of visually structured risk messages, and (c) investigate whether risk perceptions mediate the debiasing effect of visual aids on decision making. In two phases, 60 senior police officers estimated the accuracy of a counterterrorism technique in identifying whether a known terror suspect poses an imminent danger and decided whether they would recommend the technique to policy makers. Officers also rated their confidence in this recommendation. When information about the effectiveness of the counterterrorism technique was presented in a numerical format, officers' perceptions of accuracy and recommendation decisions were susceptible to the framing effect: The technique was perceived to be more accurate and was more likely to be recommended when its effectiveness was presented in a positive than in a negative frame. However, when the information was represented visually using icon arrays, there were no such framing effects. Finally, perceptions of accuracy mediated the debiasing effect of visual aids on recommendation decisions. We offer potential explanations for the debiasing effect of visual aids and implications for communicating risk to experienced, professional decision makers.

  15. Transgender female sex workers’ HIV knowledge, experienced stigma, and condom use in the Dominican Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasbun, Julia; Charow, Rebecca; Rosario, Santo; Tillotson, Louise; McGlaughlin, Elaine; Waters, John

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Not only do transgender female sex workers have some of the highest rates of sexually transmitted infections (STI), human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and experienced stigma, they also have higher likelihood of early sexual debut and some of the lowest levels of educational attainment compared to other stigmatized populations. Some of the most common interventions designed to reduce transmission of HIV and STIs seek to educate high-risk groups on sexual health and encourage condom use across all partner types; however, reaching stigmatized populations, particularly those in resource-limited settings, is particularly challenging. Considering the importance of condom use in stopping the spread of HIV, the aim of this study was two-fold; first to characterize this hard-to-reach population of transgender female sex workers in the Dominican Republic, and second, to assess associations between their HIV knowledge, experienced stigma, and condom use across three partner types. Methods We analyzed self-reported data from the Questionnaire for Transgender Sex Workers (N = 78). Respondents were interviewed at their workplaces. Univariate and bivariate analyses were employed. Fisher Chi-square tests assessed differences in HIV knowledge and experienced stigma by condom use across partner types. Results HIV knowledge was alarmingly low, condom use varied across partner type, and the respondents in our sample had high levels of experienced stigma. Average age of first sexual experience was 13.12 years with a youngest age reported of 7. Dominican Republic statutory rape laws indicate 18 years is the age of consent; thus, many of these transgender women’s first sexual encounters would be considered forcible (rape) and constitute a prosecutable crime. On average, respondents reported 8.45 sexual partners in the prior month, with a maximum of 49 partners. Approximately two thirds of respondents used a condom the last time they had sex with a regular partner. This

  16. Transgender female sex workers' HIV knowledge, experienced stigma, and condom use in the Dominican Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budhwani, Henna; Hearld, Kristine R; Hasbun, Julia; Charow, Rebecca; Rosario, Santo; Tillotson, Louise; McGlaughlin, Elaine; Waters, John

    2017-01-01

    Not only do transgender female sex workers have some of the highest rates of sexually transmitted infections (STI), human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and experienced stigma, they also have higher likelihood of early sexual debut and some of the lowest levels of educational attainment compared to other stigmatized populations. Some of the most common interventions designed to reduce transmission of HIV and STIs seek to educate high-risk groups on sexual health and encourage condom use across all partner types; however, reaching stigmatized populations, particularly those in resource-limited settings, is particularly challenging. Considering the importance of condom use in stopping the spread of HIV, the aim of this study was two-fold; first to characterize this hard-to-reach population of transgender female sex workers in the Dominican Republic, and second, to assess associations between their HIV knowledge, experienced stigma, and condom use across three partner types. We analyzed self-reported data from the Questionnaire for Transgender Sex Workers (N = 78). Respondents were interviewed at their workplaces. Univariate and bivariate analyses were employed. Fisher Chi-square tests assessed differences in HIV knowledge and experienced stigma by condom use across partner types. HIV knowledge was alarmingly low, condom use varied across partner type, and the respondents in our sample had high levels of experienced stigma. Average age of first sexual experience was 13.12 years with a youngest age reported of 7. Dominican Republic statutory rape laws indicate 18 years is the age of consent; thus, many of these transgender women's first sexual encounters would be considered forcible (rape) and constitute a prosecutable crime. On average, respondents reported 8.45 sexual partners in the prior month, with a maximum of 49 partners. Approximately two thirds of respondents used a condom the last time they had sex with a regular partner. This was considerably lower than

  17. Multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging of the prostate with computer-aided detection: experienced observer performance study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giannini, Valentina; Mazzetti, Simone; Armando, Enrico; Carabalona, Silvia; Russo, Filippo; Giacobbe, Alessandro; Muto, Giovanni; Regge, Daniele

    2017-01-01

    To compare the performance of experienced readers in detecting prostate cancer (PCa) using likelihood maps generated by a CAD system with that of unassisted interpretation of multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (mp-MRI). Three experienced radiologists reviewed mp-MRI prostate cases twice. First, readers observed CAD marks on a likelihood map and classified as positive those suspicious for cancer. After 6 weeks, radiologists interpreted mp-MRI examinations unassisted, using their favourite protocol. Sensitivity, specificity, reading time and interobserver variability were compared for the two reading paradigms. The dataset comprised 89 subjects of whom 35 with at least one significant PCa. Sensitivity was 80.9% (95% CI 72.1-88.0%) and 87.6% (95% CI 79.8-93.2; p = 0.105) for unassisted and CAD paradigm respectively. Sensitivity was higher with CAD for lesions with GS > 6 (91.3% vs 81.2%; p = 0.046) or diameter ≥10 mm (95.0% vs 80.0%; p = 0.006). Specificity was not affected by CAD. The average reading time with CAD was significantly lower (220 s vs 60 s; p < 0.001). Experienced readers using likelihood maps generated by a CAD scheme can detect more patients with ≥10 mm PCa lesions than unassisted MRI interpretation; overall reporting time is shorter. To gain more insight into CAD-human interaction, different reading paradigms should be investigated. (orig.)

  18. Multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging of the prostate with computer-aided detection: experienced observer performance study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giannini, Valentina; Mazzetti, Simone; Armando, Enrico; Carabalona, Silvia; Russo, Filippo [FPO, IRCCS, Department of Radiology at the Candiolo Cancer Institute, Candiolo, Turin (Italy); Giacobbe, Alessandro [San Giovanni Bosco Hospital, Department of Urology, Turin (Italy); Muto, Giovanni [University Campus Biomedico, Department of Urology, Rome (Italy); Regge, Daniele [FPO, IRCCS, Department of Radiology at the Candiolo Cancer Institute, Candiolo, Turin (Italy); University of Torino, A.O.U. Citta della Salute e della Scienza, Department of Surgical Sciences, Turin (Italy)

    2017-10-15

    To compare the performance of experienced readers in detecting prostate cancer (PCa) using likelihood maps generated by a CAD system with that of unassisted interpretation of multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (mp-MRI). Three experienced radiologists reviewed mp-MRI prostate cases twice. First, readers observed CAD marks on a likelihood map and classified as positive those suspicious for cancer. After 6 weeks, radiologists interpreted mp-MRI examinations unassisted, using their favourite protocol. Sensitivity, specificity, reading time and interobserver variability were compared for the two reading paradigms. The dataset comprised 89 subjects of whom 35 with at least one significant PCa. Sensitivity was 80.9% (95% CI 72.1-88.0%) and 87.6% (95% CI 79.8-93.2; p = 0.105) for unassisted and CAD paradigm respectively. Sensitivity was higher with CAD for lesions with GS > 6 (91.3% vs 81.2%; p = 0.046) or diameter ≥10 mm (95.0% vs 80.0%; p = 0.006). Specificity was not affected by CAD. The average reading time with CAD was significantly lower (220 s vs 60 s; p < 0.001). Experienced readers using likelihood maps generated by a CAD scheme can detect more patients with ≥10 mm PCa lesions than unassisted MRI interpretation; overall reporting time is shorter. To gain more insight into CAD-human interaction, different reading paradigms should be investigated. (orig.)

  19. Characteristics of Herbal Medicine Users and Adverse Events Experienced in South Korea: A Survey Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soobin Jang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. This survey aimed to investigate the characteristics of users and nonusers of herbal medicine and the adverse events experienced due to herbal medicines in South Korea. Methods. The questionnaire consisted of safety, using experience, using type, usage and nonusage reason, purchase location, and adverse events of herbal medicine. The survey was administered by online. Results. Of the total 1,134 respondents, 726 (64.0% considered herbal medicine safe, and 693 (61.1% answered that they have taken herbal medicines within the past year. Most common place to purchase them was “TKM hospital or clinic” (63.6%, and most participants (72.2% took a decoction from a TKM institution. The biggest reason for taking them was for “health improvement” (57.3%, and the reasons for not using them was “medication not necessary” (63.7%. Among those who took herbal medicines, 46 experienced adverse events, and the most frequently reported symptoms were digestive disorders (52.2%. Of the 46 participants who experienced adverse events, 20 (43.5% were treated by TKM doctors. Conclusions. This study suggests that regulation of herbal medicines is needed in order to resolve problems related to the safety of herbal medicines.

  20. Characteristics of Herbal Medicine Users and Adverse Events Experienced in South Korea: A Survey Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyeong Han; Lee, Eun-Kyung; Shin, Yong-Cheol

    2017-01-01

    Background. This survey aimed to investigate the characteristics of users and nonusers of herbal medicine and the adverse events experienced due to herbal medicines in South Korea. Methods. The questionnaire consisted of safety, using experience, using type, usage and nonusage reason, purchase location, and adverse events of herbal medicine. The survey was administered by online. Results. Of the total 1,134 respondents, 726 (64.0%) considered herbal medicine safe, and 693 (61.1%) answered that they have taken herbal medicines within the past year. Most common place to purchase them was “TKM hospital or clinic” (63.6%), and most participants (72.2%) took a decoction from a TKM institution. The biggest reason for taking them was for “health improvement” (57.3%), and the reasons for not using them was “medication not necessary” (63.7%). Among those who took herbal medicines, 46 experienced adverse events, and the most frequently reported symptoms were digestive disorders (52.2%). Of the 46 participants who experienced adverse events, 20 (43.5%) were treated by TKM doctors. Conclusions. This study suggests that regulation of herbal medicines is needed in order to resolve problems related to the safety of herbal medicines. PMID:28491107

  1. Experienced bullying and hostile behavior in the workplace and symptoms of burnout in teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Mościcka-Teske

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of the study was to assess the relationship between the exposure to workplace bullying and hostile behavior and occupational burnout in a sample of Polish teachers. Material and Methods: In our research we studied a nationwide random sample of 1214 teachers. The frequency and type of hostile behaviors against employees was measured with the use of MDM Questionnaire, (“Mobbing, dręczenie, molestowanie” – “Bullying, harrasement, maltreatment” by Mościcka, Drabek, Merecz, developed in the Department of Occupational Psychology of the Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine in Łódź (Poland, and the level of burnout was assessed with Maslach Burnout Inventory – General Survey (MBI-GS. Results: As many as 63% of teachers experienced hostile behavior in their workplace and 7% of them experienced workplace bullying. Employees affected by bullying and hostile behavior reported more symptoms of professional burnout, such as emotional exhaustion, cynicism, and lower level of professional efficacy. Conclusions: The majority of teachers in this study experienced some form of hostile behavior in the workplace. One in ten respondents was the subject of workplace bullying. The experience of hostile behavior and bullying at work was significantly connected with symptoms of professional burnout. Therefore, it is desirable to take care of good interpersonal relationships in educational institutions, strengthen teachers’ abilities to cope with difficult interpersonal situations, and implement procedures to prevent bullying and hostile behavior in the workplace. Med Pr 2014;65(4:535–542

  2. Characteristics of Herbal Medicine Users and Adverse Events Experienced in South Korea: A Survey Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Soobin; Kim, Kyeong Han; Sun, Seung-Ho; Go, Ho-Yeon; Lee, Eun-Kyung; Jang, Bo-Hyoung; Shin, Yong-Cheol; Ko, Seong-Gyu

    2017-01-01

    Background. This survey aimed to investigate the characteristics of users and nonusers of herbal medicine and the adverse events experienced due to herbal medicines in South Korea. Methods. The questionnaire consisted of safety, using experience, using type, usage and nonusage reason, purchase location, and adverse events of herbal medicine. The survey was administered by online. Results. Of the total 1,134 respondents, 726 (64.0%) considered herbal medicine safe, and 693 (61.1%) answered that they have taken herbal medicines within the past year. Most common place to purchase them was "TKM hospital or clinic" (63.6%), and most participants (72.2%) took a decoction from a TKM institution. The biggest reason for taking them was for "health improvement" (57.3%), and the reasons for not using them was "medication not necessary" (63.7%). Among those who took herbal medicines, 46 experienced adverse events, and the most frequently reported symptoms were digestive disorders (52.2%). Of the 46 participants who experienced adverse events, 20 (43.5%) were treated by TKM doctors. Conclusions. This study suggests that regulation of herbal medicines is needed in order to resolve problems related to the safety of herbal medicines.

  3. Workplace physical violence, verbal violence, and mobbing experienced by nurses at a university hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aksakal, Fatma Nur Baran; Karaşahin, Emine Füsun; Dikmen, Asiye Uğraş; Avci, Emine; Ozkan, Seçil

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of and risk factors for physical violence, verbal violence, and mobbing experienced by nurses in a university hospital. This was a cross-sectional study conducted at Gazi University Medical Faculty Hospital. A questionnaire form recommended by the WHO and the International Labor Organization was administered through face-to-face interviews to determine the violence experienced in the past 12 months by nurses. The prevalence of physical violence, verbal violence, and mobbing was 13.9%, 41.8%, and 17.1%, respectively. Working more than 40 h per week increased the risk of physical violence by 1.86 times. The majority of nurses who experienced verbal violence and mobbing were significantly more willing to change their work, their institution, and their profession if given the opportunity. Fewer than one-fourth of the victims indicated they reported any incident. We knew that the prevalence of physical violence, verbal violence, and mobbing were high among nurses and that incidents were underreported, and the study corroborated this information. What this study adds to the topic is that long working hours increased the prevalence of physical violence and was defined as an important contributory factor.

  4. Families experiencing housing instability: the effects of housing programs on family routines and rituals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayberry, Lindsay Satterwhite; Shinn, Marybeth; Benton, Jessica Gibbons; Wise, Jasmine

    2014-01-01

    Maintenance of family processes can protect parents, children, and families from the detrimental effects of extreme stressors, such as homelessness. When families cannot maintain routines and rituals, the stressors of poverty and homelessness can be compounded for both caregivers and children. However, characteristics of living situations common among families experiencing homelessness present barriers to the maintenance of family routines and rituals. We analyzed 80 in-depth interviews with parents who were experiencing or had recently experienced an instance of homelessness. We compared their assessments of challenges to family schedules, routines, and rituals across various living situations, including shelter, transitional housing programs, doubled-up (i.e., living temporarily with family or friends), and independent housing. Rules common across shelters and transitional housing programs impeded family processes, and parents felt surveilled and threatened with child protective service involvement in these settings. In doubled-up living situations, parents reported adapting their routines to those of the household and having parenting interrupted by opinions of friends and family members. Families used several strategies to maintain family routines and rituals in these living situations and ensure consistency and stability for their children during an otherwise unstable time. (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  5. Stigma experienced by patients with severe mental disorders: A nationwide multicentric study from India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grover, Sandeep; Avasthi, Ajit; Singh, Aakanksha; Dan, Amitava; Neogi, Rajarshi; Kaur, Darpan; Lakdawala, Bhavesh; Rozatkar, Abhijit R; Nebhinani, Naresh; Patra, Suravi; Sivashankar, Priya; Subramanyam, Alka A; Tripathi, Adarsh; Gania, Ab Majid; Singh, Gurvinder Pal; Behere, Prakash

    2017-11-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the stigma and its correlates among patients with severe mental disorders. Patients with diagnosis of schizophrenia (N = 707), bipolar disorder (N = 344) and recurrent depressive disorder (N = 352) currently in clinical remission from 14 participating centres were assessed on Internalized Stigma of Mental Illness Scale (ISMIS). Patients with diagnosis of schizophrenia experienced higher level of alienation, sterotype endorsement, discrimination experience and total stigma when compared to patients with bipolar disorder and recurrent depressive disorder. Patients with bipolar disorder experienced higher stigma than those with recurrent depressive disorder in the domain of stigma resistance only. Overall compared to affective disorder groups, higher proportion of patients with schizophrenia reported stigma in all the domains of ISMIS. In general in all the 3 diagnostic groups' stigma was associated with shorter duration of illness, shorter duration of treatment and younger age of onset. To conclude, this study suggests that compared to affective disorder, patients with schizophrenia experience higher self stigma. Higher level of stigma is experienced during the early phase of illness. Stigma intervention programs must focus on patients during the initial phase of illness in order to reduce the negative consequences of stigma. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Who helps the leaders? Difficulties experienced by cancer support group leaders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirsten, Laura; Butow, Phyllis; Price, Melanie; Hobbs, Kim; Sunquist, Kendra

    2006-07-01

    Cancer support groups are an important source of support for cancer patients, yet little is known about the challenges and training needs of both professionally trained and untrained leaders. The aim of this study was to discover the difficulties experienced and training desired by cancer support group leaders. Twenty-seven leaders of 34 cancer support groups participated in focus groups or individual interviews. Groups were purposively selected as representative of 173 support groups identified in New South Wales which were for adults with cancer and/or their adult carers and were not therapeutic or education-only groups. Difficulties identified included dealing with people's different communication styles and needs; dealing with recurrence, metastases and death; practical issues, including resources, setting the programme and funding security; maintaining personal balance and preventing burn out; establishing group credibility; dealing with group cycles; and leading groups in rural areas. Leaders also identified benefits and rewards from group leadership such as contributing to others' well-being, self-development and insight into others' lives. Non-professionally trained leaders experienced more difficulties, particularly in dealing with group process and practical issues. Difficulties identified were related both to working with a cancer population specifically and to working with groups in general. While some issues were common to both health professionals and non-health professionals, non-health professionals reported greater supportive needs. Clear guidelines, targeted training and development of better methods of support to reduce the stress and burn out experienced by group leaders are needed.

  7. Experienced Harm from Other People's Drinking: A Comparison of Northern European Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inger Synnøve Moan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective This study addresses how experienced harm from other people's drinking varies between six Northern European countries by comparing 1 the prevalence of experienced harm and 2 the correlates of harm. Method The data comprise 18ȓ69-year olds who participated in general population surveys in Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, Sweden, and Scotland during the period 2008–2013. Comparative data were available on five types of harm: physical abuse, damage of clothes/belongings, verbal abuse, being afraid, and being kept awake at night. Results This study shows that harms from other's drinking are commonly experienced in all six countries. Being kept awake at night is the most common harm, while being physically harmed is the least common. The proportions that reported at least one of the five problems were highest in Finland and Iceland and lowest in Norway, but also relatively low in Sweden. Across countries, the level of harm was highest among young, single, urban residents, and for some countries among women and those who frequently drank to intoxication themselves. Conclusions The study revealed large differences in the prevalence of harm in countries with fairly similar drinking cultures. However, the correlates of such experiences were similar across countries. Possible explanations of the findings are discussed, including differences in study design.

  8. Role of the body self and self-esteem in experiencing the intensity of menopausal symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Włodarczyk, Małgorzata; Dolińska-Zygmunt, Grażyna

    2017-10-29

    The aim of the study was to test differences in self-esteem and strength of the body self, body image, comfort with closeness with others and body protection among women reporting high and low intensity of psychological, vasomotor and somatic symptoms of menopause. The sample included 201 women aged 45-55 years. The Menopause Symptom List was used to test the intensity of menopausal symptoms, the Body Self Questionnaire was used to diagnose the body self, and the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale was used to examine participants'levels of self-esteem. Differences between women experiencing high and low intensity of symptoms were analyzed using Student's t-test for independent samples. Women experiencing high-intensity psychological, vasomotor and somatic symptoms of menopause showed significantly lower self-esteem and poorer body-self functioning in all its dimensions except for body protection. Women experiencing high-intensity psychological, vasomotor and somatic symptoms of menopause demonstrated poorer functioning of the body self and lower self-esteem.

  9. Ethics and human rights issues experienced by nurses in leadership roles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redman, Barbara A; Fry, Sara T

    2003-01-01

    The aims of this study were to identify (1) the ethics and human rights issues experienced by nurses in leadership roles (NLs); (2) how frequently these issue occurred in the NLs'practices; and (3) how disturbed the NLs were by the issues. Dillman's Total Design Method (1978) for mailed surveys guided the study design. Data analysis was performed on 470 questionnaires from New England RNs in nursing leadership roles. The most frequently experienced ethics and human rights issues during the previous 12 months were (1) protecting patient right and human dignity; (2) respecting or not respecting informed consent to treatment; (3) use or nonuse of physical or chemical restraints; (4) providing care with possible risks to the RN's health; (5) following or not following advance directives; and (6) staffing patterns that limit patient access to nursing care. The most disturbing ethics and human rights issues experienced by the NLs were staffing patterns that limited patient access to nursing care, prolonging the dying process with inappropriate measures, working with unethical, incompetent, or impaired colleagues, implementing managed care policies that threaten quality of care, not considering quality of the patient's life, and caring for patients and families who are uninformed or misinformed about treatment, prognosis, or medical alternatives. Nearly 39% of the NLs reported experiencing ethics and human rights issues one to four times a week or more, and more than 90% handled their most recent ethics issue by discussing it with nursing peers. Study findings have implications for ethics education and resource support for nurses in leadership roles, and for further research on how NLs handle ethics and human rights issues in the workplace.

  10. Identifying seasonal and temporal trends in the pressures experienced by hospitals related to unscheduled care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, N J; Van Woerden, H C; Kiparoglou, V; Yang, Y

    2016-07-26

    As part of an electronic dashboard operated by Public Health Wales, senior managers at hospitals in Wales report daily "escalation" scores which reflect management opinion on the pressure a hospital is experiencing and ability to meet ongoing demand with respect to unscheduled care. An analysis was undertaken of escalation scores returned for 18 hospitals in Wales between the years 2006 and 2014 inclusive, with a view to identifying systematic temporal patterns in pressure experienced by hospitals in relation to unscheduled care. Exploratory data analysis indicated the presence of within-year cyclicity in average daily scores over all hospitals. In order to quantify this cyclicity, a Generalised Linear Mixed Model was fitted which incorporated a trigonometric function (sine and cosine) to capture within-year change in escalation. In addition, a 7-level categorical day of the week effect was fitted as well as a 3-level categorical Christmas holiday variable based on patterns observed in exploration of the raw data. All of the main effects investigated were found to be statistically significant. Firstly, significant differences emerged in terms of overall pressure reported by individual hospitals. Furthermore, escalation scores were found to vary systematically within-year in a wave-like fashion for all hospitals (but not between hospitals) with the period of highest pressure consistently observed to occur in winter and lowest pressure in summer. In addition to this annual variation, pressure reported by hospitals was also found to be influenced by day of the week (low at weekends, high early in the working week) and especially low over the Christmas period but high immediately afterwards. Whilst unpredictable to a degree, quantifiable pressure experienced by hospitals can be anticipated according to models incorporating systematic temporal patterns. In the context of finite resources for healthcare services, these findings could optimise staffing schedules and

  11. Experiencing the Implementation of New Inquiry Science Curricula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ower, Peter S.

    Using a phenomenological methodology, a cohort of four experienced science teachers was interviewed about their experience transitioning from traditional, teacher and fact-centered science curricula to inquiry-based curricula. Each teacher participated in two interviews that focused on their teaching backgrounds, their experience teaching the prior traditional curriculum, and their experience teaching the new inquiry-based curriculum. The findings are presented as a narrative of each teachers' experience with the new curriculum implementation. Analyzing the data revealed four key themes. 1) The teachers felt trapped by the old curriculum as it did not align with their positive views of teaching science through inquiry. 2) The teachers found a way to fit their beliefs and values into the old and new curriculum. This required changes to the curriculum. 3) The teachers attempted to make the science curriculum as meaningful as possible for their students. 4) The teachers experienced a balancing act between their beliefs and values and the various aspects of the curriculum. The revealed essence of the curriculum transition is one of freedom and reconciliation of their beliefs. The teachers experienced the implementation of the new curriculum as a way to ensure their values and beliefs of science education were embedded therein. They treated the new curriculum as a malleable structure to impart their grander ideas of science education (e.g. providing important skills for future careers, creating a sense of wonder, future problem solving) to the students. Their changes were aligned with the philosophy of the curriculum kits they were implementing. Thus, the fidelity of the curriculum's philosophy was not at risk even though the curriculum kits were not taught as written. This study showed that phenomenological methods are able to reveal the relationship between a teacher's prior experiences, values and beliefs and their current instructional philosophy in science

  12. Prevalence of experienced abuse in healthcare and associated obstetric characteristics in six European countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lukasse, Mirjam; Schroll, Anne-Mette; Karro, Helle

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To assess the prevalence and current suffering of experienced abuse in healthcare, to present the socio-demographic background for women with a history of abuse in healthcare and to assess the association between abuse in healthcare and selected obstetric characteristics. DESIGN: Cross......-sectional study. SETTING: Routine antenatal care in six European countries. POPULATION: In total 6923 pregnant women. METHODS: Cross-tabulation and Pearson's chi-square was used to study prevalence and characteristics for women reporting abuse in healthcare. Associations with selected obstetric factors were...

  13. The Perinatal Risk Index: Early Risks Experienced by Domestic Adoptees in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marceau, Kristine; De Araujo-Greecher, Marielena; Miller, Emily S; Massey, Suena H; Mayes, Linda C; Ganiban, Jody M; Reiss, David; Shaw, Daniel S; Leve, Leslie D; Neiderhiser, Jenae M

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to assess comprehensively the prevalence of perinatal risks experienced by a potentially high-risk yet understudied population of children domestically adopted in the United States. Data are from participant report and medical records from mothers (n = 580) who completed a domestic adoption placement with nonrelatives at or near birth (Mean placement age = 7 days). We describe a comprehensive measure of perinatal risks, including divergences from previous assessment tools and the incorporation of multiple reporters, and report the prevalence of various types of perinatal risks. The prevalence of each specific risk factor was generally low, although several risks were more prevalent in this sample than estimates from nationally representative publicly available data. Nearly the entire sample (99%) experienced some type of risk exposure. Birth mothers who placed their children for adoption domestically in the US experience higher levels of perinatal risks than the national average, but not for all specific types of risk. Thus, the developmental trajectories of children adopted domestically may systematically differ from the general population to the extent that these specific perinatal risks impact development.

  14. Emotion experienced during encoding enhances odor retrieval cue effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herz, R S

    1997-01-01

    Emotional potentiation may be a key variable in the formation of odor-associated memory. Two experiments were conducted in which a distinctive ambient odor was present or absent during encoding and retrieval sessions and subjects were in an anxious or neutral mood during encoding. Subjects' mood at retrieval was not manipulated. The laboratory mood induction used in Experiment 1 suggested that anxiety might increase the effectiveness of an odor retrieval cue. This trend was confirmed in Experiment 2 by capturing a naturally stressful situation. Subjects who had an ambient odor cue available and were in a preexam state during encoding recalled more words than subjects in any other group. These data are evidence that heightened emotion experienced during encoding with an ambient odor can enhance the effectiveness of an odor as a cue to memory.

  15. Counting is easier while experiencing a congruent motion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa Lugli

    Full Text Available Several studies suggest that numerical and spatial representations are intrinsically linked. Recent findings demonstrate that also motor actions interact with number magnitude processing, showing a motor-to-semantic effect. The current study assesses whether calculation processes can be modulated by motions performed with the whole body. Participants were required to make additions or subtractions while performing (on-line condition or after having experienced (off-line condition an ascending or descending motion through a passive (i.e., taking the elevator or an active (i.e., taking the stairs mode. Results show a congruency effect between the type of calculation and the direction of the motion depending on: a the off-line or on-line condition, b the passive or active mode and c the real or imagined task. Implications of the results for an embodied and grounded perspective view will be discussed.

  16. A guide to MATLAB for beginners and experienced users

    CERN Document Server

    Hunt, Brian R; Rosenberg, Jonathan M

    2014-01-01

    Now in its third edition, this outstanding textbook explains everything you need to get started using MATLAB®. It contains concise explanations of essential MATLAB commands, as well as easily understood instructions for using MATLAB's programming features, graphical capabilities, simulation models, and rich desktop interface. MATLAB 8 and its new user interface is treated extensively in the book. New features in this edition include: a complete treatment of MATLAB's publish feature; new material on MATLAB graphics, enabling the user to master quickly the various symbolic and numerical plotting routines; and a robust presentation of MuPAD® and how to use it as a stand-alone platform. The authors have also updated the text throughout, reworking examples and exploring new applications. The book is essential reading for beginners, occasional users and experienced users wishing to brush up their skills. Further resources are available from the authors' website at www-math.umd.edu/schol/a-guide-to-matlab.html.

  17. Violence Experienced By Nursing Students in Clinical Practice Settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meltem KÜRTÜNCÜ

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The study was made to determine violence experienced by nurse students in clinical settings. It was applied to the School of Health Nursing Student of a university during a week in June, 2010. There were 360 students, 53 of whom were senior, 60 of whom were thirdyear, 114 of whom were sophomore, 79 of whom were first-year and 102 of whom were prep-school students, at the school. Students in preparatory classes were not included in the scope of the study since they didn't take applied courses. 70,58% of the students were reached. It was determined that the students were often exposed to verbal abuse and sexism in clinical setting and the abuse was performed by their colleagues.

