WorldWideScience

Sample records for reported effects ranged

  1. Online Sorted Range Reporting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodal, Gerth Stølting; Fagerberg, Rolf; Greve, Mark

    2009-01-01

    is motivated by (and is a generalization of) a problem with applications in search engines: On a tree where leaves have associated rank values, report the highest ranked leaves in a given subtree. Finally, the problem studied generalizes the classic range minimum query (RMQ) problem on arrays....

  2. Substring Range Reporting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Philip; Gørtz, Inge Li

    2014-01-01

    We revisit various string indexing problems with range reporting features, namely, position-restricted substring searching, indexing substrings with gaps, and indexing substrings with intervals. We obtain the following main results. We give efficient reductions for each of the above problems...

  3. Substring Range Reporting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Philip; Gørtz, Inge Li

    2011-01-01

    We revisit various string indexing problems with range reporting features, namely, position-restricted substring searching, indexing substrings with gaps, and indexing substrings with intervals. We obtain the following main results. – We give efficient reductions for each of the above problems...

  4. Effects and control of long-range transboundary air pollution. Report prepared within the framework of the Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    This eleventh volume of the series of Air Pollution Studies, published under the auspices of the Executive Body for the Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution, contains the documents reviewed and approved for publication at the twelfth session of the Executive Body held at Geneva from 28 November to 1 December 1994. Part one focuses on the possible impact of acid deposition on the quality of groundwater in the ECE region. The objective of this report is to present an updated review of available knowledge on the possible impact of deposition of sulphur and nitrogen compounds on the status of groundwater, including a brief survey of recent research results in this field. It updates an earlier report on the effects of air pollutants on groundwater, prepared within the Convention (EB.AIR/WG.1/R.9). Part two is an executive summary of the 1993 Report on the Forest Condition in Europe (Forest Condition in Europe. Results of the 1993 Survey. 1994 Report, EC-UN/ECE, Brussels, Geneva, 1994). The report describes the results of both the national and the transnational surveys which are conducted annually within the International Cooperative Programme on the Assessment and Monitoring of Air Pollution Effects on Forests (ICP Forests) of the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (ECE) and under European Community Council Regulation (EEC) 3528/86 on the protection of the Community's Forests against Atmospheric Pollution. Part three is a summary report on the options for further reduction of nitrogen oxide emissions from road heavy-duty vehicles (HDVs). This report is primarily focused on reduction options for road HDVs, but some of the technical measures reviewed can, however, also be applied to some non-road diesel engines, such as machinery in construction, agriculture or forestry

  5. Long-Range Effects of Na(+) Binding in Na,K-ATPase Reported by ATP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middleton, David A; Fedosova, Natalya U; Esmann, Mikael

    2015-12-01

    This paper addresses the question of long-range interactions between the intramembranous cation binding sites and the cytoplasmic nucleotide binding site of the ubiquitous ion-transporting Na,K-ATPase using (13)C cross-polarization magic-angle spinning (CP-MAS) solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance. High-affinity ATP binding is induced by the presence of Na(+) as well as of Na-like substances such as Tris(+), and these ions are equally efficient promoters of nucleotide binding. CP-MAS analysis of bound ATP with Na,K-ATPase purified from pig kidney membranes reveals subtle differences in the nucleotide interactions within the nucleotide site depending on whether Na(+) or Tris(+) is used to induce binding. Differences in chemical shifts for ATP atoms C1' and C5' observed in the presence of Na(+) or Tris(+) suggest alterations in the residues surrounding the bound nucleotide, hydrogen bonding, and/or conformation of the ribose ring. This is taken as evidence of a long-distance communication between the Na(+)-filled ion sites in the membrane interior and the nucleotide binding site in the cytoplasmic domain and reflects the first conformational change ultimately leading to phosphorylation of the enzyme. Stopped-flow fluorescence measurements with the nucleotide analogue eosin show that the dissociation rate constant for eosin is larger in Tris(+) than in Na(+), giving kinetic evidence of the difference in structural effects of Na(+) and Tris(+). According to the recent crystal structure of the E1·AlF4(-)·ADP·3Na(+) form, the coupling between the ion binding sites and the nucleotide side is mediated by, among others, the M5 helix.

  6. Effects and control of long-range transboundary air pollution. Report prepared within the framework of the Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    This tenth volume of the series of Air Pollution Studies, published under the auspices of the Executive Body for the Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution, contains the documents reviewed and approved for publication at the eleventh session of the Executive Body held at Geneva from 1 to 3 December 1993. Part One is the Annual Review of Strategies and Policies for Air Pollution Abatement. National emission data and forecasts for sulphur dioxide (SO 2 ), nitrogen oxides (NO x ), volatile organic compounds (VOCs), ammonia (NH 3 ) and carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) from 1980 to 2005 are presented. Conclusions are drawn concerning the status of implementation of the sulphur and nitrogen oxides protocols on the basis of these data. Part Two is an executive summary of the 1992 Report on the Forest Condition in Europe. The main objective of this report is to give a condensed description of the condition of forests in Europe, as it has been assessed by the transnational and national annual surveys, carried out jointly by the ECE under the Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution and by the European Community (EC). Part Three is a summary report that focuses on the reduction of air pollution from heat and electric energy production. It is based on discussion papers submitted to the fifth ECE Seminar on Emission Control Technology for Stationary Sources, held in Nuremberg (Germany) from 10 to 14 June 1991. This chapter presents the main control techniques to reduce emissions from fuel combustion, which is a major contribution in most ECE countries to air pollution by sulphur and nitrogen compounds, carbon oxides, organic compounds, as well as heavy metals. Three principal abatement options are reviewed: fuel cleaning and fuel conversion, low-emission combustion processes, and flue gas cleaning processes. Both technical and economic aspects of the different measures are discussed

  7. 2011 NASA Range Safety Annual Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumont, Alan G.

    2012-01-01

    Welcome to the 2011 edition of the NASA Range Safety Annual Report. Funded by NASA Headquarters, this report provides a NASA Range Safety overview for current and potential range users. As is typical with odd year editions, this is an abbreviated Range Safety Annual Report providing updates and links to full articles from the previous year's report. It also provides more complete articles covering new subject areas, summaries of various NASA Range Safety Program activities conducted during the past year, and information on several projects that may have a profound impact on the way business will be done in the future. Specific topics discussed and updated in the 2011 NASA Range Safety Annual Report include a program overview and 2011 highlights; Range Safety Training; Range Safety Policy revision; Independent Assessments; Support to Program Operations at all ranges conducting NASA launch/flight operations; a continuing overview of emerging range safety-related technologies; and status reports from all of the NASA Centers that have Range Safety responsibilities. Every effort has been made to include the most current information available. We recommend this report be used only for guidance and that the validity and accuracy of all articles be verified for updates. Once again the web-based format was used to present the annual report. We continually receive positive feedback on the web-based edition and hope you enjoy this year's product as well. As is the case each year, contributors to this report are too numerous to mention, but we thank individuals from the NASA Centers, the Department of Defense, and civilian organizations for their contributions. In conclusion, it has been a busy and productive year. I'd like to extend a personal Thank You to everyone who contributed to make this year a successful one, and I look forward to working with all of you in the upcoming year.

  8. Report to Congress on Sustainable Ranges

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-02-01

    high capacity transmission lines, solar arrays, and geothermal 4 | 2014 Sustainable Ranges Report February 2014 Chapter 1: Military Service... geothermal power and associated transmission infrastructure both on- and off-shore will require close attention to ensure the Marine Corps’ access...Weapons Systems Training Facility (NWSTF) Boardman; offshore wind development proposed south of Pearl Harbor, HI, NAWC China Lake, CA/Nevada Test

  9. Report to Congress on Sustainable Ranges, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-01

    Tortugas and Fort Jefferson. 3. The ASUW Mission Area for the range complex was deleted for the 2011 assessment; the assessment dropped from 9.09 to...Comments Noise Restrictions Anti-Air Warfare (AAW) Sonic booms generated by VFA aircraft in the vicinity of the Dry Tortugas reportedly startles...Environmental Assessment recommended stipulating the expansion of an existing buffer zone around the Dry Tortugas by 2,000 feet, from 18,000 to 20,000

  10. 22nd annual report 2013. Convention on long-range transboundary air pollution. International cooperative programme on integrated monitoring of air pollution effects on ecosystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kleemola, S.; Forsius, M. (eds.)

    2013-09-01

    The Integrated Monitoring Programme (ICP IM) is part of the effect-oriented activities under the 1979 Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution, which covers the region of the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE). The main aim of ICP IM is to provide a framework to observe and understand the complex changes occurring in natural/semi natural ecosystems. This report summarizes the work carried out by the ICP IM Programme Centre and several collaborating institutes. The emphasis of the report is in the work done during the programme year 2012/2013 including: A short summary of previous data assessments; A status report of the ICP IM activities, content of the IM database, and geographical coverage of the monitoring network; A final report on relations between vegetation changes and nitrogen Critical Load exceedance; A progress report on base line heavy metal approach, estimation of the extent of metal turnover in European forest catchments over the last decades; A final report on sulphur and nitrogen input-output budgets at ICP IM sites in Europe; National Reports on ICP IM activities are presented as annexes.

  11. 20th annual report 2011. Convention on long-range transboundary air pollution. International cooperative programme on integrated monitoring of air pollution effects on ecosystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kleemola, S.; Forsius, M. (eds.)

    2011-07-01

    The Integrated Monitoring Programme (ICP IM) is part of the effect-oriented activities under the 1979 Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution, which covers the region of the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE). The main aim of ICP IM is to provide a framework to observe and understand the complex changes occurring in natural/semi natural ecosystems. This report summarizes the work carried out by the ICP IM Programme Centre and several collaborating institutes. The emphasis of the report is in the work done during the programme year 2010/2011 including: A short summary of previous data assessments, a status report of the ICP IM activities, content of the IM database, and geographical coverage of the monitoring network, a review of published vegetation results from ICP IM and preliminary analyses of collected vegetation data, a report on updated heavy metal budgets and critical loads at ICP IM sites, report on benefits of LTER collaboration (Long Term Ecological Research network, www.lter-europe.net), National Reports on ICP IM activities are presented as annexes. (orig.)

  12. 7th annual report 1998. UN ECE convention on long-range transboundary air pollution. International cooperative programme on integrated monitoring of air pollution effects on ecosystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kleemola, S.; Forsius, M. [eds.

    1998-11-01

    The Integrated Monitoring Programme (ICP IM) is part of the Effects Monitoring Strategy under the UN ECE Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution Convention. The main aim of ICP IM is to provide a framework to observe and understand the complex changes occurring in the external environment. The monitoring and prediction of complex ecosystem effects on undisturbed reference areas require a continuous effort to improve the collection and assessment of data on the international scale. At the 1997 Task Force meeting it was decided that future annual reports from ICP IM would have a more technical character. The report could include some scientific material but also short technical descriptions of recent national activities and publications. Scientific articles should preferably be published in recognised scientific journals. The responsibility for producing annual reports would still lie on the Programme Centre, but more contributions from National Focal Points were welcomed. The content of the present Annual Report reflects the decisions of the Task Force meeting. The report gives a general overview of the ICP IM activities, the present content of the ICP IM database, and presents results from assessment activities carried out by several collaborating institutes and the ICP IM Programme Centre during the programme year 1997/98. The resources of the Programme Centre have been targeted to the revision of the Programme Manual and the EU/LIFE-project `Development of Assessment and Monitoring Techniques at Integrated Monitoring Sites in Europe`, which has limited the possibilities to carry out additional evaluations of ICP IM data. Section 1 is a short status report of the ICP IM activities, content of the IM database, including the contents of the GIS database, and the present geographical coverage of the monitoring network. Section 2 contains a report on multivariate gradient analysis applied to relate chemical and biological observations (prepared by D. de Zwart, RIVM

  13. Rocky Flats Plant Live-Fire Range Risk Analysis Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicolosi, S.L.; Rodriguez, M.A.

    1994-04-01

    The objective of the Live-Fire Range Risk Analysis Report (RAR) is to provide an authorization basis for operation as required by DOE 5480.16. The existing Live-Fire Range does not have a safety analysis-related authorization basis. EG&G Rocky Flats, Inc. has worked with DOE and its representatives to develop a format and content description for development of an RAR for the Live-Fire Range. Development of the RAR is closely aligned with development of the design for a baffle system to control risks from errant projectiles. DOE 5480.16 requires either an RAR or a safety analysis report (SAR) for live-fire ranges. An RAR rather than a SAR was selected in order to gain flexibility to more closely address the safety analysis and conduct of operation needs for a live-fire range in a cost-effective manner.

  14. Report to Congress on Sustainable Ranges, 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-05-01

    interactive distance-learning as well as resident learning. Marine Corps Marine Corps has taken steps to include standardizing manning and training towards...time-sensitive land-based targets using air-to- ground (A-G) weapons. The STW range also supports tactics and operations associated with manned and...procedures. New larger exclusion zone for Somerton Airport (uncontrolled). If traffic increase impacts to MCAS flight ops and cuts into MCAS airspace

  15. Report to Congress on Sustainable Ranges, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    SPECTRUM The growing prevalence of wireless technology and its demand for additional frequency conflicts with the DoD’s requirement to train for...HE R Beaver Training Area US UT ARNG 657 0 0 0 N N Y N N N N N N N N Beckley City Police Range US WV ARNG 2 0 0 0 N N N N Y N N N N N N Beech Fork

  16. Tonopah Test Range 2030 Meeting Summary Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    Corrective Action Sites (CASs) and Corrective Action Units (CAUs) at the Tonopah Test Range (TTR) may be placed into three categories: Closed, Closed in Place, or Closure in Progress. CASs and CAUs where contaminants were either not detected or were cleaned up to within regulatory action levels are summarized. CASs and CAUs where contaminants and/or waste have been closed in place are summarized. There is also a table that summarizes the contaminant that has been closed at each site, if land-use restrictions are present, and if post-closure inspections are required

  17. Report to Congress on Sustainable Ranges, 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    107th FS at Selfridge ANGB MI, F-16 at Toledo ANGB OH, A-10 at Fort Wayne ANGB IN, and all units deployed in training at Alpena CRTC. The range also...Sheppard AFB, TX 76311 DSN 736- 2675/4995, C817-676-2675/4995. Sunrise-Sunset Mon-Fri, OT by NOTAM 233 VR1624 ALPENA CRTC/OTM, 5884 A. Sreet, Alpena , MI...49707-8125 DSN 741-6509/6226. Same as Originating Activity Sunrise-Sunset 233 VR1625 ALPENA CRTC/OTM, 5884 A. Sreet, Alpena , MI 49707-8125 DSN 741

  18. The effects of mobilization with movement on dorsiflexion range of motion, dynamic balance, and self-reported function in individuals with chronic ankle instability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbreath, Julie P; Gaven, Stacey L; Van Lunen, L; Hoch, Matthew C

    2014-04-01

    Previous studies have examined the effectiveness of a manual therapy intervention known as Mobilization with Movement (MWM) to increase dorsiflexion range of motion (ROM) in individuals with chronic ankle instability (CAI). While a single talocrural MWM treatment has increased dorsiflexion ROM in these individuals, examining the effects of multiple treatments on dorsiflexion ROM, dynamic balance, and self-reported function would enhance the clinical application of this intervention. This study sought to determine if three treatment sessions of talocrural MWM would improve dorsiflexion ROM, Star Excursion Balance Test (SEBT) reach distances, and self-reported function using the Foot and Ankle Ability Measure (FAAM) in individuals with CAI. Eleven participants with CAI (5 Males, 6 Females, age: 21.5 ± 2.2 years, weight: 83.9 ± 15.6 kg, height: 177.7 ± 10.9 cm, Cumberland Ankle Instability Tool: 17.5 ± 4.2) volunteered in this repeated-measures study. Subjects received three MWM treatments over one week. Weight-bearing dorsiflexion ROM (cm), normalized SEBT reach distances (%), and self-reported function (%) were assessed one week before the intervention (baseline), prior to the first MWM treatment (pre-intervention), and 24–48 h following the final treatment (post-intervention). No significant changes were identified in dorsiflexion ROM, SEBT reach distances, or the FAAM-Activities of Daily Living scale (p > 0.05). Significant changes were identified on the FAAM-Sport (p = 0.01). FAAM-Sport scores were significantly greater post-intervention (86.82 ± 9.18%) compared to baseline (77.27 ± 11.09%; p = 0.01) and pre-intervention (79.82 ± 13.45%; p = 0.04). These results indicate the MWM intervention did not improve dorsiflexion ROM, dynamic balance, or patient-centered measures of activities of daily living. However, MWM did improve patient-centered measures of sport-related activities in individuals with CAI.

  19. A general approach for cache-oblivious range reporting and approximate range counting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Afshani, Peyman; Hamilton, Chris; Zeh, Norbert

    2010-01-01

    We present cache-oblivious solutions to two important variants of range searching: range reporting and approximate range counting. Our main contribution is a general approach for constructing cache-oblivious data structures that provide relative (1+ε)-approximations for a general class of range c...

  20. Tonopah Test Range Post-Closure Inspection Annual Report, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada, Calendar Year 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office; Bechtel Nevada

    2004-04-01

    This post-closure inspection report provides documentation of the semiannual inspection activities, maintenance and repair activities, and conclusions and recommendations for calendar year 2003 for eight corrective action units located on the Tonopah Test Range, Nevada.

