WorldWideScience

Sample records for reported epr analyses

  1. Hydrogen Analyses in the EPR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Worapittayaporn, S.; Eyink, J.; Movahed, M.

    2008-01-01

    In severe accidents with core melting large amounts of hydrogen may be released into the containment. The EPR provides a combustible gas control system to prevent hydrogen combustion modes with the potential to challenge the containment integrity due to excessive pressure and temperature loads. This paper outlines the approach for the verification of the effectiveness and efficiency of this system. Specifically, the justification is a multi-step approach. It involves the deployment of integral codes, lumped parameter containment codes and CFD codes and the use of the sigma criterion, which provides the link to the broad experimental data base for flame acceleration (FA) and deflagration to detonation transition (DDT). The procedure is illustrated with an example. The performed analyses show that hydrogen combustion at any time does not lead to pressure or temperature loads that threaten the containment integrity of the EPR. (authors)

  2. Retrospective dosimetry using EPR and TL techniques: a status report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haskell, E.H.

    1996-01-01

    Methods of retrospective dosimetry, including luminescence and electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy (EPR), rely on measurement of accident dose absorbed by naturally occurring materials - ceramics in the case of both thermoluminescence (TL) and optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) and organic materials and bio- minerals in the case of EPR. Each of these methods relies on measurement of radiation defects resulting from accidental exposure. Since defects also result from natural sources of radiation over the lifetime of a sample, analysis is usually restricted to materials for which the natural dose may be determined and subtracted from the measured cumulative dose. Luminescence dating techniques rely heavily on an accurate assessment of cumulative dose from natural radiation sources, and dating research has provided us with the bulk of our knowledge in this area. Virtually all of the work on natural dose determination can be directly applied to retrospective techniques. With EPR techniques the cumulative dose from diagnostic x- rays is also of importance

  3. Retrospective dosimetry using EPR and TL techniques: a status report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haskell, E.H.

    1996-12-31

    Methods of retrospective dosimetry, including luminescence and electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy (EPR), rely on measurement of accident dose absorbed by naturally occurring materials - ceramics in the case of both thermoluminescence (TL) and optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) and organic materials and bio- minerals in the case of EPR. Each of these methods relies on measurement of radiation defects resulting from accidental exposure. Since defects also result from natural sources of radiation over the lifetime of a sample, analysis is usually restricted to materials for which the natural dose may be determined and subtracted from the measured cumulative dose. Luminescence dating techniques rely heavily on an accurate assessment of cumulative dose from natural radiation sources, and dating research has provided us with the bulk of our knowledge in this area. Virtually all of the work on natural dose determination can be directly applied to retrospective techniques. With EPR techniques the cumulative dose from diagnostic x- rays is also of importance.

  4. Retrospective EPR dosimetry on the basis of tooth enamel analyses of Techa river area residents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wieser, A.; Romanyukha, A.A.; Kozheurov, V.P.; Degteva, M.O.

    2000-01-01

    The dose in tooth enamel from residents of villages along the Techa river was measured by EPR dosimetry. The results were correlated to the 90 Sr whole body burden as measured about 30 years after ingestion. Based on the results of this preliminary investigation the ingestion dose coefficient of tooth enamel for 90 Sr is estimated and compared with the value for bone surface given in ICRP. The results of the preliminary study suppose a similar metabolism of strontium for tooth dentine and the skeleton. (author)

  5. Reporting of quantitative oxygen mapping in EPR imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramanian, Sankaran; Devasahayam, Nallathamby; McMillan, Alan; Matsumoto, Shingo; Munasinghe, Jeeva P.; Saito, Keita; Mitchell, James B.; Chandramouli, Gadisetti V. R.; Krishna, Murali C.

    2012-01-01

    Oxygen maps derived from electron paramagnetic resonance spectral-spatial imaging (EPRI) are based upon the relaxivity of molecular oxygen with paramagnetic spin probes. This technique can be combined with MRI to facilitate mapping of pO 2 values in specific anatomic locations with high precision. The co-registration procedure, which matches the physical and digital dimensions of EPR and MR images, may present the pO 2 map at the higher MRI resolution, exaggerating the spatial resolution of oxygen, making it difficult to precisely distinguish hypoxic regions from normoxic regions. The latter distinction is critical in monitoring the treatment of cancer by radiation and chemotherapy, since it is well-established that hypoxic regions are three or four times more resistant to treatment compared to normoxic regions. The aim of this article is to describe pO 2 maps based on the intrinsic resolution of EPRI. A spectral parameter that affects the intrinsic spatial resolution of EPRI is the full width at half maximum (FWHM) height of the gradient-free EPR absorption line in frequency-encoded imaging. In single point imaging too, the transverse relaxation times (T2∗) limit the resolution since the signal decays by exp(-tp/T2∗) where the delay time after excitation pulse, t p, is related to the resolution. Although the spin densities of two point objects may be resolved at this separation, it is inadequate to evaluate quantitative changes of pO 2 levels since the linewidths are proportionately affected by pO 2. A spatial separation of at least twice this resolution is necessary to correctly identify a change in pO 2 level. In addition, the pO 2 values are blurred by uncertainties arising from spectral dimensions. Blurring due to noise and low resolution modulates the pO 2 levels at the boundaries of hypoxic and normoxic regions resulting in higher apparent pO 2 levels in hypoxic regions. Therefore, specification of intrinsic resolution and pO 2 uncertainties are

  6. EPR experiment and 2-photon interferometry: Report of a 2-photon interference experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Y. H.; Rubin, M. H.; Sergienko, A. V.

    1992-01-01

    After a very brief review of the historical Einstein, Podolsky, and Rosen (EPR) experiments, a new two-photon interference type EPR experiment is reported. A two-photon state was generated by optical parametric down conversion. Pairs of light quanta with degenerate frequency but divergent directions of propagation were sent to two independent Michelson interferometers. First and second order interference effectors were studied. Different than other reports, we observed that the second order interference visibility vanished when the optical path difference of the interferometers were much less than the coherence length of the pumping laser beam. However, we also observed that the second order interference behaved differently depending on whether the interferometers were set at equal or different optical path differences.

  7. EPR experiment and 2-photon interferometry: Report of a 2-photon interference experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shih, Y.H.; Rubin, M.H.; Sergienko, A.V.

    1992-01-01

    After a very brief review of the historical Einstein, Podolsky, and Rosen (EPR) experiments, a new two-photon interference type EPR experiment is reported. A two-photon state was generated by optical parametric down conversion. Pairs of light quanta with degenerate frequency but divergent directions of propagation were sent to two independent Michelson interferometers. First and second order interference effectors were studied. Different than other reports, we observed that the second order interference visibility vanished when the optical path difference of the interferometers were much less than the coherence length of the pumping laser beam. However, we also observed that the second order interference behaved differently depending on whether the interferometers were set at equal or different optical path differences

  8. Reaction between peroxynitrite and boronates: EPR spin-trapping, HPLC analyses, and quantum mechanical study of the free radical pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikora, Adam; Zielonka, Jacek; Lopez, Marcos; Dybala-Defratyka, Agnieszka; Joseph, Joy; Marcinek, Andrzej; Kalyanaraman, Balaraman

    2013-01-01

    Recently we showed that peroxynitrite (ONOO−) reacts directly and rapidly with aromatic and aliphatic boronic acids (k ≈ 106 M−1s−1). Product analyses and substrate consumption data indicated that ONOO− reacts stoichiometrically with boronates, yielding the corresponding phenols as the major product (~85–90%), and the remaining products (10–15%) were proposed to originate from free radical intermediates (phenyl and phenoxyl radicals). Here we investigated in detail the minor, free radical pathway of boronate reaction with ONOO−. The electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spin-trapping technique was used to characterize the free radical intermediates formed from the reaction between boronates and ONOO−. Using 2-methyl-2-nitrosopropane (MNP) and 5-diethoxyphosphoryl-5-methyl-1-pyrroline-N-oxide (DEPMPO) spin traps, phenyl radicals were trapped and detected. Although phenoxyl radicals were not detected, the positive effects of molecular oxygen, and inhibitory effects of hydrogen atom donors (acetonitrile, and 2-propanol) and general radical scavengers (GSH, NADH, ascorbic acid and tyrosine) on the formation of phenoxyl radical-derived nitrated product, suggest that phenoxyl radical was formed as the secondary species. We propose that the initial step of the reaction involves the addition of ONOO− to the boron atom in boronates. The anionic intermediate undergoes both heterolytic (major pathway) and homolytic (minor pathway) cleavage of the peroxy (O-O) bond to form phenol and nitrite as a major product (via a non-radical mechanism), or a radical pair PhB(OH)2O•−…•NO2 as a minor product. It is conceivable that phenyl radicals are formed by the fragmentation of PhB(OH)2O•− radical anion. According to the DFT quantum mechanical calculations, the energy barrier for the dissociation of PhB(OH)2O•− radical anion to form phenyl radicals is only a few kcal/mol, suggesting rapid and spontaneous fragmentation of PhB(OH)2O•− radical anion

  9. Application of EPR spectrometry, thermoluminescence, analyses of DNA damage and germination power for detection of irradiated foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malec-Czechowska, K.; Stachowicz, W.; Dancewicz, A.M.; Szot, Z.

    1999-01-01

    The results of our own detection of irradiation in various foods: meat, poultry, fishes, spices, dried fruits, mushrooms, crops, fresh fruits and food additives are presented. The techniques for detection whether foods have been irradiated or not, such as EPR spectrometry, thermoluminescence (TL), DNA damage by ''comet'' method and ability for germination of grains has been discussed. The applicability of particular technique to specific foodstuffs has been indicated. (author)

  10. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) biodosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desrosiers, Marc; Schauer, David A.

    2001-01-01

    Radiation-induced electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) signals were first reported by Gordy et al. [Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 41 (1955) 983]. The application of EPR spectroscopy to ionizing radiation dosimetry was later proposed by Brady et al. [Health Phys. 15 (1968) 43]. Since that time EPR dosimetry has been applied to accident and epidemiologic dose reconstruction, radiation therapy, food irradiation, quality assurance programs and archaeological dating. Materials that have been studied include bone, tooth enamel, alanine and quartz. This review paper presents the fundamentals and applications of EPR biodosimetry. Detailed information regarding sample collection and preparation, EPR measurements, dose reconstruction, and data analysis and interpretation will be reviewed for tooth enamel. Examples of EPR biodosimetry application in accidental overexposures, radiopharmaceutical dose assessment and retrospective epidemiologic studies will also be presented

  11. The EPR reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lacoste, A.C.; Dupuy, Ph.; Gupta, O.; Perez, J.R.; Emond, D.; Cererino, G.; Rousseau, J.M.; Jeffroy, F.; Evrard, J.M.; Seiler, J.M.; Azarian, G.; Chaumont, B.; Dubail, A.; Fischer, M.; Tiippana, P.; Hyvarinen, J.; Zaleski, C.P.; Meritet, S.; Iglesias, F.; Vincent, C.; Massart, S.; Graillat, G.; Esteve, B.; Mansillon, Y.; Gatinol, C.; Carre, F.

    2005-01-01

    This document reviews economical and environmental aspects of the EPR project. The following topics are discussed: role and point of view of the French Nuclear Safety Authority on EPR, control of design and manufacturing of EPR by the French Nuclear Safety Authority, assessment by IRSN of EPR safety, research and development in support of EPR, STUK safety review of EPR design, standpoint on EPR, the place of EPR in the French energy policy, the place of EPR in EDF strategy, EPR spearhead of nuclear rebirth, the public debate, the local stakes concerning the building of EPR in France at Flamanville (Manche) and the research on fourth generation reactors. (A.L.B.)

  12. EPR dosimetry of irradiated human teeth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodas Duran, J.E.; Panzeri, H.; Mascarenhas, S.

    1985-01-01

    The determination of the absorbed radiation dose in man may be made by Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) spectroscopy of dental enamel. We analysed the EPR signals for dental enamel submitted to gamma radiation in doses between 1 Gy and 25 Gy. We conclude that independent of the type of tooth analysed there exists a linear relation between the EPR signals and the absorbed doses. These studies were extended to enamel irradiated with gamma rays and with X rays in doses between 0.1 Gy and 0.6 Gy. The graph of the intensity of the EPR signals as a function of the dose has a slope of 0.22. This calibration may be used to calculate the absorbed dose for humans from a measurement of the EPR signal from small samples of enamel taken from any permanent tooth. Finally we comment on some EPR studies of effects of radiation of milk teeth. (author)

  13. In Quest of the Alanine R3 Radical: Multivariate EPR Spectral Analyses of X-Irradiated Alanine in the Solid State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jåstad, Eirik O; Torheim, Turid; Villeneuve, Kathleen M; Kvaal, Knut; Hole, Eli O; Sagstuen, Einar; Malinen, Eirik; Futsaether, Cecilia M

    2017-09-28

    The amino acid l-α-alanine is the most commonly used material for solid-state electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) dosimetry, due to the formation of highly stable radicals upon irradiation, with yields proportional to the radiation dose. Two major alanine radical components designated R1 and R2 have previously been uniquely characterized from EPR and electron-nuclear double resonance (ENDOR) studies as well as from quantum chemical calculations. There is also convincing experimental evidence of a third minor radical component R3, and a tentative radical structure has been suggested, even though no well-defined spectral signature has been observed experimentally. In the present study, temperature dependent EPR spectra of X-ray irradiated polycrystalline alanine were analyzed using five multivariate methods in further attempts to understand the composite nature of the alanine dosimeter EPR spectrum. Principal component analysis (PCA), maximum likelihood common factor analysis (MLCFA), independent component analysis (ICA), self-modeling mixture analysis (SMA), and multivariate curve resolution (MCR) were used to extract pure radical spectra and their fractional contributions from the experimental EPR spectra. All methods yielded spectral estimates resembling the established R1 spectrum. Furthermore, SMA and MCR consistently predicted both the established R2 spectrum and the shape of the R3 spectrum. The predicted shape of the R3 spectrum corresponded well with the proposed tentative spectrum derived from spectrum simulations. Thus, results from two independent multivariate data analysis techniques strongly support the previous evidence that three radicals are indeed present in irradiated alanine samples.

  14. EPR and Bell Locality

    OpenAIRE

    Norsen, Travis

    2004-01-01

    A new formulation of the EPR argument is presented, one which uses John Bell's mathematically precise local causality condition in place of the looser locality assumption which was used in the original EPR paper and on which Niels Bohr seems to have based his objection to the EPR argument. The new formulation of EPR bears a striking resemblance to Bell's derivation of his famous inequalities. The relation between these two arguments -- in particular, the role of EPR as part one of Bell's two-...

  15. Synthesis of the IRSN report on the control-command architecture of the Flamanville 3 EPR reactor and the associated platforms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-06-01

    This document briefly reports the IRSN's comments on the robustness of the control-command architecture of the Flamanville 3 EPR (European pressurized reactor), that is of the equipment which, to various extent, contribute to the installation safety. This report identifies the equipment the robustness of which should be improved, outlines the problems created by the complexity of computerized systems. Notably, the authors comment the ability of the off-the-shelf computer platforms acquired by EDF to deal with the nuclear context

  16. Color change of tourmaline by heat treatment and electron beam irradiation: UV-Visible, EPR, and Mid-IR spectroscopic analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maneewong, Apichate; Seong, Baek Seok; Shin, Eun Joo; Kim, Jeong Seog; Kajornrith, Varavuth

    2016-01-01

    The color of pink tourmaline gemstone changed to colorless when heating at temperature of 600 °C in air. This colorless tourmaline recovered its pink color when irradiated with an electron beam (e-beam) of 800 kGy. The origin of the color change was investigated in three types of tourmaline gemstones, two pink are from Afghanistan and one green are from Nigeria, by using Ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV-Vis), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR), and Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence (EDXRF). The UV-Vis absorption spectrum of the pink tourmaline with higher Mn concentration (T2, 0.24 wt%) showed characteristic absorption peaks originating from the Mn3+ color center: two absorption bands centered at wavelength of 396 and 520 nm, respectively. Both absorption bands disappeared when heated in air at 600 °C and then reappeared when irradiated with an e-beam at 800 kGy. EPR T2 spectra showed that the color change was related to the valence change of Mn3+ to Mn2+ and vice versa. The pink tourmaline of lower MnO content (T1, 0.08 wt%) also became colorless when heated, but the color was not recovered when the gemstone underwent e-beam irradiation. Instead, a yellow color was obtained. UV-Vis and FTIR spectra indicated that this yellow color originated from a decomposition of the hydroxyl group (-OH) into O- and Ho by the e-beam irradiation. Green tourmaline did not show any color change with either heat treatment or e-beam irradiation.

  17. Spin entanglement, decoherence and Bohm's EPR paradox

    OpenAIRE

    Cavalcanti, E. G.; Drummond, P. D.; Bachor, H. A.; Reid, M. D.

    2007-01-01

    We obtain criteria for entanglement and the EPR paradox for spin-entangled particles and analyse the effects of decoherence caused by absorption and state purity errors. For a two qubit photonic state, entanglement can occur for all transmission efficiencies. In this case, the state preparation purity must be above a threshold value. However, Bohm's spin EPR paradox can be achieved only above a critical level of loss. We calculate a required efficiency of 58%, which appears achievable with cu...

  18. All-atom molecular dynamics simulations of spin labelled double and single-strand DNA for EPR studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prior, C; Danilāne, L; Oganesyan, V S

    2018-05-16

    We report the first application of fully atomistic molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to the prediction of electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectra of spin labelled DNA. Models for two structurally different DNA spin probes with either the rigid or flexible position of the nitroxide group in the base pair, employed in experimental studies previously, have been developed. By the application of the combined MD-EPR simulation methodology we aimed at the following. Firstly, to provide a test bed against a sensitive spectroscopic technique for the recently developed improved version of the parmbsc1 force field for MD modelling of DNA. The predicted EPR spectra show good agreement with the experimental ones available from the literature, thus confirming the accuracy of the currently employed DNA force fields. Secondly, to provide a quantitative interpretation of the motional contributions into the dynamics of spin probes in both duplex and single-strand DNA fragments and to analyse their perturbing effects on the local DNA structure. Finally, a combination of MD and EPR allowed us to test the validity of the application of the Model-Free (M-F) approach coupled with the partial averaging of magnetic tensors to the simulation of EPR spectra of DNA systems by comparing the resultant EPR spectra with those simulated directly from MD trajectories. The advantage of the M-F based EPR simulation approach over the direct propagation techniques is that it requires motional and order parameters that can be calculated from shorter MD trajectories. The reported MD-EPR methodology is transferable to the prediction and interpretation of EPR spectra of higher order DNA structures with novel types of spin labels.

  19. Medical application of EPR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eichhoff, Uwe; Hoefer, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Selected applications of continuous-wave EPR in medicine are reviewed. This includes detection of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, pH measurements and oxymetry. Applications of EPR imaging are demonstrated on selected examples and future developments to faster imaging methods are discussed

  20. Synthesis, EPR, Electronic and Magnetic Studies on Cobalt (II) Complexes of Semicarbazone and Thiosemicarbazone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandra, S.; Gupta, L.K.; Sharma, K.K.

    2005-01-01

    Cobalt (II) complexes having the general composition Co(L2) X2 [where Lisopropyl methyl ketone semicarbazone (LLA), isopropyl methyl ketone thiosemicarbazone (LLB), 4-aminoacetophenone semicarbazone (LLC) and4-aminoacetophenone thiosemicarbazone (LLD) and X=Cl] have been synthesized. All the Co(II) complexes reported here have been characterized by elemental analyses, magnetic moments, IR, electronic and EPR spectral studies. All the complexes were found to have magnetic moments corresponding to three unpaired electrons. The possible geometries of the complexes were assigned on the basis of electronic infrared and EPR spectral studies. (author) = = = = = = = = = = = = = = =

  1. One-way EPR steering and genuine multipartite EPR steering

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Qiongyi; Reid, Margaret D.

    2012-11-01

    We propose criteria and experimental strategies to realise the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) steering nonlocality. One-way steering can be obtained where there is asymmetry of thermal noise on each system. We also present EPR steering inequalities that act as signatures and suggest how to optimise EPR correlations in specific schemes so that the genuine multipartite EPR steering nonlocality (EPR paradox) can also possibly be realised. The results presented here also apply to the spatially separated macroscopic atomic ensembles.

  2. EPR: Evidence and fallacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Joseph W; Bae, You Han

    2014-09-28

    The enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) of nanoparticles in tumors has long stood as one of the fundamental principles of cancer drug delivery, holding the promise of safe, simple and effective therapy. By allowing particles preferential access to tumors by virtue of size and longevity in circulation, EPR provided a neat rationale for the trend toward nano-sized drug carriers. Following the discovery of the phenomenon by Maeda in the mid-1980s, this rationale appeared to be well justified by the flood of evidence from preclinical studies and by the clinical success of Doxil. Clinical outcomes from nano-sized drug delivery systems, however, have indicated that EPR is not as reliable as previously thought. Drug carriers generally fail to provide superior efficacy to free drug systems when tested in clinical trials. A closer look reveals that EPR-dependent drug delivery is complicated by high tumor interstitial fluid pressure (IFP), irregular vascular distribution, and poor blood flow inside tumors. Furthermore, the animal tumor models used to study EPR differ from clinical tumors in several key aspects that seem to make EPR more pronounced than in human patients. On the basis of this evidence, we believe that EPR should only be invoked on a case-by-case basis, when clinical evidence suggests the tumor type is susceptible. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. The EPR paradox revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cantrell, C.D.; Scully, M.O.

    1978-01-01

    Einstein, Podolsky and Rosen (EPR) argued in 1935 that quantum mechanics fails to give an adequate description of physical reality, and also cannot give a consistent wave-function description of certain phenomena. The authors show that a calculation based upon the reduced density matrix removes the formal inconsistency pointed out by EPR. The spirit of the present paper is that of a pedagogical review. (Auth.)

  4. EPR paradox revisited

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cantrell, C.D.; Scully, M.O.

    1978-07-01

    Einstein, Podolsky, and Rosen (EPR) argued in 1935 that quantum mechanics fails to give an adequate description of physical reality, and also cannot give a consistent wave-function description of certain phenomena. It is shown that a calculation based upon the reduced density matrix removes the formal inconsistency pointed out by EPR. The spirit of the present paper is that of a pedagogical review.

  5. Use of the Frank sequence in pulsed EPR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tseitlin, Mark; Quine, Richard W.; Eaton, Sandra S.

    2011-01-01

    The Frank polyphase sequence has been applied to pulsed EPR of triarylmethyl radicals at 256MHz (9.1mT magnetic field), using 256 phase pulses. In EPR, as in NMR, use of a Frank sequence of phase steps permits pulsed FID signal acquisition with very low power microwave/RF pulses (ca. 1.5m......W in the application reported here) relative to standard pulsed EPR. A 0.2mM aqueous solution of a triarylmethyl radical was studied using a 16mm diameter cross-loop resonator to isolate the EPR signal detection system from the incident pulses. Keyword: Correlation spectroscopy,Multi-pulse EPR,Low power pulses,NMR,EPR...

  6. Selfcalibrated alanine/EPR dosimeters. A new generation of solid state/EPR dosimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yordanov, N.D.; Gancheva, V.

    1999-01-01

    Alanine/EPR dosimeters are well established as secondary, reference dosimeters for high-energy radiation. However, there are various sources of uncertainty in the evaluation of absorbed dose. This arises primarily from the necessity to calibrate each EPR spectrometer and each batch of dosimeters before their use. In order to overcome this disadvantage, a new generation alanine/EPR dosimeter has been developed, and its possibilities as a radiation detector are reported. Principally, it is a mixture of alanine, some quantity of EPR active substance, and a binding material. The EPR active substance, acting as an internal EPR standard, is chosen to have EPR parameters which are independent of the irradiation dose. The simultaneous recording of the spectra of both the sample and the standard under the same experimental conditions and the estimation of the ratio I alanine /I Mn as a function of the absorbed dose strongly reduces the uncertainties. The response of these dosimeters for 60 Co γ-radiation exhibits excellent linearity and reproducibility in the range of absorbed dose, 10 2 - 5 x 10 4 Gy. (author)

  7. EPR study on gamma-irradiated fruits dehydrated via osmosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yordanov, N.D. [Laboratory EPR, Institute of Catalysis, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 1113 Sofia (Bulgaria)]. E-mail: ndyepr@bas.bg; Aleksieva, K. [Laboratory EPR, Institute of Catalysis, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 1113 Sofia (Bulgaria)

    2007-06-15

    The shape and time stability of the electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectra of non- and {gamma}-irradiated papaya, melon, cherry and fig samples dehydrated via osmosis are reported. It is shown that non-irradiated samples are generally EPR silent whereas {gamma}-irradiated exhibit 'sugar-like' EPR spectra. The recorded EPR spectra are monitored for a period of 7 months after irradiation (stored at low humidity and in the dark). The results suggest longer period of unambiguous identification of the radiation processing of osmose dehydrated fruits. Therefore, the Protocol EN 13708,2001 issued by CEN is fully applicable for the studied fruit samples.

  8. EPR study on gamma-irradiated fruits dehydrated via osmosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yordanov, N.D.; Aleksieva, K.

    2007-01-01

    The shape and time stability of the electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectra of non- and γ-irradiated papaya, melon, cherry and fig samples dehydrated via osmosis are reported. It is shown that non-irradiated samples are generally EPR silent whereas γ-irradiated exhibit 'sugar-like' EPR spectra. The recorded EPR spectra are monitored for a period of 7 months after irradiation (stored at low humidity and in the dark). The results suggest longer period of unambiguous identification of the radiation processing of osmose dehydrated fruits. Therefore, the Protocol EN 13708,2001 issued by CEN is fully applicable for the studied fruit samples

  9. EPR study on gamma-irradiated fruits dehydrated via osmosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yordanov, N. D.; Aleksieva, K.

    2007-06-01

    The shape and time stability of the electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectra of non- and γ-irradiated papaya, melon, cherry and fig samples dehydrated via osmosis are reported. It is shown that non-irradiated samples are generally EPR silent whereas γ-irradiated exhibit "sugar-like" EPR spectra. The recorded EPR spectra are monitored for a period of 7 months after irradiation (stored at low humidity and in the dark). The results suggest longer period of unambiguous identification of the radiation processing of osmose dehydrated fruits. Therefore, the Protocol EN 13708,2001 issued by CEN is fully applicable for the studied fruit samples.

  10. EPR investigation of some gamma-irradiated medicines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aleksieva, Katerina; Yordanov, Nicola

    2016-01-01

    The results of EPR studies on three medical tablets – Galanthamine, Cytisine and Tribulus terrestris before and after gamma-irradiation are reported. Before irradiation Galanthamine and Cytisine tablets are EPR silent, whereas Tribulus terrestris show a broad singlet line with g factor 2.2084±0.002. The same spectrum is recorded after irradiation. After gamma-sterilization, however, Galanthamine and Cytisine tablets exhibit a typical EPR spectrum due to gamma induced free radicals in lactose used as an excipient. These stable free radicals can be used for identification of radiation processing for a long time after it. Key words: medical tablets, gamma-irradiation, EPR

  11. Orientation-dependent effects of EPR-measurements on β-rhombohedral boron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siems, C.D.; Geist, D.

    1976-01-01

    EPR studies on β-rhombohedral boron have been reported by several authors. Two EPR-lines with the same g-value have been found by measurements with and without illumination. The microwave frequency used was 9 GHz, as far as is known. In this paper EPR-measurements at 35 GHz on β-rhombohedral boron single crystals are reported. The investigations concerning the 'dark EPR-line' were made at 300 K. (Auth.)

  12. Matrix Summaries Improve Research Reports: Secondary Analyses Using Published Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zientek, Linda Reichwein; Thompson, Bruce

    2009-01-01

    Correlation matrices and standard deviations are the building blocks of many of the commonly conducted analyses in published research, and AERA and APA reporting standards recommend their inclusion when reporting research results. The authors argue that the inclusion of correlation/covariance matrices, standard deviations, and means can enhance…

  13. Identification of gamma-irradiated fruit juices by EPR spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aleksieva, K.I.; Dimov, K.G.; Yordanov, N.D.

    2014-01-01

    The results of electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) study on commercially available juices from various fruits and different fruit contents: 25%, 40%, 50%, and 100%, homemade juices, nectars and concentrated fruit syrups, before and after gamma-irradiation are reported. In order to remove water from non- and irradiated samples all juices and nectars were filtered; the solid residue was washed with alcohol and dried at room temperature. Only concentrated fruit syrups were dried for 60 min at 40 °C in a standard laboratory oven. All samples under study show a singlet EPR line with g=2.0025 before irradiation with exception of concentrated fruit syrups, which are EPR silent. Irradiation of juice samples gives rise to complex EPR spectra which gradually transferred to “cellulose-like” EPR spectrum from 25% to 100% fruit content. Concentrated fruit syrups show typical “sugar-like“ spectra due to added saccharides. All EPR spectra are characteristic and can prove radiation treatment. The fading kinetics of radiation-induced EPR signals were studied for a period of 60 days after irradiation. - Highlights: • The EPR analysis of juices, nectars and syrups proves that the sample has been irradiated. • Two sample preparation procedures were used. • The stability of the radiation induced EPR signals was studied over 2 months. • Application of European standards can be extended for irradiated juices and syrups

  14. Biomolecular EPR spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Hagen, Wilfred Raymond

    2008-01-01

    Comprehensive, Up-to-Date Coverage of Spectroscopy Theory and its Applications to Biological SystemsAlthough a multitude of books have been published about spectroscopy, most of them only occasionally refer to biological systems and the specific problems of biomolecular EPR (bioEPR). Biomolecular EPR Spectroscopy provides a practical introduction to bioEPR and demonstrates how this remarkable tool allows researchers to delve into the structural, functional, and analytical analysis of paramagnetic molecules found in the biochemistry of all species on the planet. A Must-Have Reference in an Intrinsically Multidisciplinary FieldThis authoritative reference seamlessly covers all important bioEPR applications, including low-spin and high-spin metalloproteins, spin traps and spin lables, interaction between active sites, and redox systems. It is loaded with practical tricks as well as do's and don'ts that are based on the author's 30 years of experience in the field. The book also comes with an unprecedented set of...

  15. Spin entanglement, decoherence and Bohm's EPR paradox.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalcanti, E G; Drummond, P D; Bachor, H A; Reid, M D

    2009-10-12

    We obtain criteria for entanglement and the EPR paradox for spin-entangled particles and analyse the effects of decoherence caused by absorption and state purity errors. For a two qubit photonic state, entanglement can occur for all transmission efficiencies. In this case, the state preparation purity must be above a threshold value. However, Bohm's spin EPR paradox can be achieved only above a critical level of loss. We calculate a required efficiency of 58%, which appears achievable with current quantum optical technologies. For a macroscopic number of particles prepared in a correlated state, spin entanglement and the EPR paradox can be demonstrated using our criteria for efficiencies eta > 1/3 and eta > 2/3 respectively. This indicates a surprising insensitivity to loss decoherence, in a macroscopic system of ultra-cold atoms or photons.

  16. EPR paradox revisited

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klippert, R. [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas (CBPF), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    1999-07-01

    In a seminal paper from 1935 Einstein, Podolsky and Rosen produced one of the most powerful weapon against the unpredictability of the world ensured by quantum mechanics. The recent production of entangled states, with all its possible future applications in quantum computation, re-open the possibility of testing EPR states on physical grounds. The present intends to present a challenge to the wedding of classical (special) relativity with quantum mechanics, the so called relativistic quantum mechanics. Making use of the same apparatus devised in EPR, it is shown that non local quantum states are incompatible with either their possibility of being measured or else with Lorentz invariance (or even with both). (author)

  17. EPR Dosimetry in Irradiated Fingernails

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spinella, M.R.; Dubner, D.L.; Bof, E.

    2010-01-01

    The Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) is being transformed in a complementary tool of biologically-based methods for evaluation of dose after accidental radiation exposure. Many efforts are being carried out in laboratories to evaluate the performance of different materials for its use in EPR doses measurements and for improving the current methods for spectrum analysis and calibration curves determinations. In our country the EPR techniques have been used in different areas with dosimetric (alanine) and non dosimetric purposes. Now we are performing the first studies to obtain properly dose response curves to be used for accidental dose assessments through irradiated fingernails. It is by now well known that the fingernails present two types of signals, a background one (BKS), originated in elastic and inelastic mechanical deformations and the radio induced one (RIS), object of interest (I). In this work we will present some of the previous studies performed to characterize the fingernail samples and we analyse the additive dose method for data obtained employing the technique of the substraction of the spectrum recorded at two different microwave powers in order to reduce the BKS signal. Fingernail samples collected from different donors were treated by soaking in water during 10 min and 5 min drying on paper towel and the BKS signals were studied previously its irradiation. The statistical analysis (R statistics) show a distribution with a Standard Deviation of 24% respects to its media. During these studies we also conserved in freezer for more than 6 months irradiated fingernails that, were periodically measured and the statistical analysis of the peak to peak amplitude show a normal distribution through the Quantile correlation test with a SD 11% respected to its median. (authors)

  18. EPR study on tomatoes before and after gamma-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aleksieva, K.; Georgieva, L.; Tzvetkova, E.; Yordanov, N.D.

    2009-01-01

    The results from the EPR studies on fresh, air-dried and lyophilized tomato samples before and after gamma-irradiation are reported. Before irradiation fresh and air-dried tomatoes exhibit one singlet EPR line characterized with common g-factor of 2.0048±0.0005, whereas freeze-dried tomato does not show any EPR spectrum. After irradiation, a typical 'cellulose-like' triplet EPR spectrum appears in all samples, attributed to cellulose free radicals, generated by gamma-irradiation. It consists of intense central line with g=2.0048±0.0005 and two weak satellite lines separated ca. 3 mT left and right of it. In air-dried and lyophilized tomatoes the 'cellulose-like' EPR spectrum is superimposed by an additional partly resolved carbohydrate spectrum. Fading measurements of the radiation-induced EPR signals indicate that the intensity of the EPR spectra of air-dried and freeze-dried tomato are reduced to about 50% after 50 days, whereas those of fresh irradiated tomatoes kept at 4 o C fade completely in 15 days. The reported results unambiguously show that the presence of two satellite lines in the EPR 'cellulose-like' spectra of tomato samples can be used for identification of radiation processing.

  19. EPR study of free radicals in bread

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yordanov, Nicola D.; Mladenova, Ralitsa

    2004-05-01

    The features of the recorded EPR spectra of paramagnetic species formed in bread and rusk are reported. The appearance of free radicals in them is only connected with their thermal treatment since the starting materials (flour and grains) exhibit very weak EPR signal. The obtained EPR spectra are complex and indicate that: (i) the relative number of paramagnetic species depends on the temperature and treating time of the raw product; (ii) the g-values are strongly temperature dependent with a tendency to coincide at t≥220 °C. Because of the relatively low (150-220 °C) temperature of thermal treatment, the studied free radicals can be assumed to appear in the course of the browning (Maillard) reaction and not to the carbonization of the material.

  20. EPR: the nuclear impasse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marillier, F.

    2008-01-01

    The questions relative to the climatic change constitute crucial challenges for the next ten years. In this context the author aims to show how the EPR project illustrates the nuclear french ''autism''. He presents and analyzes the international and environmental impacts of this obsolete technology, as a project useless and dangerous. (A.L.B.)

  1. Properties of the ammonium tartrate/EPR dosimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yordanov, N.D.; Gancheva, V.

    2004-01-01

    The EPR response of γ-irradiated ammonium tartrate on the absorbed dose of γ-rays up to 22 kGy as well as the changes in the shape of the EPR spectrum upon applied modulation amplitude and microwave power are reported. Also the possibility to use ammonium tartrate together with Mn 2+ magnetically diluted in MgO as an internal reference material is evaluated. The influence of the microwave power and the modulation amplitude on their dose response is investigated. The results show that the radiation-induced EPR spectrum of ammonium tartrate, obtained at a low microwave power is complex consisting several patterns and is more easily saturated than the Mn 2+ EPR spectrum. In this case the following settings of the EPR parameters are recommended: H mod ≤0.05 mT and 10≤P MW ≤13 mW. Using these parameters the dosimeters can be considered for use in intercomparisons

  2. Report of analyses for light hydrocarbons in ground water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dromgoole, E.L.

    1982-04-01

    This report contains on microfiche the results of analyses for methane, ethane, propane, and butane in 11,659 ground water samples collected in 47 western and three eastern 1 0 x 2 0 quadrangles of the National Topographic Map Series (Figures 1 and 2), along with a brief description of the analytical technique used and some simple, descriptive statistics. The ground water samples were collected as part of the National Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE) hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reconnaissance. Further information on the ground water samples can be obtained by consulting the NURE data reports for the individual quadrangles. This information includes (1) measurements characterizing water samples (pH, conductivity, and alkalinity), (2) physical measurements, where applicable (water temperature, well description, and other measurements), and (3) elemental analyses

  3. Radiation protection on EPR: comparative approach of the French and Finnish regulatory reviewing process and optimization at the design phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arial, E.; Couasnon, O.; Latil-querrec, N.; Evrard, J.M.; Herviou, K.; Riihiluoma, V.; Beneteau, Y.; Foret, J.L.

    2010-01-01

    Taking the opportunity to evaluate the preliminary safety report of the French EPR reactor built in Flamanville, the IRSN proposes to assess the history of EPR, from the decision to implement studies in the 90's to the French and German cooperation, and finally to the construction of a unit in Finland and in France, and to make a synthesis of the assessment of radiation protection arrangements. This assessment presents the dose targets (calculated reference doses) planned by the nuclear operators in the design phase as well as the global radiation protection optimization process and a comparison of French and Finnish analyses. In France, for example, EDF performed a detailed optimization analysis of selected tasks known to have a major contribution to the annual average collective dose (thermal insulation, logistics, valve maintenance, opening/closing of the vessel, preparation and checks of steam generators, on-site spent fuel management, and waste management). The optimization process is based (in France) on an iterative method. A comparison between the EPR collective dose target and doses received in other pressurized water reactors that are close to the EPR design (Konvoi of German design, French existing units, etc.) is also presented. This synthesis was carried out by the IRSN, the expert body of the French nuclear safety authority, in association with Electricite de France (EDF), the French operator, and the authority for nuclear safety in Finland (STUK). It summarizes more than 15 years of studies and partnership, focusing on radiation protection, in the design phase of the EPR. (authors)

  4. Polymer therapeutics and the EPR effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Hiroshi

    History of the EPR (enhanced permeability and retention) effect is discussed, which goes back to the analyses of molecular pathology in bacterial infection and edema (extravasation) formation. The first mediator we found for extravasation was bradykinin. Later on, were found nitric oxide and superoxide, then formation of peroxynitrite, that activates procollagenase. In this inflammatory setting many other vascular mediators are involved that are also common to cancer vasculature. Obviously cancer vasculature is defective architechtally, and this makes macromolecular drugs more permeable through the vascular wall. The importance of this pathophysiological event of EPR effect can be applied to macromolecular drug-delivery, or tumor selective delivery, which takes hours to achieve in the primary as well as metastatic tumors, not to mention of the inflamed tissues. The retention of the EPR means that such drugs will be retained in tumor tissues more than days to weeks. This was demonstrated initially, and most dramatically, using SMANCS, a protein-polymer conjugated-drug dissolved in lipid contrast medium (Lipiodol) by administering intraarterially. For disseminating the EPR concept globally, or in the scientific community, Professor Ruth Duncan played a key role at the early stage, as she worked extensively on polymer- therapeutics, and knew its importance.

  5. EPR (European Pressurized Reactor)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    This document presents the EPR (European Pressurized Reactor), a modernised version of PWRs which uses nuclear fission. It indicates to which category it belongs (third generation). It briefly describes its operation: recalls on nuclear fission, electricity production in a nuclear reactor. It presents and comments its characteristics: power, thermal efficiency, redundant systems for safety control, double protective enclosure, expected lifetime, use of MOX fuel, modular design. It discusses economic stakes (expected higher nuclear electricity competitiveness, but high construction costs), and safety challenges (design characteristics, critics by nuclear safety authorities about the safety data processing system). It presents the main involved actors (Areva, EDF) and competitors in the field of advanced reactors (Rosatom with its VVER 1200, General Electric with its ABWR and its ESBWR, Mitsubishi with its APWR, Westinghouse with its AP100) while outlining the importance of certifications and delays to obtain them. After having evoked key data on EPR fuel consumption, it indicates reactors under construction, evokes potential markets and perspectives

  6. EPR, kvantemekanik og Bohr

    OpenAIRE

    Nielsen, Morten Klockmann

    2007-01-01

    Dette projekt omhandler området hvor filosofi og fysik smelter sammen. Kvantemekanikkens tilblivelse fik en hård medfart hvilket diskussionerne mellem især Albert Einstein og Niels Bohr vidner om. De var hovedpersoner i striden om hvordan kvantemekanikken skulle fortolkes, og diskussionen kulminerede i 1935 hvor Einstein sammen med kollegerne Podolsky og Rosen offentliggjorde en artikel med titlen “Can Quantum-Mechanical Description of Physical Reality Be Considered Complete?” (EPR-artiklen)....

  7. EPR a strategic choice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    How can we answer to the increasing demand of electric power, resulting of the demographic evolution and needed to the economic development, without exhausting the fossil resources? The answers are function of the countries and imply an optimization of the production and the consumption. This document published by the Areva Group aims to show the advantages of the nuclear energy: economical and environmental advantages. A special chapter is devoted to the European Pressurized Reactor, EPR. (A.L.B.)

  8. EPR spectroscopy of spices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. T. Тimakova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available From 01 January 2017 you enter the interstate standard GOST 33271-2015 “Dry Spices, herbs and vegetable seasonings. Manual exposure in order to combat pathogens and other microorganisms” which States that the absorbed dose of radiation to the spices should be from 3 to 30 kGy. The study found that before the introduction of permissive legislative framework in the consumer market of Russia there are irradiated food products (chili, ground chili, ground spicy chili, black pepper. For radiation monitoring of food safety, we used the method of electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR, which allows quickly and with a high degree of reliability to establish the fact of irradiation. It is established that all samples of spices irradiated with dose of 12 kGy (technology radappertization gave typical spectra of the signals established by the method of electron paramagnetic resonance in the domestic EPR spectrometer, the intensity, amplitude and peak width of the EPR signal of samples of spices with the increase of irradiation dose increases. It is proven that repeated exposure no effect accumulation. Integration with 2017 Russia in the global practi ce of using radiation technologies of processing of food products and food raw materials with the purpose of extending shelf life confirms the need for a data Bank on the radiation sensitivity of various food products to determine the optimal doses and the eff ect of radiation doses on the shelf life and quality of products.

  9. EPR design features to mitigate severe accident challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazurkiewicz, S.M.; Fischer, M.; Bittermann, D.

    2005-01-01

    The EPR, an evolutionary pressurized water reactor (PWR), is a 4300-4500 MWth that incorporates proven technology within an optimized configuration to enhance safety. EPR was originally developed through a joint effort between Framatome ANP and Siemens by incorporating the best technological features from the French and German nuclear reactor fleets into a cost-competitive product. Commercial EPR units are currently being built in Finland at the Olkiluoto site, and planned for France at the Flamanville site. In recent months, Framatome ANP announced their intention to market the EPR units to China in response to a request for vendor bids as well as their intent to pursue design certification in the United States under 10CFR52. The EPR safety philosophy is based on a deterministic consideration of defense-in-depth complemented by probabilistic analyses. Not only is the EPR designed to prevent and mitigate design basis accidents (DBAs), it employs an extra level of safety associated with severe accident response. Therefore, as a design objective, features are included to ensure that radiological consequences are limited such that the need for stringent counter measures, such as evacuation and relocation of the nearby population, can be reasonably excluded. This paper discusses some of the innovative features of the EPR to address severe accident challenges. (author)

  10. EPR spectroscopy at DNP conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heckmann, J.; Goertz, St.; Meyer, W.; Radtke, E.; Reicherz, G.

    2004-01-01

    In terms of dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) studies and systematic target material research it is crucial to know the EPR lineshape of the DNP relevant paramagnetic centers. Therefore in Bochum an EPR spectrometer has been implemented into the 4 He evaporation DNP facility in order to perform EPR studies at DNP conditions (B=2.5 T, T=1 K). The spectrometer hardware and performance as well as first results are presented

  11. Quantitative EPR A Practitioners Guide

    CERN Document Server

    Eaton, Gareth R; Barr, David P; Weber, Ralph T

    2010-01-01

    This is the first comprehensive yet practical guide for people who perform quantitative EPR measurements. No existing book provides this level of practical guidance to ensure the successful use of EPR. There is a growing need in both industrial and academic research to provide meaningful and accurate quantitative EPR results. This text discusses the various sample, instrument and software related aspects required for EPR quantitation. Specific topics include: choosing a reference standard, resonator considerations (Q, B1, Bm), power saturation characteristics, sample positioning, and finally, putting all the factors together to obtain an accurate spin concentration of a sample.

  12. Identification of gamma-irradiated fruit juices by EPR spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleksieva, K. I.; Dimov, K. G.; Yordanov, N. D.

    2014-10-01

    The results of electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) study on commercially available juices from various fruits and different fruit contents: 25%, 40%, 50%, and 100%, homemade juices, nectars and concentrated fruit syrups, before and after gamma-irradiation are reported. In order to remove water from non- and irradiated samples all juices and nectars were filtered; the solid residue was washed with alcohol and dried at room temperature. Only concentrated fruit syrups were dried for 60 min at 40 °C in a standard laboratory oven. All samples under study show a singlet EPR line with g=2.0025 before irradiation with exception of concentrated fruit syrups, which are EPR silent. Irradiation of juice samples gives rise to complex EPR spectra which gradually transferred to "cellulose-like" EPR spectrum from 25% to 100% fruit content. Concentrated fruit syrups show typical "sugar-like" spectra due to added saccharides. All EPR spectra are characteristic and can prove radiation treatment. The fading kinetics of radiation-induced EPR signals were studied for a period of 60 days after irradiation.

  13. Multifrequency EPR study on freeze-dried fruits before and after X-ray irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yordanov, N.D. [Laboratory EPR, Institute of Catalysis, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 1113 Sofia (Bulgaria)]. E-mail: ndyepr@bas.bg; Aleksieva, K. [Laboratory EPR, Institute of Catalysis, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 1113 Sofia (Bulgaria); Dimitrova, A. [Laboratory EPR, Institute of Catalysis, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 1113 Sofia (Bulgaria); Georgieva, L. [Institute of Cryobiology and Food Technologies, 1162 Sofia (Bulgaria); Tzvetkova, E. [Institute of Cryobiology and Food Technologies, 1162 Sofia (Bulgaria)

    2006-09-15

    X-, K- and Q-band EPR studies on lyophilized whole pulp parts of blue plum, apricot, peach, melon as well as achens and pulp separately of strawberry before and after X-ray irradiation are reported. Before irradiation all samples show in X band a weak singlet EPR line with g=2.0030+/-0.0005, except melon, which is EPR silent. Immediately after irradiation all samples exhibit complex fruit-depending spectra, which decay with time and change to give, in ca. 50days, an asymmetric singlet EPR line with g=2.0041+/-0.0005. Only apricot pulp gave a typical ''sugar-like'' EPR spectrum. Singlet EPR lines recorded after irradiation in X -band are K- and Q-band resolved as typical anisotropic EPR spectra with g{sub ||}=2.0023+/-0.0003 and g{sub -}bar =2.0041+/-0.0005. In addition, K- and Q-band EPR spectra of all samples show a superposition with the six EPR lines of Mn{sup 2+} naturally present in the fruits. The saturation behavior of the EPR spectra of achens of lyophilized and fresh strawberry is also studied. The differences in g factors of samples before and after X-ray irradiation might be used for the identification of radiation processing of fruits in the case of pulp and the differences in the EPR saturation behavior might be used for the achens of strawberry.

  14. Multifrequency EPR study on freeze-dried fruits before and after X-ray irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yordanov, N. D.; Aleksieva, K.; Dimitrova, A.; Georgieva, L.; Tzvetkova, E.

    2006-09-01

    X-, K- and Q-band EPR studies on lyophilized whole pulp parts of blue plum, apricot, peach, melon as well as achens and pulp separately of strawberry before and after X-ray irradiation are reported. Before irradiation all samples show in X band a weak singlet EPR line with g=2.0030±0.0005, except melon, which is EPR silent. Immediately after irradiation all samples exhibit complex fruit-depending spectra, which decay with time and change to give, in ca. 50 days, an asymmetric singlet EPR line with g=2.0041±0.0005. Only apricot pulp gave a typical "sugar-like" EPR spectrum. Singlet EPR lines recorded after irradiation in X -band are K- and Q-band resolved as typical anisotropic EPR spectra with g=2.0023±0.0003 and g⊥=2.0041±0.0005. In addition, K- and Q-band EPR spectra of all samples show a superposition with the six EPR lines of Mn 2+ naturally present in the fruits. The saturation behavior of the EPR spectra of achens of lyophilized and fresh strawberry is also studied. The differences in g factors of samples before and after X-ray irradiation might be used for the identification of radiation processing of fruits in the case of pulp and the differences in the EPR saturation behavior might be used for the achens of strawberry.

  15. Alanine-EPR dosimetry system for high industrial as well radiotherapeutic dose measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobrovodsky, J.; Bukovjan, J.

    2005-01-01

    Slovak Institute of Metrology is developing new metrology standard for high doses, based on the alanine-EPR as a reference dosimetry system. A Bruker e-scan EPR analyser developed specifically for alanine dosimetry has improved stability of EPR measurement, especially at lower dose range. The standard e-scan system provides sensitivity below 1 Gray. After further improvement of the system and lowering of dose determination expanded uncertainty down below 1 %, its utilisation for radiotherapy field is expected (authors)

  16. EPR design for maintenance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krugmann, U.

    1998-01-01

    Preventive maintenance is very important in achieving high plant availability. For the European Pressurized Reactor (EPR) preventive maintenance has been carefully addressed in the design stage. This is particularly necessary because of the traditionally different maintenance strategies employed in France and Germany. This paper emphasizes the following features introduced in the ERP design to minimize the duration of the refueling outage: (1) containment accessibility during power operation; (2) overall plant layout to facilitate inspections and maintenances within the containment; and (3) safety system design for enabling preventive maintenance during power operation. (author)

  17. Radionuclide analyses of Saskatchewan caribou, 1995. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, P.A.

    1995-01-01

    Lichens, the main winter forage for caribou, adsorb radionuclides from air more efficiently than other plants. Caribou, in turn, are the main dietary staple for northern Saskatchewan residents. Uranium mining in the Wollaston Lake area of northern Saskatchewan has prompted a need to assess environmental impacts on both human and non-human biota in the area. The presence of caribou in the Wollaston Lake area in early 1995 allowed measurement of uranium and its decay products in these animals while on winter range relatively close to uranium mines. This report presents results of analyses of radionuclide levels in a variety of tissues from 18 caribou collected from the area in March 1995. Data are used to describe food chain transfer from rumen contents to caribou, and are compared with previous data on caribou in the Northwest Territories. The radionuclides investigated included uranium, radium-226, polonium-210, lead-210, and gamma emitters

  18. 75 FR 12804 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on EPR; Notice...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-17

    ... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on EPR; Notice of Meeting The ACRS U.S. Evolutionary Power Reactor (EPR) Subcommittee will hold a... Chapters 11 and 16 of the Safety Evaluation Report with Open Items associated with the U.S. EPR Design...

  19. EPR of gamma irradiated solid sucrose and UV spectra of its solution. An attempt for calibration of solid state/EPR dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yordanov, N.D.; Karakirova, Y.

    2007-01-01

    A simple new approach for independent calibration of solid state/EPR (SS/EPR) dosimetry system is reported. It is based on the fact that: (i) gamma-irradiation of solid sucrose (sugar) induces stable EPR detectable free radicals accompanied by UV detectable brown colour stable in the solid state and in solution; (ii) both the EPR intensity of gamma-irradiated solid sucrose and its solution UV absorbance linearly depend on the absorbed dose high energy radiation and may be independently used for dosimetric purpose; (iii) UV spectrometers are calibrated. The correlation between EPR response and absorbed dose radiation of solid sucrose and UV absorption of its solutions is used in the present communication for calibration purpose. The procedure of sucrose extraction from sucrose-paraffin dosimeters is described. The calibration procedure may be applied to any other (alanine, self-calibrated, etc.) SS/EPR dosimeters, simultaneously irradiated with sucrose

  20. Risk reduction category (RRC-A) accident studies in the safety analysis report of the EPR trademark reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poehlmann, M.; Bleher, G.; Ismaier, A.; Knoll, A.; Levi, P.; Garcia, E. Vera; Schels, A.; Seitz, H.; Lima Campos, L.

    2013-01-01

    The Risk Reduction Category (RRC-A) is considered in the safety demonstration of nuclear reactors in addition to design basis operating conditions (Plant Condition Category, PCC), in order to analyze with a risk reduction approach any operating conditions with multiple failures. As extending the operating conditions of the plant 'beyond design basis', the Risk Reduction Category (RRC-A) is also denoted as Design Extension Condition (DEC-A). In the German licensing framework, the RRCA (or DEC-A) transients correspond to safety assessment level '4b' of the 'Sicherheitsanforderungen an Kernkraftwerke' (Safety Requirements for Nuclear Power Plants), Az. RS I 5 - 13303/01 of the German Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety. These RRC-A (or DEC-A) operating conditions require specific design provisions (implemented by manual or automatic action), known as RRC-A measures, intended to render consequences of accumulated failures admissible. In contrast, RRC-B constitute severe accidents that lead to core melt. Identification of RRC-A operating conditions and corresponding RRC-A measures is based on the use of results of probabilistic safety assessments. After the Fukushima accident the RRC-A accidents like Station Black Out (SBO) or Loss of Ultimate Heat Sink (LUHS) are of particular interest in the safety assessment of nuclear new builds. In several chapters of the Safety Analysis Report it is demonstrated that the AREVA EPRTM design is resistant at RRC-A accident conditions. (orig.)

  1. Multisite EPR oximetry from multiple quadrature harmonics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, R; Som, S; Johnson, D H; Zweier, J L; Kuppusamy, P; Potter, L C

    2012-01-01

    Multisite continuous wave (CW) electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) oximetry using multiple quadrature field modulation harmonics is presented. First, a recently developed digital receiver is used to extract multiple harmonics of field modulated projection data. Second, a forward model is presented that relates the projection data to unknown parameters, including linewidth at each site. Third, a maximum likelihood estimator of unknown parameters is reported using an iterative algorithm capable of jointly processing multiple quadrature harmonics. The data modeling and processing are applicable for parametric lineshapes under nonsaturating conditions. Joint processing of multiple harmonics leads to 2-3-fold acceleration of EPR data acquisition. For demonstration in two spatial dimensions, both simulations and phantom studies on an L-band system are reported. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. EPR study on non- and gamma-irradiated herbal pills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aleksieva, K.; Lagunov, O.; Dimov, K.; Yordanov, N.D.

    2011-01-01

    The results of EPR studies on herbal pills of marigold, hawthorn, yarrow, common balm, tutsan, nettle and thyme before and after gamma-irradiation are reported. Before irradiation all samples exhibit one weak singlet EPR line with a g-factor of 2.0048±0.0005. After irradiation herbal pills could be separated in two groups according to their EPR spectra. Radiation-induced free radicals in pills of marigold, yarrow, nettle, tutsan and thyme could be attributed mainly to saccharide excipients. Tablets of hawthorn and common balm show 'cellulose-like' EPR spectrum, superimposed on partly resolved carbohydrate spectrum, due to the active part (herb) and inulin, which is present in the pills as an excipient. Fading study of the radiation-induced EPR signals confirms that sugar radicals are more stable than cellulose species. The reported results show that the presence of characteristic EPR spectra of herbal pills due to excipients or active part can be used as unambiguous proof of radiation processing within 35 or more days after irradiation.

  3. EPR study on non- and gamma-irradiated herbal pills

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aleksieva, K., E-mail: katerina_bas@abv.b [Institute of Catalysis, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 1113 Sofia (Bulgaria); Lagunov, O. [Institute of Catalysis, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 1113 Sofia (Bulgaria); Dimov, K. [Institute of Cryobiology and Food Technologies, 1162 Sofia (Bulgaria); Yordanov, N.D. [Institute of Catalysis, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 1113 Sofia (Bulgaria)

    2011-06-15

    The results of EPR studies on herbal pills of marigold, hawthorn, yarrow, common balm, tutsan, nettle and thyme before and after gamma-irradiation are reported. Before irradiation all samples exhibit one weak singlet EPR line with a g-factor of 2.0048{+-}0.0005. After irradiation herbal pills could be separated in two groups according to their EPR spectra. Radiation-induced free radicals in pills of marigold, yarrow, nettle, tutsan and thyme could be attributed mainly to saccharide excipients. Tablets of hawthorn and common balm show 'cellulose-like' EPR spectrum, superimposed on partly resolved carbohydrate spectrum, due to the active part (herb) and inulin, which is present in the pills as an excipient. Fading study of the radiation-induced EPR signals confirms that sugar radicals are more stable than cellulose species. The reported results show that the presence of characteristic EPR spectra of herbal pills due to excipients or active part can be used as unambiguous proof of radiation processing within 35 or more days after irradiation.

  4. EPR study on non- and gamma-irradiated herbal pills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleksieva, K.; Lagunov, O.; Dimov, K.; Yordanov, N. D.

    2011-06-01

    The results of EPR studies on herbal pills of marigold, hawthorn, yarrow, common balm, tutsan, nettle and thyme before and after gamma-irradiation are reported. Before irradiation all samples exhibit one weak singlet EPR line with a g-factor of 2.0048±0.0005. After irradiation herbal pills could be separated in two groups according to their EPR spectra. Radiation-induced free radicals in pills of marigold, yarrow, nettle, tutsan and thyme could be attributed mainly to saccharide excipients. Tablets of hawthorn and common balm show "cellulose-like" EPR spectrum, superimposed on partly resolved carbohydrate spectrum, due to the active part (herb) and inulin, which is present in the pills as an excipient. Fading study of the radiation-induced EPR signals confirms that sugar radicals are more stable than cellulose species. The reported results show that the presence of characteristic EPR spectra of herbal pills due to excipients or active part can be used as unambiguous proof of radiation processing within 35 or more days after irradiation.

  5. EPR of uranium ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ursu, I.; Lupei, V.

    1984-02-01

    A review of the electron paramagnetic resonance data on the uranium ions is given. After a general account of the electronic structure of the uranium free atoms and ions, the influence of the external fields (magnetic field, crystal fields) is discussed. The main information obtained from EPR studies on the uranium ions in crystals are emphasized: identification of the valence and of the ground electronic state, determination of the structure of the centers, crystal field effects, role of the intermediate coupling and of the J-mixing, role of the covalency, determination of the nuclear spin, maqnetic dipole moment and electric quadrupole moment of the odd isotopes of uranium. These data emphasize the fact that the actinide group has its own identity and this is accutely manifested at the beginning of the 5fsup(n) series encompassed by the uranium ions. (authors)

  6. EPR Flamanville 3, Site Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menager, Antoine

    2014-01-01

    Antoine Menager, the EPR Flamanville 3 Site Manager described the organization and the management of the Flamanville site during the construction phase. He placed emphasis on Health and Safety, Environmental and Social Responsibility and on Nuclear Safety and Quality

  7. Towards EPR (European pressurized reactor)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2003-01-01

    According to the French industry minister, it is nonsense continuing delaying the construction of an EPR prototype because France needs it in order to renew timely its park of nuclear reactors. The renewing is expected to begin in 2020 and will be assured with third generation reactors like EPR. A quick launching of the EPR prototype is necessary to have it being in service by 2012, the feedback operating experience that will be accumulated over the 8 years that will follow will be necessary to optimize the industrial version and to have it ready by 2020. The EPR reactor has indisputable assets: modern, safer, more competitive and it will produce less wastes than present nuclear reactors. The construction cost of an EPR prototype is estimated to 3 milliard Euros and the nuclear industry operators propose to finance it completely. The EPR prototype does not jeopardize the ambitious French program about renewable energy sources, France is committed to produce 21% of its electricity from renewable energies by 2010 and 10 milliard Euros will be invested over this period on wind energy. Nuclear energy and alternative energies must be considered as 2 aspects of a diversified energy policy. (A.C.)

  8. The use of deciduous molars in EPR dose reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-faramawy, N.A.; Wieser, A.

    2005-01-01

    The use of deciduous teeth in EPR dose reconstruction has the unique potential to measure individual doses that were accumulated in the early childhood in the age up to 12 years. It was found previously that due to the small size of deciduous incisors, the available amount of enamel is not sufficient for EPR measurements. Therefore, dose assessment with deciduous incisors can only be done by measurement of whole teeth, including enamel and dentine. The measurement of whole teeth instead of enamel alone is possibly less reliable for dose reconstruction because the stability of CO 2 - radicals (that are an indicator for the absorbed dose) in biologically active dentine is not known. In the present study naturally loosed deciduous molars were investigated. The feasibility of separating enamel from small size molars was analysed. EPR spectrum parameters of whole molars and separated enamel only were evaluated before and after laboratory irradiation. The EPR signal amplitudes of the CO 2 - and native signals were determined by spectrum deconvolution, in dependence on radiation dose in the range 0.1 - 10 Gy. The fading at room temperature of native and CO 2 - EPR signals was analysed. The detection threshold for absorbed dose in enamel was determined.

  9. ISS protocol for EPR tooth dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onori, S.; Aragno, D.; Fattibene, P.; Petetti, E.; Pressello, M.C.

    2000-01-01

    The accuracy in Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) dose reconstruction with tooth enamel is affected by sample preparation, dosimetric signal amplitude evaluation and unknown dose estimate. Worldwide efforts in the field of EPR dose reconstruction with tooth enamel are focused on the optimization of the three mentioned steps in dose assessment. In the present work, the protocol implemented at ISS in the framework of the European Community Nuclear Fission Safety project 'Dose Reconstruction' is presented. A combined mechanical-chemical procedure for ground enamel sample preparation is used. The signal intensity evaluation is carried out with powder spectra simulation program. Finally, the unknown dose is evaluated individually for each sample with the additive dose method. The unknown dose is obtained by subtracting a mean native dose from the back-extrapolated dose. As an example of the capability of the ISS protocol in unknown dose evaluation, the results obtained in the framework of the 2nd International Intercomparison on EPR tooth enamel dosimetry are reported

  10. A Regional PD Strategy for EPR Systems: Evidence-Based IT Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Jesper; Hertzum, Morten

    2006-01-01

    One of the five regions in Denmark has initiated a remark-able and alternative strategy for the development of Elec-tronic Patient Record (EPR) systems. This strategy is driven by Participatory Design (PD) experiments and based on evidence of positive effects on the clinical practice when using EPR...... systems. We present this PD strategy and our related research on evidence-based IT development. We report from a newly completed PD experiment with EPR in the region conducted through a close collaboration compris-ing a neurological stroke unit, the region’s EPR unit, the vendor, as well as the authors....