  18. Suddenly included: cultural differences in experiencing re-inclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfundmair, Michaela; Graupmann, Verena; Du, Hongfei; Frey, Dieter; Aydin, Nilüfer

    2015-03-01

    In the current research, we examined whether re-inclusion (i.e. the change from a previous state of exclusion to a new state of inclusion) was perceived differently by people with individualistic and collectivistic cultural backgrounds. Individualists (German and Austrian participants) but not collectivists (Chinese participants) experienced re-inclusion differently than continued inclusion: While collectivistic participants did not differentiate between both kinds of inclusion, individualistic participants showed reduced fulfilment of their psychological needs under re-inclusion compared to continued inclusion. The results moreover revealed that only participants from individualistic cultures expressed more feelings of exclusion when re-included than when continually included. These exclusionary feelings partially mediated the relationship between the different states of inclusion and basic need fulfilment. © 2014 International Union of Psychological Science.

  19. Andragogy of everyday – Learning by experiencing death

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nives Ličen

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The death is rite de passage which crosses life of everyone when the close ones die. Yet, we still do not know what effect it has on the individual person. The article presents a reflection on the learning in the time of bereavement and tries to add a component to the comprehension of learning as a lifelong process. We looked into how one changes when experiencing death by means of life story analysis. Evidence shows that learning takes place on physical, mental and spiritual level. One changes his/her attitudes and values. Therefore the narration of a life story is not merely a research method. Namely, it also unveils one self, which enables self-change and self-education.

  20. Cytogenetic variability in pinus sylvestris L. populations experiencing anthropogenic influence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oudalova, A.; Geras'kin, S.; Vasiliev, D.; Dikarev, V.

    2004-01-01

    Techno-genic pollution has become one of the most significant ecological factors determining biosphere existence and development. An analysis of genetic consequences of the radiation accidents in the South Urals and Chernobyl has shown that mutation and recombination processes are considerably accelerated in plant and animal's populations experiencing techno-genic influence. This implies that there are complicated adaptation processes leading to changes in genetic structure of populations and increasing genetic load. Pinus sylvestris L. populations growing at the territory of the 'radon' Leningrad regional radioactive waste reprocessing enterprise and Sosnovy Bor town were monitored 6 years (1997-2002) by a set of cyto-genetical and morphological tests. Cytogenetic damage levels within intercalary meristem of needle as well as in root meristem of seedlings were found to significantly exceed corresponding controls. A higher radioresistance of the Scots pine seeds analyzed was demonstrated with an acute γ-radiation that also revealed a selection process directed at an enhancement of repair efficiency and resulting in a shift of mean values of radioresistance in populations towards higher values. An enlargement of variance of studied cytogenetic parameters was found in the populations experiencing techno-genic influence. This indicates, with an account of phenomenon of the enhanced radioresistance, that there are processes of cyto-genetical adaptation in the investigated regions. An analysis of the structure of ecological-genetical variability was carried out with the purpose of separating two components in the inter-population variability - the first is engaged to the genetically determined variability of biological characteristics intrinsic for this species, and the second is responsible for the variability originating from anthropogenic contamination of the natural habitat. Changes of these two types of variability were studied in dependence on time and techno

  1. Sex differences in depressive effects of experiencing spousal bereavement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyo Jung; Lee, Sang Gyu; Chun, Sung-Youn; Park, Eun-Cheol

    2017-02-01

    Spousal death is a significant event that becomes a turning point in an individual's life. Widowed persons experience new circumstances, which might induce depression. However, the effects of spousal death on depression can differ by sex and culture. Thus, the present study examined the association between depressive levels and experience of spousal death in Korean adults aged older than 45 years. The data were from the Korean Longitudinal Study of Aging from 2010 to 2012. The analysis used frequency analysis to compare the distribution of demographic variables between men and women, and anova to compare 10-item short-form Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale scores as the dependent variable among comparison groups. We also carried out linear mixed model analysis on the association between the 10-item short-form Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale and experience of spousal death. Among 5481 respondents, 2735 were men and 2741 were women. The number of men and women who experienced spousal death were 43 (1.6%) and 181 (6.6%), respectively. Men had lower depressive levels than women when they had been married (men 2.99, women 3.64). Both men and women experiencing spousal death had significantly higher 10-item short-form Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale scores than married men and women (men β = 0.911, P = 0.003; women β = 0.512, P = 0.001; ref: no experience of spousal death). There was a significant association between experience of spousal death and depressive level for both men and women. We suggest that policy practitioners promote community programs that provide bereaved adults with easy access to meaningful social participation and support the minimum cost of living of the widowed. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2017; 17: 322-329. © 2016 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  2. Cytogenetic variability in pinus sylvestris L. populations experiencing anthropogenic influence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oudalova, A.; Geras' kin, S.; Vasiliev, D.; Dikarev, V. [Russian Institute of Agricultural Radiology and Agroecology, Obninsk (Russian Federation)

    2004-07-01

    Techno-genic pollution has become one of the most significant ecological factors determining biosphere existence and development. An analysis of genetic consequences of the radiation accidents in the South Urals and Chernobyl has shown that mutation and recombination processes are considerably accelerated in plant and animal's populations experiencing techno-genic influence. This implies that there are complicated adaptation processes leading to changes in genetic structure of populations and increasing genetic load. Pinus sylvestris L. populations growing at the territory of the 'radon' Leningrad regional radioactive waste reprocessing enterprise and Sosnovy Bor town were monitored 6 years (1997-2002) by a set of cyto-genetical and morphological tests. Cytogenetic damage levels within intercalary meristem of needle as well as in root meristem of seedlings were found to significantly exceed corresponding controls. A higher radioresistance of the Scots pine seeds analyzed was demonstrated with an acute {gamma}-radiation that also revealed a selection process directed at an enhancement of repair efficiency and resulting in a shift of mean values of radioresistance in populations towards higher values. An enlargement of variance of studied cytogenetic parameters was found in the populations experiencing techno-genic influence. This indicates, with an account of phenomenon of the enhanced radioresistance, that there are processes of cyto-genetical adaptation in the investigated regions. An analysis of the structure of ecological-genetical variability was carried out with the purpose of separating two components in the inter-population variability - the first is engaged to the genetically determined variability of biological characteristics intrinsic for this species, and the second is responsible for the variability originating from anthropogenic contamination of the natural habitat. Changes of these two types of variability were studied in dependence on

  3. Experiencing and the realization of motherhood by teenage mothers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Rzechowska

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background Early motherhood constitutes a difficult challenge for girls, and the level of their performance in that role is varied. In this article, teenage motherhood as a process is considered. The objective of the research was to determine the paths by which teenage girls enter the mother role. Particular attention was paid to the nature of individual differences in the ways of experiencing and the realization of the successive steps of teenage motherhood: how the girls reacted to the fact of being a mother, what they experienced and how they behaved during pregnancy and performed child care. Participants and procedure In the research, 166 mothers who had given birth to their children between the 15th and 19th year of life were included (at the moment of giving birth to the child, the age of the mother was M = 17.22. A follower interview was used. It was directed towards recreating the course of their lives from the period preceding becoming pregnant to the period of pregnancy and looking after the child, taking into consideration the complex situations connected with life and development of the female teenagers. Results In the research, we applied the Reconstruction Strategy of the Process Transformation, setting the direction of qualitative analyses: (1 the level of single cases (case study, and (2 the level of the collection of cases (extracting groups of girls with common characteristics using the artificial intelligence algorithm C4.5. The analysis revealed the diversity and the internal structure of paths of the experience and realization of early motherhood: from negating oneself as a responsible mother to accepting the role of mother. Conclusions The final result is constituted by the model revealing the transformation of teenage motherhood and mechanisms underlying it.

  4. Abdominal and pelvic computed tomography (CT) interpretation: discrepancy rates among experienced radiologists

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abujudeh, Hani H.; Boland, Giles W.; Kaewlai, Rathachai; Rabiner, Pavel; Thrall, James H. [Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); Halpern, Elkarn F.; Gazelle, G.S. [Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Institute for Technology Assessment, Boston, MA (United States)

    2010-08-15

    To assess the discrepancy rate for the interpretation of abdominal and pelvic computed tomography (CT) examinations among experienced radiologists. Ninety abdominal and pelvic CT examinations reported by three experienced radiologists who specialize in abdominal imaging were randomly selected from the radiological database. The same radiologists, blinded to previous interpretation, were asked to re-interpret 60 examinations: 30 of their previous interpretations and 30 interpreted by others. All reports were assessed for the degree of discrepancy between initial and repeat interpretations according to a three-level scoring system: no discrepancy, minor, or major discrepancy. Inter- and intrareader discrepancy rates and causes were evaluated. CT examinations included in the investigation were performed on 90 patients (43 men, mean age 59 years, SD 14, range 19-88) for the following indications: follow-up/evaluation of malignancy (69/90, 77%), pancreatitis (5/90, 6%), urinary tract stone (4/90, 4%) or other (12/90, 13%). Interobserver and intraobserver major discrepancy rates were 26 and 32%, respectively. Major discrepancies were due to missed findings, different opinions regarding interval change of clinically significant findings, and the presence of recommendation. Major discrepancy of between 26 and 32% was observed in the interpretation of abdominal and pelvic CT examinations. (orig.)

  5. Function of Attachment Hierarchies in Young Adults Experiencing the Transition From University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine Scharfe

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available An important cornerstone of Bowlby’s attachment theory (1969/1997 is the proposal that moving away from parents and toward peers is an indication of healthy development. In this study, we explored the benefit of the shift, not the shift itself, in a sample of emerging adults experiencing a stressful life event (i.e., the transition from university. Although the shift from parents to peers is an important cornerstone of Bowlby’s theory, this study is one of the first to test the differential effects of parent and peer networks on adjustment. In this longitudinal study, 73 participants completed surveys to assess attachment, social networks, and distress one month before completing their undergraduate degree and 6 months later. We found that participants experiencing the transition from university, who chose a peer as the first person in their network, tended to report stable scores over time whereas participants who chose a family member reported more variable scores. Interestingly, the direction of change was not different for the groups, just the magnitude of change. Furthermore, the difference in adjustment was not found when we compared the groups using the percent hierarchy method highlighting that there is a benefit of exploring primary attachment relationships when examining the influence of networks on adjustment.

  6. The nature of workplace bullying experienced by teachers and the biopsychosocial health effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. De Vos

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This article reports on the nature of workplace bullying experienced by teachers in South African schools and the bio-psychosocial health effects that may arise from such victimisation. Voluntary victimised teachers who wanted to share their experiences were sampled using a lifestyle magazine and online articles. Twenty-seven teachers participated in the study. Data was collected through telephonic semi-structured phenomenological interviews and personal documents. Interpretive Phenomenological Analysis (IPA was further used to analyse and interpret qualitative data. Findings indicated that bullying is mostly perpetrated by principals, who often use colleagues as accomplices, and that the bullying mostly tends to be psychological in nature. Participants reported experiencing various physical, psychological and social health problems after being victimised. It was further recognised that health problems do not occur in isolation, but if contextualised, may form part of a list of psychiatric conditions, such as depression, posttraumatic stress disorder, and in isolated cases, panic attacks. Victimised teachers' health may have a significant impact on the teaching-learning process, acting as a barrier to learning, which may consequently have a negative impact on the organisational culture and the South African emerging economy.

  7. Abdominal and pelvic computed tomography (CT) interpretation: discrepancy rates among experienced radiologists

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abujudeh, Hani H.; Boland, Giles W.; Kaewlai, Rathachai; Rabiner, Pavel; Thrall, James H.; Halpern, Elkarn F.; Gazelle, G.S.

    2010-01-01

    To assess the discrepancy rate for the interpretation of abdominal and pelvic computed tomography (CT) examinations among experienced radiologists. Ninety abdominal and pelvic CT examinations reported by three experienced radiologists who specialize in abdominal imaging were randomly selected from the radiological database. The same radiologists, blinded to previous interpretation, were asked to re-interpret 60 examinations: 30 of their previous interpretations and 30 interpreted by others. All reports were assessed for the degree of discrepancy between initial and repeat interpretations according to a three-level scoring system: no discrepancy, minor, or major discrepancy. Inter- and intrareader discrepancy rates and causes were evaluated. CT examinations included in the investigation were performed on 90 patients (43 men, mean age 59 years, SD 14, range 19-88) for the following indications: follow-up/evaluation of malignancy (69/90, 77%), pancreatitis (5/90, 6%), urinary tract stone (4/90, 4%) or other (12/90, 13%). Interobserver and intraobserver major discrepancy rates were 26 and 32%, respectively. Major discrepancies were due to missed findings, different opinions regarding interval change of clinically significant findings, and the presence of recommendation. Major discrepancy of between 26 and 32% was observed in the interpretation of abdominal and pelvic CT examinations. (orig.)

  8. How Experienced SoTL Researchers Develop the Credibility of Their Work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennie Billot

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Teaching and learning research in higher education, often referred to as the Scholarship of Teaching and Learning (SoTL, is still relatively novel in many academic contexts compared to the mainstay of disciplinary research. One indication of this is the challenges those who engage in SoTL report in terms of how this work is valued or considered credible amongst disciplinary colleagues and in the face of institutional policies and practices. This paper moves beyond the literature that describes these specific challenges to investigate how 23 experienced SoTL researchers from five different countries understood the notion of credibility in relationship to their SoTL research and how they went about developing credibility for their work. Semi-structured interviews were facilitated and analyzed using inductive analysis. Findings indicate that notions of credibility encompassed putting SoTL research into action and building capacity and community around research findings, as well as gaining external validation through traditional indicators such as publishing. SoTL researchers reported a variety of strategies and approaches they were using, both formal and informal, to develop credibility for their work. The direct focus of this paper on credibility of SoTL work as perceived by experienced SoTL researchers, and how they go about developing credibility, is a distinct contribution to the discussions about the valuing of SoTL work.

  9. The dialectic in becoming a mother: experiencing a postpartum phenomenon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sethi, S

    1995-01-01

    In this study of the phenomenon of the postpartum period grounded theory methodology was used to investigate the experiences of first-time mothers during the first three months following their deliveries. The sample consisted of 12 primipara women and 3 multipara women. The data were generated by using unstructured interviews and field notes. Each woman was interviewed twice, the first time between 2 and 3 weeks postpartum, and the second time between 10 and 12 weeks postpartum. The final data for analysis consisted of: data generated through interviews, field notes, and the narratives of four mothers found in the non-fiction literature. Constant comparative analysis resulted in the generation of four categories and corresponding subcategories. These were: (1) Giving of Self; (2) Redefining Self; (3) Redefining Relationships; and (4) Redefining Professional Goals. The categories were not mutually exclusive. All the categories converged to provide support for the core variable 'Dialectic in Becoming a Mother'. The dialectic perspective demonstrated that, in becoming mothers, the women experienced transition, contradictions, tensions and transformations. A theoretical model was developed to show relationships among these major concepts. The findings of this study will be useful in effecting change in the provision of care to postpartum women and their families.

  10. Can environmental conditions experienced in early life influence future generations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Tim; Metcalfe, Neil B

    2014-06-22

    The consequences of early developmental conditions for performance in later life are now subjected to convergent interest from many different biological sub-disciplines. However, striking data, largely from the biomedical literature, show that environmental effects experienced even before conception can be transmissible to subsequent generations. Here, we review the growing evidence from natural systems for these cross-generational effects of early life conditions, showing that they can be generated by diverse environmental stressors, affect offspring in many ways and can be transmitted directly or indirectly by both parental lines for several generations. In doing so, we emphasize why early life might be so sensitive to the transmission of environmentally induced effects across generations. We also summarize recent theoretical advancements within the field of developmental plasticity, and discuss how parents might assemble different 'internal' and 'external' cues, even from the earliest stages of life, to instruct their investment decisions in offspring. In doing so, we provide a preliminary framework within the context of adaptive plasticity for understanding inter-generational phenomena that arise from early life conditions.

  11. Is southwestern China experiencing more frequent precipitation extremes?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Meixian; Xu, Xianli; Wang, Kelin; Sun, Alexander Y; Liu, Wen; Zhang, Xiaoyan

    2014-01-01

    Climate extremes have and will continue to cause severe damages to buildings and natural environments around the world. A full knowledge of the probability of the climate extremes is important for the management and mitigation of natural hazards. Based on Mann–Kendall trend test and copulas, this study investigated the characteristics of precipitation extremes as well as their implications in southwestern China (Yunnan, Guangxi and Guizhou Province), through analyzing the changing trends and probabilistic characteristics of six indices, including the consecutive dry days, consecutive wet days, annual total wet day precipitation, heavy precipitation days (R25), max 5 day precipitation amount (Rx5) and the rainy days (RDs). Results showed that the study area had generally become drier (regional mean annual precipitation decreased by 11.4 mm per decade) and experienced enhanced precipitation extremes in the past 60 years. Relatively higher risk of drought in Yuanan and flood in Guangxi was observed, respectively. However, the changing trends of the precipitation extremes were not spatially uniform: increasing risk of extreme wet events for Guangxi and Guizhou, and increasing probability of concurrent extreme wet and dry events for Yunnan. Meanwhile, trend analyses of the 10 year return levels of the selected indices implied that the severity of droughts decreased in Yunnan but increased significantly in Guangxi and Guizhou, and the severity of floods increased in Yunnan and Guangxi in the past decades. Hence, the policy-makers need to be aware of the different characterizations and the spatial heterogeneity of the precipitation extremes. (letters)

  12. Active Experiencing Training Improves Episodic Memory Recall in Older Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah E. Banducci

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Active experiencing (AE is an intervention aimed at attenuating cognitive declines with mindfulness training via an immersive acting program, and has produced promising results in older adults with limited formal education. Yet, the cognitive mechanism(s of intervention benefits and generalizability of gains across cognitive domains in the course of healthy aging is unclear. We addressed these issues in an intervention trial of older adults (N = 179; mean age = 69.46 years at enrollment; mean education = 16.80 years assigned to an AE condition (n = 86 or an active control group (i.e., theatre history; n = 93 for 4 weeks. A cognitive battery was administered before and after intervention, and again at a 4-month follow-up. Group differences in change in cognition were tested in latent change score models (LCSM. In the total sample, several cognitive abilities demonstrated significant repeated-testing gains. AE produced greater gains relative to the active control only in episodic recall, with gains still evident up to 4 months after intervention. Intervention conditions were similar in the magnitude of gains in working memory, executive function and processing speed. Episodic memory is vulnerable to declines in aging and related neurodegenerative disease, and AE may be an alternative or supplement to traditional cognitive interventions with older adults.

  13. Experiencing work as a daily challenge: the case of scleroderma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendelson, Cindy; Poole, Janet L; Allaire, Saralynn

    2013-01-01

    Little is known about the physical and discretionary aspects of work that people with scleroderma (SSc) find difficult. This article describes the findings from a study that explored the challenges and adaptations made by individuals with SSc to continue to work. Thirty-two employed individuals with SSc participated. Participants were predominantly women (82%), white (79%), and well educated (M = 16.9 years). The average age was 47.3 years, and 60.6% were married. Mean disease duration was 9.7 years, and 56.2% had diffuse SSc. Mean years on the job was 10.2 (SD ± 8.8), and 71.9% worked at least 35 hours per week. Participants engaged in a single structured interview about work-related challenges and adaptations. Content and thematic analysis was used to identify key themes across the interviews. Employees with SSc experienced Work as a daily challenge. This central theme described the general work experience for most participants. Three subthemes described their specific experiences: The work environment: Opportunities, challenges, and accommodations; Career planning; and Supportive others. The participants were anxious to find scenarios that allowed them to continue to work. Worksite accommodations and flexibility in scheduling can make the difference between working and disability.

  14. Assessing the professional development needs of experienced nurse executive leaders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leach, Linda Searle; McFarland, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to identify the professional development topics that senior nurse leaders believe are important to their advancement and success. Senior/experienced nurse leaders at the executive level are able to influence the work environment of nurses and institutional and health policy. Their development needs are likely to reflect this and other contemporary healthcare issues and may be different from middle and frontline managers. A systematic way of assessing professional development needs for these nurse leaders is needed. A descriptive study using an online survey was distributed to a convenience sample of nurse leaders who were members of the Association of California Nurse Leaders (ACNL) or have participated in an ACNL program. Visionary leadership, leading complexity, and effective teams were the highest ranked leadership topics. Leading change, advancing health: The future of nursing, healthy work environments, and healthcare reform were also highly ranked topics. Executive-level nurse leaders are important to nurse retention, effective work environments, and leading change. Regular assessment and attention to the distinct professional development needs of executive-level nurse leaders are a valuable human capital investment.

  15. The personal communities of men experiencing later life widowhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Tracy

    2018-05-01

    Increasingly men are becoming widowed in later life due in part to a longer life expectancy. Social networks and social support are thought to help buffer the negative consequences of such later life transitions. This paper explores the personal communities of a group of older men experiencing widowhood. Qualitative in-depth interviews were conducted, September 2013-February 2014, with seven older widowers, 71-89 years of age, in North Staffordshire, UK. Interviews included personal community diagrams to identify the structure of the older men's social relationships. Data analysis comprised thematic analysis of interview transcripts and content analysis of personal community diagrams. Three overarching themes were identified from the interview data: "Personal identity and resilience assist transition," "Continuity in personal communities provides stability" and "Changes in social relationships and practices facilitate adaptation." The study identified three types of personal community among the older widowers, comprising different combinations of family, friends and others. The findings illustrate that some older widowers have very restricted personal communities which puts them at greater risk of loneliness and social isolation. The social needs of long-term carers should be addressed as isolation and loneliness can begin long before the death of a spouse. It is important to consider gender differences and preferences when designing interventions for older people in order to promote engagement, social inclusion and well-being. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Symptoms experienced during menopausal transition: Korean women in South Korea and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Im, Eun-Ok

    2003-10-01

    This article reports on cultural influences on symptoms experienced during menopausal transition of Korean women in South Korea and Korean immigrant women in the United States. Data from independent studies of two groups of Korean women were triangulated and analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. The analysis indicated that Korean women in South Korea tended to report more symptoms than Korean immigrant women in the United States. Types and severity of prevalent symptoms were also found to be different between the two groups. The findings suggest that recent introduction of menopausal industries in South Korea and contextual influences on Korean women's work and immigration in the United States would be the reason for differences. Based on the findings, implications for future research are proposed.

  17. Impact strength of small icy bodies that experienced multiple collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasui, Minami; Hayama, Ryo; Arakawa, Masahiko

    2014-05-01

    Frequent collisions are common for small bodies in the Solar System, and the cumulative damage to these bodies is thought to significantly affect their evolution. It is important to study the effects of multiple impacts such as the number of impacts on the impact strength and the ejection velocity of impact fragments. Here we conducted multiple-impact experiments using a polycrystalline water ice target, varying the number of impacts from 1 to 10 times. An ice cylindrical projectile was impacted at 84-502 m s-1 by using a single-stage gas gun in a cold room between -10 and -15 °C. The impact strength of the ice target that experienced a single impact and multiple impacts is expressed by the total energy density applied to the same target, ΣQ, and this value was observed to be 77.6 J kg-1. The number of fine impact fragments at a fragment mass normalized by an initial target mass, m/Mt0 ∼ 10-6, nm, had a good correlation with the single energy density at each shot, Qj, and the relationship was shown to be nm=10·Qj1.31±0.12. We also estimated the cumulative damage of icy bodies as a total energy density accumulated by past impacts, according to the crater scaling laws proposed by Housen et al. (Housen, K.R., Schmidt, R.M., Holsapple, K.A. [1983]. J. Geophys. Res. 88, 2485-2499) of ice and the crater size distributions observed on Phoebe, a saturnian icy satellite. We found that the cumulative damage of Phoebe depended significantly on the impact speed of the impactor that formed the craters on Phoebe; and the cumulative damage was about one-third of the impact strength ΣQ* at 500 m s-1 whereas it was almost zero at 3.2 km s-1.

  18. Experiencing stigma as a nurse with mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, A L

    2017-06-01

    WHAT IS KNOWN ON THE SUBJECT?: Stigma involves connecting individuals with a particular label to negative characteristics; this is based not on the stigmatized condition itself, but cultural reactions to it. Stigma exists towards nurses with mental illness. WHAT THIS PAPER ADDS TO EXISTING KNOWLEDGE?: This paper offers a first-person account of experiencing stigma as a nurse with a mental illness. This paper incorporates the existing literature to offer a broader cultural perspective on the experiences of a nurse with a mental illness. WHAT ARE THE IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE?: Nurses are likely to encounter a nurse with a mental illness at some point in their practice. Nurses' reactions towards colleagues with mental illness can have significant implications for those colleague(s)' wellbeing. Nurses with mental illness will have to navigate their person and professional journey while giving consideration to the attitudes of their nursing peers and leaders. Limited research has been done on the stigma faced by nurses with mental illness from their nursing peers. Mental illness is not generally considered acceptable within the context of nursing culture, so when nurses do experience mental illness, their experiences in a professional context may be influenced by stereotypes, particularly those relating to dangerousness. Using autoethnography as a research method, the author examines her own subjective experiences of stigma as a nurse with a mental illness, and draws upon existing literature on stigma, deviance and the phenomenon of mental illness in nurses to analyse broader cultural implications for nursing. Assessment of suitability to return to work arises throughout the narratives, and consideration is given to the way that risk assessment by nursing leaders is impacted by negative stereotypes that surround mental illness. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Experiencing the genetic body: parents' encounters with pediatric clinical genetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raspberry, Kelly; Skinner, Debra

    2007-01-01

    Because of advancements in genetic research and technologies, the clinical practice of genetics is becoming a prevalent component of biomedicine. As the genetic basis for more and more diseases are found, it is possible that ways of experiencing health, illness, identity, kin relations, and the body are becoming geneticized, or understood within a genetic model of disease. Yet, other models and relations that go beyond genetic explanations also shape interpretations of health and disease. This article explores how one group of individuals for whom genetic disorder is highly relevant formulates their views of the body in light of genetic knowledge. Using data from an ethnographic study of 106 parents or potential parents of children with known or suspected genetic disorders who were referred to a pediatric genetic counseling and evaluation clinic in the southeastern United States, we find that these parents do, to some degree, perceive of their children's disorders in terms of a genetic body that encompasses two principal qualities: a sense of predetermined health and illness and an awareness of a profound historicity that reaches into the past and extends into the present and future. They experience this genetic body as both fixed and historical, but they also express ideas of a genetic body made less deterministic by their own efforts and future possibilities. This account of parents' experiences with genetics and clinical practice contributes to a growing body of work on the ways in which genetic information and technologies are transforming popular and medical notions of the body, and with it, health, illness, kinship relations, and personal and social identities.

  20. Detection of exercise-induced myocardial ischemia from symptomatology experienced during testing in men and women

    Science.gov (United States)

    D’Antono, Bianca; Dupuis, Gilles; Fortin, Christophe; Arsenault, André; Burelle, Denis

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES To examine the capacity of angina and related symptoms experienced during exercise-stress testing to detect the presence of ischemia, controlling for other clinical factors. METHOD The authors undertook a prospective study of 482 women and 425 men (mean age 58 years) undergoing exercise stress testing with myocardial perfusion imaging. One hundred forty-six women and 127 men reported chest pain, and of these, 25% of women and 66% of men had myocardial perfusion imaging evidence of ischemia during testing. The present article focuses on patients with chest pain during testing. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Outcome measures included chest pain localization, extension, intensity and quality, as well as the presence of various nonpain-related symptoms. Backward logistical regression analyses were performed separately on men and women who had experienced chest pain during testing. RESULTS Men who described their chest pain as ‘heavy’ were 4.6 times more likely to experience ischemia during testing (P=0.039) compared with other men, but this pain descriptor only slightly improved accuracy of prediction beyond that provided by control variables. In women, several symptoms added to the sensitivity of the prediction, such as a numb feeling in the face or neck region (OR 4.5; P=0.048), a numb feeling in the chest area (OR 14.6; P=0.003), muscle tension (OR 5.2; P=0.013), and chest pain that was described as hot or burning (OR 4.3; P=0.014). CONCLUSIONS A more refined evaluation of symptoms experienced during testing was particularly helpful in improving detection of ischemia in women, but not in men. Attention to these symptoms may favour timely diagnosis of myocardial perfusion defects in women. PMID:16639477

  1. Positive and Negative Affect Is Related to Experiencing Chest Pain During Exercise-Induced Myocardial Ischemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stébenne, Philippe; Bacon, Simon L; Austin, Anthony; Paine, Nicola J; Arsenault, André; Laurin, Catherine; Meloche, Bernard; Gordon, Jennifer; Dupuis, Jocelyn; Lavoie, Kim L

    2017-05-01

    Silent myocardial ischemia is thought to be associated with worse cardiovascular outcomes due to a lack of perception of pain cues that initiate treatment seeking. Negative affect (NA) has been associated with increased pain reporting and positive affect (PA) with decreased pain reporting, but these psychological factors have not been examined within the context of myocardial ischemia. This study evaluated the associations between PA, NA, and chest pain reporting in patients with and without ischemia during exercise testing. A total of 246 patients referred for myocardial perfusion single-photon emission computed tomography exercise stress testing completed the positive and negative affect schedule-expanded version, a measure of PA and NA. Presence of chest pain and myocardial ischemia were evaluated using standardized protocols. Logistic regression analyses revealed that for every 1-point increase in NA, there was a 13% higher chance for ischemic patients (odds ratio [OR] = 1.13; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.02 to 1.26) and an 11% higher chance in nonischemic patients (OR = 1.11; 95% CI = 1.03 to 1.19) to report chest pain. A significant interaction of PA and NA on chest pain reporting (β = 0.02; 95% CI = 0.002 to 0.031) was also observed; nonischemic patients with high NA and PA reported more chest pain (57%) versus patients with low NA and low PA (13%), with high NA and low PA (17%), and with high PA and low NA (7%). Patients who experience higher NA are more likely to report experiencing chest pain. In patients without ischemia, high NA and PA was also associated with a higher likelihood of reporting chest pain. Results suggest that high levels of PA as well as NA may increase the experience and/or reporting of chest pain.