  1. Imaging using long range dipolar field effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutteridge, Sarah

    2002-01-01

    The work in this thesis has been undertaken by the author, except where indicated in reference, within the Magnetic Resonance Centre, at the University of Nottingham during the period from October 1998 to March 2001. This thesis details the different characteristics of the long range dipolar field and its application to magnetic resonance imaging. The long range dipolar field is usually neglected in nuclear magnetic resonance experiments, as molecular tumbling decouples its effect at short distances. However, in highly polarised samples residual long range components have a significant effect on the evolution of the magnetisation, giving rise to multiple spin echoes and unexpected quantum coherences. Three applications utilising these dipolar field effects are documented in this thesis. The first demonstrates the spatial sensitivity of the signal generated via dipolar field effects in structured liquid state samples. The second utilises the signal produced by the dipolar field to create proton spin density maps. These maps directly yield an absolute value for the water content of the sample that is unaffected by relaxation and any RF inhomogeneity or calibration errors in the radio frequency pulses applied. It has also been suggested that the signal generated by dipolar field effects may provide novel contrast in functional magnetic resonance imaging. In the third application, the effects of microscopic susceptibility variation on the signal are studied and the relaxation rate of the signal is compared to that of a conventional spin echo. (author)

  2. Interim report on long range plan for nuclear physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1995-01-01

    The interim report on the updated NSAC Long Range Plan for Nuclear Physics will be presented to the community for discussion and comment before submission to the funding agencies. The presentation will be coordinated by E. Moniz chair of NSAC

  3. Report of the Long-Range Planning Committee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    This is the final report of the Long-Range Planning Committee of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. It describes the make-up, purpose, working assumptions, and activities of the Committee and discusses the work done by the Committee on defense matters, energy, a number of additional topics, and future long-range planning activities

  4. Range of drainage effect of surface mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sozanski, J.

    1978-03-01

    This paper discusses methods of calculating the range of effects of water drainage from surface coal mines and other surface mines. It is suggested that methods based on test pumping (water drainage) are time consuming, and the results can be distorted by atmospheric factors such as rain fall or dry period. So-called empirical formulae produce results which are often incorrect. The size of a cone shaped depression calculated on the basis of empirical formulae can be ten times smaller than the size of the real depression. It is suggested that using a formula based on the Dupuit formula is superior to other methods of depression calculation. According to the derived formulae the radius of the depresion cone is a function of parameters of the water bearing horizons, size of surface mine working and of water depression. The proposed formula also takes into account the influence of atmospheric factors (water influx caused by precipitation, etc.). (1 ref.) (In Polish)

  5. White Sands Missile Range 2011 Drinking Water Quality Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    acerca de su agua potable . Haga que alguien lo traduzca para usted, o hable con alguien que lo entienda. Main Post White Sands Missile Range 2011...standards. What is This Water Quality Report? Este informe contiene informacion importante acerca de su agua potable . Haga que alguien lo traduzca

  6. 1993 site environmental report Tonopah Test Range, Tonopah, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Culp, T.; Howard, D.; McClellan, Y.

    1994-10-01

    This report summarizes the environmental surveillance activities conducted by Sandia National Laboratories, the US Environmental Protection Agency, and Reynolds Electrical and Engineering Company for the Tonopah Test Range operated by Sandia National Laboratories. Sandia National Laboratories' responsibility for environmental monitoring results extend to those activities performed by Sandia National Laboratories or under its direction. Results from other environmental monitoring activities are included to provide a measure of completeness in reporting. Other environmental compliance programs such as the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969, environmental permits, and environmental restoration and waste management programs are also included in this report, prepared for the US Department of Energy in compliance with DOE Order 5400.1

  7. 1994 site environmental report, Tonopah Test Range, Tonopah, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Culp, T.; Forston, W.

    1995-09-01

    This report summarizes the environmental surveillance activities conducted by Sandia National Laboratories, the US Environmental Protection Agency, and Kirk-Mayer, Inc., for the Tonopah Test Range operated by Sandia National Laboratories. Sandia National Laboratories' responsibility for environmental surveillance results extends to those activities performed by Sandia National Laboratories or under its direction. Results from other environmental surveillance activities are included to provide a measure of completeness in reporting. Other environmental compliance programs such as the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969, environmental permits, and environmental restoration and waste management programs are also included in this report, prepared for the US Department of Energy (DOE) in compliance with DOE Order 5400. 1

  8. 1991 Environmental Monitoring Report Tonopah Test Range, Tonopah, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howard, D.; Culp, T.

    1992-11-01

    This report summarizes the environmental surveillance activities conducted by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and Reynolds Electrical and Engineering Company (REECO) for the Tonopah Test Range (TTR) operated by Sandia National Laboratories (SNL). Other environmental compliance programs such as the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA), environmental permits, environmental restoration, and waste management programs are also included. The 1991 SNL, TTR, operations had no discernible impact on the general public or the environment. This report 3-s prepared for the US Department of Energy (DOE) in compliance with DOE Order 5400.1

  9. 2006 Long Range Development Plan Final Environmental ImpactReport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Philliber, Jeff

    2007-01-22

    This environmental impact report (EIR) has been prepared pursuant to the applicable provisions of the California Environmental Quality Act (CEQA) and its implementing guidelines (CEQA Guidelines), and the Amended University of California Procedures for Implementation of the California Environmental Quality Act (UC CEQA Procedures). The University of California (UC or the University) is the lead agency for this EIR, which examines the overall effects of implementation of the proposed 2006 Long Range Development Plan (LRDP; also referred to herein as the 'project' for purposes of CEQA) for Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL; also referred to as 'Berkeley Lab,' 'the Laboratory,' or 'the Lab' in this document). An LRDP is a land use plan that guides overall development of a site. The Lab serves as a special research campus operated by the University employees, but it is owned and financed by the federal government and as such it is distinct from the UC-owned Berkeley Campus. As a campus operated by the University of California, the Laboratory is required to prepare an EIR for an LRDP when one is prepared or updated pursuant to Public Resources Code Section 21080.09. The adoption of an LRDP does not constitute a commitment to, or final decision to implement, any specific project, construction schedule, or funding priority. Rather, the proposed 2006 LRDP describes an entire development program of approximately 980,000 gross square feet of new research and support space construction and 320,000 gross square feet of demolition of existing facilities, for a total of approximately 660,000 gross square feet of net new occupiable space for the site through 2025. Specific projects will undergo CEQA review at the time proposed to determine what, if any, additional review is necessary prior to approval. As described in Section 1.4.2, below, and in Chapter 3 of this EIR (the Project Description), the size of the project has been

  10. Parameter-free Locality Sensitive Hashing for Spherical Range Reporting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahle, Thomas Dybdahl; Pagh, Rasmus; Aumüller, Martin

    2017-01-01

    We present a data structure for *spherical range reporting* on a point set S, i.e., reporting all points in S that lie within radius r of a given query point q. Our solution builds upon the Locality-Sensitive Hashing (LSH) framework of Indyk and Motwani, which represents the asymptotically best...... solutions to near neighbor problems in high dimensions. While traditional LSH data structures have several parameters whose optimal values depend on the distance distribution from q to the points of S, our data structure is parameter-free, except for the space usage, which is configurable by the user...... query time bounded by O(t(n/t)ρ), where t is the number of points to report and ρ∈(0,1) depends on the data distribution and the strength of the LSH family used. We further present a parameter-free way of using multi-probing, for LSH families that support it, and show that for many such families...

  11. Host range, symbiotic effectiveness and nodulation competitiveness ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2008-04-17

    Apr 17, 2008 ... ERIC-PCR DNA fingerprinting patterns were used to identify the ... Apart from cowpea where all the isolates were effective, there were significant ..... aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate deaminase gene in Sinorhizobium.

  12. Host range, symbiotic effectiveness and nodulation competitiveness ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ERIC-PCR DNA fingerprinting patterns were used to identify the isolates occupying nodules. All the isolates nodulated cowpea, groundnut (Arachis hypogeae) and mungbean (Vigna radiata), but only AII-2-1, AII-3-4 and BIII-2-2 nodulated soybean (Glycine max). Apart from cowpea where all the isolates were effective, there ...

  13. Autonomous long-range open area fire detection and reporting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelhaupt, Darell E.; Reardon, Patrick J.; Blackwell, Lisa; Warden, Lance; Ramsey, Brian D.

    2005-03-01

    Approximately 5 billion dollars in US revenue was lost in 2003 due to open area fires. In addition many lives are lost annually. Early detection of open area fires is typically performed by manned observatories, random reporting and aerial surveillance. Optical IR flame detectors have been developed previously. They typically have experienced high false alarms and low flame detection sensitivity due to interference from solar and other causes. Recently a combination of IR detectors has been used in a two or three color mode to reduce false alarms from solar, or background sources. A combination of ultra-violet C (UVC) and near infra-red (NIR) detectors has also been developed recently for flame discrimination. Relatively solar-blind basic detectors are now available but typically detect at only a few tens of meters at ~ 1 square meter fuel flame. We quantify the range and solar issues for IR and visible detectors and qualitatively define UV sensor requirements in terms of the mode of operation, collection area issues and flame signal output by combustion photochemistry. We describe innovative flame signal collection optics for multiple wavelengths using UV and IR as low false alarm detection of open area fires at long range (8-10 km/m2) in daylight (or darkness). A circular array detector and UV-IR reflective and refractive devices including cylindrical or toroidal lens elements for the IR are described. The dispersion in a refractive cylindrical IR lens characterizes the fire and allows a stationary line or circle generator to locate the direction and different flame IR "colors" from a wide FOV. The line generator will produce spots along the line corresponding to the fire which can be discriminated with a linear detector. We demonstrate prototype autonomous sensors with RF digital reporting from various sites.

  14. 1990 Environmental monitoring report, Tonopah Test Range, Tonopah, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, A.; Phelan, J.; Wolff, T.; Yeager, G.; Dionne, D.; West, G.; Girard, C.

    1991-05-01

    There is no routine radioactive emission from Sandia National Laboratories, Tonopah Test Range (SNL, TTR). However, based on the types of test activities such as air drops, gun firings, ground- launched rockets, air-launched rockets, and other explosive tests, possibilities exist that small amounts of depleted uranium (DU) (as part of weapon components) may be released to the air or to the ground because of unusual circumstances (failures) during testing. Four major monitoring programs were used in 1990 to assess radiological impact on the public. The EPA Air Surveillance Network (ASN) found that the only gamma (γ) emitting radionuclide on the prefilters was beryllium-7 ( 7 Be), a naturally-occurring spallation product formed by the interaction of cosmic radiation with atmospheric oxygen and nitrogen. The weighted average results were consistent with the area background concentrations. The EPA Thermoluminescent Dosimetry (TLD) Network and Pressurized Ion Chamber (PIC) reported normal results. In the EPA Long-Term Hydrological Monitoring Program (LTHMP), analytical results for tritium ( 3 H) in well water were reported and were well below DOE-derived concentration guides (DCGs). In the Reynolds Electrical and Engineering Company (REECo) Drinking Water Sampling Program, analytical results for 3 H, gross alpha (α), beta (β), and γ scan, strontium-90 ( 90 Sr) and plutonium-239 ( 239 Pu) were within the EPA's primary drinking water standards. 29 refs., 5 figs., 15 tabs

  15. Range Information Systems Management (RISM) Phase 1 Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastin, Gary L.; Harris, William G.; Nelson, Richard A.

    2002-01-01

    RISM investigated alternative approaches, technologies, and communication network architectures to facilitate building the Spaceports and Ranges of the future. RISM started by document most existing US ranges and their capabilities. In parallel, RISM obtained inputs from the following: 1) NASA and NASA-contractor engineers and managers, and; 2) Aerospace leaders from Government, Academia, and Industry, participating through the Space Based Range Distributed System Working Group (SBRDSWG), many of whom are also; 3) Members of the Advanced Range Technology Working Group (ARTWG) subgroups, and; 4) Members of the Advanced Spaceport Technology Working Group (ASTWG). These diverse inputs helped to envision advanced technologies for implementing future Ranges and Range systems that builds on today s cabled and wireless legacy infrastructures while seamlessly integrating both today s emerging and tomorrow s building-block communication techniques. The fundamental key is to envision a transition to a Space Based Range Distributed Subsystem. The enabling concept is to identify the specific needs of Range users that can be solved through applying emerging communication tech

  16. Netherlands Army Long Range Anti Armour Study - Status Report

    OpenAIRE

    Schagen, P.A.B. van

    1989-01-01

    At the end of the nineties the munition for the TOW weapon system in use at The Netherlands army, has to be replaced. The Life of Type of The Tow carrier ends in 2005. The long range anti armour study is to gain insight into the possibilities and limitations for the Netherlands army to deploy future (time period 1995-2000) weapon systems in the long range anti armour battle. The first study results are expected at the end of 1989. The study is sponsored by the Netherlands army and is carried ...

  17. Sampling Number Effects in 2D and Range Imaging of Range-gated Acquisition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, Seong-Ouk; Park, Seung-Kyu; Baik, Sung-Hoon; Cho, Jai-Wan; Jeong, Kyung-Min

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we analyzed the number effects of sampling images for making a 2D image and a range image from acquired RGI images. We analyzed the number effects of RGI images for making a 2D image and a range image using a RGI vision system. As the results, 2D image quality was not much depended on the number of sampling images but on how much well extract efficient RGI images. But, the number of RGI images was important for making a range image because range image quality was proportional to the number of RGI images. Image acquiring in a monitoring area of nuclear industry is an important function for safety inspection and preparing appropriate control plans. To overcome the non-visualization problem caused by airborne obstacle particles, vision systems should have extra-functions, such as active illumination lightening through disturbance airborne particles. One of these powerful active vision systems is a range-gated imaging system. The vision system based on the range-gated imaging system can acquire image data from raining or smoking environments. Range-gated imaging (RGI) is a direct active visualization technique using a highly sensitive image sensor and a high intensity illuminant. Currently, the range-gated imaging technique providing 2D and 3D images is one of emerging active vision technologies. The range-gated imaging system gets vision information by summing time sliced vision images. In the RGI system, a high intensity illuminant illuminates for ultra-short time and a highly sensitive image sensor is gated by ultra-short exposure time to only get the illumination light. Here, the illuminant illuminates objects by flashing strong light through airborne disturbance particles. Thus, in contrast to passive conventional vision systems, the RGI active vision technology robust for low-visibility environments

  18. Sampling Number Effects in 2D and Range Imaging of Range-gated Acquisition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Seong-Ouk; Park, Seung-Kyu; Baik, Sung-Hoon; Cho, Jai-Wan; Jeong, Kyung-Min [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    In this paper, we analyzed the number effects of sampling images for making a 2D image and a range image from acquired RGI images. We analyzed the number effects of RGI images for making a 2D image and a range image using a RGI vision system. As the results, 2D image quality was not much depended on the number of sampling images but on how much well extract efficient RGI images. But, the number of RGI images was important for making a range image because range image quality was proportional to the number of RGI images. Image acquiring in a monitoring area of nuclear industry is an important function for safety inspection and preparing appropriate control plans. To overcome the non-visualization problem caused by airborne obstacle particles, vision systems should have extra-functions, such as active illumination lightening through disturbance airborne particles. One of these powerful active vision systems is a range-gated imaging system. The vision system based on the range-gated imaging system can acquire image data from raining or smoking environments. Range-gated imaging (RGI) is a direct active visualization technique using a highly sensitive image sensor and a high intensity illuminant. Currently, the range-gated imaging technique providing 2D and 3D images is one of emerging active vision technologies. The range-gated imaging system gets vision information by summing time sliced vision images. In the RGI system, a high intensity illuminant illuminates for ultra-short time and a highly sensitive image sensor is gated by ultra-short exposure time to only get the illumination light. Here, the illuminant illuminates objects by flashing strong light through airborne disturbance particles. Thus, in contrast to passive conventional vision systems, the RGI active vision technology robust for low-visibility environments.

  19. Netherlands Army Long Range Anti Armour Study - Status Report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schagen, P.A.B. van

    1989-01-01

    At the end of the nineties the munition for the TOW weapon system in use at The Netherlands army, has to be replaced. The Life of Type of The Tow carrier ends in 2005. The long range anti armour study is to gain insight into the possibilities and limitations for the Netherlands army to deploy future

  20. Report on long range alpha detector (LRAD) performance tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Hirohide; Unno, Motoyoshi; Ishikawa, Hisashi; Yoshida, Tadayoshi

    2002-10-01

    At present, alpha contamination measurement on objects is conducted with ZnS scintillation survey meter (direct method) and smear test (indirect method). But it is difficult to measure large and complicated objects by direct method. Long Range Alpha Detector (LRAD) was produced as a solution for this problem. We carried out performance tests of this LRAD. As a result of the performance tests, we confirmed the linear relation between the measurement values of LRAD and alpha-radioactivity on the surface of objects. (author)

  1. Observed Orbit Effects during Long Range Beam-Beam Studies

    CERN Document Server

    Alemany, R; Buffat, X; Calaga, R; Fitterer, M; Giachino, R; Hemelsoet, GH; Herr, W; Papotti, G; Pieloni, T; Poyer, M; Schaumann, M; Trad, G; Wollmann, D

    2012-01-01

    Possible limitations due to long range beam-beam effects at the LHC have been studied and are presented in this note. With a larger number of bunches and collisions in all interaction points, the crossing angles were reduced to enhance long range beam-beam effects. The analysis of the effects on the dynamic aperture and losses are documented in [1]. This note concentrates on the bunch-by-bunch orbit effects observed during the experiment.