  11. Chemical analyses of rocks, minerals, and detritus, Yucca Mountain--Preliminary report, special report No. 11

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, C.A.; Livingston, D.E.

    1993-09-01

    This chemical analysis study is part of the research program of the Yucca Mountain Project intended to provide the State of Nevada with a detailed assessment of the geology and geochemistry of Yucca Mountain and adjacent regions. This report is preliminary in the sense that more chemical analyses may be needed in the future and also in the sense that these chemical analyses should be considered as a small part of a much larger geological data base. The interpretations discussed herein may be modified as that larger data base is examined and established. All of the chemical analyses performed to date are shown in Table 1. There are three parts to this table: (1) trace element analyses on rocks (limestone and tuff) and minerals (calcite/opal), (2) rare earth analyses on rocks (tuff) and minerals (calcite/opal), and (3) major element analyses + CO 2 on rocks (tuff) and detritus sand. In this report, for each of the three parts of the table, the data and its possible significance will be discussed first, then some overall conclusions will be made, and finally some recommendations for future work will be offered

  12. EPR by Areva. EPR the 1600+ MWe reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    This brochure presents the GEN III+ EPR reactor designed by the Areva and Siemens consortium. The EPR reactor is a direct descendent of the well-proven N4 and KONVOI reactors, the most modern reactors in France and Germany. The EPR was designed by teams from KWU/Siemens and Framatome, EDF in France and the major German utilities, working in collaboration with both French and German safety authorities. The EPR integrates the results of decades of R and D programs, in particular those performed by the CEA (French Atomic Energy Commission) and the Karlsruhe Research Center in Germany. The EPR benefits from the experience of several thousand reactor-years of operation of pressurized water reactor technology. This experience has put 87 AREVA PWRs online throughout the world. Innovative Features: - An outer shell covering the reactor building, the spent fuel building and two of the four safeguard buildings provides protection against large commercial or military aircraft crash. - A heavy neutron reflector that surrounds the reactor core lowers uranium consumption. - An axial economizer inside the steam generator allows a high level of steam pressure and therefore high plant efficiency. - A core catcher allows passive collection and retention of the molten core should the reactor vessel fail in the highly unlikely event of a core melt. - A digital technology and a fully computerized control room with an operator friendly man-machine interface improve the reactor protection system.

  13. EPR by Areva. EPR the 1600+ MWe reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    This brochure presents the GEN III+ EPR reactor designed by the Areva and Siemens consortium. The EPR reactor is a direct descendent of the well-proven N4 and KONVOI reactors, the most modern reactors in France and Germany. The EPR was designed by teams from KWU/Siemens and Framatome, EDF in France and the major German utilities, working in collaboration with both French and German safety authorities. The EPR integrates the results of decades of R and D programs, in particular those performed by the CEA (French Atomic Energy Commission) and the Karlsruhe Research Center in Germany. The EPR benefits from the experience of several thousand reactor-years of operation of pressurized water reactor technology. This experience has put 87 AREVA PWRs online throughout the world. Innovative Features: - An outer shell covering the reactor building, the spent fuel building and two of the four safeguard buildings provides protection against large commercial or military aircraft crash. - A heavy neutron reflector that surrounds the reactor core lowers uranium consumption. - An axial economizer inside the steam generator allows a high level of steam pressure and therefore high plant efficiency. - A core catcher allows passive collection and retention of the molten core should the reactor vessel fail in the highly unlikely event of a core melt. - A digital technology and a fully computerized control room with an operator friendly man-machine interface improve the reactor protection system

  14. An XRPD and EPR spectroscopy study of microcrystalline calcite bioprecipitated by Bacillus subtilis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perito, B.; Romanelli, M.; Buccianti, A.; Passaponti, M.; Montegrossi, G.; Di Benedetto, F.

    2018-05-01

    We report in this study the first XRPD and EPR spectroscopy characterisation of a biogenic calcite, obtained from the activity of the bacterium Bacillus subtilis. Microcrystalline calcite powders obtained from bacterial culture in a suitable precipitation liquid medium were analysed without further manipulation. Both techniques reveal unusual parameters, closely related to the biological source of the mineral, i.e., to the bioprecipitation process and in particular to the organic matrix observed inside calcite. In detail, XRPD analysis revealed that bacterial calcite has slightly higher c/a lattice parameters ratio than abiotic calcite. This correlation was already noticed in microcrystalline calcite samples grown by bio-mineralisation processes, but it had never been previously verified for bacterial biocalcites. EPR spectroscopy evidenced an anomalously large value of W 6, a parameter that can be linked to occupation by different chemical species in the next nearest neighbouring sites. This parameter allows to clearly distinguish bacterial and abiotic calcite. This latter achievement was obtained after having reduced the parameters space into an unbiased Euclidean one, through an isometric log-ratio transformation. We conclude that this approach enables the coupled use of XRPD and EPR for identifying the traces of bacterial activity in fossil carbonate deposits.

  15. The inner containment of an EPR trademark pressurized water reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ostermann, Dirk; Krumb, Christian; Wienand, Burkhard [AREVA GmbH, Offenbach (Germany)

    2014-08-15

    On February 12, 2014 the containment pressure and subsequent leak tightness tests on the containment of the Finnish Olkiluoto 3 EPR trademark reactor building were completed successfully. The containment of an EPR trademark pressurized water reactor consists of an outer containment to protect the reactor building against external hazards (such as airplane crash) and of an inner containment that is subjected to internal overpressure and high temperature in case of internal accidents. The current paper gives an overview of the containment structure, the design criteria, the validation by analyses and experiments and the containment pressure test.

  16. Joint probabilities reproducing three EPR experiments on two qubits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roy, S. M.; Atkinson, D.; Auberson, G.; Mahoux, G.; Singh, V.

    2007-01-01

    An eight-parameter family of the most general non-negative quadruple probabilities is constructed for EPR-Bohm-Aharonov experiments when only three pairs of analyser settings are used. It is a simultaneous representation of three different Bohr-incompatible experimental configurations involving

  17. EPR structure of the gamma irradiated alanine spectrum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cabral P, A; Jimenez D, H; Urena N, F; Galindo, S; Bosch, P

    1992-03-15

    In this study is shown that the broadened five-line EPR pattern of the gamma irradiated alanine possibly decomposes into a more complex pattern when the recorded spectrum is subject to an operation of deconvolution. The EPR powder spectra of gamma irradiated DL- and L-alanine with and without binders are analysed. In all recorded spectra, each observed line is resolved into an asymmetrical triplet when a Gaussian distribution of 8.2 gauss width is removed, by deconvolution, from the observed spectrum. On the other hand, from a simple fitting analysis carried out on the original data, one encounters that some calculated relations between characteristic parameters, such as intensity ratios, deviate consistently from assumed height ratios. Both, from deconvolution and fitting results, a different structure is suggested for the observed broadened five-line EPR pattern of {gamma}-irradiated powder DL- and L-alanine. (Author)

  18. EPR structure of the gamma irradiated alanine spectrum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cabral P, A.; Jimenez D, H.; Urena N, F.; Galindo, S.; Bosch, P.

    1992-03-01

    In this study is shown that the broadened five-line EPR pattern of the gamma irradiated alanine possibly decomposes into a more complex pattern when the recorded spectrum is subject to an operation of deconvolution. The EPR powder spectra of gamma irradiated DL- and L-alanine with and without binders are analysed. In all recorded spectra, each observed line is resolved into an asymmetrical triplet when a Gaussian distribution of 8.2 gauss width is removed, by deconvolution, from the observed spectrum. On the other hand, from a simple fitting analysis carried out on the original data, one encounters that some calculated relations between characteristic parameters, such as intensity ratios, deviate consistently from assumed height ratios. Both, from deconvolution and fitting results, a different structure is suggested for the observed broadened five-line EPR pattern of γ-irradiated powder DL- and L-alanine. (Author)

  19. The EPR layout design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mast, U.; Le Carrer, P.Y.

    2001-01-01

    General: The European Pressurised Water Reactor (EPR) is a French - German development for the next generation of Pressurised Water Reactor. The new reactor design is based on the experiences of operation and design of nuclear power plants in both countries. The EPR fulfils enhanced safety standards, higher availability and a longer service life. Utilities aspects: For the Utilities one important requirement is the reduction of personnel exposure during maintenance and in-service inspection. The other significant requirement is of economic nature. The main points influencing costs, which have also impact on the layout, are: outage times, accessibility of the reactor building and the available maintenance and set down areas. The Utilities have also required to load the spent fuel assemblies into the shipping cask from the bottom of the fuel pool, because of the exclusion of the drop of the cask and in order to avoid contamination at the outer cask shell. Layout and safety aspects: All safety relevant Nuclear Island (NI) buildings are designed against design earthquake as well as explosion pressure wave. The protection against Airplane Crash (APC) is realised by civil and layout dispositions. The Reactor Building, the Safeguard Buildings division 2 and 3 and the Fuel Building are protected by concrete structures. The other safety relevant nuclear buildings are protected by geographical separation. Important safety requirements are the further reduction of the probability of severe accidents and the mitigation of such an accident on the plant area. For that, a spreading area for molten corium, a channel from the reactor pit to the spreading area and the In Containment Refuelling Water Storage Tank (IRWST) for flooding and initial cooling of the corium, were implemented in the design of the Reactor Building. Layout results: The following buildings are arranged on a common raft to protect them against design earthquake: Reactor Building (RB), Safeguard Buildings (SAB

  20. The EPR in a few words: all you need to know about the EPR nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    After a brief presentation of the EPR (European - or Evolutionary - Pressurized Reactor) type nuclear reactor, this paper, proposed by the collective group 'Stop EPR', develops the following points: EPR is as dangerous as other reactors; EPR flouts democracy; France's energy demand do not need the construction of EPRs; the construction of EPRs is not a factor of economical and social development; EPR should not be constructed neither in France nor elsewhere and the present building sites should be cancelled; the EPR will not help France to increase its energy independence and protect itself from oil price increases; choosing the EPR is incompatible with the large investments to be made in energy conservation and renewable energies; the EPR is not a solution to climate change; the VHV line corridor that will starts at Flamanville is not justified and poses risks to the environment and public health

  1. Deconvolution of EPR spectral lines with an approximate method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jimenez D, H.; Cabral P, A.

    1990-10-01

    A recently reported approximation expression to deconvolution Lorentzian-Gaussian spectral lines. with small Gaussian contribution, is applied to study an EPR line shape. The potassium-ammonium solution line reported in the literature by other authors was used and the results are compared with those obtained by employing a precise method. (Author)

  2. Rapid-scan EPR imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, Sandra S; Shi, Yilin; Woodcock, Lukas; Buchanan, Laura A; McPeak, Joseph; Quine, Richard W; Rinard, George A; Epel, Boris; Halpern, Howard J; Eaton, Gareth R

    2017-07-01

    In rapid-scan EPR the magnetic field or frequency is repeatedly scanned through the spectrum at rates that are much faster than in conventional continuous wave EPR. The signal is directly-detected with a mixer at the source frequency. Rapid-scan EPR is particularly advantageous when the scan rate through resonance is fast relative to electron spin relaxation rates. In such scans, there may be oscillations on the trailing edge of the spectrum. These oscillations can be removed by mathematical deconvolution to recover the slow-scan absorption spectrum. In cases of inhomogeneous broadening, the oscillations may interfere destructively to the extent that they are not visible. The deconvolution can be used even when it is not required, so spectra can be obtained in which some portions of the spectrum are in the rapid-scan regime and some are not. The technology developed for rapid-scan EPR can be applied generally so long as spectra are obtained in the linear response region. The detection of the full spectrum in each scan, the ability to use higher microwave power without saturation, and the noise filtering inherent in coherent averaging results in substantial improvement in signal-to-noise relative to conventional continuous wave spectroscopy, which is particularly advantageous for low-frequency EPR imaging. This overview describes the principles of rapid-scan EPR and the hardware used to generate the spectra. Examples are provided of its application to imaging of nitroxide radicals, diradicals, and spin-trapped radicals at a Larmor frequency of ca. 250MHz. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Seismic analyses of Paks RB. Progress report 1993-1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David, M [David Consulting, Engineering and Design Office (Czech Republic)

    1995-07-01

    The dynamic analysis presented in this report refers to the seismic analysis of the main building of Paks NPP. The following tasks which have been completed are described: design of 3-dimensional model of the main building; calculation of frequencies and modes of free vibrations; determination of modal masses for all modes of vibrations; floor response spectra as response to seismic excitation assumed for the Paks site; relative response of seismic acceleration at the top of the condensing tower.

  4. EPR: Some History and Clarification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fine, Arthur

    2002-04-01

    Locality, separation and entanglement 1930s style. We’ll explore the background to the 1935 paper by Einstein, Podolsky and Rosen, how it was composed, the actual argument of the paper, the principles used, and how the paper was received by Schroedinger, and others.We’ll also look at Bohr’s response: the extent to which Bohr connects with what Einstein was after in EPR and the extent to EPR marks a shift in Bohr’s thinking about the quantum theory.

  5. Some ideas on the EPR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    Facing the debate and controversial between partisans and opponents of the European Pressurized Reactor construction, the SFP energy Group aims to offer some reflexions. In this framework the following topics are discussed: the french nuclear park and its replacement, the energy costs, the nuclear reactors profitability, the generation IV reactors. The paper examines then the EPR technology and its cost to conclude on the advantage of an EPR construction, in the case of an energy policy based on the nuclear. This last point seems to be the real challenge of the problem. (A.L.B.)

  6. EPR in B physics and elsewhere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lipkin, H.J.; Tel Aviv Univ.; Argonne National Lab., IL

    1997-01-01

    The application of Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen correlations in Υ(4s) → B anti B decays to research in CP violation is the first and probably only use of EPR as a technique for research in new physics. Elsewhere highly sophisticated EPR projects question EPR and test its predictions to look for violations of quantum mechanics, hidden variables, Bell''s inequalities, etc

  7. Progress Report on Computational Analyses of Water-Based NSTF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lv, Q. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Kraus, A. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Hu, R. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Bucknor, M. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Lisowski, D. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Nunez, D. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2017-08-01

    CFD analysis has been focused on important component-level phenomena using STARCCM+ to supplement the system analysis of integral system behavior. A notable area of interest was the cavity region. This area is of particular interest for CFD analysis due to the multi-dimensional flow and complex heat transfer (thermal radiation heat transfer and natural convection), which are not simulated directly by RELAP5. CFD simulations allow for the estimation of the boundary heat flux distribution along the riser tubes, which is needed in the RELAP5 simulations. The CFD results can also provide additional data to help establish what level of modeling detail is necessary in RELAP5. It was found that the flow profiles in the cavity region are simpler for the water-based concept than for the air-cooled concept. The local heat flux noticeably increases axially, and is higher in the fins than in the riser tubes. These results were utilized in RELAP5 simulations as boundary conditions, to provide better temperature predictions in the system level analyses. It was also determined that temperatures were higher in the fins than the riser tubes, but within design limits for thermal stresses. Higher temperature predictions were identified in the edge fins, in part due to additional thermal radiation from the side cavity walls.

  8. EPR: the nuclear impasse; EPR: l'impasse nucleaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marillier, F [Association Ecologiste Greenpeace (France)

    2008-07-01

    The questions relative to the climatic change constitute crucial challenges for the next ten years. In this context the author aims to show how the EPR project illustrates the nuclear french ''autism''. He presents and analyzes the international and environmental impacts of this obsolete technology, as a project useless and dangerous. (A.L.B.)

  9. EPR: the nuclear impasse; EPR: l'impasse nucleaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marillier, F. [Association Ecologiste Greenpeace (France)

    2008-07-01

    The questions relative to the climatic change constitute crucial challenges for the next ten years. In this context the author aims to show how the EPR project illustrates the nuclear french ''autism''. He presents and analyzes the international and environmental impacts of this obsolete technology, as a project useless and dangerous. (A.L.B.)

  10. Final report on improved N15 analyser NOI-6e

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meier, G.; Hollenthoner, S.

    1985-05-01

    This report gives a general view of the computerized NOI-6e nitrogen analyzer. The construction of the new prototype is described. The new version of the N15 analyzer together with the microcomputer program which has been developed improves the convenience of operation and also has high reliability. Many practical test measurements have been made. The most important result is the remarkable reduction of the standard deviation σsub(x): a standard deviation of less than 0.5% is achieved. We have not found such a low standard deviation in descriptions of similar analyzers which use emission spectroscopy

  11. EPR correlations and EPW distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bell, J.S.

    1995-01-01

    In the case of two free spin-zero particles, the wave function originally considered by Einstein, Podolsky and Rosen to exemplify EPR correlations has a non-negative Wigner distribution. This distribution gives an explicitly local account of the correlations. For an irreducible non-locality, more elaborate wave functions are required, with Wigner distributions which are not non-negative. (author)

  12. EPR measurements in irradiated polyacetylene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hola, O.; Foeldesova, M.

    1990-01-01

    The influence of γ-irradiation on the paramagnetic properties of polyacetylene, and the dependence of the EPR spectra on the radiation dose in samples of irradiated polyacetylene were studied. The measurements show that no essential changes of the spin mobility occurred during irradiation. (author) 3 refs.; 2 figs

  13. EPR study of human hair

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Křížová, Jana; Káfuňková, Eva; Stopka, Pavel

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 99, č. 14 (2005), s. 217-218 ISSN 0009-2770 R&D Projects: GA MZd(CZ) NL7567; GA MZd(CZ) NB7377 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40320502 Keywords : EPR Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 0.445, year: 2005

  14. Analysis of the consequences of the anomaly in the Flamanville EPR reactor pressure vessel head domes on their serviceability. Report to the Advisory Committee of Experts for Nuclear Pressure Equipment. Public version. Session of 26 and 27 June 2017

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CATTEAU, R.; HERVIOU, K.

    2017-06-01

    The Flamanville EPR reactor pressure vessel closure and bottom head domes were manufactured in 2006 and 2007 by forging in the Areva NP Creusot Forge plant. These components are subject to the technical qualification requirement of the ESPN order in reference because they present a risk of heterogeneity in their properties. For the purposes of this technical qualification, Areva NP measured bending rupture energy values lower than those mentioned in point 4 of appendix I to the ESPN order in reference [3], which led it in 2015 to propose an approach to ASN to demonstrate the adequate toughness of the material of these components, based on a program of testing on scale-one replica domes and mechanical assessments of the risk of fast fracture. This approach was examined by ASN and the French institute for radiation protection and nuclear safety (IRSN) and written up in the report in reference, was the subject of an opinion in reference of the Advisory Committee of experts for nuclear pressure equipment (GP ESPN), which met on 30 September 2015, and of ASN requests, more specifically concerning the in-service inspection provisions, in its letter in reference. Subject to these requests being taken into account, ASN considered that the demonstration approach is appropriate, provided that the phenomenon in question is identified and explained and that the data acquired through the test program are sufficient to characterise it. The first test results, in April 2016, led Areva NP to change its demonstration approach, notably the test program on scale-one replica domes, which gave rise to an information meeting with the GP ESPN on 24 June 2016, on the basis of the summary report drawn up by ASN and IRSN in reference. On the basis of the observations of the GP ESPN in reference, ASN informed Areva NP of additional requests in its letter in reference. The Areva NP test program was conducted for the most part in 2016. On 16 December 2016, Areva NP sent ASN a file in reference

  15. Use of EPR to Solve Biochemical Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, Indra D.; McCarrick, Robert M.; Lorigan, Gary A.

    2013-01-01

    EPR spectroscopy is a very powerful biophysical tool that can provide valuable structural and dynamic information on a wide variety of biological systems. The intent of this review is to provide a general overview for biochemists and biological researchers on the most commonly used EPR methods and how these techniques can be used to answer important biological questions. The topics discussed could easily fill one or more textbooks; thus, we present a brief background on several important biological EPR techniques and an overview of several interesting studies that have successfully used EPR to solve pertinent biological problems. The review consists of the following sections: an introduction to EPR techniques, spin labeling methods, and studies of naturally occurring organic radicals and EPR active transition metal systems which are presented as a series of case studies in which EPR spectroscopy has been used to greatly further our understanding of several important biological systems. PMID:23961941

  16. Deploying the advanced U.S. EPR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagan, C.

    2007-01-01

    As electricity demand, clean air concerns and energy prices increase in the U.S., interest in new nuclear reactors is also on the rise. These factors - along with decades of outstanding performance of the nation's existing nuclear fleet - have contributed to a favorable market for new nuclear power in the U.S. Although no U.S. company has declared it actually will buy and build new reactors, many have actively expressed their interest through investment and regulatory interaction. The timing is also right for new reactors in terms of public perception, government policy and acceptance of the investment community. Amid this environment, the U.S. commercial power industry recently has begun pursuing new nuclear generation in earnest. AREVA, whose ongoing global market analyses indicated the need for additional baseload nuclear generation in the U.S., chose to license its EPR design to meet that need. This article will discuss the American market landscape for new nuclear and how AREVA is approaching it, present an overview of the company's U.S. EPR technology, and provide an update on the regulatory status of the design and deployment schedule. (orig.)

  17. EPR and UV spectrometry investigation of sucrose irradiated with carbon particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karakirova, Yordanka; Yordanov, Nicola D.

    2010-01-01

    Solid state/EPR (SS/EPR) dosimeters of carbon ions irradiated sucrose are studied with EPR, and their water solutions - with UV spectroscopy. Doses between 20 and 200 Gy are used with linear energy transfer (LET) values for carbon ions of 63, 77, 96 and 230 keV μm -1 . After irradiation all samples show typical for irradiated sucrose EPR and UV spectra. The obtained data are compared with those previously reported for nitrogen particles and gamma rays irradiated sucrose. The identical shape of both the EPR and UV spectra of irradiated with various type radiation samples suggests that generated free radicals are not influenced by the nature of radiation. The lack of difference in the line width of the separate lines or the whole EPR spectrum, obtained for gamma and heavy particles irradiation, suggests negligible spin-spin interaction among the radiation-generated free radicals in the samples. The linear dependence of the EPR response on the absorbed dose radiation is found to be higher when generated by gamma rays, than by the same absorbed dose of heavy particles. In addition, the EPR response for carbon ions is higher than that for nitrogen ions. Water solutions of irradiated sucrose exhibit UV spectrum with absorption maximum at 267 nm, attributed to the recombination products of free radicals. The UV band intensity depends on the absorbed dose radiation. The UV spectra obtained for carbon, nitrogen and gamma rays irradiated sucrose are also compared.

  18. In vitro Ca(2+)-dependent maturation of milk-clotting recombinant Epr: minor extracellular protease: from Bacillus licheniformis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ageitos, José Manuel; Vallejo, Juan Andrés; Serrat, Manuel; Sánchez-Pérez, Angeles; Villa, Tomás G

    2013-06-01

    The minor extracellular protease (Epr) is secreted into the culture medium during Bacillus licheniformis, strain USC13, stationary phase of growth. Whereas, B. subtilis Epr has been reported to be involved in swarming; the B. licheniformis protease is also involved in milk-clotting as shown by the curd forming ability of culture broths expressing this protein. The objectives of this study are the characterization of recombinant B. licheniformis Epr (minor extracellular protease) and the determination of its calcium-dependent activation process. In this work, we have cloned and expressed B. licheniformis Epr in Escherichia coli. We were also able to construct a tridimensional model for Epr based on its homology to Thermococcus kodakarensis pro-tk-subtilisin 2e1p, fervidolysin from Fervidobacterium pennivorans 1rv6, and B. lentus 1GCI subtilisin. Recombinant Epr was accumulated into inclusion bodies; after protein renaturation, Epr undergoes an in vitro calcium-dependent activation, similar to that described for tk protease. The recombinant Epr is capable of producing milk curds with the same clotting activity previously described for the native B. licheniformis Epr enzyme although further rheological and industrial studies should be carried out to confirm its real applicability. This work represents for the first time that Epr may be successfully expressed in a non-bacilli microorganism.

  19. EPR-technical codes - a common basis for the EPR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaiss, W.; Appell, B.

    1997-01-01

    The design and construction of Nuclear Power Plants implies a full set of codes and standards to define the construction rules of components and equipment. Rules are existing and are currently implemented, respectively in France and Germany (mainly RCCs and KTA safety standards). In the frame of the EPR-project, the common objective requires an essential industrial work programme between engineers from both countries to elaborate a common set of codes and regulations. These new industrial rules are called the ETCs (EPR Technical Codes). In the hierarchy the ETCs are - in case of France - on the common level of basic safety rules (RFS), design and construction rules (RCC) and - in Germany - belonging to RSK guidelines and KTA safety standards. A set of six ETCs will be elaborated to cover: safety and process, mechanical components, electrical equipment, instrumentation and control, civil works, fire protection. (orig.)

  20. The Flamanville 3 EPR reactor; Le reacteur EPR Flamanville 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    On April 10. 2007, the french government authorized EDF to create on the site of Flamanville ( La Manche) a nuclear base installation containing a pressurized water EPR type reactor. This nuclear reactor, conceived by AREVA NP and EDF, is the first copy of a generation susceptible to replace later, at least partly, the French nuclear reactors at present in operation.Within the framework of its mission of technical support of the Authority of Nuclear Safety ( A.S.N.), the I.R.S.N. widely contributed successively: to define the general objectives of safety assigned to this new generation of pressurized water nuclear reactors; to analyze the options of safety proposed by EDF for the EPR project; To deepen, upstream to the authorization of creation, the evaluation of the step of safety and the measures of conception retained by EDF that have to allow to respect the objectives of safety which were notified to it. (N.C.)

  1. EPR compared to international requirements (Mainly EUR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broecker, B.

    1996-01-01

    A number of European Utilities have entered an agreement to write common requirements dedicated to future light water nuclear power plants to be built in Europe. The activities are known under the sign EUR (European Utilities Requirements). EPR, the future European Pressurized water Reactor, is the first installation of this type which will be operational from the year 2000 onwards, must fulfill the European requirements. EPR will serve as a test whether these requirements are realistic and well balanced. At the basic design stage of EPR, this paper concentrates on four main topics: the requirements which are new compared with existing reactors and which put a major challenge to the designer; the requirements today still open and the way they can be met by the EPR or not; the points for which already today the EPR special requirements exceed the EUR; the examples where the design of the EPR has given feedback which has led to a change of the EUR. EPR and EUR are different approaches to the reactor of the future. EUR is a set of requirements which leaves a flexibility to the designer while EPR is a real project which defines the technical solutions. EPR will fulfill the EUR and will at the same time serve as a test whether these requirements are realistic. EPR will also fulfill international requirements with minor changes. (J.S.). 7 figs

  2. X- and Q-band EPR studies on fine powders of irradiated plants. New approach for detection of their radiation history by using Q-band EPR spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yordanov, Nicola D.; Aleksieva, Katerina

    2004-01-01

    X- and Q-band EPR studies after γ-irradiation of some dry spices and aromatic herbs are reported. Before irradiation all samples show only one singlet line in X-band EPR, whereas the Q-band EPR spectrum of the same samples is a superposition of two individual spectra--one corresponding to the above EPR signal, with an anisotropic spectrum, and a second one consisting of six lines due to the Mn 2+ naturally present in plants. The radiation induced EPR signal due to cellulose free radicals was not detected after γ-irradiation, but only the increase of the natural signal present before the irradiation. The fading kinetic of this EPR signal was monitored in three cases--when samples were kept in plastic bags without any special conditioning after irradiation, when samples were covered with paraffin before irradiation and when samples were dried at 60 deg. C for 1 h before irradiation. The studies show that stability of radiation induced EPR signals decreases in the order of: paraffin covered > heated before irradiation > kept at room conditions. The two EPR spectra in the Q-band--one with radiation dependent intensity and a second due to Mn 2+ , which is radiation independent allow identification of previous radiation treatment based on the fact that Mn 2+ quantity in the sample is constant whereas the quantity of radiation-induced free radicals is temperature dependent. It was found that for irradiated samples the ratio between EPR intensity of the free radicals and that of Mn 2+ before and after heating decreases with 50-60% whereas for non-irradiated samples it is ca. 10-15%

  3. Internal fire protection analysis for the United Kingdom EPR design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laid, Abdallah [Nuclear New Build Generation Company Ltd. (NNB GenCo), Barnwood (United Kingdom). EDF Energy Plc.; Cesbron, Mickael [Service Etudes et Project Thermiques et Nucleaires (SEPTEN), Lyon (France). EDF-SA

    2015-12-15

    In the deterministic design basis analysis of the United Kingdom (UK) EPR based nuclear power plants all postulated initiating events are grouped into two different types, internal faults and internal/external hazards. ''Internal Fires'' is one of the internal hazards analysed at the design stage of the UK EPR. In effect, the main safety objective for fire protection is to ensure that all the required safety functions are performed in the event of an internal fire. To achieve this safety objective, provisions for protection against fire risks are taken to: (i) limit the spread of a fire, protect the safety functions of the facility; (ii) limit the propagation of smoke and dispersion of toxic, radioactive, inflammable, corrosive or explosive materials, and (iii) ensure the achievement of a safe shutdown state, personnel evacuation and all other necessary emergency actions. This paper presents the UK EPR approach on how the above provisions are applied. Such provisions involve implementing means of fire prevention, surveillance, firefighting and limiting fire consequences, appropriate to the risks inherent to the facility. Overall, the design of the UK EPR fire protection systems is based on three types of measures: prevention, containment and control.

  4. EPR studies of melanin from Cladosporium cladosporioides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pilawa, B.; Buszman, E.; Latocha, M.; Wilczok, T.

    1996-01-01

    Free radical properties of Cladosporium cladosporioides mycelium and melanin, and synthetic eumelanin and pheomelanin were studied by electron paramagnetic resonance method. Single EPR line and complex EPR spectrum with hyperfine splitting were measured for model DOPA-melanin and cysteinyldopa-melanin, respectively. EPR spectra of Cladosporium cladosporioides samples and pheomelanin show the same character. The concentration of paramagnetic centers in melanins isolated from Cladosporium cladosporioides is considerably higher than that of crude mycelium, whereas the EPR line widths are lower for mycelium than for melanin samples. For all analyzed samples the increase of EPR signals intensity with the increase of microwave power, and the decrease of intensities after saturation were observed the low values of microwave power sufficient for EPR lines saturation demonstrate that the spin-lattice relaxation times of unpaired electrons in melanins are long. (author)

  5. EPR paradox, quantum nonlocality and physical reality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kupczynski, M

    2016-01-01

    Eighty years ago Einstein, Podolsky and Rosen demonstrated that instantaneous reduction of wave function, believed to describe completely a pair of entangled physical systems, led to EPR paradox. The paradox disappears in statistical interpretation of quantum mechanics (QM) according to which a wave function describes only an ensemble of identically prepared physical systems. QM predicts strong correlations between outcomes of measurements performed on different members of EPR pairs in far-away locations. Searching for an intuitive explanation of these correlations John Bell analysed so called local realistic hidden variable models and proved that correlations consistent with these models satisfy Bell inequalities which are violated by some predictions of QM and by experimental data. Several different local models were constructed and inequalities proven. Some eminent physicists concluded that Nature is definitely nonlocal and that it is acting according to a law of nonlocal randomness. According to these law perfectly random, but strongly correlated events, can be produced at the same time in far away locations and a local and causal explanation of their occurrence cannot be given. We strongly disagree with this conclusion and we prove the contrary by analysing in detail some influential finite sample proofs of Bell and CHSH inequalities and so called Quantum Randi Challenges. We also show how one can win so called Bell's game without violating locality of Nature. Nonlocal randomness is inconsistent with local quantum field theory, with standard model in elementary particle physics and with causal laws and adaptive dynamics prevailing in the surrounding us world. The experimental violation of Bell-type inequalities does not prove the nonlocality of Nature but it only confirms a contextual character of quantum observables and gives a strong argument against counterfactual definiteness and against a point of view according to which experimental outcomes are

  6. EPR paradox, quantum nonlocality and physical reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupczynski, M.

    2016-03-01

    Eighty years ago Einstein, Podolsky and Rosen demonstrated that instantaneous reduction of wave function, believed to describe completely a pair of entangled physical systems, led to EPR paradox. The paradox disappears in statistical interpretation of quantum mechanics (QM) according to which a wave function describes only an ensemble of identically prepared physical systems. QM predicts strong correlations between outcomes of measurements performed on different members of EPR pairs in far-away locations. Searching for an intuitive explanation of these correlations John Bell analysed so called local realistic hidden variable models and proved that correlations consistent with these models satisfy Bell inequalities which are violated by some predictions of QM and by experimental data. Several different local models were constructed and inequalities proven. Some eminent physicists concluded that Nature is definitely nonlocal and that it is acting according to a law of nonlocal randomness. According to these law perfectly random, but strongly correlated events, can be produced at the same time in far away locations and a local and causal explanation of their occurrence cannot be given. We strongly disagree with this conclusion and we prove the contrary by analysing in detail some influential finite sample proofs of Bell and CHSH inequalities and so called Quantum Randi Challenges. We also show how one can win so called Bell's game without violating locality of Nature. Nonlocal randomness is inconsistent with local quantum field theory, with standard model in elementary particle physics and with causal laws and adaptive dynamics prevailing in the surrounding us world. The experimental violation of Bell-type inequalities does not prove the nonlocality of Nature but it only confirms a contextual character of quantum observables and gives a strong argument against counterfactual definiteness and against a point of view according to which experimental outcomes are produced

  7. Pharmaceutical applications of in vivo EPR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maeder, K.

    1998-01-01

    The aim of this article is to discuss the applications of in vivo EPR in the field of pharmacy. In addition to direct detection of free radical metabolites and measurement of oxygen, EPR can be used to characterize the mechanisms of drug release from biodegradable polymers. Unique information about drug concentration, the microenvironment (viscosity, polarity, pH) and biodistribution (by localized measurement or EPR Imaging) can be obtained. (author)

  8. EPR-based material modelling of soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faramarzi, Asaad; Alani, Amir M.

    2013-04-01

    In the past few decades, as a result of the rapid developments in computational software and hardware, alternative computer aided pattern recognition approaches have been introduced to modelling many engineering problems, including constitutive modelling of materials. The main idea behind pattern recognition systems is that they learn adaptively from experience and extract various discriminants, each appropriate for its purpose. In this work an approach is presented for developing material models for soils based on evolutionary polynomial regression (EPR). EPR is a recently developed hybrid data mining technique that searches for structured mathematical equations (representing the behaviour of a system) using genetic algorithm and the least squares method. Stress-strain data from triaxial tests are used to train and develop EPR-based material models for soil. The developed models are compared with some of the well-known conventional material models and it is shown that EPR-based models can provide a better prediction for the behaviour of soils. The main benefits of using EPR-based material models are that it provides a unified approach to constitutive modelling of all materials (i.e., all aspects of material behaviour can be implemented within a unified environment of an EPR model); it does not require any arbitrary choice of constitutive (mathematical) models. In EPR-based material models there are no material parameters to be identified. As the model is trained directly from experimental data therefore, EPR-based material models are the shortest route from experimental research (data) to numerical modelling. Another advantage of EPR-based constitutive model is that as more experimental data become available, the quality of the EPR prediction can be improved by learning from the additional data, and therefore, the EPR model can become more effective and robust. The developed EPR-based material models can be incorporated in finite element (FE) analysis.

  9. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) in medical dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schauer, David A.; Iwasaki, Akinori; Romanyukha, Alexander A.; Swartz, Harold M.; Onori, Sandro

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes the fundamentals of electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and its application to retrospective measurements of clinically significant doses of ionizing radiation. X-band is the most widely used in EPR dosimetry because it represents a good compromise between sensitivity, sample size and water content in the sample. Higher frequency bands (e.g., W and Q) provide higher sensitivity, but they are also greatly influenced by water content. L and S bands can be used for EPR measurements in samples with high water content but they are less sensitive than X-band. Quality control for therapeutic radiation facilities using X-band EPR spectrometry of alanine is also presented

  10. Impact of the Enhanced Permeability and Retention (EPR Effect and Cathepsins Levels on the Activity of Polymer-Drug Conjugates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit K. Rajora

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Polymer-drug conjugates have demonstrated clinical potential in the context of anticancer therapy. However, such promising results have, to date, failed to translate into a marketed product. Polymer-drug conjugates rely on two factors for activity: (i the presence of a defective vasculature, for passive accumulation of this technology into the tumour tissue (enhanced permeability and retention (EPR effect and (ii the presence of a specific trigger at the tumour site, for selective drug release (e.g., the enzyme cathepsin B. Here, we retrospectively analyse literature data to investigate which tumour types have proved more responsive to polymer-drug conjugates and to determine correlations between the magnitude of the EPR effect and/or expression of cathepsin B. Lung, breast and ovarian cancers showed the highest response rate (30%, 47% and 41%, respectively for cathepsin-activated conjugates and 31%, 43%, 40%, across all conjugates. An analysis of literature data on cathepsin content in various tumour types showed that these tumour types had high cathepsin content (up to 3835 ng/mg for lung cancer, although marked heterogeneity was observed across different studies. In addition, these tumour types were also reported as having a high EPR effect. Our results suggest that a pre-screening of patient population could bring a more marked clinical benefit.

  11. EPR researches of tree cuts for estimating radio - ecological situation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bitenbayev, M.I.; Polyakov, A.I.

    2007-01-01

    Full text: The basic aim of present work is to study a possibility of nature object application, in this case the annual rings of trees, for reveal of the effects of post - radiation action for them by EPR method. The cuts of poplars at the age 70 years and older grown in various regions of Kazakhstan with increased level of radiation background were selected as the research objects. EPR spectra were registered for every annual ring separately at the room temperatures. On the basis of EPR experimental results it was ascertained that the EPR spectra of annual rings may be symbolically divided for two groups every of which is possessed of its own definite kind of the spectrum. The first group are the spectra of the annual rings relating to 1981 - 1999 years (in 1999 the trees were cut), and the second group are these of the rings relating 1934 - 1980 years. At that it has been showed that an additional exposure to γ-ray of Co 60 transforms the first group spectrum to the form typical for the second group, i.e. the radiation effect becomes apparent in these experiments. The analyses of EPR spectra parameters has been performed and a correlation between the dependences of intensity of certain components in the spectrum on gamma - irradiation dose and the age of the annul rings has been showed. One can suppose that the intensity changing of these spectrum components in the second group, concerned with free radical accumulation, was the results of long-term action to the object by ionizing radiations. The studied effects can be used for average estimation of absorbed doses of ionizing radiation by environment objects, in particular, by residents of regions surveyed

  12. Time-resolved EPR study of singlet oxygen in the gas phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruzzi, Marco; Sartori, Elena; Moscatelli, Alberto; Khudyakov, Igor V; Turro, Nicholas J

    2013-06-27

    X-band EPR spectra of singlet O2((1)Δg) and triplet O2((3)Σg(-)) were observed in the gas phase under low molecular-oxygen pressures PO2 = 0.175-0.625 Torr, T = 293-323 K. O2((1)Δg) was produced by quenching of photogenerated triplet sensitizers naphthalene C8H10, perdeuterated naphthalene, and perfluoronaphthalene in the gas phase. The EPR spectrum of O2((1)Δg) was also observed under microwave discharge. Integrated intensities and line widths of individual components of the EPR spectrum of O2((3)Σg(-)) were used as internal standards for estimating the concentration of O2 species and PO2 in the EPR cavity. Time-resolved (TR) EPR experiments of C8H10 were the main focus of this Article. Pulsed irradiation of C8H10 in the presence of O2((3)Σg(-)) allowed us to determine the kinetics of formation and decay for each of the four components of the O2((1)Δg) EPR signal, which lasted for only a few seconds. We found that the kinetics of EPR-component decay fit nicely to a biexponential kinetics law. The TR EPR 2D spectrum of the third component of the O2((1)Δg) EPR spectrum was examined in experiments using C8H10. This spectrum vividly presents the time evolution of an EPR component. The largest EPR signal and the longest lifetime of O2((1)Δg), τ = 0.4 s, were observed at medium pressure PO2 = 0.4 Torr, T = 293 K. The mechanism of O2((1)Δg) decay in the presence of photosensitizers is discussed. EPR spectra of O2((1)Δg) evidence that the spin-rotational states of O2((1)Δg) are populated according to Boltzmann distribution in the studied time range of 10-100 ms. We believe that this is the first report dealing with the dependence of O2((1)Δg) EPR line width on PO2 and T.

  13. Effect of the shape and size of dosimeters on the response of solid state/EPR dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yordanov, Nicola D.; Fabisiak, Slawomir; Lagunov, Oleg

    2006-01-01

    The influence of the shape and size of dosimeters used in solid state-EPR (SS/EPR) dosimetry on their response is reported. It is shown that for commonly used cylindrical (rod) shaped dosimeters of equal height, prepared of low (ε=<3) dielectric constant materials, linearity between their volume and the EPR response is observed when their diameter varies between 3 and 5mm. Further increase of the dosimeter's diameter is not recommended since the increased penetration of the dosimeter material into the electric component of the microwave field in the EPR cavity increases the dielectric losses and decreases the EPR response. In an attempt to improve the sensitivity of the SS/EPR dosimetry we have prepared and tested new, flat-shaped, dosimeters of low (ε∼2) dielectric constant materials which were found to exhibit: (i) linear EPR response within 1-5mm thickness; (ii) higher sensitivity than cylindrical dosimeters at equal sample volume; (iii) increased by ca. 270% EPR sensitivity at 5mm thickness compared to the cylindrical dosimeters with the same diameter (ca. 1.7 times increased sample volume). Using flat shape dosimeters of suitable size provides 2.7 times higher EPR sensitivity of single estimation

  14. High field high frequency EPR techniques and their application to single molecule magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwards, R.S.; Hill, S.; Goy, P.; Wylde, R.; Takahashi, S.

    2004-01-01

    We present details of a new high-field/high-frequency EPR technique, and its application to measurements of single-molecule magnets (SMMs). By using a quasi-optical set-up and microwave sources covering a continuous frequency range from 170 to 600 GHz, in conjunction with a millimetre-wave vector network analyser, we are able to measure EPR to high magnetic fields. For example, a g=2 system will exhibit EPR at about 14 T at a frequency of 400 GHz. We illustrate the technique by presenting details of recent high-frequency experiments on several SMMs which are variations of the well-known SMM Mn 12 -Ac. This material has a spin ground state of S=10 and large uniaxial anisotropy, hence frequencies above 300 GHz are required in order to observe EPR from the ground state

  15. Programs in Fortran language for reporting the results of the analyses by ICP emission spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roca, M.

    1985-01-01

    Three programs, written in FORTRAN IV language, for reporting the results of the analyses by ICP emission spectroscopy from data stored in files on floppy disks have been developed. They are intended, respectively, for the analyses of: 1) waters, 2) granites and slates, and 3) different kinds of geological materials. (Author) 8 refs

  16. EPR of CU+2:Mb single crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nascimento, O.R.; Ribeiro, S.C.; Bemski, G.

    1976-01-01

    Copper introduced into met-myoglobin crystals occupies various sites as indicated by EPR parameters. CU 2+ (A) is probably liganded to histidine A10, lysine A14 and asparagine GH4 (Banaszak, 1965) and shows super-hyperfine interaction with a single (imidazole) nitrogen. Cu 2+ (B) and Cu 2+ (C) correspond to other anisotropic sites described with lesser details. Cu 2+ (A) exhibits a transition to an isotropic form with a transition temperature of 40.5 0 C. This transition is indicative of a conformational change in myoglobin and could correspond to a motion of A helix away from the GH section. The transition temperature is 7 0 C higher than the previously reported (Atanasov, 1971) one for myoglobin in solution

  17. EPR project construction cost control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duflo, D.; Pouget-Abadie, X.; Dufour, A.; Kauffmann, G.

    2001-01-01

    The EPR project is now managed by EDF in cooperation with the German Utilities. The main engineering activities for this period are related to the preparation of construction project management, deepening of some safety issues, definition of the project technical reference. The EPR project concerns the so-called reference unit, that is an isolated first-off unit, with unit electrical power of about 1500 MW. The construction costs evaluated are those of the nuclear island, the conventional island, site facilities, installation work and the administrative buildings. The EPR project construction cost evaluation method applies to all the equipment installed and commissioned. It requires the availability of a preliminary project detailed enough to identify the bill of quantities. To these quantities are then assigned updated unit prices that are based either on cost bases for similar and recent facilities or taken from request for quotation for similar equipment or result from gains due to contractual conditions benefiting from simplifications in the functional and technical specifications. The input and output data are managed in a model that respects the breakdown on which the evaluation method is based. The structural organization of this method reflects a functional breakdown on the one hand (nuclear island, conventional island, common site elements) and on the other hand a breakdown according to equipment or activity (civil engineering, mechanics, electricity, instrumentation and control). This paper discusses the principle and the method of construction cost evaluation carried out, the cost data base and input and output parameters as well as results and oncoming cost analysis tasks. (author)

  18. EPR of exchange coupled systems

    CERN Document Server

    Bencini, Alessandro

    2012-01-01

    From chemistry to solid state physics to biology, the applications of Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) are relevant to many areas. This unified treatment is based on the spin Hamiltonian approach and makes extensive use of irreducible tensor techniques to analyze systems in which two or more spins are magnetically coupled. This edition contains a new Introduction by coauthor Dante Gatteschi, a pioneer and scholar of molecular magnetism.The first two chapters review the foundations of exchange interactions, followed by examinations of the spectra of pairs and clusters, relaxation in oligon

  19. EPR investigations on technetium compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abram, U.; Munze, R.; Kirmse, R.; Stach, J.

    1986-01-01

    Stimulated by the widespread use of the isotope /sup 99m/Tc in the field of nuclear medicine, there has been a substantial growth of interest in the chemistry of this man-made element. A particular need emerges for analytical methods allowing solution investigations of coordination compounds of technetium with low substance use. Considering these facts, Electron Paramagnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (EPR) appears to be a very suitable method because only very small amounts of the compounds are needed (lower than 1 mg). The resulting spectra give information regarding the valence state, symmetry and bonding properties of the compounds under study

  20. EPR spectroscopic investigation of psoriatic finger nails.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, Kouichi; Minakawa, Satoko; Sawamura, Daisuke

    2013-11-01

    Nail lesions are common features of psoriasis and found in almost half of the patients. However, there is no feasible spectroscopic method evaluating changes and severity of nail psoriasis. EPR (electron paramagnetic resonance) might be feasible for evaluating nail conditions in the patients of psoriasis. Finger nails of five cases with nail psoriasis, (three females and two males) were examined. Nail samples were subjected to the EPR assay. The small piece of the finger nail (1.5 × 5 mm(2)) was incubated in ~50 μM 5-DSA (5-doxylstearic acid) aqueous solutions for about 60 min at 37°C. After rinsing and wiping off the excess 5-DSA solution, the nail samples were measured by EPR. EPR spectra were analyzed using the intensity ratio (Fast/Slow) of the two motions at the peaks of the lower magnetic field. We observed two distinguishable sites on the basis of the EPR results. In addition, the modern EPR calculation was performed to analyze the spectra obtained. The nail psoriasis-related region is 2~3 times higher than that of the control. The present EPR results show that there are two distinguishable sites in the nail. In the case of nail psoriasis, the fragile components are 2~3 times more than those of the control. Thus, the EPR method is thought to be a novel and reliable method of evaluating the nail psoriasis. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. EPR STUDIES OF THERMALLY STERILIZED VASELINUM ALBUM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Paweł; Pilawa, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy was used for examination of free radicals in thermally treated vaselinum album (VA). Thermal treatment in hot air as sterilization process was tested. Conditions of thermal sterilization were chosen according to the pharmaceutical norms. Vaselinum album was heated at the following conditions (T--temperature, t--time): T = 160°C and t = 120 min, T = 170°C and t = 60 min and T = 180°C and t = 30 min. The aim of this work was to determine concentration and free radical properties of thermally sterilized VA. EPR analysis for VA was done 15 min after sterilization. EPR measurements were done at room temperature. EPR spectra were recorded in the range of microwave power of 2.2-70 mW. g-Factor, amplitudes (A) and line width (ΔBpp) of the spectra were determined. The shape of the EPR spectra was analyzed. Free radical concentration (N) in the heated samples was determined. EPR spectra were not obtained for the non heated VA. EPR spectra were detected for all thermally sterilized samples. The spectra revealed complex character, their asymmetry depends on microwave power. The lowest free radicals concentration was found for the VA sterilized at 180°C during 30 min. EPR spectroscopy is proposed as the method useful for optimization of sterilization process of drugs.

  2. Overview of LBB implementation for the EPR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cauquelin, C.

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the use of leak-before-break (LBB) analysis for EPR reactors. EPR is an evolutionary Nuclear Island of the 4 loop x 1500 Mwe class currently in the design phase. Application of LBB to the main coolant lines and resulting design impacts are summarized. Background information on LBB analysis in France and Germany is also presented

  3. Overview of LBB implementation for the EPR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cauquelin, C.

    1997-04-01

    This paper presents an overview of the use of leak-before-break (LBB) analysis for EPR reactors. EPR is an evolutionary Nuclear Island of the 4 loop x 1500 Mwe class currently in the design phase. Application of LBB to the main coolant lines and resulting design impacts are summarized. Background information on LBB analysis in France and Germany is also presented.

  4. EPR dosimetry with tooth enamel: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fattibene, Paola; Callens, Freddy

    2010-01-01

    When tooth enamel is exposed to ionizing radiation, radicals are formed, which can be detected using electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) techniques. EPR dosimetry using tooth enamel is based on the (presumed) correlation between the intensity or amplitude of some of the radiation-induced signals with the dose absorbed in the enamel. In the present paper a critical review is given of this widely applied dosimetric method. The first part of the paper is fairly fundamental and deals with the main properties of tooth enamel and some of its model systems (e.g., synthetic apatites). Considerable attention is also paid to the numerous radiation-induced and native EPR signals and the radicals responsible for them. The relevant methods for EPR detection, identification and spectrum analyzing are reviewed from a general point of view. Finally, the needs for solid-state modelling and studies of the linearity of the dose response are investigated. The second part is devoted to the practical implementation of EPR dosimetry using enamel. It concerns specific problems of preparation of samples, their irradiation and spectrum acquisition. It also describes how the dosimetric signal intensity and dose can be retrieved from the EPR spectra. Special attention is paid to the energy dependence of the EPR response and to sources of uncertainties. Results of and problems encountered in international intercomparisons and epidemiological studies are also dealt with. In the final section the future of EPR dosimetry with tooth enamel is analyzed.

  5. EPR meeting international safety standards with margin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazurkiewicz, S.M.; Brauns, J.; Blombach, J.

    2005-01-01

    The EPR provides technology that offers a solution to the market's need for safe, economic power. The EPR was originally developed through a joint effort between Framatome ANP and Siemens by incorporating the best technological features from the French and German nuclear reactor fleets into a cost-competitive product capable of international licensing. As such, the EPR is a global product with commercial units currently being built in Finland at the Olkiluoto site, and planned for France, at the Flamanville site. Framatome ANP has recently proposed four EPR units to China in response to a request for vendor bids. In addition, Framatome ANP has announced their intent to pursue design certification with the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). This paper discusses how EPR's innovative safety philosophy ensures compliance with international safety standards for advanced light-water reactors (ALWRs). (author)

  6. EPR meeting international safety standards with margin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazurkiewicz, S.M.; Brauns, J.; Blombach, J.

    2005-01-01

    The EPR provides technology that offers a solution to the market's need for safe, economic power. The EPR was originally developed through a joint effort between Framatome ANP and Siemens by incorporating the best technological features from the French and German nuclear reactor fleets into a cost-competitive product capable of international licensing. As such, the EPR is a global product with commercial units currently being built in Finland at the Olkiluoto site, and planned for France, at the Flamanville site. Framatome ANP has recently proposed four EPR units to China in response to a request for vendor bids. In addition, Framatome ANP has announced their intent to pursue design certification in with the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). This paper discusses how EPR's innovative safety philosophy ensures compliance with international safety standards for advanced light-water reactors (ALWRs). (author)

  7. Measurement of rotational dynamics by the simultaneous nonlinear analysis of optical and EPR data.

    OpenAIRE

    Hustedt, E J; Cobb, C E; Beth, A H; Beechem, J M

    1993-01-01

    In the preceding companion article in this issue, an optical dye and a nitroxide radical were combined in a new dual function probe, 5-SLE. In this report, it is demonstrated that time-resolved optical anisotropy and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) data can be combined in a single analysis to measure rotational dynamics. Rigid-limit and rotational diffusion models for simulating nitroxide EPR data have been incorporated into a general non-linear least-squares procedure based on the Marq...

  8. EPR dosimetry - present and future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Regulla, D.F.

    1999-01-01

    In the past, IAEA has played a central role in stipulating research and development in EPR high-dose standardisation as well as co-ordinating and organising international dose intercomparison programs, within the Member States of the United Nations from the mid-seventies till today. The future tasks of EPR dosimetry seem to tend towards different subjects such as biomarkers, biological radiation effects, post-accident dose reconstruction in the environment, and retrospective human dosimetry. The latter may be considered a promising tool for epidemiology on the way to re-define radiation risk of man for chronicle radiation exposures, based on e.g. South Ural civil population and radiation workers. There are on-going international activities in the field of standardising high-level dosimetry by the American Standards on Testing and Materials (ASTM), and the International Organisation of Standards (ISO) as well as those of the International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements (ICRU) considering the establishment of relevant recommendations concerning industrial radiation processing, but also human dose reconstruction. (author)

  9. EPR Dosimetry - Present and Future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Regulla, D.F. [GSF - National Research Centre for Environment and Health, Institute of Radiation Protection, 85764 Neuherberg (Germany)

    1999-07-01

    In the past, IAEA has played a central role in stipulating research and development in EPR high-dose standardisation as well as in coordinating and organising international dose intercomparison programs, within the Member States of the United Nations from the mid-seventies till today. The future tasks of EPR dosimetry seem to tend towards different subjects such as bio markers, biological radiation effects, post-accident dose reconstruction in the environment, and retrospective human dosimetry. The latter may be considered a promising tool for epidemiology on the way to re-define radiation risk of man for chronicle radiation exposures, based on e.g. South Ural civil population and radiation workers. There are on-going international activities in the field of standardising high-level dosimetry by the American Standards on Testing and Materials (Astm), and by the International Organisation of Standards (ISO). The International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements (ICRU) is considering the establishment of relevant recommendations concerning industrial radiation processing, but also human dose reconstruction. (Author)

  10. EPR Dosimetry - Present and Future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Regulla, D.F.

    1999-01-01

    In the past, IAEA has played a central role in stipulating research and development in EPR high-dose standardisation as well as in coordinating and organising international dose intercomparison programs, within the Member States of the United Nations from the mid-seventies till today. The future tasks of EPR dosimetry seem to tend towards different subjects such as bio markers, biological radiation effects, post-accident dose reconstruction in the environment, and retrospective human dosimetry. The latter may be considered a promising tool for epidemiology on the way to re-define radiation risk of man for chronicle radiation exposures, based on e.g. South Ural civil population and radiation workers. There are on-going international activities in the field of standardising high-level dosimetry by the American Standards on Testing and Materials (Astm), and by the International Organisation of Standards (ISO). The International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements (ICRU) is considering the establishment of relevant recommendations concerning industrial radiation processing, but also human dose reconstruction. (Author)

  11. Natural alpha recoil particle radiation and ionizing radiation sensitivities in quartz detected with EPR: implications for geochronometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rink, W.J.; Odom, A.L.

    1991-01-01

    The electron paramagnetic resonance EPR signals in granitic quartz samples of known age are studied. Time-integrated alpha recoil activity and EPR signal intensity are more significantly correlated than sample age and EPR signal intensity. Neutron activation analysis for internal uranium and thorium in quartz are reported. Natural germanium EPR signals are observed in pegmatitic quartz samples and one granitic quartz. Pegmatitic quartz exhibits germanium EPR center growth competing strongly with E' center growth, apparently leading to depleted natural concentrations of E' centers. Calculations of lattice vacancy accumulation associated with alpha recoil damage are presented and compared with concentrations of paramagnetic oxygen vacancies in the quartz. Based on the results reported, the potential and problems associated with dating quartz are discussed, relating both to accumulated lattice damage and the additive dose methods. (author)

  12. EPR studies of cooperative binding of Cu (II) to hemoglobin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Louro, S.R.W.; Tabak, M.

    1983-07-01

    The investigation of the relative affinities of the two pairs of hemoglobin copper sites by monitoring the EPR spectra of the complexes formed by the reaction of copper with deoxyhemoglobin is reported. A model in which two sites are assumed to accept copper ions in a noncooperative way is not able to predict the experimental results. Thus it is conclude that the binding of these ions to hemoglobin is a cooperative phenomenon. (Author) [pt

  13. Preparation and applicability of fresh fruit samples for the identification of radiation treatment by EPR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yordanov, Nicola D. [Laboratory EPR, Institute of Catalysis, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 1113 Sofia (Bulgaria)], E-mail: ndyepr@bas.bg; Aleksieva, Katerina [Laboratory EPR, Institute of Catalysis, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 1113 Sofia (Bulgaria)

    2009-03-15

    The results of electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) study on fresh fruits (whole pulp of pears, apples, peaches, apricots, avocado, kiwi and mango) before and after gamma-irradiation are reported using two drying procedures before EPR investigation. In order to remove water from non-irradiated and irradiated samples of the first batch, the pulp of fresh fruits is pressed, and the solid residue is washed with alcohol and dried at room temperature. The fruits of the second batch are pressed and dried in a standard laboratory oven at 40 deg. C. The results obtained with both drying procedures are compared. All samples under study show a singlet EPR line with g=2.0048{+-}0.0005 before irradiation. Irradiation gives rise to typical 'cellulose-like' EPR spectrum featuring one intensive line with g=2.0048{+-}0.0005 and two very weak satellite lines situated 3 mT at left and right of the central line. Only mango samples show a singlet line after irradiation. The fading kinetics of radiation-induced EPR signal is studied for a period of 50 days after irradiation. When the irradiated fruit samples are stored in their natural state and dried just before each EPR measurement, the satellite lines are measurable for less than 17 days of storage. Irradiated fruit samples, when stored dried, lose for 50 days ca. 40% of their radiation-induced radicals if treated with alcohol or ca. 70% if dried in an oven. The reported results unambiguously show that the presence of the satellite lines in the EPR spectra could be used for identification of radiation processing of fresh fruits, thus extending the validity of European Protocol EN 1787 (2000). Foodstuffs-Detection of Irradiated Food Containing Cellulose by EPR Spectroscopy. European Committee for Standardisation. Brussels for dry herbs.

  14. Preparation and applicability of fresh fruit samples for the identification of radiation treatment by EPR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yordanov, Nicola D.; Aleksieva, Katerina

    2009-01-01

    The results of electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) study on fresh fruits (whole pulp of pears, apples, peaches, apricots, avocado, kiwi and mango) before and after gamma-irradiation are reported using two drying procedures before EPR investigation. In order to remove water from non-irradiated and irradiated samples of the first batch, the pulp of fresh fruits is pressed, and the solid residue is washed with alcohol and dried at room temperature. The fruits of the second batch are pressed and dried in a standard laboratory oven at 40 deg. C. The results obtained with both drying procedures are compared. All samples under study show a singlet EPR line with g=2.0048±0.0005 before irradiation. Irradiation gives rise to typical 'cellulose-like' EPR spectrum featuring one intensive line with g=2.0048±0.0005 and two very weak satellite lines situated 3 mT at left and right of the central line. Only mango samples show a singlet line after irradiation. The fading kinetics of radiation-induced EPR signal is studied for a period of 50 days after irradiation. When the irradiated fruit samples are stored in their natural state and dried just before each EPR measurement, the satellite lines are measurable for less than 17 days of storage. Irradiated fruit samples, when stored dried, lose for 50 days ca. 40% of their radiation-induced radicals if treated with alcohol or ca. 70% if dried in an oven. The reported results unambiguously show that the presence of the satellite lines in the EPR spectra could be used for identification of radiation processing of fresh fruits, thus extending the validity of European Protocol EN 1787 (2000). Foodstuffs-Detection of Irradiated Food Containing Cellulose by EPR Spectroscopy. European Committee for Standardisation. Brussels for dry herbs

  15. Preparation and applicability of fresh fruit samples for the identification of radiation treatment by EPR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yordanov, Nicola D.; Aleksieva, Katerina

    2009-03-01

    The results of electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) study on fresh fruits (whole pulp of pears, apples, peaches, apricots, avocado, kiwi and mango) before and after gamma-irradiation are reported using two drying procedures before EPR investigation. In order to remove water from non-irradiated and irradiated samples of the first batch, the pulp of fresh fruits is pressed, and the solid residue is washed with alcohol and dried at room temperature. The fruits of the second batch are pressed and dried in a standard laboratory oven at 40 °C. The results obtained with both drying procedures are compared. All samples under study show a singlet EPR line with g=2.0048±0.0005 before irradiation. Irradiation gives rise to typical "cellulose-like" EPR spectrum featuring one intensive line with g=2.0048±0.0005 and two very weak satellite lines situated 3 mT at left and right of the central line. Only mango samples show a singlet line after irradiation. The fading kinetics of radiation-induced EPR signal is studied for a period of 50 days after irradiation. When the irradiated fruit samples are stored in their natural state and dried just before each EPR measurement, the satellite lines are measurable for less than 17 days of storage. Irradiated fruit samples, when stored dried, lose for 50 days ca. 40% of their radiation-induced radicals if treated with alcohol or ca. 70% if dried in an oven. The reported results unambiguously show that the presence of the satellite lines in the EPR spectra could be used for identification of radiation processing of fresh fruits, thus extending the validity of European Protocol EN 1787 (2000). Foodstuffs—Detection of Irradiated Food Containing Cellulose by EPR Spectroscopy. European Committee for Standardisation. Brussels for dry herbs.

  16. Thermal induced EPR signals in tooth enamel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fattibene, P.; Aragno, D.; Onori, S.; Pressello, M.C.

    2000-01-01

    Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy was used to detect the effects of temperature on powdered human tooth enamel, not irradiated in the laboratory. Samples were heated at temperature between 350 and 450, at 600 and at 1000 deg. C, for different heating times, between 6 min and 39 h. Changes in the EPR spectra were detected, with the formation of new signals. Possible correlation between the changes in EPR spectra and modifications in the enamel and in the mineral phase of bone detected with other techniques is discussed. The implications for dosimetric applications of signals induced by overheating due to mechanical friction during sample preparation are underlined

  17. Nitrosyl hemoglobins: EPR above 80 K

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wajnberg, E.; Bemski, G.; El-Jaick, L.J.; Alves, O.C.