  2. A humanistic environment for dental schools: what are dental students experiencing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quick, Karin K

    2014-12-01

    A Commission on Dental Accreditation (CODA) standard now requires that dental schools commit to establishing a "humanistic culture and learning environment" for all members of the academic environment. The aim of this study was to identify students' perceptions of factors that affect the dental school environment and to test differences in their experiences in terms of gender and year. This picture of the existing environment was meant to serve as a first step toward creating and supporting a more humanistic academic environment. A mixed-methods approach was used for data collection during the 2009-10 and 2010-11 academic years at one U.S. dental school. Four focus groups were first conducted to explore challenges and conflicts faced by students during their dental education. A written survey informed by the focus group results was then used to obtain quantitative data. The survey response rate was 47 percent (N=188). Faculty inconsistency, cheating, and belittlement/disrespect were experienced by many of the responding dental students during their education, similar to what has been documented in medicine. These students also reported experiencing both constructive communication (90 percent) and destructive communication (up to 32 percent). The female students reported more gender discrimination and sexual harassment than their male peers, and the clinical students reported more experience with belittlement and destructive communication than the preclinical students. The results suggest that greater effort should be directed toward creating a more humanistic environment in dental schools. Based on the issues identified, steps academic institutions can take to improve these environments and student skills are outlined.

  3. Struggles for medical legitimacy among women experiencing sexual pain: A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braksmajer, Amy

    2018-04-01

    Given the prominent role of medical institutions in defining what is "healthy" and "normal," many women turn to medicine when experiencing pain during intercourse (dyspareunia). The medical encounter can become a contest between patients and providers when physicians do not grant legitimacy to patients' claims of illness. Drawing on interviews conducted from 2007 to 2008 and 2011 to 2012 with 32 women experiencing dyspareunia (ages 18-60 years) and living in New York City and its surrounding areas, this study examined women's and their physicians' claims regarding bodily expertise, particularly women's perceptions of physician invalidation, their understanding of this invalidation as gendered, and the consequences for women's pursuit of medicalization. Women overwhelmingly sought a medical diagnosis for their dyspareunia, in which they believed that providers would relieve uncertainty about its origin, give treatment alternatives, and permit them to avoid sexual activity. When providers did not give diagnoses, women reported feeling that their bodily self-knowledge was dismissed and their symptoms were attributed to psychosomatic causes. Furthermore, some women linked their perceptions of invalidation to both historical and contemporary forms of gender bias. Exploration of women's struggles for medical legitimacy may lead to a better understanding of the processes by which medicalization of female sexuality takes place.

  4. Experiencing reproductive concerns as a female cancer survivor is associated with depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorman, Jessica R; Su, H Irene; Roberts, Samantha C; Dominick, Sally A; Malcarne, Vanessa L

    2015-03-15

    Young adult female cancer survivors have unmet reproductive concerns and informational needs that are associated with poorer quality of life. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between current reproductive concerns and moderate to severe depression among young survivors. This cross-sectional study included 200 female cancer survivors between the ages of 18 and 35 years who completed a Web-based survey measuring reproductive history, parenthood desires, reproductive concerns after cancer, and quality-of-life indicators. The mean age of the participants was 28 years (standard deviation, 4.4 years), and almost two-thirds were diagnosed within 5 years of survey completion. A multivariate logistic regression analysis controlling for education, duration of survivorship, and social support revealed an association between experiencing reproductive concerns and moderate to severe depression (odds ratio for each 5-unit increase in the Reproductive Concerns After Cancer [RCAC] score, 1.30; 95% confidence interval, 1.06-1.60). Among those with moderate to severe depression, 23% had high RCAC scores, whereas 6% of those with minimal to mild depression did (P reproductive concerns was associated with greater odds of experiencing moderate to severe depression. Almost a quarter of survivors in this sample reported moderate to severe depression, and addressing reproductive concerns represents one potential area of intervention for improving the psychosocial health of young survivors. © 2014 American Cancer Society.

  5. Psychological and biographical differences between secondary school teachers experiencing high and low levels of burnout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, C M; Molloy, G N

    1990-02-01

    A total of 750 teachers from 16 government and non-government schools from areas of contrasted socio-economic status (SES) responded to a questionnaire designed to investigate associations between selected aspects of burnout among teachers working in secondary schools in Victoria, Australia. By comparing high and low burnout groups on biographic, psychological and work pattern variables, differences between teachers experiencing high and low levels of burnout were identified. Multiple regression analyses assessed the relative importance of these variables in accounting for the variance in each of the three burnout subscales. School type was related to perceptions of stress and burnout. Higher levels of burnout were associated with poorer physical health, higher rates of absenteeism, lower self-confidence and more frequent use of regressive coping strategies. Teachers classified as experiencing high levels of burnout attributed most of the stress in their lives to teaching and reported low levels of career commitment and satisfaction. Further, teachers who recorded high levels of burnout were characterised by lower levels of the personality disposition of hardiness, lower levels of social support, higher levels of role stress and more custodial pupil control ideologies than their low-burnout counterparts. Psychological variables were found to be more significant predictors of burnout than biographical variables.

  6. [Stigma and discrimination experienced by people living with HIV in Togo, in 2013].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saka, Bayaki; Tchounga, Boris; Ekouevi, Didier K; Sehonou, Céphas; Sewu, Essèboè; Dokla, Augustin; Maboudou, Angèle; Kassankogno, Yao; Palokinam Pitche, Vincent

    2017-01-01

    Stigma and discrimination experienced by people living with HIV (PLWHA) prevent and delay access to prevention and treatment services. The aim of this study was to describe the patterns of stigma and discrimination experienced by PLWHA in Togo and to identify the associated factors. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 2013 among PLWHA in Togo in order to collect data on stigma or discrimination experiences. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to identify associated factors. A total of 891 PLWHA were interviewed, including 848 (95.2%) receiving antiretroviral therapy. External stigma (37.9%) was the major form of stigmatization followed by internalized stigma (35.4%). The main features of external stigma were gossip (36.5%) and issues to access education (36.0%). Internalized stigma mainly consisted of a feeling of guilt (37.6%) and self-devaluation (36.0%). In univariate and multivariate analysis, female gender was significantly associated with stigma (aOR = 1.73, 95% CI [1.08-2.77]). Of the 891 PLWHA, 75 (8.4%) reported a violation of their rights. Finally 27 (4.1%) were discouraged from having children by a health professional because of their HIV status. Stigma affects more than one-third of PLWHA in Togo, more particularly females. It appears necessary to design new interventions and integrate psychosocial care in the management of PLWHA, in addition to antiretroviral therapy.

  7. Mentoring relationships and the levels of role conflict and role ambiguity experienced by novice nursing faculty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Specht, Jennifer A

    2013-01-01

    This study explored the effect of mentoring on the levels of role conflict and role ambiguity experienced by novice nursing faculty related to their transitions into academe using a descriptive, comparative design. It also measured the relationship between the quality of mentoring experiences of novice nursing faculty and their levels of role conflict and role ambiguity using a correlational design. P. Benner's (1984) novice to expert model was utilized as a framework for successful role transition. J. R. Rizzo, R. J. House, and S. I. Lirtzman's (1970) role conflict and role ambiguity scale was used to measure the levels of role conflict and role ambiguity experienced by novice nursing faculty. Results indicate that participants (n = 224) who were mentored have significantly lower levels of role conflict (M = 3.57) and role ambiguity (M = 3.02) than those who were not mentored (M = 4.62 and M = 3.90, respectively). Also significant, the higher the participants' reported levels of quality of mentoring experiences were, the lower their levels of role conflict and role ambiguity were. The results of this study indicate that mentoring eases the transition of novice nursing faculty from practice into academe by decreasing the degree of role ambiguity and role conflict that they experience. © 2013.

  8. The difficulties experienced by nurses and healthcare staff involved in the process of breaking bad news.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warnock, Clare; Buchanan, Jean; Tod, Angela Mary

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the difficulties experienced by nurses and healthcare professionals when engaging in the process of breaking bad news. The challenges faced by staff when breaking bad news have previously been researched in relation to particular settings or participants. This study involved staff from diverse settings and roles to develop broader insights into the range of difficulties experienced in clinical practice. The study used a descriptive survey design involving self-reported written accounts and framework analysis. Data were collected using a structured questionnaire containing a free text section that asked participants to describe a difficult experience they had encountered when involved in the process of breaking bad news. Data were collected from healthcare staff from hospital, community, hospice and care home settings attending training days on breaking bad news between April 2011 and April 2014. Multiple inter-related factors presented challenges to staff engaging in activities associated with breaking bad news. Traditional subjects such as diagnostic and treatment information were described but additional topics were identified such as the impact of illness and care at the end of life. A descriptive framework was developed that summarizes the factors that contribute to creating difficult experiences for staff when breaking bad news. The framework provides insights into the scope of the challenges faced by staff when they engage in the process of breaking bad news. This provides the foundation for developing interventions to support staff that more closely matches their experiences in clinical practice. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Physical activity in Iranian older adults who experienced fall during the past 12 months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salehi, Leili; Shokrvash, Behjat; Jamshidi, Ensiyeh; Montazeri, Ali

    2014-10-31

    Physical activity may have several benefits for elderly people. However, the risk of falling might prevent this population from showing interest in physical activity. This research was aimed to explore facilitators and barriers to physical activity in older persons who have experienced at least one fall in the past 12 months. This cross sectional study was conducted in 2010-2011, in Tehran, Iran. Using a multistage sampling method a group of elderly people entered into the study. A multi-section questionnaire was used to collect data on demographic information, physical activity level, and different determinants that might influence physical activity. Several statistical tests including linear regression were used to analyze the data. In all, 180 old people from 40 elderly centers (49 men and 131 women) took part in the study. The mean age of participants was 65.9 ± 6.1 years. The result indicated that most participants experienced two or more falls during the last year (54.5%). Those who had more falls significantly scored lower on the Physical Activity Scale for Elderly (p falls, self-reported health and daily living activities. However, we observed inverse association between number of falls and physical activity. Indeed the findings suggest that we should reinforce benefits exist when designing programs to increase physical activity among elderly population.

  10. Experiencing reproductive concerns as a female cancer survivor is associated with depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorman, Jessica R.; Su, H. Irene; Roberts, Samantha C.; Dominick, Sally A.; Malcarne, Vanessa L.

    2014-01-01

    Background Young adult female cancer survivors have unmet reproductive concerns and informational needs that are associated with poorer quality of life. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between current reproductive concerns and moderate to severe depression among young survivors. Methods This cross-sectional study includes 200 female cancer survivors between the ages of 18 and 35 years who completed a web-based survey measuring reproductive history, parenthood desires, reproductive concerns after cancer, and quality of life indicators. Results The mean age of participants was 28 years (SD = 4.4) and almost two-thirds were diagnosed within 5 years of completing the survey. Multivariable logistic regression analysis controlling for education, duration of survivorship, and social support revealed an association between experiencing reproductive concerns and moderate to severe depression (OR = 1.30, 95% CI = 1.06–1.60 for each 5 unit increase in RCAC score). Of those with moderate to severe depression, 23% had high RCAC scores as compared to 6% of those with minimal to mild depression (p < 0.001). Conclusion A higher level of reproductive concerns was associated with greater odds of experiencing moderate to severe depression. Almost a quarter of survivors in this sample reported moderate to severe depression, and addressing reproductive concerns represents one potential area of intervention to improve the psychosocial health of young survivors. PMID:25377593

  11. Does experiencing homelessness affect women's motivation to change alcohol or drug use?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upshur, Carole C; Weinreb, Linda; Cheng, Debbie M; Kim, Theresa W; Samet, Jeffrey H; Saitz, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Homeless women are at high risk of drug and alcohol dependence and may receive less opportunity for treatment. Our objective was to examine the association between experiencing homelessness and motivation to change drug or alcohol use. Women (n = 154) participants in a study of substance dependence at an urban medical center (69 with some homeless days in the last 90 days; 85 continuously housed at baseline) completed six items rating motivation to change alcohol or drug use (ie, importance, readiness, and confidence) at baseline and in 3-, 6-, and 12-month follow-up interviews. Unadjusted and longitudinal analyses controlling for covariates (eg, demographics, insurance status, substance use consequences, mental health status, and participation in treatment) were conducted. There were no significant differences between women experiencing homeless days versus continuously housed women in the odds of reporting high motivation to change alcohol or drug use, either in unadjusted baseline analyses or longitudinal analyses adjusted for covariates. Covariates that were significantly associated with high importance, readiness or confidence to change behavior were higher life time consequences of substance use, and participation in 12-step programs. The findings suggest that clinicians should not make assumptions that homeless women have low motivation to change their substance use. The same opportunities for addiction treatment should be offered to homeless as to housed women. © American Academy of Addiction Psychiatry.

  12. Peer Victimization Experienced by Children and Adolescents Who Are Deaf or Hard of Hearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouwenberg, Maartje; Rieffe, Carolien; Theunissen, Stephanie C. P. M.; de Rooij, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Victimization is a relatively common, yet serious problem, with potentially severe consequences for children's psychosocial and academic functioning. Children who are Deaf or Hard of Hearing (DHH) may be at a higher risk for victimization than hearing children. The aims of the present study were to compare DHH and hearing children on i) self-reported experiences of victimization and ii) associations between victimization, parental- and child variables. In total 188 children (mean age 11;11 years) from the Netherlands and Dutch-speaking part of Belgium participated in the study. No difference between DHH and hearing children were found on general experiences of victimization. However, differences between the groups were found on specific forms of experienced victimization and on the associations between victimization and parental variables. For DHH children, parental sensitivity and parents who challenge their DHH children to become competent in the practical, emotional, cognitive and social domain is associated with them being less victimized. For hearing children at this age these relations were reversed, absent or more complex. Finally, DHH children in special schools were more victimized than DHH children in regular schools. It can be concluded that parents can play an important role in reducing social problems experienced by DHH children and young adolescents. PMID:23284923

  13. Experiencing racism in health care: the mental health impacts for Victorian Aboriginal communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelaher, Margaret A; Ferdinand, Angeline S; Paradies, Yin

    2014-07-07

    To examine experiences of racism in health settings and their impact on mental health among Aboriginal Australians. A cross-sectional survey of experiences of racism and mental health was conducted in two metropolitan and two rural Victorian local government areas (LGAs) between 1 December 2010 and 31 October 2011. Participants included 755 Aboriginal Australians aged over 18 years who had resided in the relevant LGA for at least a year. The response rate across all LGAs was 99%. Being above or below the threshold for high or very high psychological distress on the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale. 221 participants reported experiences of racism in health settings in the past 12 months. The results suggested that people experiencing racism in health settings (OR, 4.49; 95% CI, 2.28-8.86) and non-health settings (OR, 2.66; 95% CI, 1.39-5.08) were more likely than people who did not experience racism to be above the threshold for high or very high psychological distress. Experiencing interpersonal racism in health settings is associated with increased psychological distress over and above what would be expected in other settings. This finding supports the rationale for improving cultural competency and reducing racism as a means of closing the health gap between Aboriginal and other Australians. Capitalising on this investment will require explicitly evaluating the impact of these initiatives on reducing patient experiences of racism.

  14. Perception of environmental sounds by experienced cochlear implant patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafiro, Valeriy; Gygi, Brian; Cheng, Min-Yu; Vachhani, Jay; Mulvey, Megan

    2011-01-01

    Objectives Environmental sound perception serves an important ecological function by providing listeners with information about objects and events in their immediate environment. Environmental sounds such as car horns, baby cries or chirping birds can alert listeners to imminent dangers as well as contribute to one's sense of awareness and well being. Perception of environmental sounds as acoustically and semantically complex stimuli, may also involve some factors common to the processing of speech. However, very limited research has investigated the abilities of cochlear implant (CI) patients to identify common environmental sounds, despite patients' general enthusiasm about them. This project (1) investigated the ability of patients with modern-day CIs to perceive environmental sounds, (2) explored associations among speech, environmental sounds and basic auditory abilities, and (3) examined acoustic factors that might be involved in environmental sound perception. Design Seventeen experienced postlingually-deafened CI patients participated in the study. Environmental sound perception was assessed with a large-item test composed of 40 sound sources, each represented by four different tokens. The relationship between speech and environmental sound perception, and the role of working memory and some basic auditory abilities were examined based on patient performance on a battery of speech tests (HINT, CNC, and individual consonant and vowel tests), tests of basic auditory abilities (audiometric thresholds, gap detection, temporal pattern and temporal order for tones tests) and a backward digit recall test. Results The results indicated substantially reduced ability to identify common environmental sounds in CI patients (45.3%). Except for vowels, all speech test scores significantly correlated with the environmental sound test scores: r = 0.73 for HINT in quiet, r = 0.69 for HINT in noise, r = 0.70 for CNC, r = 0.64 for consonants and r = 0.48 for vowels. HINT and

  15. Daily Reports of Witnessing and Experiencing Peer Harassment in Middle School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishina, Adrienne; Juvonen, Jaana

    2005-01-01

    Two studies examined daily incidents of peer harassment in urban middle schools. Sixth-grade students (M age=11 years) described their daily personal experiences and witnessed accounts of peer harassment, and rated their negative feelings across a 2-week period. In Study 1 (n=95), within-subject analyses across 4 days revealed that both personally…

  16. [Retrospectively experiencing the menopause in Germany and in Papua New Guinea: a comparative report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalcek, I; Rotte, D; Painn, K; Schmidt-Müller, A; Diedrich, K

    2003-11-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the experience of menopause in postmenopausal women from Germany and in postmenopausal women from Papua New Guinea. Experience of menopause were assessed by formation of symptom groups (e. g. hot flushes, cardiac or sleeping trouble, depression, touchiness, drop in performance, vaginal dryness, painful joints or muscles), following the Menopause Rating Scale (MRS). Apart from the translated English version a questionaire in Pidgin English was offered. Questions about positive and negative experience of menopause and the acceptance of hormonal replacement therapy were included. Statistical analysis was performed both descriptively and for the group analyses the Chi-squared-test and the Mann Whitney's U test. 40 postmenopausal German women and 41 postmenopausal women from Papua New Guinea were asked about their experience of menopause. The German women were 58.7 years old (range from 52 to 62) and had two children on average (range from 0 to 4). 87.7 % had experience of symptoms. In Papua New Guinea mean age was 55.2 years (range from 48 to 70), parity six (range from 2 to 12). 76.9 % had experience of symptoms. There were significant intercultural differences between the experience of depressive mood, general drop of performance, sexual experience and the vaginal dryness and we found no significant intercultural differences between the experiences of hot flushes, cardiac trouble, sleeping trouble, nervousness and urological symptoms. 50 % of the German women take hormonal replacement therapy and nobody of Papua New Guinea. The experience of menopause as seen in the developed countries does not exist in the developing countries. The perception about illness and well-being are formed by culturally produced patterns.

  17. How Anticipated and Experienced Stigma Can Contribute to Self-Stigma: The Case of Problem Gambling

    OpenAIRE

    Hing, Nerilee; Russell, Alex M. T.

    2017-01-01

    The degree to which anticipated and experienced public stigma contribute to self-stigma remains open to debate, and little research has been conducted into the self-stigma of problem gambling. This study aimed to examine which aspects of anticipated and experienced stigma (if any) predict the anticipated level of public stigma associated with problem gambling and the degree of self-stigma felt by people experiencing problem gambling. An online survey of 177 Australians experiencing problem ga...

  18. Experiencing Gribov copies in SU(3) lattice gauge theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrarca, S.

    1993-01-01

    Recent results obtained in collaboration with C. Parrinello, M.L. Paciello, B. Taglienti and A. Vladikas on the Gribov noise resulting from smeared correlators are presented. A brief discussion of the possible influence of this fluctuations on the measure of physical quantities like f B is reported. (orig.)

  19. Remembering and Re-Experiencing Trauma during Genocide ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-01-27

    Jan 27, 2015 ... of 3193 people were reported to have developed ... In order to evaluate the supportive- expressive group therapy intervention, we designed a research study to evaluate the efficacy of this model ... the waiting list participants were offered counseling .... measure resilience in the adolescent and adult.

  20. Problems experienced by professional nurses providing care for HIV ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The nurses reported feelings of frustrations, treatment delay, lack of knowledge on HIV and AIDS, lack of support systems and work overload as challenges faced in caring for HIV/AIDS patients. The need for in-service education for professional nurses on treatment of HIV positive patients was discussed and recommended.

  1. Children with sickle cell disease who are experiencing psychosocial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... in affected children and their mothers was assessed using semi-structured questionnaire and standardized instruments (The Child Behaviour Questionnaire (CBQ) - Parents' version or Scale A2) for the children and Self Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ) for their mothers) Children with bronchial asthma and some with acute ...

  2. Seeing and Experiencing Relativity--A New Tool for Teaching?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kortemeyer, Gerd; Fish, Jordan; Hacker, Jesse; Kienle, Justin; Kobylarek, Alexander; Sigler, Michael; Wierenga, Bert; Cheu, Ryan; Kim, Ebae; Sherin, Zach; Sidhu, Sonny; Tan, Philip

    2013-01-01

    "What would you see if you were riding a beam of light?" This thought experiment, which Einstein reports to have "conducted" at the age of 16, of course has no sensible answer: as Einstein published a decade later, you could never reach the speed of light. But it does make sense to ask what you would see if you were traveling…

  3. The Confucian Educational Philosophy and Experienced Teachers' Resistance: A Narrative Study in Macau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Huang; Vong, Sou Kuan

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates experienced teachers' resistance in an era of neoliberalism in Macau. The narratives of three experienced teachers are examined under a post-structuralist framework. The findings indicate that the traditional Chinese Confucian ideology of education guides the experienced teachers' professional practice and offers them an…

  4. Meeting the Needs of Students with Disabilities Experiencing Homelessness: Federal, Community, and Educator Roles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan-Walker, Melissa E.; Rock, Marcia L.; Popp, Patricia A.

    2017-01-01

    Homelessness is a complex and multifaceted condition that affects 2.5 million, or one in every 30, children annually. Based on these numbers, it is likely that at least one student has experienced or is experiencing homelessness in most public school classrooms. Sixteen percent of students experiencing homelessness also received services under…

  5. Telephone Crisis Support Workers' Intentions to Use Recommended Skills While Experiencing Functional Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitchingman, Taneile A; Wilson, Coralie J; Woodward, Alan; Caputi, Peter; Wilson, Ian

    2018-05-01

    Empathic engagement with distressed others can lead to elevated symptoms of psychological distress and functional impairment, which preclude helping professionals' delivery of optimal patient care. Whether telephone crisis support workers are impacted in a similar way is not currently reported in the literature. This study examined the relationship between functional impairment and intentions to use recommended support skills in a representative national sample of 210 telephone crisis support workers. Participants completed an online survey including measures of functional impairment and intentions to use recommended telephone crisis support skills with callers reporting suicidal ideation, symptoms of depression, and anxiety. As a group, participants who experienced greater functional impairment during the past month reported significantly lower intentions to use recommended support skills with callers than those who reported lower functional impairment. Future research is needed to clarify the extent to which results generalize to telephone crisis support workers from other organizations. Results warrant further research to (a) identify determinants of telephone crisis support workers' functional impairment, and (b) for the deliberate management of telephone crisis support workers' functional impairment through developing and/or modifying existing service strategies to optimize workers' psychological well-being and delivery of support to callers.

  6. Facilitating Participant Success: Teachers Experiencing Antarctica and the Arctic Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shipp, S. S.; Bruccoli, A.; Porter, M.; Meese, D.

    2003-12-01

    Through the NSF-funded Teachers Experiencing Antarctica and the Arctic (TEA) Program K-12 science teachers participate as members of polar field projects. Objectives of the program include: immersing the science teacher in the experience of research; 2) leveraging the research experience of the teacher to better inform teaching practices; and 3) sharing the experience with the broader educational and general community. The polar field experience is an exciting opportunity accompanied by a daunting number of responsibilities. In addition to preparing for field research, TEA teachers bring their experience to colleagues, classrooms, and communities. Before going into the field, they give presentations, help plan how students can connect to the polar regions, and share the expedition with the public. In the field, the TEA teacher is a team member and educational liaison, responding to questions by e-mail, and posting e-journals describing the research experience. Upon return, the TEA again shares the experience broadly with the community. In addition, they work closely with 3 colleagues for 140 hours to bring the experience of research into classrooms. Formative evaluation of the TEA Program underscores the need to support teachers in accomplishing their responsibilities; this support is necessary to achieve program objectives. TEA teachers are responsible for sharing the science content of their research. While many broadcast the excitement of the experience, they may not have the scientific background to convey the content. This is due, in part, to many teachers having to be generalists in their classrooms. Shifting into the role of specialist can be challenging. In the year of preparation before the field experience, TEA teachers attend orientation, meet with their research teams for several days, and are encouraged to learn more about their science topic. Understanding builds through the field experience. It may take two or more years after the field work for the

  7. EXPERIENCING NEW PRACTICE IN PSYCHIATRY AND MENTAL HEALTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Peixoto Messias

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study reports the experience of an academic course during the practice of Nursing Psychiatric Nursing Course and Mental Health Center of Psychosocial Attention (CAPS in southern Bahia. The study is descriptive and participatory method. During practice, we carried out activities aimed at promoting the role of those involved. Such activities were craft workshops, beauty shop, video workshops, conversing, wheels of music, talks about coping with difficult situations and exercise a sense of positivity. Communication and listening therapy has permeated the whole the user and his family. I believe that with the activities carried out contributed to the improvement of health and the process of social reinsertion of CAPS. I hope with the information in this report, we enrich the acquis concerning the development of practices of care in mental health within the CAPS and encourage care practices that address the psychosocial rehabilitation of subjects.

  8. Experiencing new practice in Psychiatry and Mental Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Peixoto Messias

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study reports the experience of an academic course during the practice of Nursing Psychiatric Nursing Course and Mental Health Center of Psychosocial Attention (CAPS in southern Bahia. The study is descriptive and participatory method. During practice, we carried out activities aimed at promoting the role of those involved. Such activities were craft workshops, beauty shop, video workshops, conversing, wheels of music, talks about coping with difficult situations and exercise a sense of positivity. Communication and listening therapy has permeated the whole process and the end of the period there was a home visit to the user and his family. I believe that with the activities carried out contributed to the improvement of health and the process of social reinsertion of CAPS. I hope with the information in this report, we enrich the acquis concerning the development of practices of care in mental health within the CAPS and encourage care practices that address the psychosocial rehabilitation of subjects.

  9. Mothers' and health visitors' perceptions of the support provided to mothers who have experienced domestic violence: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eynon, Julia; Carrier, Judith; Rees, Sally; Cartwright, Annie

    2012-01-01

    Domestic violence has been described as a public health epidemic, with victims of domestic violence encountered in all health care settings. Within the United Kingdom the role of the health visitor (specialist community public health nurse) is to promote health in the whole community; every family with a child under five years has a named health visitor. Preparation for the health visitor role is unique to the United Kingdom. Health visitors are particularly well placed to identify and support mothers who are experiencing domestic violence. The objective of this review was to synthesise the best available evidence relating to support provided by UK health visitors for mothers who have experienced domestic violence, from both the mothers and the health visitors' perspectives. The participants of interest were mothers who have experienced domestic violence and health visitors who offer support to those mothers.The self reported experiences of health visitor support provided to mothers who have experienced domestic violence, from the perspective of both the mothers and the health visitors providing the support.This review considered studies that focus on qualitative data including, but not limited to, designs such as ethnography, phenomenology, grounded theory, action research and feminist research. Studies published up to April 2011 were included in the review. The search was restricted to English language studies. The databases searched were: Medline, CINAHL, PsycINFO, PsycARTICLES, EMBASE, British Nursing Index and Archive, ASSIA and TRIP. Studies were assessed for methodological quality using the standardised critical appraisal instruments from the Joanna Briggs Institute. Data were extracted using standardised data extraction tools from the Joanna Briggs Institute. Data synthesis used the Joanna Briggs Institute approach for meta-synthesis by meta-aggregation. Findings were synthesised into categories, which were aggregated into synthesised findings. Four

  10. Advance care planning with individuals experiencing homelessness: Literature review and recommendations for public health practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbell, Sarah A

    2017-09-01

    Vulnerable populations in the United States experience disparities in access to advance care planning and may have significant unmet health care needs at the end of life, including unrelieved suffering. People who are homeless have increased morbidity and mortality risks, yet lack opportunities to communicate end-of-life preferences. This paper includes a narrative literature review of advance care planning interventions and qualitative investigations into end-of-life concerns among people experiencing homelessness. Trials of clinician-guided interventions with homeless individuals demonstrated effectiveness in achieving advance directive completion and surrogate decision-maker designation. End-of-life concerns among homeless persons included fears of dying alone, dying unnoticed, or remaining unidentified after death. Research participants also reported concerns regarding burial and notification of family members. Public health practitioners should facilitate advance care planning for people who are homeless by providing opportunities for education and discussion on care options and advance directives. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Different Conditions of Formation Experienced by Iron Meteorites as Suggested by Neutron Diffraction Investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Grazzi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In this communication, we report the results of a preliminary neutron diffraction investigation of iron meteorites. These planetary materials are mainly constituted by metallic iron with variable nickel contents, and, owing to their peculiar genesis, are considered to offer the best constrains on the early stages of planetary accretion. Nine different iron meteorites, representative of different chemical and structural groups, thought to have been formed in very different pressure and temperature conditions, were investigated, evidencing variances in crystallites size, texturing, and residual strain. The variability of these parameters and their relationship, were discussed in respect to possible diverse range of petrological conditions, mainly pressure and cooling rate, experienced by these materials during the crystallization stage and/or as consequence of post accretion events.

  12. A Study Of The Effects Of Illness Experienced By Families Of Oral And Oropharyngeal Cancer Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhagyalaxmi A

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Research question : What are the various areas and burden a family experiences due to presence of oral and oropharyngeal cancer patient. Objectives: 1. To identify the family burden like financial burden, disruption of routine activities and family leisure etc. 2. To study the severity of family burden experienced by the families of oral and oropharyngeal cancer patients. Study design: Case- control. Setting: Gujarat Cancer and Research Institute (G.C.R.I, Ahmedabad. Participants: 100 cases belonging to the diagnostic categories no. 140-46 of ICD â€"9 and 100 controls belonging to the diagnostic categories other than no. 140-46 of ICD-9 Statistical analysis: Proportions, Chi-square test and Z test. Results: Financial burden was observed in 36% of cases and 43% of controls had burden on the family. Out of 43% respondents reporting any burden, 36(83.72% were identified with severe burden.