  2. Effective removal of a range of Ti/Ri plasmids using a pBBR1-type vector having a repABC operon and a lux reporter system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Shinji; Sakai, Ayako; Agustina, Vita; Moriguchi, Kazuki; Suzuki, Katsunori

    2018-02-01

    Ti and Ri plasmids of pathogenic Agrobacterium strains are stably maintained by the function of a repABC operon and have been classified into four incompatibility groups, namely, incRh1, incRh2, incRh3, and incRh4. Removal of these plasmids from their bacterial cells is an important step in determining strain-specific virulence characteristics and to construct strains useful for transformation. Here, we developed two powerful tools to improve this process. We first established a reporter system to detect the presence and absence of Ti/Ri plasmids in cells by using an acetosyringone (AS)-inducible promoter of the Ti2 small RNA and luxAB from Vibrio harveyi. This system distinguished a Ti/Ri plasmid-free cell colony among plasmid-harboring cell colonies by causing the latter colonies to emit light in response to AS. We then constructed new "Ti/Ri eviction plasmids," each of which carries a repABC from one of four Ti/Ri plasmids that belonged to incRh1, incRh2, incRh3, and incRh4 groups in the suicidal plasmid pK18mobsacB and in a broad-host-range pBBR1 vector. Introduction of the new eviction plasmids into Agrobacterium cells harboring the corresponding Ti/Ri plasmids led to Ti/Ri plasmid-free cells in every incRh group. The Ti/Ri eviction was more effective by plasmids with the pBBR1 backbone than by those with the pK18mobsacB backbone. Furthermore, the highly stable cryptic plasmid pAtC58 in A. tumefaciens C58 was effectively evicted by the introduction of a pBBR1 vector containing the repABC of pAtC58. These results indicate that the set of pBBR1-repABC plasmids is a powerful tool for the removal of stable rhizobial plasmids.

  3. Physical and biological factors determining the effective proton range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grün, Rebecca; Friedrich, Thomas; Krämer, Michael; Scholz, Michael; Zink, Klemens; Durante, Marco; Engenhart-Cabillic, Rita

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Proton radiotherapy is rapidly becoming a standard treatment option for cancer. However, even though experimental data show an increase of the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) with depth, particularly at the distal end of the treatment field, a generic RBE of 1.1 is currently used in proton radiotherapy. This discrepancy might affect the effective penetration depth of the proton beam and thus the dose to the surrounding tissue and organs at risk. The purpose of this study was thus to analyze the impact of a tissue and dose dependent RBE of protons on the effective range of the proton beam in comparison to the range based on a generic RBE of 1.1.Methods: Factors influencing the biologically effective proton range were systematically analyzed by means of treatment planning studies using the Local Effect Model (LEM IV) and the treatment planning software TRiP98. Special emphasis was put on the comparison of passive and active range modulation techniques.Results: Beam energy, tissue type, and dose level significantly affected the biological extension of the treatment field at the distal edge. Up to 4 mm increased penetration depth as compared to the depth based on a constant RBE of 1.1. The extension of the biologically effective range strongly depends on the initial proton energy used for the most distal layer of the field and correlates with the width of the distal penumbra. Thus, the range extension, in general, was more pronounced for passive as compared to active range modulation systems, whereas the maximum RBE was higher for active systems.Conclusions: The analysis showed that the physical characteristics of the proton beam in terms of the width of the distal penumbra have a great impact on the RBE gradient and thus also the biologically effective penetration depth of the beam

  4. 8th Annual report 1999. UN ECE convention on long-range transboundary air pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kleemola, S.; Forsius, M. [eds.

    1999-07-01

    The Integrated Monitoring Programme (ICP IM) is part of the Effects Monitoring Strategy under the UN ECE Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution. The main aim of ICP IM is to provide a framework to observe and understand the complex changes occurring in the external environment. This report summarizes the work carried out by the ICP IM Programme Centre and several collaborating institutes. The emphasis of the report is in the work done during the programme year 1998/99 including: - a short summary of previous data assessments - a short status report of the ICP IM activities, content of the IM database, and the present geographical coverage of the monitoring network - a documentation of the scientific strategies to carry out data assessment on two priority topics: - assessment of heavy metal pools and fluxes - assessment of cause-effect relationships for understorey vegetation - a description of the WATBAL-model for estimating monthly water balance components, including soil water fluxes. (orig.)

  5. Dust Plume Modeling from Ranges and Maneuver Areas on Fort Bliss and the White Sands Missile Range: Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chapman, Elaine G.; Barnard, James C.; Rutz, Frederick C.; Pekour, Mikhail S.; Rishel, Jeremy P.; Shaw, William J.

    2009-05-04

    The potential for air quality impacts from heavy mechanized vehicles operating on and between the unpaved main supply routes at Fort Bliss and White Sands Missile Range was investigated. This report details efforts by the staff of Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for the Fort Bliss Directorate of Environment in this investigation. Dust emission and dispersion from typical move-out activities occurring on the installations were simulated using the atmospheric modeling system DUSTRAN. Major assumptions associated with designing the modeling scenarios are summarized and results of simulations conducted under these assumptions are presented for four representative meteorological periods.

  6. Perceptual Effects of Dynamic Range Compression in Popular Music Recordings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjortkjær, Jens; Walther-Hansen, Mads

    2014-01-01

    There is a widespread belief that the increasing use of dynamic range compression in music mastering (the loudnesswar) deteriorates sound quality but experimental evidence of perceptual effects is lacking. In this study, normal hearing listeners were asked to evaluate popular music recordings in ...

  7. Effective quantum theories with short- and long-range forces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koenig, Sebastian

    2013-01-01

    At low energies, nonrelativistic quantum systems are essentially governed by their wave functions at large distances. For this reason, it is possible to describe a wide range of phenomena with short- or even finite-range interactions. In this thesis, we discuss several topics in connection with such an effective description and consider, in particular, modifications introduced by the presence of additional long-range potentials. In the first part we derive general results for the mass (binding energy) shift of bound states with angular momentum L ≥ 1 in a periodic cubic box in two and three spatial dimensions. Our results have applications to lattice simulations of hadronic molecules, halo nuclei, and Feshbach molecules. The sign of the mass shift can be related to the symmetry properties of the state under consideration. We verify our analytical results with explicit numerical calculations. Moreover, we discuss the case of twisted boundary conditions that arise when one considers moving bound states in finite boxes. The corresponding finite-volume shifts in the binding energies play an important role in the study of composite-particle scattering on the lattice, where they give rise to topological correction factors. While the above results are derived under the assumption of a pure finite-range interaction - and are still true up to exponentially small correction in the short-range case - in the second part we consider primarily systems of charged particles, where the Coulomb force determines the long-range part of the potential. In quantum systems with short-range interactions, causality imposes nontrivial constraints on low-energy scattering parameters. We investigate these causality constraints for systems where a long-range Coulomb potential is present in addition to a short-range interaction. The main result is an upper bound for the Coulomb-modified effective range parameter. We discuss the implications of this bound to the effective feld theory (EFT) for

  8. Effective dose range for dental cone beam computed tomography scanners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pauwels, Ruben; Beinsberger, Jilke; Collaert, Bruno; Theodorakou, Chrysoula; Rogers, Jessica; Walker, Anne; Cockmartin, Lesley; Bosmans, Hilde; Jacobs, Reinhilde; Bogaerts, Ria; Horner, Keith

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To estimate the absorbed organ dose and effective dose for a wide range of cone beam computed tomography scanners, using different exposure protocols and geometries. Materials and methods: Two Alderson Radiation Therapy anthropomorphic phantoms were loaded with LiF detectors (TLD-100 and TLD-100H) which were evenly distributed throughout the head and neck, covering all radiosensitive organs. Measurements were performed on 14 CBCT devices: 3D Accuitomo 170, Galileos Comfort, i-CAT Next Generation, Iluma Elite, Kodak 9000 3D, Kodak 9500, NewTom VG, NewTom VGi, Pax-Uni3D, Picasso Trio, ProMax 3D, Scanora 3D, SkyView, Veraviewepocs 3D. Effective dose was calculated using the ICRP 103 (2007) tissue weighting factors. Results: Effective dose ranged between 19 and 368 μSv. The largest contributions to the effective dose were from the remainder tissues (37%), salivary glands (24%), and thyroid gland (21%). For all organs, there was a wide range of measured values apparent, due to differences in exposure factors, diameter and height of the primary beam, and positioning of the beam relative to the radiosensitive organs. Conclusions: The effective dose for different CBCT devices showed a 20-fold range. The results show that a distinction is needed between small-, medium-, and large-field CBCT scanners and protocols, as they are applied to different indication groups, the dose received being strongly related to field size. Furthermore, the dose should always be considered relative to technical and diagnostic image quality, seeing that image quality requirements also differ for patient groups. The results from the current study indicate that the optimisation of dose should be performed by an appropriate selection of exposure parameters and field size, depending on the diagnostic requirements.

  9. Effective-range function methods for charged particle collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaspard, David; Sparenberg, Jean-Marc

    2018-04-01

    Different versions of the effective-range function method for charged particle collisions are studied and compared. In addition, a novel derivation of the standard effective-range function is presented from the analysis of Coulomb wave functions in the complex plane of the energy. The recently proposed effective-range function denoted as Δℓ [Ramírez Suárez and Sparenberg, Phys. Rev. C 96, 034601 (2017), 10.1103/PhysRevC.96.034601] and an earlier variant [Hamilton et al., Nucl. Phys. B 60, 443 (1973), 10.1016/0550-3213(73)90193-4] are related to the standard function. The potential interest of Δℓ for the study of low-energy cross sections and weakly bound states is discussed in the framework of the proton-proton S10 collision. The resonant state of the proton-proton collision is successfully computed from the extrapolation of Δℓ instead of the standard function. It is shown that interpolating Δℓ can lead to useful extrapolation to negative energies, provided scattering data are known below one nuclear Rydberg energy (12.5 keV for the proton-proton system). This property is due to the connection between Δℓ and the effective-range function by Hamilton et al. that is discussed in detail. Nevertheless, such extrapolations to negative energies should be used with caution because Δℓ is not analytic at zero energy. The expected analytic properties of the main functions are verified in the complex energy plane by graphical color-based representations.

  10. Effective inactivation of a wide range of viruses by pasteurization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gröner, Albrecht; Broumis, Connie; Fang, Randel; Nowak, Thomas; Popp, Birgit; Schäfer, Wolfram; Roth, Nathan J

    2018-01-01

    Careful selection and testing of plasma reduces the risk of blood-borne viruses in the starting material for plasma-derived products. Furthermore, effective measures such as pasteurization at 60°C for 10 hours have been implemented in the manufacturing process of therapeutic plasma proteins such as human albumin, coagulation factors, immunoglobulins, and enzyme inhibitors to inactivate blood-borne viruses of concern. A comprehensive compilation of the virus reduction capacity of pasteurization is presented including the effect of stabilizers used to protect the therapeutic protein from modifications during heat treatment. The virus inactivation kinetics of pasteurization for a broad range of viruses were evaluated in the relevant intermediates from more than 15 different plasma manufacturing processes. Studies were carried out under the routine manufacturing target variables, such as temperature and product-specific stabilizer composition. Additional studies were also performed under robustness conditions, that is, outside production specifications. The data demonstrate that pasteurization inactivates a wide range of enveloped and nonenveloped viruses of diverse physicochemical characteristics. After a maximum of 6 hours' incubation, no residual infectivity could be detected for the majority of enveloped viruses. Effective inactivation of a range of nonenveloped viruses, with the exception of nonhuman parvoviruses, was documented. Pasteurization is a very robust and reliable virus inactivation method with a broad effectiveness against known blood-borne pathogens and emerging or potentially emerging viruses. Pasteurization has proven itself to be a highly effective step, in combination with other complementary safety measures, toward assuring the virus safety of final product. © 2017 The Authors Transfusion published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of AABB.

  11. Nuclear dynamics with the (finite range) Gogny force: flow effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sebille, F.; Royer, G.; Schuck, P.; Gregoire, C.

    1988-01-01

    We introduce for the first time the effective finite range interaction of Gogny in the semi-classical description of heavy ion reactions based on the Landau-Vlasov equation. The characteristics of the flow for heavy ion collisions are studied as functions of the incident energy, the impact parameter and the mass number. The momentum dependence in the mean field together with the non linearities in the collision kernel decrease the flow in contradiction with other calculations; the origins of this discrepancy are studied in details

  12. High fluence effects on ion implantation stopping and range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selvi, S.; Tek, Z.; Oeztarhan, A.; Akbas, N.; Brown, I.G.

    2005-01-01

    We have developed a code STOPPO which can be used to modify the more-widely used ion implantation codes to more accurately predict the mean nuclear and electronic stopping power, preferential sputtering and range of heavy ions in monatomic target materials. In our simulations an effective atomic number and effective atomic mass are introduced into conveniently available analytical stopping cross-sections and a better fitting function for preferential sputtering yield is carefully evaluated for each ion implantation. The accuracy of the code confirmed experimentally by comparison with measured Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS) concentration profiles for 130 keV Zr ions implanted into Be to fluences of 1 x 10 17 , 2 x 10 17 and 4 x 10 17 ions/cm 2 . We find a steady increase in the mean nuclear and electronic stopping powers of the target; the increase in nuclear stopping power is much greater than the increase in electronic stopping power

  13. POST-CLOSURE INSPECTION REPORT FOR THE TONOPAH TEST RANGE, NEVADA FOR CALENDAR YEAR 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-06-01

    This post-closure inspection report includes the results of inspections, maintenance and repair activities, and conclusions and recommendations for Calendar Year 2005 for nine Corrective Action Units located on the Tonopah Test Range , Nevada.

  14. The effects of tidal range on saltmarsh morphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, Guillaume; Mudd, Simon

    2017-04-01

    Saltmarshes are highly productive coastal ecosystems that act simultaneously as flood barriers, carbon storage, pollutant filters and nurseries. As halophytic plants trap suspended sediment and decay in the settled strata, innervated platforms emerge from the neighbouring tidal flats, forming sub-vertical scarps on their eroding borders and sub-horizontal pioneer zones in areas of seasonal expansion. These evolutions are subject to two contrasting influences: stochastically generated waves erode scarps and scour tidal flats, whereas tidally-generated currents transport sediment to and from the marsh through the channel network. Hence, the relative power of waves and tidal currents strongly influences saltmarsh evolution, and regional variations in tidal range yield marshes of differing morphologies. We analyse several sheltered saltmarshes to determine how their morphology reflects variations in tidal forcing. Using tidal, topographic and spectral data, we implement an algorithm based on the open-source software LSDTopoTools to automatically identify features such as marsh platforms, tidal flats, erosion scarps, pioneer zones and tidal channels on local Digital Elevation Models. Normalised geometric properties are then computed and compared throughout the spectrum of tidal range, highlighting a notable effect on channel networks, platform geometry and wave exposure. We observe that micro-tidal marshes typically display jagged outlines and multiple islands along with wide, shallow channels. As tidal range increases, we note the progressive disappearance of marsh islands and linearization of scarps, both indicative of higher hydrodynamic stress, along with a structuration of channel networks and the increase of levee volume, suggesting higher sediment input on the platform. Future research will lead to observing and modelling the evolution of saltmarshes under various tidal forcing in order to assess their resilience to environmental change.

  15. Military Training: DOD Met Annual Reporting Requirements in Its 2016 Sustainable Ranges Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    copyrighted images or other material , permission from the copyright holder may be necessary if you wish to reproduce this material separately...which the report met mandated statutory requirements and whether DOD faced challenges in preparing its report. We conducted this performance audit ...from March 2016 to June 2016 in accordance with generally accepted government auditing standards. Those standards require that we plan and perform

  16. Impacts of long-range transboundary air pollution. Report prepared within the framework of the Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    This eighth volume of the series of Air Pollution Studies, published under the auspices of the Executive Body for the Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution, contains the documents reviewed and approved for publication at the ninth session of the Executive Body held at Geneva from 18 to 22 November 1991. Part one is the Annual Review of Strategies and Policies for Air Pollution Abatement. Part two describes the critical load concept and the role of the best available technology and other approaches in air pollution abatement strategies. The report analyses the aim, elements and examples of the use of the receptor-oriented or effect-based critical load approach. It also evaluates the role of the source-oriented or technology-based approach as a supplement, rather than an alternative, to the critical load approach. The report contains a table with examples of national target loads for acidity or sulphur as well as preliminary European maps of critical loads of actual acidity, sulphur, present load computation of sulphur and the exceedance of the critical load of sulphur. Part three is an executive summary of the 1990 Forest Damage Survey in Europe, carried out under the International Co-operative Programme for Assessment and Monitoring of Air Pollution Effects on Forests. Part four is an executive summary of the interim report on cause/effect relationships in forest decline. Part five reviews recent research results on effects of acid deposition on atmospheric corrosion of materials

  17. Effects of GPS sampling intensity on home range analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffrey J. Kolodzinski; Lawrence V. Tannenbaum; David A. Osborn; Mark C. Conner; W. Mark Ford; Karl V. Miller

    2010-01-01

    The two most common methods for determining home ranges, minimum convex polygon (MCP) and kernel analyses, can be affected by sampling intensity. Despite prior research, it remains unclear how high-intensity sampling regimes affect home range estimations. We used datasets from 14 GPS-collared, white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) to describe...

  18. Effect of visible range electromagnetic radiations on Escherichia coli ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Escherichia coli is the agent responsible for a range of clinical diseases. With emerging antimicrobial resistance, other treatment options including solar/photo-therapy are becoming increasingly common. Visible Range Radiation Therapy/Colour Therapy is an emerging technique in the field of ...