    1995-03-01

    The EPR spectra of nitrosyl hemoglobin and myoglobin in different conditions (native, denatured and lyophilized), as well as of hematin-NO were obtained in the temperature range of 80 K-280 K. There is a substantial and reversible.decrease of the areas of the EPR spectra of all the hemoglobin samples above 150 K. The interpretation of the results implies the existence of two conformational states in thermal equilibrium only one of which is EPR detectable. Thermodynamical parameters are determined for the hexa and penta-coordinated cases. (author). 25 refs, 3 figs.

  18. Nitrosyl hemoglobins: EPR above 80 K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wajnberg, E.; Bemski, G.; El-Jaick, L.J.; Alves, O.C.

    1995-03-01

    The EPR spectra of nitrosyl hemoglobin and myoglobin in different conditions (native, denatured and lyophilized), as well as of hematin-NO were obtained in the temperature range of 80 K-280 K. There is a substantial and reversible.decrease of the areas of the EPR spectra of all the hemoglobin samples above 150 K. The interpretation of the results implies the existence of two conformational states in thermal equilibrium only one of which is EPR detectable. Thermodynamical parameters are determined for the hexa and penta-coordinated cases. (author). 25 refs, 3 figs

  19. EPR ohmic heating energy storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heck, F.M.; Stillwagon, R.E.; King, E.I.

    1977-01-01

    The Ohmic Heating (OH) Systems for all the Experimental Power Reactor (EPR) designs to date have all used temporary energy storage to assist in providing the OH current charge required to build up the plasma current. The energies involved (0.8 x 10 9 J to 1.9 x 10 9 J) are so large as to make capacitor storage impractical. Two alternative approaches are homopolar dc generators and ac generators. Either of these can be designed for pulse duty and can be made to function in a manner similar to a capacitor in the OH circuit and are therefore potential temporary energy storage devices for OH systems for large tokamaks. This study compared total OH system costs using homopolar and ac generators to determine their relative merits. The total system costs were not significantly different for either type of machine. The added flexibility and the lower maintenance of the ac machine system make it the more attractive approach

  20. Analysing the Relevance of Experience Partitions to the Prediction of Players’ Self-Reports of Affect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martínez, Héctor Pérez; Yannakakis, Georgios N.

    2011-01-01

    A common practice in modeling affect from physiological signals consists of reducing the signals to a set of statistical features that feed predictors of self-reported emotions. This paper analyses the impact of various time-windows, used for the extraction of physiological features, to the accur......A common practice in modeling affect from physiological signals consists of reducing the signals to a set of statistical features that feed predictors of self-reported emotions. This paper analyses the impact of various time-windows, used for the extraction of physiological features...

  1. EPR spectroscopy can help with paint pigment provenance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Troup, G.J.; Hutton, D.R.

    2000-01-01

    Full text: The microwave magnetic spectroscopic technique EPR can be used to determine the presence of paramagnetic impurities in paint pigments, and the purity of composition regarding the main colourant. Hence EPR can help determine provenance of pigments, just as it can for gemstones. Specimens of Lapis Lazuli (synthetic, Afghanistan, Chile, Greenland) showed quite recognisably different spectra, at room temperature, in a Varian E-12 X-band spectrometer (9.1 GHz frequency). Similarly, specimens of yellow ochre, two imported into Australia, one North Australian, another 95% pure Goethite, showed recognisably different spectra. The North Australian one uniquely gave a known radiation damage signal from quartz, perhaps to be expected, given the abundance of radioactive ores in the region. Further samples have been obtained and the results from these will be reported

  2. EPR method for the detection of sensitization in stainless steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clarke, W.L.; Cowan, R.L.

    1980-01-01

    The overall objective of the program was to improve the reliability of reactor system piping by increasing knowledge of failure causing mechanisms and by enhancing the capability for design evaluation and analysis. Toward the attainment of that objective, a technique has been developed to measure the degree of sensitization quantitatively in thermally treated AISI-304, -304L, -316 and 316L stainless steels. The Electrochemical Potentiokinetic Reactivation (EPR) test was developed because of an industrial need for a rapid, nondestructive, quantitative field test which could be used for assessing sensitization in reactor components. The EPR method consists of developing potentiokinetic curves on a polarized sample obtained by controlled potential sweep from the passive to the active region (reactivation) in a specific electrolyte; details of the test technique have been reported

  3. Homogeneity and EPR metrics for assessment of regular grids used in CW EPR powder simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crăciun, Cora

    2014-08-01

    CW EPR powder spectra may be approximated numerically using a spherical grid and a Voronoi tessellation-based cubature. For a given spin system, the quality of simulated EPR spectra depends on the grid type, size, and orientation in the molecular frame. In previous work, the grids used in CW EPR powder simulations have been compared mainly from geometric perspective. However, some grids with similar homogeneity degree generate different quality simulated spectra. This paper evaluates the grids from EPR perspective, by defining two metrics depending on the spin system characteristics and the grid Voronoi tessellation. The first metric determines if the grid points are EPR-centred in their Voronoi cells, based on the resonance magnetic field variations inside these cells. The second metric verifies if the adjacent Voronoi cells of the tessellation are EPR-overlapping, by computing the common range of their resonance magnetic field intervals. Beside a series of well known regular grids, the paper investigates a modified ZCW grid and a Fibonacci spherical code, which are new in the context of EPR simulations. For the investigated grids, the EPR metrics bring more information than the homogeneity quantities and are better related to the grids' EPR behaviour, for different spin system symmetries. The metrics' efficiency and limits are finally verified for grids generated from the initial ones, by using the original or magnetic field-constraint variants of the Spherical Centroidal Voronoi Tessellation method. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Homogeneity and EPR metrics for assessment of regular grids used in CW EPR powder simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crăciun, Cora

    2014-08-01

    CW EPR powder spectra may be approximated numerically using a spherical grid and a Voronoi tessellation-based cubature. For a given spin system, the quality of simulated EPR spectra depends on the grid type, size, and orientation in the molecular frame. In previous work, the grids used in CW EPR powder simulations have been compared mainly from geometric perspective. However, some grids with similar homogeneity degree generate different quality simulated spectra. This paper evaluates the grids from EPR perspective, by defining two metrics depending on the spin system characteristics and the grid Voronoi tessellation. The first metric determines if the grid points are EPR-centred in their Voronoi cells, based on the resonance magnetic field variations inside these cells. The second metric verifies if the adjacent Voronoi cells of the tessellation are EPR-overlapping, by computing the common range of their resonance magnetic field intervals. Beside a series of well known regular grids, the paper investigates a modified ZCW grid and a Fibonacci spherical code, which are new in the context of EPR simulations. For the investigated grids, the EPR metrics bring more information than the homogeneity quantities and are better related to the grids’ EPR behaviour, for different spin system symmetries. The metrics’ efficiency and limits are finally verified for grids generated from the initial ones, by using the original or magnetic field-constraint variants of the Spherical Centroidal Voronoi Tessellation method.

  5. EPR spectra induced by gamma-irradiation of some dry medical herbs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yordanov, N. D.; Lagunov, O.; Dimov, K.

    2009-04-01

    The radiation-induced EPR spectra in some medical herbs are reported. The samples studied are: (i) leaves of nettle, common balm, peppermint and thyme; (ii) stalks of common balm, thyme, milfoil, yarrow and marigold; (iii) blossoms of yarrow and marigold; (iv) blossoms and leaves of hawthorn and tutsan; and (v) roots of common valerian, nettle, elecampane (black and white), restharrows and carlina. Before irradiation all samples exhibit one weak anisotropic singlet EPR line with effective g-value of 2.0050±0.0002. The radiation-induced spectra fall into three groups. EPR spectra of irradiated blossoms of yarrow and marigold, stalks of common balm, thyme, tutsan and yarrow as well as roots of common valerian, nettle and elecampane (black and white) show "cellulose-like" EPR spectrum typical for irradiated plants. It is characterized by one intense central line with g=2.0050±0.0005 and two weak satellite lines situated ca. 30 G left and right to it. EPR spectra of gamma-irradiated restharrows and carlina are complex. They may be represented by one triplet corresponding to the "cellulose-like" EPR spectrum, one relatively intense singlet, situated in the center of the spectrum, and five weak additional satellite lines left and right to the center. The last spectrum was assigned as "carbohydrate-like" type. Only one intense EPR singlet with g=2.0048±0.0005 was recorded after irradiation of leaves of nettle and common balm. The lifetime of the radiation-induced EPR spectra was followed for a period of 3 months.

  6. EPR spectra induced by gamma-irradiation of some dry medical herbs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yordanov, N.D.; Lagunov, O.; Dimov, K.

    2009-01-01

    The radiation-induced EPR spectra in some medical herbs are reported. The samples studied are: (i) leaves of nettle, common balm, peppermint and thyme; (ii) stalks of common balm, thyme, milfoil, yarrow and marigold; (iii) blossoms of yarrow and marigold; (iv) blossoms and leaves of hawthorn and tutsan; and (v) roots of common valerian, nettle, elecampane (black and white), restharrows and carlina. Before irradiation all samples exhibit one weak anisotropic singlet EPR line with effective g-value of 2.0050±0.0002. The radiation-induced spectra fall into three groups. EPR spectra of irradiated blossoms of yarrow and marigold, stalks of common balm, thyme, tutsan and yarrow as well as roots of common valerian, nettle and elecampane (black and white) show 'cellulose-like' EPR spectrum typical for irradiated plants. It is characterized by one intense central line with g=2.0050±0.0005 and two weak satellite lines situated ca. 30 G left and right to it. EPR spectra of gamma-irradiated restharrows and carlina are complex. They may be represented by one triplet corresponding to the 'cellulose-like' EPR spectrum, one relatively intense singlet, situated in the center of the spectrum, and five weak additional satellite lines left and right to the center. The last spectrum was assigned as 'carbohydrate-like' type. Only one intense EPR singlet with g=2.0048±0.0005 was recorded after irradiation of leaves of nettle and common balm. The lifetime of the radiation-induced EPR spectra was followed for a period of 3 months

  7. EPR spectra induced by gamma-irradiation of some dry medical herbs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yordanov, N.D. [Laboratory EPR, Institute of Catalysis, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 1113 Sofia (Bulgaria)], E-mail: ndyepr@bas.bg; Lagunov, O. [Laboratory EPR, Institute of Catalysis, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 1113 Sofia (Bulgaria); Dimov, K. [Institute of Cryobiology and Food technology, 1162 Sofia (Bulgaria)

    2009-04-15

    The radiation-induced EPR spectra in some medical herbs are reported. The samples studied are: (i) leaves of nettle, common balm, peppermint and thyme; (ii) stalks of common balm, thyme, milfoil, yarrow and marigold; (iii) blossoms of yarrow and marigold; (iv) blossoms and leaves of hawthorn and tutsan; and (v) roots of common valerian, nettle, elecampane (black and white), restharrows and carlina. Before irradiation all samples exhibit one weak anisotropic singlet EPR line with effective g-value of 2.0050{+-}0.0002. The radiation-induced spectra fall into three groups. EPR spectra of irradiated blossoms of yarrow and marigold, stalks of common balm, thyme, tutsan and yarrow as well as roots of common valerian, nettle and elecampane (black and white) show 'cellulose-like' EPR spectrum typical for irradiated plants. It is characterized by one intense central line with g=2.0050{+-}0.0005 and two weak satellite lines situated ca. 30 G left and right to it. EPR spectra of gamma-irradiated restharrows and carlina are complex. They may be represented by one triplet corresponding to the 'cellulose-like' EPR spectrum, one relatively intense singlet, situated in the center of the spectrum, and five weak additional satellite lines left and right to the center. The last spectrum was assigned as 'carbohydrate-like' type. Only one intense EPR singlet with g=2.0048{+-}0.0005 was recorded after irradiation of leaves of nettle and common balm. The lifetime of the radiation-induced EPR spectra was followed for a period of 3 months.

  8. Pulsed EPR analysis of tooth enamel samples exposed to UV and {gamma}-radiations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marrale, M., E-mail: marrale@unipa.it [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Palermo, Viale delle Scienze, Edificio 18, 90128 Palermo (Italy); Gruppo V Sezione INFN, Catania, Italy and Unita CNISM, Palermo (Italy); Longo, A.; Brai, M. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Palermo, Viale delle Scienze, Edificio 18, 90128 Palermo (Italy); Gruppo V Sezione INFN, Catania (Italy) and Unita CNISM, Palermo (Italy); Barbon, A.; Brustolon, M. [Dipartimento di Scienze Chimiche, Universita degli Studi di Padova, Via Marzolo 1, 35131 Padova (Italy); Fattibene, P. [Istituto Superiore di Sanita, Viale Regina Elena 299, 00161 Rome (Italy)

    2011-09-15

    The electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy is widely applied for retrospective dosimetric purposes by means of quantitative detection of radicals in tooth enamel and bone samples. In this work we report a study by cw and pulsed EPR on two samples of human tooth enamel respectively irradiated by UV (254 nm) and {gamma}-exposed. The continuous wave (cw) EPR spectra have shown the usual presence in both samples of two types of CO{sub 2}{sup -} radicals, with axial and orthorombic g tensors. We have obtained the electron spin echo detected EPR (ED-EPR) spectra at 80 K of the two samples, and we have shown that they are suitable to mark the difference between the effects produced by the different irradiations. At low temperature the contribution to the ED-EPR spectrum of the mobile radical with the axial g tensor is still present in the UV irradiated sample, but not in the {gamma}-irradiated one, where its dynamics is too slow to average the g tensor. We have moreover studied the two-pulse electron spin echo decay on varying the microwave power, a well established method for measuring the Instantaneous Diffusion. We have found that the spectral diffusion parameter is almost the same for both radiation types, whereas the Instantaneous Diffusion is significantly larger for {gamma}-exposed samples than for UV irradiated ones. This difference is due to a higher local microscopic concentration of free radicals for samples irradiated with {gamma} photons.

  9. Using rapid scan EPR to improve the detection limit of quantitative EPR by more than one order of magnitude

    OpenAIRE

    Möser, J.; Lips, K.; Tseytlin, M.; Eaton, G.; Eaton, S.; Schnegg, A

    2017-01-01

    X band rapid scan EPR was implemented on a commercially available Bruker ELEXSYS E580 spectrometer. Room temperature rapid scan and continuous wave EPR spectra were recorded for amorphous silicon powder samples. By comparing the resulting signal intensities the feasibility of performing quantitative rapid scan EPR is demonstrated. For different hydrogenated amorphous silicon samples, rapid scan EPR results in signal to noise improvements by factors between 10 and 50. Rapid scan EPR is thus ca...

  10. New loophole for the EPR paradox

    OpenAIRE

    Feldmann, Michel

    1999-01-01

    We exhibit a classical model free from any paradox which exactly simulates the spin EPR test. We conclude that Bell's inequality violation is a strictly classical phenomenon, contrary to a general belief.

  11. Reporting Data with "Over-the-Counter" Data Analysis Supports Improves Educators' Data Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rankin, Jenny Grant

    2014-01-01

    The benefits of making data-informed decisions to improve learning rely on educators correctly interpreting given data. Many educators routinely misinterpret data, even at districts with proactive support for data use. The tool most educators use for data analyses, which is an information technology data system or its reports, typically reports…

  12. 77 FR 5281 - State-of-the-Art Reactor Consequence Analyses Reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-02

    ... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION [Docket ID: NRC-2012-0022] State-of-the-Art Reactor Consequence... release of Draft NUREG-1935, ``State-of-the-Art Reactor Consequence Analyses (SOARCA) Report,'' for public... offsite radiological health consequences for potential severe reactor accidents for the Peach Bottom...

  13. Reporting of Conflicts of Interest in Meta-analyses of Trials of Pharmacological Treatments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roseman, Michelle; Milette, Katherine; Bero, Lisa A.; Coyne, James C.; Lexchin, Joel; Turner, Erick H.; Thombs, Brett D.

    2011-01-01

    Context Disclosure of conflicts of interest (COIs) from pharmaceutical industry study funding and author-industry financial relationships is sometimes recommended for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) published in biomedical journals. Authors of meta-analyses, however, are not required to report

  14. Perspectives of shaped pulses for EPR spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spindler, Philipp E.; Schöps, Philipp; Kallies, Wolfgang; Glaser, Steffen J.; Prisner, Thomas F.

    2017-07-01

    This article describes current uses of shaped pulses, generated by an arbitrary waveform generator, in the field of EPR spectroscopy. We show applications of sech/tanh and WURST pulses to dipolar spectroscopy, including new pulse schemes and procedures, and discuss the more general concept of optimum-control-based pulses for applications in EPR spectroscopy. The article also describes a procedure to correct for experimental imperfections, mostly introduced by the microwave resonator, and discusses further potential applications and limitations of such pulses.

  15. Applications of EPR in radiation research

    CERN Document Server

    Lund, Anders

    2014-01-01

    Applications of EPR in Radiation Research is a multi-author contributed volume presented in eight themes: I. Elementary radiation processes (in situ and low temperature radiolysis, quantum solids); II: Solid state radiation chemistry (crystalline, amorphous and heterogeneous systems); III: Biochemistry, biophysics and biology applications (radicals in biomaterials, spin trapping, free-radical-induced DNA damage); IV: Materials science (polymeric and electronic materials, materials for treatment of nuclear waste, irradiated food); V: Radiation metrology (EPR-dosimetry, retrospective and medical

  16. EPR Spectroscopy in Environmental Lichen-Indication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bondarenko, P. V.; Nguyet, Le Thi Bich; Zhuravleva, S. E.; Trukhan, E. M.

    2017-09-01

    The paramagnetic properties of lichens were investigated using EPR spectroscopy and Xanthoria parietina (L.) Th. Fr. as a case study. It was found that the concentration of paramagnetic centers in lichen thalli increased as the air-pollution level increased. Possible formation mechanisms of the paramagnetic centers in lichens were discussed. The efficiency of using EPR spectroscopy to study lichens as environmental quality indicators was demonstrated.

  17. EPR of alanine irradiated by neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pivovarov, S.P.; Seredavina, T.A.; Zhdanov, S.V.; Mul'gin, S.I.; Zhakparov, R.K.

    2001-01-01

    In the work the first results of EPR studies of alanine, irradiated with diverse doses at neutron cyclotron generator different conditions and on the critical reactor stand are presented. A dose linearity dependence of EPR signal is observing, the methods of γ-background contribution separation are discussed. Obtain results is giving the basis to recommendation of alanine as an effective detector irradiation. However it is demanded the farther study on clarification of radiation sensitivity value dependence on the neutron energy spectrum form

  18. Report on the behalf of the Parliamentary Office of assessment of scientific and technological choices on the control of nuclear pressurized equipment: the case of the EPR vessel. Report of the public hearing of 25 June 2015, and of the presentation of conclusions on the 8 July 2015 - National Assembly Nr 2968, Senate Nr 613

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Deaut, Jean-Yves; Bataille, Christian; Sido, Bruno

    2015-01-01

    After introducing speeches by the president and vice-presidents of the OPECST (the French Parliamentary Office of assessment of scientific and technological choices), this document reports the content of a public hearing which comprised two round tables gathering representatives of the CEA, of the ASN, of the Ministry of Energy, of the IAEA, of the AFCEN (a professional body on rules of design, fabrication and control of electro-nuclear boiler equipment), of the AQUAP (a professional body on the quality of pressurized equipment), of the Louvain University, of Areva, of the Flamanville 3 project, of the IRSN. The first round table more particularly addressed issues related to modalities of control of nuclear pressurized equipment, and the second one the case of the EPR vessel. A debate which followed these round tables is reported, as well as a meeting during which the OPECST presented its conclusions after this public hearing

  19. EPR investigation of some irradiated traditional oriental spices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duliu, Octavian G.; Ali, Ibrahim Shaban; Georgescu, Rodica

    2005-01-01

    The X-band EPR spectra of unirradiated and 60 Co gamma ray irradiated cardamom (Elettaria cardamomum L. Maton, Zingiberaceae), ginger ((Zingiber officinale Rosc., Zingiberaceae), saffron (Crocus sativus L., Iridaceae), and curry have been investigated at room temperature. All unirradiated spices presented a weak resonance line with g-factors around free-electron ones, most probably due to the presence of semiquinones, previously reported to have paramagnetic properties. After gamma ray irradiation at absorbed dose up to 11.3 kGy we have noticed in all spices the presence of complex EPR spectra consisting of a superposition of at last two different paramagnetic species whose amplitude increase monotonously with the absorbed dose. A 100 deg. C isothermal annealing of 11.3 kGy irradiated samples has shown a differential reduction of amplitude of various components that form the initial spectra, but even after 5 h of thermal treatment, the remaining amplitude represents no less than 40% from the initial ones, testifying for a good thermal stability. The presences of initial EPR spectra as well as the remaining amplitude after isothermal annealing are very useful in identifying any irradiation treatment applied to this category of species. (authors)

  20. High-frequency EPR of surface impurities on nanodiamond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Zaili; Stepanov, Viktor; Takahashi, Susumu

    Diamond is a fascinating material, hosting nitrogen-vacancy (NV) defect centers with unique magnetic and optical properties. There have been many reports that suggest the existence of paramagnetic impurities near surface of various kinds of diamonds. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) investigation of mechanically crushed nanodiamonds (NDs) as well as detonation NDs revealed g 2 like signals that are attributed to structural defects and dangling bonds near the diamond surface. In this presentation, we investigate paramagnetic impurities in various sizes of NDs using high-frequency (HF) continuous wave (cw) and pulsed EPR spectroscopy. Strong size dependence on the linewidth of HF cw EPR spectra reveals the existence of paramagnetic impurities in the vicinity of the diamond surface. We also study the size dependence of the spin-lattice and spin-spin relaxation times (T1 and T2) of single substitutional nitrogen defects in NDs Significant deviations from the temperature dependence of the phonon-assisted T1 process were observed in the ND samples, and were attributed to the contribution from the surface impurities. This work was supported by the Searle Scholars Program and the National Science Foundation (DMR-1508661 and CHE-1611134).

  1. Methods in pharmacoepidemiology: a review of statistical analyses and data reporting in pediatric drug utilization studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sequi, Marco; Campi, Rita; Clavenna, Antonio; Bonati, Maurizio

    2013-03-01

    To evaluate the quality of data reporting and statistical methods performed in drug utilization studies in the pediatric population. Drug utilization studies evaluating all drug prescriptions to children and adolescents published between January 1994 and December 2011 were retrieved and analyzed. For each study, information on measures of exposure/consumption, the covariates considered, descriptive and inferential analyses, statistical tests, and methods of data reporting was extracted. An overall quality score was created for each study using a 12-item checklist that took into account the presence of outcome measures, covariates of measures, descriptive measures, statistical tests, and graphical representation. A total of 22 studies were reviewed and analyzed. Of these, 20 studies reported at least one descriptive measure. The mean was the most commonly used measure (18 studies), but only five of these also reported the standard deviation. Statistical analyses were performed in 12 studies, with the chi-square test being the most commonly performed test. Graphs were presented in 14 papers. Sixteen papers reported the number of drug prescriptions and/or packages, and ten reported the prevalence of the drug prescription. The mean quality score was 8 (median 9). Only seven of the 22 studies received a score of ≥10, while four studies received a score of statistical methods and reported data in a satisfactory manner. We therefore conclude that the methodology of drug utilization studies needs to be improved.

  2. Analysis of the EPR-experiment by relativistic quantum logic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mittelstaedt, P.

    1984-01-01

    The Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen-experiment is analysed in the framework of an abstract language for relativistic quantum physics, which can be founded on the most general possibilities of physical observations and without any recourse to the Hilbert-space formulation of relativistic quantum theory. -Within this approach one obtains nonlocal correlations between the two EPR-systems in accordance with recent experiments and with quantum theory. These correlations can, however, not be used in order to produce superluminal signals and thus to violate Einstein-causality and special relativity. (author)

  3. EPR spectrum deconvolution and dose assessment of fossil tooth enamel using maximum likelihood common factor analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanhaelewyn, G.; Callens, F.; Gruen, R.

    2000-01-01

    In order to determine the components which give rise to the EPR spectrum around g = 2 we have applied Maximum Likelihood Common Factor Analysis (MLCFA) on the EPR spectra of enamel sample 1126 which has previously been analysed by continuous wave and pulsed EPR as well as EPR microscopy. MLCFA yielded agreeing results on three sets of X-band spectra and the following components were identified: an orthorhombic component attributed to CO - 2 , an axial component CO 3- 3 , as well as four isotropic components, three of which could be attributed to SO - 2 , a tumbling CO - 2 and a central line of a dimethyl radical. The X-band results were confirmed by analysis of Q-band spectra where three additional isotropic lines were found, however, these three components could not be attributed to known radicals. The orthorhombic component was used to establish dose response curves for the assessment of the past radiation dose, D E . The results appear to be more reliable than those based on conventional peak-to-peak EPR intensity measurements or simple Gaussian deconvolution methods

  4. EPR Dosimetry for ageing effect in NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Hoon; Lim, Young Ki; Kim, Jong Seog; Jung, Sun Chul

    2005-01-01

    As one of the retrospective dosimetry method, EPR spectroscopy has been studied by many research up to theses days. As a dosimeter for EPR spectroscopy, Alanine is already a well known dosimeter in the field of radiation therapy and dose assessment in radiological accident by its characteristics as good linearity in a wide range of energy level and extremely low signal fading on time. Through technical document of IAEA, the EPR dosimetry method using alanine sample was published in 2000 after research by coordinated project on management of ageing of in-containment I and C cables. Although alanine sample is regarded as a good EPR dosimeter like above ageing assessment field, actually the assessment of radiation should be done at least for two fuel cycles, because of its relatively low irradiation environment in almost all spots in power plant. So, for getting more accurate detection value of radiation, another material is tested for being put in simultaneously inside the power plant with alanine. The test result for lithium formate monohydrate (HCO 2 LiH 2 0) was presented below for checking its possibility for being applied as EPR dosimeter for this project

  5. Does the inclusion of grey literature influence estimates of intervention effectiveness reported in meta-analyses?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAuley, L; Pham, B; Tugwell, P; Moher, D

    2000-10-07

    The inclusion of only a subset of all available evidence in a meta-analysis may introduce biases and threaten its validity; this is particularly likely if the subset of included studies differ from those not included, which may be the case for published and grey literature (unpublished studies, with limited distribution). We set out to examine whether exclusion of grey literature, compared with its inclusion in meta-analysis, provides different estimates of the effectiveness of interventions assessed in randomised trials. From a random sample of 135 meta-analyses, we identified and retrieved 33 publications that included both grey and published primary studies. The 33 publications contributed 41 separate meta-analyses from several disease areas. General characteristics of the meta-analyses and associated studies and outcome data at the trial level were collected. We explored the effects of the inclusion of grey literature on the quantitative results using logistic-regression analyses. 33% of the meta-analyses were found to include some form of grey literature. The grey literature, when included, accounts for between 4.5% and 75% of the studies in a meta-analysis. On average, published work, compared with grey literature, yielded significantly larger estimates of the intervention effect by 15% (ratio of odds ratios=1.15 [95% CI 1.04-1.28]). Excluding abstracts from the analysis further compounded the exaggeration (1.33 [1.10-1.60]). The exclusion of grey literature from meta-analyses can lead to exaggerated estimates of intervention effectiveness. In general, meta-analysts should attempt to identify, retrieve, and include all reports, grey and published, that meet predefined inclusion criteria.

  6. The Third International Intercomparison on EPR Tooth Dosimetry: Part 2, final analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wieser, A.; Debuyst, R.; Fattibene, P.; Meghzifene, A.; Onori, S.; Bayankin, S. N.; Brik, A.; Bugay, A.; Chumak, V.; Ciesielski, B.; Hoshi, M.; Imata, H.; Ivannikov, A.; Ivanov, D.; Junczewska, M.; Miyazawa, C.; Penkowski, M.; Pivovarov, S.; Romanyukha, A.; Romanyukha, L.; Schauer, D.; Scherbina, O.; Schultka, K.; Sholom, S.; Skvortsov, V.; Stepanenko, V.; Thomas, J. A.; Tielewuhan, E.; Toyoda, S.; Trompier, F.

    2006-01-01

    The objective of the Third International Intercomparison on EPR Tooth Dosimetry was to evaluate laboratories performing tooth enamel dosimetry <300 mGy. Final analysis of results included a correlation analysis between features of laboratory dose reconstruction protocols and dosimetry performance. Applicability of electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) tooth dosimetry at low dose was shown at two applied dose levels of 79 and 176 mGy. Most (9 of 12) laboratories reported the dose to be within 50 mGy of the delivered dose of 79 mGy, and 10 of 12 laboratories reported the dose to be within 100 mGy of the delivered dose of 176 mGy. At the high-dose tested (704 mGy) agreement within 25% of the delivered dose was found in 10 laboratories. Features of EPR dose reconstruction protocols that affect dosimetry performance were found to be magnetic field modulation amplitude in EPR spectrum recording, EPR signal model in spectrum deconvolution and duration of latency period for tooth enamel samples after preparation. (authors)

  7. Magnetic, catalytic, EPR and electrochemical studies on binuclear ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Magnetic, catalytic, EPR and electrochemical studies on binuclear copper(II) complexes ... to the oxidation of 3,5-di--butylcatechol to the corresponding quinone. ... EPR spectral studies in methanol solvent show welldefined four hyperfine ...

  8. Investigation of radical locations in various sesame seeds by CW EPR and 9-GHz EPR imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, K; Hara, H

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the location of radical in various sesame seeds using continuous-wave (CW) electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and 9-GHz EPR imaging. CW EPR detected persistent radicals (single line) for various sesame seeds. The EPR linewidth of black sesame seeds was narrower than that of the irradiated white sesame seeds. A very small signal was detected for the white sesame seeds. Two-dimensional (2D) imaging using a 9-GHz EPR imager showed that radical locations vary for various sesame seeds. The paramagnetic species in black sesame seeds were located on the seed coat (skin) and in the hilum region. The signal with the highest intensity was obtained from the hilum part. A very low-intensity image was observed for the white sesame seeds. In addition, the 2D imaging of the irradiated white sesame seeds showed that free radicals were located throughout the entire seed. For the first time, CW EPR and 9-GHz EPR imaging showed the exact location of radical species in various sesame seeds.

  9. Computational and instrumental methods in EPR

    CERN Document Server

    Bender, Christopher J

    2006-01-01

    Computational and Instrumental Methods in EPR Prof. Bender, Fordham University Prof. Lawrence J. Berliner, University of Denver Electron magnetic resonance has been greatly facilitated by the introduction of advances in instrumentation and better computational tools, such as the increasingly widespread use of the density matrix formalism. This volume is devoted to both instrumentation and computation aspects of EPR, while addressing applications such as spin relaxation time measurements, the measurement of hyperfine interaction parameters, and the recovery of Mn(II) spin Hamiltonian parameters via spectral simulation. Key features: Microwave Amplitude Modulation Technique to Measure Spin-Lattice (T1) and Spin-Spin (T2) Relaxation Times Improvement in the Measurement of Spin-Lattice Relaxation Time in Electron Paramagnetic Resonance Quantitative Measurement of Magnetic Hyperfine Parameters and the Physical Organic Chemistry of Supramolecular Systems New Methods of Simulation of Mn(II) EPR Spectra: Single Cryst...

  10. EPR spectra of some irradiated polycrystalline perrhenate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaitseva, N.G.; Constantinescu, M.; Georgescu, R.; Constantinescu, O.

    1978-10-01

    An EPR study of the paramagnetic centers formed by γ, electron and neutron irradiation of the NaReO 4 and KReO 4 was made. In the EPR spectra of the powder samples irradiated γ, with electrons and neutrons, the presence of three types of paramagnetic centers was observed. From the EPR parameters, the centers were attributed to the ReOsub(4)sup(.), ReOsub(3)sup(.) and ReOsub(2)sup(.) radicals respectively. The lower intensity of the spectra observed by KReO 4 samples irradiation showed a higher radioresistance of the KReO 4 than that of NaReO 4 . A radiolitical scheme taking into account the paramagnetic centers formation was proposed. (author)

  11. Relativistic Nonlocality and the EPR Paradox

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamberlain, Thomas

    2014-03-01

    The exact violation of Bell's Inequalities is obtained with a local realistic model for spin. The model treats one particle that comprises a quantum ensemble and simulates the EPR data one coincidence at a time as a product state. Such a spin is represented by operators σx , iσy ,σz in its body frame rather than the usual set of σX ,σY ,σZ in the laboratory frame. This model, assumed valid in the absence of a measuring probe, contains both quantum polarizations and coherences. Each carries half the EPR correlation, but only half can be measured using coincidence techniques. The model further predicts the filter angles that maximize the spin correlation in EPR experiments.

  12. Pressurized water reactors: the EPR project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Py, J.P.; Yvon, M.

    2007-01-01

    EPR (originally 'European pressurized water reactor', and now 'evolutionary power reactor') is a model of reactor initially jointly developed by French and German engineers which fulfills the particular safety specifications of both countries but also the European utility requirements jointly elaborated by the main European power companies under the initiative of Electricite de France (EdF). Today, two EPR-based reactors are under development: one is under construction in Finland and the other, Flamanville 3 (France), received its creation permit decree on April 10, 2007. This article presents, first, the main objectives of the EPR, and then, describes the Flamanville 3 reactor: reactor type and general conditions, core and conditions of operation, primary and secondary circuits with their components, main auxiliary and recovery systems, man-machine interface and instrumentation and control system, confinement and serious accidents, arrangement of buildings. (J.S.)

  13. EPR and development of quantum electronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manenkov, A A

    2011-01-01

    A role of electron paramagnetic resonance in development of quantum electronics is discussed. Basic principles and history of masers are briefly described. Spin-levels of paramagnetic ions in crystals as a very suitable object for active media of solid-state masers (called as EPR-masers) and physical processes in EPR-masers (population inversion of energy states) are analyzed. This analysis demonstrates a significant role of relaxation processes in multi-level spin-systems for efficient maser action. In this context peculiarities of spin-lattice and spin-spin cross relaxation processes in multi-level systems are analyzed. Development of EPR-masers and their application in radioastronomy and far-space communication systems are briefly described.

  14. EPR of impurity ions in disordered solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kliava, J.

    1986-01-01

    The state of the art in the EPR spectroscopy of disordered solids is reviewed and theoretical aspects of the EPR shape in disordered systems are discussed. Emphasis is placed on the concept of the joint probability density of the spin Hamiltonian parameters. A survey of experimental data is provided on distributions of spin Hamiltonian parametes obtained using computer simulation techniques. A quantitative information is given on the short-range ordering in disordered materials available from EPR studies. A procedure of extracting such type of data which consists in a transformation from the distribution of the spin Hamiltonian parameters to that of atomic coordinates in the surrounding of a paramagnetic center is outlined. Numerical estimates of the degree of continuous disorder are reviewed

  15. EPR safety. Consideration of the internal and external hazards in the safety studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gueguin, H.

    2008-04-01

    The author presents the main points of the Preliminary Safety Report of EDF on the EPR reactor safety. It concerns the considerations of the internal (fire, flood, explosions, pipes failures) and external (earthquakes, airplane falls, explosions, exceptional natural disasters, extreme meteorological conditions) damages. It presents how the safety report takes into account the aggression. (A.L.B.)

  16. Synthesis of the IRSN report related to severe accidents and to the probabilistic level-2 safety study for the Flamanville EPR reactor. Referral of the Permanent Group of Experts for nuclear reactors (GPR), examination of probabilistic level-2 safety studies (EPS 2) and severe accidents (AG) of the Flamanville reactor nr 3. Opinion related to severe accidents and to the probabilistic level-2 safety study for the Flamanville EPR reactor (FA3). Electronuclear reactors - EDF - Flamanville 3 EPR reactor. Severe accidents and probabilistic level 2 studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    This document gathers several documents. The first one recalls the main arrangements implemented on the FA3 EPR reactor regarding accidents with core fusion, reports the analysis made by the IRSN about the sizing of these arrangements to reach a controlled status of the installation after a severe accident, regarding the probabilistic level-2 safety assessment, regarding the radiological impact of a severe accident on the population and on the environment, regarding those aimed at facing a total and long duration loss of electric power sources and cold sources, and about the situation of the reactor with respect to WENRA positions on severe accidents for new reactors. The second document is a letter sent by the ASN to the Permanent Group of Experts for nuclear reactors (GPR) to address probabilistic level-2 safety studies (EPS2) and severe accidents for the Flamanville 3 reactor. The third one reports the opinion of the GPR on these both issues and proposes a set of recommendations. The next document is a letter sent by the ASN to the Flamanville 3 project manager at EDF which recalls the related objectives, the ASN opinion on the implemented arrangements for severe accidents (de-pressurization of the primary circuit, management of hydrogen-related risks, corium recovery and cooling outside the vessel, limitation of vapour explosion risks outside the vessel, heat evacuation system, containment enclosure, management of the risk of a return to criticality), to face a total and long duration loss of electricity sources and cold sources, and other aspects addressed in the IRSN analysis. Requests and remarks formulated by the ASN are provided in an appendix to this last document

  17. Can EPR non-locality be geometrical?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ne'eman, Y.

    1995-01-01

    The presence in Quantum Mechanics of non-local correlations is one of the two fundamentally non-intuitive features of that theory. The non-local correlations themselves fall into two classes: EPR and Geometrical. The non-local characteristics of the geometrical type are well-understood and are not suspected of possibly generating acausal features, such as faster-than-light propagation of information. This has especially become true since the emergence of a geometrical treatment for the relevant gauge theories, i.e. Fiber Bundle geometry, in which the quantum non-localities are seen to correspond to pure homotopy considerations. This aspect is reviewed in section 2. Contrary-wise, from its very conception, the EPR situation was felt to be paradoxical. It has been suggested that the non-local features of EPR might also derive from geometrical considerations, like all other non-local characteristics of QM. In[7], one of the authors was able to point out several plausibility arguments for this thesis, emphasizing in particular similarities between the non-local correlations provided by any gauge field theory and those required by the preservation of the quantum numbers of the original EPR state-vector, throughout its spatially-extended mode. The derivation was, however, somewhat incomplete, especially because of the apparent difference between, on the one hand, the closed spatial loops arising in the analysis of the geometrical non-localities, from Aharonov-Bohm and Berry phases to magnetic monopoles and instantons, and on the other hand, in the EPR case, the open line drawn by the positions of the two moving decay products of the disintegrating particle. In what follows, the authors endeavor to remove this obstacle and show that as in all other QM non-localities, EPR is somehow related to closed loops, almost involving homotopy considerations. They develop this view in section 3

  18. Safety culture and learning from incidents: the role of incident reporting and causal analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilpert, B.

    1994-01-01

    Nuclear industry more than any other industrial branch has developed and used predictive risk analysis as a method of feedforward control of safety and reliability. Systematic evaluation of operating experience, statistical documentation of component failures, systematic documentation and analysis of incidents are important complementary elements of feedback control: we are dealing here with adjustment and learning from experience, in particular from past incidents. Using preliminary findings from ongoing research at the Research Center Systems Safety at the Berlin University of Technology the contribution discusses preconditions for an effective use of lessons to be learnt from closely matched incident reporting and in depth analyses of causal chains leading to incidents. Such conditions are especially standardized documentation, reporting and analyzing methods of incidents; structured information flows and feedback loops; abstaining from culpability search; mutual trust of employees and management; willingness of all concerned to continually evaluate and optimize the established learning system. Thus, incident related reporting and causal analyses contribute to safety culture, which is seen to emerge from tightly coupled organizational measures and respective change in attitudes and behaviour. (author) 2 figs., 7 refs

  19. Using rapid-scan EPR to improve the detection limit of quantitative EPR by more than one order of magnitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Möser, J; Lips, K; Tseytlin, M; Eaton, G R; Eaton, S S; Schnegg, A

    2017-08-01

    X-band rapid-scan EPR was implemented on a commercially available Bruker ELEXSYS E580 spectrometer. Room temperature rapid-scan and continuous-wave EPR spectra were recorded for amorphous silicon powder samples. By comparing the resulting signal intensities the feasibility of performing quantitative rapid-scan EPR is demonstrated. For different hydrogenated amorphous silicon samples, rapid-scan EPR results in signal-to-noise improvements by factors between 10 and 50. Rapid-scan EPR is thus capable of improving the detection limit of quantitative EPR by at least one order of magnitude. In addition, we provide a recipe for setting up and calibrating a conventional pulsed and continuous-wave EPR spectrometer for rapid-scan EPR. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Alanine EPR dosimetry of therapeutic irradiators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bugay, O.; Bartchuk, V.; Kolesnik, S.; Mazin, M.; Gaponenko, H.

    1999-01-01

    The high-dose alanine EPR dosimetry is a very precise method in the dose range 1-100 kGy. The system is used generally as the standard high-dose transfer dosimetry in many laboratories. This is comparatively expensive technique so it is important to use it as a more universal dosimetry system also in the middle and low dose ranges. The problems of the middle-dose alanine dosimetry are discussed and the solution of several problems is proposed. The alanine EPR dosimetry has been applied to the dose measurements of medical irradiators in the Kiev City Oncology Center. (author)

  1. Identification of irradiated crab using EPR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maghraby, A. [Radiation Dosimetry Department, National Institute for Standards (NIS), Ministry of Scientific Research, Haram, 12211- Giza, P.O. Box: 136 (Egypt)]. E-mail: maghrabism@yahoo.com

    2007-02-15

    EPR spectroscopy is a fast and powerful technique for the identification of irradiated food. Crab exoskeleton was divided into six parts: dactyl, cheliped, carapace, apron, swimming legs, and walking legs. Samples of the exoskeleton were prepared and irradiated to Cs-137 gamma radiation in the range (1.156-5.365 kGy). EPR spectra of unirradiated as well as irradiated samples were recorded and analyzed. Response to gamma radiation was plotted for each part of the exoskeleton, dactyl was found to be the most sensitive part, followed by the apron (38%), cheliped (37%), walking legs (30%), swimming legs (24%), and carapace (21%) relative to the dactyl response.

  2. Krótka (prehistoria argumentu EPR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadeusz Pabjan

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The 1935 thought experiment of Einstein, Podolsky and Rosen is one of the most important episodes in the history of the dispute about the correct interpretation of quantum mechanics. The present paper deals with the origin of the EPR paper and discusses some other thought experiments that preceded the formulation of the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen argument. Special attention is paid to the evolution of a simply photon-box experiment, which was devised by Einstein in 1930 and then modified by him several times before 1935. It is argued that the scheme of the original EPR argument is in fact contained in these few seminal experiments.

  3. Biophysical EPR Studies Applied to Membrane Proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, Indra D; Lorigan, Gary A

    2015-01-01

    Membrane proteins are very important in controlling bioenergetics, functional activity, and initializing signal pathways in a wide variety of complicated biological systems. They also represent approximately 50% of the potential drug targets. EPR spectroscopy is a very popular and powerful biophysical tool that is used to study the structural and dynamic properties of membrane proteins. In this article, a basic overview of the most commonly used EPR techniques and examples of recent applications to answer pertinent structural and dynamic related questions on membrane protein systems will be presented. PMID:26855825

  4. Identification of irradiated crab using EPR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maghraby, A.

    2007-01-01

    EPR spectroscopy is a fast and powerful technique for the identification of irradiated food. Crab exoskeleton was divided into six parts: dactyl, cheliped, carapace, apron, swimming legs, and walking legs. Samples of the exoskeleton were prepared and irradiated to Cs-137 gamma radiation in the range (1.156-5.365 kGy). EPR spectra of unirradiated as well as irradiated samples were recorded and analyzed. Response to gamma radiation was plotted for each part of the exoskeleton, dactyl was found to be the most sensitive part, followed by the apron (38%), cheliped (37%), walking legs (30%), swimming legs (24%), and carapace (21%) relative to the dactyl response

  5. TL and EPR dating: some applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watanabe, S. [Institute of Physics, University of Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2006-07-01

    The intensity of thermoluminescence light emitted by a crystal is a function of radiation dose. The number of defects or of radicals in a crystal or organic substances is also a function of radiation dose. Since such defects or radicals present EPR signals, the EPR intensity is also a function of radiation dose. These facts are basis for radiation dosimetry and can be applied in dating of archaeological potteries or other materials, as well as in dating geological substances such as sediments, caves speleothemes, animal teeth and bones. Recent investigation on sensitized quartz based dosimeters and dating calcite covering ancient wall painting to find early settlers in Brazil will be presented. (Author)

  6. Holographic EPR Pairs, Wormholes and Radiation

    OpenAIRE

    Chernicoff, Mariano; Güijosa, Alberto; Pedraza, Juan F.

    2013-01-01

    As evidence for the ER=EPR conjecture, it has recently been observed that the string that is holographically dual to an entangled quark-antiquark pair separating with (asymptotically) uniform acceleration has a wormhole on its worldsheet. We point out that a two-sided horizon and a wormhole actually appear for much more generic quark-antiquark trajectories, which is consistent with the fact that the members of an EPR pair need not be permanently out of causal contact. The feature that determi...

  7. Mast-sipping in EPR trademark plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langenberger, Jan; Schienbein, Marcel; Geier, Roland

    2010-01-01

    For more than 20 years, AREVA applies and develops different sipping techniques to identify fuel assemblies with leaking fuel rods. For the EPR trademark reactors a Mast Sipping System with newest developments will be implemented considering radiation protection and latest standards requirements. The innovative EPR trademark Sipping System differs from previous systems in many ways. One of the main innovations is that all the necessary processes of the Sipping system have been fully digitized. Second, several ALARA design modifications have been implemented to meet the current radiation protection requirements. An additional implementable multilingual assistance program facilitates the handling of the system and helps to prevent incorrect operation. (orig.)

  8. Analyses in Support of Z-IFE LLNL Progress Report for FY-05

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moir, R W; Abbott, R P; Callahan, D A; Latkowski, J F; Meier, W R; Reyes, S

    2005-01-01

    The FY04 LLNL study of Z-IFE [1] proposed and evaluated a design that deviated from SNL's previous baseline design. The FY04 study included analyses of shock mitigation, stress in the first wall, neutronics and systems studies. In FY05, the subject of this report, we build on our work and the theme of last year. Our emphasis continues to be on alternatives that hold promise of considerable improvements in design and economics compared to the base-line design. Our key results are summarized here

  9. Design of the EPR containment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Appell, B.; Zaiss, W.

    1996-01-01

    In order to respect the safety objectives set for the EPR (European Pressurized water Reactor), the confinement function must be designed to guard against in the design uncontrolled releases in the environment in all conditions taken into account and to preserve its structural integrity. The concept chosen is a double-wall confinement with technology identical derived from the current French N4 containments and the associated systems ensuring the isolation and the control of leaks. The basic principles aiming to minimize leaks are as follows: no direct leak; state-of-the-art leak tight design of the systems and components passing through the containment building; recovery of potential leaks through the inner wall and the penetration sleeves in the inter-wall space; recovery in the peripheral buildings; and specific measures if necessary. The inner wall is a prestressed concrete shell (55 tendons cables arranged in two horizontal layers and a vertical layer for the barrel) without liner, of free volume 90000 m 3 , an internal diameter of 48 m and 1.3 m thickness. The free volume is chosen so as to rule out the risk of global detonation and the use of catalytic recombiners limits the risk of hydrogen explosion. The design pressure (6.5 bar abs) and temperature of the inner wall are defined for a given volume by the set of three conditions: Pee-4 conditions such as LOCA or SLB, global deflagration of hydrogen and core melt scenario. The rate of leakage in accident conditions from the inner wall must not be higher than 1% per day. The chosen concept must enable satisfactory leak tightness to be preserved for beyond design conditions in order to have margins and to guard against phenomenological uncertainties. The possibility of adding an internal composite liner is being studied. A large scale mockup is being built to validate the hypothesis and methods of leak rates of the inner wall and for the performance testing of the composite liner. The outer wall, made of

  10. Spin states of reduced fullerenes (C60 and C120O) by CW and pulsed EPR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boas, J.F.; Drew, S.C.; Pilbrow, J.R.; Boyd, P.D.W.; Paul, P.; Reed, C.A.; Sun, D.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: The ESTN (Electron Spin Transient Nutation) EPR (Electron Paramagnetic Resonance) experiments reported at Wagga 2002 showed that the spin states of the reduced fullerenes C 120 O (2-), C 120 O (3-) and C 120 O (4-) were S = 1, S = 1/2 and S = 1 respectively. Further experiments using CW (Continuous Wave) EPR have confirmed the results of Paul et al. and have now shown that these states are the ground states of these anions. In the case of C 60 (3-), the recent CW and ESTN EPR experiments have shown that the electronic ground state of this anion is S = 1/2. The observation of ground states of low multiplicity for these anions is contrary to expectations based on MO calculations and the application of Hund's rules. A series of CW EPR experiments on C 60 (3-) have shown that some previous results may need to be re-interpreted. This arises from the delineation of the effects of microwave power, modulation amplitude and frequency, sample temperature and freezing rate on the EPR spectrum which is the combination of a broad line, attributed to C 60 (3-), and a 'spike' attributed to C 120 O impurities and other oxygen related species. Our results cast doubt on the existence of Jahn-Teller effects at low temperatures and of a low-lying spin quartet excited state

  11. Pulse Double-Resonance EPR Techniques for the Study of Metallobiomolecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Nicholas; Nalepa, Anna; Pandelia, Maria-Eirini; Lubitz, Wolfgang; Savitsky, Anton

    2015-01-01

    Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy exploits an intrinsic property of matter, namely the electron spin and its related magnetic moment. This can be oriented in a magnetic field and thus, in the classical limit, acts like a little bar magnet. Its moment will align either parallel or antiparallel to the field, giving rise to different energies (termed Zeeman splitting). Transitions between these two quantized states can be driven by incident microwave frequency radiation, analogous to NMR experiments, where radiofrequency radiation is used. However, the electron Zeeman interaction alone provides only limited information. Instead, much of the usefulness of EPR is derived from the fact that the electron spin also interacts with its local magnetic environment and thus can be used to probe structure via detection of nearby spins, e.g., NMR-active magnetic nuclei and/or other electron spin(s). The latter is exploited in spin labeling techniques, an exciting new area in the development of noncrystallographic protein structure determination. Although these interactions are often smaller than the linewidth of the EPR experiment, sophisticated pulse EPR methods allow their detection. A number of such techniques are well established today and can be broadly described as double-resonance methods, in which the electron spin is used as a reporter. Below we give a brief description of pulse EPR methods, particularly their implementation at higher magnetic fields, and how to best exploit them for studying metallobiomolecules. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Specific public debate on the EPR - Position of 'Sauvons le Climat'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    After having evoked the respective performance of Denmark, Sweden and France in terms of CO 2 emission reduction, electricity consumption per inhabitant, and outlined the unavoidable measures of energy saving and reasonable development of renewable energies while keeping on using nuclear energy, this report more particularly addresses various issues related to the EPR within the perspectives of energy production needs. It also outlines the need to stop the current rate of increase of energy consumption, for resource concerns as well as for CO 2 emission concerns, when renewable energies will remain limited. It discusses the objectives of reduction of greenhouse emissions and states that the EPR could be a determining factor to reach these objectives. Moreover, the EPR technology is an industrial asset for France even in front of the emergence of reactors of fourth generation (high temperature gas reactors, fast breeder reactors). It outlines that the EPR design improves nuclear safety and reduces accident probability. Direct, indirect and external costs of the EPR are discussed. The role of this reactor as a tool for electric power production is finally discussed within the French context and within the European context

  13. Cycle O(CY1991) NLS trade studies and analyses report. Book 2, part 2: Propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronin, R.; Werner, M.; Bonson, S.; Spring, R.; Houston, R.

    1992-01-01

    This report documents the propulsion system tasks performed in support of the National Launch System (NLS) Cycle O preliminary design activities. The report includes trades and analyses covering the following subjects: (1) Maximum Tank Stretch Study; (2) No LOX Bleed Performance Analysis; (3) LOX Bleed Trade Study; (4) LO2 Tank Pressure Limits; (5) LOX Tank Pressurization System Using Helium; (6) Space Transportation Main Engine (STME) Heat Exchanger Performance; (7) LH2 Passive Recirculation Performance Analysis; (8) LH2 Bleed/Recirculation Study; (9) LH2 Tank Pressure Limits; and (10) LH2 Pressurization System. For each trade study an executive summary and a detailed trade study are provided. For the convenience of the reader, a separate section containing a compilation of only the executive summaries is also provided.

  14. MDEP Common Position No EPR-01 - Common positions on the EPR instrumentation and controls design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the EPR Working Group (EPRWG) of the Multinational Design Evaluation Program (MDEP) is to identify common positions among the regulators reviewing the EPR Instrumentation and Controls (I and C) Systems in order to: 1. Promote understanding of each country 's regulatory decisions and basis for the decisions, 2. Enhance communication among the members and with external stakeholders, 3. Identify areas where harmonization and convergence of regulations, standards, and guidance can be achieved or improved, and 4. Supports standardization of new reactor designs. Since January 2008, the EPR I and C Technical Expert Subgroup (TESG) members met five times to exchange information regarding their country 's review of the EPR I and C design. The EPR I and C TESG consists of regulators from China, Canada, Finland, France, the United Kingdom, and the United States. The information exchange includes presentation of each country 's review status and technical issues, sharing of guidance documents, and sharing of regulatory decision documents. The TESG focused on the following four core areas of the EPR I and C design: 1. I and C System Independence (particularly for data communications), 2. Level of Defense and Diversity (back-up systems), 3. Qualification/quality of digital platforms, 4. Categorization/classification of systems and functions. As meetings were conducted, some areas were emphasized more depending on the significance of the issues for each country. During the TESG interactions, it became apparent that there were aspects of the EPR design where the countries had common agreement. On November 2, 2009, three of the subgroup countries, France, Finland and the United Kingdom, issued a joint regulatory position on the EPR I and C design as result of the 'Groupe Permanent' meeting in France. This statement of common positions expands upon that joint regulatory position

  15. Analysing data from patient-reported outcome and quality of life endpoints for cancer clinical trials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bottomley, Andrew; Pe, Madeline; Sloan, Jeff

    2016-01-01

    Measures of health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and other patient-reported outcomes generate important data in cancer randomised trials to assist in assessing the risks and benefits of cancer therapies and fostering patient-centred cancer care. However, the various ways these measures are anal......Measures of health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and other patient-reported outcomes generate important data in cancer randomised trials to assist in assessing the risks and benefits of cancer therapies and fostering patient-centred cancer care. However, the various ways these measures...... are analysed and interpreted make it difficult to compare results across trials, and hinders the application of research findings to inform publications, product labelling, clinical guidelines, and health policy. To address these problems, the Setting International Standards in Analyzing Patient......-Reported Outcomes and Quality of Life Endpoints Data (SISAQOL) initiative has been established. This consortium, directed by the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC), was convened to provide recommendations on how to standardise the analysis of HRQOL and other patient-reported outcomes...

  16. EPR of gamma-irradiated polycrystalline alanine-in-glass dosimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Karmi, Anan M.; Morsy, M.A.

    2008-01-01

    This study attempts to overcome some of the reported discrepancies in alanine-EPR reproducibility that may be related to alanine dosimeter preparation and/or EPR spectrometer settings. The dosimeters were prepared by packing pure polycrystalline L-α-alanine directly as supplied by the manufacturer in glass tubes. This dosimeter production scheme avoids any possible contribution to the EPR signal from a binding material. The dosimeters were irradiated with gamma ray to low-dose ranges typical for medical therapy (0-20 Gy). Special attention has been paid to the study of minimum detectable dose, measurement repeatability and reproducibility, and post-irradiation stability. The dosimeter exhibited a linear dose response in the dose range from 0.1 to 20 Gy. These positive properties favor the polycrystalline alanine-in-glass tube as a radiation dosimeter

  17. Teaching the EPR Paradox at High School?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pospiech, Gesche

    1999-01-01

    Argues the importance of students at university and in the final years of high school gaining an appreciation of the principles of quantum mechanics. Presents the EPR gedanken experiment (thought experiment) as a method of teaching the principles of quantum mechanics. (Author/CCM)

  18. EPR: outlines of research and development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1996-01-01

    The articles give an overview of the research and development presently under way for the future pressurized water reactors to be constructed in Europe, and particularly the French and German EPR (European Pressurized Reactor). Such an analysis deals essentially with respect to the pressurized water reactors now in operation. (author)

  19. EPR-dosimetry of ionizing radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popova, Mariia; Vakhnin, Dmitrii; Tyshchenko, Igor

    2017-09-01

    This article discusses the problems that arise during the radiation sterilization of medical products. It is propose the solution based on alanine EPR-dosimetry. The parameters of spectrometer and methods of absorbed dose calculation are given. In addition, the problems that arise during heavy particles irradiation are investigated.

  20. Clinical EPR: Unique Opportunities and Some Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swartz, Harold M.; Williams, Benjamin B.; Zaki, Bassem I.; Hartford, Alan C.; Jarvis, Lesley A.; Chen, Eunice; Comi, Richard J.; Ernstoff, Marc S.; Hou, Huagang; Khan, Nadeem; Swarts, Steven G.; Flood, Ann B.; Kuppusamy, Periannan

    2014-01-01

    Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy has been well established as a viable technique for measurement of free radicals and oxygen in biological systems, from in vitro cellular systems to in vivo small animal models of disease. However, the use of EPR in human subjects in the clinical setting, although attractive for a variety of important applications such as oxygen measurement, is challenged with several factors including the need for instrumentation customized for human subjects, probe and regulatory constraints. This paper describes the rationale and development of the first clinical EPR systems for two important clinical applications, namely, measurement of tissue oxygen (oximetry), and radiation dose (dosimetry) in humans. The clinical spectrometers operate at 1.2 GHz frequency and use surface loop resonators capable of providing topical measurements up to 1 cm depth in tissues. Tissue pO2 measurements can be carried out noninvasively and repeatedly after placement of an oxygen-sensitive paramagnetic material (currently India ink) at the site of interest. Our EPR dosimetry system is capable of measuring radiation-induced free radicals in the tooth of irradiated human subjects to determine the exposure dose. These developments offer potential opportunities for clinical dosimetry and oximetry, which include guiding therapy for individual patients with tumors or vascular disease, by monitoring of tissue oxygenation. Further work is in progress to translate this unique technology to routine clinical practice. PMID:24439333

  1. Investigation of EPR signals on tooth enamel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pavlenko, A; Mironova-Ulmane, N; Polakov, M; Riekstina, D [Institute of Solid State Physics, University of Latvia, Riga (Latvia)

    2007-12-15

    Calcified tissues are involved in continues metabolic process in human organism exchanging a number of chemical elements with environment. The rate of biochemical reactions is tissue dependent and the slowest one at the tooth enamel, the most mineralized tissue of human organism. The long time stability and unique chemical composition make tooth enamel suitable for number of application. The assessment of individual radiation dose by Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) and evaluations of elemental composition by Instrumentation Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) are the well known procedures where properties of tooth enamel intensively used. The current work is focused on investigation of EPR signals and determination of chemical composition on several teeth samples having different origin. The EPR spectra and INAA element content of milk tooth, caries tooth, and paradantose tooth have been compared to each other. The results showed that the intensity of EPR signal is much higher for the caries tooth than the for paradantose tooth that is in agreement with depleted Ca content.

  2. EPR application in medicine and biology

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Stopka, Pavel; Křížová, Jana; Káfuňková, Eva

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 99, č. 14 (2005), s. 190-192 ISSN 0009-2770 R&D Projects: GA MZd(CZ) NB7377; GA MZd(CZ) NL7567 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40320502 Keywords : EPR application Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 0.445, year: 2005

  3. Zavoisky and the Discovery of EPR

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    moved to Kazan. In 1926, after finishing the nine-year secondary ... year student, he got a patent for an invention. Zavoisky was ... Early Attempts at NMR and Interruption by World War II ... band modulation) and, in some cases, he did not even apply the constant ... was awarded the Lenin Prize for the discovery of EPR. In the.

  4. The EPR detection of radiation treated foodstuffs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stachowicz, W.; Burlinska, G.; Michalik, J.; Ostrowski, K.; Dziedzic-Goclawska, A.

    1993-01-01

    The short paper by a Polish study group describes the results of the use of Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) Spectroscopy in the detection of irradiation to food. Pultry, fresh-water fish and sea fish as well as various fruits and yellow boletus are dealt with in some detail. (VHE) [de

  5. EPR dosimetry of teeth in past and future accidents: a prospective look at a retrospective method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haskell, E.H.; Kenner, G.H.; Hayes, R.B. [Utah Univ., Salt Lake City, UT (United States). Center for Applied Dosimetry; Chumak, V.; Shalom, S. [All-Union Scientific Centre of Radiation Medicine, Kiev (Ukraine)

    1996-01-01

    Electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy (EPR) of tooth enamel is a relatively new technique for retrospective dosimetry that in the past two years has seen increasing effort towards its development and evaluation. Efforts have centered on determining the accuracy which may be achieved with current measurement techniques as well as the minimum doses detectable. The study was focused on evaluating some factors which influence the accuracy of EPR dosimetry of enamel. Reported are studies on sample intercomparisions, instrumental considerations, and effects of dental x-rays, environmental sunlight and ultraviolet radiation.

  6. EPR dosimetry of teeth in past and future accidents: a prospective look at a retrospective method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haskell, E.H.; Kenner, G.H.; Hayes, R.B.

    1996-01-01

    Electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy (EPR) of tooth enamel is a relatively new technique for retrospective dosimetry that in the past two years has seen increasing effort towards its development and evaluation. Efforts have centered on determining the accuracy which may be achieved with current measurement techniques as well as the minimum doses detectable. The study was focused on evaluating some factors which influence the accuracy of EPR dosimetry of enamel. Reported are studies on sample intercomparisions, instrumental considerations, and effects of dental x-rays, environmental sunlight and ultraviolet radiation

  7. Epidemiology, quality and reporting characteristics of meta-analyses of observational studies published in Chinese journals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhe-wen; Cheng, Juan; Liu, Zhuan; Ma, Ji-chun; Li, Jin-long; Wang, Jing; Yang, Ke-hu

    2015-12-07

    The aim of this study was to examine the epidemiological and reporting characteristics as well as the methodological quality of meta-analyses (MAs) of observational studies published in Chinese journals. 5 Chinese databases were searched for MAs of observational studies published from January 1978 to May 2014. Data were extracted into Excel spreadsheets, and Meta-analysis of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (MOOSE) and Assessment of Multiple Systematic Reviews (AMSTAR) checklists were used to assess reporting characteristics and methodological quality, respectively. A total of 607 MAs were included. Only 52.2% of the MAs assessed the quality of the included primary studies, and the retrieval information was not comprehensive in more than half (85.8%) of the MAs. In addition, 50 (8.2%) MAs did not search any Chinese databases, while 126 (20.8%) studies did not search any English databases. Approximately 41.2% of the MAs did not describe the statistical methods in sufficient details, and most (95.5%) MAs did not report on conflicts of interest. However, compared with the before publication of the MOOSE Checklist, the quality of reporting improved significantly for 20 subitems after publication of the MOOSE Checklist, and 7 items of the included MAs demonstrated significant improvement after publication of the AMSTAR Checklist (pstudies have been published in Chinese journals, the reporting quality is questionable. Thus, there is an urgent need to increase the use of reporting guidelines and methodological tools in China; we recommend that Chinese journals adopt the MOOSE and AMSTAR criteria. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  8. New Generation of self-calibrated SS/EPR dosimeters: Alanine/EPR dosimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yordanov, N.D.; Gancheva, V.