  13. Increased risk of sadness and suicidality among victims of bullying experiencing additional threats to physical safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Tammy B; Adesman, Andrew

    2017-11-23

    Objective To examine, in a nationally-representative sample of high school students, to what extent one or more additional threats to physical safety exacerbates the risk of sadness and suicidality among victims of school and/or cyber-bullying. Methods National data from the 2015 Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) were analyzed for grades 9-12 (n = 15,624). Victimization groups were characterized by school-bullying and cyber-bullying, with and without additional threats to physical safety: fighting at school, being threatened/injured at school, and skipping school out of fear for one's safety. Outcomes included 2-week sadness and suicidality. Outcomes for victimization groups were compared to non-victims using logistic regression adjusting for sex, grade and race/ethnicity. Results Overall, 20.2% of students were school-bullied, and 15.5% were cyber-bullied in the past year. Compared to non-victims, victims of school-bullying and victims of cyber-bullying (VoCBs) who did not experience additional threats to physical safety were 2.76 and 3.83 times more likely to report 2-week sadness, and 3.39 and 3.27 times more likely to exhibit suicidality, respectively. Conversely, victims of bullying who experienced one or more additional threats to physical safety were successively more likely to report these adverse outcomes. Notably, victims of school-bullying and VoCBs with all three additional risk factors were 13.13 and 17.75 times more likely to exhibit suicidality, respectively. Conclusion Risk of depression symptoms and suicidality among victims of school-bullying and/or cyber-bullying is greatly increased among those who have experienced additional threats to physical safety: fighting at school, being threatened/injured at school and skipping school out of fear for their safety.

  14. Self-titration by experienced e-cigarette users: blood nicotine delivery and subjective effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawkins, Lynne E; Kimber, Catherine F; Doig, Mira; Feyerabend, Colin; Corcoran, Olivia

    2016-08-01

    Self-titration is well documented in the tobacco literature. The extent to which e-cigarette users (vapers) self-titrate is unknown. This study explored the effects of high and low nicotine strength liquid on puffing topography, nicotine delivery and subjective effects in experienced vapers. Eleven experienced male vapers completed 60 min of ad libitum vaping under low (6 mg/mL) and high (24 mg/mL) nicotine liquid conditions in two separate sessions. Measurements included puffing topography (puff number, puff duration, volume of liquid consumed) and changes in plasma nicotine levels, craving, withdrawal symptoms, self-reported hit, satisfaction and adverse effects. Liquid consumption and puff number were higher and puff duration longer, in the low nicotine strength condition (all ps < 0.01). The mean difference in nicotine boost from baseline in the low condition was 8.59 (7.52) ng/mL, 16.99 (11.72) ng/mL and 22.03 (16.19) ng/mL at 10, 30 and 60 min, respectively. Corresponding values for the high condition were 33.77 (34.88) ng/mL, 35.48 (28.31) ng/mL and 43.57 (34.78) ng/mL (ps < 0.05). There were no statistically significant differences between conditions in self-reported craving, withdrawal symptoms, satisfaction, hit or adverse effects. Vapers engaged in compensatory puffing with lower nicotine strength liquid, doubling their consumption. Whilst compensatory puffing was sufficient to reduce craving and withdrawal discomfort, self-titration was incomplete with significantly higher plasma nicotine levels in the high condition.

  15. Factors related to environmental barriers experienced by persons with and without disabilities in diverse African settings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surona Visagie

    Full Text Available This paper explores differences in experienced environmental barriers between individuals with and without disabilities and the impact of additional factors on experienced environmental barriers. Data was collected in 2011-2012 by means of a two-stage cluster sampling and comprised 400-500 households in different sites in South Africa, Sudan Malawi and Namibia. Data were collected through self-report survey questionnaires. In addition to descriptive statistics and simple statistical tests a structural equation model was developed and tested. The combined file comprised 9,307 participants. The Craig Hospital Inventory of Environmental Factors was used to assess the level of environmental barriers. Transportation, the natural environment and access to health care services created the biggest barriers. An exploratory factor analysis yielded support for a one component solution for environmental barriers. A scale was constructed by adding the items together and dividing by number of items, yielding a range from one to five with five representing the highest level of environmental barriers and one the lowest. An overall mean value of 1.51 was found. Persons with disabilities scored 1.66 and persons without disabilities 1.36 (F = 466.89, p < .001. Bivariate regression analyses revealed environmental barriers to be higher among rural respondents, increasing with age and severity of disability, and lower for those with a higher level of education and with better physical and mental health. Gender had an impact only among persons without disabilities, where women report more barriers than men. Structural equation model analysis showed that socioeconomic status was significantly and negatively associated with environmental barriers. Activity limitation is significantly associated with environmental barriers when controlling for a number of other individual characteristics. Reducing barriers for the general population would go some way to reduce the impact

  16. Problems Experienced by Ovarian Cancer Survivors During Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keim-Malpass, Jessica; Mihalko, Shannon L; Russell, Greg; Case, Doug; Miller, Brigitte; Avis, Nancy E

    To identify problems at different treatment points (early treatment, mid-treatment, early posttreatment, and late posttreatment) among women with ovarian cancer. Longitudinal and cross-sectional study design. An academic and community clinical cancer center in the Southeastern United States. Sixty-eight women with Stage I to IV ovarian cancer. Variables assessed included reported problems (physical, psychosocial, pain, marital, medical interaction), social support, optimism, and responses to open-ended questions. Analysis involved mixed models for longitudinal repeated measures and unpaired t tests and content analysis to describe responses to open-ended questions. Physical and psychosocial problems were greatest during early treatment and decreased throughout the treatment trajectory. Women with greater levels of social support and optimism at baseline had fewer problems over time. Women who did not have trouble paying for basics had fewer problems related to pain and psychological problems. Problems across all domains must be addressed throughout the treatment trajectory, even after chemotherapy has ended. Nurses are well positioned to refer women appropriately to social workers and clinical navigators across all domains of care and should consider systematic assessment of patient-reported problems as a routine form of practice. Copyright © 2017 AWHONN, the Association of Women's Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Occupational exposure to contaminated biological material: perceptions and feelings experienced among dental students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila PINELLI

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Dental students may be a particularly vulnerable group exposed to the risk of acquiring infections through occupational injuries.OBJECTIVE: To investigate the perceptions with regard to their occupational exposure to potentially infectious biologic materials.MATERIAL AND METHOD: Interviews were conducted by means of a script with open questions. The speeches were recorded, transcribed and qualitative analysis was performed with the aid of QUALIQUANTISOFT® software. The Collective Subject Discourse (CSD was obtained.RESULT: The feeling most frequently experienced was related to the fear of contagion. Most accidents occurred during the handling of sharp dental instruments. Respondents attributed the occurrence of accidents especially the lack of attention, carelessness while handling sharp instruments, and lack of use of Personal Protective Equipment. As regards the measures taken right after the exposure, they "washed the local area". Other respondents reported they "continued the dental treatment". They complained mostly about the fear of having been infected, and because they had to leave the faculty to take blood exams for HIV screening. As part of the learning experience the injured reported they paid more attention when handling sharp instruments. The students informed that any type of injury due to contact with contaminated material must be notified. However, they were neglectful about reporting their own injury.CONCLUSION: Education strategies for preventive measures related to occupational exposure must be restructured, because the knowledge and the fear of contagion among dental students were not always sufficient for a complete adherence to treatment protocols and notification.

  18. Aurorasaurus: Citizen Scientists Experiencing Extremes of Space Weather

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, E.; Hall, M.; Tapia, A.

    2013-12-01

    Aurorasaurus is a new citizen science mapping platform to nowcast the visibility of the Northern Lights for the public in the current solar maximum, the first with social media. As a recently funded NSF INSPIRE program, we have joint goals among three research disciplines: space weather forecasting, the study of human-computer interactions, and informal science education. We will highlight results from the prototype www.aurorasaurus.org and outline future efforts to motivate online participants and crowdsource viable data. Our citizen science effort is unique among space programs as it includes both reporting observations and data analysis activities to engage the broadest participant network possible. In addition, our efforts to improve space weather nowcasting by including real-time mapping of ground truth observers for rare, sporadic events are a first in the field.

  19. Psychopathology in Young People Experiencing Homelessness: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelton, Katherine H.; van den Bree, Marianne B. M.; Los, Férenc J.

    2013-01-01

    Understanding mental health issues faced by young homeless persons is instrumental to the development of successful targeted interventions. No systematic review of recent published literature on psychopathology in this group has been completed. We conducted a systematic review of published research examining the prevalence of psychiatric problems among young homeless people. We examined the temporal relationship between homelessness and psychopathology. We collated 46 articles according to the PRISMA Statement. All studies that used a full psychiatric assessment consistently reported a prevalence of any psychiatric disorder from 48% to 98%. Although there was a lack of longitudinal studies of the temporal relationship between psychiatric disorders and homelessness, findings suggested a reciprocal link. Supporting young people at risk for homelessness could reduce homelessness incidence and improve mental health. PMID:23597340

  20. Intimate partner violence experienced by HIV-infected pregnant women in South Africa: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, Molly; Phillips, Tamsin; Zerbe, Allison; McIntyre, James A; Brittain, Kirsty; Petro, Greg; Abrams, Elaine J; Myer, Landon

    2016-08-16

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) during pregnancy may be common in settings where HIV is prevalent but there are few data on IPV in populations of HIV-infected pregnant women in Southern Africa. We examined the prevalence and correlates of IPV among HIV-infected pregnant women. A primary care antenatal clinic in Cape Town, South Africa. 623 consecutive HIV-infected pregnant women initiating lifelong antiretroviral therapy. IPV, depression, substance use and psychological distress were assessed using the 13-item WHO Violence Against Women questionnaire, the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS), Alcohol and Drug Use Disorders Identification Tests (AUDIT/DUDIT) and the Kessler 10 (K-10) scale, respectively. The median age in the sample was 28 years, 97% of women reported being in a relationship, and 70% of women reported not discussing and/or agreeing on pregnancy intentions before conception. 21% of women (n=132) reported experiencing ≥1 act of IPV in the past 12 months, including emotional (15%), physical (15%) and sexual violence (2%). Of those reporting any IPV (n=132), 48% reported experiencing 2 or more types. Emotional and physical violence was most prevalent among women aged 18-24 years, while sexual violence was most commonly reported among women aged 25-29 years. Reported IPV was less likely among married women, and women who experienced IPV were more likely to score above threshold for substance use, depression and psychological distress. In addition, women who reported not discussing and/or not agreeing on pregnancy intentions with their partner prior to conception were significantly more likely to experience violence. HIV-infected pregnant women in the study reported experiencing multiple forms of IPV. While the impact of IPV on maternal and child health outcomes in the context of HIV infection requires further research attention, IPV screening and support services should be considered within the package of routine care for HIV

  1. Experienced stressors and coping strategies among Iranian nursing students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hagani Hamid

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background College students are prone to stress due to the transitional nature of college life. High levels of stress are believed to affect students' health and academic functions. If the stress is not dealt with effectively, feelings of loneliness, nervousness, sleeplessness and worrying may result. Effective coping strategies facilitate the return to a balanced state, reducing the negative effects of stress. Methods This descriptive cross-sectional study was performed to determine sources of stress and coping strategies in nursing students studying at the Iran Faculty of Nursing & Midwifery. All undergraduate nursing students enrolled in years 1-4 during academic year 2004-2005 were included in this study, with a total of 366 questionnaires fully completed by the students. The Student Stress Survey and the Adolescent Coping Orientation for Problem Experiences Inventory (ACOPE were used for data collection. Results Most students reported "finding new friends" (76.2%, "working with people they did not know" (63.4% as interpersonal sources of stress, "new responsibilities" (72.1%, "started college" (65.8% as intrapersonal sources of stress more than others. The most frequent academic source of stress was "increased class workload" (66.9% and the most frequent environmental sources of stress were being "placed in unfamiliar situations" (64.2% and "waiting in long lines" (60.4%. Interpersonal and environmental sources of stress were reported more frequently than intrapersonal and academic sources. Mean interpersonal (P=0.04 and environmental (P=0.04 sources of stress were significantly greater in first year than in fourth year students. Among coping strategies in 12 areas, the family problem solving strategies, "trying to reason with parents and compromise" (73% and "going along with family rules" (68% were used "often or always" by most students. To cope with engaging in demanding activity, students often or always used "trying to figure

  2. Professional Problems Experienced by Information Technology Teachers and Suggested Solutions: Longitudinal Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hafize Keser

    2013-02-01

    solutions of participants on the problems experienced are that the duty, power and responsibility of IT teachers have to be made clear and some regulations must be made towards IT courses. Moreover, in the study, the teacher candidates have reported that the FATİH project started to be applied could be a chance to overcome such problems

  3. Mentorship as Experienced by Women Surgeons in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yorozuya, Kyoko; Kawase, Kazumi; Akashi-Tanaka, Sadako; Kanbayashi, Chizuko; Nomura, Sachiyo; Tomizawa, Yasuko

    2016-01-01

    Women have accounted for over 30% of new medical students since 1995 in Japan. Establishing support systems for women surgeons to continue their work is a major issue in Japan. Mentorship can be one of the most effective means to help women surgeons to continue their work. The purpose of this study was to clarify the current status of mentorship among Japanese women surgeons and to discuss the role of mentors for women surgeons. Invitation letters were sent to all female members of the Japan Association of Women Surgeons in April 2011. An 84-item questionnaire survey was sent to those who agreed to participate in this study via the internet. Fifty-five surgeons participated in this study, a response rate of 48.7%. Sixty-seven percent of respondents found it difficult to continue in their job; 85% thought mentorship was necessary for women surgeons to progress in their careers; and 84% reported that they already had a mentor. Respondents thought that a mentor helped them to advance their clinical career, to stay in their job, and to provide moral support. However, mentors appeared to be less useful in helping them to advance their research career, to network, to increase their status, and to achieve a work-life balance. This study revealed areas where mentors appeared to be less helpful to women surgeons. The survey gave an indication of how to help improve and develop the career and personal life of women surgeons in Japan.

  4. Ethical dilemmas experienced by clinical psychology trainee therapists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhola, Poornima; Sinha, Ananya; Sonkar, Suruchi; Raguram, Ahalya

    2015-01-01

    Ethical dilemmas are inevitable during psychotherapeutic interactions, and these complexities and challenges may be magnified during the training phase. The experience of ethical dilemmas in the arena of therapy and the methods of resolving these dilemmas were examined among 35 clinical psychologists in training, through an anonymous and confidential online survey. The trainees' responses to four open-ended questions on any one ethical dilemma encountered during therapy were analysed, using thematic content analysis. The results highlighted that the salient ethical dilemmas related to confidentiality and boundary issues. The trainees also raised ethical questions regarding therapist competence, the beneficence and non-maleficence of therapeutic actions, and client autonomy. Fifty-seven per cent of the trainees reported that the dilemmas were resolved adequately, the prominent methods of resolution being supervision or consultation and guidance from professional ethical guidelines. The trainees felt that the professional codes had certain limitations as far as the effective resolution of ethical dilemmas was concerned. The findings indicate the need to strengthen training and supervision methodologies and professional ethics codes for psychotherapists and counsellors in India.

  5. Is there Complex Trauma Experience typology for Australian's experiencing extreme social disadvantage and low housing stability?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keane, Carol A; Magee, Christopher A; Kelly, Peter J

    2016-11-01

    Traumatic childhood experiences predict many adverse outcomes in adulthood including Complex-PTSD. Understanding complex trauma within socially disadvantaged populations has important implications for policy development and intervention implementation. This paper examined the nature of complex trauma experienced by disadvantaged individuals using a latent class analysis (LCA) approach. Data were collected through the large-scale Journeys Home Study (N=1682), utilising a representative sample of individuals experiencing low housing stability. Data on adverse childhood experiences, adulthood interpersonal trauma and relevant covariates were collected through interviews at baseline (Wave 1). Latent class analysis (LCA) was conducted to identify distinct classes of childhood trauma history, which included physical assault, neglect, and sexual abuse. Multinomial logistic regression investigated childhood relevant factors associated with class membership such as biological relationship of primary carer at age 14 years and number of times in foster care. Of the total sample (N=1682), 99% reported traumatic adverse childhood experiences. The most common included witnessing of violence, threat/experience of physical abuse, and sexual assault. LCA identified six distinct childhood trauma history classes including high violence and multiple traumas. Significant covariate differences between classes included: gender, biological relationship of primary carer at age 14 years, and time in foster care. Identification of six distinct childhood trauma history profiles suggests there might be unique treatment implications for individuals living in extreme social disadvantage. Further research is required to examine the relationship between these classes of experience, consequent impact on adulthood engagement, and future transitions though homelessness. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. [Experiencing violence in childhood--risks and health sequelae].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thyen, U; Kirchhofer, F; Wattam, C

    2000-06-01

    Descriptive study on health outcomes, co-morbidity, severity and social context in child abuse and neglect. Cross-sectional study of consecutively incoming cases in eleven German Child Protection Centres between January and July 1997 using a standardised survey instrument. We report on 263 children from 251 families. The majority of children was less than ten years old, 63% were girls, 37% boys. Of all children, 134 had suffered sexual abuse with physical contact, 20 sexual abuse without contact, 77 physical abuse, 62 emotional abuse and 99 neglect (multiple responses were allowed). The overlap between various types of abuse was considerable: many children had suffered more than one, a quarter more than two types of abuse. The majority of cases was classified as either severe and/or chronic. Most children and youngsters suffered emotional distress or posttraumatic stress, long-term consequences of physical injuries were less common. Intra-familiar relationship problems and emotional distress of the care-giver had greater impact on the risk for abuse or neglect compared to socioeconomic risk factors. In 55% child protection workers documented a disability in social and emotional development, in a quarter of children developmental retardation. The current, exclusive classification of types of abuse and neglect does not adequately describe the complexity of childrens' experiences of intra-familiar violence. Future research should be oriented towards the physical, emotional and social consequences of child maltreatment and use multifactorial designs to capture the complex aetiology and multiple acts and omissions responsible for the distress and injuries. Prospective studies are important to assess specific effects of child abuse and neglect on child development.

  7. Types of vicarious learning experienced by pre-dialysis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kate McCarthy

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Haemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis renal replacement treatment options are in clinical equipoise, although the cost of haemodialysis to the National Health Service is £16,411/patient/year greater than peritoneal dialysis. Treatment decision-making takes place during the pre-dialysis year when estimated glomerular filtration rate drops to between 15 and 30 mL/min/1.73 m2. Renal disease can be familial, and the majority of patients have considerable health service experience when they approach these treatment decisions. Factors affecting patient treatment decisions are currently unknown. The objective of this article is to explore data from a wider study in specific relation to the types of vicarious learning experiences reported by pre-dialysis patients. Methods: A qualitative study utilised unstructured interviews and grounded theory analysis during the participant’s pre-dialysis year. The interview cohort comprised 20 pre-dialysis participants between 24 and 80 years of age. Grounded theory design entailed thematic sampling and analysis, scrutinised by secondary coding and checked with participants. Participants were recruited from routine renal clinics at two local hospitals when their estimated glomerular filtration rate was between 15 and 30 mL/min/1.73 m2. Results: Vicarious learning that contributed to treatment decision-making fell into three main categories: planned vicarious leaning, unplanned vicarious learning and historical vicarious experiences. Conclusion: Exploration and acknowledgement of service users’ prior vicarious learning, by healthcare professionals, is important in understanding its potential influences on individuals’ treatment decision-making. This will enable healthcare professionals to challenge heuristic decisions based on limited information and to encourage analytic thought processes.

  8. Types of vicarious learning experienced by pre-dialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Kate; Sturt, Jackie; Adams, Ann

    2015-01-01

    Haemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis renal replacement treatment options are in clinical equipoise, although the cost of haemodialysis to the National Health Service is £16,411/patient/year greater than peritoneal dialysis. Treatment decision-making takes place during the pre-dialysis year when estimated glomerular filtration rate drops to between 15 and 30 mL/min/1.73 m(2). Renal disease can be familial, and the majority of patients have considerable health service experience when they approach these treatment decisions. Factors affecting patient treatment decisions are currently unknown. The objective of this article is to explore data from a wider study in specific relation to the types of vicarious learning experiences reported by pre-dialysis patients. A qualitative study utilised unstructured interviews and grounded theory analysis during the participant's pre-dialysis year. The interview cohort comprised 20 pre-dialysis participants between 24 and 80 years of age. Grounded theory design entailed thematic sampling and analysis, scrutinised by secondary coding and checked with participants. Participants were recruited from routine renal clinics at two local hospitals when their estimated glomerular filtration rate was between 15 and 30 mL/min/1.73 m(2). Vicarious learning that contributed to treatment decision-making fell into three main categories: planned vicarious leaning, unplanned vicarious learning and historical vicarious experiences. Exploration and acknowledgement of service users' prior vicarious learning, by healthcare professionals, is important in understanding its potential influences on individuals' treatment decision-making. This will enable healthcare professionals to challenge heuristic decisions based on limited information and to encourage analytic thought processes.

  9. Blood Gene Expression Profiling of Breast Cancer Survivors Experiencing Fibrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landmark-Hoyvik, Hege; Dumeaux, Vanessa; Reinertsen, Kristin V.; Edvardsen, Hege; Fossa, Sophie D.; Borresen-Dale, Anne-Lise

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To extend knowledge on the mechanisms and pathways involved in maintenance of radiation-induced fibrosis (RIF) by performing gene expression profiling of whole blood from breast cancer (BC) survivors with and without fibrosis 3-7 years after end of radiotherapy treatment. Methods and Materials: Gene expression profiles from blood were obtained for 254 BC survivors derived from a cohort of survivors, treated with adjuvant radiotherapy for breast cancer 3-7 years earlier. Analyses of transcriptional differences in blood gene expression between BC survivors with fibrosis (n = 31) and BC survivors without fibrosis (n = 223) were performed using R version 2.8.0 and tools from the Bioconductor project. Gene sets extracted through a literature search on fibrosis and breast cancer were subsequently used in gene set enrichment analysis. Results: Substantial differences in blood gene expression between BC survivors with and without fibrosis were observed, and 87 differentially expressed genes were identified through linear analysis. Transforming growth factor-β1 signaling was identified as the most significant gene set, showing a down-regulation of most of the core genes, together with up-regulation of a transcriptional activator of the inhibitor of fibrinolysis, Plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 in the BC survivors with fibrosis. Conclusion: Transforming growth factor-β1 signaling was found down-regulated during the maintenance phase of fibrosis as opposed to the up-regulation reported during the early, initiating phase of fibrosis. Hence, once the fibrotic tissue has developed, the maintenance phase might rather involve a deregulation of fibrinolysis and altered degradation of extracellular matrix components.

  10. Role conflict experienced by married black woman educators / by Mapula Gertrude Khumalo

    OpenAIRE

    Khumalo, Mapula Gertrude

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the nature of role conflict experienced by married black woman educators by means of a review of literature and an empirical investigation. The empirical study was also aimed at determining role conflict factors experienced to a great extent and those experienced to a slight extent. Chapter 1 deals with the problem statement, aims of the research and the methods employed to achieve the purpose of the study. The second chapter highli...

  11. Mobile Technology Use by People Experiencing Multiple Sclerosis Fatigue: Survey Methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Kessel, Kirsten; Babbage, Duncan R; Reay, Nicholas; Miner-Williams, Warren M; Kersten, Paula

    2017-02-28

    Fatigue is one of the most commonly reported symptoms of multiple sclerosis (MS). It has a profound impact on all spheres of life, for people with MS and their relatives. It is one of the key precipitants of early retirement. Individual, group, and Internet cognitive behavioral therapy-based approaches to supporting people with MS to manage their fatigue have been shown to be effective. The aim of this project was to (1) survey the types of mobile devices and level of Internet access people with MS use or would consider using for a health intervention and (2) characterize the levels of fatigue severity and their impact experienced by the people in our sample to provide an estimate of fatigue severity of people with MS in New Zealand. The ultimate goal of this work was to support the future development of a mobile intervention for the management of fatigue for people with MS. Survey methodology using an online questionnaire was used to assess people with MS. A total of 51 people with MS participated. The average age was 48.5 years, and the large majority of the sample (77%) was female. Participants reported significant levels of fatigue as measured with the summary score of the Neurological Fatigue Index (mean 31.4 [SD 5.3]). Most (84%) respondents scored on average more than 3 on the fatigue severity questions, reflecting significant fatigue. Mobile phone usage was high with 86% of respondents reporting having a mobile phone; apps were used by 75% of respondents. Most participants (92%) accessed the Internet from home. New Zealand respondents with MS experienced high levels of both fatigue severity and fatigue impact. The majority of participants have a mobile device and access to the Internet. These findings, along with limited access to face-to-face cognitive behavioral therapy-based interventions, create an opportunity to develop a mobile technology platform for delivering a cognitive behavioral therapy-based intervention to decrease the severity and impact of

  12. A single session of meditation reduces of physiological indices of anger in both experienced and novice meditators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fennell, Alexander B; Benau, Erik M; Atchley, Ruth Ann

    2016-02-01

    The goal of the present study was to explore how anger reduction via a single session of meditation might be measured using psychophysiological methodologies. To achieve this, 15 novice meditators (Experiment 1) and 12 practiced meditators (Experiment 2) completed autobiographical anger inductions prior to, and following, meditation training while respiration rate, heart rate, and blood pressure were measured. Participants also reported subjective anger via a visual analog scale. At both stages, the experienced meditators' physiological reaction to the anger induction reflected that of relaxation: slowed breathing and heart rate and decreased blood pressure. Naïve meditators exhibited physiological reactions that were consistent with anger during the pre-meditation stage, while after meditation training and a second anger induction they elicited physiological evidence of relaxation. The current results examining meditation training show that the naïve group's physiological measures mimicked those of the experienced group following a single session of meditation training. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Activation of professional and personal network relations when experiencing a symptom: a population-based cross-sectional study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elnegaard, Sandra; Andersen, Rikke Sand; Pedersen, Anette Fischer

    2017-01-01

    Objective To describe patterns of disclosure of symptoms experienced among people in the general population to persons in their personal and/or professional network. Design A population-based cross-sectional study. Data were collected from a web-based survey. Setting The general population...... in Denmark. Participants 100 000 individuals randomly selected, representative of the adult Danish population aged ≥20 years were invited. Approximately 5% were not eligible for inclusion. 49 706 (men=23 240; women=26 466) of 95 253 eligible individuals completed the questionnaire; yielding a response rate...... of 52.2%. Individuals completing all questions regarding social network relations form the study base (n=44 313). Primary and secondary outcome measures Activation of personal and/or professional relations when experiencing a symptom. Results The 44 313 individuals reported in total 260 079 symptom...

  14. Sexual Stigma, Sexual Behaviors, and Abstinence Among Vietnamese Adolescents: Implications for Risk and Protective Behaviors for HIV, STIs, and Unwanted Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaljee, Linda M.; Green, Mackenzie; Riel, Rosemary; Lerdboon, Porntip; Tho, Le Huu; Thoa, Le Thi Kim; Minh, Truong Tan

    2007-01-01

    As rates of HIV increase in Viet Nam, there is a need for data on social relations and sexual risk and protective behaviors among Vietnamese adolescents in a context of rapid social and economic changes. We report findings from our qualitative interviews with 159 Vietnamese adolescents living in Ha Noi, Nha Trang City and Ninh Hoa District and survey of 886 adolescents in these same three sites. In the qualitative interviews, youth report a strong adherence to ideals and values regarding abstinence outside of marriage. Youth reported low rates of engagement in vaginal, anal, and/or oral sex with a significant difference in reported behaviors between males (29/469, 6.2%) and females (7/416, 1.7%) [p=.000]. 15/32 (46.9%) sexually active youth reported “rarely” or “never” using condoms. Females had significantly higher scores for perceived sexual stigma than males [t=−10.22 (95% CI −3.72 to −2.52), p=.000] while males scored significantly lower than females on a scale of perceived self-efficacy for abstinence [t=5.31 (95% CI 0.27 to 0.59), p=.000]. The stigmatization of sexual relations outside of marriage particularly for young women reinforces abstinence, however these same values decrease adolescents’ abilities to obtain accurate information about sexuality and HIV/STIs, and engage in safer sex. PMID:17403496

  15. Meanings of being received and met by others as experienced by women with MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malin Olsson

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to elucidate meanings of being received and met by others as experienced by women with multiple sclerosis (MS we conducted a qualitative inquiry. We interviewed 15 women with MS and analysed the interviews with a phenomenological hermeneutic interpretation. The findings were presented in two themes: experiencing oneself as a valuable person and experiencing oneself as diminished. Meanings of being received and met by others, as experienced by women with MS, can be understood as containing two dimensions where treatment from others can mean recognising oneself through confirmation, as well as being ignored due to missing togetherness with others.

  16. Meanings of being received and met by others as experienced by women with MS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsson, Malin; Skär, Lisa; Söderberg, Siv

    2011-01-01

    In order to elucidate meanings of being received and met by others as experienced by women with multiple sclerosis (MS) we conducted a qualitative inquiry. We interviewed 15 women with MS and analysed the interviews with a phenomenological hermeneutic interpretation. The findings were presented in two themes: experiencing oneself as a valuable person and experiencing oneself as diminished. Meanings of being received and met by others, as experienced by women with MS, can be understood as containing two dimensions where treatment from others can mean recognising oneself through confirmation, as well as being ignored due to missing togetherness with others. PMID:21394245

  17. A pilot study of occupational injury and illness experienced by classical musicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymond, Delbert M; Romeo, June Hart; Kumke, Karoline V

    2012-01-01

    Limited attention is paid to the hazards experienced by orchestra musicians in the occupational health and safety literature. Within that literature, the primary focus has been on noise exposure. A focus on this area is warranted because high sound pressure levels are a product of this work environment. However, in addition to being at risk for noise-induced hearing loss, workers are also at risk for musculoskeletal injury and illness related to stressful body postures held for prolonged work periods. The socio-political forces of employment may place workers at risk for mental health disorders (e.g., depression). The researchers distributed an anonymous survey to classical orchestra musicians in the southwestern United States. The survey inventoried several areas related to occupational health risks. Results suggest low health care-seeking behaviors relative to self-reported signs and symptoms of morbidity. Musicians also reported limited formal training and education regarding occupational health risks. Risk information was provided late in their professional development. This is a particular concern because of the young age at which music training is initiated. Copyright 2012, SLACK Incorporated.