  19. Interim report - performance of laser and radar ranging devices in adverse environmental conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicholas Hillier; Julian Ryde; Eleonora WidzykCapehart; Graham Brooker; Javier Martinez; Andrew Denman [CSIRO (Australia)

    2008-10-15

    CSIRO in conjunction with CRC Mining and the Australian Centre for Field Robotics (ACFR) conducted a series of controlled experiments to examine the performance of three scanning range devices: two scanning infrared laser range finders and millimetrewave radar. Within the controlled environment, the performance of the devices were tested in various rain, mist and dustcloud conditions. Subsequently, these sensors were installed on a P&H 2800BLE electric rope shovel at the Bracalba Quarry, near Caboolture, Queensland, and the system performance was evaluated. The three scanning range sensors tested as part of this study were: 1. A Riegl LMSQ120 scanning laser range finder; 2. A SICK LMS291S05 scanning laser range finder; and, 3. ACFR's prototype 95GHz millimetrewave radar (2D HSS). The range data from these devices is to be used to construct accurate models of the environment in which the electric rope shovel operates and to, subsequently, make control decisions for its operation. Of the currently available range sensing technologies, it is considered that the infrared laser range finders and millimetrewave radar offer the best means of obtaining this data. This report summarises the results of both the controlled (laboratory) and field testing and presents key findings on sensor performance that are likely to impact the creation of digital models of the terrain surrounding a mining shovel.

  20. Status of the dedicated short-range communications technology and applications : report to Congress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-01

    This report responds to a Congressional request for an assessment of the 5.9 Gigahertz (GHz) Dedicated Short Range : Communications (DSRC) in accordance with the requirements provided by Congress in the Moving Ahead for Progress in the : 21st Century...

  1. Effect of pain-free range exercise on shoulder pain and range of motion in an amateur skier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Won-Gyu

    2016-12-01

    [Purpose] This study prescribed pain-free range exercises for a female amateur skier who complained of limitations in her shoulder range of motion, and pain caused by protective spasms; the tester evaluated the effects of such exercise on pain. [Subject and Methods] A 23-year-old female who complained of pain of 3 weeks in duration in the right glenohumoral and scapulothoracic joints was enrolled. [Results] After pain-free range exercises, the visual analog pain score was 2 and the shoulder flexion and abduction angles improved compared to the initial values. [Conclusion] Thus, this study suggests muscle-strengthening exercises within the pain-free range, rather than simple pain treatments, as therapy for acute muscle injuries in skiers.

  2. Post-Closure Inspection Report for the Tonopah Test Range, Nevada, For Calendar Year 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    This report provides the results of the annual post-closure inspections conducted at the closed Corrective Action Units (CAUs) located on the Tonopah Test Range (TTR), Nevada. This report covers calendar year 2010 and includes inspection and repair activities completed at the following seven CAUs: (1) CAU 400: Bomblet Pit and Five Points Landfill (TTR); (2) CAU 407: Roller Coaster RadSafe Area (TTR); (3) CAU 424: Area 3 Landfill Complexes (TTR); (4) CAU 426: Cactus Spring Waste Trenches (TTR); (5) CAU 453: Area 9 UXO Landfill (TTR); (6) CAU 484: Surface Debris, Waste Sites, and Burn Area (TTR); and (7) CAU 487: Thunderwell Site (TTR).

  3. Post-Closure Inspection Report for the Tonopah Test Range, Nevada, for Calendar Year 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NSTec Environmental Restoration

    2013-01-28

    This report provides the results of the annual post-closure inspections conducted at the closed Corrective Action Units (CAUs) located on the Tonopah Test Range (TTR), Nevada. This report covers calendar year 2012 and includes inspection and repair activities completed at the following CAUs: · CAU 400: Bomblet Pit and Five Points Landfill (TTR) · CAU 407: Roller Coaster RadSafe Area (TTR) · CAU 424: Area 3 Landfill Complexes (TTR) · CAU 453: Area 9 UXO Landfill (TTR) · CAU 487: Thunderwell Site (TTR)

  4. NESHAP Annual Report for CY 2015 Sandia National Laboratories Tonopah Test Range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evelo, Stacie [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-05-01

    This National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) Annual Report has been prepared in a format to comply with the reporting requirements of 40 CFR 61.94 and the April 5, 1995 Memorandum of Agreement (MOA) between the Department of Energy (DOE) and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). According to the EPA approved NESHAP Monitoring Plan for the Tonopah Test Range (TTR), 40 CFR 61, subpart H, and the MOA, no additional monitoring or measurements are required at TTR in order to demonstrate compliance with the NESHAP regulation.

  5. Early enrichment in free-range laying hens: effects on ranging behaviour, welfare and response to stressors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, D L M; Hinch, G N; Downing, J A; Lee, C

    2018-03-01

    enrichment had some long-term effects on hen ranging behaviour and enhanced hen's adaptability to environmental stressors.

  6. TMI-2 source and intermediate range neutron flux monitors data report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCormick, R.D.

    1986-03-01

    This is a report on the preparation of data from the TMI-2 excore source and intermediate range neutron flux monitors for inclusion into the TMI Data Base. The sources of the as-recorded data are discussed as well as the process of transforming these data into digital form. The corrections to the as-recorded data are given and the data quality classification and uncertainty are established. The identifiers attached to each data set in the TMI Data Base are given

  7. Exploiting orbital effects for short-range extravehicular transfers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Trevor; Baughman, David

    The problem studied in this paper is that of using Simplified Aid for Extravehicular Activity (EVA) Rescue (SAFER) to carry out efficient short-range transfers from the payload bay of the Space Shuttle Orbiter to the vicinity of the underside of the vehicle, for instance for inspection and repair of thermal tiles or umbilical doors. Trajectories are shown to exist, for the shuttle flying noise forward and belly down, that take the astronaut to the vicinity of the underside with no thrusting after the initial push-off. However, these trajectories are too slow to be of practical interest, as they take roughly an hour to execute. Additionally, they are quite sensitive to errors in the initial push-off rates. To overcome both of these difficulties, trajectories are then studied which include a single in-flight impulse of small magnitude ( in the range 0.1 - 0.4 fps). For operational simplicity, this impulse is applied towards the Orbiter at the moment when the line-of -sight of the EVA crewmember is tangential to the underside of the vehicle. These trajectories are considerably faster than the non-impulsive ones: transit times of less than 10 minutes are achievable. Furthermore, the man-in-the-loop feedback scheme used for impulse timing greatly reduces the sensitivity to initial velocity errors. Finally, similar one-impulse trajectories are also shown to exist for the Orbiter in a gravity-gradient attitiude.

  8. Skin perfusion measurement: the normal range, the effects of ambient temperature and its clinical application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henry, R.E.; Malone, J.M.; Daly, M.J.; Hughes, J.H.; Moore, W.S.

    1982-01-01

    Quantitation of skin perfusion provides objective criteria to determine the optimal amputation level in ischemic limb disease, to assess the maturation of pedicle flaps in reconstructive surgery, and to select appropriate treatment for chronic skin ulcers. A technique for measurement of skin perfusion using intradermal (ID) Xe-133 and a gamma camera/minicomputer system was previously reported. An update of this procedure is now reported, the normal range for the lower extremity in men, observations on the effects of ambient temperature, and an experience using the procedure to determine amputation level

  9. Shielding effectiveness research of window panes in microwave frequency range

    OpenAIRE

    Bilotas, Evaldas

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to investigate microwave shielding effectiveness (SE) of modern window panes. In addition, it will be made sure of what is the main mechanism behind the electromagnetic shielding by investigating three different glasses reflection coefficient. In order to achieve these goals, shielding effectiveness of window panes and their components will be measured in semi-anechoic and anechoic chambers. Furthermore, these measurements will be done in near and far field conditi...

  10. Effects of dynamic-range compression on temporal acuity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiinberg, Alan; Jepsen, Morten Løve; Epp, Bastian

    2016-01-01

    Some of the challenges that hearing-aid listeners experience with speech perception in complex acoustic environments may originate from limitations in the temporal processing of sounds. To systematically investigate the influence of hearing impairment and hearing-aid signal processing on temporal...... processing, temporal modulation transfer functions (TMTFs) and “supra-threshold” modulation-depth discrimination (MDD) thresholds were obtained in normal-hearing (NH) and hearing-impaired (HI) listeners with and without wide-dynamic range compression (WDRC). The TMTFs were obtained using tonal carriers of 1...... with the physical compression of the modulation depth due to the WDRC. Indications of reduced temporal resolution in the HI listeners were observed in the TMTF patterns for the 5 kHz carrier. Significantly higher MDD thresholds were found for the HI group relative to the NH group. No relationship was found between...

  11. Short-range effects in large white dwarfs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Membrado, M.C.; Pacheco, A.F.

    1988-01-01

    Recent work of Membrado and Pacheco (1988) on the implication of Yukawa-like effects in small white dwarfs is extended to analyze the very massive case. Although the role of these impurities grows substantially as the radius of the star decreases, when reasonable supergravity parameters are used the predicted change in the white dwarf mass-radius relation is unobservably small. 8 references

  12. Effectiveness of electro-fencing for restricting the ranging behaviour ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Here, we assessed the effectiveness of electro-fencing for restricting movement patterns of several wild ungulates in Akagera National Park (NP), Rwanda. Following the turmoil of the Rwandan genocide and civil war (1991–1995), large numbers of returning war refugees brought about an increasing pressure on land use, ...

  13. Late effects of whole brain irradiation within the therapeutic range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caveness, W.F.; Carsten, A.L.

    1978-01-01

    Whole brain exposure with supervoltage x irradiation was carried out in three sets of Macaca mulatta. Two sets of 12 monkeys each, at puberty, received single and fractionated exposures, respectively. One set of 21 monkeys in adulthood received a fractionated exposure. Exposure to 1000 rads in a single dose, at puberty, caused no late effects. Exposure to 1500 rads caused small areas of necrosis in the forebrain white matter at 26 weeks, but a much more extensive involvement at and beyond 52 weeks that included confluent areas of necrosis in gray and white matter. Brain loss resulted in ventricular dilatation. Gliomas appeared in two out of three monkeys at or beyond 52 weeks. Exposure to 2000 rads caused such a wide scatter of focal areas of necrosis, including those in the brain stem, that survival beyond 20 to 26 weeks was not possible. All showed enlarged ventricular systems. Whole brain exposure, 200 rads a day, five days a week, for a course of 4000 rads, at puberty, resulted in no delayed effects. Whole brain exposure to 6000 rads in a six weeks course, in the adult, produced less effects than the same dose at puberty. The onset of the scattered necrotic lesions was later than expected, appearing in one out of three animals at 33 weeks, two out of three animals at 52 weeks, and two out of three at 104 weeks. The lesions at 104 weeks were predominantly mineralized, but were accompanied by a greater extent of telangiectasia than seen in the pubescent monkeys

  14. Long-Range Coulomb Effect in Intense Laser-Driven Photoelectron Dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quan, Wei; Hao, XiaoLei; Chen, YongJu; Yu, ShaoGang; Xu, SongPo; Wang, YanLan; Sun, RenPing; Lai, XuanYang; Wu, ChengYin; Gong, QiHuang; He, XianTu; Liu, XiaoJun; Chen, Jing

    2016-06-03

    In strong field atomic physics community, long-range Coulomb interaction has for a long time been overlooked and its significant role in intense laser-driven photoelectron dynamics eluded experimental observations. Here we report an experimental investigation of the effect of long-range Coulomb potential on the dynamics of near-zero-momentum photoelectrons produced in photo-ionization process of noble gas atoms in intense midinfrared laser pulses. By exploring the dependence of photoelectron distributions near zero momentum on laser intensity and wavelength, we unambiguously demonstrate that the long-range tail of the Coulomb potential (i.e., up to several hundreds atomic units) plays an important role in determining the photoelectron dynamics after the pulse ends.

  15. Late effects of whole brain irradiation within the therapeutic range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caveness, W.F.; Carsten, A.L.

    1978-01-01

    Whole brain exposure with supervoltage irradiation was carried out on three sets of Macaca mulatta. Two sets of 12 monkeys each, at puberty, received single and fractionated exposures respectively. One set of 21 monkeys in adulthood received a fractionated exposure. Exposure to 1000 rads in a single dose, at puberty, caused no late effects. Exposure to 1500 rads caused small areas of necrosis in the forebrain white matter at 26 weeks, but a much more extensive involvementat and beyond 52 weeks that included confluent areas of necrosis in gray and white matter. Brain loss resulted in ventricular dilatation. Gliomas appeared in two out of three monkeys at or beyond 52 weeks. Exposure to 2000 rads caused such a wide scatter of focal areas of necrosis, including those in the brain stem, that survival beyond 20-26 weeks was not possible. All showed enlarged ventricular systems. Whole brain exposure, 200 rads a day, five days a week, for a course of 4000 rads, at puberty, resulted in no delayed effects. An exposure to 6000 rads, in a six weeks course, caused small, less than 1 mm, widely scattered necrotic lesions with a predilection for the forebrain white matter but not excluding the central gray matter and brain stem, at 26 weeks. At 52 weeks, there was considerable mineralization of the lesions and widespread telangiectasia. In the developing lesions, multiple minute breaks in the blood brain barrier caused diffuse brain swelling, reflected by papilloedema. Whole brain exposure to 6000 rads in a six weeks course, in the adult, produced less effects than the same dose at puberty. The onset of the scattered necrotic lesions was later than expected, appearing in one out of three animals at 33 weeks, two out of three animals at 52 weeks, and two out of three at 104 weeks. The lesions at 104 weeks were predominantly mineralized, but were accompanied by a greater extent of telangiectasia than seen in the pubescent monkeys

  16. Summary Report on the SAE 2016 Range Extenders for Electric Vehicles Symposium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curran, Scott [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Wagner, Robert M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Campbell, Russ [SRA International, Inc., Arlington, VA (United States)

    2017-03-01

    The SAE 2016 Range Extenders for Electric Vehicles Symposium was a 2-day technical meeting focused on the role of advanced internal combustion engines (ICEs) and other novel energy converter technologies for extending the range of electric vehicles (EVs). The first-of-its-kind symposium was notable for focusing solely on the range extender (REx) technologies and not the EVs. The technical program featured presentations from international leaders from industry, government, national laboratories, and academia. The opening keynote presentations covered a broad range of topics including consumer behavior, policy implications, regulatory considerations, and REx architectures as enablers for advanced technologies. The technical sessions focused on an array of REx technologies including conventional ICEs, as well as less conventional or emerging technologies such as microturbines, fuel cells, low-temperature combustion engines, and aluminum-air batteries. The symposium included two panel sessions. The trend toward increasing vehicle electrification and the changing role of ICEs and other auxiliary power unit technologies for use as REx’s is leading to new research and design development needs. The symposium captured the interest of the industry and research communities in exploring the opportunities and challenges associated with REx’s for EVs. This report includes key takeaways, summarized below, and draft notes for each presentation and panel discussion.

  17. Post-Closure Inspection Report for the Tonopah Test Range, Nevada, For Calendar Year 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    This report provides the results of the annual post-closure inspections conducted at the closed Corrective Action Unit (CAU) sites located on the Tonopah Test Range (TTR), Nevada. This report covers calendar year 2008 and includes inspection and repair activities completed at the following ten CAUs: CAU 400: Bomblet Pit and Five Points Landfill (TTR) CAU 404: Roller Coaster Lagoons and Trench (TTR) CAU 407: Roller Coaster RadSafe Area (TTR) CAU 423: Area 3 Underground Discharge Point, Building 0360 (TTR) CAU 424: Area 3 Landfill Complexes (TTR) CAU 426: Cactus Spring Waste Trenches (TTR) CAU 427: Area 3 Septic Waste Systems 2, 6 (TTR) CAU 453: Area 9 UXO Landfill (TTR) CAU 484: Surface Debris, Waste Sites, and Burn Area (TTR) CAU 487: Thunderwell Site (TTR)

  18. Post-Closure Inspection Report for the Tonopah Test Range, Nevada, For Calendar Year 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NSTec Environmental Restoration

    2009-03-19

    This report provides the results of the annual post-closure inspections conducted at the closed Corrective Action Unit (CAU) sites located on the Tonopah Test Range (TTR), Nevada. This report covers calendar year 2008 and includes inspection and repair activities completed at the following ten CAUs: CAU 400: Bomblet Pit and Five Points Landfill (TTR) CAU 404: Roller Coaster Lagoons and Trench (TTR) CAU 407: Roller Coaster RadSafe Area (TTR) CAU 423: Area 3 Underground Discharge Point, Building 0360 (TTR) CAU 424: Area 3 Landfill Complexes (TTR) CAU 426: Cactus Spring Waste Trenches (TTR) CAU 427: Area 3 Septic Waste Systems 2, 6 (TTR) CAU 453: Area 9 UXO Landfill (TTR) CAU 484: Surface Debris, Waste Sites, and Burn Area (TTR) CAU 487: Thunderwell Site (TTR)

  19. Indoor radiation mapping using the Laser Assisted Ranging and Data System (LARADS). Innovative technology summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-11-01

    The US Department of Energy's (DOE's) nuclear facilities require characterization and documentation of the results as part of planning and decision-making for decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) projects and to release areas that have been cleaned up. Conducting radiation surveys of indoor and outdoor surfaces and generating accurate survey reports is an important component of the D and D program. The Laser Assisted Ranging and Data System (LARADS) is a characterization technology that provides real-time data on the location and concentration levels of radiological contamination. The system can be utilized with a number of available detection instruments and can be integrated with existing data analysis and mapping software technologies to generate superior quality survey data reports. This innovative technology is competitive with baseline technologies in terms of cost and survey times, but is much more flexible and provides more useful reports. The system also has the capability of electronically logging survey data, making it easy to store and retrieve. Such data are scientifically derived and not subject to interpretation. The LARADS is an extremely attractive alternative to manually generated survey data reports

  20. Post-Closure Inspection Report for the Tonopah Test Range, Nevada, for Calendar Year 2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silvas, A. J. [National Security Technologies, LLC, Las Vegas, NV (United States). Nevada Test Site; Lantow, Tiffany A. [National Security Technologies, LLC, Las Vegas, NV (United States). Nevada Test Site

    2015-03-25

    This report provides the results of the annual post-closure inspections conducted at the closed Corrective Action Units (CAUs) located on the Tonopah Test Range (TTR), Nevada. This report covers calendar year 2014 and includes inspection and repair activities completed at the following CAUs; CAU 400: Bomblet Pit and Five Points Landfill (TTR); CAU 407: Roller Coaster RadSafe Area (TTR); CAU 424: Area 3 Landfill Complexes (TTR); CAU 453: Area 9 UXO Landfill (TTR); and CAU 487: Thunderwell Site (TTR) Inspections were conducted according to the post-closure plans in the approved Closure Reports and subsequent correspondence with the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection. The post-closure inspection plans and subsequent correspondence modifying the requirements for each CAU are included in Appendix B. The inspection checklists are included in Appendix C. Photographs taken during inspections are included in Appendix D. The annual post-closure inspections were conducted on May 28, 2014. Maintenance was required at CAU 407. Animal burrows were backfilled and erosion repairs were performed. Vegetation monitoring was performed at CAU 407 in June 2014. The vegetation monitoring report is included in Appendix E.