    1999-01-01

    A new type of solid state/EPR dosimeters is described. Principally, it contains radiation sensitive diamagnetic material, some quantity of EPR active, but radiation insensitive, substance (for example Mn 2+ /MgO) and a binding material. In the present case alanine is used as a radiation sensitive substance. With this dosimeter, the EPR spectra of alanine and Mn 2+ are simultaneously recorded and the calibration graph represents the ratio of alanine versus Mn 2+ EPR signal intensity as a function of absorbed dose. In this way the reproducibility of the results is expected to be improved significantly including their intercomparison among different laboratories. Homogeneity of the prepared dosimeters and their behaviour (fading of EPR signals with time, influence of different meteorological conditions) show satisfactory reproducibility and stability with time. Because two different EPR active samples are recorded simultaneously, the influence of some instrument setting parameters (microwave power, modulation amplitude and modulation frequency) on the ratio I alanine /I Mn is also investigated. (author)

  9. U.S. EPR ITAAC: coordination with construction and startup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnarelli, D.; Levin, A.E.

    2007-01-01

    The 10 CFR 52 process provides for a single combined license (COL) to be granted prior to the beginning of construction. Incorporated into the COL is a set of inspections, tests, analyses and acceptance criteria (ITAAC) which, when satisfied, provide the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) with reasonable assurance that the completed plant has been constructed properly and will operate safely in accordance with the terms of the license. The licensee performs the inspections, tests and analyses, and determines that the acceptance criteria have been fulfilled; the NRC must make a finding that the ITAAC requirements have been satisfied before fuel loading at the nuclear power plant is permitted. The challenge is that the concept of ITAAC is new and not well defined. This paper addresses some of the ITAAC issues for the U.S. EPR approach for coordination of ITAAC with design, procurement, construction and startup activities to ensure timely approval of fuel loading and commissioning for plant operation. (authors)

  10. IRE (Institut National des Radioelements) site in Belgium. Report of in situ measurements and analyses performed for the RTBF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-05-01

    This document reports various analyses performed within the frame of the preparation and filming of a TV documentary on the Belgium National Institute of Radio-elements. It reports gamma radiation measurements performed at the vicinity of the institute, discusses the possible origin of its increase at the vicinity of the institute, analyses of sludge samples coming from a wastewater treatment works, and analyses of milk, cabbage, mosses and sediments collected by residents

  11. Assessment of performance parameters for EPR dosimetry with tooth enamel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wieser, A.; Fattibene, P.; Shishkina, E.A.; Ivanov, D.V.; De Coste, V.; Guettler, A.; Onori, S.

    2008-01-01

    In the framework of a comparison between three laboratories, electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) signal-to-dose response curves were measured for sets of 30 tooth enamel samples and the variance of EPR measurements in dependence on absorbed dose was evaluated, in nine combinations of laboratory of sample preparation and EPR evaluation, respectively. As a test for benchmarking of EPR evaluation, the parameters 'critical dose' and 'limit of detection' were proposed as performance parameters following definitions from chemical-metrology, and a model function was suggested for analytical formulation of the dependence of the variance of EPR measurement on absorbed dose. First estimates of limits of detection by weighted and unweighted fitting resulted in the range 101-552 and 67-561 mGy, respectively, and were generally larger with weighted than with unweighted fitting. Indication was found for the influence of methodology of sample preparation and applied EPR measurement parameters on performance of EPR dosimetry with tooth enamel

  12. Loads on EPR containment after RPV failure at high pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobs, G.

    1995-01-01

    As regards the desgin of the EPR, the general strategy is to eliminate, the vessel failure at high pressure by preventive and mitigative measures. The design proposals involved trust in the reliability of dedicated devices (relief valves) for rapid depressurization. The aim is to attain a lower pressure level at the moment of vessel failure, so that the containment is capable to cope with the blowdown impact on the pit walls and the vessel supporting structures. Nevertheless, the potential of a high-pressure failure of the vessel must be kept in mind, whatever well thought-out and reliable preventive depressurization measures might be. Therefore, the reactor pressure blowdown has been studied in order to quantify the ultimate containment load, which might support future design requirements. The calculations were performed with the LWR transient analysis thermal-hydraulics computer code REALAP5/MOD3. In previous analyses, the nodalization of the problem was based on the geometrical conditions of a typical German 1300 MW(e) NPP. In the present analysis a new input model has been used, which was based on the EPR conditions. (orig./HP)

  13. Some physico-technical aspects of the new generation of self-calibrated alanine/EPR dosimeter and results from the international intercomparison trial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yordanov, N.D.; Gancheva, V.

    2000-01-01

    Some physico-technical parameters of the self-calibrated alanine/EPR dosimeters are described. Principally, this new type of solid state/EPR dosimeter contains radiation sensitive diamagnetic material (in the present case, alanine), some quantity of EPR active, but radiation insensitive, substance (for example, Mn 2+ /MgO) playing roles of an internal standard and a binding material. Thus with this dosimeter the EPR spectra of alanine and the internal standard Mn 2+ are recorded simultaneously and the dose response is represented as a ratio of EPR signal intensities of alanine versus Mn 2+ as a function of absorbed dose. As a result, the data of the present study have shown that there is practically no interference of the dosimeter EPR response (expressed as the ratio I alanine /I Mn ) from the way of preparation (homogeneity), behavior after irradiation (fading of EPR signals with time, influence of different meteorological conditions) as well as specific spectrometer setting conditions. These dosimeters show satisfactory reproducibility of preparation and reading as well as stability on keeping. Thus, fulfilling the described physico-technical data of this type of dosimeters, the reproducibility of the readings is significantly improved particularly when intercomparison among different laboratories is performed. This conclusion is confirmed by independent studies of the described self-calibrated alanine/EPR dosimeters in several laboratories in Europe. Results of which are also reported. (author)

  14. Recent results of EPR and Moessbauer investigations on lattice dynamics in ammonium sulphate

    CERN Document Server

    Grecu, M N; Grecu, V V

    2003-01-01

    Recent results of the lattice dynamics investigation on ammonium sulfate are reported based on recent experiments carried out using using the non-destructive experimental technique of EPR and NGR. The main results confirm the presence and the contribution of a soft mode, which accompanied the paraferroelectric phase transition in the investigated crystal. (authors)

  15. Research field development ou iron-sulfur proteins by the Moessbauer spectroscopy and EPR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arsenio, T.P.; Taft, C.A.

    1984-01-01

    A research line on iron sulfides (chemical and structurally seemed with the iron-sulfur proteins), implanted and developed at CBPF-Brazil, using the same theoretical and experimental models used in the development of the research field on iron-sulfur proteins is reported. The techniques used are Moessbauer spectroscopy and EPR. (L.C.) [pt

  16. EPR in characterization of seeds paramagnetic species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luiz, A.P.C.; Mauro, M.F.F.L.; Portugal, K.O.; Barbana, V.M.; Guedes, C.L.B.; Mauro, E. di; Carneiro, C.E.A.; Zaia, D.A.M.; Prete, C.E.C.

    2011-01-01

    Full text. In Brazil, since 1970s, renewable fuel programs has been developed in order to replace petroleum. Today a program that has been discussed is the bio diesel, which intend to replace diesel fuel, fossil oil, to bio diesel, renewal fuel. As seeds are the basis for production of oil and consequently processed into bio diesel, the goal of this work is to characterize and compare paramagnetic species present in the seeds by Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR). Samples used in this study were seeds of sorghum, barley, corn, peanuts, soy beans, cotton, wheat, oats, mustard, rice, sunflower and turnip. Some paramagnetic species present in soil was also investigated as goethite (FeOOH), hematite (Fe 2 O 3 ), magnetite (Fe 3 O 4 ), and ferrihydrite (Fe 5 HO 8 · 4H 2 O), since, these species present in appreciable quantities in the soil can be present in the seeds and analyzed for comparison. The characterization of these species is essential to understand the EPR seeds spectra. Each sample is placed in a thin quartz tube 4 mm in diameter, and it is inserted into the cavity of the spectrometer at room temperature, at low temperature (77 K) and variable temperature using liquid nitrogen flow and hot flow through a compressor air. It was used as standard Mg O:Mn 2+ , which is also inserted into the cavity. Shortly after the potency is regulated, frequency, amplitude and sweep the field. The spectroscopic analysis by EPR X-band (∼ 9:5GHz), were performed at the Fluorescence and Electron Paramagnetic Resonance Laboratory, Exact Sciences Center, State University of Londrina, Parana state, Brazil, through an EPR spectrometer JEOL brand (JES-PE-3X). In the EPR spectra, spectroscopic factor or g factor and line width were determined in paramagnetic species. Studies from several seeds with EPR technique detected in all of them presence of same complex of Fe 3+ present in the goethite at g ∼ 2, and in the seeds exist free radicals at g = 2:004, at room temperature

  17. EPR in characterization of seeds paramagnetic species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luiz, A.P.C.; Mauro, M.F.F.L.; Portugal, K.O.; Barbana, V.M.; Guedes, C.L.B.; Mauro, E. di; Carneiro, C.E.A.; Zaia, D.A.M.; Prete, C.E.C. [Universidade Estadual de Londrina (UEL), PR (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Full text. In Brazil, since 1970s, renewable fuel programs has been developed in order to replace petroleum. Today a program that has been discussed is the bio diesel, which intend to replace diesel fuel, fossil oil, to bio diesel, renewal fuel. As seeds are the basis for production of oil and consequently processed into bio diesel, the goal of this work is to characterize and compare paramagnetic species present in the seeds by Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR). Samples used in this study were seeds of sorghum, barley, corn, peanuts, soy beans, cotton, wheat, oats, mustard, rice, sunflower and turnip. Some paramagnetic species present in soil was also investigated as goethite (FeOOH), hematite (Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}), magnetite (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}), and ferrihydrite (Fe{sub 5}HO{sub 8} {center_dot} 4H{sub 2}O), since, these species present in appreciable quantities in the soil can be present in the seeds and analyzed for comparison. The characterization of these species is essential to understand the EPR seeds spectra. Each sample is placed in a thin quartz tube 4 mm in diameter, and it is inserted into the cavity of the spectrometer at room temperature, at low temperature (77 K) and variable temperature using liquid nitrogen flow and hot flow through a compressor air. It was used as standard Mg O:Mn{sup 2+}, which is also inserted into the cavity. Shortly after the potency is regulated, frequency, amplitude and sweep the field. The spectroscopic analysis by EPR X-band ({approx} 9:5GHz), were performed at the Fluorescence and Electron Paramagnetic Resonance Laboratory, Exact Sciences Center, State University of Londrina, Parana state, Brazil, through an EPR spectrometer JEOL brand (JES-PE-3X). In the EPR spectra, spectroscopic factor or g factor and line width were determined in paramagnetic species. Studies from several seeds with EPR technique detected in all of them presence of same complex of Fe{sup 3+} present in the goethite at g {approx} 2, and in the seeds

  18. The PRISMA extension statement for reporting of systematic reviews incorporating network meta-analyses of health care interventions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hutton, Brian; Salanti, Georgia; Caldwell, Deborah M

    2015-01-01

    The PRISMA statement is a reporting guideline designed to improve the completeness of reporting of systematic reviews and meta-analyses. Authors have used this guideline worldwide to prepare their reviews for publication. In the past, these reports typically compared 2 treatment alternatives. Wit...

  19. Louisiana Barrier Island Comprehensive Monitoring (BICM) Program Summary Report: Data and Analyses 2006 through 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kindinger, Jack G.; Buster, Noreen A.; Flocks, James G.; Bernier, Julie C.; Kulp, Mark A.

    2013-01-01

    The Barrier Island Comprehensive Monitoring (BICM) program was implemented under the Louisiana Coastal Area Science and Technology (LCA S&T) office as a component of the System Wide Assessment and Monitoring (SWAMP) program. The BICM project was developed by the State of Louisiana (Coastal Protection Restoration Authority [CPRA], formerly Department of Natural Resources [DNR]) to complement other Louisiana coastal monitoring programs such as the Coastwide Reference Monitoring System-Wetlands (CRMS-Wetlands) and was a collaborative research effort by CPRA, University of New Orleans (UNO), and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). The goal of the BICM program was to provide long-term data on the barrier islands of Louisiana that could be used to plan, design, evaluate, and maintain current and future barrier-island restoration projects. The BICM program used both historical and newly acquired (2006 to 2010) data to assess and monitor changes in the aerial and subaqueous extent of islands, habitat types, sediment texture and geotechnical properties, environmental processes, and vegetation composition. BICM datasets included aerial still and video photography (multiple time series) for shoreline positions, habitat mapping, and land loss; light detection and ranging (lidar) surveys for topographic elevations; single-beam and swath bathymetry; and sediment grab samples. Products produced using BICM data and analyses included (but were not limited to) storm-impact assessments, rate of shoreline and bathymetric change, shoreline-erosion and accretion maps, high-resolution elevation maps, coastal-shoreline and barrier-island habitat-classification maps, and coastal surficial-sediment characterization maps. Discussions in this report summarize the extensive data-collection efforts and present brief interpretive analyses for four coastal Louisiana geographic regions. In addition, several coastal-wide and topical themes were selected that integrate the data and analyses within a

  20. EPR design: A combined approach on safety and economic competitiveness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griedl, R.; Sturm, J.; Degrave, C.; Kappler, F.; Martin-Onraet, M.

    2001-01-01

    Starting in 1991, the French and German cooperation led to common work based on the experience of the two designers FRAMATOME and SIEMENS KWU with all their know how, the most important utilities in France and Germany operating NPP and the technical supports of the Licensing Authorities GRS and IPSN. The conclusion of that work was the issue in November 1997 and February 1999 respectively of two Basic Design reports for a European Pressurized Reactor (EPR) with a power of 4250 MWth and 4900 MWth. The Basic Design approach was led under two key items: Enhancement of the overall safety level by implementation of design measures to: make the plant less dependant to common cause failures; practically eliminate all high pressure core melt sequences which could lead to important radioactive releases to the environment; implement specific systems to face severe accident situation with low-pressure core melt. Use of the many years of experiences in two different nuclear designs is to reach an overall availability figure over 91%, partly due to design improvements on the safety level. With such an objective, demonstrated by feedback of experience on already operating plants, the EPR project can be proposed as a competitive alternative to the most recent fossil plants. (author)

  1. Full cycle rapid scan EPR deconvolution algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseytlin, Mark

    2017-08-01

    Rapid scan electron paramagnetic resonance (RS EPR) is a continuous-wave (CW) method that combines narrowband excitation and broadband detection. Sinusoidal magnetic field scans that span the entire EPR spectrum cause electron spin excitations twice during the scan period. Periodic transient RS signals are digitized and time-averaged. Deconvolution of absorption spectrum from the measured full-cycle signal is an ill-posed problem that does not have a stable solution because the magnetic field passes the same EPR line twice per sinusoidal scan during up- and down-field passages. As a result, RS signals consist of two contributions that need to be separated and postprocessed individually. Deconvolution of either of the contributions is a well-posed problem that has a stable solution. The current version of the RS EPR algorithm solves the separation problem by cutting the full-scan signal into two half-period pieces. This imposes a constraint on the experiment; the EPR signal must completely decay by the end of each half-scan in order to not be truncated. The constraint limits the maximum scan frequency and, therefore, the RS signal-to-noise gain. Faster scans permit the use of higher excitation powers without saturating the spin system, translating into a higher EPR sensitivity. A stable, full-scan algorithm is described in this paper that does not require truncation of the periodic response. This algorithm utilizes the additive property of linear systems: the response to a sum of two inputs is equal the sum of responses to each of the inputs separately. Based on this property, the mathematical model for CW RS EPR can be replaced by that of a sum of two independent full-cycle pulsed field-modulated experiments. In each of these experiments, the excitation power equals to zero during either up- or down-field scan. The full-cycle algorithm permits approaching the upper theoretical scan frequency limit; the transient spin system response must decay within the scan

  2. Steering, Entanglement, Nonlocality, and the EPR Paradox

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiseman, Howard; Jones, Steve; Andrew, Doherty

    2007-06-01

    The concept of steering was introduced by Schroedinger in 1935 as a generalization of the EPR paradox for arbitrary pure bipartite entangled states and arbitrary measurements by one party. Until now, it has never been rigorously defined, so it has not been known (for example) what mixed states are steerable (that is, can be used to exhibit steering). We provide an operational definition, from which we prove (by considering Werner states and Isotropic states) that steerable states are a strict subset of the entangled states, and a strict superset of the states that can exhibit Bell-nonlocality. For arbitrary bipartite Gaussian states we derive a linear matrix inequality that decides the question of steerability via Gaussian measurements, and we relate this to the original EPR paradox.

  3. The long way to the EPR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berke, C.

    1997-01-01

    At the joint conference organized by the German Kerntechnische Gesellschaft (KTG) e.V. and the French Societe Francaise d'Energie Nucleaire (SFEN) in Cologne, the announcement was made on October 20, 1997 that Jean Claude Leny will be appointed Honorary Member of KTG. For reasons of ill health the new honorary member was prevented from attending the conference. In his place, Claus Berke sketched the history of the European Pressurized Water Reactor (EPR) and presented an overview of nuclear development in France and in Germany. Developing one standard reactor model in the primary objective of German-French cooperation in reactor development. The EPR is to replace the present nuclear generating units in France and Germany after the end of their planned service life, and is to be marketed as a standard export line. (orig.) [de

  4. EPR becomes reality at Finland's Olkiluoto 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gueldner, R.; Giese, U.

    2005-01-01

    The EPR is a third-generation pressurized water reactor (PWR). Its development was started in 1992 by Framatome and Siemens within a Franco-German partnership. Since 2001 this work has been continued by Framatome ANP, which was formed when the two companies merged their nuclear businesses. The French company AREVA, world market leader in nuclear technology, holds a 66% share in Framatome ANP, with Siemens owning 34%. From the very start, development of the EPR was focused on improving plant safety and economics even further. The new reactor development was jointly financed together with the leading power utilities of both countries. The first steps towards realization of an EPR nuclear power plant were taken at Olkiluoto, Finland in 2004, consisting of initial preparation of the construction site. By mid-February 2005 the local municipality - Eurajoki - had issued a construction permit, and the Finnish Government a construction license pursuant to the Finnish Nuclear Energy Act. This had been preceded by a preliminary safety assessment prepared by the Finnish Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK) for the Finnish Ministry of Trade and Industry in which STUK verified that it did not see any safety-related issues opposing issuance of the nuclear construction license. STUK emphasized that the evolutionary design of the EPR had been further improved by AREVA compared to the previous product lines. Concreting work began this spring and the unit will start commercial operation in 2009. Construction of an EPR has also been given the political go-ahead in France. According to the utility Electricite de France (EDF) the new reactor will be built as a forerunner of a later series at the site of Flamanville in Normandy. Construction is scheduled to begin in 2007. An EPR nuclear power plant has a rated electric capacity of around 1600 MW, depending on specific site conditions. Being the product of intense bilateral cooperation the EPR combines the technological

  5. A theoretical interpretation of EPR and ENDOR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matos, M.O.M. de.

    1975-08-01

    To interpret the EPR and ENDOR results of the U 2 center in SrF 2 , two wavefunctions are proposed to describe the unpaired electron of the defect. Use is made of two different models in order to obtain the wavefunctions: the Heitler-London and that of molecular orbitals models. The Pauli repulsion (overlap of wavefunctions) is discussed as well as covalency mechanisms and their influence in the calculation of the hyperfine constants due to magnetic interaction of the unpaired electron and the magnetic nucleus of the cristal. A small amount of covalency between the ground state of the interstitial Hydrogen atom and the 2p shell of the F - ions of the first cristaline shell is introduced fenomenologically in the molecular orbitals model. Both methods are discussed by comparing the theoretical calculations of the hyperfine constants with the measured experimental values obtained with the EPR and ENDOR techniques. (Author) [pt

  6. Holographic EPR pairs, wormholes and radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernicoff, Mariano; Güijosa, Alberto; Pedraza, Juan F.

    2013-10-01

    As evidence for the ER = EPR conjecture, it has recently been observed that the string that is holographically dual to an entangled quark-antiquark pair separating with (asymptotically) uniform acceleration has a wormhole on its worldsheet. We point out that a two-sided horizon and a wormhole actually appear for much more generic quark-antiquark trajectories, which is consistent with the fact that the members of an EPR pair need not be permanently out of causal contact. The feature that determines whether the causal structure of the string worldsheet is trivial or not turns out to be the emission of gluonic radiation by the dual quark and antiquark. In the strongly-coupled gauge theory, it is only when radiation is emitted that one obtains an unambiguous separation of the pair into entangled subsystems, and this is what is reflected on the gravity side by the existence of the worldsheet horizon.

  7. Teichmuller Space Resolution of the EPR Paradox

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winterberg, Friedwardt

    2013-04-01

    The mystery of Newton's action-at-a-distance law of gravity was resolved by Einstein with Riemann's non-Euclidean geometry, which permitted the explanation of the departure from Newton's law for the motion of Mercury. It is here proposed that the similarly mysterious non-local EPR-type quantum correlations may be explained by a Teichmuller space geometry below the Planck length, for which an experiment for its verification is proposed.

  8. Steering, Entanglement, Nonlocality, and the EPR Paradox

    OpenAIRE

    Wiseman, H. M.; Jones, S. J.; Doherty, A. C.

    2006-01-01

    The concept of steering was introduced by Schrodinger in 1935 as a generalization of the EPR paradox for arbitrary pure bipartite entangled states and arbitrary measurements by one party. Until now, it has never been rigorously defined, so it has not been known (for example) what mixed states are steerable (that is, can be used to exhibit steering). We provide an operational definition, from which we prove (by considering Werner states and Isotropic states) that steerable states are a strict ...

  9. Seventy Years of the EPR Paradox

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupczynski, Marian

    2006-11-01

    In spite of the fact that statistical predictions of quantum theory (QT) can only be tested if large amount of data is available a claim has been made that QT provides the most complete description of an individual physical system. Einstein's opposition to this claim and the paradox he presented in the article written together with Podolsky and Rosen in 1935 inspired generations of physicists in their quest for better understanding of QT. Seventy years after EPR article it is clear that without deep understanding of the character and limitations of QT one may not hope to find a meaningful unified theory of all physical interactions, manipulate qubits or construct a quantum computer.. In this paper we present shortly the EPR paper, the discussion, which followed it and Bell inequalities (BI). To avoid various paradoxes we advocate purely statistical contextual interpretation (PSC) of QT. According to PSC a state vector is not an attribute of a single electron, photon, trapped ion or quantum dot. A value of an observable assigned to a physical system has only a meaning in a context of a particular physical experiment PSC does not provide any mental space-time picture of sub phenomena. The EPR paradox is avoided because the reduction of the state vector in the measurement process is a passage from a description of the whole ensemble of the experimental results to a particular sub-ensemble of these results. We show that the violation of BI is neither a proof of the completeness of QT nor of its non-locality. Therefore we rephrase the EPR question and ask whether QT is "predictably "complete or in other words does it provide the complete description of experimental data. To test the "predictable completeness" it is not necessary to perform additional experiments it is sufficient to analyze more in detail the existing experimental data by using various non-parametric purity tests and other specific statistical tools invented to study the fine structure the time-series.

  10. Seventy Years of the EPR Paradox

    OpenAIRE

    Kupczynski, Marian

    2007-01-01

    In spite of the fact that statistical predictions of quantum theory (QT) can only be tested if large amount of data is available a claim has been made that QT provides the most complete description of an individual physical system. Einstein's opposition to this claim and the paradox he presented in the article written together with Podolsky and Rosen in 1935 inspired generations of physicists in their quest for better understanding of QT. Seventy years after EPR article it is clear that witho...

  11. Is the EPR paradox really a paradox?

    OpenAIRE

    Tartaglia, A.

    1998-01-01

    The EPR paradox and the meaning of the Bell inequality are discussed. It is shown that considering the quantum objects as carrying with them ''instruction kits'' telling them what to do when meeting a measurement apparatus any paradox disappears. In this view the quantum state is characterized by the prescribed behaviour rather than by the specific value a parameter assumes as a result of an interaction.

  12. Should the EPR be financed by industrialists?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jemain, A.

    2005-01-01

    As a reciprocal arrangement, the industrialists should be invited to contribute to the financing of the new generation reactor EPR (European pressurized reactor) which will be built in Flamanville (Manche, France). In exchange to their financial participation, the industrialists will receive the contractual warranty of stable electricity prices during 10 to 15 years periods. This short paper presents the opposite opinion of two representative of French industries concerning this proposal. Short paper. (J.S.)

  13. EPR Test with Photons and Kaons Analogies

    CERN Document Server

    Gisin, Nicolas

    2001-01-01

    We present a unified formalism describing EPR test using spin 1/2 particles, photons and kaons. This facilitates the comparison between existing experiments using photons and kaons. It underlines the similarities between birefringence and polarization dependent losses that affects experiments using optical fibers and mixing and decay that are intrinsic to the kaons. We also discuss the limitation these two characteristics impose on the testing of Bell's inequality.

  14. On Popper's new EPR-Experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bedford, D.; Selleri, F.

    1985-01-01

    It is scientifically reasonable to search for particular statistical ensembles to which the standard quantum rules (like Heisenberg relations) do not apply: these rules would instead be applicable to more general statistical ensembles (which might be called ''standard quantum ensembles''). Along these lines, Popper has recently proposed what he calls ''a new version of the EPR experiment'' in which the Copenhagen and statistical interpretations of quantum mechanics apparently lead to distinguishably different predictions

  15. Self-testing through EPR-steering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Šupić, Ivan; Hoban, Matty J

    2016-01-01

    The verification of quantum devices is an important aspect of quantum information, especially with the emergence of more advanced experimental implementations of quantum computation and secure communication. Within this, the theory of device-independent robust self-testing via Bell tests has reached a level of maturity now that many quantum states and measurements can be verified without direct access to the quantum systems: interaction with the devices is solely classical. However, the requirements for this robust level of verification are daunting and require high levels of experimental accuracy. In this paper we discuss the possibility of self-testing where we only have direct access to one part of the quantum device. This motivates the study of self-testing via EPR-steering, an intermediate form of entanglement verification between full state tomography and Bell tests. Quantum non-locality implies EPR-steering so results in the former can apply in the latter, but we ask what advantages may be gleaned from the latter over the former given that one can do partial state tomography? We show that in the case of self-testing a maximally entangled two-qubit state, or ebit, EPR-steering allows for simpler analysis and better error tolerance than in the case of full device-independence. On the other hand, this improvement is only a constant improvement and (up to constants) is the best one can hope for. Finally, we indicate that the main advantage in self-testing based on EPR-steering could be in the case of self-testing multi-partite quantum states and measurements. For example, it may be easier to establish a tensor product structure for a particular party’s Hilbert space even if we do not have access to their part of the global quantum system. (paper)

  16. The Finnish EPR dependent on a bridge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dupin, L.

    2010-01-01

    A new conflict has emerged between the main contractor Areva and its client TVO, the Finnish energy group. The qualification of a handling bridge has delayed the OL3 project of third EPR reactor at Olkiluoto, Finland. The disagreement concerns the testing procedure and may induce a two year delay in the completion of the project which is now planned for 2012 instead of 2010 initially. (J.S.)

  17. The EPR operators are trained on simulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maincent, G.

    2009-01-01

    Three years before the EPR reactor of Flamanville (Normandie, France) is generating its very first kilowatt hours, Electricite de France has started to train its teams on a simulator which reproduces the man-machine interface of the future nuclear power plant. The simulator used is an evolutive tool specific to the Flamanville reactor and capable to test about 20 different accidental situations. (J.S.)

  18. EPR in non-doped irradiated polyacetylene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hola, O.; Stasko, A.; Foeldesova, M.

    1993-01-01

    The influence of γ-irradiation on the paramagnetic properties of non-doped polyacetylene at low and high radiation doses has been studied and summarized. The dependence of the EPR spectra on the radiation dose in irradiated polyacetylene has been measured. No essential changes of the spin mobility as a consequence of irradiation were observed. The measurements of spin concentration confirm the high resistivity of non-doped polyacetylene to radiation. (author) 9 refs

  19. Active or passive systems? The EPR approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonhomme, N.; Py, J.P.

    1996-01-01

    In attempting to review how EPR is contemplated to meet requirements applicable to future nuclear power plants, the authors indicate where they see the markets and the corresponding unit sizes for the EPR which is a generic key factor for competitiveness. There are no reason in industrialized countries, other than USA (where the investment and amortizing practices under control by Public Utility Commission are quite particular), not to build future plants in the 1000 to 1500 MWe range. Standardization, which has been actively applied all along the French program and for the Konvoi plants, does not prevent evolution and allows to concentrate large engineering effort in smooth realization of plants and achieve actual construction and commissioning without significant delays. In order to contribute to public trust renewal, a next generation of power reactors should be fundamentally less likely to incur serious accidents. To reach this goal the best of passive and active systems must be considered without forgetting that the most important source of knowledge is construction and operating experience. Criteria to assess passive systems investigated for possible implementation in the EPR, such as simplicity of design, impact on plant operation, safety and cost, are discussed. Examples of the principal passive systems investigated are described and reasons why they have been dropped after screening through the criteria are given. (author). 11 figs

  20. Comparative study of some new EPR dosimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alzimami, K.S.; Maghraby, Ahmed M.; Bradley, D.A.

    2014-01-01

    Investigations have been made of four new radiation dosimetry EPR candidates from the same family of materials: sulfamic acid, sulfanillic acid, homotaurine, and taurine. Mass energy attenuation coefficients, mass stopping power values and the time dependence of the radiation induced radicals are compared. Also investigated are the microwave saturation behavior and the effect of applied modulation amplitude on both peak-to-peak line width (W PP ) and peak-to-peak signal height (H PP ). The dosimeters are characterized by simple spectra and stable radiation-induced radicals over reasonable durations, especially in taurine dosimeters. Sulfamic acid dosimeters possessed the highest sensitivity followed by taurine and homotaurine and sulfanillic. - Highlights: ► Several EPR dosimeters were suggested based on SO 3 − radical. ► Taurine, homotaurine, sulfanilic, and sulfamic acid all possess simple EPR spectra. ► Dosimeters were compared to each other in terms of the dosimetric point of view. ► Energy dependence curves of the selected dosimeters were compared to eachother

  1. Active or passive systems? The EPR approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonhomme, N [Nuclear Power International, Cedex (France); Py, J P [FRAMATOME, Cedex (France)

    1996-12-01

    In attempting to review how EPR is contemplated to meet requirements applicable to future nuclear power plants, the authors indicate where they see the markets and the corresponding unit sizes for the EPR which is a generic key factor for competitiveness. There are no reason in industrialized countries, other than USA (where the investment and amortizing practices under control by Public Utility Commission are quite particular), not to build future plants in the 1000 to 1500 MWe range. Standardization, which has been actively applied all along the French program and for the Konvoi plants, does not prevent evolution and allows to concentrate large engineering effort in smooth realization of plants and achieve actual construction and commissioning without significant delays. In order to contribute to public trust renewal, a next generation of power reactors should be fundamentally less likely to incur serious accidents. To reach this goal the best of passive and active systems must be considered without forgetting that the most important source of knowledge is construction and operating experience. Criteria to assess passive systems investigated for possible implementation in the EPR, such as simplicity of design, impact on plant operation, safety and cost, are discussed. Examples of the principal passive systems investigated are described and reasons why they have been dropped after screening through the criteria are given. (author). 11 figs.

  2. Factors influencing EPR dosimetry in fingernails

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubner, D.L.; Spinella, M.R.; Bof, E.

    2010-01-01

    The technique based on the detection of ionizing radiation induced radicals by EPR in tooth enamel is an established method for the dosimetry of exposed persons in radiological emergencies. Dosimetry based on EPR spectral analysis of fingernail clippings, currently under development, has the practical advantage of the easier sample collection. A limiting factor is that overlapping the radiation induced signal (RIS), fingernails have shown the presence of two mechanically induced signals, called MIS1 and MIS2, due to elastic and plastic deformation respectively, at the time of fingernails cutting. With a water treatment, MIS1 is eliminated while MIS2 is considerably reduced. The calibration curves needed for radiation accident dosimetry should have 'universal' characteristics, ie. Represent the variability that can be found in different individuals. Early studies were directed to the analysis of factors affecting the development of such universal calibration curves. The peak to peak amplitude of the signal before and after the water treatment as well as the effect of size and number of clippings were studied. Furthermore, the interpersonal and intrapersonal variability were analyzed. Taking into account these previous studies, the optimal conditions for measurement were determined and EPR spectra of samples irradiated at different doses were used for the developing of dose-response curves. This paper presents the analysis of the results.(authors) [es

  3. Reporting characteristics of meta-analyses in orthodontics: methodological assessment and statistical recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papageorgiou, Spyridon N; Papadopoulos, Moschos A; Athanasiou, Athanasios E

    2014-02-01

    Ideally meta-analyses (MAs) should consolidate the characteristics of orthodontic research in order to produce an evidence-based answer. However severe flaws are frequently observed in most of them. The aim of this study was to evaluate the statistical methods, the methodology, and the quality characteristics of orthodontic MAs and to assess their reporting quality during the last years. Electronic databases were searched for MAs (with or without a proper systematic review) in the field of orthodontics, indexed up to 2011. The AMSTAR tool was used for quality assessment of the included articles. Data were analyzed with Student's t-test, one-way ANOVA, and generalized linear modelling. Risk ratios with 95% confidence intervals were calculated to represent changes during the years in reporting of key items associated with quality. A total of 80 MAs with 1086 primary studies were included in this evaluation. Using the AMSTAR tool, 25 (27.3%) of the MAs were found to be of low quality, 37 (46.3%) of medium quality, and 18 (22.5%) of high quality. Specific characteristics like explicit protocol definition, extensive searches, and quality assessment of included trials were associated with a higher AMSTAR score. Model selection and dealing with heterogeneity or publication bias were often problematic in the identified reviews. The number of published orthodontic MAs is constantly increasing, while their overall quality is considered to range from low to medium. Although the number of MAs of medium and high level seems lately to rise, several other aspects need improvement to increase their overall quality.

  4. Retrospective individual dosimetry using EPR of tooth enamel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skvortzo, V.; Ivannikov, A.; Stepanenko, V.; Wieser, A.; Bougai, A.; Brick, A.; Chumak, V.; Radchuk, V.; Repin, V.; Kirilov, V.

    1996-01-01

    The results of joint investigations (in the framework of ECP-10 program) aimed on the improvement of the sensitivity and accuracy of the procedure of dose measurement using tooth enamel EPR spectroscopy are presented. It is shown, what the sensitivity of method may be increased using special physical-chemical procedure of the enamel samples treatment, which leads to the reducing of EPR signal of organic components in enamel. Tooth diseases may have an effect on radiation sensitivity of enamel. On the basis of statistical analysis of the results of more then 2000 tooth enamel samples measurements it was shown, what tooth enamel EPR spectroscopy gives opportunity to register contribution into total dose, which is caused by natural environmental radiation and by radioactive contamination. EPR response of enamel to ultraviolet exposure is investigated and possible influences to EPR dosimetry is discussed. The correction factors for EPR dosimetry in real radiation fields are estimated

  5. Confirmation of a second EPR to be built at Penly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2009-01-01

    The French government has made public its decision to launch the construction of a second EPR in France. This EPR is planned to be built on the Penly site (northern region of France). EDF will manage this project but other investors like GDF-Suez are invited to participate. The construction works are planned to begin in 2012 for a commissioning in 2017. This reactor will be the fifth EPR being built in the world. (A.C.)

  6. Energy indicators for electricity production : comparing technologies and the nature of the indicators Energy Payback Ratio (EPR), Net Energy Ratio (NER) and Cumulative Energy Demand (CED). [Oestfoldforskning AS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raadal, Hanne Lerche [Ostfold research, Fredrikstad (Norway); Modahl, Ingunn Saur [Ostfold research, Fredrikstad (Norway); Bakken, Tor Haakon [SINTEF Energy, Trondheim (Norway)

    2012-11-01

    Energy Demand (CED) were chosen to be reviewed and to benchmark technologies for production of electricity. In this report, generic definitions of the different energy indicators are used, making them applicable to different energy products (fuels, heat and electricity). The discussion and conclusions are also made as general as possible when the indicators are compared. In the benchmarking exercise the energy product under study is electricity.Conclusions - Comparing technologies. Hydropower clearly achieves the best energy performance according to the indicators EPR, NER and CED. Wind power achieves the second best performance while thermal power generation technologies based on biomass and fossil fuels give the lowest energy performance. There are large variations between the analysed technologies regarding the amount of primary energy needed to produce 1 kWh of electricity.The sources of primary energy used for producing electricity vary between the technologies. Electricity from hydropower, in particular, has a very high share of renewable energy as the primary source, while also wind power and bio-energy have high shares of renewables. The main energy sources required for producing electricity from coal and natural gas are fossil based.The study shows that second life cycle hydropower plants (which means upgrading and extension of old, existing plants) can have extremely high energy efficiency, measured by EPR. (Such plants are not shown in the figures in the summary, but are part of the results). For hydropower, the losses in waterways, turbines, generators and transformers are crucial for the ranking of cases when considering the whole life cycle (NER and CED). In general, this study gives no indication whether 'large' hydropower installations are more energy efficient than smaller installations, or whether reservoir hydropower plants are more energy efficient than run-of-river plants. Conclusions - Comparing indicators: The main reason for the

  7. Thermoelastic analyses of spent fuel repositories in bedded and dome salt. Technical memorandum report RSI-0054

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Callahan, G.D.; Ratigan, J.L.

    1978-01-01

    Global thermoelastic analyses of bedded and dome salt models showed a slight preference for the bedded salt model through the range of thermal loading conditions. Spent fuel thermal loadings should be less than 75 kW/acre of the repository pending more accurate material modeling. One should first limit the study to one or two spent fuel thermal loading (i.e. 75 kW/acre and/or 50 kW/acre) analyses up to a maximum time of approximately 2000 years. Parametric thermoelastic type analyses could then be readily obtained to determine the influence of the thermomechanical properties. Recommendations for further study include parametric analyses, plasticity analyses, consideration of the material interfaces as joints, and possibly consideration of a global joint pattern (i.e. jointed at the same orientation everywhere) for the non-salt materials. Subsequently, the viscoelastic analyses could be performed

  8. Two-dimensional 220 MHz Fourier transform EPR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Placidi, Giuseppe; Brivati, John A.; Alecci, Marcello; Testa, Luca; Sotgiu, Antonello

    1998-01-01

    In the last decade radiofrequency continuous-wave EPR spectrometers have been developed to detect and localize free radicals in vivo. Only recently, pulsed radiofrequency EPR spectrometers have been described for imaging applications with small samples. In the present work, we show the first two-dimensional image obtained at 220 MHz on a large phantom (40 ml) that simulates typical conditions of in vivo EPR imaging. This pulsed EPR apparatus has the potential to make the time required for three-dimensional imaging compatible with the biological half-life of normally used paramagnetic probes. (author)

  9. A web-based database for EPR centers in semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Umeda, T.; Hagiwara, S.; Katagiri, M.; Mizuochi, N.; Isoya, J.

    2006-01-01

    We develop a web-based database system for electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) centers in semiconductors. This database is available to anyone at http://www.kc.tsukuba.ac.jp/div-media/epr/. It currently has more than 300 records of the spin-Hamiltonian parameters for major known EPR centers. One can upload own new records to the database or can use simulation tools powered by EPR-NMR(C). Here, we describe the features and objectives of this database, and mention some future plans

  10. A public debate on nuclear? A first assessment of the two EPR and wastes debates organised by the Public Debate National Commission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    After a presentation of the organisation, the background and the participants of both debates (about the EPR and about nuclear wastes), this publication reports the conclusions published by those who organized these debates, extracts of interventions, work-group reports. These interventions, debates and work-groups were dealing with the industrial policy and the maintaining of abilities, the EPR safety. Other contributions are discussing the content of this kind of debates

  11. Melt spreading code assessment, modifications, and initial application to the EPR core catcher design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farmer, M.T.; Basu, S.

    2009-01-01

    The Evolutionary Power Reactor (EPR) is a 1,600-MWe Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) that is undergoing a design certification review by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). The EPR severe accident design philosophy is predicated upon the fact that the projected power rating results in a narrow margin for in-vessel melt retention by external flooding. As a result, the design addresses ex-vessel core melt stabilization using a mitigation strategy that includes: 1) an external core melt retention system to temporarily hold core melt released from the vessel; 2) a layer of 'sacrificial' material that is admixed with the melt while in the core melt retention system; 3) a melt plug that, when failed, provides a pathway for the mixture to spread to a large core spreading chamber; and finally, 4) cooling and stabilization of the spread melt by controlled top and bottom flooding. The melt spreading process relies heavily on inertial flow of a low-viscosity admixed melt to a segmented spreading chamber, and assumes that the melt mass will be distributed to a uniform height in the chamber. The spreading phenomenon thus needs to be modeled properly in order to adequately assess the EPR design. The MELTSPREAD code, developed at Argonne National Laboratory, can model segmented, and both uniform and non-uniform spreading. The NRC is using MELTSPREAD to evaluate melt spreading in the EPR design. The development of MELTSPREAD ceased in the early 1990's, and so the code was first assessed against the more contemporary spreading database and code modifications, as warranted, were carried out before performing confirmatory plant calculations. This paper provides principle findings from the MELTSPREAD assessment activities and resulting code modifications, and also summarizes the results of initial scoping calculations for the EPR plant design and preliminary plant analyses, along with the plan for performing the final set of plant calculations including sensitivity studies

  12. EPR Evidence of Liquid Water in Ice: An Intrinsic Property of Water or a Self-Confinement Effect?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thangswamy, Muthulakshmi; Maheshwari, Priya; Dutta, Dhanadeep; Rane, Vinayak; Pujari, Pradeep K

    2018-06-01

    Liquid water (LW) existence in pure ice below 273 K has been a controversial aspect primarily because of the lack of experimental evidence. Recently, electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) has been used to study deeply supercooled water in a rapidly frozen polycrystalline ice. The same technique can also be used to probe the presence of LW in polycrystalline ice that has formed through a more conventional, slow cooling one. In this context, the present study aims to emphasize that in case of an external probe involving techniques such as EPR, the results are influenced by the binary phase (BP) diagram of the probe-water system, which also predicts the existence of LW domains in ice, up to the eutectic point. Here we report the results of our such EPR spin-probe studies on water, which demonstrate that smaller the concentration of the probe stronger is the EPR evidence of liquid domains in polycrystalline ice. We used computer simulations based on stochastic Liouville theory to analyze the lineshapes of the EPR spectra. We show that the presence of the spin probe modifies the BP diagram of water, at very low concentrations of the spin probe. The spin probe thus acts, not like a passive reporter of the behavior of the solvent and its environment, but as an active impurity to influence the solvent. We show that there exists a lower critical concentration, below which BP diagram needs to be modified, by incorporating the effect of confinement of the spin probe. With this approach, we demonstrate that the observed EPR evidence of LW domains in ice can be accounted for by the modified BP diagram of the probe-water system. The present work highlights the importance of taking cognizance of the possibility of spin probes affecting the host systems, when interpreting the EPR (or any other probe based spectroscopic) results of phase transitions of host, as its ignorance may lead to serious misinterpretations.

  13. Systematic selection method for probabilistic fire analyses. Final report; Systematisches Auswahlverfahren fuer probabilistische Brandanalysen. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuerschmann, M.; Linden, J. von; Roewekamp, M.

    2005-07-01

    A PSA for the plant internal fire hazard is carried out in several steps. First step is a selection process ('screening'). The screening can be performed qualitatively or quantitatively or by means of a combined qualitative and quantitative approach as developed by GRS in the frame of a research project. During the revision of the PSA guidance documents it turned out that the GRS screening approach needs further automation and developments, in particular regarding the systems specific part to reduce the effects of expert decisions as far as possible. Therefore, the combined approach has been further improved. The improved screening approach as outlined in this report provides estimated values for damage frequencies. By this means, it is possible to identify relevant fire scenarios and to apply the cut-off criteria defined in the PSA for fire analyses. The approach corresponds as far as possible to the existing PSA models. The event and fault trees of these models describe in detail the correlation between component failures and the occurrence of damage states. The screening process combines fire and compartment specific information for estimating fire induced component failures with the PSA models for determining damage frequencies. The screening process is carried out in three steps starting with an as far as possible automated fire specific screening based on a comprehensive plant specific information collection. In a second step, qualitative PSA specific information is considered. The rooms and/or plant areas not screened out and ranked by fire specific ranking criteria are subject to a quantitative systems specific selection. (orig.)

  14. Effect of reporting bias on meta-analyses of drug trials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hart, Beth; Lundh, Andreas; Bero, Lisa

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the effect of including unpublished trial outcome data obtained from the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) on the results of meta-analyses of drug trials.......To investigate the effect of including unpublished trial outcome data obtained from the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) on the results of meta-analyses of drug trials....

  15. EPR studies of excited state exchange and crystal-field effects in rare earth compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, C.Y.; Sugawara, K.; Cooper, B.R.

    1976-01-01

    EPR in excited crystal-field states of Tm 3+ , Pr 3+ , and Tb 3+ in singlet-ground-state systems and in the excited state of Ce 3+ in CeP are reviewed. Because one is looking at a crystal-field excited state resonance, the exchange, even if isotropic, does not act as a secular perturbation. This means that one obtains different effects and has access to more information about the dynamic effects of exchange than in conventional paramagnetic resonance experiments. The Tm and Pr monopnictides studied are paramagnetic at all temperatures. The most striking feature of the behavior of the GAMMA 5 /sup (2)/ EPR in the Tm compounds is the presence of an anomalous maximum in the temperature dependence of the g-factor. The relationship of this effect to anisotropic exchange is discussed. The results of the EPR of the excited GAMMA 5 /sup (2)/ level of Tb 3 + (g-factor becomes very large at T/sub N/ in antiferromagnetic TbX (X = P, As, Sb) and that of the excited GAMMA 8 level of Ce 3+ in antiferromagnetic CeP will also be reported. For sufficient dilution of the Tb 3+ in the terbium monopnictides, the systems become paramagnetic (Van Vleck paramagnets) down to 0 0 K. The Tb 3+ excited state resonance EPR in Tb/sub 0.1/ La/sub 0.9/P was studied as an example of behavior in such systems. 10 fig

  16. Simple group password-based authenticated key agreements for the integrated EPR information system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Tian-Fu; Chang, I-Pin; Wang, Ching-Cheng

    2013-04-01

    The security and privacy are important issues for electronic patient records (EPRs). The goal of EPRs is sharing the patients' medical histories such as the diagnosis records, reports and diagnosis image files among hospitals by the Internet. So the security issue for the integrated EPR information system is essential. That is, to ensure the information during transmission through by the Internet is secure and private. The group password-based authenticated key agreement (GPAKE) allows a group of users like doctors, nurses and patients to establish a common session key by using password authentication. Then the group of users can securely communicate by using this session key. Many approaches about GAPKE employ the public key infrastructure (PKI) in order to have higher security. However, it not only increases users' overheads and requires keeping an extra equipment for storing long-term secret keys, but also requires maintaining the public key system. This investigation presents a simple group password-based authenticated key agreement (SGPAKE) protocol for the integrated EPR information system. The proposed SGPAKE protocol does not require using the server or users' public keys. Each user only remembers his weak password shared with a trusted server, and then can obtain a common session key. Then all users can securely communicate by using this session key. The proposed SGPAKE protocol not only provides users with convince, but also has higher security.

  17. Locations of radical species in black pepper seeds investigated by CW EPR and 9GHz EPR imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, Kouichi; Epel, Boris

    2014-10-15

    In this study, noninvasive 9GHz electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR)-imaging and continuous wave (CW) EPR were used to investigate the locations of paramagnetic species in black pepper seeds without further irradiation. First, lithium phthalocyanine (LiPC) phantom was used to examine 9GHz EPR imaging capabilities. The 9GHz EPR-imager easily resolved the LiPC samples at a distance of ∼2mm. Then, commercially available black pepper seeds were measured. We observed signatures from three different radical species, which were assigned to stable organic radicals, Fe(3+), and Mn(2+) complexes. In addition, no EPR spectral change in the seed was observed after it was submerged in distilled H2O for 1h. The EPR and spectral-spatial EPR imaging results suggested that the three paramagnetic species were mostly located at the seed surface. Fewer radicals were found inside the seed. We demonstrated that the CW EPR and 9GHz EPR imaging were useful for the determination of the spatial distribution of paramagnetic species in various seeds. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. The Employment Precariousness Scale (EPRES): psychometric properties of a new tool for epidemiological studies among waged and salaried workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vives, Alejandra; Amable, Marcelo; Ferrer, Montserrat; Moncada, Salvador; Llorens, Clara; Muntaner, Carles; Benavides, Fernando G; Benach, Joan

    2010-08-01

    Despite the fact that labour market flexibility has resulted in an expansion of precarious employment in industrialised countries, to date there is limited empirical evidence concerning its health consequences. The Employment Precariousness Scale (EPRES) is a newly developed, theory-based, multidimensional questionnaire specifically devised for epidemiological studies among waged and salaried workers. To assess the acceptability, reliability and construct validity of EPRES in a sample of waged and salaried workers in Spain. A sample of 6968 temporary and permanent workers from a population-based survey carried out in 2004-2005 was analysed. The survey questionnaire was interviewer administered and included the six EPRES subscales, and measures of the psychosocial work environment (COPSOQ ISTAS21) and perceived general and mental health (SF-36). A high response rate to all EPRES items indicated good acceptability; Cronbach's alpha coefficients, over 0.70 for all subscales and the global score, demonstrated good internal consistency reliability; exploratory factor analysis using principal axis analysis and varimax rotation confirmed the six-subscale structure and the theoretical allocation of all items. Patterns across known groups and correlation coefficients with psychosocial work environment measures and perceived health demonstrated the expected relations, providing evidence of construct validity. Our results provide evidence in support of the psychometric properties of EPRES, which appears to be a promising tool for the measurement of employment precariousness in public health research.

  19. Characteristics and economy of the European reactor of pressurized water (EPR); Caracteristicas y economia del reactor europeo de agua a presion (EPR)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortiz V, J.; Ramirez S, J.R.; Palacios H, J.C. [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)]. e-mail: jov@nuclear.inin.mx

    2005-07-01

    The high current costs of the fossil fuels, have propitiated that the industries of electric power generation in the world reconsider the nuclear option as medium of generation. In Europe, the more recently contracted nuclear power plant is that of Olkiluoto-III in Finland that waits it enters in operation at the end of 2009. The reactor that will be installed in this power plant will be a prototype of pressurized water reactor of the companies AREVA and EDF. In this work they are described the reactor EPR and the major components of the nuclear power plant as well as the main characteristics of safety and the flexibility of the operation of the EPR. The supposed costs reported in different sources of information are also described and calculated with information provided by the manufacturer company. (Author)

  20. Reporting of conflicts of interests in meta-analyses of trials of pharmacological treatments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roseman, M.; Milette, K.; Bero, A.B.; Coyne, J.C.; Lexchin, J.; Turner, E.H.; Thombs, B.D.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract CONTEXT: Disclosure of conflicts of interest (COIs) from pharmaceutical industry study funding and author-industry financial relationships is sometimes recommended for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) published in biomedical journals. Authors of meta-analyses, however, are not required

  1. Contribution of Harold M. Swartz to In Vivo EPR and EPR Dosimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallez, Bernard

    2016-12-01

    In 2015, we are celebrating half a century of research in the application of Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) as a biodosimetry tool to evaluate the dose received by irradiated people. During the EPR Biodose 2015 meeting, a special session was organized to acknowledge the pioneering contribution of Harold M. (Hal) Swartz in the field. The article summarizes his main contribution in physiology and medicine. Four emerging themes have been pursued continuously along his career since its beginning: (1) radiation biology; (2) oxygen and oxidation; (3) measuring physiology in vivo; and (4) application of these measurements in clinical medicine. The common feature among all these different subjects has been the use of magnetic resonance techniques, especially EPR. In this article, you will find an impressionist portrait of Hal Swartz with the description of the 'making of' this pioneer, a time-line perspective on his career with the creation of three National Institutes of Health-funded EPR centers, a topic-oriented perspective on his career with a description of his major contributions to Science, his role as a mentor and his influence on his academic children, his active role as founder of scientific societies and organizer of scientific meetings, and the well-deserved international recognition received so far. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Contribution of Harold M. Swartz to In Vivo EPR and EPR Dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallez, Bernard

    2016-01-01

    In 2015, we are celebrating half a century of research in the application of Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) as a biodosimetry tool to evaluate the dose received by irradiated people. During the EPR Biodose 2015 meeting, a special session was organized to acknowledge the pioneering contribution of Harold M. (Hal) Swartz in the field. The article summarizes his main contribution in physiology and medicine. Four emerging themes have been pursued continuously along his career since its beginning: (1) radiation biology; (2) oxygen and oxidation; (3) measuring physiology in vivo; and (4) application of these measurements in clinical medicine. The common feature among all these different subjects has been the use of magnetic resonance techniques, especially EPR. In this article, you will find an impressionist portrait of Hal Swartz with the description of the 'making of' this pioneer, a time-line perspective on his career with the creation of three National Institutes of Health-funded EPR centers, a topic-oriented perspective on his career with a description of his major contributions to Science, his role as a mentor and his influence on his academic children, his active role as founder of scientific societies and organizer of scientific meetings, and the well-deserved international recognition received so far. (author)

  3. EPR: what has it taught us

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stapp, H.P.

    1985-05-01

    This symposium commemorating the fiftieth anniversary of the paper of Einstein, Podolsky, and Rosen is a fitting place to review what that work and its sequels have taught us. Prima facie, the EPR paper appears to have been exceedingly counter-productive for the following reasons: (1) The work was quickly rebutted by Bohr, and this rebuttal was apparently accepted by most workers in the field. (2) Scientists who adopted the position advocated by Bohr have produced, in the intervening fifty years, a marvelous body of useful theory, whereas those following the course suggested by EPR have produced nothing of any certified practical value. (3) It has been shown by Bell that the conclusion reached by EPR is incompatible with their assumptions. Chemists and physicists have recently begun to examine the behavior of quantum mechanical systems that are very small, yet large enough to influence their environment in ways that appreciably modify their own behavior, vis-a-vis the behavior they would have if isolated. Because these systems are neither small enough to be treated as isolated (or as residing in a classically described environment) between preparation and detection, nor large enough to be treated classically, they do not conform to the format demanded by the Copenhagen interpretation. Indeed, the behavior of these systems depends on ontological considerations that were irrelevant in the situations covered by the Copenhagen interpretation, and that were systematically ignored in that interpretation. Scientists now face the task of enlarging the scope of quantum theory to cover these new situations, and comparing the empirical consequences of various ontological assumptions. 17 refs

  4. EPR spin trapping of protein radicals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davies, Michael Jonathan; Hawkins, Clare Louise

    2004-01-01

    Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spin trapping was originally developed to aid the detection of low-molecular-mass radicals formed in chemical systems. It has subsequently found widespread use in biology and medicine for the direct detection of radical species formed during oxidative stress...... tumbling radicals are often broad and relatively poor in distinctive features, a number of techniques have been developed that allow a wealth of information to be obtained about the nature, site, and reactions of such radicals. This article summarizes recent developments in this area and reviews selected...... examples of radical formation on proteins....

  5. E-PR technologies in political party activities

    OpenAIRE

    Tereshchuk Vitaliy Ivanovych

    2016-01-01

    The article discusses the role of the Internet as an important communicative tool in the field of political PR. The article reviews the characteristics of PR-activities on the Internet and the features of e-PR in the political sphere. Particular attention is paid to the system of political party’s e-PR tools.

  6. PropeR: a multi disciplinary EPR system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Linden, Helma; Boers, Gerrit; Tange, Huibert; Talmon, Jan; Hasman, Arie

    2003-01-01

    This article describes the architecture of an EPR system developed for the PropeR project. This EPR system not only aims at supporting home care of stroke patients, but is also designed in such a way that it can be ported to other medical services without much effort. We will briefly describe the

  7. EPR and NMR spectroscopy on spin-labeled proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Finiguerra, Michelina Giuseppina

    2011-01-01

    Spin labeling and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) have been employed to study structure and dynamics of proteins. The surface polarity of four single cysteine mutants of the Zn-azurin in frozen solution were studied using 275 GHz EPR (J-band), with the advantage compared to 9 GHz (X-band) and

  8. Case Studies in e-RPL and e-PR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Roslyn; Miller, Allison

    2014-01-01

    The use of ePortfolios for recognition of prior learning (e-RPL) and for professional recognition (e-PR) is slowly gaining in popularity in the VET sector however their use is sporadic across educational sectors, disciplines, educational institutions and professions. Added to this is an array of purposes and types of e-RPL and e-PR models and…

  9. In vivo EPR extracellular pH-metry in tumors using a triphosphonated trityl radical.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchand, Valérie; Levêque, Philippe; Driesschaert, Benoit; Marchand-Brynaert, Jacqueline; Gallez, Bernard

    2017-06-01

    The ability to assess the extracellular pH (pHe) is an important issue in oncology, because extracellular acidification is associated with tumor aggressiveness and resistance to cytotoxic therapies. In this study, a stable triphosphonated triarylmethyl (TPTAM) radical was qualified as a pHe electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) molecular reporter. Calibration of hyperfine splitting as a function of pH was performed using a 1.2-GHz EPR spectrometer. Gadolinium-diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (Gd-DTPA) was used as an extracellular paramagnetic broadening agent to assess the localization of TPTAM when incubated with cells. In vivo EPR pH-metry was performed in MDA, SiHa, and TLT tumor models and in muscle. Bicarbonate therapy was used to modulate the tumor pHe. EPR measurements were compared with microelectrode readouts. The hyperfine splitting of TPTAM was strongly pH-dependent around the pKa of the probe (pKa = 6.99). Experiments with Gd-DTPA demonstrated that TPTAM remained in the extracellular compartment. pHe was found to be more acidic in the MDA, SiHa, and TLT tumor models compared with muscle. Treatment of animals by bicarbonate induced an increase in pHe in tumors: similar variations in pHe were found when using in vivo EPR or invasive microelectrodes measurements. This study demonstrates the potential usefulness of TPTAM for monitoring pHe in tumors. Magn Reson Med 77:2438-2443, 2017. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  10. The Reporting Quality of Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses in Industrial and Organizational Psychology: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schalken, Naomi; Rietbergen, Charlotte

    2017-01-01

    Objective: The goal of this systematic review was to examine the reporting quality of the method section of quantitative systematic reviews and meta-analyses from 2009 to 2016 in the field of industrial and organizational psychology with the help of the Meta-Analysis Reporting Standards (MARS), and to update previous research, such as the study of Aytug et al. (2012) and Dieckmann et al. (2009). Methods: A systematic search for quantitative systematic reviews and meta-analyses was conducted in the top 10 journals in the field of industrial and organizational psychology between January 2009 and April 2016. Data were extracted on study characteristics and items of the method section of MARS. A cross-classified multilevel model was analyzed, to test whether publication year and journal impact factor (JIF) were associated with the reporting quality scores of articles. Results: Compliance with MARS in the method section was generally inadequate in the random sample of 120 articles. Variation existed in the reporting of items. There were no significant effects of publication year and journal impact factor (JIF) on the reporting quality scores of articles. Conclusions: The reporting quality in the method section of systematic reviews and meta-analyses was still insufficient, therefore we recommend researchers to improve the reporting in their articles by using reporting standards like MARS.

  11. On the annealing of the EPR dislocation signal in silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zolotukhin, M.N.; Kveder, V.V.; Osip'yan, Yu.A.

    1981-01-01

    The annealing kinetics of the (EPR) dislocation signal (D-centers) in silicon is studied. The disappearance of the dislocation EPR signal as a result of annealing is ascribed to rearrangement of the nuclei of the partial dislocations accompanied by pairwise ''closing'' of the broken bonds in the S=0 state. The height of the energy barrier for the rearrangement process is approximately 2 eV. A residual ''nonannealing'' EPR signal is observed in strongly deformed silicon crystals. It resembles an isotropic line with a width approximately 7.5 Oe and a g-factor approximately 2.006. It is suggested that the respective EPR centers (O-centers) are similar to the EPR centers in amorphic silicon [ru

  12. Selective saturation method for EPR dosimetry with tooth enamel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ignatiev, E.A.; Romanyukha, A.A.; Koshta, A.A.; Wieser, A.

    1996-01-01

    The method of selective saturation is based on the difference in the microwave (mw) power dependence of the background and radiation induced EPR components of the tooth enamel spectrum. The subtraction of the EPR spectrum recorded at low mw power from that recorded at higher mw power provides a considerable reduction of the background component in the spectrum. The resolution of the EPR spectrum could be improved 10-fold, however simultaneously the signal-to-noise ratio was found to be reduced twice. A detailed comparative study of reference samples with known absorbed doses was performed to demonstrate the advantage of the method. The application of the selective saturation method for EPR dosimetry with tooth enamel reduced the lower limit of EPR dosimetry to about 100 mGy. (author)

  13. Limits in EPR dosimetry for irradiated dried fruits discrimination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brasoveanu, Mirela M. E-mirela@alpha.infim.ro; Nemtanu, R.; Minea, R.; Grecu, V.V.