  18. The Relationship Between Childhood Gender Nonconformity and Experiencing Diverse Types of Homophobic Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'haese, Lies; Dewaele, Alexis; Van Houtte, Mieke

    2016-05-01

    Experiences of homophobic violence seem to differ for various sexual-minority subgroups. Previous research has outlined that experiences differ for men and women, and for gender conforming and nonconforming lesbian, gay, and bisexual men and women (LGBs). In this article, these relationships are studied by making a distinction between four types of homophobic violence: verbal, physical, material, and sexual. In 2013, an online survey was designed to ask Flemish LGBs about their experiences of homophobic violence. The final sample consists of 1,402 Flemish sexual-minority individuals. The results show that gay and bisexual men experienced significantly more physical, material, and sexual violence during their lifetime than lesbian and bisexual women did. Moreover, LGBs who reported more childhood gender nonconformity also reported more homophobic violence, and this positive relationship is confirmed for the four forms of violence. For verbal and physical violence, however, the relationship between childhood gender nonconformity and violence varies according to the gender of the respondents. This relationship is much stronger for gay and bisexual men than for lesbian and bisexual women. © The Author(s) 2015.

  19. Experiencing sexuality in youth living in Greece: contraceptive practices, risk taking, and psychosocial status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsitsika, Artemis; Andrie, Elisabeth; Deligeoroglou, Efthymios; Tzavara, Chara; Sakou, Irene; Greydanus, Donald; Papaevangelou, Vassiliki; Tsolia, Mariza; Creatsas, George; Bakoula, Chryssa

    2014-08-01

    To assess initiation of sexual activity and contraception methods used among Greek adolescents. To determine the association of adolescents' emotional and behavioral status with their sexual activity. A descriptive cross-sectional survey was conducted. The population (N = 1074, age 14-16) consisted of a random sample, stratified according to locality and population density, of 20 public junior high and high schools located in the urban district of Athens, Greece. Anonymous self-reported questionnaires were used to assess sexual activity choices and contraception methods. The Youth Self-Report questionnaire was used to evaluate the psychosocial competencies and difficulties of Greek adolescents. Analyses included frequencies with chi-square tests and multivariate logistic regression analysis. Factors that may influence sexual engagement of Greek adolescents were assessed. Of the adolescents who completed the questionnaire 21.8% reported having experienced sexual intercourse. The male/female ratio was 3/1 (P sexual debut was 14.5 ± 0.9 years. Condoms were the most preferred contraceptive method (79.9%), followed by withdrawal (38.9%). Emergency contraception was used by 9.6% of participants. Adolescents with separated, divorced or with a deceased parent, and non-Greek nationality have higher possibility of being sexually active. Adolescents who reported sexual intercourse had significantly higher score of thought problems (β = 1.07, SE = 0.35, P = .002), attention difficulties (β = 0.67, SE = 0.29, P = .022), delinquent behavior problems (β = 2.37, SE = 0.34, P sexual activities was significantly associated with psychosocial difficulties among adolescents living in Greece. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. The comparison of socioeconomic status, perceived social support and mental status in women of reproductive age experiencing and not experiencing domestic violence in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vameghi, Roshanak; Amir Ali Akbari, Sedigheh; Alavi Majd, Hamid; Sajedi, Firoozeh; Sajjadi, Homeira

    2018-01-01

    Given the significant health effects of domestic violence against women, the present study was conducted in 2016, in Tehran, Iran in order to compare the socioeconomic status, perceived social support and mental status in women of reproductive age experiencing and not experiencing domestic violence. This descriptive-analytical cross-sectional study was conducted on 500 women. The data collection tools used included questionnaires: demographic information, Socioeconomic, Beck's Depression, Spielberger's Anxiety, Cohen's Perceived Stress, Sarason's Perceived Social Support and WHO's Domestic Violence Inventory. The results showed that 43.2% of women said they had experienced at least one case of domestic violence, among which 16.4%, 15% and 36.6% of women had experienced physical, sexual and emotional-verbal types of violence, respectively. The mean age (p less than 0.001) and educational level (p=0/018) of violated women and their spouses (p less than 0.001) were lower than those of non-violated women. Furthermore, violated women experienced lower socioeconomic status (p less than 0.05), higher perceived stress (p less than 0.008), higher depression (p less than 0.001), and higher overt anxiety (0.002. They also perceived lower levels of social support (p less than 0.001). The issue of domestic violence was rather prevalent in the participants of the present study, particularly the younger, less educated and more socioeconomically deprived communities and families.

  1. Comparison of Psychopathological Symptoms in Adolescents Who Experienced Sexual Violence as a Victim and/or as a Perpetrator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohlert, Jeannine; Seidler, Corinna; Rau, Thea; Fegert, Jörg; Allroggen, Marc

    2017-01-01

    Research on sexual violence victims and perpetrators indicates that victims in general are found to report higher levels of psychopathological symptoms, especially internalizing behavior, whereas perpetrators often show externalizing behavior. Little is known, however, about the psychopathology of perpetrators of sexual violence who have also experienced sexual victimization (victim-perpetrators). Thus, the aim of the current study was to examine this group within a sample of adolescents living in residential care or federal boarding schools. Participants reported their lifetime experience with sexual violence (both as victim and perpetrator) and completed the Youth Self Report. Results indicate that all three groups of adolescents with sexual violence experience report higher total problem scores than adolescents without this experience. Victim-perpetrators show results more similar to those of perpetrators only than those of victims only. The discussion deals with the implications of our findings for the treatment of victims of sexual violence.

  2. The Online Life of Individuals Experiencing Socioeconomic Disadvantage: How Do They Experience Information?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smeaton, Kathleen; Bruce, Christine S.; Hughes, Hilary; Davis, Kate

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: This paper explores the online information experiences of individuals experiencing socioeconomic disadvantage in Australia. As access to online information becomes increasingly critical those without access are in danger of being left behind. This exploratory pilot study examines the way that digital exclusion may be experienced.…

  3. Learning from Families Experiencing Homelessness--How School Leaders Can Make a Difference through Transformative Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warke, Amy L.

    2012-01-01

    Homelessness is a growing phenomenon, especially among women and children (Hulchanski, 2009). This study was conducted because of the increase in families experiencing homelessness registering in my school. In none of the current studies about homelessness have the researchers spoken to the families and children experiencing homelessness. This…

  4. Differences of Ballet Turns ("Pirouette") Performance between Experienced and Novice Ballet Dancers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chia-Wei; Chen, Shing-Jye; Su, Fong-Chin; Wu, Hong-Wen; Lin, Cheng-Feng

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: This study investigated the different postural control strategies exhibited by experienced and novice dancers in ballet turns ("pirouettes"). Method: Thirteen novice and 13 experienced dancers performed ballet turns with dominant-leg support. The peak push force was measured in the double-leg support phase. The inclination…

  5. Using Hermeneutic Phenomenology to Investigate How Experienced Practitioners Learn to Communicate Clinical Reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajjawi, Rola; Higgs, Joy

    2007-01-01

    This paper is primarily targeted at doctoral students and other researchers considering using hermeneutic phenomenology as a research strategy. We present interpretive paradigm research designed to investigate how experienced practitioners learn to communicate their clinical reasoning in professional practice. Twelve experienced physiotherapy…

  6. Experienced Speech-Language Pathologists' Responses to Ethical Dilemmas: An Integrated Approach to Ethical Reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenny, Belinda; Lincoln, Michelle; Balandin, Susan

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the approaches of experienced speech-language pathologists (SLPs) to ethical reasoning and the processes they use to resolve ethical dilemmas. Method: Ten experienced SLPs participated in in-depth interviews. A narrative approach was used to guide participants' descriptions of how they resolved ethical dilemmas. Individual…

  7. Transporting Children and Youth Experiencing Homelessness. McKinney-Vento Law into Practice Brief Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Center for Homeless Education at SERVE, 2015

    2015-01-01

    Changing schools may greatly impede the academic achievement and social development of students experiencing homelessness. Students who transfer to a new school often experience educational discontinuity and, as a result, lose academic credits. Moreover, the mobility experienced by these students separates them from their social network and from…

  8. Workplace Learning: Differential Learning Needs of Novice and More Experienced Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornford, Ian R.; Beven, Fred A.

    1999-01-01

    A literature review identified differing learning needs of new and more experienced workers. Novices need to learn over extended time periods with deliberate practice and feedback. Experienced workers need to develop existing knowledge and skills. Different approaches to training and supervision are needed. (SK)

  9. Live theatre as exception and test case for experiencing negative emotions in art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Thalia R

    2017-01-01

    Distancing and then embracing constitutes a useful way of thinking about the paradox of aesthetic pleasure. However, the model does not account for live theatre. When live actors perform behaviors perceptually close to real life and possibly really experienced by the actors, audiences may experience autonomic reactions, with less distance, or may have to distance post-experiencing/embracing their emotions.

  10. Shaping Pedagogical Content Knowledge for Experienced Agriculture Teachers in the Plant Sciences: A Grounded Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Amber H.; Kitchel, Tracy

    2017-01-01

    This grounded theory study explored the pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) of experienced agriculture teachers in the plant sciences. The most emergent phenomenon to surface from the data was the influence of beliefs on participants' PCK. This central phenomenon became the cornerstone for the model of what was shaping experienced agriculture…

  11. Do self-reported data reflect the real burden of lifetime exposure to sexual violence among females aged 13-24 years in Malawi?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Amy Z; Kress, Howard; Gupta, Sundeep; Wadonda-Kabondo, Nellie; Shawa, Mary; Mercy, James

    2016-08-01

    Under most circumstances, the lifetime experience of sexual violence (SV) among girls and young women would likely increase with age. However, the empirical data from a retrospective study may not necessarily conform to this belief. Data from a nationally representative sample of females aged 13-24 years in Malawi in 2013 (n=1029) were analyzed. SV was defined as unwanted touching or attempted, pressured, or physically forced sex. The distribution of four types of SV among victims was compared between younger (13-18 years) and older (19-24 years) age groups. The strength of association between SV exposure and health outcomes was examined by age group. The risk of experiencing SV during their lifetime was three times greater for younger than that for older age females (Hazard ratio=3.32). Among females who had experienced SV, older age females were more likely to report forced or pressured sex (41.2%) as their initial SV experience than younger age females (17.8%). The strength of association between the SV exposure and health outcomes did not differ by age group. The self-report lifetime and childhood victimization to sexual violence may not necessarily higher among older than that among younger females. The current risk of exposure to sexual violence seems to influence the recall of lifetime and childhood victimization to a great extent. In order to make the field aware of this phenomenon, prevalence estimates from all three time frames (lifetime, childhood, and during the past 12 months) should be reported separately by age group. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. The effect of feedback on attitudes toward cellular phone use while driving: a comparison between novice and experienced drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying; Zhang, Wei; Reimer, Bryan; Lavallière, Martin; Lesch, Mary F; Horrey, William J; Wu, Su

    2010-10-01

    To assess and compare the effectiveness of a simulation-based approach to change drivers' attitudes toward cellular phone use while driving for younger novice and older experienced drivers. Thirty young novice drivers were tested on a driving simulator in this study. Their performance in dealing with driving tasks was measured for a single task and dual tasks (driving while using a cellular phone) and compared to 30 older experienced drivers tested previously in another study. Half of the younger drivers received video-based feedback regarding their performance in the two conditions, with an emphasis on the contribution of dual-tasking to degraded performance. The other half did not receive any performance feedback. Drivers' perceptions and attitudes toward cellular phone use while driving were investigated by a questionnaire before, immediately after, and again one month following the simulation-based testing for both groups of drivers (feedback; no feedback). All drivers (including the novice and experienced) reported willingness to engage in driving and talking on a cellular phone in some situations. The simulated driving test showed that a secondary cellular phone task significantly degraded driving performance for both the novice and the experienced drivers. The feedback treatment group (both the novice and the experienced) showed significant attitude change toward cellular phone use while driving (toward being less favorable), whereas the control group had no attitude change. At the one-month follow-up, the benefit of feedback was sustained more so in the experienced driver group than the novice driver group, although both groups still benefited relative to the control conditions. Simulation-based feedback training is promising for short-term education in novice drivers but may be more effective in the long-term for drivers with higher levels of experience. Drivers with more experience appear to have a greater, more sustained benefit from the training than

  13. Mother-Child Discrepancy in Perceived Family Functioning and Adolescent Developmental Outcomes in Families Experiencing Economic Disadvantage in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Janet T Y; Shek, Daniel T L; Li, Lin

    2016-10-01

    Though growing attention has been devoted to examining informant discrepancies of family attributes in social science research, studies that examine how interactions between mother-reported and adolescent-reported family functioning predict adolescent developmental outcomes in underprivileged families are severely lacking. The current study investigated the difference between mothers and adolescents in their reports of family functioning, as well as the relationships between mother-reported and adolescent-reported family functioning and adolescent developmental outcomes in a sample of 432 Chinese single-mother families (mean age of adolescents = 13.7 years, 51.2 % girls, mean age of mothers = 43.5 years, 69.9 % divorced) experiencing economic disadvantage in Hong Kong. Polynomial regression analyses were conducted to assess whether discrepancy in family functioning between mother reports and adolescent reports predicted resilience, beliefs in the future, cognitive competence, self-efficacy and self-determination of adolescents. The results indicated that adolescents reported family functioning more negatively than did their mothers. Polynomial regression analyses showed that the interaction term between mothers' reports and adolescents' reports of family functioning predicted adolescent developmental outcomes in Chinese single-mother families living in poverty. Basically, under poor adolescent-reported family functioning, adolescent development would be relatively better if their mothers reported more positive family functioning. In contrast, under good adolescent-reported family functioning, adolescents expressed better developmental outcomes when mothers reported lower levels of family functioning than those mothers who reported higher levels of family functioning. The findings provide insights on how congruency and discrepancy between informant reports of family functioning would influence adolescent development. Theoretical and practical implications of

  14. Prevalence of experienced abuse in healthcare and associated obstetric characteristics in six European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukasse, Mirjam; Schroll, Anne-Mette; Karro, Helle; Schei, Berit; Steingrimsdottir, Thora; Van Parys, An-Sofie; Ryding, Elsa Lena; Tabor, Ann

    2015-05-01

    To assess the prevalence and current suffering of experienced abuse in healthcare, to present the socio-demographic background for women with a history of abuse in healthcare and to assess the association between abuse in healthcare and selected obstetric characteristics. Cross-sectional study. Routine antenatal care in six European countries. In total 6923 pregnant women. Cross-tabulation and Pearson's chi-square was used to study prevalence and characteristics for women reporting abuse in healthcare. Associations with selected obstetric factors were estimated using multiple logistic regression analysis. Abuse in healthcare, fear of childbirth and preference for birth by cesarean section. One in five pregnant women attending routine antenatal care reported some lifetime abuse in healthcare. Prevalence varied significantly between the countries. Characteristics for women reporting abuse in healthcare included a significantly higher prevalence of other forms of abuse, economic hardship and negative life events as well as a lack of social support, symptoms of post-traumatic stress and depression. Among nulliparous women, abuse in healthcare was associated with fear of childbirth, adjusted odds ratio 2.25 (95% CI 1.23-4.12) for severe abuse in healthcare. For multiparous women only severe current suffering from abuse in healthcare was significantly associated with fear of childbirth, adjusted odds ratio 4.04 (95% CI 2.08-7.83). Current severe suffering from abuse in healthcare was significantly associated with the wish for cesarean section, and counselling for fear of childbirth for both nulli- and multiparous women. Abuse in healthcare among women attending routine antenatal care is common and for women with severe current suffering from abuse in healthcare, this is associated with fear of childbirth and a wish for cesarean section. © 2015 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  15. Green perspectives for public health: a narrative review on the physiological effects of experiencing outdoor nature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haluza, Daniela; Schönbauer, Regina; Cervinka, Renate

    2014-05-19

    Natural environments offer a high potential for human well-being, restoration and stress recovery in terms of allostatic load. A growing body of literature is investigating psychological and physiological health benefits of contact with Nature. So far, a synthesis of physiological health outcomes of direct outdoor nature experiences and its potential for improving Public Health is missing. We were interested in summarizing the outcomes of studies that investigated physiological outcomes of experiencing Nature measuring at least one physiological parameter during the last two decades. Studies on effects of indoor or simulated Nature exposure via videos or photos, animal contact, and wood as building material were excluded from further analysis. As an online literature research delivered heterogeneous data inappropriate for quantitative synthesis approaches, we descriptively summarized and narratively synthesized studies. The procedure started with 1,187 titles. Research articles in English language published in international peer-reviewed journals that investigated the effects of natural outdoor environments on humans by were included. We identified 17 relevant articles reporting on effects of Nature by measuring 20 different physiological parameters. We assigned these parameters to one of the four body systems brain activity, cardiovascular system, endocrine system, and immune function. These studies reported mainly direct and positive effects, however, our analyses revealed heterogeneous outcomes regarding significance of results. Most of the studies were conducted in Japan, based on quite small samples, predominantly with male students as participants in a cross-sectional design. In general, our narrative review provided an ambiguous illustration of the effects outdoor nature exerted on physiological parameters. However, the majority of studies reported significant positive effects. A harmonizing effect of Nature, especially on physiological stress reactions, was

  16. Green Perspectives for Public Health: A Narrative Review on the Physiological Effects of Experiencing Outdoor Nature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Haluza

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Natural environments offer a high potential for human well-being, restoration and stress recovery in terms of allostatic load. A growing body of literature is investigating psychological and physiological health benefits of contact with Nature. So far, a synthesis of physiological health outcomes of direct outdoor nature experiences and its potential for improving Public Health is missing. We were interested in summarizing the outcomes of studies that investigated physiological outcomes of experiencing Nature measuring at least one physiological parameter during the last two decades. Studies on effects of indoor or simulated Nature exposure via videos or photos, animal contact, and wood as building material were excluded from further analysis. As an online literature research delivered heterogeneous data inappropriate for quantitative synthesis approaches, we descriptively summarized and narratively synthesized studies. The procedure started with 1,187 titles. Research articles in English language published in international peer-reviewed journals that investigated the effects of natural outdoor environments on humans by were included. We identified 17 relevant articles reporting on effects of Nature by measuring 20 different physiological parameters. We assigned these parameters to one of the four body systems brain activity, cardiovascular system, endocrine system, and immune function. These studies reported mainly direct and positive effects, however, our analyses revealed heterogeneous outcomes regarding significance of results. Most of the studies were conducted in Japan, based on quite small samples, predominantly with male students as participants in a cross-sectional design. In general, our narrative review provided an ambiguous illustration of the effects outdoor nature exerted on physiological parameters. However, the majority of studies reported significant positive effects. A harmonizing effect of Nature, especially on physiological

  17. Perceptions of family members of palliative medicine and hospice patients who experienced music therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Lisa M; Lagman, Ruth; Bates, Debbie; Edsall, Melissa; Eden, Patricia; Janaitis, Jessica; Rybicki, Lisa

    2017-06-01

    Evidence shows that music therapy aids in symptom management and improves quality of life for palliative medicine and hospice patients. The majority of previous studies have addressed patient needs, while only a few addressed the needs of family members. The primary purpose of this study was to understand family members' perceptions of music therapy experienced by a relative in palliative medicine or hospice. Patient self-reported scales and music therapist assessment of change were also investigated. Patients scored their symptoms (pain, anxiety, depression, shortness of breath, and mood) before and after music therapy sessions. One family member present during the session assessed perceived effect on the patient's pain, anxiety, depression, shortness of breath, stress level, restlessness, comfort level, mood, and quality of life. The effect on family member's stress level, quality of life, and mood and helpfulness of the music therapy session for the patient and self were studied. Recommendations about future patient participation in music therapy and qualitative comments were also solicited. Fifty family member/patient dyads participated in the study. Family member perceptions were positive, with 82% of responders indicating improvement for self and patient in stress, mood, and quality of life; 80% rating the session as extremely helpful; and 100% of 49 recommending further music therapy sessions for the patient. Patients reported statistically significant improvement in pain, depression, distress, and mood scores. Family members of patients in palliative medicine and hospice settings reported an immediate positive impact of music therapy on the patient and on themselves. More research needs to be conducted to better understand the benefits of music therapy for family members.

  18. Stigma and discrimination experienced by people living with severe and persistent mental illness in assertive community treatment settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Jing; Chen, Timothy F; Paul, Diane; McCahon, Rebecca; Shankar, Sumitra; Rosen, Alan; O'Reilly, Claire L

    2016-09-01

    To describe the perceived experiences of stigma and discrimination among people living with severe and persistent mental illness in assertive community treatment (ACT teams) settings in New South Wales (NSW), Australia. The Discrimination and Stigma Scale (DISC) was used in this cross-sectional study with people living with severe and persistent mental illness. The DISC is a reliable and valid, quantitative and qualitative instrument used to explore and measure levels of negative, anticipated and positive discrimination. Relevant clinical history and socio-demographic information were also collected. A total of 50 clients participated, with 40 (80%) reporting experienced negative discrimination in at least one life area. Negative discrimination was most commonly experienced in being avoided or shunned (n=25, 50%), by neighbours (n=24, 48%) and family (n=23, 46%). Anticipated discrimination was common, with half of participants (n=25, 50%) feeling the need to conceal their mental health diagnosis. Discrimination was highly prevalent in everyday aspects of life. While healthcare professionals often tend to increase perceived stigma and discrimination, this was only experienced in interactions with general health professionals, while interactions with ACT team members decreased perceived stigma and increased positive discrimination. This indicates that healthcare professionals potentially have a significant role in reducing stigma and discrimination in mental health and that such an effect may be optimised in an ACT team setting. © The Author(s) 2016.

  19. Experiencing Loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansen, Maria; Younis, Tarek; Hassani, Amani

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we explore how Islam, minority status and refugee experiencesintersect in shaping meaning-making processes following bereavement. We do this througha phenomenological analysis of a biographical account of personal loss told by Aisha, a Muslim Palestinian refugee living in Denmark......, who narrates her experience of losing herhusband to lung cancer. By drawing on a religious framework, Aisha creates meaning fromher loss, which enables her to incorporate this loss into her life history and sustain agency.Her narrative invites wider audiences to witness her tale of overcoming loss...

  20. Experienced stigma and its impacts in psychosis: The role of social rank and external shame.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Lisa; Irons, Chris

    2017-09-01

    Experienced stigma is detrimental to those who experience psychosis and can cause emotional distress and hinder recovery. This study aimed to explore the relationship between experienced stigma with emotional distress and recovery in people with psychosis. It explored the role of external shame and social rank as mediators in these relationships. A cross-sectional design was implemented. Fifty-two service users were administered a battery of questionnaires examining experienced stigma, external shame, social rank, personal recovery, positive symptoms, depression, and anxiety. Correlation and multiple regression analysis were conducted on the data. Where appropriate, mediation analysis was employed to explore social rank and external shame as mediatory variables. Experienced stigma was significantly related to shame (social rank and external shame), positive symptoms, emotional distress (depression and anxiety), and personal recovery. The impact of experienced stigma on depression was mediated by external shame. Social rank was a mediator between experienced stigma and personal recovery only. People with psychosis who have experienced stigma are likely to experience emotional distress and be inhibited in their recovery. This was found to be partly mediated by external shame and low social rank. Clinical approaches to stigma need to target these as potential maintenance factors. Experienced stigma is significantly related to shame (social rank and external shame) emotional distress, and reduced personal recovery. External shame mediated the relationship between experienced stigma and depression in psychosis. Social rank mediated the relationship between experienced stigma and personal recovery. Clinical approaches to stigma should include the assessment of external shame and low social rank. © 2017 The British Psychological Society.

  1. Characteristics and Factors Associated With Pain in Older Homeless Individuals: Results From the Health Outcomes in People Experiencing Homelessness in Older Middle Age (HOPE HOME) Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landefeld, John C; Miaskowski, Christine; Tieu, Lina; Ponath, Claudia; Lee, Christopher T; Guzman, David; Kushel, Margot

    2017-09-01

    Individuals experiencing homelessness in the United States are aging; little is known about chronic pain in this population. In a cross-sectional, population-based study, we interviewed 350 homeless individuals aged 50 years and older to describe pain experienced by older persons experiencing homelessness and to assess factors associated with chronic moderate to severe pain, defined as pain lasting ≥3 months, with a past week average severity score of 5 to 10 (scale 0-10). The median age of participants was 58 years. Participants were predominantly African American (79.6%) and male (77.3%). Overall, 46.8% reported chronic moderate to severe pain. Almost half of participants reported a diagnosis of arthritis (44.3%) and one-third reported symptoms consistent with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD; 32.8%). Three-quarters (75.3%) endorsed a personal history of abuse. In multivariate analyses, PTSD (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]: 2.2, 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.4-3.7), arthritis (AOR: 4.8, 95% CI, 3.0-7.8), and history of experiencing abuse (AOR: 2.4, 95% CI, 1.3-4.3) were associated with chronic moderate to severe pain. HIV status, diabetes, depressive symptoms, and substance use were not associated with pain. Clinicians should consider the management of associated mental health conditions and the sequelae of experiencing abuse in the treatment of chronic pain in older adults experiencing homelessness. This article describes the prevalence and factors associated with chronic pain in older homeless adults. Almost half report chronic pain, which was associated with PTSD, arthritis, and personal history of abuse. Clinicians should address chronic pain, trauma, and the associated mental health conditions in this high-risk population. Copyright © 2017 American Pain Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. A multi-centre cohort study shows no association between experienced violence and labour dystocia in nulliparous women at term

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dykes Anna-Karin

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although both labour dystocia and domestic violence during pregnancy are associated with adverse maternal and fetal outcome, evidence in support of a possible association between experiences of domestic violence and labour dystocia is sparse. The aim of this study was to investigate whether self-reported history of violence or experienced violence during pregnancy is associated with increased risk of labour dystocia in nulliparous women at term. Methods A population-based multi-centre cohort study. A self-administrated questionnaire collected at 37 weeks of gestation from nine obstetric departments in Denmark. The total cohort comprised 2652 nulliparous women, among whom 985 (37.1% met the protocol criteria for dystocia. Results Among the total cohort, 940 (35.4% women reported experience of violence, and among these, 66 (2.5% women reported exposure to violence during their first pregnancy. Further, 39.5% (n = 26 of those had never been exposed to violence before. Univariate logistic regression analysis showed no association between history of violence or experienced violence during pregnancy and labour dystocia at term, crude OR 0.91, 95% CI (0.77-1.08, OR 0.90, 95% CI (0.54-1.50, respectively. However, violence exposed women consuming alcoholic beverages during late pregnancy had increased odds of labour dystocia, crude OR 1.45, 95% CI (1.07-1.96. Conclusions Our findings indicate that nulliparous women who have a history of violence or experienced violence during pregnancy do not appear to have a higher risk of labour dystocia at term, according to the definition of labour dystocia in this study. Additional research on this topic would be beneficial, including further evaluation of the criteria for labour dystocia.

  3. A multi-centre cohort study shows no association between experienced violence and labour dystocia in nulliparous women at term.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finnbogadóttir, Hafrún; Dejin-Karlsson, Elisabeth; Dykes, Anna-Karin

    2011-02-21

    Although both labour dystocia and domestic violence during pregnancy are associated with adverse maternal and fetal outcome, evidence in support of a possible association between experiences of domestic violence and labour dystocia is sparse. The aim of this study was to investigate whether self-reported history of violence or experienced violence during pregnancy is associated with increased risk of labour dystocia in nulliparous women at term. A population-based multi-centre cohort study. A self-administrated questionnaire collected at 37 weeks of gestation from nine obstetric departments in Denmark. The total cohort comprised 2652 nulliparous women, among whom 985 (37.1%) met the protocol criteria for dystocia. Among the total cohort, 940 (35.4%) women reported experience of violence, and among these, 66 (2.5%) women reported exposure to violence during their first pregnancy. Further, 39.5% (n = 26) of those had never been exposed to violence before. Univariate logistic regression analysis showed no association between history of violence or experienced violence during pregnancy and labour dystocia at term, crude OR 0.91, 95% CI (0.77-1.08), OR 0.90, 95% CI (0.54-1.50), respectively. However, violence exposed women consuming alcoholic beverages during late pregnancy had increased odds of labour dystocia, crude OR 1.45, 95% CI (1.07-1.96). Our findings indicate that nulliparous women who have a history of violence or experienced violence during pregnancy do not appear to have a higher risk of labour dystocia at term, according to the definition of labour dystocia in this study. Additional research on this topic would be beneficial, including further evaluation of the criteria for labour dystocia.