  1. Mutagenic effects of carbon ions near the range end in plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hase, Yoshihiro, E-mail: hase.yoshihiro@jaea.go.jp [Ion Beam Mutagenesis Research Group, Quantum Beam Science Directorate, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 1233 Watanuki, Takasaki, Gunma 370-1292 (Japan); Yoshihara, Ryouhei; Nozawa, Shigeki; Narumi, Issay [Ion Beam Mutagenesis Research Group, Quantum Beam Science Directorate, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 1233 Watanuki, Takasaki, Gunma 370-1292 (Japan)

    2012-03-01

    To gain insight into the mutagenic effects of accelerated heavy ions in plants, the mutagenic effects of carbon ions near the range end (mean linear energy transfer (LET): 425 keV/{mu}m) were compared with the effects of carbon ions penetrating the seeds (mean LET: 113 keV/{mu}m). Mutational analysis by plasmid rescue of Escherichia coli rpsL from irradiated Arabidopsis plants showed a 2.7-fold increase in mutant frequency for 113 keV/{mu}m carbon ions, whereas no enhancement of mutant frequency was observed for carbon ions near the range end. This suggested that carbon ions near the range end induced mutations that were not recovered by plasmid rescue. An Arabidopsis DNA ligase IV mutant, deficient in non-homologous end-joining repair, showed hyper-sensitivity to both types of carbon-ion irradiation. The difference in radiation sensitivity between the wild type and the repair-deficient mutant was greatly diminished for carbon ions near the range end, suggesting that these ions induce irreparable DNA damage. Mutational analysis of the Arabidopsis GL1 locus showed that while the frequency of generation of glabrous mutant sectors was not different between the two types of carbon-ion irradiation, large deletions (>{approx}30 kb) were six times more frequently induced by carbon ions near the range end. When 352 keV/{mu}m neon ions were used, these showed a 6.4 times increase in the frequency of induced large deletions compared with the 113 keV/{mu}m carbon ions. We suggest that the proportion of large deletions increases with LET in plants, as has been reported for mammalian cells. The nature of mutations induced in plants by carbon ions near the range end is discussed in relation to mutation detection by plasmid rescue and transmissibility to progeny.

  2. Post-Closure Inspection Report for the Tonopah Test Range, Nevada, For Calendar Year 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    This report provides the results of the annual post-closure inspections conducted at the closed Corrective Action Units (CAUs) located on the Tonopah Test Range (TTR), Nevada. This report covers calendar year 2011 and includes inspection and repair activities completed at the following CAUs: (1) CAU 400: Bomblet Pit and Five Points Landfill (TTR); (2) CAU 407: Roller Coaster RadSafe Area (TTR); (3) CAU 424: Area 3 Landfill Complexes (TTR); (4) CAU 453: Area 9 UXO Landfill (TTR); and (5) CAU 487: Thunderwell Site (TTR) Inspections were conducted according to the post-closure plans in the approved Closure Reports. The post-closure inspection plan for each CAU is included in Appendix B. The inspection checklists are included in Appendix C, field notes are included in Appendix D, and photographs taken during inspections are included in Appendix E. The annual post-closure inspections were conducted May 3 and 4, 2011. Maintenance was performed at CAU 424, CAU 453, and CAU 487. At CAU 424, two surface grade monuments at Landfill Cell A3-3 could not be located during the inspection. The two monuments were located and marked with lava rock on July 13, 2011. At CAU 453, there was evidence of animal burrowing. Animal burrows were backfilled on July 13, 2011. At CAU 487, one use restriction warning sign was missing, and wording was faded on the remaining signs. A large animal burrow was also present. The signs were replaced, and the animal burrow was backfilled on July 12, 2011. As a best management practice, the use restriction warning signs at CAU 407 were replaced with standard Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order signs on July 13, 2011. Vegetation monitoring was performed at the CAU 400 Five Points Landfill and CAU 407 in June 2011, and the vegetation monitoring report is included in Appendix F.

  3. Post-Closure Inspection Report for the Tonopah Test Range, Nevada, For Calendar Year 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NSTec Environmental Restoration

    2012-02-21

    This report provides the results of the annual post-closure inspections conducted at the closed Corrective Action Units (CAUs) located on the Tonopah Test Range (TTR), Nevada. This report covers calendar year 2011 and includes inspection and repair activities completed at the following CAUs: (1) CAU 400: Bomblet Pit and Five Points Landfill (TTR); (2) CAU 407: Roller Coaster RadSafe Area (TTR); (3) CAU 424: Area 3 Landfill Complexes (TTR); (4) CAU 453: Area 9 UXO Landfill (TTR); and (5) CAU 487: Thunderwell Site (TTR) Inspections were conducted according to the post-closure plans in the approved Closure Reports. The post-closure inspection plan for each CAU is included in Appendix B. The inspection checklists are included in Appendix C, field notes are included in Appendix D, and photographs taken during inspections are included in Appendix E. The annual post-closure inspections were conducted May 3 and 4, 2011. Maintenance was performed at CAU 424, CAU 453, and CAU 487. At CAU 424, two surface grade monuments at Landfill Cell A3-3 could not be located during the inspection. The two monuments were located and marked with lava rock on July 13, 2011. At CAU 453, there was evidence of animal burrowing. Animal burrows were backfilled on July 13, 2011. At CAU 487, one use restriction warning sign was missing, and wording was faded on the remaining signs. A large animal burrow was also present. The signs were replaced, and the animal burrow was backfilled on July 12, 2011. As a best management practice, the use restriction warning signs at CAU 407 were replaced with standard Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order signs on July 13, 2011. Vegetation monitoring was performed at the CAU 400 Five Points Landfill and CAU 407 in June 2011, and the vegetation monitoring report is included in Appendix F.

  4. Post-Closure Inspection Report for the Tonopah Test Range, Nevada, for Calendar Year 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silvas, A. J.

    2014-03-03

    This report provides the results of the annual post-closure inspections conducted at the closed Corrective Action Units (CAUs) located on the Tonopah Test Range (TTR), Nevada. This report covers calendar year 2013 and includes inspection and repair activities completed at the following CAUs: • CAU 400: Bomblet Pit and Five Points Landfill (TTR) • CAU 407: Roller Coaster RadSafe Area (TTR) • CAU 424: Area 3 Landfill Complexes (TTR) • CAU 453: Area 9 UXO Landfill (TTR) • CAU 487: Thunderwell Site (TTR) Inspections were conducted according to the post-closure plans in the approved Closure Reports and subsequent correspondence with the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection. The post-closure inspection plans and subsequent correspondence modifying the requirements for each CAU are included in Appendix B. The inspection checklists are included in Appendix C. Field notes are included in Appendix D. Photographs taken during inspections are included in Appendix E. The annual post-closure inspections were conducted on May 14, 2013. Maintenance was performed at CAU 400, CAU 424, and CAU 453. At CAU 400, animal burrows were backfilled. At CAU 424, erosion repairs were completed at Landfill Cell A3-3, subsidence was repaired at Landfill Cell A3-4, and additional lava rock was placed in high-traffic areas to mark the locations of the surface grade monuments at Landfill Cell A3-3 and Landfill Cell A3-8. At CAU 453, two areas of subsidence were repaired and animal burrows were backfilled. Vegetation monitoring was performed at the CAU 400 Five Points Landfill and CAU 407 in June 2013. The vegetation monitoring report is included in Appendix F.

  5. Quality Factor Effect on the Wireless Range of Microstrip Patch Antenna Strain Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daliri, Ali; Galehdar, Amir; Rowe, Wayne S. T.; John, Sabu; Wang, Chun H.; Ghorbani, Kamran

    2014-01-01

    Recently introduced passive wireless strain sensors based on microstrip patch antennas have shown great potential for reliable health and usage monitoring in aerospace and civil industries. However, the wireless interrogation range of these sensors is limited to few centimeters, which restricts their practical application. This paper presents an investigation on the effect of circular microstrip patch antenna (CMPA) design on the quality factor and the maximum practical wireless reading range of the sensor. The results reveal that by using appropriate substrate materials the interrogation distance of the CMPA sensor can be increased four-fold, from the previously reported 5 to 20 cm, thus improving considerably the viability of this type of wireless sensors for strain measurement and damage detection. PMID:24451457

  6. Quality Factor Effect on the Wireless Range of Microstrip Patch Antenna Strain Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Daliri

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently introduced passive wireless strain sensors based on microstrip patch antennas have shown great potential for reliable health and usage monitoring in aerospace and civil industries. However, the wireless interrogation range of these sensors is limited to few centimeters, which restricts their practical application. This paper presents an investigation on the effect of circular microstrip patch antenna (CMPA design on the quality factor and the maximum practical wireless reading range of the sensor. The results reveal that by using appropriate substrate materials the interrogation distance of the CMPA sensor can be increased four-fold, from the previously reported 5 to 20 cm, thus improving considerably the viability of this type of wireless sensors for strain measurement and damage detection.

  7. Hellsgate Big Game Winter Range Wildlife Mitigation Project : Annual Report 2008.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitney, Richard P.; Berger, Matthew T.; Rushing, Samuel; Peone, Cory

    2009-01-01

    The Hellsgate Big Game Winter Range Wildlife Mitigation Project (Hellsgate Project) was proposed by the Confederated Tribes of the Colville Reservation (CTCR) as partial mitigation for hydropower's share of the wildlife losses resulting from Chief Joseph and Grand Coulee Dams. At present, the Hellsgate Project protects and manages 57,418 acres (approximately 90 miles2) for the biological requirements of managed wildlife species; most are located on or near the Columbia River (Lake Rufus Woods and Lake Roosevelt) and surrounded by Tribal land. To date we have acquired about 34,597 habitat units (HUs) towards a total 35,819 HUs lost from original inundation due to hydropower development. In addition to the remaining 1,237 HUs left unmitigated, 600 HUs from the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife that were traded to the Colville Tribes and 10 secure nesting islands are also yet to be mitigated. This annual report for 2008 describes the management activities of the Hellsgate Big Game Winter Range Wildlife Mitigation Project (Hellsgate Project) during the past year.

  8. Calendar Year 2004 annual site environmental report : Tonopah Test Range, Nevada & Kauai Test Facility, Hawaii.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montoya, Amber L.; Wagner, Katrina; Goering, Teresa Lynn; Koss, Susan I.; Salinas, Stephanie A.

    2005-09-01

    Tonopah Test Range (TTR) in Nevada and Kauai Test Facility (KTF) in Hawaii are government-owned, contractor-operated facilities operated by Sandia Corporation, a subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), through the Sandia Site Office (SSO), in Albuquerque, NM, manages TTR and KTF's operations. Sandia Corporation conducts operations at TTR in support of DOE/NNSA's Weapons Ordnance Program and has operated the site since 1957. Westinghouse Government Services subcontracts to Sandia Corporation in administering most of the environmental programs at TTR. Sandia Corporation operates KTF as a rocket preparation launching and tracking facility. This Annual Site Environmental Report (ASER) summarizes data and the compliance status of the environmental protection and monitoring program at TTR and KTF through Calendar Year (CY) 2004. The compliance status of environmental regulations applicable at these sites include state and federal regulations governing air emissions, wastewater effluent, waste management, terrestrial surveillance, and Environmental Restoration (ER) cleanup activities. Sandia Corporation is responsible only for those environmental program activities related to its operations. The DOE/NNSA, Nevada Site Office (NSO) retains responsibility for the cleanup and management of ER TTR sites. Currently, there are no ER Sites at KTF. Environmental monitoring and surveillance programs are required by DOE Order 450.1, Environmental Protection Program (DOE 2005) and DOE Order 231.1A, Environment, Safety, and Health Reporting (DOE 2004b).

  9. Calendar Year 2004 annual site environmental report : Tonopah Test Range, Nevada and Kauai Test Facility, Hawaii

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montoya, Amber L.; Wagner, Katrina; Goering, Teresa Lynn; Koss, Susan I.; Salinas, Stephanie A.

    2005-01-01

    Tonopah Test Range (TTR) in Nevada and Kauai Test Facility (KTF) in Hawaii are government-owned, contractor-operated facilities operated by Sandia Corporation, a subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), through the Sandia Site Office (SSO), in Albuquerque, NM, manages TTR and KTF's operations. Sandia Corporation conducts operations at TTR in support of DOE/NNSA's Weapons Ordnance Program and has operated the site since 1957. Westinghouse Government Services subcontracts to Sandia Corporation in administering most of the environmental programs at TTR. Sandia Corporation operates KTF as a rocket preparation launching and tracking facility. This Annual Site Environmental Report (ASER) summarizes data and the compliance status of the environmental protection and monitoring program at TTR and KTF through Calendar Year (CY) 2004. The compliance status of environmental regulations applicable at these sites include state and federal regulations governing air emissions, wastewater effluent, waste management, terrestrial surveillance, and Environmental Restoration (ER) cleanup activities. Sandia Corporation is responsible only for those environmental program activities related to its operations. The DOE/NNSA, Nevada Site Office (NSO) retains responsibility for the cleanup and management of ER TTR sites. Currently, there are no ER Sites at KTF. Environmental monitoring and surveillance programs are required by DOE Order 450.1, Environmental Protection Program (DOE 2005) and DOE Order 231.1A, Environment, Safety, and Health Reporting (DOE 2004b)

  10. Long-range weather prediction and prevention of climate catastrophes: a status report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caldeira, K; Caravan, G; Govindasamy, B; Grossman, A; Hyde, R; Ishikawa, M; Ledebuhr, A; Leith, C; Molenkamp, C; Teller, E; Wood, L

    1999-01-01

    As the human population of Earth continues to expand and to demand an ever-higher quality-of-life, requirements for ever-greater knowledge-and then control-of the future of the state of the terrestrial biosphere grow apace. Convenience of living-and, indeed, reliability of life itself-become ever more highly ''tuned'' to the future physical condition of the biosphere being knowable and not markedly different than the present one, Two years ago, we reported at a quantitative albeit conceptual level on technical ways-and-means of forestalling large-scale changes in the present climate, employing practical means of modulating insolation and/or the Earth's mean albedo. Last year, we reported on early work aimed at developing means for creating detailed, high-fidelity, all-Earth weather forecasts of two weeks duration, exploiting recent and anticipated advances in extremely high-performance digital computing and in atmosphere-observing Earth satellites bearing high-technology instrumentation. This year, we report on recent progress in both of these areas of endeavor. Preventing the commencement of large-scale changes in the current climate presently appears to be a considerably more interesting prospect than initially realized, as modest insolation reductions are model-predicted to offset the anticipated impacts of ''global warming'' surprisingly precisely, in both space and time. Also, continued study has not revealed any fundamental difficulties in any of the means proposed for insolation modulation and, indeed, applicability of some of these techniques to other planets in the inner Solar system seems promising. Implementation of the high-fidelity, long-range weather-forecasting capability presently appears substantially easier with respect to required populations of Earth satellites and atmospheric transponders and data-processing systems, and more complicated with respect to transponder lifetimes in the actual atmosphere; overall, the enterprise seems more

  11. Long-range Weather Prediction and Prevention of Climate Catastrophes: A Status Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldeira, K.; Caravan, G.; Govindasamy, B.; Grossman, A.; Hyde, R.; Ishikawa, M.; Ledebuhr, A.; Leith, C.; Molenkamp, C.; Teller, E.; Wood, L.