    2003-01-01

    Irradiation of food induces free radical species. EPR dosimetry in irradiated goods puts in evidence if these radicals are stable in environmental condition. Irradiation of dried fruits has been carried out. Their behaviour under irradiation was investigated and correlation between EPR signal and irradiation dose was determined. Electrons of 6 MeV (mean energy) and doses up to 10 kGy were used. EPR spectra were recorded with a Jeol spectrometer, JES-ME-3X tip, with a 100 kHz modulation. The dried fruits can be separated into categories depending on the EPR signal intensity. Strong signals are observed in those fruits in which possible crystalline-like phases exist. As the amount of crystallized sugar decreases, the EPR signals become weaker. Dependencies on irradiation dose give a linear correlation below 10 kGy. The spectra are compared to irradiated sugar and differences and similarities are discussed. (authors)

  14. Costing the EPR Project Using the Real Options Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Epaulard, Anne; Gallon, Stephane

    2001-01-01

    Real options theory makes it possible to cost investments which offer flexibility but whose returns are uncertain, such as the construction in 2000 of an EPR prototype; this prototype will enable the European pressurised-water reactor (EPR) to be used to renew EDF's nuclear power stations in 2020 (flexibility) but its economic worth will then depend on the cost of the competing gas-fired power plants (uncertain return). Options theory shows that investing in EPR technology in 2000 provides sufficient flexibility in 2020 to be considered cost-effective, even though use of EPRs is unlikely by that date. The investment made in 2000 to develop EPR technology therefore actually plays the part of an option or, in other words, insurance (against the risk of high gas prices)

  15. EPR response characterization of drugs excipients for applying in accident dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marczewski, Barbara S.; Rodrigues Junior, Orlando; Galante, Ocimar L.; Costa, Zelia M. da; Campos, Leticia L.

    2002-01-01

    Some drugs are widely used by the population and can be employed to dose retrospective. The carbohydrates (saccharides), commonly used as excipients in the pharmaceutical industry, produce a quantity of free radicals after gamma irradiation, making them useful for dosimetry in emergency or accident situations that imply in dose evaluation from the materials found nearly or in contact with victims. In general, EPR signal from pulverized pills of some drugs are very complex due to the variety of components in the formulation. Because of this fact, some pharmaceutical excipients identified in the pill composition were also analysed by EPR spectrometry. On the counter drugs were studied: Cebion glucose, AAS, Aspirina, Conmel, Lacto-Purga and sugar substitutive ZeroCal. The excipients were: lactose, amide, anhydrous glucose and magnesium stearate. In some samples the number of radicals produced increased with the dose, showing a linear response for a dose range of interest and an adequate sensibility for dosimetry in accident cases

  16. A new internet-based tool for reporting and analysing patient-reported outcomes and the feasibility of repeated data collection from patients with myeloproliferative neoplasms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brochmann, Nana; Zwisler, Ann-Dorthe; Kjerholt, Mette

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: An Internet-based tool for reporting and analysing patient-reported outcomes (PROs) has been developed. The tool enables merging PROs with blood test results and allows for computation of treatment responses. Data may be visualized by graphical analysis and may be exported for downstream...

  17. Seismic criteria studies and analyses. Quarterly progress report No. 3. [LMFBR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1975-01-03

    Information is presented concerning the extent to which vibratory motions at the subsurface foundation level might differ from motions at the ground surface and the effects of the various subsurface materials on the overall Clinch River Breeder Reactor site response; seismic analyses of LMFBR type reactors to establish analytical procedures for predicting structure stresses and deformations; and aspects of the current technology regarding the representation of energy losses in nuclear power plants as equivalent viscous damping.

  18. Thermal and thermomechanical analyses of WIPP [Waste Isolation Pilot Plant] shaft seals: Topical report RSI-0324

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Sambeek, L.L.

    1987-10-01

    Thermal and thermomechanical analyses provided information on the behavior and stability of concrete seals emplaced in a circular shaft. The two types of concrete considered were an expansive salt-saturated concrete for seals located in rock salt or other rock and an expansive freshwater concrete for seals located in nonsalt rock. Thermal analyses determined the temperature rise in the concrete and surrounding rock as a result of the exothermic hydration of the cement in the concretes. The thermomechanical analyses considered time-dependent elastic modulus, thermoelastic expansion, time-dependent chemically induced expansion, and creep of the concrete; thermoelastic behavior of the nonsalt rocks; and thermoelastic and creep behavior of the rock salt. Supplementary analyses determined the effects of pressure loading on a face of the seal as might result from a static brine head or the swelling of a bentonite backfill; the influence of using a reduced elastic modulus for the rock salt; and the effect of eliminating the chemical expansivity of the concrete. Results of interest were the development of radial stress in the seal, the magnitudes of tensile and shear stresses induced in the seal and rock, and the effect of bonding or lack of bonding between the seal and the surrounding rock. The chemical expansivity of the concrete was shown to be important for the development of radial stresses in the seal and at the contact between the seal and the surrounding rock. The shear stresses induced in the seal by the swelling pressure of bentonite become a concern if the radial stresses are not developed. 20 refs., 58 figs., 3 tabs

  19. Review of the correlation between results of cytogenetic dosimetry from blood lymphocytes and EPR dosimetry from tooth enamel for victims of radiation accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khvostunov, I.K.; Ivannikov, A.I.; Skvortsov, V.G.; Golub, E.V.; Nugis, V. Yu.

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this study was to compare dose estimates from electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) dosimetry with teeth and cytogenetic dosimetry with blood lymphocytes for 30 victims of radiation accidents. The whole-body exposures estimated by tooth enamel EPR dosimetry were ranging from 0.01 to 9.3 Gy. Study group comprised victims exposed to acute and prolonged irradiation at high and low dose rate in different accidents. Blood samples were taken from each of them for cytogenetic analysis. Aberrations were scored and analysed according to International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) guidelines for conventional and FISH analysis. Tooth samples were collected in dental clinics after they had been extracted during ordinary practice. EPR dosimetry was performed according to the IAEA protocol. EPR dosimetry showed good correlation with dosimetry based on chromosomal analysis. All estimations of cytogenetic dose below detection limit coincide with EPR dose estimates within the ranges of uncertainty. The differences between cytogenetic and EPR assays may occur in a case of previous unaccounted exposure, non-homogeneous irradiation and due to contribution to absorbed dose from neutron irradiation. (authors)

  20. EPR investigation of Ti2+ in SrCl2 single crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrington, J. R.; Estle, T. L.; Boatner, L. A.

    1972-01-01

    The observation of 'double quantum' transitions which made it possible to determine the charge state of Ti as 2+ is reported. The EPR spectrum observed at 1.2 K is presented in a graph. The first derivative of the absorption is shown vs the magnetic field. The hyperfine patterns for the Ti-47 and Ti-49 isotopes are identified. Spin-Hamiltonian parameters for Ti(2+) in various cubic hosts are listed.

  1. A human error taxonomy for analysing healthcare incident reports: assessing reporting culture and its effects on safety perfomance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Itoh, Kenji; Omata, N.; Andersen, Henning Boje

    2009-01-01

    The present paper reports on a human error taxonomy system developed for healthcare risk management and on its application to evaluating safety performance and reporting culture. The taxonomy comprises dimensions for classifying errors, for performance-shaping factors, and for the maturity...

  2. Statistical Reporting Errors and Collaboration on Statistical Analyses in Psychological Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veldkamp, Coosje L S; Nuijten, Michèle B; Dominguez-Alvarez, Linda; van Assen, Marcel A L M; Wicherts, Jelte M

    2014-01-01

    Statistical analysis is error prone. A best practice for researchers using statistics would therefore be to share data among co-authors, allowing double-checking of executed tasks just as co-pilots do in aviation. To document the extent to which this 'co-piloting' currently occurs in psychology, we surveyed the authors of 697 articles published in six top psychology journals and asked them whether they had collaborated on four aspects of analyzing data and reporting results, and whether the described data had been shared between the authors. We acquired responses for 49.6% of the articles and found that co-piloting on statistical analysis and reporting results is quite uncommon among psychologists, while data sharing among co-authors seems reasonably but not completely standard. We then used an automated procedure to study the prevalence of statistical reporting errors in the articles in our sample and examined the relationship between reporting errors and co-piloting. Overall, 63% of the articles contained at least one p-value that was inconsistent with the reported test statistic and the accompanying degrees of freedom, and 20% of the articles contained at least one p-value that was inconsistent to such a degree that it may have affected decisions about statistical significance. Overall, the probability that a given p-value was inconsistent was over 10%. Co-piloting was not found to be associated with reporting errors.

  3. The EPR - technology for the 3rd Millennium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernstrauch, O.

    2000-01-01

    The Basic Design of the European Pressurized Water Reactor (EPR) was completed 1997 , the Basic Design Optimization Phase 1998 and the Detailed Design Phase will start in the near future. With these milestones, a new generation of PWRs is moving forward. Most of all, this is another story of a successful Franco-German cooperation. It is a rundown of the history of the EPR, before a decision is made to launch the lead-unit construction. The EPR project was launched in 1992 by Nuclear Power International (NPI), a joint company of FRAMATOME and Siemens KWU, supported by EDF and nine German electric utilities. Each step of the development of the EPR was harmonized with the Nuclear Safety Authorities both in France and Germany to reach an early approval. The EPR integrates the latest technological advances, especially in safety and operational aspects and comprises more than 30 years operating experience. Thus, the EPR combines the qualities of its predecessors, the French N4 and the German Konvoi. Presently, Siemens KWU and FRAMATOME are preparing the detailed design phase and the following construction and commissioning phase. The decision to build an EPR is not yet made either by the German electric utilities or by EdF, but it will be expected within the next months as a strong statement to follow the nuclear way and to ensure the know-how transfer. (author)

  4. Digitally generated excitation and near-baseband quadrature detection of rapid scan EPR signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseitlin, Mark; Yu, Zhelin; Quine, Richard W; Rinard, George A; Eaton, Sandra S; Eaton, Gareth R

    2014-12-01

    The use of multiple synchronized outputs from an arbitrary waveform generator (AWG) provides the opportunity to perform EPR experiments differently than by conventional EPR. We report a method for reconstructing the quadrature EPR spectrum from periodic signals that are generated with sinusoidal magnetic field modulation such as continuous wave (CW), multiharmonic, or rapid scan experiments. The signal is down-converted to an intermediate frequency (IF) that is less than the field scan or field modulation frequency and then digitized in a single channel. This method permits use of a high-pass analog filter before digitization to remove the strong non-EPR signal at the IF, that might otherwise overwhelm the digitizer. The IF is the difference between two synchronized X-band outputs from a Tektronix AWG 70002A, one of which is for excitation and the other is the reference for down-conversion. To permit signal averaging, timing was selected to give an exact integer number of full cycles for each frequency. In the experiments reported here the IF was 5kHz and the scan frequency was 40kHz. To produce sinusoidal rapid scans with a scan frequency eight times IF, a third synchronized output generated a square wave that was converted to a sine wave. The timing of the data acquisition with a Bruker SpecJet II was synchronized by an external clock signal from the AWG. The baseband quadrature signal in the frequency domain was reconstructed. This approach has the advantages that (i) the non-EPR response at the carrier frequency is eliminated, (ii) both real and imaginary EPR signals are reconstructed from a single physical channel to produce an ideal quadrature signal, and (iii) signal bandwidth does not increase relative to baseband detection. Spectra were obtained by deconvolution of the reconstructed signals for solid BDPA (1,3-bisdiphenylene-2-phenylallyl) in air, 0.2mM trityl OX63 in water, 15 N perdeuterated tempone, and a nitroxide with a 0.5G partially-resolved proton

  5. IRE (Institut National des Radioelements) site in Belgium. Report of in situ measurements and analyses performed for the RTBF; Site IRE (Institut National des Radioelements) en Belgique. Compte rendu des mesures in situ et analyses effectuees pour la RTBF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-05-15

    This document reports various analyses performed within the frame of the preparation and filming of a TV documentary on the Belgium National Institute of Radio-elements. It reports gamma radiation measurements performed at the vicinity of the institute, discusses the possible origin of its increase at the vicinity of the institute, analyses of sludge samples coming from a wastewater treatment works, and analyses of milk, cabbage, mosses and sediments collected by residents

  6. Aging predictions in nuclear power plants: Crosslinked polyolefin and EPR cable insulation materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillen, K.T.; Clough, R.L.

    1991-06-01

    In two earlier reports, we derived a time-temperature-dose rate superposition methodology, which, when applicable, can be used to predict cable degradation versus dose rate, temperature and exposure time. This methodology results in long-term predictive capabilities at the low dose rates appropriate to ambient nuclear power plant aging environments. The methodology was successfully applied to numerous important cable materials used in nuclear applications and the extrapolated predictions were verified by comparisons with long-term (7 to 12 year) results for similar or identical materials aged in nuclear environments. In this report, we test the methodology on three crosslinked polyolefin (CLPO) and two ethylene propylene rubber (EPR) cable insulation materials. The methodology applies to one of the CLPO materials and one of the EPR materials, allowing predictions to be made for these materials under low dose-rate, low temperature conditions. For the other materials, it is determined that, at low temperatures, a decrease in temperature at a constant radiation dose rate leads to an increase in the degradation rate for the mechanical properties. Since these results contradict the fundamental assumption underlying time-temperature-dose rate superposition, this methodology cannot be applied to such data. As indicated in the earlier reports, such anomalous results might be expected when attempting to model data taken across the crystalline melting region of semicrystalline materials. Nonetheless, the existing experimental evidence suggests that these CLPO and EPR materials have substantial aging endurance for typical reactor conditions. 28 refs., 26 figs., 3 tabs

  7. Reporting the results of meta-analyses: a plea for incorporating clinical relevance referring to an example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartels, Ronald H M A; Donk, Roland D; Verhagen, Wim I M; Hosman, Allard J F; Verbeek, André L M

    2017-11-01

    The results of meta-analyses are frequently reported, but understanding and interpreting them is difficult for both clinicians and patients. Statistical significances are presented without referring to values that imply clinical relevance. This study aimed to use the minimal clinically important difference (MCID) to rate the clinical relevance of a meta-analysis. This study is a review of the literature. This study is a review of meta-analyses relating to a specific topic, clinical results of cervical arthroplasty. The outcome measure used in the study was the MCID. We performed an extensive literature search of a series of meta-analyses evaluating a similar subject as an example. We searched in Pubmed and Embase through August 9, 2016, and found articles concerning meta-analyses of the clinical outcome of cervical arthroplasty compared with that of anterior cervical discectomy with fusion in cases of cervical degenerative disease. We evaluated the analyses for statistical significance and their relation to MCID. MCID was defined based on results in similar patient groups and a similar disease entity reported in the literature. We identified 21 meta-analyses, only one of which referred to MCID. However, the researchers used an inappropriate measurement scale and, therefore, an incorrect MCID. The majority of the conclusions were based on statistical results without mentioning clinical relevance. The majority of the articles we reviewed drew conclusions based on statistical differences instead of clinical relevance. We recommend introducing the concept of MCID while reporting the results of a meta-analysis, as well as mentioning the explicit scale of the analyzed measurement. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. The quality of reporting methods and results of cost-effectiveness analyses in Spain: a methodological systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catalá-López, Ferrán; Ridao, Manuel; Alonso-Arroyo, Adolfo; García-Altés, Anna; Cameron, Chris; González-Bermejo, Diana; Aleixandre-Benavent, Rafael; Bernal-Delgado, Enrique; Peiró, Salvador; Tabarés-Seisdedos, Rafael; Hutton, Brian

    2016-01-07

    Cost-effectiveness analysis has been recognized as an important tool to determine the efficiency of healthcare interventions and services. There is a need for evaluating the reporting of methods and results of cost-effectiveness analyses and establishing their validity. We describe and examine reporting characteristics of methods and results of cost-effectiveness analyses conducted in Spain during more than two decades. A methodological systematic review was conducted with the information obtained through an updated literature review in PubMed and complementary databases (e.g. Scopus, ISI Web of Science, National Health Service Economic Evaluation Database (NHS EED) and Health Technology Assessment (HTA) databases from Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (CRD), Índice Médico Español (IME) Índice Bibliográfico Español en Ciencias de la Salud (IBECS)). We identified cost-effectiveness analyses conducted in Spain that used quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) as outcome measures (period 1989-December 2014). Two reviewers independently extracted the data from each paper. The data were analysed descriptively. In total, 223 studies were included. Very few studies (10; 4.5 %) reported working from a protocol. Most studies (200; 89.7 %) were simulation models and included a median of 1000 patients. Only 105 (47.1 %) studies presented an adequate description of the characteristics of the target population. Most study interventions were categorized as therapeutic (189; 84.8 %) and nearly half (111; 49.8 %) considered an active alternative as the comparator. Effectiveness of data was derived from a single study in 87 (39.0 %) reports, and only few (40; 17.9 %) used evidence synthesis-based estimates. Few studies (42; 18.8 %) reported a full description of methods for QALY calculation. The majority of the studies (147; 65.9 %) reported that the study intervention produced "more costs and more QALYs" than the comparator. Most studies (200; 89.7 %) reported favourable

  9. From sexless to sexy: Why it is time for human genetics to consider and report analyses of sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Matthew S; Smith, Phillip H; McKee, Sherry A; Ehringer, Marissa A

    2017-01-01

    Science has come a long way with regard to the consideration of sex differences in clinical and preclinical research, but one field remains behind the curve: human statistical genetics. The goal of this commentary is to raise awareness and discussion about how to best consider and evaluate possible sex effects in the context of large-scale human genetic studies. Over the course of this commentary, we reinforce the importance of interpreting genetic results in the context of biological sex, establish evidence that sex differences are not being considered in human statistical genetics, and discuss how best to conduct and report such analyses. Our recommendation is to run stratified analyses by sex no matter the sample size or the result and report the findings. Summary statistics from stratified analyses are helpful for meta-analyses, and patterns of sex-dependent associations may be hidden in a combined dataset. In the age of declining sequencing costs, large consortia efforts, and a number of useful control samples, it is now time for the field of human genetics to appropriately include sex in the design, analysis, and reporting of results.

  10. Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analyses of individual participant data: the PRISMA-IPD Statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Lesley A; Clarke, Mike; Rovers, Maroeska; Riley, Richard D; Simmonds, Mark; Stewart, Gavin; Tierney, Jayne F

    2015-04-28

    Systematic reviews and meta-analyses of individual participant data (IPD) aim to collect, check, and reanalyze individual-level data from all studies addressing a particular research question and are therefore considered a gold standard approach to evidence synthesis. They are likely to be used with increasing frequency as current initiatives to share clinical trial data gain momentum and may be particularly important in reviewing controversial therapeutic areas. To develop PRISMA-IPD as a stand-alone extension to the PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) Statement, tailored to the specific requirements of reporting systematic reviews and meta-analyses of IPD. Although developed primarily for reviews of randomized trials, many items will apply in other contexts, including reviews of diagnosis and prognosis. Development of PRISMA-IPD followed the EQUATOR Network framework guidance and used the existing standard PRISMA Statement as a starting point to draft additional relevant material. A web-based survey informed discussion at an international workshop that included researchers, clinicians, methodologists experienced in conducting systematic reviews and meta-analyses of IPD, and journal editors. The statement was drafted and iterative refinements were made by the project, advisory, and development groups. The PRISMA-IPD Development Group reached agreement on the PRISMA-IPD checklist and flow diagram by consensus. Compared with standard PRISMA, the PRISMA-IPD checklist includes 3 new items that address (1) methods of checking the integrity of the IPD (such as pattern of randomization, data consistency, baseline imbalance, and missing data), (2) reporting any important issues that emerge, and (3) exploring variation (such as whether certain types of individual benefit more from the intervention than others). A further additional item was created by reorganization of standard PRISMA items relating to interpreting results. Wording

  11. Einstein and the Quantum: The Secret Life of EPR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fine, Arthur

    2006-05-01

    Locality, separation and entanglement -- 1930s style. Starting with Solvay 1927, we'll explore the background to the 1935 paper by Einstein, Podolsky and Rosen: how it was composed, the actual argument and principles used, and how the paper was received by Schroedinger, and others. We'll also look at Bohr's response: the extent to which Bohr connects with what Einstein was after in EPR and the extent to which EPR marks a shift in Bohr's thinking about the quantum theory. Time permitting, we will contrast EPR with Bell's theorem.

  12. EPR trademark project delivery. The value of experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leverenz, Ruediger

    2013-01-01

    We are building the EPR trademark reactor fleet. Together. With four EPR trademark projects under construction in the world, AREVA has unrivalled experience in the delivery of large-scale nuclear projects, including more than a thousand lessons learned captured from Olkiluoto 3 and Flamanville 3 projects. This book of knowledge as well as the return of experience of AREVA's and EDF's teams are now being fully leveraged on ongoing projects, especially on Flamanville 3 and Taishan, and will be incorporated in all future EPR TM projects.

  13. EPR TOOTH DOSIMETRY OF SNTS AREA INHABITANTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sholom, Sergey; Desrosiers, Marc; Bouville, André; Luckyanov, Nicholas; Chumak, Vadim; Simon, Steven L

    2007-07-01

    The determination of external dose to teeth of inhabitants of settlements near the Semipalatinsk Nuclear Test Site (SNTS) was conducted using the EPR dosimetry technique to assess radiation doses associated with exposure to radioactive fallout from the test site. In this study, tooth doses have been reconstructed for 103 persons with all studied teeth having been formed before the first nuclear test in 1949. Doses above those received from natural background radiation, termed "accident doses", were found to lie in the range from zero to approximately 2 Gy, with one exception, a dose for one person from Semipalatinsk city was approximately 9 Gy. The variability of reconstructed doses within each of the settlements demonstrated heterogeneity of the deposited fallout as well as variations in lifestyle. The village mean external gamma doses for residents of nine[ settlements were in the range from a few tens of mGy to approximately 100 mGy.

  14. EPR tooth dosimetry of SNTS area inhabitants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sholom, Sergey [Scientific Center for Radiation Medicine, Melnikova str., 53, Kiev (Ukraine); Desrosiers, Marc [Ionizing Radiation Division, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD (United States); Bouville, Andre; Luckyanov, Nicholas [Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, 6120 Executive Boulevard, Bethesda, MD (United States); Chumak, Vadim [Scientific Center for Radiation Medicine, Melnikova str., 53, Kiev (Ukraine); Simon, Steven L. [Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, 6120 Executive Boulevard, Bethesda, MD (United States)], E-mail: ssimon@mail.nih.gov

    2007-07-15

    The determination of external dose to teeth of inhabitants of settlements near the Semipalatinsk Nuclear Test Site (SNTS) was conducted using the EPR dosimetry technique to assess radiation doses associated with exposure to radioactive fallout from the test site. In this study, tooth doses have been reconstructed for 103 persons with all studied teeth having been formed before the first nuclear test in 1949. Doses above those received from natural background radiation, termed 'accident doses', were found to lie in the range from zero to approximately 2 Gy, with one exception, a dose for one person from Semipalatinsk city was approximately 9 Gy. The variability of reconstructed doses within each of the settlements demonstrated heterogeneity of the deposited fallout as well as variations in lifestyle. The village mean external gamma doses for residents of nine settlements were in the range from a few tens of mGy to approximately 100 mGy.

  15. Radiation protection issues for EPR reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miniere, D.; Le Guen, B.; Beneteau, Y.; Le Guen, B.

    2008-01-01

    As part of the EPR (European Pressurized Reactor) project being deployed at Flamanville, EDF has pro actively made the decision to focus on radiation protection Radiation Protection aspects right from the start of the design phase, as it has done with nuclear safety. The approach adopted for managing Radiation Protection-significant activities has been to include all involved stakeholders - designers, licensee and contractor companies - in the three successive phases, starting with a survey among workers and designers, followed by a proposal review, and finally ending with the decision-making phase entrusted to an ALARA committee. The Radiation Protection target set by EDF for this new reactor is to engage in an effort of continuous improvement and optimisation, through benchmarking with the best performing plants of the fleet. The collective dose target is currently set at 0.35 Man Sv/year per unit. In addition to other aspects, efforts will focus on shortening the duration of the highest-dose jobs, with a new challenge being set for work performed in the reactor building during normal operations, the aim being to improve plant availability. The plan is for work to be performed 7 days prior to shutting down the reactor and 3 days afterwards, in order to make logistical arrangements for forthcoming jobs. Without this reduction, the estimated drop is currently 4.5% of annual dose. For this purpose, two areas have been set up in the E.P.R.'s reactor building: one no-go area for containing leaks from the primary circuit, and one accessible area for normal operations, separated from the no-go area by purpose-built ventilation equipment and facilities. To offer protection against radioactive flux (neutrons and high energy), Radiation Protection studies have resulted in the installation of a concrete floor and of nuclear shielding at the outlets of primary circuit pipes. Steam generator bunkers and pumps have also been reinforced. All these measures will ensure that the

  16. EPR by AREVA. An evolutionary reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horstmann, Marion

    2010-01-01

    The EPR development goals are as follows: 1. Evolutionary design to fully capitalize on the design, construction and operating experience based on the 86 AREVA's PWR operating worldwide; 2. Enhanced Safety compared to operating PWRs: reduce core damage frequency (CDF), accommodate severe accidents with no long-term population effect, Withstand large airplane crash (APC); 3. High availability; 4. Simplified operation and maintenance; and 5. Generation cost at least 10 % lower than 1500 MWe series in operation.The design builds on the achievements of the N4 and Konvoi reactors. The main plant data are tabulated. The PWR structure is shown as an example of the stepwise improvement. Focus of the presentation is on the construction techniques, supply chain, and project delivery. (P.A.)

  17. EPR's energy conversion system. Alstom's solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ledermann, P.

    2009-01-01

    ARABELLE steam turbines have been developed by Alstom to be used as the energy conversion system of light water reactors with high output power like the N4 PWR and the EPR. ARABELLE turbines cumulate 200.000 hours of service with a reliability ratio of 99.97 per cent. This series of slides presents the main features of the turbine including: the use of the simple flux, the very large shape of low pressure blades, the technology of welded rotors. The other main equipment like the alternator, the condenser, the moisture separator-reheaters, the circulating pumps that Alstom integrates in the energy conversion system have benefited with technological improvements that are also presented. (A.C.)

  18. EPR design tools. Integrated data processing tools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kern, R.

    1997-01-01

    In all technical areas, planning and design have been supported by electronic data processing for many years. New data processing tools had to be developed for the European Pressurized Water Reactor (EPR). The work to be performed was split between KWU and Framatome and laid down in the Basic Design contract. The entire plant was reduced to a logical data structure; the circuit diagrams and flowsheets of the systems were drafted, the central data pool was established, the outlines of building structures were defined, the layout of plant components was planned, and the electrical systems were documented. Also building construction engineering was supported by data processing. The tasks laid down in the Basic Design were completed as so-called milestones. Additional data processing tools also based on the central data pool are required for the phases following after the Basic Design phase, i.e Basic Design Optimization; Detailed Design; Management; Construction, and Commissioning. (orig.) [de

  19. Nano-emulsions of fluorinated trityl radicals as sensors for EPR oximetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlier, N.; Driesschaert, B.; Wauthoz, N.; Beghein, N.; Préat, V.; Amighi, K.; Marchand-Brynaert, J.; Gallez, B.

    2009-04-01

    This article reports the development and evaluation of two nano-emulsions (F45T-03/HFB and F15T-03/PFOB) containing fluorinated trityl radicals dissolved in perfluorocarbons. Preparation with a high-pressure homogenizer conferred sub-micronic size to both nano-emulsions. In vitro and in vivo EPR spectroscopy showed that the nano-emulsions had much greater oxygen sensitivity than the hydrophilic trityl, CT-03. In vivo experiments in rodents confirmed the ability of the nano-emulsions to follow the changes in oxygen concentration after induced ischemia. Histological evaluation of the tissue injected with the nano-emulsions revealed some acute toxicity for the F45T-03/HFB nano-emulsion but none for the F15T-03/PFOB nano-emulsion. These new formulations should be considered for further EPR oximetry experiments in pathophysiological situations where subtle changes in tissue oxygenation are expected.

  20. Characteristics and economy of the European reactor of pressurized water (EPR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ortiz V, J.; Ramirez S, J.R.; Palacios H, J.C.

    2005-01-01

    The high current costs of the fossil fuels, have propitiated that the industries of electric power generation in the world reconsider the nuclear option as medium of generation. In Europe, the more recently contracted nuclear power plant is that of Olkiluoto-III in Finland that waits it enters in operation at the end of 2009. The reactor that will be installed in this power plant will be a prototype of pressurized water reactor of the companies AREVA and EDF. In this work they are described the reactor EPR and the major components of the nuclear power plant as well as the main characteristics of safety and the flexibility of the operation of the EPR. The supposed costs reported in different sources of information are also described and calculated with information provided by the manufacturer company. (Author)

  1. International environmental atlas: Yearbook of world resources. Analyses -reports - data. Vol. 5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    Several general reports and three case studies show the importance of a continuous development in the industrial countries, the developing countries and in threshold countries. The serious ecologico-economic crisis in Central Europe is discussed. The latest developments in population growth, health, nutrition, agriculture, and the development of forests and pastures, fauna and fauna habitats, energy, drinking water, oceans and coasts, atmosphere and climate, political strategies and institutions are treated based on numerous data. (HP) [de

  2. Characteristics of sick-listing cases that physicians consider problematic--analyses of written case reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engblom, Monika; Alexanderson, Kristina; Rudebeck, Carl Edvard

    2009-01-01

    The aim was to discern common characteristics in the sick-listing cases that physicians in general practice and occupational health services find problematic. Descriptive categorization within a narrative theoretical framework. Sickness-insurance course for physicians in general practice and occupational health services. A total of 195 case reports written by 195 physicians. Main outcome measures. Categories of features regarding medical, work, and social situation as well as medical interventions. Beside age and sex, the following information was often provided: family situation, stressful life events, occupation, problem at work, considerations concerning diagnoses, medical investigations, treatments, and vocational rehabilitation measures. Two-thirds of the patients had been sickness absent for more than a year. The most common type of case reports concerned women, employed in non-qualified nursing occupations, and sick listed due to mental disorders. The most common measures taken by the physicians were referrals to psychotherapy and/or physiotherapy, and prescribing antidepressants (SSRI). Facts about alcohol habits were rarely provided in the cases. Some of the circumstances, such as prolonged sick-listing, are likely to be more or less inevitable in problematic sick-listing cases. Other circumstances, such as stress-full life events, more closely reflect what the reporting physicians find problematic. The categories identified can be regarded as markers of problematic sick-listing cases in general practice and occupational health service.

  3. Differences in reporting of analyses in internal company documents versus published trial reports: comparisons in industry-sponsored trials in off-label uses of gabapentin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Swaroop Vedula

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Details about the type of analysis (e.g., intent to treat [ITT] and definitions (i.e., criteria for including participants in the analysis are necessary for interpreting a clinical trial's findings. Our objective was to compare the description of types of analyses and criteria for including participants in the publication (i.e., what was reported with descriptions in the corresponding internal company documents (i.e., what was planned and what was done. Trials were for off-label uses of gabapentin sponsored by Pfizer and Parke-Davis, and documents were obtained through litigation. METHODS AND FINDINGS: For each trial, we compared internal company documents (protocols, statistical analysis plans, and research reports, all unpublished, with publications. One author extracted data and another verified, with a third person verifying discordant items and a sample of the rest. Extracted data included the number of participants randomized and analyzed for efficacy, and types of analyses for efficacy and safety and their definitions (i.e., criteria for including participants in each type of analysis. We identified 21 trials, 11 of which were published randomized controlled trials, and that provided the documents needed for planned comparisons. For three trials, there was disagreement on the number of randomized participants between the research report and publication. Seven types of efficacy analyses were described in the protocols, statistical analysis plans, and publications, including ITT and six others. The protocol or publication described ITT using six different definitions, resulting in frequent disagreements between the two documents (i.e., different numbers of participants were included in the analyses. CONCLUSIONS: Descriptions of analyses conducted did not agree between internal company documents and what was publicly reported. Internal company documents provide extensive documentation of methods planned and used, and trial

  4. Finite element analyses of continuous filament ties for masonry applications : final report for the Arquin Corporation.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quinones, Armando, Sr. (Arquin Corporation, La Luz, NM); Bibeau, Tiffany A.; Ho, Clifford Kuofei

    2008-08-01

    Finite-element analyses were performed to simulate the response of a hypothetical vertical masonry wall subject to different lateral loads with and without continuous horizontal filament ties laid between rows of concrete blocks. A static loading analysis and cost comparison were also performed to evaluate optimal materials and designs for the spacers affixed to the filaments. Results showed that polypropylene, ABS, and polyethylene (high density) were suitable materials for the spacers based on performance and cost, and the short T-spacer design was optimal based on its performance and functionality. Simulations of vertical walls subject to static loads representing 100 mph winds (0.2 psi) and a seismic event (0.66 psi) showed that the simulated walls performed similarly and adequately when subject to these loads with and without the ties. Additional simulations and tests are required to assess the performance of actual walls with and without the ties under greater loads and more realistic conditions (e.g., cracks, non-linear response).

  5. Finite element analyses of continuous filament ties for masonry applications: final report for the Arquin Corporation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quinones, Sr., Armando [Arquin Corporation, La Luz, NM (United States); Bibeau, Tiffany A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Ho, Clifford Kuofei

    2006-06-01

    Finite-element analyses were performed to simulate the response of a hypothetical masonry shear wall with and without continuous filament ties to various lateral loads. The loads represented three different scenarios: (1) 100 mph wind, (2) explosive attack, and (3) an earthquake. In addition, a static loading analysis and cost comparison were performed to evaluate optimal materials and designs for the spacers affixed to the filaments. Results showed that polypropylene, ABS, and polyethylene (high density) were suitable materials for the spacers based on performance and cost, and the short T-spacer design was optimal based on its performance and functionality. Results of the shear-wall loading simulations revealed that simulated walls with the continuous filament ties yielded factors of safety that were at least ten times greater than those without the ties. In the explosive attack simulation (100 psi), the simulated wall without the ties failed (minimum factor of safety was less than one), but the simulated wall with the ties yielded a minimum factor of safety greater than one. Simulations of the walls subject to lateral loads caused by 100 mph winds (0.2 psi) and seismic events with a peak ground acceleration of 1 ''g'' (0.66 psi) yielded no failures with or without the ties. Simulations of wall displacement during the seismic scenarios showed that the wall with the ties resulted in a maximum displacement that was 20% less than the wall without the ties.

  6. Genome-wide analyses of self-reported empathy: correlations with autism, schizophrenia, and anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warrier, Varun; Toro, Roberto; Chakrabarti, Bhismadev; Børglum, Anders D; Grove, Jakob; Hinds, David A; Bourgeron, Thomas; Baron-Cohen, Simon

    2018-03-12

    Empathy is the ability to recognize and respond to the emotional states of other individuals. It is an important psychological process that facilitates navigating social interactions and maintaining relationships, which are important for well-being. Several psychological studies have identified difficulties in both self-report and performance-based measures of empathy in a range of psychiatric conditions. To date, no study has systematically investigated the genetic architecture of empathy using genome-wide association studies (GWAS). Here we report the results of the largest GWAS of empathy to date using a well-validated self-report measure of empathy, the Empathy Quotient (EQ), in 46,861 research participants from 23andMe, Inc. We identify 11 suggestive loci (P < 1 × 10 -6 ), though none were significant at P < 2.5 × 10 -8 after correcting for multiple testing. The most significant SNP was identified in the non-stratified analysis (rs4882760; P = 4.29 × 10 -8 ), and is an intronic SNP in TMEM132C. The EQ had a modest but significant narrow-sense heritability (0.11 ± 0.014; P = 1.7 × 10 -14 ). As predicted, based on earlier work, we confirmed a significant female advantage on the EQ (P < 2 × 10 -16 , Cohen's d = 0.65). We identified similar SNP heritability and high genetic correlation between the sexes. Also, as predicted, we identified a significant negative genetic correlation between autism and the EQ (r g = -0.27 ± 0.07, P = 1.63 × 10 -4 ). We also identified a significant positive genetic correlation between the EQ and risk for schizophrenia (r g = 0.19 ± 0.04; P = 1.36 × 10 -5 ), risk for anorexia nervosa (r g = 0.32 ± 0.09; P = 6 × 10 -4 ), and extraversion (r g = 0.45 ± 0.08; 5.7 × 10 -8 ). This is the first GWAS of self-reported empathy. The results suggest that the genetic variations associated with empathy also play a role in psychiatric conditions and psychological traits.

  7. EPR detection of foods preserved with ionizing radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stachowicz, W.; Burlinska, G.; Michalik, J.

    1998-06-01

    The applicability of the epr technique for the detection of dried vegetables, mushrooms, some spices, flavour additives and some condiments preserved with ionizing radiation is discussed. The epr signals recorded after exposure to gamma rays and to beams of 10 MeV electrons from linac are stable, intense and specific enough as compared with those observed with nonirradiated samples and could be used for the detection of irradiation. However, stability of radiation induced epr signals produced in these foods depends on storage condition. No differences in shapes (spectral parameters) and intensities of the epr spectra recorded with samples exposed to the same doses of gamma rays ( 60Co) and 10 MeV electrons were observed

  8. Software for evaluation of EPR-dosimetry performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shishkina, E.A.; Timofeev, Yu.S.; Ivanov, D.V.

    2014-01-01

    Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) with tooth enamel is a method extensively used for retrospective external dosimetry. Different research groups apply different equipment, sample preparation procedures and spectrum processing algorithms for EPR dosimetry. A uniform algorithm for description and comparison of performances was designed and implemented in a new computer code. The aim of the paper is to introduce the new software 'EPR-dosimetry performance'. The computer code is a user-friendly tool for providing a full description of method-specific capabilities of EPR tooth dosimetry, from metrological characteristics to practical limitations in applications. The software designed for scientists and engineers has several applications, including support of method calibration by evaluation of calibration parameters, evaluation of critical value and detection limit for registration of radiation-induced signal amplitude, estimation of critical value and detection limit for dose evaluation, estimation of minimal detectable value for anthropogenic dose assessment and description of method uncertainty. (authors)

  9. A sub-Kelvin cryogen-free EPR system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melhuish, Simon J; Stott, Chloe; Ariciu, Ana-Maria; Martinis, Lorenzo; McCulloch, Mark; Piccirillo, Lucio; Collison, David; Tuna, Floriana; Winpenny, Richard

    2017-09-01

    We present an EPR instrument built for operation at Q band below 1K. Our cryogen-free Dewar integrates with a commercial electro-magnet and bridge. A description of the cryogenic and RF systems is given, along with the adaptations to the standard EPR experiment for operation at sub-Kelvin temperatures. As a first experiment, the EPR spectra of powdered Cr 12 O 9 (OH) 3 [Formula: see text] were measured. The sub-Kelvin EPR spectra agree well with predictions, and the performance of the sub-Kelvin system at 5K is compared to that of a commercial spectrometer. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Trichloroethylene Radicals: An EPR/SPIN Trapping Study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Steel-Goodwin, Linda

    1995-01-01

    .... As part of the process to develop environmental and health effects criteria for base clean-up the initial radicals produced by TCE were studied by electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy (EPR...

  11. Reconfiguring Cooperative Work by Visualizing EPR on Large Projected Screens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Jesper

    Simonsen, J. (2006): Reconfiguring Cooperative Work by Visualizing EPR on Large Projected Screens, Paper presented at the PDC 2006 workshop on: Reconfiguring Healthcare: Issues in Computer Supported Cooperative Work in Healthcare Environments. Participatory Design Conference, Trento, Italy, August...

  12. EPR and NMR detection of transient radicals and reaction products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trifunac, A.D.

    1981-01-01

    Magnetic resonance methods in radiation chemistry are illustrated. The most recent developments in pulsed EPR and NMR studies in pulse radiolysis are outlined with emphasis on the study of transient radicals and their reaction products. 12 figures

  13. EPR spectroscopy of complex biological iron-sulfur systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagen, Wilfred R

    2018-02-21

    From the very first discovery of biological iron-sulfur clusters with EPR, the spectroscopy has been used to study not only purified proteins but also complex systems such as respiratory complexes, membrane particles and, later, whole cells. In recent times, the emphasis of iron-sulfur biochemistry has moved from characterization of individual proteins to the systems biology of iron-sulfur biosynthesis, regulation, degradation, and implications for human health. Although this move would suggest a blossoming of System-EPR as a specific, non-invasive monitor of Fe/S (dys)homeostasis in whole cells, a review of the literature reveals limited success possibly due to technical difficulties in adherence to EPR spectroscopic and biochemical standards. In an attempt to boost application of System-EPR the required boundary conditions and their practical applications are explicitly and comprehensively formulated.

  14. EPR-based distance measurements at ambient temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krumkacheva, Olesya; Bagryanskaya, Elena

    2017-07-01

    Pulsed dipolar (PD) EPR spectroscopy is a powerful technique allowing for distance measurements between spin labels in the range of 2.5-10.0nm. It was proposed more than 30years ago, and nowadays is widely used in biophysics and materials science. Until recently, PD EPR experiments were limited to cryogenic temperatures (TEPR as well as other approaches based on EPR (e.g., relaxation enhancement; RE). In this paper, we review the features of PD EPR and RE at ambient temperatures, in particular, requirements on electron spin phase memory time, ways of immobilization of biomolecules, the influence of a linker between the spin probe and biomolecule, and future opportunities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Which Parts of a Clinical Process EPR Needs Special Configuration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barlach, Anders; Simonsen, Jesper

    2007-01-01

    Subject: Which parts of an electronic patient record (EPR) can initially form a stable standard solution to be used by all clinicians? And which parts of an EPR can we predict needs initial as well as on-going re-configuration to meet the needs from diverse medical specialties. Purpose: To analyze...... which screen types in a clinical process that can be standard configured and which are subject to initial as well as on-going re-configuration. Methods and results: A pilot-project implementing a fully functional clinical process EPR was configured and used at a neurological ward, replacing all paper...... records 24/7. The analysis characterizes the different types of screens, a total of 243 included in the EPR solution. All screens have been extracted from the application and analyzed for changes – in total 222 changes. Discussion and conclusion: Most screens (87%) are very stable. Few (13%) are subjected...

  16. Experimental EPR-steering using Bell-local states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, D. J.; Jones, S. J.; Wiseman, H. M.; Pryde, G. J.

    2010-11-01

    The concept of `steering' was introduced in 1935 by Schrödinger as a generalization of the EPR (Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen) paradox. It has recently been formalized as a quantum-information task with arbitrary bipartite states and measurements, for which the existence of entanglement is necessary but not sufficient. Previous experiments in this area have been restricted to an approach that followed the original EPR argument in considering only two different measurement settings per side. Here we demonstrate experimentally that EPR-steering occurs for mixed entangled states that are Bell local (that is, that cannot possibly demonstrate Bell non-locality). Unlike the case of Bell inequalities, increasing the number of measurement settings beyond two-we use up to six-significantly increases the robustness of the EPR-steering phenomenon to noise.

  17. EPR detection of foods preserved with ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stachowicz, W.; Burlinska, G.; Michalik, J.

    1998-01-01

    The applicability of the epr technique for the detection of dried vegetables, mushrooms, some spices, flavour additives and some condiments preserved with ionizing radiation is discussed. The epr signals recorded after exposure to gamma rays and to the beams of 10 MeV electrons from linac are stable, intense and specific enough as compared with those observed with nonirradiated samples and could be used for the detection of irradiation. However, stability of radiation induced epr signals produced in these foods depends on storage condition. No differences in shapes (spectral parameters) and intensities of the epr spectra recorded with samples exposed to the same doses of gamma rays ( 60 Co) and 10 MeV electrons were observed

  18. Decomposition of spectra in EPR dosimetry using the matrix method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sholom, S.V.; Chumak, V.V.

    2003-01-01

    The matrix method of EPR spectra decomposition is developed and adapted for routine application in retrospective EPR dosimetry with teeth. According to this method, the initial EPR spectra are decomposed (using methods of matrix algebra) into several reference components (reference matrices) that are specific for each material. Proposed procedure has been tested on the example of tooth enamel. Reference spectra were a spectrum of an empty sample tube and three standard signals of enamel (two at g=2.0045, both for the native signal and one at g perpendicular =2.0018, g parallel =1.9973 for the dosimetric signal). Values of dosimetric signals obtained using the given method have been compared with data obtained by manual manipulation of spectra, and good coincidence was observed. This allows considering the proposed method as potent for application in routine EPR dosimetry

  19. EPR of radiation defects in lithium-oxyfluoride glass ceramics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fedotovs, A; Rogulis, U; Sarakovskis, A; Dimitrocenko, L, E-mail: andris-f@navigator.l [Institute of Solid State Physics, University of Latvia, Kengaraga st. 8, LV-1063, Riga (Latvia)

    2010-11-01

    We studied oxyfluoride composites based on lithium silicate glasses with yttrium fluorides and rare-earth dopants. The electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) has been used to obtain information about radiation induced defects in these materials. Spectra have been measured before and after X-ray irradiation at room temperature and at liquid nitrogen temperature. Fluoride crystallites within samples were created by means of thermal treatment at specific temperatures. EPR spectra of radiation induced defects in oxyfluoride glass ceramics, in which crystallites have not been yet created, show no explicit hfs interaction of fluorine nuclei. However, in glass ceramics, which already contains fluoride crystallites, the hfs characteristic to fluorine nuclei appears in the EPR spectra. EPR hyperfine structure could be explained within a model of an F-type centre in YF{sub 3} crystalline phase.

  20. EPR of radiation defects in lithium-oxyfluoride glass ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedotovs, A.; Rogulis, U.; Sarakovskis, A.; Dimitrocenko, L.

    2010-11-01

    We studied oxyfluoride composites based on lithium silicate glasses with yttrium fluorides and rare-earth dopants. The electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) has been used to obtain information about radiation induced defects in these materials. Spectra have been measured before and after X-ray irradiation at room temperature and at liquid nitrogen temperature. Fluoride crystallites within samples were created by means of thermal treatment at specific temperatures. EPR spectra of radiation induced defects in oxyfluoride glass ceramics, in which crystallites have not been yet created, show no explicit hfs interaction of fluorine nuclei. However, in glass ceramics, which already contains fluoride crystallites, the hfs characteristic to fluorine nuclei appears in the EPR spectra. EPR hyperfine structure could be explained within a model of an F-type centre in YF3 crystalline phase.

  1. Reconstructing Bohr's Reply to EPR in Algebraic Quantum Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozawa, Masanao; Kitajima, Yuichiro

    2012-04-01

    Halvorson and Clifton have given a mathematical reconstruction of Bohr's reply to Einstein, Podolsky and Rosen (EPR), and argued that this reply is dictated by the two requirements of classicality and objectivity for the description of experimental data, by proving consistency between their objectivity requirement and a contextualized version of the EPR reality criterion which had been introduced by Howard in his earlier analysis of Bohr's reply. In the present paper, we generalize the above consistency theorem, with a rather elementary proof, to a general formulation of EPR states applicable to both non-relativistic quantum mechanics and algebraic quantum field theory; and we clarify the elements of reality in EPR states in terms of Bohr's requirements of classicality and objectivity, in a general formulation of algebraic quantum theory.

  2. EPR detection of foods preserved with ionizing radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stachowicz, W.; Burlinska, G.; Michalik, J

    1998-06-01

    The applicability of the epr technique for the detection of dried vegetables, mushrooms, some spices, flavour additives and some condiments preserved with ionizing radiation is discussed. The epr signals recorded after exposure to gamma rays and to the beams of 10 MeV electrons from linac are stable, intense and specific enough as compared with those observed with nonirradiated samples and could be used for the detection of irradiation. However, stability of radiation induced epr signals produced in these foods depends on storage condition. No differences in shapes (spectral parameters) and intensities of the epr spectra recorded with samples exposed to the same doses of gamma rays ({sup 60}Co) and 10 MeV electrons were observed.

  3. Enriched boric acid as an optimized neutron absorber in the EPR primary coolant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cosse, Christelle; Jolivel, Fabienne; Berger, Martial

    2012-09-01

    reasons, the EBA Boron 10 isotopic atomic abundance target value is 37 at.%. However, EBA conditioning also necessitates the renewal of boric acid supply, operating and management schemes. Supplies must cover the needs for initial conditioning and for later compensation of losses during operation. These losses can be divided into three categories: 1. volumetric losses (such as leaks) 2. decrease of total Boron concentration (dilution for example) 3. Boron neutron core depletion (through Boron 10 consuming reactions). The first two losses are classically compensated with EBA supplied with the required isotopic abundance. Very Enriched boric acid (VEBA) will also be supplied to compensate Boron 10 enrichment losses due to neutron depletion ( 10 B [n, He] 7 Li). According to an optimized boron neutron depletion management scheme, neutron depletion will be directly compensated into boric acid make-up tanks prior to any refuelling shutdown, by injection of reasonable quantities of VEBA (Boron 10 atomic abundance superior to 90 at.%). Finally, EPR operators and chemists will have to cope with these two different sorts of boric acid. Distinctive methods will be employed to avoid any error: use of an optimized and strict policy of different units of Boron used in instrumentation and control systems and in operating procedures; distinct packaging and storage; separate procedures; specific skills for Boron neutron core depletion management. EPR operation has to rely on appropriate parameters and procedures. Total Boron concentration and Boron 10 isotopic abundance monitoring will be periodically achieved by sampling and analysing all borated systems, so called 'boron mapping'. The Boron 10 concentration is continuously monitored in the reactor coolant system with the on-line neutronic boron meter located in the Nuclear Sampling System (NSS): this data is directly used for reactor operation and chemistry control. The use of EBA in the EPR is one of the major progresses for

  4. Determining significant endpoints for ecological risk analyses. 1998 annual progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinton, T.G.; Congdon, J.; Scott, D. [Univ. of Georgia, Aiken, SC (US). Savannah River Ecology Lab.; Rowe, C. [Univ. of Puerto Rico, San Juan (PR); Bedford, J.; Whicker, W. [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (US)

    1998-06-01

    'The goal of this report is to establish a protocol for assessing risks to non-human populations exposed to environmental stresses typically found on many DOE sites. The authors think that they can achieve this by using novel biological dosimeters in controlled, manipulative dose/effects experiments, and by coupling changes in metabolic rates and energy allocation patterns to meaningful population response variables (such as age-specific survivorship, reproductive output, age at maturity and longevity). This research is needed to determine the relevancy of sublethal cellular damage to the performance of individuals and populations exposed to chronic, low-level radiation, and radiation with concomitant exposure to chemicals. They believe that a scientifically defensible endpoint for measuring ecological risks can only be determined once its understood the extent to which molecular damage from contaminant exposure is detrimental at the individual and population levels of biological organization. The experimental facility will allow them to develop a credible assessment tool for appraising ecological risks, and to evaluate the effects of radionuclide/chemical synergisms on non-human species. This report summarizes work completed midway of a 3-year project that began in November 1996. Emphasis to date has centered on three areas: (1) developing a molecular probe to measure stable chromosomal aberrations known as reciprocal translocations, (2) constructing an irradiation facility where the statistical power inherent in replicated mesocosms can be used to address the response of non-human organisms to exposures from low levels of radiation and metal contaminants, and (3) quantifying responses of organisms living in contaminated mesocosms and field sites.'

  5. HWVP NCAW melter feed rheology FY 1993 testing and analyses: Letter report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, P.A.

    1996-03-01

    The Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) program has been established to immobilize selected Hanford nuclear wastes before shipment to a geologic repository. The HWVP program is directed by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) provides waste processing and vitrification technology to assist the design effort. The focus of this letter report is melter feed rheology, Process/Product Development, which is part of the Task in the PNL HWVP Technology Development (PHTD) Project. Specifically, the melter feed must be transported to the liquid fed ceramic melter (LFCM) to ensure HWVP operability and the manufacture of an immobilized waste form. The objective of the PHTD Project slurry flow technology development is to understand and correlate dilute and concentrated waste, formatted waste, waste with recycle addition, and melter feed transport properties. The objectives of the work described in this document were to examine frit effects and several processing conditions on melter feed rheology. The investigated conditions included boiling time, pH, noble metal containing melter feed, solids loading, and aging time. The results of these experiments contribute to the understanding of melter feed rheology. This document is organized in eight sections. This section provides the introductory remarks, followed by Section 2.0 that contains conclusions and recommendations. Section 3.0 reviews the scientific principles, and Section 4.0 details the experimental methods. The results and discussion and the review of related rheology data are in Sections 5.0 and 6.0, respectively. Section 7.0, an analysis of NCAW melter feed rheology data, provides an overall review of melter feed with FY 91 frit. References are included in Section 8.0. This letter report satisfies contractor milestone PHTD C93-03.02E, as described in the FY 1993 Pacific Northwest Hanford Laboratory Waste Plant Technology Development (PHTD) Project Work Plan

  6. Most advanced HTP fuel assembly design for EPR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francillon, Eric; Kiehlmann, Horst-Dieter

    2006-01-01

    End 2003, the Finnish electricity utility Teollisuuden Voima Oy (TVO) signed the contract for building an EPR in Olkiluoto (Finland). Mid 2004, the French electricity utility EDF selected an EPR to be built in France. In 2005, Framatome ANP, an AREVA and Siemens company, announced that they will be pursuing a design certification in the U.S. The EPR development is based on the latest PWR product lines of former Framatome (N4) and Siemens Nuklear (Konvoi). As an introductory part, different aspects of the EPR core characteristics connected to fuel assembly design are presented. It includes means of ensuring reactivity control like hybrid AIC/B4C control rod absorbers and gadolinium as burnable absorber integrated in fuel rods, and specific options for in-core instrumentation, such as Aeroball type instrumentation. Then the design requirements for the EPR fuel assembly are presented in term of very high burnup capacity, rod cladding and fuel assembly reliability. Framatome ANP fuel assembly product characteristics meeting these requirements are then described. EPR fuel assembly design characteristics benefit from the experience feedback of the latest fuel assembly products designed within Framatome ANP, leading to resistance to assembly deformation, high fuel rod restraint and prevention of handling hazards. EPR fuel assembly design features the best components composing the cornerstones of the upgraded family of fuel assemblies that FRAMATOME ANP proposes today. This family is based on a set of common characteristics and associated features, which include the HMP grid as bottom end spacer, the MONOBLOC guide tube and the Robust FUELGUARD as lower tie plate, the use of the M5 Alloy, as cladding and structure material. This fully re-crystallized, ternary Zr-Nb-O alloy produces radically improved in-reactor corrosion, very low hydrogen uptake and growth and an excellent creep behavior, which are described there. EPR fuel assembly description also includes fuel rod

  7. EPR-based distance measurements at ambient temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krumkacheva, Olesya; Bagryanskaya, Elena

    2017-07-01

    Pulsed dipolar (PD) EPR spectroscopy is a powerful technique allowing for distance measurements between spin labels in the range of 2.5-10.0 nm. It was proposed more than 30 years ago, and nowadays is widely used in biophysics and materials science. Until recently, PD EPR experiments were limited to cryogenic temperatures (T biomolecules, the influence of a linker between the spin probe and biomolecule, and future opportunities.

  8. Contamination, decontamination and radiochemical safety analyses of the RA reactor (Report 1966)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maksimovic, Z.

    1966-12-01

    This contract is concerned with development of methods for detection of fission products i the heavy water and quantitative radiochemical analysis for detecting one fission product which enables reliable verification of heavy water contamination by fission products and estimation of contamination level. Qualitative and quantitative radiometry measurements of fission products in water are shown on page 4. Page 6 shows study of contamination and decontamination of water on the laboratory level. Experiments have shown that the majority of fission products was adsorbed on the uranium oxide and that the iodine isotopes are partly in water (non-adsorbed). Gamma spectrometry analyses showed 131 I moves to distillate with the initial quantities of distilled water. decontamination factors compared to the total activity of fission products in distillator and distillate are not higher than ∼10 3 . Decontamination of water contaminated by uranium oxide and fission products in the distillation device of the RA reactor is shown on page 8. Experiments demanded special preparation due to high activity of uranium (1.7 g of uranium irradiated in the reactor for 10 days at neutron flux 1.10 13 n.cm 2 /s. Prior preparations for transport and dissolution of irradiated metal uranium as well as sampling were needed. Distillation was done under lower pressure and temperature to avoid possible contamination of the environment bu fission products and iodine. Decontamination factors are shown in Table. Contamination and decontamination of stainless steel on the laboratory level are described on page 5. It was found that the deposition of activity on the stainless steel plates is inhomogeneous showing that the uranium oxide and fission products are deposited on the rough metal surfaces. According to literature data and our laboratory studies decontamination was done by nitric acid solution (2MHNO 3 ). Since the heavy water system of the RA reactor was made of stainless teel (except the

  9. A systematic review of the quality of conduct and reporting of systematic reviews and meta-analyses in paediatric surgery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Stephen Cullis

    Full Text Available Our objective was to evaluate quality of conduct and reporting of published systematic reviews and meta-analyses in paediatric surgery. We also aimed to identify characteristics predictive of review quality.Systematic reviews summarise evidence by combining sources, but are potentially prone to bias. To counter this, the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA was published to aid in reporting. Similarly, the Assessing the Methodological Quality of Systematic Reviews (AMSTAR measurement tool was designed to appraise methodology. The paediatric surgical literature has seen an increasing number of reviews over the past decade, but quality has not been evaluated.Adhering to PRISMA guidelines, we performed a systematic review with a priori design to identify systematic reviews and meta-analyses of interventions in paediatric surgery. From 01/2010 to 06/2016, we searched: MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane, Centre for Reviews and Dissemination, Web of Science, Google Scholar, reference lists and journals. Two reviewers independently selected studies and extracted data. We assessed conduct and reporting using AMSTAR and PRISMA. Scores were calculated as the sum of reported items. We also extracted author, journal and article characteristics, and used them in exploratory analysis to determine which variables predict quality.112 articles fulfilled eligibility criteria (53 systematic reviews; 59 meta-analyses. Overall, 68% AMSTAR and 56.8% PRISMA items were reported adequately. Poorest scores were identified with regards a priori design, inclusion of structured summaries, including the grey literature, citing excluded articles and evaluating bias. 13 reviews were pre-registered and 6 in PRISMA-endorsing journals. The following predicted quality in univariate analysis:, word count, Cochrane review, journal h-index, impact factor, journal endorses PRISMA, PRISMA adherence suggested in author guidance, article mentions PRISMA

  10. Emergency EPR and OSL dosimetry with table vitamins and minerals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sholom, S; McKeever, S W S

    2016-12-01

    Several table vitamins, minerals and L-lysine amino acid have been preliminarily tested as potential emergency dosemeters using electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) techniques. Radiation-induced EPR signals were detected in samples of vitamin B2 and L-lysine while samples of multivitamins of different brands as well as mineral Mg demonstrated prominent OSL signals after exposure to ionizing radiation doses. Basic dosimetric properties of the radiation-sensitive substances were studied, namely dose response, fading of the EPR or OSL signals and values of minimum measurable doses (MMDs). For EPR-sensitive samples, the EPR signal is converted into units of dose using a linear dose response and correcting for fading using the measured fading dependence. For OSL-sensitive materials, a multi-aliquot, enhanced-temperature protocol was developed to avoid the problem of sample sensitization and to minimize the influence of signal fading. The sample dose in this case is also evaluated using the dose response and fading curves. MMDs of the EPR-sensitive samples were below 2 Gy while those of the OSL-sensitive materials were below 500 mGy as long as the samples are analyzed within 1 week after exposure. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Correlations between the particles in the EPR-paradox

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Treder, H.J. (Akademie der Wissenschaften der DDR, Potsdam-Babelsberg. Einstein-Laboratorium fuer Theoretische Physik)

    1984-03-01

    The Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen 'gedanken-experiment' does not imply non-local interactions or an 'action-at-a-distance'. Contrary, the EPR proves the measurements at one particle does not have influences at canonical variables of the other particles if the quantum-mechanical commutation relations are true. But, the EPR implies correlations between the particles which come in by 'subjective knowledge'. These correlations are a priori informations about the relative motion or, complementarily, about the motion of the center of mass. The impression of an action-at-a-distance is produced by the use of usual particle coordinates in the EPR-arrangements. The discussion of the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen 'gedanken-experiment' (EPR) has been going on over fifty years. Einstein, Podolsky, and Rosen formulated their famous paradox in 1935, and in the discussion between N. Bohr (1935, 1949) and Einstein (1936, 1948); A. Einstein (1948) made his point that the EPR implied an 'action-at-a-distance' for quantum-mechanical particles (without obvious classical interactions). His argument is the starting point for the recent discussion about EPR and causality (see A. Aspect 1981).

  12. Pulsed-High Field/High-Frequency EPR Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuhs, Michael; Moebius, Klaus

    Pulsed high-field/high-frequency electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy is used to disentangle many kinds of different effects often obscured in continuous wave (cw) EPR spectra at lower magnetic fields/microwave frequencies. While the high magnetic field increases the resolution of G tensors and of nuclear Larmor frequencies, the high frequencies allow for higher time resolution for molecular dynamics as well as for transient paramagnetic intermediates studied with time-resolved EPR. Pulsed EPR methods are used for example for relaxation-time studies, and pulsed Electron Nuclear DOuble Resonance (ENDOR) is used to resolve unresolved hyperfine structure hidden in inhomogeneous linewidths. In the present article we introduce the basic concepts and selected applications to structure and mobility studies on electron transfer systems, reaction centers of photosynthesis as well as biomimetic models. The article concludes with an introduction to stochastic EPR which makes use of an other concept for investigating resonance systems in order to increase the excitation bandwidth of pulsed EPR. The limited excitation bandwidth of pulses at high frequency is one of the main limitations which, so far, made Fourier transform methods hardly feasible.

  13. Determining significant endpoints for ecological risk analyses. 1997 annual progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinton, T.G.; Congdon, J.; Rowe, C.; Scott, D. [Univ. of Georgia, Aiken, SC (US). Savannah River Ecology Lab.; Bedford, J.; Whicker, F.W. [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (US)

    1997-11-01

    'This report summarizes the first year''s progress of research funded under the Department of Energy''s Environmental Management Science Program. The research was initiated to better determine ecological risks from toxic and radioactive contaminants. More precisely, the research is designed to determine the relevancy of sublethal cellular damage to the performance of individuals and to identify characteristics of non-human populations exposed to chronic, low-level radiation, as is typically found on many DOE sites. The authors propose to establish a protocol to assess risks to non-human species at higher levels of biological organization by relating molecular damage to more relevant responses that reflect population health. They think that they can achieve this by coupling changes in metabolic rates and energy allocation patterns to meaningful population response variables, and by using novel biological dosimeters in controlled, manipulative dose/effects experiments. They believe that a scientifically defensible endpoint for measuring ecological risks can only be determined once its understood the extent to which molecular damage from contaminant exposure is detrimental at the individual and population levels of biological organization.'