  4. A multi-centre cohort study shows no association between experienced violence and labour dystocia in nulliparous women at term

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Although both labour dystocia and domestic violence during pregnancy are associated with adverse maternal and fetal outcome, evidence in support of a possible association between experiences of domestic violence and labour dystocia is sparse. The aim of this study was to investigate whether self-reported history of violence or experienced violence during pregnancy is associated with increased risk of labour dystocia in nulliparous women at term. Methods A population-based multi-centre cohort study. A self-administrated questionnaire collected at 37 weeks of gestation from nine obstetric departments in Denmark. The total cohort comprised 2652 nulliparous women, among whom 985 (37.1%) met the protocol criteria for dystocia. Results Among the total cohort, 940 (35.4%) women reported experience of violence, and among these, 66 (2.5%) women reported exposure to violence during their first pregnancy. Further, 39.5% (n = 26) of those had never been exposed to violence before. Univariate logistic regression analysis showed no association between history of violence or experienced violence during pregnancy and labour dystocia at term, crude OR 0.91, 95% CI (0.77-1.08), OR 0.90, 95% CI (0.54-1.50), respectively. However, violence exposed women consuming alcoholic beverages during late pregnancy had increased odds of labour dystocia, crude OR 1.45, 95% CI (1.07-1.96). Conclusions Our findings indicate that nulliparous women who have a history of violence or experienced violence during pregnancy do not appear to have a higher risk of labour dystocia at term, according to the definition of labour dystocia in this study. Additional research on this topic would be beneficial, including further evaluation of the criteria for labour dystocia. PMID:21338523

  5. Effect of passenger position on fear of danger experienced during sudden bus stops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoki, Takeo; Uetake, Teruo; Shimoda, Masahiro

    2009-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the effect of bus passengers' positions on their fear of danger when a bus stopped suddenly. A temporary bus running course with one bus stop was set up on the campus of the Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology (TUAT). The bus ran the course 14 times with the bus stopping twice during the course, once at the bus stop and again just after re-starting from the bus stop. The driver was asked to brake more strongly than usual when stopping. Sixteen students (15 males and 1 female) between the ages of 18 and 21 years participated. In turn, all participants were asked to take 14 different postures in the bus. Participants were also asked to report their level of fear on a rating scale each time the bus stopped. The study showed that (1) passengers' fear of danger at the first sudden stop was typically higher than that at the second stop, (2) standing passengers who held hand straps experienced more fear than those who held fixed safety devices, (3) bus passengers sitting on the centre of the rear seat had a great risk of injury if the bus stopped suddenly, and (4) when passengers faced the window and stood transversely with respect to from the moving direction of the bus and the bus stopped suddenly, passengers' fear of danger was affected by the side of the bus on which they stood as well as which hand they used to grasp a safety device.

  6. Differential experiences of discrimination among ethnoracially diverse persons experiencing mental illness and homelessness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zerger, Suzanne; Bacon, Sarah; Corneau, Simon; Skosireva, Anna; McKenzie, Kwame; Gapka, Susan; O'Campo, Patricia; Sarang, Aseefa; Stergiopoulos, Vicky

    2014-12-14

    This mixed methods study explored the characteristics of and experiences with perceived discrimination in an ethnically diverse urban sample of adults experiencing homelessness and mental illness. Data were collected in Toronto, Ontario, as part of a 4-year national randomized field trial of the Housing First treatment model. Rates of perceived discrimination were captured from survey questions regarding perceived discrimination among 231 ethnoracially diverse participants with moderate mental health needs. The qualitative component included thirty six in-depth interviews which explored how individuals who bear these multiple identities of oppression navigate stigma and discrimination, and what affects their capacity to do so. Quantitative analysis revealed very high rates of perceived discrimination related to: homelessness/poverty (61.5%), race/ethnicity/skin colour (50.6%) and mental illness/substance use (43.7%). Immigrants and those who had been homeless three or more years reported higher perceived discrimination on all three domains. Analysis of qualitative interviews revealed three common themes related to navigating these experiences of discrimination among participants: 1) social distancing; 2) old and new labels/identities; and, 3) 'homeland' cultures. These study findings underscore poverty and homelessness as major sources of perceived discrimination, and expose underlying complexities in the navigation of multiple identities in responding to stigma and discrimination. Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN42520374 . Registered 18 August 2009.

  7. Psychological Well-Being Among Women Who Experienced Intimate Partner Violence and Received Civil Legal Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renner, Lynette M; Hartley, Carolyn Copps

    2018-05-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) victimization is often associated with negative mental health outcomes; yet, little is known about the psychological well-being of women who experience IPV and receive civil legal services. Civil legal services are not specifically designed to focus on women's mental health needs but Sullivan's Social and Emotional Well-Being Framework helps to explain why women receiving this type of formal assistance may demonstrate positive changes in psychological well-being. Using a panel study design and data from 85 women who experienced IPV and sought civil legal services, we examined women's psychological well-being over a one-year period of time. Approximately two thirds of the women received assistance from Iowa Legal Aid (ILA) for a civil protective order ( n = 56) and the rest were represented in a family law matter. We used measures of mental health (depression, posttraumatic stress disorder [PTSD]) and well-being (social support, resilience, goal directed thinking, empowerment). Our hypotheses that women would experience a decrease in mental health symptoms and an increase in well-being were partially supported. Women reported a decrease in depressive and PTSD symptoms over one year but there were no changes in their goal-oriented thinking or resilience. Implications for practice and future research are included.

  8. In-service education and training as experienced by registered nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norushe, T F; Van Rooyen, D; Strumpher, J

    2004-11-01

    Nursing is a dynamic profession that is subject to rapid changes in health care provision, hence the need for in-service training programmes for nurses. Newly employed registered nurses require in-service training in order to update them regarding the latest developments in nursing practice. The researcher noted that some newly appointed registered nurses were not competent in all aspects relating to their tasks. This could have been due to a knowledge deficit relating to either new developments or of the procedure relating to a specific task. In some institutions newly-appointed registered nurses on probation reported not receiving in-service training for six months or longer, yet they were still expected to perform their tasks efficiently. The objectives of the study were to, firstly, explore and describe the experiences of registered nurses regarding in-service training programmes in their institutions and, secondly, to make recommendations to Nursing Service Managers relating to the development of effective in-service training programmes in their institutions. A qualitative, exploratory, descriptive design was implemented. Data was analysed using Tesch's descriptive approach (in Creswell, 1994:155). Two main themes emerged, namely that registered nurses experienced in-service training programmes as inadequate and reacted negatively towards them. This article focuses on the experiences of registered nurses relating to in-service training programmes, as well as the formulation of guidelines to assist nursing service managers in the development of effective in-service training programmes.

  9. Moral dilemmas in neonatology as experienced by health care practitioners: a qualitative approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Zuuren, Florence J; van Manen, Eeke

    2006-01-01

    During the last two decades there has been an enormous development in treatment possibilities in the field of neonatology, particularly for (extremely) premature infants. Although there are cross-cultural differences in treatment strategy, an overview of the literature suggests that every country is confronted with moral dilemmas in this area. These concern decisions to initiate or withhold treatment directly at birth and, later on, decisions to withdraw treatment with the possible consequence that the child will die. Given that the neonate cannot express his or her own will, who will decide? And on the basis of what information, values and norms? We explored some of these issues in daily practice by interviewing a small sample of health care practitioners in a Dutch university Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU). It turned out that experiencing moral dilemmas is part of their daily functioning. Nurses underline the suffering of the newborn, whereas physicians stress uncertainty in treatment outcome. To make the best of it, nurses focus on their caring task, whereas physicians hope that future follow-up research will lead to more predictable outcomes. As for their own offspring, part of these professionals would hesitate to bring their own extremely premature newborn to a NICU. For the most oppressing dilemma reported - terminating an already initiated treatment - we propose the concept of 'evidence shift' to clarify the ambiguous position of uncertainty in decision making.

  10. Sexual harassment and assault experienced by reservists during military service: prevalence and health correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Street, Amy E; Stafford, Jane; Mahan, Clare M; Hendricks, Ann

    2008-01-01

    The current investigation identified the gender-specific prevalence of sexual harassment and assault experienced during U.S. military service and the negative mental and physical health correlates of these experiences in a sample of former reservists. We surveyed a stratified random sample of 3,946 former reservists about their experiences during military service and their current health, including depression, posttraumatic stress disorder, somatic symptoms, and medical conditions. Prevalence estimates and confidence intervals of sexual harassment and assault were calculated. A series of logistic regressions identified associations with health symptoms and conditions. Both men and women had a substantial prevalence of military sexual harassment and assault. As expected, higher proportions of female reservists reported sexual harassment (60.0% vs 27.2% for males) and sexual assault (13.1% vs 1.6% for males). For both men and women, these experiences were associated with deleterious mental and physical health conditions, with sexual assault demonstrating stronger associations than other types of sexual harassment in most cases. This investigation is the first to document high instances of these experiences among reservists. These data provide further evidence that experiences of sexual harassment and assault during military service have significant implications for the healthcare needs of military veterans.

  11. Virtual obstacle crossing: Reliability and differences in stroke survivors who prospectively experienced falls or no falls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Punt, Michiel; Bruijn, Sjoerd M; Wittink, Harriet; van de Port, Ingrid G; Wubbels, Gijs; van Dieën, Jaap H

    2017-10-01

    Stroke survivors often fall during walking. To reduce fall risk, gait testing and training with avoidance of virtual obstacles is gaining popularity. However, it is unknown whether and how virtual obstacle crossing is associated with fall risk. The present study assessed whether obstacle crossing characteristics are reliable and assessed differences in stroke survivors who prospectively experienced falls or no falls. We recruited twenty-nine community dwelling chronic stroke survivors. Participants crossed five virtual obstacles with increasing lengths. After a break, the test was repeated to assess test-retest reliability. For each obstacle length and trial, we determined; success rate, leading limb preference, pre and post obstacle distance, margins of stability, toe clearance, and crossing step length and speed. Subsequently, fall incidence was monitored using a fall calendar and monthly phone calls over a six-month period. Test-retest reliability was poor, but improved with increasing obstacle-length. Twelve participants reported at least one fall. No association of fall incidence with any of the obstacle crossing characteristics was found. Given the absence of height of the virtual obstacles, obstacle avoidance may have been relatively easy, allowing participants to cross obstacles in multiple ways, increasing variability of crossing characteristics and reducing the association with fall risk. These finding cast some doubt on current protocols for testing and training of obstacle avoidance in stroke rehabilitation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. [Relationship between exercise adherence and personality characteristics in persons experienced in the Medical Fitness program].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Yuko; Seki, Nao; Umeda, Kimie; Tanabe, Naohito; Shinoda, Kunihiko; Konishi, Isamu; Sekiya, Akiyoshi; Sekii, Akiko; Ohta, Tamaki

    2017-01-01

    Objective We examined effective exercise adherence support methods for persons experienced in the Medical Fitness (MF) program to clarify the relation of personality traits with exercise adherence and the factors that improve exercise adherence.Methods Subjects were 283 adults who had registered as members in the MF program at an affiliate of Hospital A. We implemented an anonymous self-administered questionnaire by postal mail. Using the Japanese version of the Ten Item Personality Inventory (which contains 10 items that measure the Big Five personality traits), we evaluated the following characteristics: "Extraversion", "Agreeableness", "Conscientiousness", "Neuroticism", and "Openness". The subjects who reported exercising regularly at the time of survey were considered persons with subjective exercise adherence.Results In persons with subjective exercise adherence, "Conscientiousness" was significantly lower (P=0.003) among men and "Neuroticism" was significantly higher (P=0.018) among women when compared to persons with subjective exercise adherence. There was no correlation between the things that emphasize exercise adherence and "Conscientiousness" among men. There was a negative correlation between "can achieve goal" and "Neuroticism" among women.Conclusions It is essential to consider personality and gender differences when devising exercise adherence support measures for the MF program. Our results suggest that women with high neuroticism do not need "can achieve goal" to maintain their exercise habits; therefore, it is necessary to examine teaching methods that do not focus on only goal achievement as part of exercise adherence support for MF.

  13. Felt power explains the link between position power and experienced emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bombari, Dario; Schmid Mast, Marianne; Bachmann, Manuel

    2017-02-01

    The approach/inhibition theory by Keltner, Gruenfeld, and Anderson (2003) predicts that powerful people should feel more positive and less negative emotions. To date, results of studies investigating this prediction are inconsistent. We fill this gap with four studies in which we investigated the role of different conceptualizations of power: felt power and position power. In Study 1, participants were made to feel more or less powerful and we tested how their felt power was related to different emotional states. In Studies 2, 3, and 4, participants were assigned to either a high or a low power role and engaged in an interaction with a virtual human, after which participants reported on how powerful they felt and the emotions they experienced during the interaction. We meta-analytically combined the results of the four studies and found that felt power was positively related to positive emotions (happiness and serenity) and negatively to negative emotions (fear, anger, and sadness), whereas position power did not show any significant overall relation with any of the emotional states. Importantly, felt power mediated the relationship between position power and emotion. In summary, we show that how powerful a person feels in a given social interaction is the driving force linking the person's position power to his or her emotional states. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. The Tidal Model as experienced by patients and nurses in a regional forensic unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, N R; Phillips, B N; Sadler, D

    2005-10-01

    The Tidal Model has been implemented in Rangipapa, a regional secure mental health forensic unit in New Zealand. A phenomenological study was undertaken to obtain reflective description of the nursing care experience from the perspective's of four Registered Nurses and four Special Patients. Five major themes were identified that appeared to capture the experiences of the participants. The themes show changes to the unit's unique culture and values following implementation of the model. These changes engendered a sense of hope, where nurses felt they were making a difference and patients were able to communicate in their own words their feelings of hope and optimism. Levelling was experienced as an effect emerging from individual and group processes whereby a shift in power enhanced a sense of self and connectedness in their relationships. These interpersonal transactions were noted by the special patients as being positive for their recovery. This enabled effective nurse-patient collaboration expressed simply as working together. The participants reported a feeling of humanity, so that there was a human face to a potentially objectifying forensic setting. Implications arising from this study are that the use of the model enables a synergistic interpersonal process wherein nurses are professionally satisfied and patients are validated in their experience supporting their recovery.

  15. Suicide literacy predicts the provision of more appropriate support to people experiencing psychological distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruwys, Tegan; An, Soontae; Chang, Melissa Xue-Ling; Lee, Hannah

    2018-06-01

    Mental health literacy has been hailed as a public health priority to reduce stigma and increase help seeking. We examined the effect of suicide literacy on the type of help provided to those experiencing suicidal ideation. A community sample of 363 Australians were randomly assigned to read one of three messages from a member of their social network (the target). The target reported symptoms consistent with either (1) subclinical distress, (2) clinical depression, or (3) suicidal ideation. Participants were most likely to recommend social support and least likely to recommend professional help. Suicide literacy interacted with the target's presentation, such that participants with higher suicide literacy who considered a suicidal target were less likely to recommend self-help or no action, and more likely to recommend professional help. Suicide literacy was also associated with lower suicide stigma, and unexpectedly, this indirectly predicted more reluctance to recommend professional help. Overall, results indicated that the relationship between mental health literacy, stigma, and provision of help is not straightforward. While suicide literacy was associated with greater sensitivity to a person's risk of suicide, it also predicted fewer recommendations for professional help overall, partly due to the stigma associated with seeking professional help. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Effect of passive polarizing three-dimensional displays on surgical performance for experienced laparoscopic surgeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, R; Schwab, K; Day, A; Rockall, T; Ballard, K; Bailey, M; Jourdan, I

    2014-10-01

    Although the potential benefits of stereoscopic laparoscopy have been recognized for years, the technology has not been adopted because of poor operator tolerance. Passive polarizing projection systems, which have revolutionized three-dimensional (3D) cinema, are now being trialled in surgery. This study was designed to see whether this technology resulted in significant performance benefits for skilled laparoscopists. Four validated laparoscopic skills tasks, each with ten repetitions, were performed by 20 experienced laparoscopic surgeons, in both two-dimensional (2D) and 3D conditions. The primary outcome measure was the performance error rate; secondary outcome measures were time for task completion, 3D motion tracking (path length, motion smoothness and grasping frequency) and workload dimension ratings of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Task Load Index. Surgeons demonstrated a 62 per cent reduction in the median number of errors and a 35 per cent reduction in median performance time when using the passive polarizing 3D display compared with the 2D display. There was a significant 15 per cent reduction in median instrument path length, an enhancement of median motion smoothness, and a 15 per cent decrease in grasper frequency with the 3D display. Participants reported significant reductions in subjective workload dimension ratings of the NASA Task Load Index following use of the 3D displays. Passive polarizing 3D displays improved both the performance of experienced surgeons in a simulated setting and surgeon perception of the operative field. Although it has been argued that the experience of skilled laparoscopic surgeons compensates fully for the loss of stereopsis, this study indicates that this is not the case. Surgical relevance The potential benefits of stereoscopic laparoscopy have been known for years, but the technology has not been adopted because of poor operator tolerance. The first laparoscopic operation was carried out

  17. Patient affect experiencing following therapist interventions in short-term dynamic psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Town, Joel M; Hardy, Gillian E; McCullough, Leigh; Stride, Chris

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this research was to examine the relationship between therapist interventions and patient affect responses in Short-Term Dynamic Psychotherapy (STDP). The Affect Experiencing subscale from the Achievement of Therapeutic Objectives Scale (ATOS) was adapted to measure individual immediate affect experiencing (I-AES) responses in relation to therapist interventions coded within the preceding speaking turn, using the Psychotherapy Interaction Coding (PIC) system. A hierarchical linear modelling procedure was used to assess the change in affect experiencing and the relationship between affect experiencing and therapist interventions within and across segments of therapy. Process data was taken from six STDP cases; in total 24 hours of video-taped sessions were examined. Therapist interventions were found to account for a statistically significant amount of variance in immediate affect experiencing. Higher levels of immediate affect experiencing followed the therapist's use of Confrontation, Clarification and Support compared to Questions, Self-disclosure and Information interventions. Therapist Confrontation interventions that attempted to direct pressure towards either the visceral experience of affect or a patient's defences against feelings led to the highest levels of immediate affect experiencing. The type of therapist intervention accounts for a small but significant amount of the variation observed in a patient's immediate emotional arousal. Empirical findings support clinical theory in STDP that suggests strategic verbal responses promote the achievement of this specific therapeutic objective.

  18. The comparison of socioeconomic status, perceived social support and mental status in women of reproductive age experiencing and not experiencing domestic violence in Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vameghi, Roshanak; Amir Ali Akbari, Sedigheh; Alavi Majd, Hamid; Sajedi, Firoozeh; Sajjadi, Homeira

    2018-01-01

    Abstract: Background: Given the significant health effects of domestic violence against women, the present study was conducted in 2016, in Tehran, Iran in order to compare the socioeconomic status, perceived social support and mental status in women of reproductive age experiencing and not experiencing domestic violence. Methods: This descriptive-analytical cross-sectional study was conducted on 500 women. The data collection tools used included questionnaires: demographic information, Socioeconomic, Beck’s Depression, Spielberger’s Anxiety, Cohen’s Perceived Stress, Sarason’s Perceived Social Support and WHO’s Domestic Violence Inventory. Results: The results showed that 43.2% of women said they had experienced at least one case of domestic violence, among which 16.4%, 15% and 36.6% of women had experienced physical, sexual and emotional-verbal types of violence, respectively. The mean age (p less than 0.001) and educational level (p=0/018) of violated women and their spouses (p less than 0.001) were lower than those of non-violated women. Furthermore, violated women experienced lower socioeconomic status (p less than 0.05), higher perceived stress (p less than 0.008), higher depression (p less than 0.001), and higher overt anxiety (0.002. They also perceived lower levels of social support (p less than 0.001). Conclusions: The issue of domestic violence was rather prevalent in the participants of the present study, particularly the younger, less educated and more socioeconomically deprived communities and families. PMID:29376514

  19. Homophobia and racism experienced by Latino men who have sex with men in the United States: correlates of exposure and associations with HIV risk behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuno, Yuko; Borkowf, Craig; Millett, Gregorio A; Bingham, Trista; Ayala, George; Stueve, Ann

    2012-04-01

    Using cross-sectional data collected from 1081 Latino men who have sex with men (MSM) recruited with respondent-driven sampling (RDS) techniques from Los Angeles and New York, we examined the extent to which Latino MSM reported exposure to social discrimination (i.e., experienced both homophobia and racism, homophobia only, racism only, or neither homophobia nor racism). More than 40% of respondents experienced both homophobia and racism in the past 12 months. Los Angeles participants, those with lower income, and those who reported being HIV-positive were more likely to report experiencing both types of social discrimination. Adjusting for potential confounders, men exposed to both homophobia and racism were more likely than men exposed to neither form of discrimination to report unprotected receptive anal intercourse with a casual sex partner (AOR = 1.92, 95% CI, 1.18-3.24) and binge drinking (AOR = 1.42, 95% CI, 1.02-1.98). Our findings suggest the presence of a syndemic of adverse social experiences and call for more intervention research to address both homophobia and racism experienced among Latino MSM in the United States.

  20. Predominant Bacteria Detected from the Middle Ear Fluid of Children Experiencing Otitis Media: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngo, Chinh C; Massa, Helen M; Thornton, Ruth B; Cripps, Allan W

    2016-01-01

    Otitis media (OM) is amongst the most common childhood diseases and is associated with multiple microbial pathogens within the middle ear. Global and temporal monitoring of predominant bacterial pathogens is important to inform new treatment strategies, vaccine development and to monitor the impact of vaccine implementation to improve progress toward global OM prevention. A systematic review of published reports of microbiology of acute otitis media (AOM) and otitis media with effusion (OME) from January, 1970 to August 2014, was performed using PubMed databases. This review confirmed that Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae, remain the predominant bacterial pathogens, with S. pneumoniae the predominant bacterium in the majority reports from AOM patients. In contrast, H. influenzae was the predominant bacterium for patients experiencing chronic OME, recurrent AOM and AOM with treatment failure. This result was consistent, even where improved detection sensitivity from the use of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) rather than bacterial culture was conducted. On average, PCR analyses increased the frequency of detection of S. pneumoniae and H. influenzae 3.2 fold compared to culture, whilst Moraxella catarrhalis was 4.5 times more frequently identified by PCR. Molecular methods can also improve monitoring of regional changes in the serotypes and identification frequency of S. pneumoniae and H. influenzae over time or after vaccine implementation, such as after introduction of the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine. Globally, S. pneumoniae and H. influenzae remain the predominant otopathogens associated with OM as identified through bacterial culture; however, molecular methods continue to improve the frequency and accuracy of detection of individual serotypes. Ongoing monitoring with appropriate detection methods for OM pathogens can support development of improved vaccines to provide protection from the complex combination of otopathogens within

  1. Predominant Bacteria Detected from the Middle Ear Fluid of Children Experiencing Otitis Media: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngo, Chinh C.; Massa, Helen M.; Thornton, Ruth B.; Cripps, Allan W.

    2016-01-01

    Background Otitis media (OM) is amongst the most common childhood diseases and is associated with multiple microbial pathogens within the middle ear. Global and temporal monitoring of predominant bacterial pathogens is important to inform new treatment strategies, vaccine development and to monitor the impact of vaccine implementation to improve progress toward global OM prevention. Methods A systematic review of published reports of microbiology of acute otitis media (AOM) and otitis media with effusion (OME) from January, 1970 to August 2014, was performed using PubMed databases. Results This review confirmed that Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae, remain the predominant bacterial pathogens, with S. pneumoniae the predominant bacterium in the majority reports from AOM patients. In contrast, H. influenzae was the predominant bacterium for patients experiencing chronic OME, recurrent AOM and AOM with treatment failure. This result was consistent, even where improved detection sensitivity from the use of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) rather than bacterial culture was conducted. On average, PCR analyses increased the frequency of detection of S. pneumoniae and H. influenzae 3.2 fold compared to culture, whilst Moraxella catarrhalis was 4.5 times more frequently identified by PCR. Molecular methods can also improve monitoring of regional changes in the serotypes and identification frequency of S. pneumoniae and H. influenzae over time or after vaccine implementation, such as after introduction of the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine. Conclusions Globally, S. pneumoniae and H. influenzae remain the predominant otopathogens associated with OM as identified through bacterial culture; however, molecular methods continue to improve the frequency and accuracy of detection of individual serotypes. Ongoing monitoring with appropriate detection methods for OM pathogens can support development of improved vaccines to provide protection from the

  2. A comparison of pain experienced by patients treated with labial and lingual orthodontic appliances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Abby K Y; McGrath, Colman; Wong, Ricky W K; Wiechmann, D; Rabie, A Bakr M

    2010-08-01

    The aim of this prospective longitudinal study was to compare pain experiences among Chinese adult patients treated with labial and lingual orthodontic appliances. Sixty patients, 30 with labial appliances (18 females and 12 males, mean age 20.33 years, SD +/- 4.205) and 30 with lingual appliances (22 females and 8 males, mean age 21.63 years, SD +/- 2.236), rated their overall pain experience on a 100 mm visual analogue scale (VAS) at three time points: 1 week (T(1)), 1 month (T(2)), and 3 months (T(3)) after bracket placement. In addition, on a separate 100 mm VAS, they rated their pain experience at the locations of the tongue, lips, cheeks, gums, face, and jaw at T(1), T(2), and T(3). Changes in pain VAS were conducted using Friedman analysis of variance, area under the curve (AUC) analysis and the data were compared using a t-test. There was no significant difference in global ratings of pain among those treated with labial or lingual appliances (P > 0.05). Among both groups, global ratings of pain decreased over the study period (P appliances reported higher ratings of tongue pain (P appliances reported higher ratings of lip (P appliances rate similarly the level of overall pain they experience during treatment. Ratings of overall pain experienced decreased for both treatment groups with time. However, ratings of pain differed at various sites with respect to the type of orthodontic appliance. These findings have implications in informing patients' treatment decision-making processes regarding labial and lingual appliances and in the management of discomfort associated with different treatment modalities.

  3. Adverse health effects of experiencing food insecurity among Greenlandic school children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birgit Niclasen

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background. In vulnerable populations, food security in children has been found to be associated with negative health effects. Still, little is known about whether the negative health effects can be retrieved in children at the population level. Objective. To examine food insecurity reported by Greenlandic school children as a predictor for perceived health, physical symptoms and medicine use. Design. The study is based on the Greenlandic part of the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children survey. The 2010 survey included 2,254 students corresponding to 40% of all Greenlandic school children in Grade 5 through 10. The participation rate in the participating schools was 65%. Food insecurity was measured as going to bed or to school hungry because there was no food at home. Results. Boys, the youngest children (11–12 year-olds, and children from low affluence homes were at increased risk for food insecurity. Poor or fair self-rated health, medicine use last month and physical symptoms during the last 6 months were all more frequent in children reporting food insecurity. Controlling for age, gender and family affluence odds ratio (OR for self-rated health was 1.60 (95% confidence interval (CI 1.23–2.06 (p<0.001, for reporting physical symptoms 1.34 (95% CI 1.06–1.68 (p=0.01 and for medicine use 1.79 (95% CI 1.42–2.26 (p<0.001. Stratification on age groups suggested that children in different age groups experience different health consequences of food insecurity. The oldest children reported food insecurity less often and experienced less negative health effects compared to the younger children. Conclusions. All 3 measures of health were negatively associated to the occurrence of food insecurity in Greenlandic school children aged 11–17. Food security must be seen as a public health issue of concern, and policies should be enforced to prevent food poverty particularly among boys, younger school children and children from low affluence

  4. Living with transversal upper limb reduction deficiency: limitations experienced by young adults during their transition to adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lankhorst, Ilse M F; Baars, Erwin C T; Wijk, Iris van; Janssen, Wim G M; Poelma, Margriet J; van der Sluis, Corry K

    2017-08-01

    During transition to adulthood young adults with disabilities are at risk of experiencing limitations due to changing physical and social requirements. To determine whether young adults with transversal upper limb reduction deficiency (tULRD) have experienced limitations in various domains of participation during transition to adulthood and how they dealt with these limitations. Fifteen participants (mean age 21.4 years) with tULRD. A qualitative study was performed using a semi-structured interview based on the Rotterdam Transition Profile to identify the limitations experienced in participation domains. Almost all the participants reported difficulties in finding a suitable study or job. Most young adults were convinced they were suitable for almost any study or job, but their teachers and potential employers were more reserved. Few difficulties were reported on the domains leisure activities, intimate relationships/sexuality, housing/housekeeping and transportation. Participants preferred to develop their own strategies for dealing with limitations. Various aids, adaptations and prostheses were used to overcome limitations. Rehabilitation teams were infrequently consulted for advice in solving transitional problems. Young adults with tULRD experience limitations mainly in choosing and finding a suitable study or job. Rehabilitation teams may play a more extensive role in supporting individuals with transitional problems. Implications for rehabilitation Most young adults with transversal upper limb reduction deficiency (tULRD) experience limitations in study and job selection during transition to adulthood, but they do not consult the rehabilitation team. Assessment of abilities in relation to job interests and practicing job specific bimanual activities may be helpful for young adults with a tULRD. How the rehabilitation teams can meet the needs of young adults with tULRD during transitional phases, when autonomy is of growing importance, should be investigated

  5. Patient participation during oncological encounters: barriers and facilitators experienced by elderly cancer patients.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noordman, J.; Driesenaar, J.A.; Henselmans, I.; Heijmans, M.; Verboom, J.; Dulmen, S. van

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To enhance patient participation during (oncological) encounters, this study aims to gain insight into communication barriers and supportive interventions experienced by elderly patients with cancer. Method: A mixed method design, including both quantitative (secondary survey data

  6. The effect of experienced individuals on navigation by king penguin chick pairs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nesterova, A.P.; Flack, A.; van Loon, E.E.; Bonadonna, F.; Biro, D.

    2015-01-01

    Group members' individual experience can have important influences when navigating collectively. However, how exactly they structure group travel performance is still not fully understood. This study investigated how navigation and leadership dynamics are affected by the presence of an experienced

  7. Agreement of glaucoma specialists and experienced optometrists in gonioscopy and optic disc evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Addepalli U. Kumar

    2013-10-01

    Conclusion: Agreement between optometrists and glaucoma specialists, in diagnostic performance of gonioscopy and optic assessment was excellent with high sensitivity and specificity. Hence, we conclude that the experienced optometrists can detect glaucoma accurately in the LVPEI-GLEAMS.

  8. Experiencing flow in different types of physical activity intervention programs: three randomized studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elbe, Anne-Marie; Strahler, K.; Krustrup, Peter

    2010-01-01

    exercise intervention groups experience rather high levels of flow regardless of whether the intervention is a team or individual sport. Differences in experiencing flow, worry and exertion as well as physiological improvements could be found for the different types of sports and the two genders...... have on experiencing flow, worry and perceived exertion. Furthermore, it should be investigated whether experiencing flow is linked to the long-term compliance of regular physical activity......., with the male football group having the highest score for physiological improvement and the lowest score for worry. A connection between experiencing flow and physiological improvement could not be found. Future research should investigate the influence that the participant's gender and also the type of sport...