    1999-08-18

    As the human population of Earth continues to expand and to demand an ever-higher quality-of-life, requirements for ever-greater knowledge--and then control--of the future of the state of the terrestrial biosphere grow apace. Convenience of living--and, indeed, reliability of life itself--become ever more highly ''tuned'' to the future physical condition of the biosphere being knowable and not markedly different than the present one. Two years ago, we reported at a quantitative albeit conceptual level on technical ways-and-means of forestalling large-scale changes in the present climate, employing practical means of modulating insolation and/or the Earth's mean albedo. Last year, we reported on early work aimed at developing means for creating detailed, high-fidelity, all-Earth weather forecasts of two weeks duration, exploiting recent and anticipated advances in extremely high-performance digital computing and in atmosphere-observing Earth satellites bearing high-technology instrumentation. This year, we report on recent progress in both of these areas of endeavor. Preventing the commencement of large-scale changes in the current climate presently appears to be a considerably more interesting prospect than initially realized, as modest insolation reductions are model-predicted to offset the anticipated impacts of ''global warming'' surprisingly precisely, in both space and time. Also, continued study has not revealed any fundamental difficulties in any of the means proposed for insolation modulation and, indeed, applicability of some of these techniques to other planets in the inner Solar system seems promising. Implementation of the high-fidelity, long-range weather-forecasting capability presently appears substantially easier with respect to required populations of Earth satellites and atmospheric transponders and data-processing systems, and more complicated with respect to transponder lifetimes in the actual atmosphere; overall, the enterprise seems more

  12. Post-Closure Inspection Report for the Tonopah Test Range, Nevada, for Calendar Year 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    This report provides the results of the annual post-closure inspections conducted at the closed Corrective Action Unit (CAU) sites located on the Tonopah Test Range (TTR), Nevada. This report covers calendar year 2009 and includes inspection and repair activities completed at the following seven CAUs: (1) CAU 400: Bomblet Pit and Five Points Landfill (TTR); (2) CAU 407: Roller Coaster RadSafe Area (TTR); (3) CAU 424: Area 3 Landfill Complexes (TTR); (4) CAU 426: Cactus Spring Waste Trenches (TTR); (5) CAU 453: Area 9 UXO Landfill (TTR); (6) CAU 484: Surface Debris, Waste Sites, and Burn Area (TTR); and (7) CAU 487: Thunderwell Site (TTR). The annual post-closure inspections were conducted May 5-6, 2009. All inspections were conducted according to the post-closure plans in the approved Closure Reports. The post-closure inspection plan for each CAU is included in Attachment B, with the exception of CAU 400. CAU 400 does not require post-closure inspections, but inspections of the vegetation and fencing are conducted as a best management practice. The inspection checklists for each site inspection are included in Attachment C, the field notes are included in Attachment D, and the site photographs are included in Attachment E. Vegetation monitoring of CAU 400, CAU 404, CAU 407, and CAU 426 was performed in June 2009, and the vegetation monitoring report is included in Attachment F. Maintenance was performed at CAU 453. Animal burrows observed during the annual inspection were backfilled, and a depression was restored to grade on June 25, 2009. Post-closure site inspections should continue as scheduled. Vegetation survey inspections have been conducted annually at CAUs 400, 404, 407, and 426. Discontinuation of vegetation surveys is recommended at the CAU 400 Bomblet Pit and CAU 426, which have been successfully revegetated. Discontinuation of vegetation surveys is also recommended at CAU 404, which has been changed to an administrative closure with no inspections

  13. Post-Closure Inspection Report for the Tonopah Test Range, Nevada, For Calendar Year 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NSTec Environmental Restoration

    2008-06-01

    This report provides the results of the semiannual post-closure inspections conducted at the closed Corrective Action Unit (CAU) sites located on the Tonopah Test Range (TTR), Nevada. This report covers calendar year 2007 and includes inspection and repair activities completed at the following nine CAUs: (1) CAU 400: Bomblet Pit and Five Points Landfill (TTR); (2) CAU 404: Roller Coaster Lagoons and Trench (TTR); (3) CAU 407: Roller Coaster RadSafe Area (TTR); (4) CAU 423: Area 3 Underground Discharge Point, Building 0360 (TTR); (5) CAU 424: Area 3 Landfill Complexes (TTR); (6) CAU 426: Cactus Spring Waste Trenches (TTR); (7) CAU 427: Area 3 Septic Waste Systems 2, 6 (TTR); (8) CAU 453: Area 9 UXO Landfill (TTR); and (9) CAU 487: Thunderwell Site (TTR). In a letter from the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP) dated December 5, 2006, NDEP concurred with the request to reduce the frequency of post-closure inspections of CAUs at TTR to an annual frequency. This letter is included in Attachment B. Post-closure inspections were conducted on May 15-16, 2007. All inspections were conducted according to the post-closure plans in the approved Closure Reports. The post-closure inspection plan for each CAU is included in Attachment B, with the exception of CAU 400. CAU 400 does not require post-closure inspections, but inspections of the vegetation and fencing are conducted as a best management practice. The inspection checklists for each site inspection are included in Attachment C, the field notes are included in Attachment D, and the site photographs are included in Attachment E. Vegetation monitoring of CAU 400, CAU 404, CAU 407, and CAU 426 was performed in May 2007, and the vegetation monitoring report is included in Attachment F. Maintenance and/or repairs were performed at CAU 453. Animal burrows observed during the annual inspection at CAU 453 were backfilled on August 1, 2007. At this time, the TTR post-closure site inspections should continue as

  14. Post-Closure Inspection Report for the Tonopah Test Range, Nevada, for Calendar Year 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NSTec Environmental Restoration

    2010-05-28

    This report provides the results of the annual post-closure inspections conducted at the closed Corrective Action Unit (CAU) sites located on the Tonopah Test Range (TTR), Nevada. This report covers calendar year 2009 and includes inspection and repair activities completed at the following seven CAUs: · CAU 400: Bomblet Pit and Five Points Landfill (TTR) · CAU 407: Roller Coaster RadSafe Area (TTR) · CAU 424: Area 3 Landfill Complexes (TTR) · CAU 426: Cactus Spring Waste Trenches (TTR) · CAU 453: Area 9 UXO Landfill (TTR) · CAU 484: Surface Debris, Waste Sites, and Burn Area (TTR) · CAU 487: Thunderwell Site (TTR) The annual post-closure inspections were conducted May 5–6, 2009. All inspections were conducted according to the post-closure plans in the approved Closure Reports. The post-closure inspection plan for each CAU is included in Attachment B, with the exception of CAU 400. CAU 400 does not require post-closure inspections, but inspections of the vegetation and fencing are conducted as a best management practice. The inspection checklists for each site inspection are included in Attachment C, the field notes are included in Attachment D, and the site photographs are included in Attachment E. Vegetation monitoring of CAU 400, CAU 404, CAU 407, and CAU 426 was performed in June 2009, and the vegetation monitoring report is included in Attachment F. Maintenance was performed at CAU 453. Animal burrows observed during the annual inspection were backfilled, and a depression was restored to grade on June 25, 2009. Post-closure site inspections should continue as scheduled. Vegetation survey inspections have been conducted annually at CAUs 400, 404, 407, and 426. Discontinuation of vegetation surveys is recommended at the CAU 400 Bomblet Pit and CAU 426, which have been successfully revegetated. Discontinuation of vegetation surveys is also recommended at CAU 404, which has been changed to an administrative closure with no inspections required. Vegetation

  15. Post-Closure Inspection Report for the Tonopah Test Range, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NSTec Environmental Restoration

    2007-06-01

    This report provides the results of the semiannual post-closure inspections conducted at the closed Corrective Action Unit (CAU) sites located on the Tonopah Test Range (TTR), Nevada. This report covers calendar year 2006 and includes inspection and repair activities completed at the following nine CAUs: CAU 400: Bomblet Pit and Five Points Landfill (TTR); CAU 404: Roller Coaster Lagoons and Trench (TTR); CAU 407: Roller Coaster RadSafe Area (TTR); CAU 423: Area 3 Underground Discharge Point, Building 0360 (TTR); CAU 424: Area 3 Landfill Complexes (TTR); CAU 426: Cactus Spring Waste Trenches (TTR); CAU 427: Area 3 Septic Waste Systems 2, 6 (TTR); CAU 453: Area 9 UXO Landfill (TTR); and CAU 487: Thunderwell Site (TTR). Post-closure inspections were conducted on May 9, 2006, May 31, 2006, and November 15, 2006. All inspections were conducted according to the post-closure plans in the approved Closure Reports. The post-closure inspection plan for each CAU is included in Attachment B, with the exception of CAU 400. CAU 400 does not require post-closure inspections, but inspections of the vegetation and fencing are conducted as a best management practice. The inspection checklists for each site inspection are included in Attachment C, the field notes are included in Attachment D, and the site photographs are included in Attachment E. Vegetation monitoring of CAU 400, CAU 404, CAU 407, and CAU 426 was performed in June 2006, and the vegetation monitoring report is included in Attachment F. Maintenance and/or repairs were performed at CAU 400, CAU 407, CAU 426, CAU 453, and CAU 487 in 2006. During the May inspection of CAU 400, it was identified that the east and west sections of chickenwire fencing beyond the standard fencing were damaged; they were repaired in June 2006. Also in June 2006, the southeast corner fence post and one warning sign at CAU 407 were reinforced and reattached, the perimeter fencing adjacent to the gate at CAU 426 was tightened, and large animal

  16. Post-Closure Inspection Report for the Tonopah Test Range, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    NSTec Environmental Restoration

    2007-01-01

    This report provides the results of the semiannual post-closure inspections conducted at the closed Corrective Action Unit (CAU) sites located on the Tonopah Test Range (TTR), Nevada. This report covers calendar year 2006 and includes inspection and repair activities completed at the following nine CAUs: CAU 400: Bomblet Pit and Five Points Landfill (TTR); CAU 404: Roller Coaster Lagoons and Trench (TTR); CAU 407: Roller Coaster RadSafe Area (TTR); CAU 423: Area 3 Underground Discharge Point, Building 0360 (TTR); CAU 424: Area 3 Landfill Complexes (TTR); CAU 426: Cactus Spring Waste Trenches (TTR); CAU 427: Area 3 Septic Waste Systems 2, 6 (TTR); CAU 453: Area 9 UXO Landfill (TTR); and CAU 487: Thunderwell Site (TTR). Post-closure inspections were conducted on May 9, 2006, May 31, 2006, and November 15, 2006. All inspections were conducted according to the post-closure plans in the approved Closure Reports. The post-closure inspection plan for each CAU is included in Attachment B, with the exception of CAU 400. CAU 400 does not require post-closure inspections, but inspections of the vegetation and fencing are conducted as a best management practice. The inspection checklists for each site inspection are included in Attachment C, the field notes are included in Attachment D, and the site photographs are included in Attachment E. Vegetation monitoring of CAU 400, CAU 404, CAU 407, and CAU 426 was performed in June 2006, and the vegetation monitoring report is included in Attachment F. Maintenance and/or repairs were performed at CAU 400, CAU 407, CAU 426, CAU 453, and CAU 487 in 2006. During the May inspection of CAU 400, it was identified that the east and west sections of chickenwire fencing beyond the standard fencing were damaged; they were repaired in June 2006. Also in June 2006, the southeast corner fence post and one warning sign at CAU 407 were reinforced and reattached, the perimeter fencing adjacent to the gate at CAU 426 was tightened, and large animal

  17. Post-Closure Inspection Report for the Tonopah Test Range, Nevada, For Calendar Year 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    NSTec Environmental Restoration

    2008-01-01

    This report provides the results of the semiannual post-closure inspections conducted at the closed Corrective Action Unit (CAU) sites located on the Tonopah Test Range (TTR), Nevada. This report covers calendar year 2007 and includes inspection and repair activities completed at the following nine CAUs: (1) CAU 400: Bomblet Pit and Five Points Landfill (TTR); (2) CAU 404: Roller Coaster Lagoons and Trench (TTR); (3) CAU 407: Roller Coaster RadSafe Area (TTR); (4) CAU 423: Area 3 Underground Discharge Point, Building 0360 (TTR); (5) CAU 424: Area 3 Landfill Complexes (TTR); (6) CAU 426: Cactus Spring Waste Trenches (TTR); (7) CAU 427: Area 3 Septic Waste Systems 2, 6 (TTR); (8) CAU 453: Area 9 UXO Landfill (TTR); and (9) CAU 487: Thunderwell Site (TTR). In a letter from the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP) dated December 5, 2006, NDEP concurred with the request to reduce the frequency of post-closure inspections of CAUs at TTR to an annual frequency. This letter is included in Attachment B. Post-closure inspections were conducted on May 15-16, 2007. All inspections were conducted according to the post-closure plans in the approved Closure Reports. The post-closure inspection plan for each CAU is included in Attachment B, with the exception of CAU 400. CAU 400 does not require post-closure inspections, but inspections of the vegetation and fencing are conducted as a best management practice. The inspection checklists for each site inspection are included in Attachment C, the field notes are included in Attachment D, and the site photographs are included in Attachment E. Vegetation monitoring of CAU 400, CAU 404, CAU 407, and CAU 426 was performed in May 2007, and the vegetation monitoring report is included in Attachment F. Maintenance and/or repairs were performed at CAU 453. Animal burrows observed during the annual inspection at CAU 453 were backfilled on August 1, 2007. At this time, the TTR post-closure site inspections should continue as

  18. Zero-range effective field theory for resonant wino dark matter. Part III. Annihilation effects

    OpenAIRE

    Braaten, Eric; Johnson, Evan; Zhang, Hong

    2018-01-01

    Near a critical value of the wino mass where there is a zero-energy S-wave resonance at the neutral-wino-pair threshold, low-energy winos can be described by a zero-range effective field theory (ZREFT) in which the winos interact nonperturbatively through a contact interaction and through Coulomb interactions. The effects of wino-pair annihilation into electroweak gauge bosons are taken into account through the analytic continuation of the real parameters for the contact interaction to comple...

  19. Johnson Space Center's Free Range Bicycle Program.- Fall 2015 Intern Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee-Stockton, Willem

    2015-01-01

    NASA's Johnson Space Center is a big place, encompassing 1,620 acres and more than a hundred buildings. Furthermore, there are reportedly 15 thousand employees, all of which have somewhere to be. To facilitate the movement of all these people JSC has historically relied on human power. Pedaling their way towards deep space, bicycles have been the go to method. Currently there are about 200 Free Range Bicycles at JSC. Free Range Bicycles belong to nobody, except NASA, and are available for anybody to use. They are not to be locked or hidden (although frequently are) and the intention is that there will always be a bike to hop on to get where you're going (although it may not be the bike you rode in on). Although not without its own shortcomings, the Free Range Bicycle Program has continued to provide low cost, simple transportation for NASA's JSC. In addition to the approximately 200 Free Range Bicycles, various larger divisions (like engineering) will often buy a few dozen bikes for their team members to use or individuals will bring their own personal bike to either commute or use on site. When these bicycles fall into disrepair or are abandoned (from retirees etc) they become a problem at JSC. They are an eye sore, create a safety hazard and make it harder to find a working bike in a time of need. The Free Range Program hopes to address this first problem by "tagging out" abandoned or out of service bicycles. A bright orange "DO NOT OPERATE" tag is placed on the bike and given a serial number for tracking purposes. See picture to the right. If the bike has an active owner with intentions to repair the bike the bottom of the tag has instructions for how to claim the abandoned bicycle. After being tagged the owner of the bicycle has 30 days to claim the bicycle and either haul it off site or get it repaired (and labeled) in accordance with Johnson's Bicycle Policy. If the abandoned bicycle is not claimed within 30 days it becomes the property of the Government. The

  20. Hellsgate Winter Range Mitigation Project; Long-term Management Plan, Project Report 1993, Final Draft.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berger, Matthew T.

    1994-01-01

    A study was conducted on the Hellsgate Winter Range Mitigation Project area, a 4,943 acre ranch purchased for mitigating some habitat losses associated with the original construction of Grand Coulee Dam and innundation of habitat by Lake Roosevelt. A Habitat Evaluation Procedure (HEP) study was used to determine habitat quality and quantity baseline data and future projections. Target species used in the study were sharp-tailed grouse (Tympanuchus phasianellus), mule deer (Odocoileus hemoinus), mink (Mustela vison), spotted sandpiper (Actiius colchicus), bobcat (Felis reufs), blue grouse (Dendragapus obscurus), and mourning dove (Zenaida macroura). From field data collected, limiting life values or HSI's (Habitat Suitability Index's) for each indicator species was determined for existing habitats on project lands. From this data a long term management plan was developed. This report is designed to provide guidance for the management of project lands in relation to the habitat cover types discussed and the indicator species used to evaluate these cover types. In addition, the plan discusses management actions, habitat enhancements, and tools that will be used to enhance, protect and restore habitats to desired conditions. Through planned management actions biodiversity and vegetative structure can be optimized over time to reduce or eliminate, limiting HSI values for selected wildlife on project lands.

  1. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 426: Cactus Spring Waste Trenches, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dave Madsen

    1998-08-01

    This Closure Report provides the documentation for closure of the Cactus Spring Waste Trenches Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 426. The site is located on the Tonopah Test Range, approximately 225 kilometers northwest of Las Vegas, NV. CAU 426 consists of one corrective action site (CAS) which is comprised of four waste trenches. The trenches were excavated to receive solid waste generated in support of Operation Roller Coaster, primary the Double Tracks Test in 1963, and were subsequently backfilled. The Double Tracks Test involved use of live animals to assess the biological hazards associated with the nonnuclear detonation of plutonium-bearing devices. The Nevada Division of Environmental Protection approved Corrective Action Plan (CAP)which proposed ''capping'' methodology. The closure activities were completed in accordance with the approved CAP and consisted of constructing an engineered cover in the area of the trenches, constructing/planting a vegetative cover, installing a perimeter fence and signs, implementing restrictions on future use, and preparing a Post-Closure Monitoring Plan.