  14. Statistical analyses to support guidelines for marine avian sampling. Final report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinlan, Brian P.; Zipkin, Elise; O'Connell, Allan F.; Caldow, Chris

    2012-01-01

    distribution to describe counts of a given species in a particular region and season. 4. Using a large database of historical at-sea seabird survey data, we applied this technique to identify appropriate statistical distributions for modeling a variety of species, allowing the distribution to vary by season. For each species and season, we used the selected distribution to calculate and map retrospective statistical power to detect hotspots and coldspots, and map pvalues from Monte Carlo significance tests of hotspots and coldspots, in discrete lease blocks designated by the U.S. Department of Interior, Bureau of Ocean Energy Management (BOEM). 5. Because our definition of hotspots and coldspots does not explicitly include variability over time, we examine the relationship between the temporal scale of sampling and the proportion of variance captured in time series of key environmental correlates of marine bird abundance, as well as available marine bird abundance time series, and use these analyses to develop recommendations for the temporal distribution of sampling to adequately represent both shortterm and long-term variability. We conclude by presenting a schematic “decision tree” showing how this power analysis approach would fit in a general framework for avian survey design, and discuss implications of model assumptions and results. We discuss avenues for future development of this work, and recommendations for practical implementation in the context of siting and wildlife assessment for offshore renewable energy development projects.

  15. Analysis and evaluation of GAVE chains. Part 2 of 3. Final report (sheets presentation); Analyse en evaluatie van GAVE-ketens. Deel 2 van 3. Final report (sheetpresentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bosma, W.J.P. [Arthur D. Little International, Rotterdam (Netherlands)

    1999-12-01

    This report contains the detailed findings of the analysis, evaluation, and integration of Novem GAVE options. This main report is meant for the reader who is interested in the detailed findings, as well as an overview of the results. For readers who are mainly interested in the high-level results, and are comfortable with Dutch, there is a short text summary of our results, entitled 'Analyse en evaluatie van GAVE-ketens, management summary' (part 1). Readers who are interested in the underlying data and detailed assumptions are encouraged to consult the appendix to this report, entitled 'Analyse en evaluatie van GAVE-ketens, appendices' (part 3)

  16. Non-invasive determination of the irradiation dose in fingers using low-frequency EPR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zdravkova, M; Crokart, N; Trompier, F; Beghein, N; Gallez, B; Debuyst, R

    2004-01-01

    Several reports in the literature have described the effects of radiation in workers who exposed their fingers to intense radioactive sources. The radiation injuries occurring after local exposure to a high dose (20 to 100 Gy) could lead to the need for amputation. Follow-up of victims needs to be more rational with a precise knowledge of the irradiated area that risks tissue degradation and necrosis. It has been described previously that X-band electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy could be used to assess the dose in irradiated amputated fingers. Here, we propose the use of low-frequency EPR spectroscopy to evaluate non-invasively the absorbed dose. Low-frequency microwaves are indeed less absorbed by water and penetrate more deeply into living material (∼10 mm in tissues using 1 GHz spectrometers). This work presents preliminary results obtained with baboon and human fingers compared with human dry phalanxes placed inside a surface-coil resonator. The EPR signal increased linearly with the dose. The ratio of the slopes of the dry bone to whole finger linear regression lines was around 5. The detection limit achievable with the present spectrometer and resonator is around 60 Gy, which is well within the range of accidentally exposed fingers. It is likely that the detection limit could be improved in the future, thanks to further technical spectrometer and resonator developments as well as to appropriate spectrum deconvolution into native and dosimetric signals

  17. EPR Oximetry Sensor-Developing a TAM Derivative for In Vivo Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boś-Liedke, Agnieszka; Walawender, Magdalena; Woźniak, Anna; Flak, Dorota; Gapiński, Jacek; Jurga, Stefan; Kucińska, Małgorzata; Plewiński, Adam; Murias, Marek; Elewa, Marwa; Lampp, Lisa; Imming, Peter; Tadyszak, Krzysztof

    2018-06-01

    Oxygenation is one of the most important physiological parameters of biological systems. Low oxygen concentration (hypoxia) is associated with various pathophysiological processes in different organs. Hypoxia is of special importance in tumor therapy, causing poor response to treatment. Triaryl methyl (TAM) derivative radicals are commonly used in electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) as sensors for quantitative spatial tissue oxygen mapping. They are also known as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agents and fluorescence imaging compounds. We report the properties of the TAM radical tris(2,3,5,6-tetrachloro-4-carboxy-phenyl)methyl, (PTMTC), a potential multimodal (EPR/fluorescence) marker. PTMTC was spectrally analyzed using EPR and characterized by estimation of its sensitivity to the oxygen in liquid environment suitable for intravenous injection (1 mM PBS, pH = 7.4). Further, fluorescent emission of the radical was measured using the same solvent and its quantum yield was estimated. An in vitro cytotoxicity examination was conducted in two cancer cell lines, HT-29 (colorectal adenocarcinoma) and FaDu (squamous cell carcinoma) and followed by uptake studies. The stability of the radical in different solutions (PBS pH = 7.4, cell media used for HT-29 and FaDu cells culturing and cytotoxicity procedure, full rat blood and blood plasma) was determined. Finally, a primary toxicity test of PTMTC was carried out in mice. Results of spectral studies confirmed the multimodal properties of PTMTC. PTMTC was demonstrated to be not absorbed by cancer cells and did not interfere with luciferin-luciferase based assays. Also in vitro and in vivo tests showed that it was non-toxic and can be freely administrated till doses of 250 mg/kg BW via both i.v. and i.p. injections. This work illustrated that PTMTC is a perfect candidate for multimodal (EPR/fluorescence) contrast agent in preclinical studies.

  18. FY 2016 Status Report: CIRFT Testing Data Analyses and Updated Curvature Measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Jy-An John [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Wang, Hong [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-08-01

    This report provides a detailed description of FY15 test result corrections/analysis based on the FY16 Cyclic Integrated Reversible-Bending Fatigue Tester (CIRFT) test program methodology update used to evaluate the vibration integrity of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) under normal transportation conditions. The CIRFT consists of a U-frame testing setup and a real-time curvature measurement method. The three-component U-frame setup of the CIRFT has two rigid arms and linkages to a universal testing machine. The curvature of rod bending is obtained through a three-point deflection measurement method. Three linear variable differential transformers (LVDTs) are used and clamped to the side connecting plates of the U-frame to capture the deformation of the rod. The contact-based measurement, or three-LVDT-based curvature measurement system, on SNF rods has been proven to be quite reliable in CIRFT testing. However, how the LVDT head contacts the SNF rod may have a significant effect on the curvature measurement, depending on the magnitude and direction of rod curvature. It has been demonstrated that the contact/curvature issues can be corrected by using a correction on the sensor spacing. The sensor spacing defines the separation of the three LVDT probes and is a critical quantity in calculating the rod curvature once the deflections are obtained. The sensor spacing correction can be determined by using chisel-type probes. The method has been critically examined this year and has been shown to be difficult to implement in a hot cell environment, and thus cannot be implemented effectively. A correction based on the proposed equivalent gauge-length has the required flexibility and accuracy and can be appropriately used as a correction factor. The correction method based on the equivalent gauge length has been successfully demonstrated in CIRFT data analysis for the dynamic tests conducted on Limerick (LMK) (17 tests), North Anna (NA) (6 tests), and Catawba mixed oxide (MOX

  19. EPC projects for EPR Flamanville 3 NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz, J.I.; Polo, J.; Aymerich, E.; Cubian, B.

    2010-01-01

    IBERDROLA Ingenieria y Construccion is carrying out a handful of activities in the EPR Flamanville 3 -FA3 NPP- context since 2007 matching oriented to position the company in the emerging marketplace of new nuclear power plants Generation III+, whose expectation for the next years is highly promising. IBERDROLA Ingenieria y Construccion leads 5 EPC -Engineering, Procurement and Commissioning- projects for FA3 NPP from the Nuclear Island till Sea Water Pumping Station as follows: - Design, procurement. fabrication, installation and testing of 21 shell and tubes heat-exchangers for the nuclear island. 12 out of these 17 HXs are conventional and will be designed according to ASME BPV code Section VIII and have to comply with PED 97/23/CE and ESPN. The remaining 5 HXs are nuclear and will be designed according to ASME BPV code Section III and have also to comply with PED and ESPN. - Design, procurement, fabrication and assembly of 9 demineralizers for different plant systems. Three of these Important To Safety (IPS) equipments have been manufactured according with ASME VIII codes and six of them with EN 13445 code plus additional requirements to comply with PED and final client requirements for nuclear island. - Design, fabrication and installation of qualified travelling water screening filters. The equipments furnished will be two nuclear safety qualified filters and associated equipment (cleaning water system and control system). Additionally some auxiliary devices such as grids, automatic trash rakes and stop gates are included in the contract. - Engineering, procurement, fabrication, erection and commissioning for the condensate treatment plant. This system includes a demineralizer tank, 5 filters, reactive injection mixer, pneumatic and manual valves, piping and instrumentation and control systems. - Engineering, procurement erection and commissioning for the electro-chlorination plant to protect the IPS piping for Condensate Water System for FA3. This system

  20. EPC projects for EPR Flamanville 3 NPP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaz, J.I.; Polo, J.; Aymerich, E.; Cubian, B. [Nuclear Generation Department, Iberdrola Ingenieria y Construccion, Avda. Manoteras 20, 28050 Madrid (Spain)

    2010-07-01

    IBERDROLA Ingenieria y Construccion is carrying out a handful of activities in the EPR Flamanville 3 -FA3 NPP- context since 2007 matching oriented to position the company in the emerging marketplace of new nuclear power plants Generation III+, whose expectation for the next years is highly promising. IBERDROLA Ingenieria y Construccion leads 5 EPC -Engineering, Procurement and Commissioning- projects for FA3 NPP from the Nuclear Island till Sea Water Pumping Station as follows: - Design, procurement. fabrication, installation and testing of 21 shell and tubes heat-exchangers for the nuclear island. 12 out of these 17 HXs are conventional and will be designed according to ASME BPV code Section VIII and have to comply with PED 97/23/CE and ESPN. The remaining 5 HXs are nuclear and will be designed according to ASME BPV code Section III and have also to comply with PED and ESPN. - Design, procurement, fabrication and assembly of 9 demineralizers for different plant systems. Three of these Important To Safety (IPS) equipments have been manufactured according with ASME VIII codes and six of them with EN 13445 code plus additional requirements to comply with PED and final client requirements for nuclear island. - Design, fabrication and installation of qualified travelling water screening filters. The equipments furnished will be two nuclear safety qualified filters and associated equipment (cleaning water system and control system). Additionally some auxiliary devices such as grids, automatic trash rakes and stop gates are included in the contract. - Engineering, procurement, fabrication, erection and commissioning for the condensate treatment plant. This system includes a demineralizer tank, 5 filters, reactive injection mixer, pneumatic and manual valves, piping and instrumentation and control systems. - Engineering, procurement erection and commissioning for the electro-chlorination plant to protect the IPS piping for Condensate Water System for FA3. This system

  1. Small-volume potentiometric titrations: EPR investigations of Fe-S cluster N2 in mitochondrial complex I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, John J; Salvadori, Enrico; Bridges, Hannah R; Hirst, Judy; Roessler, Maxie M

    2016-09-01

    EPR-based potentiometric titrations are a well-established method for determining the reduction potentials of cofactors in large and complex proteins with at least one EPR-active state. However, such titrations require large amounts of protein. Here, we report a new method that requires an order of magnitude less protein than previously described methods, and that provides EPR samples suitable for measurements at both X- and Q-band microwave frequencies. We demonstrate our method by determining the reduction potential of the terminal [4Fe-4S] cluster (N2) in the intramolecular electron-transfer relay in mammalian respiratory complex I. The value determined by our method, E m7 =-158mV, is precise, reproducible, and consistent with previously reported values. Our small-volume potentiometric titration method will facilitate detailed investigations of EPR-active centres in non-abundant and refractory proteins that can only be prepared in small quantities. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. FALSIRE Phase II. CSNI project for Fracture Analyses of Large-Scale International Reference Experiments (Phase II). Comparison report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sievers, J.; Schulz, H.; Bass, R.; Pugh, C.; Keeney, J.

    1996-11-01

    A summary of Phase II of the Project for Fracture Analysis of Large-Scale International Reference Experiments (FALSIRE) is presented. A FALSIRE II Workshop focused on analyses of reference fracture experiments. More than 30 participants representing 22 organizations from 12 countries took part in the workshop. Final results for 45 analyses of the reference experiments were received from the participating analysts. For each experiment, analysis results provided estimates of variables that include temperature, crack-mouth-opening displacement, stress, strain, and applied K and J values. The data were sent electronically to the Organizing Committee, who assembled the results into a comparative data base using a special-purpose computer program. A comparative assessment and discussion of the analysis results are presented in the report. Generally, structural responses of the test specimens were predicted with tolerable scatter bands. (orig./DG)

  3. Olkiluoto 3: Finland has chosen a EPR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brummer, S.

    2003-01-01

    According to the Finn law any nuclear project has to be declared conformed to the general interest of the country by the government and then has to be approved by the parliament. In may 2002 the Finn parliament approved the project of the TVO company: the construction of a new nuclear unit on the Olkiluoto site and the direct and definitive disposal of spent fuels in the granite underground layers of the same site. The project was agreed with 109 votes for and 92 against. In september 2002 an international invitation to tender was launched and 4 companies made proposals: Westinghouse, Atomstroexport, Framatome-ANP and General Electric. Westinghouse withdrew its offer some time later. In october 2003 TVO announced that the unit will be a 1600 MW EPR (European pressurized reactor) built by Framatome-ANP. The construction work will begin in spring 2005 and the unit is scheduled to enter into service in 2009. At that time the contribution of nuclear energy to the Finn energy production will reach 35%. (A.C.)

  4. Pulsed EPR for studying silver clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michalik, J.; Wasowicz, T.; Sadlo, J.; Reijerse, E.J.; Kevan, L.

    1996-01-01

    The cationic silver clusters of different nuclearity have been produced by radiolysis of zeolite A and SAPO molecular sieves containing Ag + as exchangeable cations. The pulsed EPR spectroscopy has been applied for studying the local environment of silver cluster in order to understand the mechanism of cluster formation and stabilization. the electron spin echo modulation (ESEM) results on Ag 6 n+ cluster in dehydration zeolite A indicate that the hexameric silver is stabilized only in sodalite cages which are surrounded by α-cages containing no water molecules. Trimeric silver clusters formed in hydrated A zeolites strongly interact with water, thus the paramagnetic center can be considered as a cluster-water adduct. In SAPO-molecular sieves, silver clusters are formed only in the presence of adsorbed alcohol molecules. From ESEM it is determined that Ag 4 n+ in SAPO-42 is stabilized in α cages, where it is directly coordinated by two methanol molecules. Dimeric silver, Ag 2 + in SAPO-5 and SAPO-11 is located in 6-ring channels and interacts with three CH 3 OH molecules, each in different 10 ring or 12 ring channels. The differences of Ag 2 + stability in SAPO-5 and SAPO-11 are also discussed. (Author)

  5. EPR by Areva. The path of greatest certainty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    AREVA's Evolutionary Power Reactor (EPR) is the first Generation III+ reactor design currently being built to answer the world's growing demand for clean and reliable electricity generation. Already under construction in Finland, France and China, the EPR is also being considered by America, United Kingdom, South Africa and other countries for the development of their nuclear fleet. The EPR is now clearly destined to become the mainstay of standardized, efficient reactor fleets around the globe. AREVA's EPR incorporates unbeatable know-how provided by an uninterrupted track record of reactor building activities and backed by decades of feedback experience from operating PWRs, including the most recent. The EPR is a Franco-German initiative which benefited from the stringent scrutiny of safety authorities from both countries, at each stage of the project. The EPR has already secured construction licenses from two of the world's most demanding safety authorities in France and Finland and is currently in line for a design certification and a combined construction and operating license (COL) in the USA. It is also taking part in the licensing process recently launched in the United Kingdom. Europe's leading utilities have granted the EPR their approval under the 'European Utilities Requirements' and have further expressed individual interest in the design and performance of the EPR for their businesses. AREVA is the only Gen III+ reactor constructor in the world with ongoing building experience. To date, AREVA is the only vendor who has the necessary field experience that future customers can benefit: - Detailed design completed; - Experience feedback from 87 PWR; - 3 projects going on; - Continuous PWR experience in design and construction. Close to 100% of the EPR primary circuit heavy components are sourced directly from AREVA's integrated plants. Engineering, manufacturing, services and fuel cycle management are totally integrated and mastered by AREVA. From its

  6. EPR by Areva. The path of greatest certainty

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    AREVA's Evolutionary Power Reactor (EPR) is the first Generation III+ reactor design currently being built to answer the world's growing demand for clean and reliable electricity generation. Already under construction in Finland, France and China, the EPR is also being considered by America, United Kingdom, South Africa and other countries for the development of their nuclear fleet. The EPR is now clearly destined to become the mainstay of standardized, efficient reactor fleets around the globe. AREVA's EPR incorporates unbeatable know-how provided by an uninterrupted track record of reactor building activities and backed by decades of feedback experience from operating PWRs, including the most recent. The EPR is a Franco-German initiative which benefited from the stringent scrutiny of safety authorities from both countries, at each stage of the project. The EPR has already secured construction licenses from two of the world's most demanding safety authorities in France and Finland and is currently in line for a design certification and a combined construction and operating license (COL) in the USA. It is also taking part in the licensing process recently launched in the United Kingdom. Europe's leading utilities have granted the EPR their approval under the 'European Utilities Requirements' and have further expressed individual interest in the design and performance of the EPR for their businesses. AREVA is the only Gen III+ reactor constructor in the world with ongoing building experience. To date, AREVA is the only vendor who has the necessary field experience that future customers can benefit: - Detailed design completed; - Experience feedback from 87 PWR; - 3 projects going on; - Continuous PWR experience in design and construction. Close to 100% of the EPR primary circuit heavy components are sourced directly from AREVA's integrated plants. Engineering, manufacturing, services and fuel cycle management are totally

  7. The effect of thermal treatment on radiation-induced EPR signals in tooth enamel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vorona, I.P.; Ishchenko, S.S.; Baran, N.P.

    2005-01-01

    The effect of thermal treatment on the radiation-induced EPR spectrum of tooth enamel was studied. Annealing before sample irradiation was found to increase enamel radiation sensitivity by more than 40%. Depending on the annealing conditions the EPR signals of three supplementary radiation radicals were observed in addition to the main signal caused by CO 2 - radicals. It was found that the presence of these signals in the enamel EPR spectra provides evidence of sample annealing. The possibility of obtaining information about sample history by studying the additional EPR signals is discussed. It can be important to EPR dating and EPR dosimetry

  8. Application of BAT assessments for sampling and monitoring techniques in the UK EPR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerdaniel, Erwan du Fou de; Colin, Julie; Moyano, Florian; Ardon, Audrey

    2014-01-01

    EDF Energy intends to build two EPR units at the Hinkley Point C site and has initiated the studies to build two more EPR units at Sizewell C. The project is lead by NNB GenCo, a subsidiary of EDF Energy. NNB GenCo, identified as the future operator and intelligent customer, relies upon EDF SA's expertise as responsible designer. UK EPR design substantiation has been carried out during the Generic Design Assessment (GDA), with two key reports, namely the Pre-Construction Environmental Report and the Pre-Construction Safety Report. These reports lead to specific enquiries initiated by the Regulators through 'Assessment Findings' in all areas, including Chemistry. Along the GDA process, the Environmental Agency (EA) has authorised chemical and radiochemical effluents discharges, requiring NNB GenCo to demonstrate that Best Available Techniques (BAT) are used to sample and monitor the discharges and the generation of solid wastes. BAT demonstrations deliverables are formalised via 'Commitment Plans' and detailed within 'Environmental Optimisation Studies (EOS)' reports, in line with NNB GenCo's management arrangements. NNB GenCo manages the production of the EOS reports. EDF CEIDRE Laboratory department (CEIDRE/DLAB) has been identified as a contributor to the BAT demonstration regarding sampling and monitoring of chemical effluents, active effluents and solid wastes. As required by the definition of BAT in the UK context, demonstrations are based on: UK Regulatory context and associated specific requirements, International feedback analysis of European, EPRI and IAEA documents, French fleet framework: benchmarks with the operator, analysis of technical and operational management documentation, Sizewell B framework: benchmarks with the operator, analysis of technical and operational management documents, International, British and French standards. A close partnership between the different EDF SA departments and a clear

  9. Candelariella placodizans (Candelariaceae reported new to mainland China and Taiwan based on morphological, chemical and molecular phylogenetic analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidia Yakovchenko

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Candelariella placodizans is newly reported from China. It was collected on exposed rocks with mosses on the alpine areas of Taiwan and Yunnan Province, China at elevation between 3200-4400 m. Molecular phylogenetic analyses based on ITS rDNA sequences were also performed to confirm the monophyly of the Chinese populations with respect to already existing sequences of the species, and then further to examine their relationships to other members of the genus. An identification key to all 14 known taxa of Candelariella in China is provided.

  10. The measurement of oxygen in vivo using EPR techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swartz, Harold M.; Clarkson, Robert B.

    1998-01-01

    The measurement of pO 2 in vivo using EPR has some features which have already led to very useful applications and this approach is likely to have increasingly wide and effective use. It is based on the effect of oxygen on EPR spectra which provides a sensitive and accurate means to measure pO 2 quantitatively. The development of oxygen-sensitive paramagnetic materials which are very stable, combined with instrumental developments, has been crucial to the in vivo applications of this technique. The physical basis and biological applications of in vivo EPR oximetry are reviewed, with particular emphasis on the use of EPR spectroscopy at 1 GHz using particulate paramagnetic materials for the repetitive and non-invasive measurement of pO 2 in tissues. In vivo EPR has already produced some very useful results which have contributed significantly to solving important biological problems. The characteristics of EPR oximetry which appear to be especially useful are often complementary to existing techniques for measuring oxygen in tissues. These characteristics include the capability of making repeated measurements from the same site, high sensitivity to low levels of oxygen, and non-invasive options. The existing techniques are especially useful for studies in small animals, where the depth of measurements is not an overriding issue. In larger animals and potentially in human subjects, non-invasive techniques seem to be immediately applicable to study phenomena very near the surface (within 10 mm) while invasive techniques have some very promising uses. The clinical uses of EPR oximetry which seem especially promising and likely to be undertaken in the near future are long-term monitoring of the status and response to treatment of peripheral vascular disease and optimizing cancer therapy by enabling it to be modified on the basis of the pO 2 measured in the tumour. (author)

  11. An EPR line shape study of anisotropic rotational reorientation and slow tumbling in liquid and frozen jojoba oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, J. S.; Al-Rashid, W. A.

    Spin probe investigation of jojoba oil was carried out by electron paramagnetic rresonance (EPR) spectroscopy. The spin probe used was 2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-4-piperidone- N-oxide. The EPR line shape studies were carried out in the lower temperature range of 192 to 275 K to test the applicability of the stochastic Liouville theory in the simulation of EPR line shapes where earlier relaxation theories do not apply. In an earlier study, this system was analysed by employing rotational diffusion at the fast-motional region. The results show that PD-Tempone exhibits asymmetric rotational diffusion with N = 3.3 at an axis z'= Y in the plane of the molecule and perpendicular to the NO bond direction. In this investigation we have extended the temperature range to lower temperatures and observed slow tumbling EPR spectra. It is shown that the stochastic Liouville method can be used to simulate all but two of the experimentally observed EPR spectra in the slow-motional region and details of the slow-motional line shape are sensitive to the anisotropy of rotation and showed good agreement for a moderate jump model. From the computer simulation of EPR line shapes it is found that the information obtained on τ R, and N in the motional-narrowing region can be extrapolated into the slow-tumbling region. It is also found that ln (τ R) is linear in 1/ T in the temperature range studied and the resulting activation energy for rotation is 51 kJ/mol. The two EPR spectra at 240 and 231 K were found to exhibit the effects of anisotropic viscosity observed by B IRELL for nitroxides oriented in tubular cavities in inclusion crystals in which the molecule is free to rotate about the long axis but with its rotation hindered about the other two axes because of the cavity geometry. These results proved that the slow-tumbling spectra were very sensitive to the effects of anisotropy in the viscosity.

  12. A comparative in vivo and in vitro L-band EPR study of irradiated rat incisors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zdravkova, M.; Gallez, B.; Debuyst, R.

    2005-01-01

    L-band (∼1GHz) EPR has the potential to measure the absorbed radiation dose in human teeth inside the mouth (in vivo analyses). One crucial point in the development of the method is to know if dosimetry evaluation carried out in vivo after accidental exposures can be reliably based on calibration curves built in vitro. The aim of the present work is to specifically address this point. First, we compared L-band in vitro and in vivo analyses in irradiated rat teeth and estimated the possible loss in in vivo experiments due to rat movements and mouth proximity. Second, the lower pair of rat incisors were analysed by L-band EPR before and after irradiation (50Gy), first on the living rat, then on the same dead rat, finally after extraction of the teeth. X-band powder spectra were also taken after crushing of the two teeth. Irradiations of dead rats and extracted teeth were also carried out. Comparing L-band spectra obtained with living rats and removed heads does not show any significant difference due to possible small rat movements or breathing. Relative standard deviations of the amplitudes of the dosimetric signal are quite high (27-54%). Nevertheless, it seems to be a tendency to have higher signals in irradiated extracted teeth than in irradiated animals

  13. Arbitrary waveform modulated pulse EPR at 200 GHz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaminker, Ilia; Barnes, Ryan; Han, Songi

    2017-06-01

    We report here on the implementation of arbitrary waveform generation (AWG) capabilities at ∼200 GHz into an Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) and Dynamic Nuclear Polarization (DNP) instrument platform operating at 7 T. This is achieved with the integration of a 1 GHz, 2 channel, digital to analog converter (DAC) board that enables the generation of coherent arbitrary waveforms at Ku-band frequencies with 1 ns resolution into an existing architecture of a solid state amplifier multiplier chain (AMC). This allows for the generation of arbitrary phase- and amplitude-modulated waveforms at 200 GHz with >150 mW power. We find that the non-linearity of the AMC poses significant difficulties in generating amplitude-modulated pulses at 200 GHz. We demonstrate that in the power-limited regime of ω1 10 MHz) spin manipulation in incoherent (inversion), as well as coherent (echo formation) experiments. Highlights include the improvement by one order of magnitude in inversion bandwidth compared to that of conventional rectangular pulses, as well as a factor of two in improvement in the refocused echo intensity at 200 GHz.

  14. Loads on EPR containment after RPV failure at high pressure; Belastungen des EPR-Containments in Falle eines RDB-Versagens bei hohem Druck

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobs, G.

    1995-08-01

    As regards the desgin of the EPR, the general strategy is to eliminate, the vessel failure at high pressure by preventive and mitigative measures. The design proposals involved trust in the reliability of dedicated devices (relief valves) for rapid depressurization. The aim is to attain a lower pressure level at the moment of vessel failure, so that the containment is capable to cope with the blowdown impact on the pit walls and the vessel supporting structures. Nevertheless, the potential of a high-pressure failure of the vessel must be kept in mind, whatever well thought-out and reliable preventive depressurization measures might be. Therefore, the reactor pressure blowdown has been studied in order to quantify the ultimate containment load, which might support future design requirements. The calculations were performed with the LWR transient analysis thermal-hydraulics computer code REALAP5/MOD3. In previous analyses, the nodalization of the problem was based on the geometrical conditions of a typical German 1300 MW(e) NPP. In the present analysis a new input model has been used, which was based on the EPR conditions. (orig./HP)

  15. A new approach for extension of the identification period of irradiated cellulose-containing foodstuffs by EPR spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yordanov, Nicola D.; Gancheva, Veselka

    2000-01-01

    We report on the possibility of identification by EPR spectroscopy of some irradiated cellulose-containing foodstuffs, at a relatively long time after the irradiation, when the characteristic EPR spectral lines of the cellulose free radical have essentially disappeared. In such cases rather expensive and time-consuming methods (e.g. thermoluminescence analysis) have to be applied. The present communication demonstrates with some pre-irradiated spices, dried medicinal and sweet herbs that simply heating the samples to 60 deg. C for one hour leads to a significant (50% or more) decrease of the EPR intensity of the remaining central line of the samples. For comparison, the loss in the intensity of the same line upon heating non-irradiated samples at 60 deg. C for one hour was only about 10%. This inexpensive new procedure will extend the post-irradiation period in which EPR can be used for distinguishing irradiated from non-irradiated samples, of certain cellulose-containing foodstuffs

  16. Testing and linearity calibration of films of phenol compounds exposed to thermal neutron field for EPR dosimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, S; Panzeca, S; Longo, A; Altieri, S; Bentivoglio, A; Dondi, D; Marconi, R P; Protti, N; Zeffiro, A; Marrale, M

    2015-12-01

    This paper reports the preliminary results obtained by Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) measurements on films of IRGANOX® 1076 phenols with and without low content (5% by weight) of gadolinium oxide (Gd2O3) exposed in the thermal column of the Triga Mark II reactor of LENA (Laboratorio Energia Nucleare Applicata) of Pavia (Italy). Thanks to their size, the phenolic films here presented are good devices for the dosimetry of beams with high dose gradient and which require accurate knowledge of the precise dose delivered. The dependence of EPR signal as function of neutron dose was investigated in the fluence range between 10(11) cm(-2) and 10(14) cm(-2). Linearity of EPR response was found and the signal was compared with that of commercial alanine films. Our analysis showed that gadolinium oxide (5% by weight) can enhance the thermal neutron sensitivity more than 18 times. Irradiated dosimetric films of phenolic compound exhibited EPR signal fading of about 4% after 10 days from irradiation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. EPR and optical absorption studies of paramagnetic molecular ion (VO2+) in Lithium Sodium Acid Phthalate single crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subbulakshmi, N.; Kumar, M. Saravana; Sheela, K. Juliet; Krishnan, S. Radha; Shanmugam, V. M.; Subramanian, P.

    2017-12-01

    Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) spectroscopic studies of VO2+ ions as paramagnetic impurity in Lithium Sodium Acid Phthalate (LiNaP) single crystal have been done at room temperature on X-Band microwave frequency. The lattice parameter values are obtained for the chosen system from Single crystal X-ray diffraction study. Among the number of hyperfine lines in the EPR spectra only two sets are reported from EPR data. The principal values of g and A tensors are evaluated for the two different VO2+ sites I and II. They possess the crystalline field around the VO2+ as orthorhombic. Site II VO2+ ion is identified as substitutional in place of Na1 location and the other site I is identified as interstitial location. For both sites in LiNaP, VO2+ are identified in octahedral coordination with tetragonal distortion as seen from the spin Hamiltonian parameter values. The ground state of vanadyl ion in the LiNaP single crystal is dxy. Using optical absorption data the octahedral and tetragonal parameters are calculated. By correlating EPR and optical data, the molecular orbital bonding parameters have been discussed for both sites.

  18. Accident analyses in nuclear power plants following external initiating events and in the shutdown state. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loeffler, Horst; Kowalik, Michael; Mildenberger, Oliver; Hage, Michael

    2016-06-01

    The work which is documented here provides the methodological basis for improvement of the state of knowledge for accident sequences after plant external initiating events and for accident sequences which begin in the shutdown state. The analyses have been done for a PWR and for a BWR reference plant. The work has been supported by the German federal ministry BMUB under the label 3612R01361. Top objectives of the work are: - Identify relevant event sequences in order to define characteristic initial and boundary conditions - Perform accident analysis of selected sequences - Evaluate the relevance of accident sequences in a qualitative way The accident analysis is performed with the code MELCOR 1.8.6. The applied input data set has been significantly improved compared to previous analyses. The event tree method which is established in PSA level 2 has been applied for creating a structure for a unified summarization and evaluation of the results from the accident analyses. The computer code EVNTRE has been applied for this purpose. In contrast to a PSA level 2, the branching probabilities of the event tree have not been determined with the usual accuracy, but they are given in an approximate way only. For the PWR, the analyses show a considerable protective effect of the containment also in the case of beyond design events. For the BWR, there is a rather high probability for containment failure under core melt impact, but nevertheless the release of radionuclides into the environment is very limited because of plant internal retention mechanisms. This report concludes with remarks about existing knowledge gaps and with regard to core melt sequences, and about possible improvements of the plant safety.

  19. Meeting the next generation PWR safety requirements: The EPR Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salhi, Othman

    2008-01-01

    The development process pursued the harmonization of technical solutions and the integration of all the lessons learned from earlier nuclear plants built by both vendors. As far as safety more specifically is concerned, the basic choice for the EPR was to adopt an evolutionary approach based on experience feedback from the reactors built by Areva, which at the time already amounted to nearly 100. This philosophy makes today's Areva EPR the natural descendant of the most advanced French N4 and German Konvoi power reactors currently in operation. EPR design choices affecting safety were motivated by a continuous quest for higher levels of safety. A two-fold approach was followed: 1. improvement of the measures aimed at further reducing the already very low probability of core melt 2. incorporation of measures aimed at further limiting the consequences of a severe accident, in the knowledge that its probability of occurrence has been considerably reduced. Through its filiations with French N4 and German Konvoi power reactors, the EPR benefits from the uninterrupted, evolutionary innovation process that has supported the development of PWRs since their introduction into the market place. This is especially true for safety where the EPR brings a unique combination of both tried and tested and innovative features that further improve the prevention of severe accidents and their mitigation

  20. Applications of EPR steering in quantum teleportation and NOON states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zárate, Laura Rosales

    2018-04-01

    Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) steering refers to the type of correlations described in the EPR paradox, where one observer seems to affect ("steer") the state of other observer by using local measurements. There have been several works regarding characterization and quantification of EPR steering. One characteristic of this non-local correlation is that it can be asymmetric, while entanglement is symmetric. This asymmetric property is relevant for potential applications of EPR steering to quantum information, in particular to quantum cryptography and quantum teleportation. This latter refers to the process where one observer sends an unknown quantum state to Bob, who is in a different location. They communicate by classical means. Here we will show that EPR steering is a necessary resource to obtain secure continuous variable teleportation. We will also consider NOON states, which is an example of an entangled state. For this state, we will present a steering signature. This contribution reviews the work derived in Refs. [1] and [2], which was presented as an invited talk in ELAF 2017.

  1. Chirp echo Fourier transform EPR-detected NMR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wili, Nino; Jeschke, Gunnar

    2018-04-01

    A new ultra-wide band (UWB) pulse EPR method is introduced for observing all nuclear frequencies of a paramagnetic center in a single shot. It is based on burning spectral holes with a high turning angle (HTA) pulse that excites forbidden transitions and subsequent detection of the hole pattern by a chirp echo. We term this method Chirp Echo Epr SpectroscopY (CHEESY)-detected NMR. The approach is a revival of FT EPR-detected NMR. It yields similar spectra and the same type of information as electron-electron double resonance (ELDOR)-detected NMR, but with a multiplex advantage. We apply CHEESY-detected NMR in Q band to nitroxides and correlate the hyperfine spectrum to the EPR spectrum by varying the frequency of the HTA pulse. Furthermore, a selective π pulse before the HTA pulse allows for detecting hyperfine sublevel correlations between transitions of one nucleus and for elucidating the coupling regime, the same information as revealed by the HYSCORE experiment. This is demonstrated on hexaaquamanganese(II). We expect that CHEESY-detected NMR is generally applicable to disordered systems and that our results further motivate the development of EPR spectrometers capable of coherent UWB excitation and detection, especially at higher fields and frequencies. Copyright © 2018 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Chirp echo Fourier transform EPR-detected NMR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wili, Nino; Jeschke, Gunnar

    2018-04-01

    A new ultra-wide band (UWB) pulse EPR method is introduced for observing all nuclear frequencies of a paramagnetic center in a single shot. It is based on burning spectral holes with a high turning angle (HTA) pulse that excites forbidden transitions and subsequent detection of the hole pattern by a chirp echo. We term this method Chirp Echo Epr SpectroscopY (CHEESY)-detected NMR. The approach is a revival of FT EPR-detected NMR. It yields similar spectra and the same type of information as electron-electron double resonance (ELDOR)-detected NMR, but with a multiplex advantage. We apply CHEESY-detected NMR in Q band to nitroxides and correlate the hyperfine spectrum to the EPR spectrum by varying the frequency of the HTA pulse. Furthermore, a selective π pulse before the HTA pulse allows for detecting hyperfine sublevel correlations between transitions of one nucleus and for elucidating the coupling regime, the same information as revealed by the HYSCORE experiment. This is demonstrated on hexaaquamanganese(II). We expect that CHEESY-detected NMR is generally applicable to disordered systems and that our results further motivate the development of EPR spectrometers capable of coherent UWB excitation and detection, especially at higher fields and frequencies.

  3. Development of a new dosimeter of EPR based on lactose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cruz C, L.; Torijano C, E.; Azorin N, J.; Aguirre G, F.; Cruz Z, E.

    2014-08-01

    50 years have passed since was proposed using the amino acid alanine as dosimeter advantage the phenomenon of electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR); this dosimetric method has reached a highly competitive level regarding others dosimetry classic methods, for example the thermoluminescence or the use of Fricke dosimeters, to measure high dose of radiation. In this type of materials, the free radicals induced by the radiation are stable and their concentration is proportional to the absorbed dose may be determined by the amplitude pick to pick of the first derived of the EPR absorption spectrum. The obtained results studying the EPR response of lactose tablets elaborated in the Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana, Unidad Iztapalapa are presented. The tablets were irradiated with gamma radiation of 60 Co in the irradiator Gamma beam 651-Pt of the Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares de la Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico to a dose rate of 8 kGy-h -1 and their EPR response in a EPR spectrometer e-scan Bruker. The obtained response in function of the dose was lineal in the interval of 1 at 10 kGy. The lactose sensibility was compared with the l-alanine, used as reference, and the result was consistently 0.25 of this. Due to the linearity shown in the interval of used dose and their low production cost, we conclude that the lactose is a promissory option for the dosimetry of high dose of radiation. (author)

  4. Monitoring sequential electron transfer with EPR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thurnauer, M.C.; Feezel, L.L.; Snyder, S.W.; Tang, J.; Norris, J.R.; Morris, A.L.; Rustandi, R.R.

    1989-01-01

    A completely general model which treats electron spin polarization (ESP) found in a system in which radical pairs with different magnetic interactions are formed sequentially has been described. This treatment has been applied specifically to the ESP found in the bacterial reaction center. Test cases show clearly how parameters such as structure, lifetime, and magnetic interactions within the successive radical pairs affect the ESP, and demonstrate that previous treatments of this problem have been incomplete. The photosynthetic bacterial reaction center protein is an ideal system for testing the general model of ESP. The radical pair which exhibits ESP, P 870 + Q - (P 870 + is the oxidized, primary electron donor, a bacteriochlorophyll special pair and Q - is the reduced, primary quinone acceptor) is formed via sequential electron transport through the intermediary radical pair P 870 + I - (I - is the reduced, intermediary electron acceptor, a bacteriopheophytin). In addition, it is possible to experimentally vary most of the important parameters, such as the lifetime of the intermediary radical pair and the magnetic interactions in each pair. It has been shown how selective isotopic substitution ( 1 H or 2 H) on P 870 , I and Q affects the ESP of the EPR spectrum of P 870 + Q - , observed at two different microwave frequencies, in Fe 2+ -depleted bacterial reaction centers of Rhodobacter sphaeroides R26. Thus, the relative magnitudes of the magnetic properties (nuclear hyperfine and g-factor differences) which influence ESP development were varied. The results support the general model of ESP in that they suggest that the P 870 + Q - radical pair interactions are the dominant source of ESP production in 2 H bacterial reaction centers

  5. Distinctive EPR signals provide an understanding of the affinity of bis-(3-hydroxy-4-pyridinonato) copper(II) complexes for hydrophobic environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangel, Maria; Leite, Andreia; Silva, André M N; Moniz, Tânia; Nunes, Ana; Amorim, M João; Queirós, Carla; Cunha-Silva, Luís; Gameiro, Paula; Burgess, John

    2014-07-07

    In this work we report the synthesis and characterization of a set of 3-hydroxy-4-pyridinone copper(ii) complexes with variable lipophilicity. EPR spectroscopy was used to characterize the structure of copper(ii) complexes in solution, and as a tool to gain insight into solvent interactions. EPR spectra of solutions of the [CuL2] complexes recorded in different solvents reveal the presence of two copper species whose ratio depends on the nature of the solvent. Investigation of EPR spectra in the pure solvents methanol, dimethylsulfoxide, dichloromethane and their 50% (v/v) mixtures with toluene allowed the characterization of two types of copper signals (gzz = 2.30 and gzz = 2.26) whose spin-Hamiltonian parameters are consistent with solvated and non-solvated square-planar copper(ii) complexes. Regarding the potential biological application of ligands and complexes and to get insight into the partition properties in water-membrane interfaces, EPR spectra were also obtained in water-saturated octanol, an aqueous solution buffered at pH = 7.4 and liposome suspensions, for three compounds representative of different hydro-lipophilic balances. Analysis of the EPR spectra obtained in liposomes allowed establishment of the location of the complexes in the water and lipid phases. In view of the results of this work we put forward the use of EPR spectroscopy to assess the affinity of copper(ii) complexes for a hydrophobic environment and also to obtain indirect information about the lipophilicity of the ligands and similar EPR silent complexes.

  6. Prediction of EPR Spectra of Lyotropic Liquid Crystals using a Combination of Molecular Dynamics Simulations and the Model-Free Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prior, Christopher; Oganesyan, Vasily S

    2017-09-21

    We report the first application of fully atomistic molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to the prediction of the motional electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectra of lyotropic liquid crystals in different aggregation states doped with a paramagnetic spin probe. The purpose of this study is twofold. First, given that EPR spectra are highly sensitive to the motions and order of the spin probes doped within lyotropic aggregates, simulation of EPR line shapes from the results of MD modelling provides an ultimate test bed for the force fields currently employed to model such systems. Second, the EPR line shapes are simulated using the motional parameters extracted from MD trajectories using the Model-Free (MF) approach. Thus a combined MD-EPR methodology allowed us to test directly the validity of the application of the MF approach to systems with multi-component molecular motions. All-atom MD simulations using the General AMBER Force Field (GAFF) have been performed on sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and dodecyltrimethylammonium chloride (DTAC) liquid crystals. The resulting MD trajectories were used to predict and interpret the EPR spectra of pre-micellar, micellar, rod and lamellar aggregates. The predicted EPR spectra demonstrate good agreement with most of experimental line shapes thus confirming the validity of both the force fields employed and the MF approach for the studied systems. At the same time simulation results confirm that GAFF tends to overestimate the packing and the order of the carbonyl chains of the surfactant molecules. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Comparison of continuous wave, spin echo, and rapid scan EPR of irradiated fused quartz

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitchell, Deborah G.; Quine, Richard W.; Tseitlin, Mark; Meyer, Virginia; Eaton, Sandra S.; Eaton, Gareth R.

    2011-01-01

    The E' defect in irradiated fused quartz has spin lattice relaxation times (T 1 ) about 100-300 μs and spin-spin relaxation times (T 2 ) up to about 200 μs, depending on the concentration of defects and other species in the sample. These long relaxation times make it difficult to record an unsaturated continuous wave (CW) electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) signal that is free of passage effects. Signals measured at X-band (∼9.5 GHz) by three EPR methods: conventional slow-scan field-modulated EPR, rapid scan EPR, and pulsed EPR, were compared. To acquire spectra with comparable signal-to-noise, both pulsed and rapid scan EPR require less time than conventional CW EPR. Rapid scan spectroscopy does not require the high power amplifiers that are needed for pulsed EPR. The pulsed spectra, and rapid scan spectra obtained by deconvolution of the experimental data, are free of passage effects.

  8. The investigation of lithium formate hydrate, sodium dithionate and N-methyl taurine as clinical EPR dosimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lelie, S.; Hole, E.O.; Duchateau, M.; Schroeyers, W.; Schreurs, S.; Verellen, D.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: EPR-dosimetry using L-α-alanine is an established method for measuring high doses of ionizing radiation. However, since a minimum dose of approximately 4 Gy is required to achieve sufficient low uncertainties (1–2%) for clinical application, alternative dosimeter materials are being inquired. Lithium formate (LiFo) monohydrate has been studied by several groups and has revealed several promising properties in the low dose region (<4 Gy). The fading properties, however, are somewhat unpredictable, and depend on properties not yet fully uncovered. This paper reports the results from a study of lithium formate hydrate and N-methyl taurine as potential low dose EPR dosimeters. Methods and materials: Pellet shaped dosimeters of lithium formate monohydrate, lithium formate hydrate, sodium dithionate and N-methyl taurine were produced using a manual Weber press, L-α-alanine was obtained from Harwell dosimeters and irradiated using 60 kV and 6 MV X-ray beams, and Co-60 gamma-rays to a dose of 30 Gy and dose ranges of 0.5–100 Gy and 2–20 Gy respectively. The dosimeters were measured using an Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR)-spectrometer. The detector responses for 6 MV and Co-60 radiation beams, the fading behaviors and signal shape in time were investigated. Results: Lithium formate monohydrate and lithium formate hydrate are apparently associated with near identical EPR-spectra (mainly one broad line), and the same spectrum arises for all radiation energies investigated. The shape of the EPR resonance remains constant with time, but the intensities decreases, and the fading is more prominent for the monohydrate than for the hydrate. The EPR resonance associated with N-methyl taurine is more complex than the resonance associated with LiFo and it changes with time, implying radical transitions and growth. Conclusions: The study showed that lithium formate hydrate is a strong candidate for EPR dosimetry with slightly better fading characteristics

  9. A Local Realistic Reconciliation of the EPR Paradox

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanctuary, Bryan

    2014-03-01

    The exact violation of Bell's Inequalities is obtained with a local realistic model for spin. The model treats one particle that comprises a quantum ensemble and simulates the EPR data one coincidence at a time as a product state. Such a spin is represented by operators σx , iσy ,σz in its body frame rather than the usual set of σX ,σY ,σZ in the laboratory frame. This model, assumed valid in the absence of a measuring probe, contains both quantum polarizations and coherences. Each carries half the EPR correlation, but only half can be measured using coincidence techniques. The model further predicts the filter angles that maximize the spin correlation in EPR experiments.

  10. ER=EPR, GHZ, and the consistency of quantum measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Susskind, Leonard

    2016-01-01

    This paper illustrates various aspects of the ER=EPR conjecture. It begins with a brief heuristic argument, using the Ryu-Takayanagi correspondence, for why entanglement between black holes implies the existence of Einstein-Rosen bridges. The main part of the paper addresses a fundamental question: Is ER=EPR consistent with the standard postulates of quantum mechanics? Naively it seems to lead to an inconsistency between observations made on entangled systems by different observers. The resolution of the paradox lies in the properties of multiple black holes, entangled in the Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger pattern. The last part of the paper is about entanglement as a resource for quantum communication. ER=EPR provides a way to visualize protocols like quantum teleportation. In some sense teleportation takes place through the wormhole, but as usual, classical communication is necessary to complete the protocol. (copyright 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  11. Free radical EPR in delineating oil bearing zones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, R.K.; Kumar, V.; Das, T.K.; Gundu Rao, T.K.

    1993-01-01

    Presence of naturally occurring gamma ray activity has long been detected in oil/gas wells is invariably carried out for formation evaluation. Similarly, presence of free radicals in oil bearing formations has also been known for quite sometime. Present paper deals with a systematic study of detecting these free radicals in oil wells and correlations of these with x-ray and other logs for identification of hydrocarbon bearing zones. Present study attempts to establish EPR as as inexpensive and reliable tool in comparison with gamma ray and neutron density logs recorded in exploratory oil wells. EPR studies have been carried out in an exploratory well between depth intervals 1600 m-1400 m located in south of existing producing field in Bombay Offshore region. Based on these results, an EPR log has been prepared and compared with gamma ray and neutron density logs. (author). 4 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  12. EPR and TL correlation in some powdered Greek white marbles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baieetto, Vanessa; Villeneuve, Gerard; Guibert, Pierre; Schvoerer, Max

    2000-01-01

    Thermoluminescence of white powdered marble samples, chosen to display different EPR spectra, were studied. Two peaks at 280 deg. C and 360 deg. C can be observed among the TL glow curves while the EPR spectra exhibit two signals: the A signal with g perp =2.0038 and g par =2.0024 due to the SO - 3 centre and the B one with g 1 =2.0005; g 2 =2.0001; g 3 =1.9998 due to mechanical powder reduction (drilling). Owing to heating and simultaneous experiments, a correlation have been established: the 280 deg. C TL peak is associated to the A signal and thus to the SO - 3 centre and the 360 deg. C TL peak is caused by mechanical treatment corresponding to the B EPR signal

  13. EPR and TL correlation in some powdered Greek white marbles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baieetto, Vanessa E-mail: crpaa@montaigne.u-bordeaux.fr; Villeneuve, Gerard; Guibert, Pierre; Schvoerer, Max

    2000-02-01

    Thermoluminescence of white powdered marble samples, chosen to display different EPR spectra, were studied. Two peaks at 280 deg. C and 360 deg. C can be observed among the TL glow curves while the EPR spectra exhibit two signals: the A signal with g{sub perp}=2.0038 and g{sub par} =2.0024 due to the SO{sup -}{sub 3} centre and the B one with g{sub 1}=2.0005; g{sub 2}=2.0001; g{sub 3}=1.9998 due to mechanical powder reduction (drilling). Owing to heating and simultaneous experiments, a correlation have been established: the 280 deg. C TL peak is associated to the A signal and thus to the SO{sup -}{sub 3} centre and the 360 deg. C TL peak is caused by mechanical treatment corresponding to the B EPR signal.

  14. EPR and TL correlation in some powdered Greek white marbles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baïetto, V; Villeneuve, G; Guibert, P; Schvoerer, M

    2000-02-01

    Thermoluminescence of white powdered marble samples, chosen to display different EPR spectra, were studied. Two peaks at 280 degrees C and 360 degrees C can be observed among the TL glow curves while the EPR spectra exhibit two signals: the A signal with g perpendicular = 2.0038 and g parallel = 2.0024 due to the SO3- centre and the B one with g1 = 2.0005; g2 = 2.0001; g3 = 1.9998 due to mechanical powder reduction (drilling). Owing to heating and simultaneous experiments, a correlation have been established: the 280 degrees C TL peak is associated to the A signal and thus to the SO3- centre and the 360 degrees C TL peak is caused by mechanical treatment corresponding to the B EPR signal.

  15. A High Sensitivity EPR Technique for Alanine Dosimetry (invited paper)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haskell, E.H.; Hayes, R.B.; Kenner, G.H.

    1998-01-01

    Uncertainties of ± 5 mGy were achieved in the measurement of alanine dosemeters using optimised EPR parameters, instrumentation, spectral manipulation and subtraction techniques. Modulation amplitude and microwave power were adjusted to combine resonances of two neighbouring alanine signals. Instrumental variations were minimised by combining and subtracting pre- and post-measurement spectra of the empty EPR tube. A spectrum of the native signal of non-dosed alanine was generated from a single batch of dosemeters and subtracted from spectra of the irradiated dosemeters, also from the same batch. Field alignment was adjusted with the use of an in-cavity Mn ++ standard. A constant rotation goniometer was used to eliminate anisotropies in the EPR tube and alanine samples. Finally, digital filters were applied to the resulting spectra. (author)

  16. Study of growth of polyaniline chain by EPR method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kulikov, A V [Inst. of Chemical Physics, Chernogolovka (Russian Federation); Kogan, Ya L [Inst. of Chemical Physics, Chernogolovka (Russian Federation); Fokeeva, L S [Inst. of Chemical Physics, Chernogolovka (Russian Federation)

    1993-03-22

    Chemical aniline polymerization has been studied by the EPR method. After a long delay a weak EPR signal I is appeared and transformed rapidly into a strong Lorentzian line. Constants of spin exchange of signals I and II with paramagnetic probes Fe(CN)[sub 6][sup 3-], Co[sup 2+] and O[sub 2], freely diffusing in solution, have been determined. Effect of ferricyanide ions and urea, a breaker of hydrogen bonds, has been measured for signals I and II. Data obtained show the formation of an array of positive charges in PANI at early stage of doping. Constants of spin exchange depend on prehistory of samples. Averaging of EPR line widths of different paramagnetic centers in polyaniline was found. (orig.)

  17. ER=EPR, GHZ, and the consistency of quantum measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Susskind, Leonard [Stanford Institute for Theoretical Physics and Department of Physics, Stanford University, Stanford, CA (United States)

    2016-01-15

    This paper illustrates various aspects of the ER=EPR conjecture. It begins with a brief heuristic argument, using the Ryu-Takayanagi correspondence, for why entanglement between black holes implies the existence of Einstein-Rosen bridges. The main part of the paper addresses a fundamental question: Is ER=EPR consistent with the standard postulates of quantum mechanics? Naively it seems to lead to an inconsistency between observations made on entangled systems by different observers. The resolution of the paradox lies in the properties of multiple black holes, entangled in the Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger pattern. The last part of the paper is about entanglement as a resource for quantum communication. ER=EPR provides a way to visualize protocols like quantum teleportation. In some sense teleportation takes place through the wormhole, but as usual, classical communication is necessary to complete the protocol. (copyright 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  18. Suicidality and aggression during antidepressant treatment: systematic review and meta-analyses based on clinical study reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Tarang; Guski, Louise Schow; Freund, Nanna; Gøtzsche, Peter C

    2016-01-27

    To study serious harms associated with selective serotonin and serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors.Design Systematic review and meta-analysis. Mortality and suicidality. Secondary outcomes were aggressive behaviour and akathisia. Clinical study reports for duloxetine, fluoxetine, paroxetine, sertraline, and venlafaxine obtained from the European and UK drug regulators, and summary trial reports for duloxetine and fluoxetine from Eli Lilly's website. Double blind placebo controlled trials that contained any patient narratives or individual patient listings of harms. Two researchers extracted data independently; the outcomes were meta-analysed by Peto's exact method (fixed effect model). We included 70 trials (64,381 pages of clinical study reports) with 18,526 patients. These trials had limitations in the study design and discrepancies in reporting, which may have led to serious under-reporting of harms. For example, some outcomes appeared only in individual patient listings in appendices, which we had for only 32 trials, and we did not have case report forms for any of the trials. Differences in mortality (all deaths were in adults, odds ratio 1.28, 95% confidence interval 0.40 to 4.06), suicidality (1.21, 0.84 to 1.74), and akathisia (2.04, 0.93 to 4.48) were not significant, whereas patients taking antidepressants displayed more aggressive behaviour (1.93, 1.26 to 2.95). For adults, the odds ratios were 0.81 (0.51 to 1.28) for suicidality, 1.09 (0.55 to 2.14) for aggression, and 2.00 (0.79 to 5.04) for akathisia. The corresponding values for children and adolescents were 2.39 (1.31 to 4.33), 2.79 (1.62 to 4.81), and 2.15 (0.48 to 9.65). In the summary trial reports on Eli Lilly's website, almost all deaths were noted, but all suicidal ideation events were missing, and the information on the remaining outcomes was incomplete. Because of the shortcomings identified and having only partial access to appendices with no access to case report forms, the harms

  19. The EPR - technology for the 3rd millennium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernstrauch, O.; Dubois, F.

    2001-01-01

    This paper is a story of a successful Franco-German co-operation: the EPR project. It is a rundown of the history of the EPR, before a decision is made to launch the lead-unit construction. The EPR is expected to progressively replace the existing nuclear power plants when they will reach the end of their service life. It integrates the latest technological advances, especially in safety and operational aspects and comprises more than 30 years operating experience. Thus, the EPR combines the qualities of its predecessors, the French N4 and the German Konvoi. The safety of the EPR was maximized both to prevent hypothetical accidents - even severe ones - and to reduce their consequences (corium spreading area, pre-stressed double containment with local liner, four-train safety systems...). The n+2 strategy (in the event of a problem with one train and even if a second train is undergoing maintenance, the remaining two are sufficient to perform the function) allows to perform maintenance during operation which leads consequently to short outage periods, highest availabilities and economical operation. Moreover, most of the EPR components are the result of mastered evolution. The reactor vessel, as a key element for the reactor service life, is designed to be in service for 60 years, the core is large (241 fuel elements instead of 205 in the N4 or 193 in the Konvoi) and the steam generators have higher efficiency. Along the same line, the core and core barrel design have been modified to allow a reduced uranium enrichment and the increase to 65 Gigawatt-day per metric-ton of the fuel discharge burn-up. Finally, the instrumentation and control systems minimize human error by giving the operators a grace period of at least 30 minutes to make decisions. (authors)

  20. Free-radical probes for functional in vivo EPR imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramanian, S.; Krishna, M. C.

    2007-02-01

    Electron paramagnetic resonance imaging (EPRI) is one of the recent functional imaging modalities that can provide valuable in vivo physiological information on its own merit and aids as a complimentary imaging technique to MRI and PET of tissues especially with respect to in vivo pO II (oxygen partial pressure), redox status and pharmacology. EPR imaging mainly deals with the measurement of distribution and in vivo dynamics and redox changes using special nontoxic paramagnetic spin probes that can be infused into the object of investigation. These spin probes should be characterized by simple EPR spectra, preferably with narrow EPR lines. The line width should be reversibly sensitive to the concentration of in vivo pO II with a linear dependence. Several non-toxic paramagnetic probes, some particulate and insoluble and others water-soluble and infusible (by intravenous or intramuscular injection) have been developed which can be effectively used to quantitatively assess tissue redox status, and tumor hypoxia. Quantitative assessment of the redox status of tissue in vivo is important in investigating oxidative stress, and that of tissue pO II is very important in radiation oncology. Other areas in which EPR imaging and oxymetry may help are in the investigation of tumorangiogenesis, wound healing, oxygenation of tumor tissue by the ingestion of oxygen-rich gases, etc. The correct choice of the spin probe will depend on the modality of measurement (whether by CW or time-domain EPR imaging) and the particular physiology interrogated. Examples of the available spin probes and some EPR imaging applications employing them are presented.

  1. Influence of peer review on the reporting of primary outcome(s) and statistical analyses of randomised trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopewell, Sally; Witt, Claudia M; Linde, Klaus; Icke, Katja; Adedire, Olubusola; Kirtley, Shona; Altman, Douglas G

    2018-01-11

    Selective reporting of outcomes in clinical trials is a serious problem. We aimed to investigate the influence of the peer review process within biomedical journals on reporting of primary outcome(s) and statistical analyses within reports of randomised trials. Each month, PubMed (May 2014 to April 2015) was searched to identify primary reports of randomised trials published in six high-impact general and 12 high-impact specialty journals. The corresponding author of each trial was invited to complete an online survey asking authors about changes made to their manuscript as part of the peer review process. Our main outcomes were to assess: (1) the nature and extent of changes as part of the peer review process, in relation to reporting of the primary outcome(s) and/or primary statistical analysis; (2) how often authors followed these requests; and (3) whether this was related to specific journal or trial characteristics. Of 893 corresponding authors who were invited to take part in the online survey 258 (29%) responded. The majority of trials were multicentre (n = 191; 74%); median sample size 325 (IQR 138 to 1010). The primary outcome was clearly defined in 92% (n = 238), of which the direction of treatment effect was statistically significant in 49%. The majority responded (1-10 Likert scale) they were satisfied with the overall handling (mean 8.6, SD 1.5) and quality of peer review (mean 8.5, SD 1.5) of their manuscript. Only 3% (n = 8) said that the editor or peer reviewers had asked them to change or clarify the trial's primary outcome. However, 27% (n = 69) reported they were asked to change or clarify the statistical analysis of the primary outcome; most had fulfilled the request, the main motivation being to improve the statistical methods (n = 38; 55%) or avoid rejection (n = 30; 44%). Overall, there was little association between authors being asked to make this change and the type of journal, intervention, significance of the

  2. Static and dynamic analyses on the MFTF [Mirror Fusion Test Facility]-B Axicell Vacuum Vessel System: Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ng, D.S.

    1986-09-01

    The Mirror Fusion Test Facility (MFTF-B) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is a large-scale, tandem-mirror-fusion experiment. MFTF-B comprises many highly interconnected systems, including a magnet array and a vacuum vessel. The vessel, which houses the magnet array, is supported by reinforced concrete piers and steel frames resting on an array of foundations and surrounded by a 7-ft-thick concrete shielding vault. The Pittsburgh-Des Moines (PDM) Corporation, which was awarded the contract to design and construct the vessel, carried out fixed-base static and dynamic analyses of a finite-element model of the axicell vessel and magnet systems, including the simulation of various loading conditions and three postulated earthquake excitations. Meanwhile, LLNL monitored PDM's analyses with modeling studies of its own, and independently evaluated the structural responses of the vessel in order to define design criteria for the interface members and other project equipment. The assumptions underlying the finite-element model and the behavior of the axicell vessel are described in detail in this report, with particular emphasis placed on comparing the LLNL and PDM studies and on analyzing the fixed-base behavior with the soil-structure interaction, which occurs between the vessel and the massive concrete vault wall during a postulated seismic event. The structural members that proved sensitive to the soil effect are also reevaluated

  3. Discrepancies in sample size calculations and data analyses reported in randomised trials: comparison of publications with protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chan, A.W.; Hrobjartsson, A.; Jorgensen, K.J.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate how often sample size calculations and methods of statistical analysis are pre-specified or changed in randomised trials. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. Data source Protocols and journal publications of published randomised parallel group trials initially approved...... in 1994-5 by the scientific-ethics committees for Copenhagen and Frederiksberg, Denmark (n=70). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Proportion of protocols and publications that did not provide key information about sample size calculations and statistical methods; proportion of trials with discrepancies between...... of handling missing data was described in 16 protocols and 49 publications. 39/49 protocols and 42/43 publications reported the statistical test used to analyse primary outcome measures. Unacknowledged discrepancies between protocols and publications were found for sample size calculations (18/34 trials...

  4. On Aerts' overlooked solution to the EPR paradox

    OpenAIRE

    de Bianchi, Massimiliano Sassoli

    2018-01-01

    The Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) paradox was enunciated in 1935 and since then it has made a lot of ink flow. Being a subtle result, it has also been largely misunderstood. Indeed, if questioned about its solution, many physicists will still affirm today that the paradox has been solved by the Bell-test experimental results, which have shown that entangled states are real. However, this remains a wrong view, as the validity of the EPR ex-absurdum reasoning is independent from the Bell-test e...

  5. EPR of VHal centres in SrS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seeman, V.; Danilkin, M.; Must, M.; Ots, A.; Paernoja, E.; Pung, L.; Tarkpea, K.

    2006-01-01

    V Hal centres were studied by EPR in SrS doped with halogens after X-raying the samples at 77 K. V Hal centre arises when a hole is captured by sulphide-ion next to a cation vacancy with a halogen ion substituting the opposite sulphide-ion. EPR parameters and thermal decay characteristics are measured for V Cl , V Br , and V I centres. The efficiency of different halogens to produce and stabilise cation vacancies is shown to vary for different alkaline earth sulphides. (copyright 2006 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  6. Bell's theorem based on a generalized EPR criterion of reality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eberhard, P.H.; Rosselet, P.