  9. Learning curve for laparoendoscopic single-site surgery for an experienced laparoscopic surgeon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pao-Ling Torng

    2013-11-01

    Conclusion: LESS is a safe and feasible alternative to conventional laparoscopic surgery for adnexal and uterine diseases. A learning curve is not required for LESS surgery for experienced laparoscopic surgeons.

  10. Armed Forces 2002 Sexual Harassment Survey

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lipari, Rachel

    2003-01-01

    ...). The overall purpose of the 2002 WGR is to document the extent to which Service members reported experiencing unwanted, uninvited sexual attention in the 12 months prior to filling out the survey...

  11. 2004 Workplace and Gender Relations Survey of Reserve Component Members: Administration, Datasets, and Codebook

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2005-01-01

    .... The 2004 WGRR utilized both modes of administration-the Web as well as paper-and-pencil and was designed to document the extent to which Reserve members report experiencing unwanted, uninvited sexual...

  12. Agreement of glaucoma specialists and experienced optometrists in gonioscopy and optic disc evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Addepalli U. Kumar; Ganesh B. Jonnadula; Chandrasekhar Garudadri; Harsha L. Rao; Sirisha Senthil; Eric B. Papas; Padmaja Sankaridurg; Rohit C. Khanna

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To compare the diagnostic performance of glaucoma specialists and experienced optometrists in gonioscopy and optic disc assessment. Methods: This study was done to validate the diagnostic performance of two experienced optometrists for using their skills of detecting glaucoma using gonioscopy and optic disc assessment in a major epidemiological study, the L V Prasad Eye Institute Glaucoma Epidemiology and Molecular Genetics Study (LVPEI-GLEAMS). Gonioscopic findings for 150 eyes w...

  13. Gender differences among discrimination & stigma experienced by depressive patients in Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Khan, Nashi; Kausar, Rukhsana; Khalid, Adeela; Farooq, Anum

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This study aims to examine Gender Difference in the level of Discrimination and Stigma experienced by people diagnosed with Major Depressive Disorder in Pakistan. It was hypothesized that Women diagnosed with Depression are likely to be experiencing more Discrimination and Internalized Stigma in comparison to Men. Methods: This is a Cross Sectional Study. Thirty eight patients diagnosed with Major Depressive Disorder recruited from different Government Sector Hospitals of Lahore; w...

  14. The advantage of experienced start-up founders in venture capital acquisition: evidence from serial entrepreneurs

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Junfu

    2007-01-01

    Existing literature suggests that entrepreneurs with prior firm-founding experience have more skills and social connections than novice entrepreneurs. Such skills and social connections could give experienced founders some advantage in the process of raising venture capital. This paper uses a large database of venture-backed companies and their founders to examine experienced founders' access to venture capital. Compared to novice entrepreneurs, entrepreneurs with venture-backed founding expe...

  15. Problems experienced by women re-entering into the education profession / Melanie Beyers

    OpenAIRE

    Beyers, Melanie

    2001-01-01

    This study investigated problems experienced by women re-entering into the education profession by focusing on: • The nature and scope of re-entry by women into the education profession; • the features and problems experienced by women on re-entering the education profession; • the problems women educators experience on re-entering the education profession in the North West Province. To achieve these goals, both an empirical survey and a survey of literature was conducted. The study...

  16. Do sustainability experienced travellers prefer a more rational communication of the sustainability of a tourism product?

    OpenAIRE

    Wehrli, Roger; Priskin, Julianna; Schaffner, Dorothea; Schwarz, Juerg; Stettler, Juerg

    2013-01-01

    This study examines empirically in four countries which communication style (emotional or rational) is most appropriate to address sustainability experienced travellers. There are only small differences compared to the average tourist. Rational communication elements which explain the sustainability of the product become more important for this specific customer group. However, most emotional communication elements are still more important in most countries, indicating that experienced touris...

  17. Coping strategies and social support needs of experienced and inexperienced nurses performing shiftwork.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gifkins, Jane; Loudoun, Rebecca; Johnston, Amy

    2017-12-01

    The aim of this investigation was to compare perceptions of nurses exposed to short or longer term shift work and their experiences working under this type of scheduling. Shift work is a crucial component of nurses' working lives, ensuring continuous care for patients. This study fills a research gap around the personal experiences of shift working nurses and the strategies used to manage the impacts of shift work. Qualitative case study design. Constructivist methodology, including in-depth semi-structured interviews conducted in 2015, was used for the study. Iterative review and inductive analysis of transcripts from nine recently graduated nurses and twelve experienced nurses enabled identification and verification of key themes. Three main areas of difference between new and experienced nurses relating to shift work challenges in a nursing environment emerged: perceptions about the utility of working in shifts, coping strategies and social support at home and work. Most experienced nurses found shift work advantageous, especially those with dependents. Coping strategies included flexible shift arrangements in both groups. Experienced nurses detailed the importance of support from family and friends while inexperienced nurses described feeling disconnected from social supports. Experienced nurses cited a lack of support from nursing managers as problematic. Findings suggest shift selection mitigated challenges of shift work for both inexperienced and experienced nurses, indicating autonomous roster selection is critical. Similarly, social support at work from senior nurses and management and at home played an important role in nurses' coping. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Physical characteristics of experienced and junior open-wheel car drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raschner, Christian; Platzer, Hans-Peter; Patterson, Carson

    2013-01-01

    Despite the popularity of open-wheel car racing, scientific literature about the physical characteristics of competitive race car drivers is scarce. The purpose of this study was to compare selected fitness parameters of experienced and junior open-wheel race car drivers. The experienced drivers consisted of five Formula One, two GP2 and two Formula 3 drivers, and the nine junior drivers drove in the Formula Master, Koenig, BMW and Renault series. The following fitness parameters were tested: multiple reactions, multiple anticipation, postural stability, isometric upper body strength, isometric leg extension strength, isometric grip strength, cyclic foot speed and jump height. The group differences were calculated using the Mann-Whitney U-test. Because of the multiple testing strategy used, the statistical significance was Bonferroni corrected and set at P < 0.004. Significant differences between the experienced and junior drivers were found only for the jump height parameter (P = 0.002). The experienced drivers tended to perform better in leg strength (P = 0.009), cyclic foot speed (P = 0.024) and grip strength (P = 0.058). None of the other variables differed between the groups. The results suggested that the experienced drivers were significantly more powerful than the junior drivers: they tended to be quicker and stronger (18% to 25%) but without statistical significance. The experienced drivers demonstrated excellent strength and power compared with other high-performance athletes.

  19. Emotions experienced in association with agricultural work performed in childhood--in opinions of adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachowski, Stanisław; Lachowska, Bogusława

    2014-01-01

    Performance of work is related with experiencing various emotions, from positive - indicating full satisfaction with work, to negative - describing failures, and even harm caused by work. Such emotions are also experienced by children engaged in work on family farms. The objective of the study is the determination of emotions experienced in association with performing agricultural work in childhood, and indication of the factors conditioning the occurrence of positive and negative emotions. The study was conducted by the method of a diagnostic survey using a questionnaire technique, and covered a group of 482 adults from agricultural families. In childhood, positive emotions related with the performance of work are more often experienced than negative emotions. The occurrence of positive emotions is positively related with willingness to perform work activities, working time, respondent's age, age at which a child started to perform work, and age at which a child discontinued helping on a farm. The occurrence of negative emotions is positively related with unwillingness to perform work, performing work activities beyond the physical capabilities of a child, neglecting school duties, missing classes at school due to work, and with working time. With work performed in childhood are associated positive and negative emotions experienced in childhood and adulthood. The performance of work in childhood shapes emotions experienced by an adult which may affect his/her quality of life and functioning in adulthood.

  20. Effects of leg dominance on performance of ballet turns (pirouettes) by experienced and novice dancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chia-Wei; Su, Fong-Chin; Wu, Hong-Wen; Lin, Cheng-Feng

    2013-01-01

    Turns (pirouettes) are an important movement in ballet and may be affected by "lateral bias". This study investigated physiological differences exhibited by experienced and novice dancers, respectively, when performing pirouette with dominant and non-dominant leg supports, respectively. Thirteen novice and 13 experienced dancers performed turns on dominant or non-dominant legs. The maximum ankle plantarflexion, knee extension and hip extension were measured during the single-leg support phase. The inclination angle of rotation axis is the angle between instantaneous rotation axis and global vertical axis in the early single-leg support phase. Both groups exhibited a greater hip extension, knee extension, and ankle plantarflexion when performing a turn on the non-dominant leg. For experienced dancers, the inclination angle of rotation axis during the pre-swing phase was generally smaller for dominant leg support than non-dominant leg. However, no significant difference was found in inclination angle of rotation axis of novice dancers. For experienced dancers, an improved performance is obtained when using the dominant leg for support. By contrast, for novice dancers, the performance is independent of choice of support leg. The significant lateral bias in experienced dancers indicates the possible influence of training. That is, repetitive rehearsal on the preferred leg strengthens the impact of side dominance in experienced dancers.

  1. Psychopathology Dimensions of Females Experiencing Family Violence and a Perspective to Their Habilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parvaneh Mohammadkhani

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Violence is a widespread problem that occurs all over the word among all ages, genders, races, educational level and socio- economic groups.  The aim of this study was to investigate modeling of different processes that could account for the link between experiencing spouse abuse in women and psychology, psychopathology, social and demographic factors. Methods: Data were gathered through a family violence survey study. 230 married women participated in this study. Participants were selected by a multi-cluster sampling method from 4 different randomized regions of Tehran. They completed 1 Conflict Tactic Scale-2, 2 Personal and Relationship Profile, 3 Symptoms Check List Inventory, 4 Marital Attitude Survey, 5 Social and Demographic Measure. Results: Based on participants’ scores in Conflict Tactics Scale-2, women who were experiencing violence (victims were recognized and in compare to non-experiencing women (non-victims a model of family violence victimization was draw. This model showed the paths from psychology, psychopathology, Social and Demographic factors to experiencing violence. Discussion: Based on the model with a series of paths which may act as effective determinants for experiencing violence (family violence victimization in women, habilitation services must consider the influence of each factor which may change or modify by some recognized mediating interventions .So, it may be concluded that based on present study, a reduction of psychopathology would have a beneficial impact over experiencing spousal violence.

  2. Dilemmas experienced by government veterinarians when responding professionally to farm animal welfare incidents in Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devitt, C; Kelly, P; Blake, M; Hanlon, A; More, S J

    2014-01-01

    This paper identifies the dilemmas experienced by government veterinarians during their investigations of farm animal welfare incidents that involve herd owner social, health, and/or psychological difficulties. The paper builds on exploratory qualitative research into the impact of these difficulties on farm animal welfare. The study used a qualitative research approach. Focus groups were conducted. In Ireland, an Early Warning System (EWS), which brings together relevant agencies, is in place to identify and prevent farm animal welfare problems before they become critical. This study is concerned with the experiences of government veterinarians who respond to farm animal welfare incidents. Specific focus is on incidents that involve herd owner social/psychological/health-related difficulties. In total, n=18 government veterinarians (representing 15 per cent of the population sample), all with a keen interest in farm animal welfare, participated. These were selected on the basis of their interest, experience, and involvement in farm animal welfare. One government veterinarian declined to participate. Four focus groups were conducted with government veterinarians. These took place in the south (S), south-west (SW), midlands (M), and north-west region of Ireland (NW). All 16 District Veterinary Offices (DVOs) were represented in the focus groups. The results reveal three professional dilemmas that exist for government veterinarians: (1) defining professional parameters; (2) determining the appropriate response; (3) involvement versus detachment. Participants reported not wanting any additional training. Instead, it was agreed that a formal bridge to social service providers who have the professional capability to respond appropriately and with confidence, was required. Clearly defined guidelines are required for government veterinarians in their encounters with farm animal welfare incidents where there is a complex human component. A coordinated multiagency approach

  3. The lower body muscle activation of intermediate to experienced kayakers when navigating white water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murtagh, Misha; Brooks, Darrell; Sinclair, Jonathan; Atkins, Stephen

    2016-11-01

    In white-water kayaking, the legs play a vital part in turning, stabilising and bracing actions. To date, there has been no reported information on neuromuscular activation of the legs in an authentic white-water environment. The aim of the current study was to identify lower body muscle activation, using 'in-boat' electromyography (EMG), whilst navigating a white-water run. Ten experienced male kayakers (age 31.5 ± 12.5 yr, intermediate to advanced experience) completed three successful runs of an international standard white-water course (grade 3 rapids), targeting right and left sides of the course, in a zigzag formation. Surface EMG (sEMG) outputs were generated, bilaterally, for the rectus femoris (RF), vastus lateralis, biceps femoris and gastrocnemius, expressed as a percentage of a dynamic maximal voluntary contraction (dMVC). Only RF showed significantly higher activation than any muscle on the left side of the body, and only on the left side of the course (P = .004; ETA(2) = 0.56). Other results showed no significant difference between muscle activation in the right and left legs during each run, nor when assessed at either the right or left side of the course (P > .05). These findings indicate that contralateral symmetry in lower limb muscle activation is evident during white-water kayaking. This symmetry may provide a stable base to allow more asymmetrical upper body and trunk movements to be fully optimised. Lower body symmetry development should be considered useful in targeted training programmes for white-water kayakers.

  4. Quantification of Net Erosion and Uplift Experienced by the Barmer Basin, Rajasthan Using Sonic Log

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitra, K.; Schulz, S.; Sarkar, A.

    2015-12-01

    Barmer Basin of Rajasthan, Western India is a hydrocarbon rich sedimentary basin currently being explored by Cairn India Limited. The hydrocarbon bearing Fatehgarh Formation is being found at different depths in different oil fields (e.g. From south to north: Guda, Vijaya & Vandana, Air field High) of the basin. The net uplift and erosion in the Barmer Basin has been quantified using compaction methodology. The sonic log, which is strongly controlled by porosity, is an appropriate indicator of compaction, and hence used for quantification of net uplift and erosion from compaction. The compaction methodology has been applied to the shale rich Dharvi Dungar Formation of Barmer Basin of Late Paleocene age. The net uplift and erosion is also being checked with the help of AFTA-VR and seismic sections. The results show relatively no uplift in the southernmost part of the basin and a Guda field well is thus taken to be the reference well with respect to which the uplifts in different parts of the basin have been calculated. The northern part of the basin i.e. Air Field High wells experienced maximum uplift (~2150m). Interestingly, a few wells further south of the reference well show evidence for uplift. The study was able to point out errors in the report produced with the help of AFTA-VR which found out less uplift in Vijaya & Vandana oil fields as opposed to sonic log data. The process of finding out uplift using sonic log has a standard deviation of 200m as compared to about 500m error in AFTA-VR method. This study has major implications for hydrocarbon exploration. Maturation of source rock will be higher for any given geothermal history if net uplift and erosion is incorporated in maturation modeling. They can also be used for porosity predictions of reservoir units in undrilled targets.

  5. Beyond the syndemic: condom negotiation and use among women experiencing partner violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peasant, Courtney; Sullivan, Tami P; Weiss, Nicole H; Martinez, Isabel; Meyer, Jaimie P

    2017-04-01

    HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) disproportionately affect women who experience intimate partner violence (IPV). The current study (1) applied a syndemic framework to study the collective effects of problematic drug use, hazardous drinking, depression, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) on fear of condom negotiation, condom negotiation, and condom use and (2) evaluated condom negotiation (controlling for fear of condom negotiation) as a mediator of the association between syndemic severity and condom use among low-income IPV-exposed women. Participants were 158 women living in the community and experiencing ongoing IPV who completed face-to-face, computer-assisted interviews. Almost three-fourths of the participants reported problematic drug use, hazardous drinking, depression, and/or PTSD; many of these factors were correlated, indicating a syndemic. Multivariate logistic and linear regression analyses revealed associations between syndemic severity and fear of condom negotiation (OR = 1.57, p = .02), condom negotiation (β = -8.51, p = .001), and condom use (β = -8.26, p = .01). Meditation analyses identified condom negotiation as a mediator of the association between syndemic severity and condom use (effect = -6.57, SE = 2.01, [95% CI: -10.66, -2.77]). Results fill a critical gap in previous research by identifying condom negotiation as a mechanism through which this syndemic affects condom use. Prevention and intervention programs should consider addressing condom negotiation to reduce sexual risk among this high-risk population. Further, because IPV-exposed women may experience fear related to condom negotiation, it is critical that prevention and intervention efforts for this population offer skills to safely negotiate condom use, increase condom use, and reduce STI and HIV risk.

  6. Alcohol service provision for older people in an area experiencing high alcohol use and health inequalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCabe, Karen E; Ling, Jonathan; Wilson, Graeme B; Crosland, Ann; Kaner, Eileen F S; Haighton, Catherine A

    2016-03-01

    UK society is ageing. Older people who drink alcohol, drink more than those from previous generations, drink more frequently than other age groups and are more likely to drink at home and alone. Alcohol problems in later life however are often under-detected and under-reported meaning older people experiencing alcohol problems have high levels of unmet need. This study sought to identify existing services within South of Tyne, North East England to capture the extent of service provision for older drinkers and identify any gaps. The Age UK definition of 'older people' (aged 50 and over) was used. Services were contacted by telephone, managers or their deputy took part in semi-structured interviews. Forty six service providers were identified. Only one provided a specific intervention for older drinkers. Others typically provided services for age 18+. Among providers, there was no definitive definition of an older person. Data collection procedures within many organisations did not enable them to confirm whether older people were accessing services. Where alcohol was used alongside other drugs, alcohol use could remain unrecorded. To enable alcohol services to meet the needs of older people, greater understanding is needed of the patterns of drinking in later life, the experiences of older people, the scale and scope of the issue and guidance as to the most appropriate action to take. An awareness of the issues related to alcohol use in later life also needs to be integrated into commissioning of other services that impact upon older people. © Royal Society for Public Health 2015.

  7. Description of the case mix experienced by chiropractic students during a clinical internship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puhl, Aaron A; Reinhart, Christine J; Injeyan, H Stephen; Tibbles, Anthony

    2017-10-01

    The primary objective of this study was to describe the case mix experienced by chiropractic students during their clinical internship at the Canadian Memorial Chiropractic College. Secondary objectives were to characterize teaching clinic patient populations, assess the similarity to previously published data for practicing chiropractors, and describe the treatment plans being recommended by interns. A prospective, observational study was conducted using a convenience sample of 24 chiropractic interns. Data were collected by interns using a standardized form that was completed for each new patient and each new complaint examined during the 1-year internship. Standardized forms included data regarding patient demographics, complaint characteristics, and treatment recommendations. Data were included for 23 of 24 participating interns, who described 828 patients and a total of 948 unique complaint presentations. Overall, 60% of patients were female, 86% were 18 to 64 years old, and 23% were naive to chiropractic care. Of all presenting complaints, 93% were pain-based, 67% were chronic, 65% included spinal complaints, and 7% presented with red flags; individual interns' experiences were variable and are described. On average, treatment recommendations called for 9.4 visits and often included multimodal treatment approaches, most commonly soft-tissue therapies (91%), home-based active care (84%), and spine manipulation (70%). The findings of this study suggest that patients presenting to CMCC teaching clinics are similar to those reported previously to attend private chiropractic clinics. While all participating interns encountered multiple complex clinical cases, very few had experience with pediatric populations. This study adds to the few that detail the characteristics of patients attending chiropractic teaching clinics; to our knowledge it is the first to describe average case loads of chiropractic interns.

  8. Disruptions to women's social identity: a comparative study of workplace stress experienced by women in three geographic regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaffer, M A; Joplin, J R; Bell, M P; Lau, T; Oguz, C

    2000-10-01

    Drawing on social identity theory (P. J. Burke, 1991) and the current status of women and equal opportunity legislation, the authors tested several factors associated with distress in working women in the People's Republic of China (PRC), Hong Kong, and the United States. Women in Hong Kong experienced significantly greater levels of life stress than PRC and U.S. women. Reports of negative attitudes toward women, gender evaluation, and avoidance coping were greater for Hong Kong and PRC women than for U.S. women. Hong Kong women reported more use of positive/confrontational coping mechanisms. Negative attitudes toward women had an important influence on life stress across regions. Moderator tests resulted in 2 significant findings: The effect of negative attitudes toward women on life stress was stronger for PRC and Hong Kong women, and the relationship between nervous/self-destructive coping and life stress was stronger for U.S. women.

  9. The neural mechanisms of re-experiencing mental fatigue sensation: a magnetoencephalography study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akira Ishii

    Full Text Available There have been several studies which have tried to clarify the neural mechanisms of fatigue sensation; however fatigue sensation has multiple aspects. We hypothesized that past experience related to fatigue sensation is an important factor which contributes to future formation of fatigue sensation through the transfer to memories that are located within specific brain structures. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the neural mechanisms of fatigue sensation related to memory. In the present study, we investigated the neural activity caused by re-experiencing the fatigue sensation that had been experienced during a fatigue-inducing session. Thirteen healthy volunteers participated in fatigue and non-fatigue experiments in a crossover fashion. In the fatigue experiment, they performed a 2-back test session for 40 min to induce fatigue sensation, a rest session for 15 min to recover from fatigue, and a magnetoencephalography (MEG session in which they were asked to re-experience the state of their body with fatigue that they had experienced in the 2-back test session. In the non-fatigue experiment, the participants performed a free session for 15 min, a rest session for 15 min, and an MEG session in which they were asked to re-experience the state of their body without fatigue that they had experienced in the free session. Spatial filtering analyses of oscillatory brain activity showed that the delta band power in the left Brodmann's area (BA 39, alpha band power in the right pulvinar nucleus and the left BA 40, and beta band power in the left BA 40 were lower when they re-experienced the fatigue sensation than when they re-experienced the fatigue-free sensation, indicating that these brain regions are related to re-experiencing the fatigue sensation. Our findings may help clarify the neural mechanisms underlying fatigue sensation.

  10. The neural mechanisms of re-experiencing mental fatigue sensation: a magnetoencephalography study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Akira; Karasuyama, Takuma; Kikuchi, Taiki; Tanaka, Masaaki; Yamano, Emi; Watanabe, Yasuyoshi

    2015-01-01

    There have been several studies which have tried to clarify the neural mechanisms of fatigue sensation; however fatigue sensation has multiple aspects. We hypothesized that past experience related to fatigue sensation is an important factor which contributes to future formation of fatigue sensation through the transfer to memories that are located within specific brain structures. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the neural mechanisms of fatigue sensation related to memory. In the present study, we investigated the neural activity caused by re-experiencing the fatigue sensation that had been experienced during a fatigue-inducing session. Thirteen healthy volunteers participated in fatigue and non-fatigue experiments in a crossover fashion. In the fatigue experiment, they performed a 2-back test session for 40 min to induce fatigue sensation, a rest session for 15 min to recover from fatigue, and a magnetoencephalography (MEG) session in which they were asked to re-experience the state of their body with fatigue that they had experienced in the 2-back test session. In the non-fatigue experiment, the participants performed a free session for 15 min, a rest session for 15 min, and an MEG session in which they were asked to re-experience the state of their body without fatigue that they had experienced in the free session. Spatial filtering analyses of oscillatory brain activity showed that the delta band power in the left Brodmann's area (BA) 39, alpha band power in the right pulvinar nucleus and the left BA 40, and beta band power in the left BA 40 were lower when they re-experienced the fatigue sensation than when they re-experienced the fatigue-free sensation, indicating that these brain regions are related to re-experiencing the fatigue sensation. Our findings may help clarify the neural mechanisms underlying fatigue sensation.

  11. Information, support, and follow-up offered to women who experienced severe maternal morbidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furniss, Mary; Conroy, Molly; Filoche, Sara; MacDonald, E Jane; Geller, Stacie E; Lawton, Beverley

    2018-06-01

    To determine what information, support, and follow-up were offered to women who had experienced severe maternal morbidity (SMM). The present retrospective case review included patients who experienced SMM (admission to intensive care during pregnancy or up to 42 days postpartum) who had previously been reviewed for potential preventability as part of a nationwide New Zealand study performed between January 1 and December 31, 2014. Data were audited to ascertain documented evidence of an event debrief or explanation; referral to social support and/or mental health services; a detailed discharge letter; and a follow-up appointment with a specialist. Of 257 patients who experienced SMM, 23 (8.9%) were offered all four components of care, 99 (38.5%) an event debrief, 102 (39.7%) a referral to social support and/or mental health services, 148 (57.6%) a detailed discharge letter, and 131 (51.0%) a follow-up appointment. Many women who had experienced SMM did not receive explanatory information about their illness, an offer of psychosocial support, or a follow-up appointment prior to discharge from hospital. It is incumbent on clinicians and the maternity care system to improve these aspects of care for all women experiencing a potentially life-changing SMM event to minimize the risk and burden of long-term mental illness. © 2018 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics.

  12. Obese and Overweight Youth: Risk for Experiencing Bullying Victimization and Internalizing Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waasdorp, Tracy Evian; Mehari, Krista; Bradshaw, Catherine P

    2018-01-22

    Obese and overweight youth are at an increased risk for poor peer relations and psychosocial adjustment. Of particular concern is the high rate of bullying victimization experienced by obese and overweight youth. While it is known that victimized youth are at an increased risk for internalizing symptoms, few studies have examined if weight status exacerbates the association between victimization and internalizing symptoms. The current study drew upon data from over 43,000 youth attending 107 middle and high schools. Multilevel results suggested that compared with normal weight youth, both overweight and obese youth were at an increased risk for experiencing relational, verbal, and cyber victimization, with only obese youth being at an increased risk for experiencing physical victimization. Notably, the odds for experiencing cyber victimization were higher than the odds for experiencing other forms of victimization. Frequently victimized obese youth, but not frequently victimized overweight youth, had significantly higher levels of internalizing symptoms compared to their frequently victimized, normal-weight peers. Together, these findings highlight the increased risk for psychosocial adjustment problems among frequently victimized overweight and obese youth, suggesting these youth may require preventive interventions tailored to meet their unique needs. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. Differences between novice and experienced caregivers in muscle activity and perceived exertion while repositioning bedridden patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daikoku, Rie; Saito, Yayoi

    2008-11-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of caregiver knowledge and experience on muscle activity and perceived exertion while repositioning bedridden patients. Subjects were 40- to 65-year-old female caregivers divided into novice and experienced groups. Subjects from both groups performed home-care repositioning techniques on bedridden patients while muscle activity was recorded via electromyogram. Recordings were made from four muscles on the subjects' dominant side: the latissimus dorsi, the biceps brachii, the erector spinae, and the rectus femoris. The subjective burden involved in repositioning was also assessed using the rate of perceived exertion (RPE) and visual analog scales (VAS). Rectus femoris percentage of maximum voluntary contraction (%MVC) values were significantly lower than latissimus dorsi, erector spinae, and biceps brachii values in the novice group. %MVC values from the latissimus dorsi and biceps brachii were significantly higher among the novice group compared to the experienced group. RPE ratings from the novice group were significantly higher than those of the experienced group, and there was a non-significant trend for higher VAS values for the low back, arms, and legs in the novice group compared to the experienced group. Novice caregivers tended to change the patient's position by pulling with the upper limbs without using the lower limbs. In contrast, experienced caregivers exerted less energy by communicating with the patient and utilizing the patient's own movements. They used large, distributed muscle groups that effectively harnessed body mechanics and prevented excess exertion.

  14. Outlier experienced surgeon's performances impact on benchmark for technical surgical skills training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Anthony G; Henn, Patrick J; Neary, Paul C; Senagore, Anthony J; Marcello, Peter W; Bunting, Brendan P; Seymour, Neal E; Satava, Richard M

    2018-03-23

    Training in medicine must move to an outcome-based approach. A proficiency-based progression outcome approach to training relies on a quantitative estimation of experienced operator performance. We aimed to develop a method for dealing with atypical expert performances in the quantitative definition of surgical proficiency. In study one, 100 experienced laparoscopic surgeons' performances on virtual reality and box-trainer simulators were assessed for two similar laparoscopic tasks. In study two, 15 experienced surgeons and 16 trainee colorectal surgeons performed one simulated hand-assisted laparoscopic colorectal procedure. Performance scores of experienced surgeons in both studies were standardized (i.e. Z-scores) using the mean and standard deviations (SDs). Performances >1.96 SDs from the mean were excluded in proficiency definitions. In study one, 1-5% of surgeons' performances were excluded having performed significantly below their colleagues. Excluded surgeons made significantly fewer correct incisions (mean = 7 (SD = 2) versus 19.42 (SD = 4.6), P 4 SDs for time to complete the procedure and >6 SDs for path length. After their exclusions, experienced surgeons' performances were significantly better than trainees for path length: P = 0.031 and for time: P = 0.002. Objectively assessed atypical expert performances were few. Z-score standardization identified them and produced a more robust quantitative definition of proficiency. © 2018 Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.

  15. Trying to make an unwanted facility palatable

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metz, W.C.

    1993-01-01

    Finding suitable accommodations for the temporary storage and permanent disposal of this: nation's low- and high-level radioactive waste is proving an ever more difficult task in this era of volatile technology and science debate over the merits of the nuclear fuel cycle. Local constituencies become deeply immersed in the complex debate whether the site is chosen through a technical site selection process or is a voluntary entry. Rural communities with candidate sites need to initially shift their focus away from this, often acrimonious, debate; instead, the first discussion priority for such rural communities should be to develop a dynamic vision of their own economic and environmental future. The second discussion priority should be to determine if the array of accompanying incentives and benefits hosting this facility would afford the community the opportunity for vision fulfillment. If so, total focus should, then, be given to understanding and resolving to the satisfaction of the constituents issues related to nuclear technology, isolation of radioactive materials, management of risk, storage and disposal facility need, perceived and actual risk, oversight and power sharing authority, engineered safety barriers, and public trust

  16. Study of Contraceptives Used in Unwanted Pregnancies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Aghababaei

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Unintended pregnancy is a worldwide problem that affects women, their families, and society. Unintended pregnancy can result from contraceptive failure, non-use or use mistake of contraceptive Methods: This study examined the Frequency and pattern of contraceptive method use in unintended pregnancy women reffering to health and medical center of Hamadan medical science university in Iran. Design and setting: A descriptive study was conducted at health and medical center of Hamadan medical science in Iran. Data were collected using a questionnaire in 2006 from a convenience sample of 900 unintended pregnancy women . The survey included measures of demographic variables, type and pattern of contraceptive method use. Data were analyzed by Chi square and t-test using SPSS. Results: Of the 900 participants, 93.9% had used contraceptive methods. The most common contraceptive method use in unintended pregnancy women were oral contraceptive pills 38.1% , natural method 31.9%, condom 19.8%, breastfeeding 4.4%, IUD 3.6%, emergency 1.9% and rhythm 0.4%. The most common problem in contraceptive use were irregular and incorrectly use in hormonal methods and condom users, no control in IUD users and mistake in date calculation in rhythmic users. Conclusion: The majority of participants had used contraceptive methods but have unintended pregnancy. More education is needed in this subject.