  2. Effects of dietary Tenebrio molitor meal inclusion in free-range chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biasato, I; De Marco, M; Rotolo, L; Renna, M; Lussiana, C; Dabbou, S; Capucchio, M T; Biasibetti, E; Costa, P; Gai, F; Pozzo, L; Dezzutto, D; Bergagna, S; Martínez, S; Tarantola, M; Gasco, L; Schiavone, A

    2016-12-01

    Insects are currently being considered as a novel protein source for animal feeds, because they contain a large amount of protein. The larvae of Tenebrio molitor (TM) have been shown to be an acceptable protein source for broiler chickens in terms of growth performance, but till now, no data on histological or intestinal morphometric features have been reported. This study has had the aim of evaluating the effects of dietary TM inclusion on the performance, welfare, intestinal morphology and histological features of free-range chickens. A total of 140 medium-growing hybrid female chickens were free-range reared and randomly allotted to two dietary treatments: (i) a control group and (ii) a TM group, in which TM meal was included at 75 g/kg. Each group consisted of five pens as replicates, with 14 chicks per pen. Growth performance, haematological and serum parameters and welfare indicators were evaluated, and the animals were slaughtered at the age of 97 days. Two birds per pen (10 birds/treatment) were submitted to histological (liver, spleen, thymus, bursa of Fabricius, kidney, heart, glandular stomach and gut) and morphometric (duodenum, jejunum and ileum) investigations. The inclusion of TM did not affect the growth performance, haematological or serum parameters. The morphometric and histological features were not significantly affected either, thus suggesting no influence on nutrient metabolization, performance or animal health. Glandular stomach alterations (chronic flogosis with epithelial squamous metaplasia) were considered paraphysiological in relation to free-range farming. The observed chronic intestinal flogosis, with concomitant activation of the lymphoid tissue, was probably due to previous parasitic infections, which are very frequently detected in free-range chickens. In conclusion, the findings of this study show that yellow mealworm inclusion does not affect the welfare, productive performances or morphological features of free-range chickens

  3. Range 8C Rehabilitation Demonstration Project, Hohenfels Training Area, Germany: Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zellmer, S.D.; Hinchman, R.R.; Johnson, D.O.; Brent, J.J.

    1991-11-01

    More than 30 years of intensive and continual tactical training has caused extensive environmental damage at the US Army Hohenfels Training Area in Germany. The Range 8C Rehabilitation Demonstration Project, followed by a three-year monitoring effort, was conducted to develop and evaluate the environmental and economic effectiveness of seven revegetation and four erosion control prescriptions implemented at a 16-ha site. The point-intercept method was used to measure the types and amounts of vegetation established and the changes in the vegetative community during three years of military use on the seven areas treated with revegetation prescriptions. Field observations were made to determine the suitability and durability of four types of erosion control structures. Soil fertility and a source of seed appeared to be the most limiting factors in establishing vegetation, while seedbed preparation had only a minor influence. Grasses appeared to be more resistant to vehicle traffic than did other types of vegetation. Because grassed waterways were used as roads by military vehicles and a system of graded terraces was expensive, these erosion control prescriptions were unsuitable and uneconomical for use on training areas. Low-cost riprap waterbars and porous check dams slowed the velocity of runoff, trapped sediments, and were durable. Recommendations were formulated to improve the environmental and economic effectiveness of future rehabilitation efforts on tactical training areas

  4. Finite Range Effects in Energies and Recombination Rates of Three Identical Bosons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Peder Klokmose; V. Fedorov, D.; S. Jensen, A.

    2013-01-01

    is large. The models are built on contact potentials which take into account finite range effects; one is a two-channel model and the other is an effective range expansion model implemented through the boundary condition on the three-body wave function when two of the particles are at the same point...... in space. We compare the results with the results of the ubiquitous single-parameter zero-range model where only the scattering length is taken into account. Both finite range models predict variations of the well-known geometric scaling factor 22.7 that arises in Efimov physics. The threshold value...... at negative scattering length for creation of a bound trimer moves to higher or lower values depending on the sign of the effective range compared to the location of the threshold for the single-parameter zero-range model. Large effective ranges, corresponding to narrow resonances, are needed...

  5. 1985 environmental report: Sandia National Laboratories, Tonopah Test Range, Tonopah, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Millard, G.C.

    1986-04-01

    The Tonopah Test Range is located about 160 air miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada, and covers 525 square miles within the Nellis Air Force Base Bombing and Gunnery Range. The range is used for various DOE tests involving high and low altitude projectiles. Operations that affect the environment are mainly road construction, preparation of instrumentation sites, and disturbance of the terrain from projectile impacts. Monitoring of the test range is done annually by the US Environmental Protection Agency to supplement Sandia's monitoring effort associated with Sandia test activities. Monitoring results for 1984 indicate that test range operations do not adversely affect the offsite environment or the public

  6. POST-CLOSURE INSPECTION REPORT FOR THE TONOPAH TEST RANGE, NEVADA, FOR CALENDAR YEAR 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BECHTEL NEVADA

    2005-04-01

    This Post-Closure Inspection Report provides an analysis and summary of the semi-annual inspections conducted at the Tonopah Test Range (TTR) during Calendar Year 2004. The report includes the inspection and/or repair activities completed at the following nine Corrective Action Units (CAUs) located at TTR, Nevada: (1) CAU 400: Bomblet Pit and Five Points Landfill (TTR); (2) CAU 404: Roller Coaster Lagoons and Trench (TTR); (3) CAU 407: Roller Coaster RadSafe Area (TTR); (4) CAU 423: Area 3 Underground Discharge Point, Building 0360 (TTR) (5) CAU 424: Area 3 Landfill Complexes (TTR); (6) CAU 426: Cactus Spring Waste Trenches (TTR); (7) CAU 427: Area 3 Septic Waste Systems 2,6 (TTR); (8) CAU 453: Area 9 UXO Landfill (TTR); and (9) CAU 487: Thunderwell Site (TTR). Site inspections were conducted on July 7,2004, and November 9-10,2004. All inspections were conducted according to the post-closure plans in the approved Closure Reports (CRs). The post-closure inspection plan for each CAU is included in Appendix B, with the exception of CAU 400 and CAU 423. CAU 400 does not require post-closure inspections, but inspections of the vegetation and fencing are conducted as a best management practice. In addition, post-closure inspections are not currently required at CAU 423; however, the CR is being revised to include inspection requirements. The inspection checklists for each site inspection are included in Appendix C, the field notes are included in Appendix D, and the site photographs are included in Appendix E. Vegetation monitoring of CAU 400, CAU 404, CAU 407, and CAU 426 was performed in June 2004, and the vegetation monitoring report is included in Appendix F. In addition, topographic survey results of two repaired landfill cells in CAU 424 are included in Appendix G. Maintenance and/or repairs were performed at the CAU 400 Five Points Landfill, CAU 407, CAU 424, CAU 427, and CAU 487. CAU 400 repairs included mending the fence, reseeding of a flood damaged area, and

  7. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 407: Roller Coaster RADSAFE Area, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fitzmaurice, T. M.

    2001-01-01

    This closure report (CR) provides documentation for the closure of the Roller Coaster RADSAFE Area (RCRSA) Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 407 identified in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) (Nevada Division of Environmental Protection [NDEP] et al., 1996). CAU 407 is located at the Tonopah Test Range (TTR), Nevada. The TTR is approximately 225 kilometers (km) (140 miles [mi]) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada (Figure 1). The RCRSA is located on the northeast comer of the intersection of Main Road and Browne's Lake Road, which is approximately 8 km (5 mi) south of Area 3 (Figure 1). The RCRSA was used during May and June of 1963 to decontaminate vehicles, equipment, and personnel from the Double Tracks and Clean Slate tests. Investigation of the RCRSA was conducted from June through November of 1998. A Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD) (U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office [DOEN], 1999) was approved in October of 1999. The purpose of this CR is to: Document the closure activities as proposed in the Corrective Action Plan (CAP) (DOEM, 2000). Obtain a Notice of Completion from the NDEP. Recommend the movement of CAU 407 from Appendix III to Appendix IV of the FFACO. The following is the scope of the closure actions implemented for CAU 407: Removal and disposal of surface soils which were over three times background for the area. Soils identified for removal were disposed of at the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS) at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). Excavated areas were backfilled with clean borrow soil located near the site. A soil cover was constructed over the waste disposal pit area, where subsurface constituents of concern remain. The site was fenced and posted as an ''Underground Radioactive Material'' area

  8. Range and nummer-of-levels effects in derived and stated attribute importances

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verlegh, P.W.J.; Schifferstein, H.N.J.; Wittink, D.R.

    2002-01-01

    We study how the range of variation and the number of ttribute levels affect five measures of attribute importance: full profile conjoint estimates, ranges in attribute level attractiveness ratings. regression coefficients. graded paired comparisons. and self-reported ratings, We find that all

  9. Range and number-of-levels effects in derived and stated measures of attribute importance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verlegh, PWJ; Schifferstein, HNJ; Wittink, DR

    We study how the range of variation and the number of ttribute levels affect five measures of attribute importance: full profile conjoint estimates, ranges in attribute level attractiveness ratings. regression coefficients. graded paired comparisons. and self-reported ratings, We find that all

  10. Medical Judgments Across the Range of Reported Pain Severity: Clinician and Lay Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tait, Raymond C; Chibnall, John T; House, Kylie; Biehl, Joann

    2016-07-01

    While increasing evidence suggests that observers discount high-severity chronic pain, factors that occasion such discounting are poorly understood, particularly regarding health provider vs lay perspectives. This study examined the effects of supporting medical evidence and comorbid psychological distress (pain behavior) on medical student and lay clinical judgments of increasingly severe patient pain reports. In a 2 × 2 × 2 × (7) mixed between- and within-subject design, participants (medical students vs lay) made clinical judgments after reading vignettes describing a hypothetical patient that varied in levels of medical evidence and pain behavior (low vs high) and pain severity (4/10-10/10). Fourth-year medical students (N = 115) and lay persons in the community (N = 300) participated in this research. While both medical student and lay judgments plateaued at high levels of pain severity, judgments regarding cause (medical vs psychological), treatment (opioid prescription), and disability showed growing divergence as levels of reported pain severity increased. Divergence relative to medical and psychological causes of pain was found irrespective of the level of supporting medical evidence; divergence relative to opioid treatment and support for a disability claim was found when supporting medical evidence was low. The results indicate differing expectations of chronic pain treatment for health care providers relative to the lay public that could impact clinical care, especially at high pain severity levels, where lay expectations diverge significantly from those of health professionals. © 2015 American Academy of Pain Medicine. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Effect of range of motion in heavy load squatting on muscle and tendon adaptations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bloomquist, K; Langberg, Henning; Karlsen, Stine

    2013-01-01

    Manipulating joint range of motion during squat training may have differential effects on adaptations to strength training with implications for sports and rehabilitation. Consequently, the purpose of this study was to compare the effects of squat training with a short vs. a long range of motion...

  12. The relationship of intelligence and memory to interrogative suggestibility: the importance of range effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudjonsson, G H

    1988-05-01

    This paper looks at the relationship between intelligence, memory and interrogative suggestibility, particularly with reference to range effects. The subjects were 60 normal subjects and 100 forensic patients who had completed the Gudjonsson Suggestibility Scale (GSS) and the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale. Clear range effects of IQ and memory were evident in their relationship with suggestibility.

  13. Effects of dynamic range compression on spatial selective auditory attention in normal-hearing listeners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Andrew H; Shinn-Cunningham, Barbara G

    2013-04-01

    Many hearing aids introduce compressive gain to accommodate the reduced dynamic range that often accompanies hearing loss. However, natural sounds produce complicated temporal dynamics in hearing aid compression, as gain is driven by whichever source dominates at a given moment. Moreover, independent compression at the two ears can introduce fluctuations in interaural level differences (ILDs) important for spatial perception. While independent compression can interfere with spatial perception of sound, it does not always interfere with localization accuracy or speech identification. Here, normal-hearing listeners reported a target message played simultaneously with two spatially separated masker messages. We measured the amount of spatial separation required between the target and maskers for subjects to perform at threshold in this task. Fast, syllabic compression that was independent at the two ears increased the required spatial separation, but linking the compressors to provide identical gain to both ears (preserving ILDs) restored much of the deficit caused by fast, independent compression. Effects were less clear for slower compression. Percent-correct performance was lower with independent compression, but only for small spatial separations. These results may help explain differences in previous reports of the effect of compression on spatial perception of sound.

  14. End-range mobilization techniques in adhesive capsulitis of the shoulder joint: a multiple-subject case report.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, H.M.; Obermann, W.R.; Burger, B.J.; Kok, G.J.; Rozing, P.M.; Ende, C.H.M. van den

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The purpose of this case report is to describe the use of end-range mobilization techniques in the management of patients with adhesive capsulitis. CASE DESCRIPTION: Four men and 3 women (mean age=50.2 years, SD=6.0, range=41-65) with adhesive capsulitis of the glenohumeral

  15. The coming revolution in particle physics: Report of the Fermilab Long Range Planning Committee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeff Appel et al.

    2004-06-22

    In early 2003, the Fermilab Director formed a committee (Appendix A) to examine options for the long-range future of Fermilab. Specifically, the committee was asked to respond to a charge (Appendix B), which laid out the assumptions, which were to underlie our discussions. The committee met a few times during the spring of 2003 and formulated a plan of action. It identified a number of issues that deserved attention, and a subcommittee was formed to focus on each. We agreed that in addressing these key issues, a broader participation was appropriate. The manner in which that was achieved varied from subcommittee to subcommittee to group. In some cases the expanded membership participated in all the discussions, in others, particular presentations were solicited and heard. Some subgroups met regularly over several months, others convened only for a small number of discussions. We have attempted to list participants in Appendix C. General presentations indicating the purpose of the work were given, for example at the Fermilab Users Annual Meeting. Towards the end of the summer some sense of direction developed and a series of open meetings was organized by the different subgroups. These meetings of two and more hour's duration gave the broader laboratory and user community a further chance to react to perceived directions and to make their opinions known. They were extremely well attended. In all, nearly 100 people have participated in the process including the development of initial drafts and proto-recommendations. A larger number attended the various open sessions. It is therefore likely, even expected, that the general thrusts of this report are no surprise. Nevertheless, the committee met in a number of plenary closed sessions including a two-day retreat in which all the issues were discussed and a common view was developed. The Director and Deputy Director heard and interacted with the discussions in most of these meetings. In attempting to converge, we

  16. Connection between effective-range expansion and nuclear vertex constant or asymptotic normalization coefficient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yarmukhamedov, R.; Baye, D.

    2011-01-01

    Explicit relations between the effective-range expansion and the nuclear vertex constant or asymptotic normalization coefficient (ANC) for the virtual decay B→A+a are derived for an arbitrary orbital momentum together with the corresponding location condition for the (A+a) bound-state energy. They are valid both for the charged case and for the neutral case. Combining these relations with the standard effective-range function up to order six makes it possible to reduce to two the number of free effective-range parameters if an ANC value is known from experiment. Values for the scattering length, effective range, and form parameter are determined in this way for the 16 O+p, α+t, and α+ 3 He collisions in partial waves where a bound state exists by using available ANCs deduced from experiments. The resulting effective-range expansions for these collisions are valid up to energies larger than 5 MeV.

  17. Varying the item format improved the range of measurement in patient-reported outcome measures assessing physical function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liegl, Gregor; Gandek, Barbara; Fischer, H Felix; Bjorner, Jakob B; Ware, John E; Rose, Matthias; Fries, James F; Nolte, Sandra

    2017-03-21

    Physical function (PF) is a core patient-reported outcome domain in clinical trials in rheumatic diseases. Frequently used PF measures have ceiling effects, leading to large sample size requirements and low sensitivity to change. In most of these instruments, the response category that indicates the highest PF level is the statement that one is able to perform a given physical activity without any limitations or difficulty. This study investigates whether using an item format with an extended response scale, allowing respondents to state that the performance of an activity is easy or very easy, increases the range of precise measurement of self-reported PF. Three five-item PF short forms were constructed from the Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS®) wave 1 data. All forms included the same physical activities but varied in item stem and response scale: format A ("Are you able to …"; "without any difficulty"/"unable to do"); format B ("Does your health now limit you …"; "not at all"/"cannot do"); format C ("How difficult is it for you to …"; "very easy"/"impossible"). Each short-form item was answered by 2217-2835 subjects. We evaluated unidimensionality and estimated a graded response model for the 15 short-form items and remaining 119 items of the PROMIS PF bank to compare item and test information for the short forms along the PF continuum. We then used simulated data for five groups with different PF levels to illustrate differences in scoring precision between the short forms using different item formats. Sufficient unidimensionality of all short-form items and the original PF item bank was supported. Compared to formats A and B, format C increased the range of reliable measurement by about 0.5 standard deviations on the positive side of the PF continuum of the sample, provided more item information, and was more useful in distinguishing known groups with above-average functioning. Using an item format with an extended

  18. Distribution and Fate of Energetics on DoD Test and Training Ranges: Interim Report 3

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pennington, Judith

    2003-01-01

    .... The objective of this project, initiated in FYOO and planned for completion in FYO5, was to determine the potential for environmental contamination from residues of energetic materials on ranges...