    1995-01-01

    First, the demonstration of Bell's theorem, i.e., of the nonlocal character of quantum theory, is spelled out using the EPR criterion of reality as premises and a gedanken experiment involving two particles. Then, the EPR criterion is extended to include quantities predicted almost with certainty, and Bell's theorem is demonstrated on these new premises. The same experiment is used but in conditions that become possible in real life, without the requirements of ideal efficiencies and zero background. Very high efficiencies and low background are needed, but these requirements may be met in the future

  7. EPR studies of gamma-irradiated taurine single crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bulut, A. E-mail: abulut@samsun.omu.edu.tr; Karabulut, B.; Tapramaz, R.; Koeksal, F

    2000-04-01

    An EPR study of gamma-irradiated taurine [C{sub 2}H{sub 7}NO{sub 3}S] single crystal was carried out at room temperature. The EPR spectra were recorded in the three at mutually perpendicular planes. There are two magnetically distinct sites in monoclinic lattice. The principle values of g and hyperfine constants for both sites were calculated. The results have indicated the presence of {sup 32}SO{sup -}{sub 2} and {sup 33}SO{sup -}{sub 2} radicals. The hyperfine values of {sup 33}SO{sup -}{sub 2} radical were used to obtain O-S-O bond angle for both sites.

  8. EPR of defects in semiconductors: past, present, future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watkins, G.D.

    1999-01-01

    Important physical concepts learned from early EPR studies of defects in silicon are reviewed. Highlighted are the studies of shallow effective-mass-liked donors and acceptors of deep transition element impurities, and of vacancies and interstitials. It is shown that the concepts learned in silicon translate remarkable well to the corresponding defects in the other elemental and compound semiconductors. The introduction of sensitive optical and electrical detection methods and the recent progress in single defects detection insure the continued vital role of EPR in the future

  9. EPR studies of gamma-irradiated taurine single crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bulut, A.; Karabulut, B.; Tapramaz, R.; Koeksal, F.

    2000-01-01

    An EPR study of gamma-irradiated taurine [C 2 H 7 NO 3 S] single crystal was carried out at room temperature. The EPR spectra were recorded in the three at mutually perpendicular planes. There are two magnetically distinct sites in monoclinic lattice. The principle values of g and hyperfine constants for both sites were calculated. The results have indicated the presence of 32 SO - 2 and 33 SO - 2 radicals. The hyperfine values of 33 SO - 2 radical were used to obtain O-S-O bond angle for both sites

  10. Bell's theorem based on a generalized EPR criterion of reality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eberhard, P.H.; Rosselet, P.

    1993-04-01

    First, the demonstration of Bell's theorem, i.e. of the non-local character of quantum theory, is spelled out using the EPR criterion of reality as premises and a gedanken experiment involving two particles. Then, the EPR criterion is extended to include quantities predicted almost with certainty, and Bell's theorem is demonstrated on these new premises. The same experiment is used but in conditions that become possible in real life, without the requirements of ideal efficiencies and zero background. Very high efficiencies and low background are needed, but these requirements may be met in the future. (author) 1 fig., 11 refs

  11. Nuclear choice. Towards the EPR with mincing steps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jemain, A.

    2003-01-01

    The French government is on the way to give its green light for the construction of the EPR (European Pressurized water Reactor), the 1600 MWe demonstrator reactor of third generation of Framatome ANP (Areva). Fifty seven months will be necessary for its construction which, with the public inquiry, would lead to a first commissioning by 2010. This reactor will progressively renew the present day park between 2015-2020. The EPR project will cost 3 billions of euros but the financing remains to be found. Short paper. (J.S.)

  12. 75 FR 4882 - Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on EPR; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-29

    ... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Advisory Committee On Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on EPR; Notice of Meeting The ACRS U.S. Evolutionary Power Reactor (EPR) Subcommittee will hold a... with Open Items concerning the U.S. EPR Design Certification (DCD) Application and the Calvert Cliffs...

  13. High-frequency EPR on high-spin transition-metal sites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mathies, Guinevere

    2012-01-01

    The electronic structure of transition-metal sites can be probed by electron-paramagnetic-resonance (EPR) spectroscopy. The study of high-spin transition-metal sites benefits from EPR spectroscopy at frequencies higher than the standard 9.5 GHz. However, high-frequency EPR is a developing field. In

  14. The EPR: an unexplainable breach of the investment cost with respect to previous levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dessus, Benjamin

    2012-01-01

    After having recalled some important figures published by the French Court of Audit in its report on the costs of the nuclear sector, the author comments the historic evolution of investment costs of the existing French nuclear reactors since the 1970's, and then the evolution of these costs for the different reactor types and generations. The author notably discusses the evolution of 'overnight' costs of the French nuclear reactors between 1978 and 2016, and outlines the huge increase noticed for the EPR

  15. The Minimum reporting package – Using standardised indicators to analyse the performance of Supplementary Feeding Programmes in 7 countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuller, Susan; Andert, Christoph; Keane, Emily; Navarro-Colorado, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    Full text: Background: The 2008 HPN Network Paper ‘Measuring the effectiveness of Supplementary Feeding Programmes in emergencies’ highlighted the inconsistencies, inadequacies and bias associated with reporting of Supplementary Feeding Programmes (SFP) and outlined the lack of existing tools to support all reporting needs for Community Management of Acute Malnutrition (CMAM) programmes. The ‘Minimum Reporting Package’ (MRP) was developed in response to this paper, and has evolved to a concise and comprehensive management tool which uses standardised indicators to improve the reporting and monitoring of the treatment components of community based management of acute malnutrition (CMAM). The aim of the tool is to provide a contextualised overview of the CMAM programmes to improve programme management decisions, improve accountability and assist urgently needed learning in the effectiveness of this programme approach. Methods: Data is collected regularly by a group of MRP partners and feeds into a central database. Analysis is on-going and leading to a larger analysis planned for the end of 2013/early 2014. The aims of these analyses are: • To describe the characteristics of CMAM programmes • To describe and assess the effect of CMAM programmes on rehabilitating malnourished individuals • To compare programme performance and outcomes according to contextual factors, differences in protocols or approaches. A preliminary analysis was run on Supplementary Feeding Programme (SFP) data collected between January 2012 and July 2013. The length of programme data differs but is generally above 3 months in order to be able to analyse programme results (a full contextual analysis will be conducted in early 2014 to be presented). Results: SFP data was available from 4 NGOs, supporting 10 programmes in 7 countries (Burkina Faso, Chad, Ethiopia, Ivory Coast, India, Kenya, Somalia). After data cleaning, a total of 23,584 admissions and 15,496 were included. The

  16. Stability of cellulose radicals produced by radiation in spices as studied by the EPR spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehner, K.; Stachowicz, W.

    2003-01-01

    The results are presented of EPR measurements on the stability of cellulose radicals produced in 26 popular spices irradiated with a dose of 7 kGy of gamma rays. EPR measurements were done with the use of an EPR spectrometer EPR-10 MINI at X band (microwave radiation of frequency 9.5 GHz), produced by St. Petersburg Instruments Ltd. The aim of the work was to prove the applicability of the EPR method for the control of irradiation in the investigated spices. (author)

  17. Interpretation of the parameters of the EPR spectra of transition metal complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murav'ev, V.I.

    2005-01-01

    The calculated parameters of the EPR spectra of complexes of d 1 and d 9 ions, inclusive of MoOX 5 (X = Cl, Br), are reviewed. The covalent bond parameters used in the calculations were determined from EPR and experimental optical data (inverse problem of EPR spectroscopy). Various contributions to the expressions for the EPR parameters were compared. The observed abnormal values of the EPR parameters were discussed. The effects of charge-transfer states and the vibronic coupling on the components of g, A, and A L tensors were considered. Mechanisms of spin density transfer to ligands in paramagnetic complexes were proposed [ru

  18. Electrical transport and EPR investigations: A comparative study for ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    did not have relatively such a high conductivity, skin depth was expected to be more than 1 μm. On the basis of g-values, line width, line shape behaviour and earlier observations by other researchers (Lux 1994;. Luthra et al 2003; Krinichnyi et al 2006), the EPR signal obtained has been assigned due to polarons (Bredas.

  19. Antioxidant Capacity: Experimental Determination by EPR Spectroscopy and Mathematical Modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polak, Justyna; Bartoszek, Mariola; Chorążewski, Mirosław

    2015-07-22

    A new method of determining antioxidant capacity based on a mathematical model is presented in this paper. The model was fitted to 1000 data points of electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy measurements of various food product samples such as tea, wine, juice, and herbs with Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) values from 20 to 2000 μmol TE/100 mL. The proposed mathematical equation allows for a determination of TEAC of food products based on a single EPR spectroscopy measurement. The model was tested on the basis of 80 EPR spectroscopy measurements of herbs, tea, coffee, and juice samples. The proposed model works for both strong and weak antioxidants (TEAC values from 21 to 2347 μmol TE/100 mL). The determination coefficient between TEAC values obtained experimentally and TEAC values calculated with proposed mathematical equation was found to be R(2) = 0.98. Therefore, the proposed new method of TEAC determination based on a mathematical model is a good alternative to the standard EPR method due to its being fast, accurate, inexpensive, and simple to perform.

  20. A fast method for ionized food identification: EPR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raffi, J.; Rubel, G.

    1990-01-01

    Electronic paramagnetic resonance allows the detection of ionized food only after dry storage, avoiding reaction of radicals with water. Dry and solid parts are used for analysis (bones for meat and fish, kernels for fruits). Dosimetry is possible by EPR spectrometry of alanine-L fixed on products treated in industrial irradiators [fr

  1. Isothermal annealing kinetics of X-irradiated pyrene by EPR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Partiti, C.S.M.; Pontuschka, W.M.; Fazzio, A.; Piccini, A.

    1989-07-01

    The annealing behavior of X-irradiated stable free radicals found in Pyrene (C 16 H 10 ) single crystals was studied by EPR. Two processes of thermal decay kinetics were found, both with the same activation energy (1.9±0.1) ev. (author) [pt

  2. SWNT probed by multi-frequency EPR and microwave absorption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corzilius, B.; Dinse, K.P.; Hata, K.; Haluska, M.; Skakalova, V.; Roth, S.

    2008-01-01

    In addition to g = 2.00 signals seen frequently in EPR spectra of SWNT, signals at g = 2.07 of SWNT prepared by CVD were detected, exhibiting a Pauli susceptibility temperature dependence. This Pauli magnetism in combination with the large g shift is taken as evidence that these signals originate

  3. Noninvasive in vivo oximetric imaging by radiofrequency FT EPR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Subramanian, S; Yamada, K; Irie, A; Murugesan, R; Cook, JA; Devasahayam, N; Van Dam, GM; Mitchell, JB; Krishna, MC

    A novel method, called relaxo-oximetry, for rapid spatially resolved in vivo measurements of oxygen concentration using time-domain radiofrequency (RF) electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) is described. Time-domain data from triaryl methyl (TAM)-based single-electron contrast agents were processed

  4. The EPR Paradox: Einstein Scrutinises Quantum Mechanics -28 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Arvind. Einstein, Podolsky and Rosen (EPR), in their fa- mous paper, argued that the quantum-mechani- cal description of physical reality is incomplete. They showed that one can envisage physical sit- uations whereby 'an element of physical reality' can be located such that it does not have a coun- terpart in quantum ...

  5. Current status of the EPR method to detect irradiated food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desrosiers, M.F.

    1996-01-01

    This review gives a brief outline of the principles of the EPR detection method for irradiated foods by food type. For each food type, the scope, limitations and status of the method are given. The extensive reference list aims to include all which define the method, as well as some rarely cited works of historical importance. (author)

  6. Spo0A positively regulates epr expression by negating the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2013-03-07

    Mar 7, 2013 ... ly regulate the epr expression by the process of co-repression. (Kodgire et al. 2006). ... Bacterial strains and plasmids used in this study are listed in table 1. E. coli DH5α ... Wherever necessary, antibiotics were added to the ...

  7. Water-resistant alanine-EPR dosimeter alanpol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peimel-Stuglik, Zofia; Bryl-Sandelewska, Teresa; Mirkowski, Krzysztof; Sartowska, Bozena

    2009-01-01

    Alanpol-water-resistant alanine-electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) dosimeter consisted of cheap DL-α-alanine (9.8-27%) suspended in polyethylene matrix was presented. The rods (O=2.8 mm) were extruded from a hot mixture of alanine and low-density polyethylene. No grinding or crushing was used for alanine preparation. An orientation of cylindrical crystals, up to 300 μm long in parallel to the rod axis was responsible for some differences in a shape of EPR signal. These differences had no negative consequences for dosimetric applications. Signal-to-dose dependence was linear up to 10 kGy. Standard deviation of dosimetric answer was up to ±1.8% and up to 2.4% for dosimeters with 9.8% and 27% of DL-α-alanine, respectively. Irradiation temperature coefficient for both dosimeters was equal 0.2%/ deg. C. Hydrophobic properties of polyethylene and small number of alanine crystals located on the surface of the rod led to high resistance of dosimeters to water and humidity. The 24 h soaking of irradiated dosimeters in liquid water-reduced EPR signals by 3-4% and by 2-3% for dosimeters with 27% and 9.8% of DL-α-alanine, respectively. Three month storage time of irradiated dosimeters in room conditions decreases EPR signal for ∼3%.

  8. Pulse EPR distance measurements to study multimers and multimerisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackermann, Katrin; Bode, Bela E.

    2018-06-01

    Pulse dipolar electron paramagnetic resonance (PD-EPR) has become a powerful tool for structural biology determining distances on the nanometre scale. Recent advances in hardware, methodology, and data analysis have widened the scope to complex biological systems. PD-EPR can be applied to systems containing lowly populated conformers or displaying large intrinsic flexibility, making them all but intractable for cryo-electron microscopy and crystallography. Membrane protein applications are of particular interest due to the intrinsic difficulties for obtaining high-resolution structures of all relevant conformations. Many drug targets involved in critical cell functions are multimeric channels or transporters. Here, common approaches for introducing spin labels for PD-EPR cause the presence of more than two electron spins per multimeric complex. This requires careful experimental design to overcome detrimental multi-spin effects and to secure sufficient distance resolution in presence of multiple distances. In addition to obtaining mere distances, PD-EPR can also provide information on multimerisation degrees allowing to study binding equilibria and to determine dissociation constants.

  9. EPR Imaging at a Few Megahertz Using SQUID Detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Inseob; Day, Peter; Penanen, Konstantin; Eom, Byeong Ho

    2010-01-01

    An apparatus being developed for electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) imaging operates in the resonance-frequency range of about 1 to 2 MHz well below the microwave frequencies used in conventional EPR. Until now, in order to obtain sufficient signal-to-noise radios (SNRs) in conventional EPR, it has been necessary to place both detectors and objects to be imaged inside resonant microwave cavities. EPR imaging has much in common with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), which is described briefly in the immediately preceding article. In EPR imaging as in MRI, one applies a magnetic pulse to make magnetic moments (in this case, of electrons) precess in an applied magnetic field having a known gradient. The magnetic moments precess at a resonance frequency proportional to the strength of the local magnetic field. One detects the decaying resonance-frequency magnetic- field component associated with the precession. Position is encoded by use of the known relationship between the resonance frequency and the position dependence of the magnetic field. EPR imaging has recently been recognized as an important tool for non-invasive, in vivo imaging of free radicals and reduction/oxidization metabolism. However, for in vivo EPR imaging of humans and large animals, the conventional approach is not suitable because (1) it is difficult to design and construct resonant cavities large enough and having the required shapes; (2) motion, including respiration and heartbeat, can alter the resonance frequency; and (3) most microwave energy is absorbed in the first few centimeters of tissue depth, thereby potentially endangering the subject and making it impossible to obtain adequate signal strength for imaging at greater depth. To obtain greater penetration depth, prevent injury to the subject, and avoid the difficulties associated with resonant cavities, it is necessary to use lower resonance frequencies. An additional advantage of using lower resonance frequencies is that one can use

  10. The photon energy dependence of the alanine/EPR dosimetry system, an experimental investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergstrand, E.S.; Hole, E.O.; Shortt, K.R.; Ross, C.K.

    2002-01-01

    The energy dependence of a dosimetry system based on electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy of alanine has been studied to determine its suitability for use in dose verification for radiotherapy. A few experiments with high-energy photon irradiation of alanine have been reported in the literature. However, the reported results disagree whether the ratio of dose in alanine to dose in water is independent of the radiation energy or whether there is a small dependence for photon energies of relevance to radiotherapy. The concentration of free radicals in alanine is proportional to the absorbed dose in alanine over a wide dose range covering three decades. The relative number of radicals may be determined by examining the EPR spectrum, and hence it is possible to determine the dose with a system that has been calibrated using a known dose of 60 Co radiation. In the present work, irradiations of alanine dosimeters were performed at the National Research Council (NRC), in Ottawa, Canada. The radiation qualities investigated were 10, 20 and 30 MV x-rays using the NRC linac. For each radiation quality, 30 dosimeters were irradiated in a water phantom with a level of absorbed dose to water ranging from 10 to 50 Gy. For reference purposes, irradiations using the NRC 60 Co source were performed on more or less the same day as the irradiations at each specific linac quality. In all beams, the dose to water was measured using a graphite-walled NE2571 ionisation chamber that was originally calibrated by comparison with a sealed-water calorimeter. The alanine dosimeters were evaluated at the EPR laboratory at the University of Oslo, Norway, using an X-band Bruker ESP300E spectrometer with a rectangular double resonator. One of the resonators contained a Mn 2+ /MgO sample that was read after each dosimeter reading, in order to provide independence from short-term sensitivity fluctuations in the spectrometer. All dosimeters irradiated at one specific linac quality were

  11. Echo detected EPR as a tool for detecting radiation-induced defect signals in pottery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zoleo, Alfonso; Bortolussi, Claudia; Brustolon, Marina

    2011-01-01

    Archaeological fragments of pottery have been investigated by using CW-EPR and Echo Detected EPR (EDEPR). EDEPR allows to remove the CW-EPR dominant Fe(III) background spectrum, hiding much weaker signals potentially useful for dating purpose. EDEPR spectra attributed to a methyl radical and to feldspar defects have been recorded at room and low temperature for an Iron Age cooking ware (700 B.C.). A study on the dependence of EDEPR intensity over absorbed dose on a series of γ-irradiated brick samples (estimated age of 562 ± 140 B.C.) has confirmed the potential efficacy of the proposed method for spotting defect signals out of the strong iron background. - Highlights: → Fe(III) CW-EPR signals cover CW-EPR-detectable defects in ceramics. → Echo detected EPR gets rid of Fe(III) signals, disclosing defect signals. → Echo detected EPR detects defect signals even at relatively low doses.

  12. EPR spectral investigation of radiation-induced radicals of gallic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuner, Hasan

    2017-01-01

    In the present work, spectroscopic features of the radiation-induced radicals of gallic acid compounds were investigated using electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy. While un-irradiated samples presented no EPR signal, irradiated samples exhibited an EPR spectrum consisting of an intense resonance line at the center and weak lines on both sides. Detailed microwave saturation investigations were carried out to determine the origin of the experimental EPR lines. It is concluded that the two side lines of the triplet satellite originate from forbidden ''spin-flip'' transitions. The spectroscopic and structural features of the radiation-induced radicals were determined using EPR spectrum fittings. The experimental EPR spectra of the two gallic acid compounds were consistent with the calculated EPR spectroscopic features of the proposed radicals. It is concluded that the most probable radicals are the cyclohexadienyl-type, O(OH) 2 C 6 H 2 COOH radicals for both compounds. (orig.)

  13. EPR spectral investigation of radiation-induced radicals of gallic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuner, Hasan

    2017-11-01

    In the present work, spectroscopic features of the radiation-induced radicals of gallic acid compounds were investigated using electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy. While un-irradiated samples presented no EPR signal, irradiated samples exhibited an EPR spectrum consisting of an intense resonance line at the center and weak lines on both sides. Detailed microwave saturation investigations were carried out to determine the origin of the experimental EPR lines. It is concluded that the two side lines of the triplet satellite originate from forbidden "spin-flip" transitions. The spectroscopic and structural features of the radiation-induced radicals were determined using EPR spectrum fittings. The experimental EPR spectra of the two gallic acid compounds were consistent with the calculated EPR spectroscopic features of the proposed radicals. It is concluded that the most probable radicals are the cyclohexadienyl-type, [Formula: see text] radicals for both compounds.

  14. CW EPR parameters reveal cytochrome P450 ligand binding modes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockart, Molly M; Rodriguez, Carlo A; Atkins, William M; Bowman, Michael K

    2018-06-01

    Cytochrome P450 (CYP) monoxygenses utilize heme cofactors to catalyze oxidation reactions. They play a critical role in metabolism of many classes of drugs, are an attractive target for drug development, and mediate several prominent drug interactions. Many substrates and inhibitors alter the spin state of the ferric heme by displacing the heme's axial water ligand in the resting enzyme to yield a five-coordinate iron complex, or they replace the axial water to yield a nitrogen-ligated six-coordinate iron complex, which are traditionally assigned by UV-vis spectroscopy. However, crystal structures and recent pulsed electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) studies find a few cases where molecules hydrogen bond to the axial water. The water-bridged drug-H 2 O-heme has UV-vis spectra similar to nitrogen-ligated, six-coordinate complexes, but are closer to "reverse type I" complexes described in older liteature. Here, pulsed and continuous wave (CW) EPR demonstrate that water-bridged complexes are remarkably common among a range of nitrogenous drugs or drug fragments that bind to CYP3A4 or CYP2C9. Principal component analysis reveals a distinct clustering of CW EPR spectral parameters for water-bridged complexes. CW EPR reveals heterogeneous mixtures of ligated states, including multiple directly-coordinated complexes and water-bridged complexes. These results suggest that water-bridged complexes are under-represented in CYP structural databases and can have energies similar to other ligation modes. The data indicates that water-bridged binding modes can be identified and distinguished from directly-coordinated binding by CW EPR. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Accelerated dynamic EPR imaging using fast acquisition and compressive recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Rizwan; Samouilov, Alexandre; Zweier, Jay L

    2016-12-01

    Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) allows quantitative imaging of tissue redox status, which provides important information about ischemic syndromes, cancer and other pathologies. For continuous wave EPR imaging, however, poor signal-to-noise ratio and low acquisition efficiency limit its ability to image dynamic processes in vivo including tissue redox, where conditions can change rapidly. Here, we present a data acquisition and processing framework that couples fast acquisition with compressive sensing-inspired image recovery to enable EPR-based redox imaging with high spatial and temporal resolutions. The fast acquisition (FA) allows collecting more, albeit noisier, projections in a given scan time. The composite regularization based processing method, called spatio-temporal adaptive recovery (STAR), not only exploits sparsity in multiple representations of the spatio-temporal image but also adaptively adjusts the regularization strength for each representation based on its inherent level of the sparsity. As a result, STAR adjusts to the disparity in the level of sparsity across multiple representations, without introducing any tuning parameter. Our simulation and phantom imaging studies indicate that a combination of fast acquisition and STAR (FASTAR) enables high-fidelity recovery of volumetric image series, with each volumetric image employing less than 10 s of scan. In addition to image fidelity, the time constants derived from FASTAR also match closely to the ground truth even when a small number of projections are used for recovery. This development will enhance the capability of EPR to study fast dynamic processes that cannot be investigated using existing EPR imaging techniques. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Chemistry of artemisinin: an EPR study and nucleobases interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mustafa, Damra Elhaj [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Education, University of Khartoum, Khartoum (Sudan)

    2000-10-01

    In the present, the radical transformations of artemisinin, a potent antimalarial drug have been examined using EPR and EPR spin trapping techniques. The effect of light on artemisinin has been investigated at 77 K as well as with the use of phenyl butyl nitrone (PBN) spin trapping agent. While no EPR signal was observed at 77 K, intense light irradiation of artemisinin/PBN gave EPR signal characteristic of radical transformation of the PBN. The reactions of artemisinin with iron (II), manganese (II), hemin and ferrocyanide ion have been investigated by spin trapping techniques. Artemisinin/iron (II) formed spin adducts with nitrosobenzene, nitroso-t-butane and PBN. The hypertine splittings of the spin adducts were a{sub N}=1.08 mT/a{sub N}=1.25 mT/a{sub N}=0.09 mT and a{sub N}=1.56 mT/a{sub N}=0.29 mT respectively. PBN trapping of artemether/iron (II) gave similar result to artemisinin/iron (II). These results are indicative of secondary carbon-centered radical formation. While artemisinin/hemin/PBN gave very weak EPR signal, ferrocyanide under the same condition gave no signal. Incubation of artemisinin with RNA at different reaction conditions, including irradiation with light, heat and mild acidic media, revealed no RNA damage when examined by agarose electrophoresis. However, artemisinin/iron (II) caused RNA damage in pH-dependant manner. In contrast, hemin did not show the same effect when it was used instead of iron (II). (Author)

  17. Chemistry of artemisinin: an EPR study and nucleobases interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mustafa, Damra Elhaj

    2000-10-01

    In the present, the radical transformations of artemisinin, a potent antimalarial drug have been examined using EPR and EPR spin trapping techniques. The effect of light on artemisinin has been investigated at 77 K as well as with the use of phenyl butyl nitrone (PBN) spin trapping agent. While no EPR signal was observed at 77 K, intense light irradiation of artemisinin/PBN gave EPR signal characteristic of radical transformation of the PBN. The reactions of artemisinin with iron (II), manganese (II), hemin and ferrocyanide ion have been investigated by spin trapping techniques. Artemisinin/iron (II) formed spin adducts with nitrosobenzene, nitroso-t-butane and PBN. The hypertine splittings of the spin adducts were a N =1.08 mT/a N =1.25 mT/a N =0.09 mT and a N =1.56 mT/a N =0.29 mT respectively. PBN trapping of artemether/iron (II) gave similar result to artemisinin/iron (II). These results are indicative of secondary carbon-centered radical formation. While artemisinin/hemin/PBN gave very weak EPR signal, ferrocyanide under the same condition gave no signal. Incubation of artemisinin with RNA at different reaction conditions, including irradiation with light, heat and mild acidic media, revealed no RNA damage when examined by agarose electrophoresis. However, artemisinin/iron (II) caused RNA damage in pH-dependant manner. In contrast, hemin did not show the same effect when it was used instead of iron (II). (Author)

  18. EPR (European Pressurized water Reactor) The advanced nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    Nuclear energy, which provides a steady supply of electricity at low cost, has its rightful place in the energy mix of the 21. century, which puts the emphasis on sustainable development. The EPR is the only 3. generation reactor under construction today. It is an evolutionary reactor that represents a new generation of pressurized water reactors with no break in the technology used for the most recent models. The EPR was developed by Framatome and Siemens, whose nuclear activities were combined in January 2001 to form Framatome ANP, a subsidiary of AREVA and Siemens. EDF and the major German electricity companies played an active part in the project. The safety authorities of the two countries joined forces to bring their respective safety standards into line and draw up joint design rules for the new reactor. The project had three objectives: meet the requirements of European utilities, comply with the safety standards laid down by the French safety authority for future pressurized water reactors, in concert with its German counterpart, and make nuclear energy even more competitive than energy generated using fossil fuels. The EPR can guarantee a safe, inexpensive electricity supply, without adding to the greenhouse effect. It meets the requirements of the safety authorities and lives up to the expectations of electricity utilities. This document presents the main characteristics of the EPR, and in particular the additional measures to prevent the occurrence of events likely to damage the core, the leak-tight containment, the measures to reduce the exposure of operating and maintenance personnel, the solutions for an even greater protection of the environment. The foreseen development of the EPR in France and abroad (Finland, China, the United States) is summarized

  19. The principle of relativity, superluminality and EPR experiments. "Riserratevi sotto coverta ..."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cocciaro, B.

    2015-07-01

    The principle of relativity claims the invariance of the results for experiments carried out in inertial reference frames if the system under examination is not in interaction with the outside world. In this paper it is analysed a model suggested by J. S. Bell, and later developed by P. H. Eberhard, D. Bohm and B. Hiley on the basis of which the EPR correlations would be due to superluminal exchanges between the various parts of the entangled system under examination. In the model the existence of a privileged reference frame (PF) for the propagation of superluminal signals is hypothesized so that these superluminal signals may not give rise to causal paradoxes. According to this model, in an EPR experiment, the entangled system interacts with the outer world since the result of the experiment depends on an entity (the reference frame PF) that is not prepared by the experimenter. The existence of this privileged reference frame makes the model non invariant for Lorentz transformations. In this paper, in opposition to what claimed by the authors mentioned above, the perfect compatibility of the model with the theory of relativity is strongly maintained since, as already said, the principle of relativity does not require that the results of experiments carried out on systems interacting with the outside world should be invariant.

  20. Cathodoluminescence (CL) and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) studies of clay minerals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goetze, J.; Ploetze, M.; Goette, T.; Neuser, R.D.; Richter, D.K.

    2002-01-01

    Sheet silicates of the serpentine-kaolin-group (serpentine, kaolinite, dickite, nacrite, halloysite), the talc-pyrophyllite-group (talc, pyrophyllite), the smectite-group (montmorillonite), and illite (as a mineral of the mica-group) were investigated to obtain information concerning their cathodoluminescence behavior. The study included analyses by cathodoluminescence (CL microscopy and spectroscopy), electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR), x-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and trace element analysis. In general, all dioctahedral clay minerals exhibit a visible CL. Kaolinite, dickite, nacrite and pyrophyllite have a characteristic deep blue CL, whereas halloysite emission is in the greenish-blue region. On the contrary, the trioctahedral minerals (serpentine, talc) and illite do not show visible CL. The characteristic blue CL is caused by an intense emission band around 400 nm (double peak with two maxima at 375 and 410 nm). EPR measurements indicate that his blue emission can be related to radiation induced defect centers (RID), which occur as electron holes trapped on apical oxygen (Si-O center) or located at the Al-O-Al group (Al substituting Si in the tetrahedron). Additional CL emission bands were detected at 580 nm in halloysite and kaolinite, and between 700 and 800 nm in kaolinite, dickite, nacrite and pyrophyllite. Time-resolved spectral CL measurements show typical luminescence kinetics for the different clay minerals, which enable differentiation between the various dioctahedral minerals (e.g. kaolinite and dickite), even in thin section. (author)

  1. EPR examination of Zn2+ and Cu2+ binding by pigmented soil fungi Cladosporium cladosporioides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buszman, Ewa; Pilawa, Barbara; Zdybel, Magdalena; Wilczynski, Slawomir; Gondzik, Anna; Witoszynska, Teresa; Wilczok, Tadeusz

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the usefulness of electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy (EPR) to estimate zinc and copper ions biosorption from the environment by pigmented soil fungi Cladosporium cladosporioides. The existence of a low amount of pheomelanin, besides eumelanin, in C. cladosporioides samples was proved by the analysis of shape of their EPR spectra. Concentration of o-semiquinone free radicals in crude mycelium was 2.4 x 10 17 spin/g. Changes in free radicals system of C. cladosporioides cultured in the presence of Zn 2+ and Cu 2+ were analysed. Both magnetic and chemical interactions of zinc and copper ions with free radicals in C. cladosporioides melanin were found. Magnetically interacting diamagnetic Zn 2+ ions increased the concentration of o-semiquinone free radicals in melanin existing in C. cladosporioides mycelium, whereas paramagnetic Cu 2+ ions decreased this concentration. Chemical interactions of Zn 2+ and Cu 2+ ions decreased the free radical concentrations in C. cladosporioides melanin. Homogeneously distributed free radicals in C. cladosporioides melanin rise its activity in biosorption processes

  2. L'argument Einstein Podolsky Rosen (EPR) paradoxe, alternative et demonstration

    CERN Document Server

    Roussel, P

    2003-01-01

    En physique quantique, l'absence d'observation d'etats de superposition ne devrait etre une surprise pour personne, que les objets soient microscopiques ou macroscopiques. Cela n'en etait pas une pour Schroedinger. L'experience de pensee "du chat" parmi bien d'autres arguments le montre clairement. On ne doit pas aujourd'hui lui faire dire le contraire. L'article EPR (A.Einstein, B.Podolsky,N.Rosen, ecrit en 1935), qui est a l'origine de l'intervention de Schroedinger et du developpement d'une problematique qui se prolonge jusqu'a aujourd'hui, est analyse. Avec Schroedinger, Bohr, Wigner et jusqu'a aujourd'hui, la reponse a EPR a ete le recours renouvele a l'observateur finalement caracterise par sa conscience. Deux elements nouveaux sont apparus: d'une part un developpement experimental et theorique impressionnant avec l'optique quantique et les manipulations d'atomes, d'autre part la proposition du concept de decoherence susceptible d'expliquer le passage du microscopique au macroscopique et par la d'apport...

  3. Algorithm for selection of optimized EPR distance restraints for de novo protein structure determination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazmier, Kelli; Alexander, Nathan S.; Meiler, Jens; Mchaourab, Hassane S.

    2010-01-01

    A hybrid protein structure determination approach combining sparse Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) distance restraints and Rosetta de novo protein folding has been previously demonstrated to yield high quality models (Alexander et al., 2008). However, widespread application of this methodology to proteins of unknown structures is hindered by the lack of a general strategy to place spin label pairs in the primary sequence. In this work, we report the development of an algorithm that optimally selects spin labeling positions for the purpose of distance measurements by EPR. For the α-helical subdomain of T4 lysozyme (T4L), simulated restraints that maximize sequence separation between the two spin labels while simultaneously ensuring pairwise connectivity of secondary structure elements yielded vastly improved models by Rosetta folding. 50% of all these models have the correct fold compared to only 21% and 8% correctly folded models when randomly placed restraints or no restraints are used, respectively. Moreover, the improvements in model quality require a limited number of optimized restraints, the number of which is determined by the pairwise connectivities of T4L α-helices. The predicted improvement in Rosetta model quality was verified by experimental determination of distances between spin labels pairs selected by the algorithm. Overall, our results reinforce the rationale for the combined use of sparse EPR distance restraints and de novo folding. By alleviating the experimental bottleneck associated with restraint selection, this algorithm sets the stage for extending computational structure determination to larger, traditionally elusive protein topologies of critical structural and biochemical importance. PMID:21074624

  4. A review of recent analyses of the Canadian Incidence Study of Reported Child Abuse and Neglect (CIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Potter

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The objective of this analysis is to identify, assess the quality and summarize the findings of peer-reviewed articles that used data from the Canadian Incidence Study of Reported Child Abuse and Neglect (CIS published since November 2011 and data from provincial oversamples of the CIS as well as to illustrate evolving uses of these datasets. Methods: Articles were identified from the Public Health Agency of Canada's data request records tracking access to CIS data and publications produced from that data. At least two raters independently reviewed and appraised the quality of each article. Results: A total of 32 articles were included. Common strengths of articles included clearly stated research aims, appropriate control variables and analyses, sufficient sample sizes, appropriate conclusions and relevance to practice or policy. Common problem areas of articles included unclear definitions for variables and inclusion criteria of cases. Articles frequently measured the associations between maltreatment, child, caregiver, household and agency/referral characteristics and investigative outcomes such as opening cases for ongoing services and placement. Conclusion: Articles using CIS data were rated positively on most quality indicators. Researchers have recently focussed on inadequately studied categories of maltreatment (exposure to intimate partner violence [IPV], neglect and emotional maltreatment and examined factors specific to First Nations children. Data from the CIS oversamples have been underutilized. The use of multivariate analysis techniques has increased.

  5. Solid-state EPR strategies for the structural characterization of paramagnetic NO adducts of frustrated Lewis pairs (FLPs)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Marcos de; Magon, Claudio José [Instituto de Física de São Carlos, Universidade de São Paulo, P.O. Box 369, 13560-970 São Carlos, São Paulo (Brazil); Wiegand, Thomas [Laboratorium für Physikalische Chemie, ETH Zürich, Vladimir-Prelog-Weg 2, 8049 Zürich (Switzerland); Elmer, Lisa-Maria; Sajid, Muhammad; Kehr, Gerald; Erker, Gerhard [Organisch-Chemisches Institut, WWU Münster, Corrensstraße 40, D 48149 Münster (Germany); Eckert, Hellmut, E-mail: eckerth@uni-muenster.de [Instituto de Física de São Carlos, Universidade de São Paulo, P.O. Box 369, 13560-970 São Carlos, São Paulo (Brazil); Institut für Physikalische Chemie, WWU Münster, Corrensstrasse 30, D 48149 Münster (Germany)

    2015-03-28

    Anisotropic interactions present in three new nitroxide radicals prepared by N,N addition of NO to various borane-phosphane frustrated Lewis pairs (FLPs) have been characterized by continuous-wave (cw) and pulsed X-band EPR spectroscopies in solid FLP-hydroxylamine matrices at 100 K. Anisotropic g-tensor values and {sup 11}B, {sup 14}N, and {sup 31}P hyperfine coupling tensor components have been extracted from continuous-wave lineshape analyses, electron spin echo envelope modulation (ESEEM), and hyperfine sublevel correlation spectroscopy (HYSCORE) experiments with the help of computer simulation techniques. Suitable fitting constraints are developed on the basis of density functional theory (DFT) calculations. These calculations reveal that different from the situation in standard nitroxide radicals (TEMPO), the g-tensors are non-coincident with any of the nuclear hyperfine interaction tensors. The determination of these interaction parameters turns out to be successful, as the cw- and pulse EPR experiments are highly complementary in informational content. While the continuous-wave lineshape is largely influenced by the anisotropic hyperfine coupling to {sup 14}N and {sup 31}P, the ESEEM and HYSCORE spectra contain important information about the {sup 11}B hyperfine coupling and nuclear electric quadrupolar interaction. The set of cw- and pulsed EPR experiments, with fitting constraints developed by DFT calculations, defines an efficient strategy for the structural analysis of paramagnetic FLP adducts.

  6. EPR Oximetry for Investigation of Hyperbaric O2 Pre-treatment for Tumor Radiosensitization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Benjamin B; Hou, Huagang; Coombs, Rachel; Swartz, Harold M

    A number of studies have reported benefits associated with the application of hyperbaric oxygen treatment (HBO) delivered immediately prior to radiation therapy. While these studies provide evidence that pre-treatment with HBO may be beneficial, no measurements of intratumoral pO2 were carried out and they do not directly link the apparent benefits to decreased hypoxic fractions at the time of radiation therapy. While there is empirical evidence and some theoretical basis for HBO to enhance radiation therapy, without direct and repeated measurements of its effects on pO2, it is unlikely that the use of HBO can be understood and optimized for clinical applications. In vivo EPR oximetry is a technique uniquely capable of providing repeated direct measurements of pO2 through a non-invasive procedure in both animal models and human patients. In order to evaluate the ability of pretreatment with HBO to elevate tumor pO2, a novel small animal hyperbaric chamber system was constructed that allows simultaneous in vivo EPR oximetry. This chamber can be placed within the EPR magnet and is equipped with a variety of ports for multiplace gas delivery, thermoregulation, delivery of anesthesia, physiologic monitoring, and EPR detection. Initial measurements were performed in a subcutaneous RIF-1 tumor model in C3H/HeJ mice. The mean baseline pO2 value was 6.0 ± 1.2 mmHg (N = 7) and responses to two atmospheres absolute pressure HBO varied considerably across subjects, within tumors, and over time. When an increase in pO2 was observed, the effect was transient in all but one case, with durations lasting from 5 min to over 20 min, and returned to baseline levels during HBO administration. These results indicate that without direct measurements of pO2 in the tissue of interest, it is likely to be difficult to know the effects of HBO on actual tissue pO2.

  7. The EPR - a safe and competitive solution for future energy needs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, U.; Bouteille, F.; Leverenz, R.

    1999-01-01

    NPI, Siemens and Framatome, in co-operation with EDF and the major German Utilities, started the development of the European Pressurized Water Reactor (EPR) as an evolutionary approach. After a careful evaluation of the potential of passive safety features, this way was concluded to be superior compared to a 'revolutionary' approach. The vast majority of advanced reactor designs being developed today is of the evolutionary type. The advantages to base an advanced design on the feedback of operation experience of the more than 100 nuclear power plants designed and constructed by Siemens and Framatome are outstanding. This view is shared by the German and French safety authorities which defined their preference for an evolutionary design early at the beginning of their co-operation for the definition of a common safety approach for future nuclear power plants to be built in Germany and France. In their first common set of recommendations, they gave a clear guideline regarding their point of view for requirements posed to the next generation of nuclear power plants: (1) Preference for an evolutionary design in order to derive a maximum benefit from experience; (2) Significant safety improvements by reduction of core meltdown probability and improvement of the confinement function of the containment under accident conditions; (3) Improvement of operating conditions regarding radiation protection, maintenance and human errors. Besides the French-German co-operation of vendors, utilities and authorities, the European utilities co-operate on a much broader basis for the establishment of the European Utilities' Requirements (EUR). During the development of the basic design, the EPR was continuously assessed against these EUR and it was concluded that the EPR complies with these requirements. At the end of the basic design phase at the end of 1997, all information necessary to file a preliminary safety analysis report and a reliable bill of quantities was elaborated. With

  8. A new internet-based tool for reporting and analysing patient-reported outcomes and the feasibility of repeated data collection from patients with myeloproliferative neoplasms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brochmann, Nana; Zwisler, Ann-Dorthe; Kjerholt, Mette; Flachs, Esben Meulengracht; Hasselbalch, Hans Carl; Andersen, Christen Lykkegaard

    2016-04-01

    An Internet-based tool for reporting and analysing patient-reported outcomes (PROs) has been developed. The tool enables merging PROs with blood test results and allows for computation of treatment responses. Data may be visualized by graphical analysis and may be exported for downstream statistical processing. The aim of this study was to investigate, whether patients with myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) were willing and able to use the tool and fill out questionnaires regularly. Participants were recruited from the outpatient clinic at the Department of Haematology, Roskilde University Hospital, Denmark. Validated questionnaires that were used were European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire-Core 30, Myeloproliferative Neoplasm Symptom Assessment Form, Brief Fatigue Inventory and Short Form 36 Health Survey. Questionnaires were filled out ≥ 6 months online or on paper according to participant preference. Regularity of questionnaire submission was investigated, and participant acceptance was evaluated by focus-group interviews. Of 135 invited patients, 118 (87 %) accepted participation. One hundred and seven participants (91 %) preferred to use the Internet-based tool. Of the 118 enrolled participants, 104 (88 %) submitted PROs regularly ≥ 6 months. The focus-group interviews revealed that the Internet-based tool was well accepted. The Internet-based approach and regular collection of PROs are well accepted with a high participation rate, persistency and adherence in a population of MPN patients. The plasticity of the platform allows for adaptation to patients with other medical conditions.

  9. EPR dosimetry of cortical bone and tooth enamel irradiated with X and gamma rays: Study of energy dependence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schauer, D.A.; Links, J.M.; Desrosiers, M.F.; Le, F.G.; Seltzer, S.M.

    1994-01-01

    Previous investigators have reported that the radiation-induced EPR signal intensity in compact or cortical bone increases up to a factor of two with decreasing photon energy for a given absorbed dose. If the EPR signal intensity was dependent on energy, it could limit the application of EPR spectrometry and the additive reirradiation method to obtain dose estimates. We have recently shown that errors in the assumptions governing conversion of measured exposure to absorbed dose can lead to similar open-quotes apparentclose quotes energy-dependence results. We hypothesized that these previous results were due to errors in the estimated dose in bone, rather than the effects of energy dependence per se. To test this hypothesis we studied human adult cortical bone from male and female donors ranging in age from 23 to 95 years, and bovine tooth enamel, using 34 and 138 keV average energy X-ray beams and 137 Cs (662 keV) and 60 Co (1250 keV) γ rays. In a femur from a 47-year-old male (subject 1), there was a difference of borderline significance at the α = 0.05 level in the mean radiation-induced hydroxyapatite signal intensities as a function of photon energy. No other statistically significant differences in EPR signal intensity as a function of photon energy were observed in this subject, or in the tibia from a 23-year-old male (subject 2) and the femur from a 75-year-old female (subject 3). However, there was a trend toward a decrease (12-15%) in signal intensity at the lowest energy compared with the highest energy in subjects 1 and 3. Further analysis of the data from subject 1 revealed that this trend, which is in the opposite direction of previous reports but is consistent with theory, is statistically significant. There were no efforts of energy dependence in the tooth samples. 16 refs., 7 figs., 5 tabs

  10. The PRISMA statement for reporting systematic reviews and meta-analyses of studies that evaluate health care interventions: explanation and elaboration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liberati, Alessandro; Altman, Douglas G; Tetzlaff, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    Systematic reviews and meta-analyses are essential to summarize evidence relating to efficacy and safety of health care interventions accurately and reliably. The clarity and transparency of these reports, however, is not optimal. Poor reporting of systematic reviews diminishes their value...... to clinicians, policy makers, and other users. Since the development of the QUOROM (QUality Of Reporting Of Meta-analysis) Statement--a reporting guideline published in 1999--there have been several conceptual, methodological, and practical advances regarding the conduct and reporting of systematic reviews...... and meta-analyses. Also, reviews of published systematic reviews have found that key information about these studies is often poorly reported. Realizing these issues, an international group that included experienced authors and methodologists developed PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic...

  11. Increase of weakly acidic gas esophagopharyngeal reflux (EPR) and swallowing-induced acidic/weakly acidic EPR in patients with chronic cough responding to proton pump inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamura, O; Shimoyama, Y; Hosaka, H; Kuribayashi, S; Maeda, M; Nagoshi, A; Zai, H; Kusano, M

    2011-05-01

    Gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD)-related chronic cough (CC) may have multifactorial causes. To clarify the characteristics of esophagopharyngeal reflux (EPR) events in CC patients whose cough was apparently influenced by gastro-esophageal reflux (GER), we studied patients with CC clearly responding to full-dose proton pump inhibitor (PPI) therapy (CC patients). Ten CC patients, 10 GERD patients, and 10 healthy controls underwent 24-h ambulatory pharyngo-esophageal impedance and pH monitoring. Weakly acidic reflux was defined as a decrease of pH by >1 unit with a nadir pH >4. In six CC patients, monitoring was repeated after 8 weeks of PPI therapy. The number of each EPR event and the symptom association probability (SAP) were calculated. Symptoms were evaluated by a validated GERD symptom questionnaire. Weakly acidic gas EPR and swallowing-induced acidic/weakly acidic EPR only occurred in CC patients, and the numbers of such events was significantly higher in the CC group than in the other two groups (P pump inhibitor therapy abolished swallowing-induced acidic/weakly acidic EPR, reduced weakly acidic gas EPR, and improved symptoms (all P gas EPR and swallowing-induced acidic/weakly acidic EPR. A direct effect of acidic mist or liquid refluxing into the pharynx may contribute to chronic cough, while cough may also arise indirectly from reflux via a vago-vagal reflex in some patients. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  12. Report on repetition analyses for pesticide residues: 1988-1995; Rapporto sulle revisioni di analisi per residui di antiparassitari-1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Muccio, A; Attard Barbini, D; De Merulis, G; Vergori, L; Girolimetti, S; Sernicola, L; Dommarco, R [Ist. Superiore di Sanita` , Rome (Italy). Lab. di Tossicologia Applicata

    1995-12-01

    From 1988 to 1995, 1,254 analyses were carried out on samples of fruits (61%), vegetables (29%), cereals and derived products (3%). The analyses were for 80 different pesticides, of which 51% were fungicides, 31% insecticides, 8% diphenylamine and ethoxiquin (post-harvest antioxidans agents for protection of fruits), and 5% antigermogliants and herbicides. Regions that mostly contributed with samples were: Emilia-Romagna (35%), Piedmont (15%), Liguria (11%), Tuscany (10%). Global rate of confirmation between first analysis and repetition analysis was 64% for all the samples analysed.

  13. Growth, optical and EPR studies of {sup 151}Eu{sup 2+}:YAG single crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrosyan, A.G., E-mail: pet@ipr.sci.am [Institute for Physical Research, National Academy of Sciences, Ashtarak, 0203 (Armenia); Asatryan, H.R. [Ioffe Physical-Technical Institute, Politekhnicheskaya ul. 26, St. Petersburg, 194021 (Russian Federation); Hovhannesyan, K.L.; Derdzyan, M.V. [Institute for Physical Research, National Academy of Sciences, Ashtarak, 0203 (Armenia); Feofilov, S.P. [Ioffe Physical-Technical Institute, Politekhnicheskaya ul. 26, St. Petersburg, 194021 (Russian Federation); Eganyan, A.V.; Sargsyan, R.S. [Institute for Physical Research, National Academy of Sciences, Ashtarak, 0203 (Armenia)

    2017-01-01

    Single crystals of {sup 151}Eu:YAG were grown by the vertical Bridgman method using Eu{sub 2}O{sub 3} with isotopic enrichment of {sup 151}Eu of 97.5%. Additional Hf{sup 4+}or Si{sup 4+} ions were introduced to favor a high concentrations of Eu{sup 2+}. As compared to Eu:YAG with natural isotope composition, the EPR spectra of YAG doped with {sup 151}Eu isotope show a reduced number of hyperfine structure components and a well-resolved structure of a bigger number of electronic transitions. Optical properties of obtained crystals and the effects of heat treatments under oxidizing and reducing conditions are reported. Based on the analysis of Eu{sup 3+} distribution in oxidized Eu,Hf:YAG, in comparison to that in Eu:YAG, the concentration of Eu{sup 2+} in as-grown Eu,Hf:YAG is determined. - Highlights: • YAG:Eu,Hf single crystals containing only {sup 151}Eu isotopes were prepared. • isotopic enriched crystals gave a well-resolved EPR hyperfine structure of Eu{sup 2+} centers. • the redox ratio was followed through the Eu{sup 2+} associated absorption band at 250 nm. • the band intensities at 378 nm correlate with the Eu{sup 2+} concentration.

  14. Gold atoms and clusters on MgO(100) films; an EPR and IRAS study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yulikov, M.; Sterrer, M.; Risse, T.; Freund, H.-J.

    2009-06-01

    Single gold atoms deposited on single crystalline MgO(1 0 0) films grown on Mo(1 0 0) are characterized by electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy as well as IR spectroscopy using CO as probe molecules. In this article we describe the first angular dependent measurements to determine the principal hyperfine components of a secondary hyperfine interaction, namely, with 17O of the MgO. The values determined here are in perfect agreement with theoretical expectations and corroborate the previously reported binding mechanism of Au atoms on the oxygen anions of the MgO terrace. The temperature dependent EPR data reveal an onset of Au atom mobility at about 80 K while the formation of Au particles occurs only above 125 K. By an analysis of the EPR line width in combination with STM measurements it is possible to deduce an increase of the interatomic distance above 80 K. The Au/CO complexes show a somewhat smaller temperature stability as compared to the Au atoms. The observed thermal stability is in perfect agreement with theoretical predictions for CO desorption.

  15. Fillers for gamma ray-irradiated EPR and ultralow frequency dielectric characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamanaka, Sanshiro; Fukuda, Tadashi; Sawa, Goro; Ieda, Masayuki; Ito, Masayuki; Kawakami, Waichiro.

    1991-01-01

    Aiming at the diagnosis of the radiation deterioration of electric power cables and wires by utilizing residual voltage, the relation of the amount of gamma ray irradiation with residual voltage has been examined for the EPR of practical mixing proportion by the authors. Moreover, as the characteristics or physical quantities used for judging the deterioration, the dielectric characteristics in ultralow frequency region and insulation resistance were taken up, and the method of analytically determine them from the results of measuring residual voltage was proposed. When the results obtained by this analytical method were compared with the results of leak current and discharge current, good agreement was obtained. However, since many kinds of fillers are added to these samples with practical mixing proportion in large quantities, it was unable to examine in detail the physical mechanism of depolarization which becomes the cause of generating residual voltage. This time, the discharge current was measured for the samples of EPR filled with only one kind of filler, hard clay, and the modeling of depolarization mecanism was attempted. The results are reported. (K.I.)

  16. Signal processing for radiation dosimetry using EPR in dental enamel: comparison of three methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pass, B. Barry.; Shames, A.I. Alexander I.

    2000-01-01

    We are reporting an alternative method of extracting useful dose information from complex EPR spectra of dental enamel. Digital differentiation of the initial first derivative spectrum followed by filtering is used to clearly distinguish the radiation-induced signal from the native background signal. The peak-to-peak height of the resulting second derivative of the signal is then measured as an indication of absorbed dose. This method does not require preliminary elimination of the native background signal, and is not effected by any uncertainty in the determination of the background signal or by errors resulting from the subtraction of two signals of comparable magnitude. Ten enamel samples were irradiated with known doses in the range of 250-10 5 mGy. There was agreement for all the samples, within the typical experimental error of ±10% for EPR dosimetry in dental enamel, between the doses determined by two common techniques using native signal subtraction and the doses determined by the new second derivative method proposed here

  17. The 4th international comparison on EPR dosimetry with tooth enamel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fattibene, P., E-mail: paola.fattibene@iss.it [Istituto Superiore di Sanita, Department of Technology and Health, Viale Regina Elena 299, I-00162 Rome (Italy); Wieser, A. [Helmholtz Zentrum Muenchen, Neuherberg D-85764 (Germany); Adolfsson, E. [Linkoeping University, SE-58185 Linkoeping (Sweden); Benevides, L.A. [Naval Dosimetry Center, Bethesda MD 20889-5600 (United States); Brai, M. [University of Palermo, I-90128 Palermo (Italy); Callens, F. [Ghent University, B-9000 Gent (Belgium); Chumak, V. [Research Center for Radiation Medicine AMS, 04050 Kiev (Ukraine); Ciesielski, B. [Medical University of Gdansk, 80-211 Gdansk (Poland); Della Monaca, S. [Istituto Superiore di Sanita, Department of Technology and Health, Viale Regina Elena 299, I-00162 Rome (Italy); Regina Elena Institute, I-00144 Rome (Italy); Emerich, K. [Medical University of Gdansk, 80-211 Gdansk (Poland); Department of Paediatric Dentistry, 80-208 Gdansk (Poland); Gustafsson, H. [Linkoeping University, SE-58185 Linkoeping (Sweden); Hirai, Y. [Radiation Effects Research Foundation, Minami-ku, Hiroshima 732-0815 (Japan); Hoshi, M. [Hiroshima University, Minami-ku, Hiroshima 734-8553 (Japan); Israelsson, A. [Linkoeping University, SE-58185 Linkoeping (Sweden); Ivannikov, A. [Medical Radiological Research Center, Obninsk, Kaluga region (Russian Federation); Ivanov, D. [Institute of Metal Physics, Yekaterinburg 620041 (Russian Federation); Kaminska, J. [Medical University of Gdansk, 80-211 Gdansk (Poland); Ke, Wu [Beijing Institute of Radiation Medicine, Beijing 100850 (China); Lund, E. [Linkoeping University, SE-58185 Linkoeping (Sweden); Marrale, M. [University of Palermo, I-90128 Palermo (Italy)

    2011-09-15

    This paper presents the results of the 4th International Comparison of in vitro electron paramagnetic resonance dosimetry with tooth enamel, where the performance parameters of tooth enamel dosimetry methods were compared among sixteen laboratories from all over the world. The participating laboratories were asked to determine a calibration curve with a set of tooth enamel powder samples provided by the organizers. Nine molar teeth extracted following medical indication from German donors and collected between 1997 and 2007 were prepared and irradiated at the Helmholtz Zentrum Muenchen. Five out of six samples were irradiated at 0.1, 0.2, 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 Gy air kerma; and one unirradiated sample was kept as control. The doses delivered to the individual samples were unknown to the participants, who were asked to measure each sample nine times, and to report the EPR signal response, the mass of aliquots measured, and the parameters of EPR signal acquisition and signal evaluation. Critical dose and detection limit were calculated by the organizers on the basis of the calibration-curve parameters obtained at every laboratory. For calibration curves obtained by measuring every calibration sample three times, the mean value of the detection limit was 205 mGy, ranging from 56 to 649 mGy. The participants were also invited to provide the signal response and the nominal dose of their current dose calibration curve (wherever available), the critical dose and detection limit of which were also calculated by the organizers.

  18. Medical reference dosimetry using EPR measurements of alanine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helt-Hansen, Jakob; Rosendal, F.; Kofoed, I.M.

    2009-01-01

    Background. Electron spin resonance (EPR) is used to determine the absorbed dose of alanine dosimeters exposed to clinical photon beams in a solid-water phantom. Alanine is potentially suitable for medical reference dosimetry, because of its near water equivalence over a wide energy spectrum, low...... methods the proposed algorithm can be applied without normalisation of phase shifts caused by changes in the g-value of the cavity. The study shows that alanine dosimetry is a suitable candidate for medical reference dosimetry especially for quality control applications.......Background. Electron spin resonance (EPR) is used to determine the absorbed dose of alanine dosimeters exposed to clinical photon beams in a solid-water phantom. Alanine is potentially suitable for medical reference dosimetry, because of its near water equivalence over a wide energy spectrum, low...

  19. Spatially distributed multipartite entanglement enables EPR steering of atomic clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunkel, Philipp; Prüfer, Maximilian; Strobel, Helmut; Linnemann, Daniel; Frölian, Anika; Gasenzer, Thomas; Gärttner, Martin; Oberthaler, Markus K.

    2018-04-01

    A key resource for distributed quantum-enhanced protocols is entanglement between spatially separated modes. However, the robust generation and detection of entanglement between spatially separated regions of an ultracold atomic system remain a challenge. We used spin mixing in a tightly confined Bose-Einstein condensate to generate an entangled state of indistinguishable particles in a single spatial mode. We show experimentally that this entanglement can be spatially distributed by self-similar expansion of the atomic cloud. We used spatially resolved spin read-out to reveal a particularly strong form of quantum correlations known as Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) steering between distinct parts of the expanded cloud. Based on the strength of EPR steering, we constructed a witness, which confirmed genuine 5-partite entanglement.

  20. EPR assessment of the free radicals in irradiated foodstuffs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tencheva, S.; Katsareva, Ts.; Malinovski, A.; Kabasanov, K.

    1985-01-01

    In the hygienic assessment of radiation treated foodstuffs the study of free radicals formed during radiation exposure, their concentration and disintegration kinetics are of particular interest. In the work presented the concentration of the free radicals in irradiated prunes, nuts and corn is determined using EPR spectroscopy. The following doses are applied: 2, 10 and 20 kGy for prunes, 1, 10 and 20 kGy for nuts, and 0.75, 10 and 20 kGy for corn. EPR measurements are done immediately after the irradiation: 24 hours, and 3, 6, 9 and 15 days after the exposure. In the small radiation doses the formation of single radicals is observed. In doses of 10 kGy the spectra get complicated with the occurence of radicals R 1 , R 2 , R 3 and R 4 . The assessment of radicals proves to be a prospective method for the identification and determination of the preservation terms of foodstuffs

  1. Geographic Variations in the EPR Spectrum of Tooth Enamel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romanyukha, A.A.; Hayes, R.B.; Haskell, E.H.; Kenner, G.H.

    1999-01-01

    The presence of stable radiation-induced radicals in the mineral component of tooth enamel allows use of this material as a biological dosemeter. Estimation of the dose absorbed in tooth enamel can be done by EPR. Generally, for the purpose of dose reconstruction, the EPR spectrum of tooth enamel is interpreted in terms of two main components. The first is a broad background signal often called the native signal centered at a g value of 2.0045. The origin of this signal is not precisely known. The second main component in the tooth enamel spectrum is purely radiation induced and can be used for retrospective dosimetry. Internal structure of the native signal and variations of its amplitude and linewidth were investigated for the samples prepared from modern teeth obtained from different geographic locations (USA and Russia). Possible reasons for the variations observed are discussed as are the potential effects of the variations on the reliability of dose estimation. (author)

  2. The Chernobyl accident: EPR dosimetry on dental enamel of children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gualtieri, G.; Colacicchi, S.; Sgattoni, R.; Giannoni, M.

    2001-01-01

    The radiation dose on tooth enamel of children living close to Chernobyl has been evaluated by EPR. The sample preparation was reduced to a minimum of mechanical steps to remove a piece of enamel. A standard X-ray tube at low energy was used for additive irradiation. The filtration effect of facial soft tissue was taken into account. The radiation dose for a group of teeth slightly exceeds the annual dose, whereas for another group the dose very much exceeds the annual dose. Since the higher dose is found in teeth whose enamel have much lower EPR sensitivity to the radiation, it can be suggested that for these teeth the native signal could alter the evaluation of the smaller radiation signal

  3. On the computer simulation of the EPR-Bohm experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGoveran, D.O.; Noyes, H.P.; Manthey, M.J.

    1988-12-01

    We argue that supraluminal correlation without supraluminal signaling is a necessary consequence of any finite and discrete model for physics. Every day, the commercial and military practice of using encrypted communication based on correlated, pseudo-random signals illustrates this possibility. All that is needed are two levels of computational complexity which preclude using a smaller system to detect departures from ''randomness'' in the larger system. Hence the experimental realizations of the EPR-Bohm experiment leave open the question of whether the world of experience is ''random'' or pseudo-random. The latter possibility could be demonstrated experimentally if a complexity parameter related to the arm length and switching time in an Aspect-type realization of the EPR-Bohm experiment is sufficiently small compared to the number of reliable total counts which can be obtained in practice. 6 refs

  4. A transferability study of the EPR-tooth-dosimetry technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sholom, S.; Chumak, V.; Desrosiers, M.; Bouville, A.

    2006-01-01

    The transferability of a measurement protocol from one laboratory to another is an important feature of any mature, standardised protocol. The electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR)-tooth dosimetry technique that was developed in Scientific Center for Radiation Medicine, AMS (Ukraine) (SCRM) for routine dosimetry of Chernobyl liquidators has demonstrated consistent results in several inter-laboratory measurement comparisons. Transferability to the EPR dosimetry laboratory at the National Inst. of Standards and Technology (NIST) was examined. Several approaches were used to test the technique, including dose reconstruction of SCRM-NIST inter-comparison samples. The study has demonstrated full transferability of the technique and the possibility to reproduce results in a different laboratory environment. (authors)

  5. EPR of divalent manganese in non-Kramers hosts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lech, J.; Slezak, A. [Institute of Physics, Technical University of Czestochowa, Czestochowa (Poland)

    1997-12-31

    Various interactions which lead to the observation of sharp EPR spectra of the high half-integer spin impurity Mn{sup 2+} (S=5/2) in paramagnetic hosts with integer spins S=1 and S=2 have been studied. Studies have been carried out on the basis of data extracted from experimental EPR spectra of Mn{sup 2+} in single crystal of divalent nickel Ni{sup 2+} (S=1) and Fe{sup 2+} (S=1) perchlorate hexahydrates. It has been shown that dipolar host-host and host-guest couplings broaden resonance lines of Mn{sup 2+}. Narrowing of the lines in the both crystals can be mainly attributed to the host-guest exchange interactions and quenching of the host spins. 19 refs, 3 figs, 1 tab.