  17. Running away from unwanted feelings: culture matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Jenny C; Wei, Meifen; Tsai, Hsiao-Tien

    2014-01-01

    Findings from past research have suggested a link between experiential avoidance and expressive suppression. However, there is emerging evidence showing that the suppression of emotional expression may have different meanings depending on the specific cultural context. Taking a cultural perspective, the present study aimed to examine whether the link between experiential avoidance and expressive suppression is comparable or divergent between two cultural groups [i.e., European Americans (EAs) and Chinese (CH)] with different cultural norms surrounding emotional expression. We hypothesised that the positive association between experiential avoidance and expressive suppression typically found among EAs would be attenuated among CH. Furthermore, the observed cultural group difference in the experiential avoidance-suppression link was hypothesised to be mediated by beliefs in emotional self-control. Data from 224 EA college students and 190 CH college students provided a clear pattern of support for our hypotheses. Implications for current theories on experiential avoidance are discussed.

  18. Trying to make and unwanted facility palatable

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metz, W.C.

    1993-01-01

    Finding suitable accomodations for the temporary storage and permanent disposal of this nation's low- and high-level radioactive waste is proving an ever more difficult task in this era of volatile technology and science debate over the merits of the nuclear fuel cycle. Local constituencies become deeply immersed in the complex debate whether the site is chosen through a technical site selection process or is a voluntary entry. Rural communities with candidate sites need to initially shift their focus away from this, often acrimonious, debate; instead, the first discussion priority for such rural communities should be to develop a dynamic vision of their own economic and environmental future. The second discussion priority should be to determine if the array of accompanying incentives and benefits hosting this facility would afford the community the opportunity for vision fulfillment. If so, total focus should, then, be given to understanding and resolving to the satisfaction of the constituents issues related to nuclear technology, isolation of radioactive materials, management of risk, storage and disposal facility need, perceived and actual risk, oversight and power sharing authority, engineered safety barriers, and public trust. Too often, the nuclear-related science and technology debate is first, and the pragmatic discussion concerning the vision of the future is never accomplished

  19. Trying to make an unwanted facility palatable

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metz, W.C.

    1993-03-01

    Finding suitable accommodations for the temporary storage and permanent disposal of this: nation`s low- and high-level radioactive waste is proving an ever more difficult task in this era of volatile technology and science debate over the merits of the nuclear fuel cycle. Local constituencies become deeply immersed in the complex debate whether the site is chosen through a technical site selection process or is a voluntary entry. Rural communities with candidate sites need to initially shift their focus away from this, often acrimonious, debate; instead, the first discussion priority for such rural communities should be to develop a dynamic vision of their own economic and environmental future. The second discussion priority should be to determine if the array of accompanying incentives and benefits hosting this facility would afford the community the opportunity for vision fulfillment. If so, total focus should, then, be given to understanding and resolving to the satisfaction of the constituents issues related to nuclear technology, isolation of radioactive materials, management of risk, storage and disposal facility need, perceived and actual risk, oversight and power sharing authority, engineered safety barriers, and public trust.

  20. Contraceptive Use, Unwanted Pregnancies and Abortions among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    Mean age was 27.0±8.1 years, 851 (50.4%) were single and 1005 (59.6%) qualified hairdressers. 817 (56.8%) of ... Attainment of secondary school education was a predictor of contraceptive .... On the whole, 1438 (85.2%) had ever had sex and a total of 604 .... advantage of protection from sexually transmitted diseases8.

  1. Continuity of care is an important and distinct aspect of childbirth experience : Findings of a survey evaluating experienced continuity of care, experienced quality of care and women's perception of labor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perdok, Hilde; Verhoeven, Corine J.; van Dillen, Jeroen; Schuitmaker, Tjerk Jan; Hoogendoorn, Karla; Colli, Jolanda; Schellevis, François G.; de Jonge, Ank

    2018-01-01

    Background: To compare experienced continuity of care among women who received midwife-led versus obstetrician-led care. Secondly, to compare experienced continuity of care with a. experienced quality of care during labor and b. perception of labor. Methods: We conducted a questionnaire survey in a

  2. Safety as experienced by patients themselves: a Finnish survey of the most recent period of care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahlström, Merja; Partanen, Pirjo; Turunen, Hannele

    2014-06-01

    We examined patients' experiences of patient safety and participation in promoting safe care during their most recent care period. A survey of patients (N = 175) revealed that treatment, medication, and device safety were mostly experienced as very good or excellent, but responses varied by age and experience. Patients ages 66-75 were most critical of treatment and medication safety. Device safety was rated the worst aspect of safety. Twenty percent of respondents had experienced errors at some time during their care. Patients who had experienced errors and those who were treated at inpatient wards versus a day surgery unit were most critical towards patient participation. Open and transparent error management involving patients is needed to promote treatment, medication, and especially device safety. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. An automatic measure of progression during colonoscopy correlates to patient experienced pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Preisler, Louise; Bulut, Mustafa; Svendsen, Morten Soendergaard

    2018-01-01

    recordings were used for evaluation. We demonstrated a moderate correlation between CoPS and patient experienced pain, Pearson's r = -0.47 (p ... progression. CoPS deliver a numeric score and a graphic map. A high score expresses a rapid and smooth progression. Aims of study were to explore the correlation between CoPS and patient experienced pain and to identity locations associated with pain. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Patients listed for colonoscopy.......61 Passage of the sigmoid colon, right and left flexures were associated with pain for 51%, 33% and 25% of the patients, respectively. CONCLUSION: A moderate correlation between CoPS and patient experienced pain suggest that CoPS measure inserting skills but might also be a measure of a gentle performance...

  4. Virtual Distance and Soundstage, and their Impacts on Experienced Emotional Valence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Justin

    2015-01-01

    stimuli should cause stronger valenced responses in the nearfield than at a distance. Thus, music experienced as being negatively valenced at a distance should be more negatively valenced in nearfield, and music that is experienced as having a positive valence at a distance should be more positively......Research from animal ethology and affective neuroscience suggest that a listener’s perceived distance from a signal source can alter their experienced emotional valence of the music. Furthermore, appraisal theories of emotion suggest that emotionally valenced responses will diverge according...... to the type of emotion presented. For these exploratory investigations, subjects listen to selected musical excerpts on speakers in combination with a tactile transducer attached to their chair. The listening sessions are recorded on EEG supported by subject feedback responses. My hypothesis is that musical...

  5. Exercise dependence, social physique anxiety, and social support in experienced and inexperienced bodybuilders and weightlifters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurst, R.; Hale, B.; Smith, D.; Collins, D.

    2000-01-01

    Objectives—To investigate psychological correlates of exercise dependence in experienced and inexperienced bodybuilders and weightlifters. Secondary objectives included measuring social physique anxiety, bodybuilding identity, and social support among bodybuilders and weightlifters. Methods—Thirty five experienced bodybuilders, 31 inexperienced bodybuilders, and 23 weightlifters completed the bodybuilding dependence scale, a bodybuilding version of the athletic identity measurement scale, the social physique anxiety scale, and an adapted version of the social support survey-clinical form. Results—A between subjects multivariate analysis of variance was calculated on the scores of the three groups of lifters for the four questionnaires. Univariate F tests and follow up tests indicated that experienced bodybuilders scored significantly higher than inexperienced bodybuilders and weightlifters on bodybuilding dependence (pbodybuilding identity (pbodybuilders exhibit more exercise dependence, show greater social support behaviour, and experience less social physique anxiety than inexperienced bodybuilders and weightlifters. Key Words: bodybuilding; exercise dependence; social physical anxiety; social support; athletic identity PMID:11131230

  6. Activity limitations and participation restrictions experienced by people with stroke in Musanze district in Rwanda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urimubenshi, Gerard

    2015-09-01

    Stroke is a major cause of long-term disability. Information regarding the limitations in activity and participation experienced by patients with stroke in a specific setting such as Musanze district in Rwanda would assist to develop the rehabilitation programmes that would take into consideration the functional challenges experienced post stroke. To explore the activity limitations and participation restrictions experienced by people with stroke in Musanze district in Rwanda. A qualitative phenomenological approach using in-depth face-to-face interviews with 10 participants was employed to gather the data that was analyzed using a qualitative thematic approach. The themes that arose as activity limitations included limitations in walking, self care, and domestic life activities. The themes related to participation restrictions as expressed by the participants were inability to return to previous occupation, decreased social interactions and inability to participate in religious activities. The current study findings highlight the need for interventions to improve the functional status of stroke survivors.

  7. Distress experienced by nurses in response to the challenging behaviour of residents - evidence from German nursing homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Sascha G; Dichter, Martin N; Palm, Rebecca; Hasselhorn, Hans Martin

    2012-11-01

    The aim of this research is to investigate the degree of distress experienced by nurses in response to the challenging behaviour of nursing home residents (residents' challenging behaviour) and their impact on nurses individual resources (general health, burnout and work ability). Because of the increasing and ageing population of nursing home residents, professional nursing care faces several challenges. One highly prevalent issue among nursing home residents is the so-called 'challenging behaviour'. However, to date, 'challenging behaviour' has not yet been recognised as an occupational stressor, and the extent of the impact of 'challenging behaviour' on nurses' well-being and functioning is not well understood. Cross-sectional study. Self-report questionnaire data collected from 731 registered nurses and nursing aides in 56 German nursing homes were used in a secondary data analysis. The level of residents' challenging behaviour-related distress that nurses experienced was assessed using a scale consisting of nine questions. Validated instruments were used for the assessment of individual resources. The mean score for residents' challenging behaviour-related distress was 41·3 (SD 21·2). Twenty-seven per cent of all nurses reported over 50 residents' challenging behaviour. Residents' challenging behaviour had a significant impact on all three measures of individual resources. Specifically, nurses exposed to frequent residents' challenging behaviour reported a significantly lower quality of general health, reduced workability and high burnout levels. Our findings indicate that residents' challenging behaviour-related distress is a significant work place stressor for nurses in nursing homes with a clear impact on general health, the risk of burnout and work ability. Our findings suggest that residents' challenging behaviour is a stressor for nurses in nursing homes. Further scientific and practical attention is necessary from the point of view of working

  8. Indian novice nurses' perceptions of their role in caring for women who have experienced intimate partner violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandhi, Sailaxmi; Poreddi, Vijayalakshmi; Nikhil, Reddy Ss; Palaniappan, Marimuthu; Math, Suresh Bada

    2018-05-24

    intimate partner violence (IPV) is a significant health problem and a gross violation of the human rights of women. Nurses play an important role in providing support for these women. There is limited research on nurses' understanding and perceptions of their role in caring for women with IPV issues in India. to assess novice nurses' perceptions of self-efficacy, educational preparedness and their role in this area. this was a cross-sectional descriptive survey carried out among a convenience sample of novice nurses (n=83) at a tertiary care centre using self-reported questionnaires. a majority of the subjects were confident and had adequate knowledge in dealing with women who have experienced IPV. A significantly positive relationship was found between educational preparedness and self-efficacy and attitudes towards nurses' roles in caring for these women. novice nurses were confident and held positive attitudes towards women who experienced IPV. Yet their self-efficacy in caring for these patients could be improved through continuing education and there is an urgent need to integrate comprehensive training on IPV to improve clinical competencies, including how to refer women for further support.

  9. A Comparison between Experienced and Novice Teachers in Using Incidental Focus on Form Techniques in EFL Classrooms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yassamin Pouriran

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the findings of an empirical study that explored whether EFL teachers’ use of incidental focus-on-form techniques was influenced by their level of experience. Also, it investigated the distribution of incidental focus on form types at intermediate level and they were coded based on Lyster and Ranta (1997 and Panova and Lyster (2002 models. Incidental focus on form occurs spontaneously, without prior intention during meaning-focused activities and targets a variety of linguistic items. Here specific forms are not intentionally focused on, but are attended to spontaneously by teachers and other learners within meaning-driven contexts. Six teachers (three experienced and three novice participated in this study. The data was drawn from transcripts of oral corrective feedback moves of six intact classes which were audio and video-recorded totaling 9 hours. A descriptive design which employed qualitative and quantitative data collection procedure was adopted. The results revealed that experienced teachers used incidental focus on form techniques more frequently than novice teachers. This study supports the notion that integrative activities which can integrate a focus on form into L2 communicative activities can contribute to learning a foreign language in terms of both accuracy and fluency.

  10. Antigen-Experienced CD4lo T Cells Are Linked to Deficient Contraction of the Immune Response in Autoimmune Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean Linkes

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Following proper activation, naïve “CD4lo” T cells differentiate into effector T cells with enhanced expression of CD4 -“CD4hi” effectors. Autoimmune diabetes-prone NOD mice display a unique set of antigen-experienced “CD4lo” T cells that persist after primary stimulation. Here, we report that a population of such cells remained after secondary and tertiary TCR stimulation and produced cytokines upon antigenic challenge. However, when NOD blasts were induced in the presence of rIL-15, the number of antigen-experienced “CD4lo” T cells was significantly reduced. Clonal contraction, mediated in part by CD95-dependent activation-induced cell death (AICD, normally regulates the accumulation of “CD4hi” effectors. Interestingly, CD95 expression was dramatically reduced on the AICD-resistant NOD “CD4lo” T cells. Thus, while autoimmune disease has often been attributed to the engagement of robust autoimmunity, we suggest that the inability to effectively contract the immune response distinguishes benign autoimmunity from progressive autoimmune diseases that are characterized by chronic T cell-mediated inflammation.

  11. Water exchange method for colonoscopy: learning curve of an experienced colonoscopist in a U.S. community practice setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Leonard S; Lumsden, Antoinette; Leung, Felix W

    2012-07-01

    Water exchange colonoscopy has been reported to reduce examination discomfort and to provide salvage cleansing in unsedated or minimally sedated patients. The prolonged insertion time and perceived difficulty of insertion associated with water exchange have been cited as a barrier to its widespread use. To assess the feasibility of learning and using the water exchange method of colonoscopy in a U.S. community practice setting. Quality improvement program in nonacademic community endoscopy centers. Patients undergoing sedated diagnostic, surveillance, or screening colonoscopy. After direct coaching by a knowledgeable trainer, an experienced colonoscopist initiated colonoscopy using the water method. Whenever >5 min elapsed without advancing the colonoscope, conversion to air insufflation was made to ensure timely completion of the examination. Water Method Intention-to-treat (ITT) cecal intubation rate (CIR). Female patients had a significantly higher rate of past abdominal surgery and a significantly lower ITTCIR. The ITTCIR showed a progressive increase over time in both males and females to 85-90%. Mean insertion time was maintained at 9 to 10 min. The overall CIR was 99%. Use of water exchange did not preclude cecal intubation upon conversion to usual air insufflation in sedated patients examined by an experienced colonoscopist. With practice ITTCIR increased over time in both male and female patients. Larger volumes of water exchanged were associated with higher ITTCIR and better quality scores of bowel preparation. The data suggest that learning water exchange by a busy colonoscopist in a community practice setting is feasible and outcomes conform to accepted quality standards.

  12. Behavioural typologies of experienced benefit of psychomotor therapy in patients with chronic shoulder pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stamp, Anne Schinkel; Pedersen, Lise Lang; Ingwersen, Kim Gordon

    2018-01-01

    Abstract In this study we aimed to develop a theoretical account of the experienced benefit of psychomotor therapy in addition to treatment as usual in patients with chronic shoulder pain. The qualitative study design was based on a grounded theory approach. Open-ended face-to-face interviews were...... conducted after treatment was completed. We generated data and performed analyses by constant comparative analysis and theoretical sampling that focused on the patients' behavioural characteristics related to the experienced benefit of psychomotor therapy. We conducted 12 interviews, eight of which were...

  13. On ethical (in)decisions experienced by parents of infants in neonatal intensive care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Manen, Michael A

    2014-02-01

    This study was a phenomenological investigation of ethical decisions experienced by parents of newborns in neonatal intensive care. I explore the lived meanings of thematic events that speak to the variable ways that ethical situations may be experienced: a decision that was never a choice; a decision as looking for a way out; a decision as thinking and feeling oneself through the consequences; a decision as indecision; and a decision as something that one falls into. The concluding recommendations spell out the need for understanding the experiences of parents whose children require medical care and underscore the tactful sensitivities required of the health care team during moral-ethical decision making.

  14. Apparatuses and methods of determining if a person operating equipment is experiencing an elevated cognitive load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, Michael L.; Keller, Paul Edwin; Amaya, Ivan A.

    2015-06-16

    A method of, and apparatus for, determining if a person operating equipment is experiencing an elevated cognitive load, wherein the person's use of a device at a first time is monitored so as to set a baseline signature. Then, at a later time, the person's use of the device is monitored to determine the person's performance at the second time, as represented by a performance signature. This performance signature can then be compared against the baseline signature to predict whether the person is experiencing an elevated cognitive load.

  15. Bridging the gap from research-to-high-technology ventures with experienced entrepreneurs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Murdock, Karen; Kramer Overgaard, Majken; Jensen, Monika Luniewska

    2017-01-01

    the gap’ (BtG) is a model for combining the experiences, market insight and network connections of experienced entrepreneurs and the technical knowledge and capabilities of university researchers to create a stronger basis for spin-outs. Inserting market knowledge and competences in the research domain......The paper explores an alternative approach to the traditional transfer of university research output. This approach proposes a systematic search and matching of external experienced entrepreneurs with university researchers to stimulate spinning out university-developed technology. ‘Bridging...

  16. I Can Hardly Wait to See What I Am Going to Do Today: Lesson Planning Perspectives of Experienced Band Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Ryan D.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the lesson planning practices of three experienced band teachers at the high school level. For the purposes of this study, experienced teachers were those with 25 or more years of teaching experience. Research questions were: (a) how do experienced high school band teachers plan for teaching, and (b)…

  17. Social and emotional consequences of refraining from sexual activity among sexually experienced and inexperienced youths in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, Sonya S; Halpern-Felsher, Bonnie L

    2008-01-01

    We examined the social and emotional consequences among adolescents of refraining from sexual activity (oral or vaginal sex) and whether these consequences differed over time and by gender and sexual experience. Adolescents (N=612; 58% female) recruited from 2 schools were assessed at 4 time points separated by 6-month intervals, beginning in fall of ninth grade. The percentage of adolescents who reported only positive consequences (e.g., they felt responsible, friends were proud) dramatically decreased over time, whereas the percentage that reported negative consequences (e.g., they felt left out, partners became angry) steadily increased. Adolescent girls and sexually experienced adolescents were more likely to report both positive and negative consequences than were adolescent boys and sexually inexperienced adolescents. Adolescents who began the study with sexual experience were more likely to report positive consequences of refraining from sexual activity by the end of the study than those who initiated sexual activity later. Sexual education programs should address how adolescents can cope with or prevent negative consequences of refraining from sexual activity, so that decisions to abstain are rewarding and decisions to engage in sexual activity are motivated by maturity and readiness.

  18. Perceived barriers to care and provider gender preferences among veteran men who have experienced military sexual trauma: a qualitative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turchik, Jessica A; McLean, Caitlin; Rafie, Samantha; Hoyt, Tim; Rosen, Craig S; Kimerling, Rachel

    2013-05-01

    Research suggests that there may be unique barriers to accessing care among men who have experienced sexual trauma. The primary goal of the current research was to elucidate potential barriers to accessing military sexual trauma (MST)-related care for male veterans. A secondary goal was to explore whether veterans have preferences regarding the gender of clinicians providing MST-related care. Qualitative analyses were used to examine data collected from semistructured interviews conducted with 20 male veterans enrolled in Veterans Health Administration care who reported MST but who had not received any MST-related mental health care. Veterans identified a number of potential barriers, with the majority of reported barriers relating to issues of stigma and gender. Regarding provider gender preferences, veterans were mixed, with 50% preferring a female provider, 25% a male provider, and 25% reporting no gender preference. These preliminary data suggest that stigma, gender, and knowledge-related barriers may exist for men regarding seeking MST-related care. Interventions to address potential barriers, such as outreach interventions and providing gender-specific psychoeducation, may increase access to care for male veterans who report MST. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  19. Professional "Development" and Professional "Learning": Bridging the Gap for Experienced Physical Education Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armour, Kathleen M.; Yelling, Martin

    2004-01-01

    This article analyses the career-long continuing professional development (CPD) of 85 experienced physical education (PE) teachers in England. Data were collected using semi-structured interviews (20 teachers) and open-ended profile questionnaires (a further 65 teachers) to find out what forms of professional development these teachers had…

  20. Communication Strategies in Experienced vs. Inexperienced Teachers' Talk: A Sign of Transformation in Teacher Cognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmani Doqaruni, Vahid

    2017-01-01

    Due to the fact that research in areas related to "teacher experience" is in short supply, the purpose of the present study is to fill the gap in L2 teacher education through comparing two groups of teachers, namely inexperienced vs. experienced, to see whether differences between them in the course of communication strategies (CSs)…

  1. Criminal offending and distinguishing features of offenders among persons experiencing a first episode of psychosis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hodgins, Sheilagh

    2011-02-01

    Persons with severe mental illness (SMI) are at increased risk of criminal offending, particularly violent offending, as compared with the general population. Most offenders with SMI acquire convictions prior to contact with mental health services. This study examined offending among 301 individuals experiencing their first episode of psychosis.

  2. Challenges Experienced by Korean Medical Students and Tutors during Problem-Based Learning: A Cultural Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, Hyunjung; Choi, Ikseon; Rhee, Byoung Doo; Tae-Lee, Jong

    2016-01-01

    How people learn is influenced by the cultural contexts in which their learning occurs. This qualitative case study explored challenges Korean medical students and tutors experienced during their PBL sessions from a cultural perspective using Hofstede's cultural dimensions. Twelve preclinical medical students and nine tutors from a large Korean…

  3. Life Stress and Adjustment: Effects of Life Events Experienced by Young Adolescents and Their Parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Lawrence H.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Used a longitudinal design to test the effects of life events experienced by young adolescents and their parents. Criteria were the adolescents' depression, anxiety and self-esteem. Analysis showed a significant effect for the adolescents' controllable, but not uncontrollable, negative events. (Author/RWB)

  4. Teaching Recent History in Countries that Have Experienced Human Rights Violations: Case Studies from Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toledo, Maria Isabel; Magendzo, Abraham; Gazmuri, Renato

    2011-01-01

    Incorporating recent history into the educational curricula of countries that have experienced human rights violations combines the complexities of teaching history, teaching recent history, and human rights education. Recent history makes a historical analysis of social reality and a historiographical analysis of the immediate. It is located…

  5. Foucault, Confucius and the In-Service Learning of Experienced Teachers in an Era of Managerialism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hua

    2018-01-01

    By drawing on Foucault's theory of subjectification, this study presents a case study of two experienced teachers' in-service learning in the managerialist climate of Macau. The results indicate that the prevailing policies and administrative strategies on in-service learning served as the apparatus of managerialism working on teachers and…

  6. Early Care and Education for Young Children Experiencing Homelessness. Best Practices in Homeless Education Brief Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Center for Homeless Education at SERVE, 2013

    2013-01-01

    Given the number of young children experiencing homelessness and its devastating impacts on development, preschool programs play a critical role in meeting these children's need for quality early care and education; yet, most young homeless children do not receive early childhood services. Many barriers limit access to early childhood programs for…

  7. Exploring the Needs of Students Experiencing Homelessness from School Counselors' Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havlik, Stacey A.; Brady, Jennifer; Gavin, Kathleen

    2014-01-01

    An increased understanding of the needs of students experiencing homelessness will better inform educational and clinical practices to ensure student success. Through an analysis of survey data using the Knowledge and Skills with Homeless Students Survey (Gaenzle & Bryan, 2013), this exploratory study applied a mixed methods approach to assess…

  8. Stressors Experienced by Nursing Students Enrolled in Baccalaureate Second Degree Accelerated Registered Nursing Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Charlene

    2017-01-01

    A mounting concern throughout the country is a current and growing nursing shortage. In order to meet the growing demand of nurses, many colleges have created baccalaureate second degree accelerated registered nursing programs. Stressors, experienced by nursing students in these accelerated programs, may affect their retention. A deeper…

  9. Social Support as a Contributor to Student Teachers' Experienced Well-Being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Väisänen, Sanna; Pietarinen, Janne; Pyhältö, Kirsi; Toom, Auli; Soini, Tiina

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study is to gain better understanding of the dynamics of the social support system adopted in teacher education and its significance for the student teachers' experienced well-being. The focus was on exploring the extent to which empowering "emotional," "informational" or "instrumental" support is…

  10. It's All about Location, Location, Location: Children's Memory for the "Where'' of Personally Experienced Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Patricia J.; Doydum, Ayzit O.; Pathman, Thanujeni; Larkina, Marina; Guler, O. Evren; Burch, Melissa

    2012-01-01

    Episodic memory is defined as the ability to recall specific past events located in a particular time and place. Over the preschool and into the school years, there are clear developmental changes in memory for when events took place. In contrast, little is known about developmental changes in memory for where events were experienced. In the…

  11. Test-Retest Reliability of an Experienced Global Trigger Tool Review Team

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørn, Brian; Anhøj, Jacob; Østergaard, Mette

    2018-01-01

    and review 2 and between period 1 and period 2. The increase was solely in category E, minor temporary harm. CONCLUSIONS: The very experienced GTT team could not reproduce harm rates found in earlier reviews. We conclude that GTT in its present form is not a reliable measure of harm rate over time....

  12. Inquiry-based leadership : The influence of affective attitude, experienced social pressure and self-efficacy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uiterwijk-Luijk, L.; Krüger, M.; Zijlstra, B.; Volman, M.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to improve the understanding of psychological factors that influence inquiry-based leadership. This study investigates how affective attitude, experienced social pressure, and self-efficacy relate to aspects of inquiry-based school leadership. A school leader’s

  13. Development of PCK for Novice and Experienced University Physics Instructors: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Syh-Jong; Tsai, Meng-Fang; Chen, Ho-Yuan

    2013-01-01

    The current study assessed and compared university students' perceptions' of a novice and an experienced physics instructor's Pedagogical Content Knowledge (PCK). Two college physics instructors and 116 students voluntarily participated in this study. The research model comprised three workshops, mid-term and final evaluations and instructor…

  14. The Relationship among Parenting Styles Experienced during Childhood, Anxiety, Motivation, and Academic Success in College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Marc; Dorso, Erin; Azhar, Aisha; Renk, Kimberly

    2008-01-01

    The current study examined the relationships among parenting styles experienced in childhood, anxiety, motivation, and academic success in college students. Results suggested that fathers' authoritative parenting was related to decreases, whereas mothers' authoritarian parenting was related to increases, in college students' anxiety. Further,…

  15. Hegemonic Masculinity in Sport Education: Case Studies of Experienced In-Service Teachers with Teaching Orientations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, YuChun; Curtner-Smith, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    Research has revealed that while pre-service teachers (PTs) with coaching orientations reinforce sexism and masculine bias, those with teaching orientations combat and reject it. The purpose of this study was to examine four sport education (SE) seasons taught by two experienced in-service teachers for the presence or absence of sexism and…

  16. Episodic Memory in Adults with Autistic Spectrum Disorders: Recall for Self- versus Other-Experienced Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hare, Dougal Julian; Mellor, Christine; Azmi, Sabiha

    2007-01-01

    People with autistic spectrum disorders (ASD) have difficulties in recalling recently experienced events, which is dependent upon intact functioning of several aspects of "self awareness". The current study examined impaired episodic recall in ASD and its relationship to specific impairments in aspects of "self awareness". Between-group…

  17. Perception of palliative care and euthanasia among recently graduated and experienced nurses.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brzostek, T.; Dekkers, W.J.M.; Zalewski, Z.; Januszewska, A.; Gorkiewicz, M.

    2008-01-01

    Palliative care and euthanasia have become the subject of ethical and political debate in Poland. However, the voice of nurses is rarely heard. The aim of this study is to explore the perception of palliative care and euthanasia among recent university bachelor degree graduates and experienced

  18. The influence of experiencing success in math on math anxiety, perceived math competence, and math performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, B.R.J.; Louwerse, J.; Straatemeier, M.; van der Ven, S.H.G.; Klinkenberg, S.; van der Maas, H.L.J.

    2013-01-01

    It was investigated whether children would experience less math anxiety and feel more competent when they, independent of ability level, experienced high success rates in math. Comparable success rates were achieved by adapting problem difficulty to individuals' ability levels with a

  19. How Pensions Contribute to the Premium Paid to Experienced Public School Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGee, Joshua B.; Winters, Marcus A.

    2017-01-01

    Many argue that public school systems should stop linking teachers' salaries so closely to their years of experience. However, the effect of deferred retirement compensation on the premium paid to experienced teachers has, to date, been underappreciated. To shed more light on this issue, we calculate the total compensation earned by teachers in…

  20. The Importance of Taste for Food Demand and the Experienced Taste Effect of Healthy Labels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thunström, Linda; Nordström, Leif Jonas

    findings imply a large positive effect on demand for potato chips from higher taste scores: when consumers’ experienced taste from potato chips improves by one unit, the average WTP for a 150 gram bag of chips increases by 20 euro cents. The effect from taste on bread demand seems smaller, but may...