  6. The EPR-a comprehensive design concept against external events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoll, U.; Waas, U.

    2006-01-01

    The main objective of design provisions against external hazards is to ensure that the safety functions required to bring the plant to safe shutdown are not inadmissibly affected by any external hazards that might be postulated for the intended site of the plant. In the design of the European Pressurized Water Reactor (EPR) particular attention was paid to external hazards such as earthquake, airplane crash, and explosion pressure wave. The standard EPR covers a large range of possible site conditions, the design earthquake enveloping safe shutdown earthquakes (SSE) to be expected for potential sites. The loads for the design basis airplane crash and - if required - for the design extension airplane crash as well as for external Explosion Pressure Wave are defined depending on site specific requirements. Protection against other external load cases such as extreme winds and external flooding is also included in the standard design

  7. EPR dosimetry in a mixed neutron and gamma radiation field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trompier, F; Fattibene, P; Tikunov, D; Bartolotta, A; Carosi, A; Doca, M C

    2004-01-01

    Suitability of Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) spectroscopy for criticality dosimetry was evaluated for tooth enamel, mannose and alanine pellets during the 'international intercomparison of criticality dosimetry techniques' at the SILENE reactor held in Valduc in June 2002, France. These three materials were irradiated in neutron and gamma-ray fields of various relative intensities and spectral distributions in order to evaluate their neutron sensitivity. The neutron response was found to be around 10% for tooth enamel, 45% for mannose and between 40 and 90% for alanine pellets according their type. According to the IAEA recommendations on the early estimate of criticality accident absorbed dose, analyzed results show the EPR potentiality and complementarity with regular criticality techniques.

  8. Investigations of the EPR reference concept (KATS experiments)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fieg, G.; Werle, H.; Huber, F.

    1995-01-01

    The reference concept of an EPR core catcher envisages the spreading of the melt on a protective layer (150 m 2 area) and water cooling from above. Two variants are considered: Spreading on a dry area and on an area covered by water of condensation (1 cm depth). For the reference concept the KATS experiments are performed with thermite melts. After initial problems had rendered it difficult to interprete the first test, repeated tests have been successful. (orig.)

  9. Krótka (pre)historia argumentu EPR

    OpenAIRE

    Tadeusz Pabjan

    2010-01-01

    The 1935 thought experiment of Einstein, Podolsky and Rosen is one of the most important episodes in the history of the dispute about the correct interpretation of quantum mechanics. The present paper deals with the origin of the EPR paper and discusses some other thought experiments that preceded the formulation of the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen argument. Special attention is paid to the evolution of a simply photon-box experiment, which was devised by Einstein in 1930 and then modified by him ...

  10. Copenhagen vs Everett, teleportation, and ER=EPR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Susskind, Leonard [Stanford Institute for Theoretical Physics and Department of Physics, Stanford University, Stanford, CA (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Quantum gravity may have as much to tell us about the foundations and interpretation of quantum mechanics as it does about gravity. The Copenhagen interpretation of quantum mechanics and Everett's Relative State Formulation are complementary descriptions which in a sense are dual to one another. My purpose here is to discuss this duality in the light of the of ER=EPR conjecture. (copyright 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  11. The implementation of advanced EPR in the US

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagan, C.; Mico, F.

    2007-01-01

    As electricity demand, clean air concerns and energy prices increase in the U. S., interest in the new nuclear reactors is also on the rise. These factors, along with decades of outstanding performance of the nations existing fleet, have contributed to a favourable market of new nuclear power in the U.S.This article presents some reflexions about the new situation of the market and the response that AREVA offers to he North American Electric utilities: The EPR. (Author)

  12. EPR dosimetric properties of nano-barium sulfate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aboelezz, E.; Hassan, G.M.; Sharaf, M.A.; El-Khodary, A.

    2015-01-01

    Nano/micro BaSO 4 were prepared through the co-precipitation method to measure ionizing radiation doses using electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR). The nano-BaSO 4 sample was characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) techniques. The dose response and fading properties of nano- and micro-phase BaSO 4 were compared in EPR spectra. The prepared nano- and micro-BaSO 4 samples have the same hole and electron centers, which may be attributed to SO 4 − and SO 3 − , respectively. The dosimetric signals for prepared nano- and micro-BaSO 4 have spectroscopic splitting factor (g) with values 2.0025±0.0006 and 2.0027±0.0006, respectively. The nanocrystalline sample has a linear γ-ray dose response over the range 0.4 Gy–1 kGy. The performance parameters which including detection limit and critical level calculated from weighted and unweighted least-squares fitting. The sensitivity of nano-BaSO 4 to γ-ray is one and a half times more than alanine. The lifetime and activation energy for nano-BaSO 4 were estimated by conducting a thermal stability study, and were 5.7±1.1×10 4 years and 0.73±0.14 eV, respectively. The combined and expanded uncertainties accompanying measurements were ±3.89% and ±7.78%, respectively. - Highlights: • Preparation of nano-BaSO 4 using the co-precipitation method. • Study of the dosimetric properties of nano-barium sulfate using the EPR technique. • Comparison between a new EPR dosimeter using nano-materials and standard alanine. • Calculation of the uncertainty budget for nano-BaSO 4

  13. EPR spectroscopy in the asphaltenes photodegradation study in petroleum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mauro, Eduardo di; Nakaema, Marcelo Kiyoshi Kian; Melo, Fernando Alves de; Turini, Marilene; Guedes, Carmen Luisa Barbosa; Nascimento, Otaciro Rangel

    2003-01-01

    Full text: The knowledge of the photochemistry transformation that occurs in the petroleum, when it is exposed to the environment has already been proved. In tropical climates, where the solar intensity is high and biological processes are hindered by the lack of nutrients, photochemical processes can be the one that most contribute for the degradation of oil. Moreover, photochemical processes can be important for subsequent biological consumption of oil (Nicodem et al., 1997). We have used EPR with the purpose of getting information of the photodegradation of the asphaltenes concerning the molecular structure. The EPR spectra of petroleum presented a single sign for organic free radicals. The present work basically consists of showing a new assignment of the EPR spectra to organic free radical. The sign observed in the EPR spectra in the Q-band for Arabian and Colombian oils was simulated mathematically. In contrast to the hypothesis postulated until now, that the sign corresponding to the free radical is interpreted as resulting from the superposition of the signs of different species of radicals in petroleum asphaltenes, the hypothesis that the asymmetrical line is the result of the components of the g tensor for a single radical species was proposed. The performed simulation was perfectly adjusted to the sign of the radical, confirming that this sign is the representation of a single species of free radical. Although the sign of the radical is due to a single species in each oil, the species responsible for the sign in Arabian petroleum is different from that responsible for the sign in Colombian petroleum. Nicodem, D.E., Fernandes, M.C.Z., Guedes, C.L.B., Correia, R.J., 1997. Biogeochemistry 39, 121-138. (author)

  14. Karl R. Popper, 1992: About the EPR controversy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Combourieu, Marie-Christine

    1992-10-01

    Sir K. R. Popper's experimental schemes challenge the Copenhagen interpretation of quantum theory, principally Heisenberg's indeterminacy relations and the EPR paradox. “The so-called Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen paradox is not a paradox. It is a theoretical statement in expectation of an interpretation,” says K. R. Popper in this interview. “My experiment ought to be a classical experiment. It is very simple and free from any additional assumption. It should really be done.”

  15. Toward 2D and 3D imaging of magnetic nanoparticles using EPR measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coene, A; Crevecoeur, G; Leliaert, J; Dupré, L

    2015-09-01

    Magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) are an important asset in many biomedical applications. An effective working of these applications requires an accurate knowledge of the spatial MNP distribution. A promising, noninvasive, and sensitive technique to visualize MNP distributions in vivo is electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR). Currently only 1D MNP distributions can be reconstructed. In this paper, the authors propose extending 1D EPR toward 2D and 3D using computer simulations to allow accurate imaging of MNP distributions. To find the MNP distribution belonging to EPR measurements, an inverse problem needs to be solved. The solution of this inverse problem highly depends on the stability of the inverse problem. The authors adapt 1D EPR imaging to realize the imaging of multidimensional MNP distributions. Furthermore, the authors introduce partial volume excitation in which only parts of the volume are imaged to increase stability of the inverse solution and to speed up the measurements. The authors simulate EPR measurements of different 2D and 3D MNP distributions and solve the inverse problem. The stability is evaluated by calculating the condition measure and by comparing the actual MNP distribution to the reconstructed MNP distribution. Based on these simulations, the authors define requirements for the EPR system to cope with the added dimensions. Moreover, the authors investigate how EPR measurements should be conducted to improve the stability of the associated inverse problem and to increase reconstruction quality. The approach used in 1D EPR can only be employed for the reconstruction of small volumes in 2D and 3D EPRs due to numerical instability of the inverse solution. The authors performed EPR measurements of increasing cylindrical volumes and evaluated the condition measure. This showed that a reduction of the inherent symmetry in the EPR methodology is necessary. By reducing the symmetry of the EPR setup, quantitative images of larger volumes can be

  16. Toward 2D and 3D imaging of magnetic nanoparticles using EPR measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coene, A.; Crevecoeur, G.; Dupré, L.; Leliaert, J.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) are an important asset in many biomedical applications. An effective working of these applications requires an accurate knowledge of the spatial MNP distribution. A promising, noninvasive, and sensitive technique to visualize MNP distributions in vivo is electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR). Currently only 1D MNP distributions can be reconstructed. In this paper, the authors propose extending 1D EPR toward 2D and 3D using computer simulations to allow accurate imaging of MNP distributions. Methods: To find the MNP distribution belonging to EPR measurements, an inverse problem needs to be solved. The solution of this inverse problem highly depends on the stability of the inverse problem. The authors adapt 1D EPR imaging to realize the imaging of multidimensional MNP distributions. Furthermore, the authors introduce partial volume excitation in which only parts of the volume are imaged to increase stability of the inverse solution and to speed up the measurements. The authors simulate EPR measurements of different 2D and 3D MNP distributions and solve the inverse problem. The stability is evaluated by calculating the condition measure and by comparing the actual MNP distribution to the reconstructed MNP distribution. Based on these simulations, the authors define requirements for the EPR system to cope with the added dimensions. Moreover, the authors investigate how EPR measurements should be conducted to improve the stability of the associated inverse problem and to increase reconstruction quality. Results: The approach used in 1D EPR can only be employed for the reconstruction of small volumes in 2D and 3D EPRs due to numerical instability of the inverse solution. The authors performed EPR measurements of increasing cylindrical volumes and evaluated the condition measure. This showed that a reduction of the inherent symmetry in the EPR methodology is necessary. By reducing the symmetry of the EPR setup, quantitative images of

  17. Nitroxyl Modified Tobacco Mosaic Virus as a Metal-Free High-Relaxivity MRI and EPR Active Superoxide Sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dharmarwardana, Madushani; Martins, André F; Chen, Zhuo; Palacios, Philip M; Nowak, Chance M; Welch, Raymond P; Li, Shaobo; Luzuriaga, Michael A; Bleris, Leonidas; Pierce, Brad S; Sherry, A Dean; Gassensmith, Jeremiah J

    2018-05-29

    Superoxide overproduction is known to occur in multiple disease states requiring critical care; yet, noninvasive detection of superoxide in deep tissue remains a challenge. Herein, we report a metal-free magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) active contrast agent prepared by "click conjugating" paramagnetic organic radical contrast agents (ORCAs) to the surface of tobacco mosaic virus (TMV). While ORCAs are known to be reduced in vivo to an MRI/EPR silent state, their oxidation is facilitated specifically by reactive oxygen species-in particular, superoxide-and are largely unaffected by peroxides and molecular oxygen. Unfortunately, single molecule ORCAs typically offer weak MRI contrast. In contrast, our data confirm that the macromolecular ORCA-TMV conjugates show marked enhancement for T 1 contrast at low field (<3.0 T) and T 2 contrast at high field (9.4 T). Additionally, we demonstrated that the unique topology of TMV allows for a "quenchless fluorescent" bimodal probe for concurrent fluorescence and MRI/EPR imaging, which was made possible by exploiting the unique inner and outer surface of the TMV nanoparticle. Finally, we show TMV-ORCAs do not respond to normal cellular respiration, minimizing the likelihood for background, yet still respond to enzymatically produced superoxide in complicated biological fluids like serum.

  18. A high-frequency EPR study of a new S = 10 Mn12 single-molecule magnet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Norm

    2005-03-01

    We will present a detailed angle-resolved high-frequency EPR study of a recently discovered analog of the Mn12-acetate single-molecule magnet (SMM). Like the acetate, the new complex [Mn12O12(O2CCH2Bu^t)16(CH3OH)4].CH3OH (Mn12-tBuAc), possesses a spin S = 10 ground state and S4 site symmetry. Magnetic measurements also reveal the usual resonant magnetization tunneling steps in the low temperature hysteresis loops. However, we show that the solvent-disorder-induced anomalies reported in the EPR spectra for Mn12-acetate^1 are absent for Mn12-tBuAc. This suggests that Mn12-tBuAc is intrinsically cleaner, and that detailed studies of this compound may reveal important new information concerning the quantum dynamics of large spins. Indeed, our analysis of the EPR line widths suggest that they are close to the intrinsic lifetime broadened limit, which may make it possible to extract information concerning electronic relaxation times (T1 and T2). ^1S. Takahashi et al., Phys. Rev. B 70, 094429 (2004)

  19. An EPR study on wastewater disinfection by peracetic acid, hydrogen peroxide and UV irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchini, Roberto; Calucci, Lucia; Caretti, Cecilia; Lubello, Claudio; Pinzino, Calogero; Piscicelli, Michela

    2002-09-01

    EPR spectroscopy was applied to obtain qualitative and quantitative information on the radicals produced in disinfection processes of wastewater for agricultural reuse. The DEPMPO spin trap was employed to detect hydroxyl and carbon-centered short living radicals in two different peracetic acid solutions and a hydrogen peroxide solution used for water disinfection either in the absence or in the presence of UV-C irradiation. Moreover, three different kinds of water (wastewater, demineralized water, distilled water) were analysed in order to assess the contribution of Fenton reactions to the radical production. The spectroscopic results were discussed in relation to the efficiency of the different oxidizing agents and UV irradiation in wastewater disinfection evaluated as Escherichia Coli, Faecal and Total Coliforms inactivation.

  20. High-pressure EPR spectroscopy studies of the E. coli lipopolysaccharide transport proteins LptA and LptC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Kathryn M; Klug, Candice S

    2017-12-01

    The use of pressure is an advantageous approach to the study of protein structure and dynamics because it can shift the equilibrium populations of protein conformations toward higher energy states that are not of sufficient population to be observable at atmospheric pressure. Recently, the Hubbell group at the University of California, Los Angeles, reintroduced the application of high pressure to the study of proteins by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy. This methodology is possible using X-band EPR spectroscopy due to advances in pressure intensifiers, sample cells, and resonators. In addition to the commercial availability of the pressure generation and sample cells by Pressure Biosciences Inc., a five-loop-four-gap resonator required for the initial high pressure EPR spectroscopy experiments by the Hubbell group, and those reported here, was designed by James S. Hyde and built and modified at the National Biomedical EPR Center. With these technological advances, we determined the effect of pressure on the essential periplasmic lipopolysaccharide (LPS) transport protein from Escherichia coli , LptA, and one of its binding partners, LptC. LptA unfolds from the N-terminus to the C-terminus, binding of LPS does not appreciably stabilize the protein under pressure, and monomeric LptA unfolds somewhat more readily than oligomeric LptA upon pressurization to 2 kbar. LptC exhibits a fold and relative lack of stability upon LPS binding similar to LptA, yet adopts an altered, likely monomeric, folded conformation under pressure with only its C-terminus unraveling. The pressure-induced changes likely correlate with functional changes associated with binding and transport of LPS.

  1. EPR investigation of some traditional oriental irradiated spices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duliu, Octavian G.; Georgescu, Rodica; Ali, Shaban Ibrahim

    2007-01-01

    The 9.50 GHz electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectra of unirradiated and 60 Co γ-ray irradiated cardamom (Elettaria cardamomum L. Maton, Zingiberaceae), ginger ((Zingiber officinale Rosc., Zingiberaceae), and saffron (Crocus sativus L., Iridaceae) have been investigated at room temperature. All unirradiated spices presented a weak resonance line with g-factors around free-electron ones. After γ-ray irradiation at an absorbed dose of up to 11.3 kGy, the presence of EPR spectra whose amplitude increase monotonously with the absorbed dose has been noticed with all spices. A 100 o C isothermal annealing of 11.3 kGy irradiated samples has shown a differential reduction of amplitude of various components that compose initial spectra, but even after 3.6 h of thermal treatment, the remaining amplitude represents no less then 30% of the initial ones. The same peculiarities have been noticed after 83 days storage at room temperature but after 340 days storage at ambient conditions only irradiated ginger displays a weak signal that differs from those of unirradiated sample. All these factors could be taken into account in establishing at which extent the EPR is suitable to evidence any irradiation treatment applied to these spices

  2. EPR investigation of some traditional oriental irradiated spices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duliu, Octavian G. [University of Bucharest, Department of Atomic and Nuclear Physics, Magurele, C.P. MG-11, RO-077125 Bucharest (Romania)]. E-mail: duliu@pcnet.ro; Georgescu, Rodica [National Institute for Physics and Nuclear Engineering -Horia Hulubei, C.P. MG-6, RO-077125 Bucharest (Romania); Ali, Shaban Ibrahim [University of Bucharest, Department of Atomic and Nuclear Physics, Magurele, C.P. MG-11, RO-077125 Bucharest (Romania)

    2007-06-15

    The 9.50 GHz electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectra of unirradiated and {sup 60}Co {gamma}-ray irradiated cardamom (Elettaria cardamomum L. Maton, Zingiberaceae), ginger ((Zingiber officinale Rosc., Zingiberaceae), and saffron (Crocus sativus L., Iridaceae) have been investigated at room temperature. All unirradiated spices presented a weak resonance line with g-factors around free-electron ones. After {gamma}-ray irradiation at an absorbed dose of up to 11.3 kGy, the presence of EPR spectra whose amplitude increase monotonously with the absorbed dose has been noticed with all spices. A 100 {sup o}C isothermal annealing of 11.3 kGy irradiated samples has shown a differential reduction of amplitude of various components that compose initial spectra, but even after 3.6 h of thermal treatment, the remaining amplitude represents no less then 30% of the initial ones. The same peculiarities have been noticed after 83 days storage at room temperature but after 340 days storage at ambient conditions only irradiated ginger displays a weak signal that differs from those of unirradiated sample. All these factors could be taken into account in establishing at which extent the EPR is suitable to evidence any irradiation treatment applied to these spices.

  3. EPR investigation of some traditional oriental irradiated spices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duliu, Octavian G.; Georgescu, Rodica; Ali, Shaban Ibrahim

    2007-06-01

    The 9.50 GHz electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectra of unirradiated and 60Co γ-ray irradiated cardamom ( Elettaria cardamomum L. Maton, Zingiberaceae), ginger (( Zingiber officinale Rosc., Zingiberaceae), and saffron ( Crocus sativus L., Iridaceae) have been investigated at room temperature. All unirradiated spices presented a weak resonance line with g-factors around free-electron ones. After γ-ray irradiation at an absorbed dose of up to 11.3 kGy, the presence of EPR spectra whose amplitude increase monotonously with the absorbed dose has been noticed with all spices. A 100 °C isothermal annealing of 11.3 kGy irradiated samples has shown a differential reduction of amplitude of various components that compose initial spectra, but even after 3.6 h of thermal treatment, the remaining amplitude represents no less then 30% of the initial ones. The same peculiarities have been noticed after 83 days storage at room temperature but after 340 days storage at ambient conditions only irradiated ginger displays a weak signal that differs from those of unirradiated sample. All these factors could be taken into account in establishing at which extent the EPR is suitable to evidence any irradiation treatment applied to these spices.

  4. Advances in Probes and Methods for Clinical EPR Oximetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Huagang; Khan, Nadeem; Jarvis, Lesley A.; Chen, Eunice Y.; Williams, Benjamin B.; Kuppusamy, Periannan

    2015-01-01

    EPR oximetry, which enables reliable, accurate, and repeated measurements of the partial pressure of oxygen in tissues, provides a unique opportunity to investigate the role of oxygen in the pathogenesis and treatment of several diseases including cancer, stroke, and heart failure. Building on significant advances in the in vivo application of EPR oximetry for small animal models of disease, we are developing suitable probes and instrumentation required for use in human subjects. Our laboratory has established the feasibility of clinical EPR oximetry in cancer patients using India ink, the only material presently approved for clinical use. We now are developing the next generation of probes, which are both superior in terms of oxygen sensitivity and biocompatibility including an excellent safety profile for use in humans. Further advances include the development of implantable oxygen sensors linked to an external coupling loop for measurements of deep-tissue oxygenations at any depth, overcoming the current limitation of 10 mm. This paper presents an overview of recent developments in our ability to make meaningful measurements of oxygen partial pressures in human subjects under clinical settings. PMID:24729217

  5. Peptide-membrane Interactions by Spin-labeling EPR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirnova, Tatyana I.; Smirnov, Alex I.

    2016-01-01

    Site-directed spin labeling (SDSL) in combination with Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) spectroscopy is a well-established method that has recently grown in popularity as an experimental technique, with multiple applications in protein and peptide science. The growth is driven by development of labeling strategies, as well as by considerable technical advances in the field, that are paralleled by an increased availability of EPR instrumentation. While the method requires an introduction of a paramagnetic probe at a well-defined position in a peptide sequence, it has been shown to be minimally destructive to the peptide structure and energetics of the peptide-membrane interactions. In this chapter, we describe basic approaches for using SDSL EPR spectroscopy to study interactions between small peptides and biological membranes or membrane mimetic systems. We focus on experimental approaches to quantify peptide-membrane binding, topology of bound peptides, and characterize peptide aggregation. Sample preparation protocols including spin-labeling methods and preparation of membrane mimetic systems are also described. PMID:26477253

  6. Development of fire protection standards for the EPR project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frank, H.J.; Kaercher, M.; Wittmann, R.

    2000-01-01

    In 1989 Framatome and Siemens decided by setting up their joint subsidiary NPI (Nuclear Power International) to co-operate in designing a new European Pressurised Water Reactor, the EPR. French and German utilities decided to participate in this project. In parallel to the co-operation on supplier's and utility's side, the French and German safety authorities and safety experts wanted to work closely together in order to harmonise and further develop the outstanding safety standards in France and Germany. An organisation has been set up to elaborate common codes related to the EPR design, at the level of the French design and construction rules (RCC) of the German KTA safety standards and DIN standards for nuclear technology, the so-called EPR technical codes (ETC). In this context the decision was made to develop a new fire protection code, the ETC-F, which should be harmonised between France and Germany. The article gives an insight in the developing process of the ETC-F and an outlook on existing and perhaps further national activities. (orig.) [de

  7. IC modelling in the IRSN EPR level 1 PSA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delache, J.

    2012-01-01

    Today in France, an EPR (European Pressurized Water Reactor) Unit is under construction at the Flamanville site. The creation authorization was granted in April 2007 and the plant commissioning is planned for 2012. The plant operator (EDF) provided for the construction license several PSA (Probabilistic Safety Assessment) studies. IRSN, as TSO (Technical Safety Organisation), wishes to dispose of the appropriate knowledge and tools for the independent verification of the operator studies and so developed its own model of PSA level 1. The goal is not to rebuild the plant operator PSA (with a full scope...) but to dispose of a simplified model able to clearly point out specific important issues. In the IRSN model a particular effort has recently been done on the Digital IC modelling. The IC (Instrumentation and Control) is modelled in the IRSN EPR PSA by using Fault Trees. Instead, EDF EPR PSA applies the COMPACT model to simplify the command and instrumentation logics. The IRSN model is more detailed in order to be more accurate in the global analysis of the Digital IC. For instance the communication ways between automates are considered as well as the failure of support systems. The model is still under development mainly in order to define the CCF (Common Cause Failure) which may be considered. (authors)

  8. TL, EPR and optical absorption in natural grossular crystal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yauri, J.M. [Institute of Physics, University of Sao Paulo, Rua do Matao, Travessa R, 187, CEP 05508-900, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Department of Physics, University of San Agustin, Av. Independencia S/N, Arequipa (Peru); Cano, N.F. [Institute of Physics, University of Sao Paulo, Rua do Matao, Travessa R, 187, CEP 05508-900, Sao Paulo (Brazil)], E-mail: nilocano@dfn.if.usp.br; Watanabe, S. [Institute of Physics, University of Sao Paulo, Rua do Matao, Travessa R, 187, CEP 05508-900, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2008-10-15

    Grossular is one of six members of silicate Garnet group. Two samples GI and GII have been investigated concerning their luminescence thermally stimulated (TL). EPR and optical absorption and the measurements were carried out to find out whether or not same point defects are responsible for all three properties. Although X-rays diffraction analysis has shown that both GI and GII have practically the same crystal structure of a standard grossular crystal, they presented different behavior in many aspects. The TL glow curve shape, TL response to radiation dose, the effect of annealing at high temperatures before irradiation, the dependence of UV bleaching parameters on peak temperature, all of them differ going from GI to GII. The EPR signals around g=2.0 as well as at g=4.3 and 6.0 have much larger intensity in GI than in GII. Very high temperature (>800 deg. C) annealing causes large increase in the bulk background absorption in GI, however, only very little in GII. In the cases of EPR and optical absorption, the difference in their behavior can be attributed to Fe{sup 3+} ions; however, in the TL case one cannot and the cause was not found as yet.

  9. Characterization of beer flavour stability (EPR - spin trapping)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stasko, A.; Liptakova, M.; Malik, F.

    1999-01-01

    The beer flavour stability is coupled with free radical degradation processes. Probably, aldehydes produced during the brewery but also generated by stalling are responsible for beer flavour as well as for its breaking down. The storing beer at the lower temperatures and in the dark place inhibits, and otherwise the rising temperature and illumination accelerate the rate of such radical processes. Beers contain naturally occurring radical scavengers - antioxidants which inhibit such unwanted reactions. Then depleting of scavengers results in the breaking down of the beer stability. EPR spin trapping technique was used as monitor such processes and for characterising so the flavour stability of beer. The probe was temperated at 60 grad C in the cavity of EPR spectrometer in the presence of spin trapping agent, N-tert.-butyl-α-phenyl nitrone (PBN) and EPR spectra were recorded for few hours. After beer antioxidants become depleted, free radicals formed by the beer degradation are scavenged by PBN spin trap and this point is characterised with a dramatically increased concentration of the free radicals trapped

  10. Public debate about the EPR nuclear power plant at Flamanville

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    The project of building of he EPR reactor at Flamanville (Manche, France) has been submitted to the public debate. This document includes a presentation of the project and of the rules of the public debate, a synthesis of the file made by the prime contractor (EDF), a synthesis of the collective book of national actors concerned by the project (a group of associations for environment protection, Areva company, the ministries of economy and ecology, Global Chance, association of pro-nuclear ecologists (AEPN), 'Sortir du Nucleaire' (out-of nuclear) network, group of scientists for the information about nuclear (GSIEN), association for the promotion of the Flamanville site (Proflam), French nuclear energy society (SFEN) in association with 'Sauvons le Climat' (let's save climate), regional collective association 'EPR non merci, ni ailleurs, ni ici' (EPR, no thanks, neither elsewhere, nor here), NegaWatt), and 5 detailed books of actors: ACRO (association for the control of radioactivity in Western France), CFDT and CGT syndicates, the economic and social council of Basse Normandie region, and Proflam. (J.S.)

  11. TL, EPR and optical absorption in natural grossular crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yauri, J.M.; Cano, N.F.; Watanabe, S.

    2008-01-01

    Grossular is one of six members of silicate Garnet group. Two samples GI and GII have been investigated concerning their luminescence thermally stimulated (TL). EPR and optical absorption and the measurements were carried out to find out whether or not same point defects are responsible for all three properties. Although X-rays diffraction analysis has shown that both GI and GII have practically the same crystal structure of a standard grossular crystal, they presented different behavior in many aspects. The TL glow curve shape, TL response to radiation dose, the effect of annealing at high temperatures before irradiation, the dependence of UV bleaching parameters on peak temperature, all of them differ going from GI to GII. The EPR signals around g=2.0 as well as at g=4.3 and 6.0 have much larger intensity in GI than in GII. Very high temperature (>800 deg. C) annealing causes large increase in the bulk background absorption in GI, however, only very little in GII. In the cases of EPR and optical absorption, the difference in their behavior can be attributed to Fe 3+ ions; however, in the TL case one cannot and the cause was not found as yet

  12. EPR, a GEN 3 Reactor providing a competitive electricity cost

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salhi, Othman

    2006-01-01

    Since the very beginning of the development of what was to become the EPR, several European entities were involved. The French and German safety authorities expressed that reinforced safety was compulsory. Additional measures were then included to prevent the occurrence of events likely to damage the core, and reduce the possibility of exposure of operating and maintenance personnel. However, not with standing these safety related features resulting from the requirements of the safety authorities, we will focus today on another group of entities that were key players in EPR development: the Utilities. The Utilities voiced their need for a competitive electricity produced and a competitive nuclear reactor. The tradeoff was then to reach both targets in a unique product: a safer and more competitive NPP. Today, the EPR presents features that enable our clients to compete with the cheapest fossil-based electricity production plants. Increased thermal efficiency is obtained both through a higher steam pressure and through careful optimization of the secondary system thermal cycle

  13. Assessment of an alanine EPR dosimetry technique with enhanced precision and accuracy

    CERN Document Server

    Hayes, R B; Wieser, A; Romanyukha, A A; Hardy, B L; Barrus, J K

    2000-01-01

    Dose reconstruction in the course of a series of blind tests demonstrated that an accuracy of 10 mGy for low doses and 1% for high doses can be achieved using EPR spectroscopy. This was accomplished using a combination of methodologies including polynomial filtration of the EPR spectrum, dosimeter rotation during scanning, use of an EPR standard fixed into the resonator and subtraction of all nonradiogenic signals. Doses were reconstructed over the range of 0.01-1000 Gy using this compound spectral EPR analysis. This EPR technique, being equally applicable to fractionated doses (such as those delivered during multiple radiotherapy treatments), was verified to exhibit dose reciprocity. Irradiated alanine dosimeters which were stored exhibited compound spectral EPR signal fading of ca 3% over 9 months. All error estimates given in this paper are given at the 1 standard deviation level and unless otherwise specified do not account for uncertainties in source calibration.

  14. Estimation of mean and median pO2 values for a composite EPR spectrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Rizwan; Vikram, Deepti S; Potter, Lee C; Kuppusamy, Periannan

    2008-06-01

    Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR)-based oximetry is capable of quantifying oxygen content in samples. However, for a heterogeneous environment with multiple pO2 values, peak-to-peak linewidth of the composite EPR lineshape does not provide a reliable estimate of the overall pO2 in the sample. The estimate, depending on the heterogeneity, can be severely biased towards narrow components. To address this issue, we suggest a postprocessing method to recover the linewidth histogram which can be used in estimating meaningful parameters, such as the mean and median pO2 values. This information, although not as comprehensive as obtained by EPR spectral-spatial imaging, goes beyond what can be generally achieved with conventional EPR spectroscopy. Substantially shorter acquisition times, in comparison to EPR imaging, may prompt its use in clinically relevant models. For validation, simulation and EPR experiment data are presented.

  15. Assessment of an alanine EPR dosimetry technique with enhanced precision and accuracy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayes, Robert B.; Haskell, E.H.; Wieser, Albrecht; Romanyukha, Alexander A.; Hardy, Byron L.; Barrus, Jeffrey K.

    2000-01-01

    Dose reconstruction in the course of a series of blind tests demonstrated that an accuracy of 10 mGy for low doses and 1% for high doses can be achieved using EPR spectroscopy. This was accomplished using a combination of methodologies including polynomial filtration of the EPR spectrum, dosimeter rotation during scanning, use of an EPR standard fixed into the resonator and subtraction of all nonradiogenic signals. Doses were reconstructed over the range of 0.01-1000 Gy using this compound spectral EPR analysis. This EPR technique, being equally applicable to fractionated doses (such as those delivered during multiple radiotherapy treatments), was verified to exhibit dose reciprocity. Irradiated alanine dosimeters which were stored exhibited compound spectral EPR signal fading of ca 3% over 9 months. All error estimates given in this paper are given at the 1 standard deviation level and unless otherwise specified do not account for uncertainties in source calibration

  16. Emergency Preservation and Resuscitation for Cardiac Arrest from Trauma (EPR-CAT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    Award Number: W81XWH-07-1-0682 TITLE: Emergency Preservation and Resuscitation for Cardiac Arrest from Trauma ( EPR -CAT) PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR...thoracotomy and open chest CPR, results in unacceptably low survival rates. Emergency Preservation and Resuscitation ( EPR ) was developed to rapidly preserve...further recommended that the trauma surgeons involved in the study obtain hospital privileges for cannulation for the EPR flush. This has been

  17. Emergency Preservation and Resuscitation for Cardiac Arrest from Trauma (EPR CAT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    Award Number: W81XWH-07-1-0682 TITLE: Emergency Preservation and Resuscitation for Cardiac Arrest from Trauma ( EPR -CAT) PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR...Preservation and Resuscitation ( EPR ) was developed to rapidly preserve the organism during ischemia, using hypothermia, drugs, and fluids, to “buy time...privileges for cannulation for the EPR flush. This has been accomplished. Given the complexity of our planned intervention for trauma patients in

  18. In Vivo Imaging of Tissue Physiological Function using EPR Spectroscopy | NCI Technology Transfer Center | TTC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) is a technique for studying chemical species that have one or more unpaired electrons.  The current invention describes Echo-based Single Point Imaging (ESPI), a novel EPR image formation strategy that allows in vivo imaging of physiological function.  The National Cancer Institute's Radiation Biology Branch is seeking statements of capability or interest from parties interested in in-licensing an in vivo imaging using Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) to measure active oxygen species.

  19. The Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen Paradox and Entanglement 1: Signatures of EPR correlations for continuous variables

    OpenAIRE

    Reid, M. D.

    2001-01-01

    A generalization of the 1935 Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) argument for measurements with continuous variable outcomes is presented to establish criteria for the demonstration of the EPR paradox, for situations where the correlation between spatially separated subsystems is not perfect. Two types of criteria for EPR correlations are determined. The first type are based on measurements of the variances of conditional probability distributions and are necessary to reflect directly the situation...

  20. Optimal registration conditions for tooth EPR dosimetry at low accumulated dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galtsev, V.E.; Galtseva, E.V.; Lebedev, Y.S.

    1997-01-01

    The spectrum registration under rapid passage conditions (the second harmonic phase quadrature of the absorption signal) allows one to enhance substantially the sensitivity of tooth enamel and bone EPR dosimetry at a low accumulated dose. In the present work the dependencies of the radiation and background signals on EPR spectrometer parameters are described and the optimal conditions in RPM for EPR dosimetry are obtained. (Author)

  1. Superhigh-frequency circuit for the EPR spectrometer with rectifier screening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhizhchenko, G.A.; Tsvirko, L.V.

    1983-01-01

    The hamodyne SHF circuit of a 3-cm EPR spectrometer with a reflecting resonator is described. The optimum operating mode of SHF-rectifier at a constant phase difference is automatically assured in the circuit. The circuit employs a reflecting p-i-n- attenuator and a SHF-rectifier sereen which simplify the spectrometer tuming. The circuit is used in a miniature EPR radiospectrometer Minsk EPR-6-type

  2. Investigations of the EPR reference concept (KATS experiments); Untersuchungen zum EPR-Referenz-Konzept (KATS-Experimente)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fieg, G.; Werle, H.; Huber, F.

    1995-08-01

    The reference concept of an EPR core catcher envisages the spreading of the melt on a protective layer (150 m{sup 2} area) and water cooling from above. Two variants are considered: Spreading on a dry area and on an area covered by water of condensation (1 cm depth). For the reference concept the KATS experiments are performed with thermite melts. After initial problems had rendered it difficult to interprete the first test, repeated tests have been successful. (orig.)

  3. Recommendations for reporting of systematic reviews and meta-analyses of diagnostic test accuracy: a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McGrath, Trevor A.; Alabousi, Mostafa; Skidmore, Becky; Korevaar, Daniël A.; Bossuyt, Patrick M. M.; Moher, David; Thombs, Brett; McInnes, Matthew D. F.

    2017-01-01

    This study is to perform a systematic review of existing guidance on quality of reporting and methodology for systematic reviews of diagnostic test accuracy (DTA) in order to compile a list of potential items that might be included in a reporting guideline for such reviews: Preferred Reporting Items

  4. EPR study of sagitta otoliths of Sciaenidae fish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beneditto, Ana Paula Madeira di; Franco, Roberto Weider de Assis

    2011-01-01

    Full text. Otoliths are crystalline structures of calcium carbonate (CaCO 3 ) located in the inner ear of bone fish that are responsible for balance maintenance in the water column and sense of direction. The bio mineralization of these structures occurs during the fish development; when the otolith growth layers are formed. In this work, electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy is applied to study the sagitta otoliths via manganese (Mn 2+ ) spectra, since in calcium carbonates the Mn 2+ ion is a natural substitutional impurity at Ca 2+ sites. The sagitta otoliths of the Sciaenidae fish Paralonchurus brasiliensis, commonly known as cabeca dura (47 samples), and Stellifer rastrifer, known as cangoa (22 samples), were obtained from specimens captured in coastal areas of Rio de Janeiro State, southeastern Brazil: Atafona (21 deg 37'S), Farol de Sao Tome (22 deg 05'S) and Rio das Ostras (22 deg 30'S). EPR spectra of sagitta otoliths were obtained in X-band (9GHz) at room temperature. The EPR spectra are typical of Mn 2+ in aragonite powder, associated to an occupation of Ca 2+ site with nine nearest neighbor oxygen atoms. It is well established in the literature that the otolith core is constituted by calcite, which is covered by aragonite during the fish growth. However, otoliths of younger fishes showed similar EPR spectra when compared to the older ones, indicating that aragonite is the main bio mineral structure in both maturity stages. In a previous work, these two Sciaenidae species presented significant differences in sagitta otoliths shape, which were related to environmental differences (e.g. water temperature, nutrients, depth) among the sampling sites (Atafona, Farol de Sao Tome and Rio das Ostras). Meanwhile, we do not observed differences in the EPR spectra, indicating that the aragonite crystallization process and the occupation of manganese are not related with the environment where these fish species are living. Then, we can infer that the

  5. EPR study of sagitta otoliths of Sciaenidae fish

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beneditto, Ana Paula Madeira di; Franco, Roberto Weider de Assis [Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense (UENF), RJ (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Full text. Otoliths are crystalline structures of calcium carbonate (CaCO{sub 3}) located in the inner ear of bone fish that are responsible for balance maintenance in the water column and sense of direction. The bio mineralization of these structures occurs during the fish development; when the otolith growth layers are formed. In this work, electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy is applied to study the sagitta otoliths via manganese (Mn{sup 2+}) spectra, since in calcium carbonates the Mn{sup 2+} ion is a natural substitutional impurity at Ca{sup 2+} sites. The sagitta otoliths of the Sciaenidae fish Paralonchurus brasiliensis, commonly known as cabeca dura (47 samples), and Stellifer rastrifer, known as cangoa (22 samples), were obtained from specimens captured in coastal areas of Rio de Janeiro State, southeastern Brazil: Atafona (21 deg 37'S), Farol de Sao Tome (22 deg 05'S) and Rio das Ostras (22 deg 30'S). EPR spectra of sagitta otoliths were obtained in X-band (9GHz) at room temperature. The EPR spectra are typical of Mn{sup 2+} in aragonite powder, associated to an occupation of Ca{sup 2+} site with nine nearest neighbor oxygen atoms. It is well established in the literature that the otolith core is constituted by calcite, which is covered by aragonite during the fish growth. However, otoliths of younger fishes showed similar EPR spectra when compared to the older ones, indicating that aragonite is the main bio mineral structure in both maturity stages. In a previous work, these two Sciaenidae species presented significant differences in sagitta otoliths shape, which were related to environmental differences (e.g. water temperature, nutrients, depth) among the sampling sites (Atafona, Farol de Sao Tome and Rio das Ostras). Meanwhile, we do not observed differences in the EPR spectra, indicating that the aragonite crystallization process and the occupation of manganese are not related with the environment where these fish species

  6. Public debate about the EPR nuclear power plant at Flamanville; Debat public sur la centrale nucleaire EPR a Flamanville

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    The project of building of he EPR reactor at Flamanville (Manche, France) has been submitted to the public debate. This document includes a presentation of the project and of the rules of the public debate, a synthesis of the file made by the prime contractor (EDF), a synthesis of the collective book of national actors concerned by the project (a group of associations for environment protection, Areva company, the ministries of economy and ecology, Global Chance, association of pro-nuclear ecologists (AEPN), 'Sortir du Nucleaire' (out-of nuclear) network, group of scientists for the information about nuclear (GSIEN), association for the promotion of the Flamanville site (Proflam), French nuclear energy society (SFEN) in association with 'Sauvons le Climat' (let's save climate), regional collective association 'EPR non merci, ni ailleurs, ni ici' (EPR, no thanks, neither elsewhere, nor here), NegaWatt), and 5 detailed books of actors: ACRO (association for the control of radioactivity in Western France), CFDT and CGT syndicates, the economic and social council of Basse Normandie region, and Proflam. (J.S.)

  7. Public debate about the EPR nuclear power plant at Flamanville; Debat public sur la centrale nucleaire EPR a Flamanville

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    The project of building of he EPR reactor at Flamanville (Manche, France) has been submitted to the public debate. This document includes a presentation of the project and of the rules of the public debate, a synthesis of the file made by the prime contractor (EDF), a synthesis of the collective book of national actors concerned by the project (a group of associations for environment protection, Areva company, the ministries of economy and ecology, Global Chance, association of pro-nuclear ecologists (AEPN), 'Sortir du Nucleaire' (out-of nuclear) network, group of scientists for the information about nuclear (GSIEN), association for the promotion of the Flamanville site (Proflam), French nuclear energy society (SFEN) in association with 'Sauvons le Climat' (let's save climate), regional collective association 'EPR non merci, ni ailleurs, ni ici' (EPR, no thanks, neither elsewhere, nor here), NegaWatt), and 5 detailed books of actors: ACRO (association for the control of radioactivity in Western France), CFDT and CGT syndicates, the economic and social council of Basse Normandie region, and Proflam. (J.S.)

  8. Implementing a new EPR lineshape parameter for organic radicals in carbonaceous matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourbin, Mathilde; Du, Yann Le; Binet, Laurent; Gourier, Didier

    2013-07-17

    Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) is a non-destructive, non-invasive technique useful for the characterization of organic moieties in primitive carbonaceous matter related to the origin of life. The classical EPR parameters are the peak-to-peak amplitude, the linewidth and the g factor; however, such parameters turn out not to suffice to fully determine a single EPR line. In this paper, we give the definition and practical implementation of a new EPR parameter based on the signal shape that we call the R10 factor. This parameter was originally defined in the case of a single symmetric EPR line and used as a new datation method for organic matter in the field of exobiology. Combined to classical EPR parameters, the proposed shape parameter provides a full description of an EPR spectrum and opens the way to novel applications like datation. Such a parameter is a powerful tool for future EPR studies, not only of carbonaceous matter, but also of any substance which spectrum exhibits a single symmetric line. The paper is a literate program-written using Noweb within the Org-mode as provided by the Emacs editor- and it also describes the full data analysis pipeline that computes the R10 on a real EPR spectrum.

  9. Radicals as EPR probes of magnetization of gadolinium stearate Langmuir-Blodgett film

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koksharov, Y.A.; Bykov, I.V.; Malakho, A.P.

    2002-01-01

    In the present work we have applied the method of the EPR spin probes which allows performing simultaneously EPR and magnetization measurements to the investigation of magnetism of the Cid stearate Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) films. For this purpose we have prepared and studied by the EPR technique...... the Gd and Y stearate LB films. Placing the small BDPA crystal on the film surface we have found that for the Gd LB sample the effective g-value of the radical's resonance depends on the film orientation in respect to the external magnetic field direction. The relative shift of the EPR signal...

  10. Dependencies of the radiation sensitivity of human tooth enamel in EPR dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wieser, A.; El-Faramawy, N.; Meckbach, R.

    2001-01-01

    The EPR dose response of tooth enamel was determined for human molars collected in Egypt. The influence of age, gender and residence of the tooth donors as well as tooth position and sample preparation on EPR sensitivity and its variability over the enamel samples was investigated. The EPR sensitivity and its variability were found to depend only on the sample preparation procedure. The variability in EPR sensitivity of enamel from Egyptian teeth was maximally 10% and the mean sensitivity was in good agreement with that of German teeth

  11. Host material induced hyperfine structure of F{sup +} centres EPR spectra in CaS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seeman, Viktor, E-mail: viktor.seeman@ut.ee; Dolgov, Sergei; Maaroos, Aarne

    2017-05-15

    The hyperfine structure (HFS) of F{sup +} centres in CaS single crystals due to the interaction with {sup 33}S and {sup 43}Ca nuclei was observed in EPR spectra for the first time. Angular variations of the HFS were measured for rotation of magnetic field in {100} and {110} crystallographic planes. Using measured orientation-dependent EPR spectra and the EPR NMR program, the parameters of the spin Hamiltonian were determined. In case of {sup 33}S nucleus there is a strong dependence of the F{sup +} centre EPR spectrum on the quadrupole term whereas for {sup 43}Ca nucleus this dependence is insignificant.

  12. BiodosEPR-2006 Meeting: Acute dosimetry consensus committee recommendations on biodosimetry applications in events involving uses of radiation by terrorists and radiation accidents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexander, George A. [U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Office of Preparedness and Emergency Operations, 200 Independence Avenue, SW, Room 403B-1, Washington, DC 20201 (United States); Swartz, Harold M. [Dept. of Radiology and Physiology Dept., Dartmouth Medical School, HB 7785, Vail 702, Rubin 601, Hanover, NH 03755 (United States); Amundson, Sally A. [Center for Radiological Research, Columbia University Medical Center, 630 W. 168th Street, VC11-215, New York, NY 10032 (United States); Blakely, William F. [Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Inst., 8901 Wisconsin Avenue, Bethesda, MD 20889-5603 (United States)], E-mail: blakely@afrri.usuhs.mil; Buddemeier, Brooke [Science and Technology, U.S. Department of Homeland Security, Washington, DC 20528 (United States); Gallez, Bernard [Biomedical Magnetic Resonance Unit and Lab. of Medicinal Chemistry and Radiopharmacy, Univ. Catholique de Louvain, Brussels (Belgium); Dainiak, Nicholas [Dept. of Medicine, Bridgeport Hospital, 267 Grant Street, Bridgeport, CT 06610 (United States); Goans, Ronald E. [MJW Corporation, 1422 Eagle Bend Drive, Clinton, TN 37716-4029 (United States); Hayes, Robert B. [Remote Sensing Lab., MS RSL-47, P.O. Box 98421, Las Vegas, NV 89193 (United States); Lowry, Patrick C. [Radiation Emergency Assistance Center/Training Site (REAC/TS), Oak Ridge Associated Universities, P.O. Box 117, Oak Ridge, TN 37831-0117 (United States); Noska, Michael A. [Food and Drug Administration, FDA/CDRH, 1350 Piccard Drive, HFZ-240, Rockville, MD 20850 (United States); Okunieff, Paul [Dept. of Radiation Oncology (Box 647), Univ. of Rochester, 601 Elmwood Avenue, Rochester, NY 14642 (United States); Salner, Andrew L. [Helen and Harry Gray Cancer Center, Hartford Hospital, 80 Seymour Street, Hartford, CT 06102 (United States); Schauer, David A. [National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements, 7910 Woodmont Avenue, Suite 400, Bethesda, MD 20814-3095 (United States)] (and others)

    2007-07-15

    In the aftermath of a radiological terrorism incident or mass-casualty radiation accident, first responders and receivers require prior guidance and pre-positioned resources for assessment, triage and medical management of affected individuals [NCRP, 2005. Key elements of preparing emergency responders for nuclear and radiological terrorism. NCRP Commentary No. 19, Bethesda, Maryland, USA]. Several recent articles [Dainiak, N., Waselenko, J.K., Armitage, J.O., MacVittie, T.J., Farese, A.M., 2003. The hematologist and radiation casualties. Hematology (Am. Soc. Hematol. Educ. Program) 473-496; Waselenko, J.K., MacVittie, T.J., Blakely, W.F., Pesik, N., Wiley, A.L., Dickerson, W.E., Tsu, H., Confer, D.L., Coleman, C.N., Seed, T., Lowry, P., Armitage, J.O., Dainiak, N., Strategic National Stockpile Radiation Working Group, 2004. Medical management of the acute radiation syndrome: recommendations of the Strategic National Stockpile Radiation Working Group. Ann. Intern. Med. 140(12), 1037-1051; Blakely, W.F., Salter, C.A., Prasanna, P.G., 2005. Early-response biological dosimetry-recommended countermeasure enhancements for mass-casualty radiological incidents and terrorism. Health Phys. 89(5), 494-504; Goans, R.E., Waselenko, J.K., 2005. Medical management of radiation casualties. Health Phys. 89(5), 505-512; Swartz, H.M., Iwasaki, A., Walczak, T., Demidenko, E., Salikhov, I., Lesniewski, P., Starewicz, P., Schauer, D., Romanyukha, A., 2005. Measurements of clinically significant doses of ionizing radiation using non-invasive in vivo EPR spectroscopy of teeth in situ. Appl. Radiat. Isot. 62, 293-299; . Acute radiation injury: contingency planning for triage, supportive care, and transplantation. Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant. 12(6), 672-682], national [. Management of persons accidentally contaminated with radionuclides. NCRP Report No. 65, Bethesda, Maryland, USA; . Management of terrorist events involving radioactive material. NCRP Report No. 138, Bethesda, Maryland

  13. BiodosEPR-2006 Meeting: Acute dosimetry consensus committee recommendations on biodosimetry applications in events involving uses of radiation by terrorists and radiation accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexander, George A.; Swartz, Harold M.; Amundson, Sally A.; Blakely, William F.; Buddemeier, Brooke; Gallez, Bernard; Dainiak, Nicholas; Goans, Ronald E.; Hayes, Robert B.; Lowry, Patrick C.; Noska, Michael A.; Okunieff, Paul; Salner, Andrew L.; Schauer, David A.

    2007-01-01

    In the aftermath of a radiological terrorism incident or mass-casualty radiation accident, first responders and receivers require prior guidance and pre-positioned resources for assessment, triage and medical management of affected individuals [NCRP, 2005. Key elements of preparing emergency responders for nuclear and radiological terrorism. NCRP Commentary No. 19, Bethesda, Maryland, USA]. Several recent articles [Dainiak, N., Waselenko, J.K., Armitage, J.O., MacVittie, T.J., Farese, A.M., 2003. The hematologist and radiation casualties. Hematology (Am. Soc. Hematol. Educ. Program) 473-496; Waselenko, J.K., MacVittie, T.J., Blakely, W.F., Pesik, N., Wiley, A.L., Dickerson, W.E., Tsu, H., Confer, D.L., Coleman, C.N., Seed, T., Lowry, P., Armitage, J.O., Dainiak, N., Strategic National Stockpile Radiation Working Group, 2004. Medical management of the acute radiation syndrome: recommendations of the Strategic National Stockpile Radiation Working Group. Ann. Intern. Med. 140(12), 1037-1051; Blakely, W.F., Salter, C.A., Prasanna, P.G., 2005. Early-response biological dosimetry-recommended countermeasure enhancements for mass-casualty radiological incidents and terrorism. Health Phys. 89(5), 494-504; Goans, R.E., Waselenko, J.K., 2005. Medical management of radiation casualties. Health Phys. 89(5), 505-512; Swartz, H.M., Iwasaki, A., Walczak, T., Demidenko, E., Salikhov, I., Lesniewski, P., Starewicz, P., Schauer, D., Romanyukha, A., 2005. Measurements of clinically significant doses of ionizing radiation using non-invasive in vivo EPR spectroscopy of teeth in situ. Appl. Radiat. Isot. 62, 293-299; . Acute radiation injury: contingency planning for triage, supportive care, and transplantation. Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant. 12(6), 672-682], national [. Management of persons accidentally contaminated with radionuclides. NCRP Report No. 65, Bethesda, Maryland, USA; . Management of terrorist events involving radioactive material. NCRP Report No. 138, Bethesda, Maryland

  14. EPR: Comparative approach of the French and Finnish reviewing process and optimization of radiation-protection at the design phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Couasnon, Olivier; Bouchez, Emmanuelle; Gourram, Hakim; Evrard, Jean-Michel; Riihiluoma, Veli; Beneteau, Yannick; Foret, Jean-Luc

    2008-01-01

    Following the assessment of EPR preliminary safety analysis report in France, the purpose of this paper is to present a comparative approach of the french and finnish reviewing process. The overall picture drawn in this occasion is dedicated: 1) To remind the history of EPR (from the decision to implement studies in the 90 's to the french and german cooperation and finally to the construction of a unit in Finland and another one in France); 2) To compare french and finnish safety evaluation systems: in France, the safety authority in charge of the authorization process is not directly linked to its technical support which leads the technical instruction. In Finland, the safety authority is in charge of the evaluation of safety analysis. In this process Technical Support Organizations (TSO) can be requested for example in some comparative calculations; 3) To present the dose targets (calculated reference doses) planned by the nuclear operators in the design phase as well as the global radiation-protection optimization process. In France, for example, EDF performed a detailed optimization analysis on selected tasks known to have a major contribution to the annual average collective dose (thermal insulation, logistics, valve-maintenance, opening/closing of the vessel, preparation and checks of steam generators, on-site spent fuel management and waste management). The optimization process is set in France on an iterative method. In Finland the optimization of annual collective dose has to be described in a separate topical report. In every phase of system descriptions the radiation-protection aspects have to be taken into account to meet the requirement stated in specific regulatory guides; 4) As a conclusion, to draw a comparison between the EPR collective dose target and doses received on other pressurized water reactors that are close to the EPR design (Konvoi of German design, 'best French units'). This paper has been jointly written by the french operator (EDF

  15. CW EPR and 9 GHz EPR imaging investigation of stable paramagnetic species and their antioxidant activities in dry shiitake mushroom (Lentinus edodes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, Kouichi; Hara, Hideyuki

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the antioxidant activities and locations of stable paramagnetic species in dry (or drying) shiitake mushroom (Lentinus edodes) using continuous wave (CW) electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and 9 GHz EPR imaging. CW 9 GHz EPR detected paramagnetic species (peak-to-peak linewidth (ΔHpp) = 0.57 mT) in the mushroom. Two-dimensional imaging of the sharp line using a 9 GHz EPR imager showed that the species were located in the cap and shortened stem portions of the mushroom. No other location of the species was found in the mushroom. However, radical locations and concentrations varied along the cap of the mushroom. The 9 GHz EPR imaging determined the exact location of stable paramagnetic species in the shiitake mushroom. Distilled water extracts of the pigmented cap surface and the inner cap of the mushroom showed similar antioxidant activities that reduced an aqueous solution of 0.1 mM 4-hydroxy-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidin-1-oxyl. The present results suggest that the antioxidant activities of the edible mushroom extracts are much weaker than those of ascorbic acid. Thus, CW EPR and EPR imaging revealed the location and distribution of stable paramagnetic species and the antioxidant activities in the shiitake mushroom for the first time.

  16. Partial wave analyses of scattering below 2 GeV. Progress report, May 1, 1984-April 30, 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arndt, R.A.; Roper, L.D.

    1985-08-01

    Progress is reported in the partial wave analysis of nucleon-nucleon elastic scattering, pion-nucleon elastic scattering, and kaon plus-nucleon elastic scattering. Activities are also reported with respect to the Scattering Analysis Interactive Dial-in (SAID) facility

  17. Characterization of Bifunctional Spin Labels for Investigating the Structural and Dynamic Properties of Membrane Proteins Using EPR Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, Indra D; Craig, Andrew F; Dunagum, Megan M; McCarrick, Robert M; Lorigan, Gary A

    2017-10-05

    Site-directed spin labeling (SDSL) coupled with electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy is a very powerful technique to study structural and dynamic properties of membrane proteins. The most widely used spin label is methanthiosulfonate (MTSL). However, the flexibility of this spin label introduces greater uncertainties in EPR measurements obtained for determining structures, side-chain dynamics, and backbone motion of membrane protein systems. Recently, a newer bifunctional spin label (BSL), 3,4-bis(methanethiosulfonylmethyl)-2,2,5,5-tetramethyl-2,5-dihydro-1H-pyrrol-1-yloxy, has been introduced to overcome the dynamic limitations associated with the MTSL spin label and has been invaluable in determining protein backbone dynamics and inter-residue distances due to its restricted internal motion and fewer size restrictions. While BSL has been successful in providing more accurate information about the structure and dynamics of several proteins, a detailed characterization of the spin label is still lacking. In this study, we characterized BSLs by performing CW-EPR spectral line shape analysis as a function of temperature on spin-labeled sites inside and outside of the membrane for the integral membrane protein KCNE1 in POPC/POPG lipid bilayers and POPC/POPG lipodisq nanoparticles. The experimental data revealed a powder pattern spectral line shape for all of the KCNE1-BSL samples at 296 K, suggesting the motion of BSLs approaches the rigid limit regime for these series of samples. BSLs were further utilized to report for the first time the distance measurement between two BSLs attached on an integral membrane protein KCNE1 in POPC/POPG lipid bilayers at room temperature using dipolar line broadening CW-EPR spectroscopy. The CW dipolar line broadening EPR data revealed a 15 ± 2 Å distance between doubly attached BSLs on KCNE1 (53/57-63/67) which is consistent with molecular dynamics modeling and the solution NMR structure of KCNE1 which yielded a

  18. Reporting and Methodology of Multivariable Analyses in Prognostic Observational Studies Published in 4 Anesthesiology Journals: A Methodological Descriptive Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guglielminotti, Jean; Dechartres, Agnès; Mentré, France; Montravers, Philippe; Longrois, Dan; Laouénan, Cedric

    2015-10-01

    Prognostic research studies in anesthesiology aim to identify risk factors for an outcome (explanatory studies) or calculate the risk of this outcome on the basis of patients' risk factors (predictive studies). Multivariable models express the relationship between predictors and an outcome and are used in both explanatory and predictive studies. Model development demands a strict methodology and a clear reporting to assess its reliability. In this methodological descriptive review, we critically assessed the reporting and methodology of multivariable analysis used in observational prognostic studies published in anesthesiology journals. A systematic search was conducted on Medline through Web of Knowledge, PubMed, and journal websites to identify observational prognostic studies with multivariable analysis published in Anesthesiology, Anesthesia & Analgesia, British Journal of Anaesthesia, and Anaesthesia in 2010 and 2011. Data were extracted by 2 independent readers. First, studies were analyzed with respect to reporting of outcomes, design, size, methods of analysis, model performance (discrimination and calibration), model validation, clinical usefulness, and STROBE (i.e., Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology) checklist. A reporting rate was calculated on the basis of 21 items of the aforementioned points. Second, they were analyzed with respect to some predefined methodological points. Eighty-six studies were included: 87.2% were explanatory and 80.2% investigated a postoperative event. The reporting was fairly good, with a median reporting rate of 79% (75% in explanatory studies and 100% in predictive studies). Six items had a reporting rate website. Limiting the number of candidate variables, including cases with missing data, and not arbitrarily categorizing continuous variables should be encouraged.

  19. EPR meets the next generation PWR safety requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouteille, Francois; Czech, Juergen; Sloan, Sandra

    2006-01-01

    At the origin was the common decision in 1989 of Framatome and Siemens to cooperate to design a Nuclear Island which meets the future needs of utilities. EDF and a group of main German Utilities joined this effort in 1991 and from that point were completely involved in the progress of the work. Compliance of the EPR with the European Utility Requirements (EUR) was verified to ensure a large acceptability of the design by other participating utilities. In addition, the entire process was backed up to the end of 1998 by the French and the German Safety Authorities which engaged into a long-lasting cooperation to define common requirements applicable to future Nuclear Power Plants. Upon signature of the Olkiluoto 3 contract, STUK, the Finnish safety and radiation authority, began reviewing the design of the EPR. Upon the favorable recommendation of STUK, the Finnish government delivered a Construction License for the Olkiluoto 3 NPP on February 17, 2005. Following the positive conclusion of the political debate in France with regard to nuclear energy, EDF will also submit a request to start the construction of an EPR on the Flamanville site. In the US, the first steps in view of a Design Certification by the NRC have been taken. These three independent decisions make the EPR the leading first generation 3+ design under construction. Important safety functions are assured by separate systems in a straightforward operating mode. Four separate, redundant trains for all safety systems are installed in four separate layout division for which a strict separation is ensured so that common mode failure, for example due to internal hazards, can be ruled out. A reduction in common mode failure potential is also obtained by design rules ensuring the systematic application of functional diversity. A four train-redundancy for the major safety systems provides flexibility in adapting the design to maintenance requirements, thus contributing to reduce the outage duration. Additional

  20. Retrospective individual dosimetry using luminescence and EPR after radiation accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goeksu, H.Y.; Wieser, A.; Ulanovsky, A.

    2007-01-01

    requires further investigation. Applicability of suggested procedure need to be tested under factory conditions using the latest material and card technology. Feasibility of production of such cards on an industrial scale is discussed. Alternatively individual dose after emergency situations can be reconstructed by assessment of absorbed dose in human tooth enamel by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) measurements. From absorbed dose in tooth enamel the effective dose and dose in organs can be reconstructed in consideration of photon energy response characteristic of teeth, and photon energy spectrum and geometry of the exposure field. In this project the applicability of EPR measurements with teeth was extended by reducing the detection threshold and computation of the photon energy response characteristic of deciduous teeth. It is shown that current limitation of EPR measurement with teeth at low absorbed dose is caused by incomplete consideration of the EPR spectrum of nonradiation induced (initial) radicals. By adding further components for simulation of the initial EPR spectrum in the dose evaluation procedure, the critical value for detection of absorbed dose in tooth enamel could be decreased to 19 mGy. Dose conversion coefficients for deciduous teeth in dependence of photon energy and exposure geometry were computed by Monte Carlo simulation using a mathematical child phantom. For use with luminescence measurements with chip cards and EPR measurements with teeth a software was established that allows conversion of the measured dose to integral free-in-air kerma, tissue dose or dose water in dependence on exposure scenario. (orig.)