  19. Distribution and Fate of Energetics on DoD Test and Training Ranges: Final Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-11-01

    of this project was to develop a low-cost, fieldable process for the rapid decontamination of energetic material from range scrap. Debris was...types of range contaminants such as heavy metals, petroleum products, and radioactive compounds when appropriate. Just as data generated on U.S...Generally, stainless steel scoops were used to sample noncohesive soils such as sands and gravels, and specially designed corers were used in more

  20. Giant magneto-optical faraday effect in HgTe thin films in the terahertz spectral range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuvaev, A M; Astakhov, G V; Pimenov, A; Brüne, C; Buhmann, H; Molenkamp, L W

    2011-03-11

    We report the observation of a giant Faraday effect, using terahertz (THz) spectroscopy on epitaxial HgTe thin films at room temperature. The effect is caused by the combination of the unique band structure and the very high electron mobility of HgTe. Our observations suggest that HgTe is a high-potential material for applications as optical isolator and modulator in the THz spectral range.

  1. Report on the lunar ranging at McDonald Observatory, 1 February - 31 May 1976

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palm, C. S.; Wiant, J. R.

    1976-01-01

    The four spring lunations produced 105 acquisitions, including the 2000th range measurement made at McDonald Observatory. Statistics were normal for the spring months. Laser and electronics problems are noted. The Loran-C station delay was corrected. Preliminary doubles data is shown. New magnetic tape data formats are presented. R and D efforts include a new laser modification design.

  2. The Effect of Increasing Amount of Glucogenic Precursors on Reproductive Performance in Young Postpartum Range Cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supplementing CP and propionate salts (PS) may improve returns in young range beef cows by increasing the dietary supply of glucogenic precursors which may have the effect of improving sensitivity to insulin. A 3-yr study conducted at Corona Range and Livestock Research Center from February to mid-...

  3. A miniature powerplant for very small, very long range autonomous aircraft. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tad McGeer

    1999-09-29

    The authors have developed a new piston engine offering unprecedented efficiency for a new generation of miniature robotic aircraft. Following Phase 1 preliminary design in 1996--97, they have gone forward in Phase 2 to complete detail design, and are nearing completion of a first batch of ten engines. A small-engine dynamometer facility has been built in preparation for the test program. Provisions have been included for supercharging, which will allow operation at ceilings in the 10,000 m range. Component tests and detailed analysis indicate that the engine will achieve brake-specific fuel consumption well below 300 gm/kWh at power levels of several hundred watts. This level of performance opens the door to development of tabletop-sized aircraft having transpacific range and multi-day endurance, which will offer extraordinary new capabilities for meteorology, geomagnetic, and a variety of applications in environmental monitoring and military operations.

  4. Distribution and Fate of Energetics on DoD Test and Training Ranges: Interim Report 6

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-11-01

    Applied Research Associates, Inc.). The objective of this project was to develop a low-cost, fieldable process for the rapid decontamination of...DLE. Moreover, the DLE mandate includes the analysis of other types of range contaminants such as heavy metals, petroleum products, and radioactive ...ground material with a small stainless spatula and combined in a 2-oz amber jar with a Teflon-lined lid. In the case of the 12 samples selected for the

  5. Long-range effects of direct-hit ultraviolet and particle radiation in oncogene activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ladik, J.J.

    1990-01-01

    A simple statistical analysis shows that the oncogene-activation effect of chemical carcinogens cannot be explained if one takes into account only short-range effects. As one of the most probable solid state physical long-range effects, the generation at the site of carcinogen binding of travelling solitary waves, which can interfere with DNA-blocking protein interactions, is discussed. It has been shown that the direct hit carcinogenic effects on DNA by ultraviolet--or particle radiation can also be explained by the generation of solitary waves (in the latter case the first step is a collective plasma oscillation which decays to individual local excitations and ionizations)

  6. Long-range effect in nitrogen ion-implanted AISI 316L stainless steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Budzynski, P., E-mail: p.budzynski@pollub.pl

    2015-01-01

    The effect of nitrogen ion implantation on AISI 316L stainless steel was investigated. The microstructure and composition of an N implanted layer were studied by RBS, GIXRD, SEM, and EDX measurements. Friction and wear tests were also performed. The discrepancy between the measured and calculated stopped ion maximum range does not exceed 0.03 μm. After nitrogen implantation with a fluence of 5 × 10{sup 17} ion/cm{sup 2}, additional phases of expanded austenite were detected. At a 5-fold larger depth than the maximum ion range, improvement in the coefficient of friction and wear was detected. We have shown, for the first time, the long-range effect in tribological investigations. The long-range effect is caused by movement of not only defects along the depth of the sample, as assumed so far, but also nitrogen atoms.

  7. Long-range effect in nitrogen ion-implanted AISI 316L stainless steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budzynski, P.

    2015-01-01

    The effect of nitrogen ion implantation on AISI 316L stainless steel was investigated. The microstructure and composition of an N implanted layer were studied by RBS, GIXRD, SEM, and EDX measurements. Friction and wear tests were also performed. The discrepancy between the measured and calculated stopped ion maximum range does not exceed 0.03 μm. After nitrogen implantation with a fluence of 5 × 1017 ion/cm2, additional phases of expanded austenite were detected. At a 5-fold larger depth than the maximum ion range, improvement in the coefficient of friction and wear was detected. We have shown, for the first time, the long-range effect in tribological investigations. The long-range effect is caused by movement of not only defects along the depth of the sample, as assumed so far, but also nitrogen atoms.

  8. Report on the lunar ranging at McDonald Observatory. [spark gap configuration and photomultiplier system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverberg, E. C.

    1977-01-01

    Range measurements to an accuracy of 5 cm were achieved following improvements in the laser oscillator configuration and the photomultiplier system. Modifications to the laser include a redesigned pockel cell mount to eliminate stressing of the cell crystal; an improved electrically triggered spark gap for sharpening the electrical pulse; the use of a brewster plate in the cavity to eliminate pre-pulsing; improved alignment for the oscillator system; and increased cavity lifetime through thin film polarizer technology. Laser calibration data are presented along with the lunar laser operations log for June to October 1977.

  9. Soil pollution at outdoor shooting ranges: Health effects, bioavailability and best management practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fayiga, A O; Saha, U K

    2016-09-01

    The total lead (Pb) concentrations of the surface soil, sub surface soil, vegetation and surface waters of outdoor shooting ranges are extremely high and above regulatory limits. Lead is dangerous at high concentrations and can cause a variety of serious health problems. Shooters and range workers are exposed to lead dust and can even take Pb dust home to their families while some animals around the shooting range can ingest the Pb bullets. The toxicity of Pb depends on its bioavailability which has been determined to be influenced greatly by the geochemical properties of each site. The bioavailability of Pb in shooting ranges has been found to be higher than other metal contaminated soils probably because of its very low residual Pb (soil, migration of Pb within shooting ranges and offsite has been reported in literature. Best management practices to reduce mobility of Pb in shooting ranges involve an integrated Pb management program which has been described in the paper. The adoption of the non-toxic "green bullet" which has been developed to replace Pb bullets may reduce or prevent environmental pollution at shooting ranges. However, the contaminated soil resulting from decades of operation of several shooting ranges still needs to be restored to its natural state. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Ordered and Unordered Top-K Range Reporting in Large Data Sets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Afshani, Peyman; Brodal, Gerth Stølting; Zeh, Norbert

    2011-01-01

    We study the following problem: Given an array A storing N real numbers, preprocess it to allow fast reporting of the K smallest elements in the subarray A[i, j] in sorted order, for any triple (i, j,K) with 1 ≤ i ≤ j ≤ N and 1 ≤ K ≤ j − i + 1. We are interested in scenarios where the array A is ...

  11. The potential effects of climate change on amphibian distribution, range fragmentation and turnover in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Ren-Yan; Kong, Xiao-Quan; Huang, Min-Yi; Varela, Sara; Ji, Xiang

    2016-01-01

    Many studies predict that climate change will cause species movement and turnover, but few have considered the effect of climate change on range fragmentation for current species and/or populations. We used MaxEnt to predict suitable habitat, fragmentation and turnover for 134 amphibian species in China under 40 future climate change scenarios spanning four pathways (RCP2.6, RCP4.5, RCP6 and RCP8.5) and two time periods (the 2050s and 2070s). Our results show that climate change may cause a major shift in spatial patterns of amphibian diversity. Amphibians in China would lose 20% of their original ranges on average; the distribution outside current ranges would increase by 15%. Suitable habitats for over 90% of species will be located in the north of their current range, for over 95% of species in higher altitudes (from currently 137-4,124 m to 286-4,396 m in the 2050s or 314-4,448 m in the 2070s), and for over 75% of species in the west of their current range. Also, our results predict two different general responses to the climate change: some species contract their ranges while moving westwards, southwards and to higher altitudes, while others expand their ranges. Finally, our analyses indicate that range dynamics and fragmentation are related, which means that the effects of climate change on Chinese amphibians might be two-folded.

  12. The potential effects of climate change on amphibian distribution, range fragmentation and turnover in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ren-Yan Duan

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Many studies predict that climate change will cause species movement and turnover, but few have considered the effect of climate change on range fragmentation for current species and/or populations. We used MaxEnt to predict suitable habitat, fragmentation and turnover for 134 amphibian species in China under 40 future climate change scenarios spanning four pathways (RCP2.6, RCP4.5, RCP6 and RCP8.5 and two time periods (the 2050s and 2070s. Our results show that climate change may cause a major shift in spatial patterns of amphibian diversity. Amphibians in China would lose 20% of their original ranges on average; the distribution outside current ranges would increase by 15%. Suitable habitats for over 90% of species will be located in the north of their current range, for over 95% of species in higher altitudes (from currently 137–4,124 m to 286–4,396 m in the 2050s or 314–4,448 m in the 2070s, and for over 75% of species in the west of their current range. Also, our results predict two different general responses to the climate change: some species contract their ranges while moving westwards, southwards and to higher altitudes, while others expand their ranges. Finally, our analyses indicate that range dynamics and fragmentation are related, which means that the effects of climate change on Chinese amphibians might be two-folded.

  13. Th and U in the Paleozoic and Mesozoic systems of Kitakami range (preliminary report)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katada, Masato; Kanaya, Hiroshi; Sato, Choji.

    1984-01-01

    The research of Th and U in Kitakami range was commenced during the period of late 1950s and early 1960s. Following the exploration, the studies on Th and U in sedimentary rocks in Kitakami have been continued systematically. The data of Th and U covered whole Kitakami range by the addition of the newly obtained analytical data of northern part. The behaviors of Th and U during deposition and their contents in source rocks were studied by the analytical data. 75 samples of mudstone, sandstone, the matrix of conglomerate and limestone from south Kitakami, and 180 samples of mudstone, cherty clay stone, limestone, chert and green rock from northern part of Kitakami were analyzed. U/K 2 O ratio was constant regardless of the stratigraphy in the samples of southern Kitakami. This suggests that the major portion of U was initially dissolved in seawater, adsorbed by sericite, which is the only K 2 O -bearing mineral of sediment, and deposited. The values of Th and U in the sedimentary rocks in southern Kitakami were nearly the same as those of common sedimentary rocks in the world. It is supposed that the formation of K 2 O-bearing mineral was small, and the contents in source rocks affected. On the contrary, the Th values of sedimentary rocks in northern Kitakami, were higher than those of south, and it is supposed that this is attributable to the felsitic nature of source rocks. The mudstone of Matsumae, Hokkaido, differed from that of Kitakami, which means that they were not in same sedimentary basin. (Ishimitsu, A.)

  14. The effect of spinal manipulative therapy on spinal range of motion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Millan, Mario; Leboeuf-Yde, Charlotte; Budgell, Brian

    2012-01-01

    Spinal manipulative therapy (SMT) has been shown to have an effect on spine-related pain, both clinically and in experimentally induced pain. However, it is unclear if it has an immediate noticeable biomechanical effect on spinal motion that can be measured in terms of an increased range of motion...

  15. The Abbott School Construction Program: Report on the NJ Department of Education Proposed Regulations on Long-Range Facilities Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponessa, Joan

    2004-01-01

    This report on Long Range Facilities Plans (LRFPs) analyzes regulations proposed by the New Jersey Department of Education (NJDOE) to implement the Educational Facilities Construction and Financing Act. (EFCFA). EFCFA, which authorizes and governs New Jersey's public school construction program, was enacted in July 2000 to implement the State…

  16. Tandem anchoring: informational and politeness effects of range offers in social exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ames, Daniel R; Mason, Malia F

    2015-02-01

    We examined whether and why range offers (e.g., "I want $7,200 to $7,600 for my car") matter in negotiations. A selective-attention account predicts that motivated and skeptical offer-recipients focus overwhelmingly on the attractive endpoint (i.e., a buyer would hear, in effect, "I want $7,200"). In contrast, we propose a tandem anchoring account, arguing that offer-recipients are often influenced by both endpoints as they judge the offer-maker's reservation price (i.e., bottom line) as well as how polite they believe an extreme (nonaccommodating) counteroffer would be. In 5 studies, featuring scripted negotiation scenarios and live dyadic negotiations, we find that certain range offers yield improved settlement terms for offer-makers without relational costs, whereas others may yield relationship benefits without deal costs. We clarify the types of range offers that evoke these benefits and identify boundaries to their impact, including range width and extremity. In addition, our studies reveal evidence consistent with 2 proposed mechanisms, one involving an informational effect (both endpoints of range offers can be taken as signals of an offer-maker's reservation price) and another involving a politeness effect (range offers can make extreme counteroffers seem less polite). Our results have implications for models of negotiation behavior and outcomes and, more broadly, for the nature of social exchange. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved). PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.

  17. An underwater ranging system based on photoacoustic effect occurring on target surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Kai; Hu, Kai; Li, Xinghui; Wang, Lidai; Zhou, Qian; Wang, Xiaohao

    2016-11-01

    In this paper, an underwater ranging system based on photoacoustic effect occurring on target surface is proposed. In this proposal, laser pulse generated by blue-green laser is directly incident on target surface, where the photoacoustic effect occurs and a sound source is formed. And then the sound wave which is also called photoacoustic signal is received by the ultrasonic receiver after passing through water. According to the time delay between transmitting laser and receiving photoacoustic signal, and sound velocity in water, the distance between the target and the ultrasonic receiver can be calculated. Differing from underwater range finding by only laser, this approach can avoid backscattering of laser beam, so easier to implement. Experimental system according to this principle has been constructed to verify the feasibility of this technology. The experimental results showed that a ranging accuracy of 1 mm can be effectively achieved when the target is close to the ultrasonic receiver.

  18. Propagation effects on radio range and noise in earth-space telecommunications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flock, W. L.; Slobin, S. D.; Smith, E. K.

    1982-01-01

    Attention is given to the propagation effects on radio range and noise in earth-space telecommunications. The use of higher frequencies minimizes ionospheric effects on propagation, but tropospheric effects often increase or dominate. For paths of geostationary satellites, and beyond, the excess range delay caused by the ionosphere and plasmasphere is proportional to the total electron content along the path and inversely proportional to frequency squared. The delay due to dry air is usually of the order of a few meters while the delay due to water vapor (a few tens of centimeters) is responsible for most of the temporal variation in the range delay for clean air. For systems such as that of the Voyager spacecraft, and for attenuation values up to about 10 dB, increased sky noise degrades the received signal-to-noise ratio more than does the reduction in signal level due to attenuation.

  19. Effect of simple solutes on the long range dipolar correlations in liquid water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baul, Upayan, E-mail: upayanb@imsc.res.in; Anishetty, Ramesh, E-mail: ramesha@imsc.res.in; Vemparala, Satyavani, E-mail: vani@imsc.res.in [The Institute of Mathematical Sciences, C.I.T. Campus, Taramani, Chennai 600113 (India); Kanth, J. Maruthi Pradeep, E-mail: jmpkanth@gmail.com [Vectra LLC, Mount Road, Chennai 600006 (India)

    2016-03-14

    Intermolecular correlations in liquid water at ambient conditions have generally been characterized through short range density fluctuations described through the atomic pair distribution functions. Recent numerical and experimental results have suggested that such a description of order or structure in liquid water is incomplete and there exist considerably longer ranged orientational correlations in water that can be studied through dipolar correlations. In this study, using large scale classical, atomistic molecular dynamics simulations using TIP4P-Ew and TIP3P models of water, we show that salts such as sodium chloride (NaCl), potassium chloride (KCl), caesium chloride (CsCl), and magnesium chloride (MgCl{sub 2}) have a long range effect on the dipolar correlations, which cannot be explained by the notion of structure making and breaking by dissolved ions. Observed effects are explained through orientational stratification of water molecules around ions and their long range coupling to the global hydrogen bond network by virtue of the sum rule for water. The observations for single hydrophilic solutes are contrasted with the same for a single methane (CH{sub 4}) molecule. We observe that even a single small hydrophobe can result in enhancement of long range orientational correlations in liquid water, contrary to the case of dissolved ions, which have been observed to have a reducing effect. The observations from this study are discussed in the context of hydrophobic effect.

  20. Simulation and Effectiveness Analysis on One versus One Beyond Visual Range Air Combat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haoyu Liu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A kind of one versus one beyond visual range (BVR air combat model has been established, which includes functional models of radar, missile and fighter and the process of several combat stages. Air combat effectiveness ratio (ACER is defined to analyse the result. The 2k factor design method is used to design combat test case and analyses the influence of three factors (fighter stealth character, missile range and flight height on ACER. Simulation result reveals that when RCS of one fighter is reduced from 0dBm2 to -10dBm2 which cannot remarkably affect the opposition fighter’s radar detection distance and missile launch distance, the RCS factor has small influence and the missile range factor has great influence. When RCS of one fighter is reduced from -10dBm2 to -20dBm2, the opposition fighter’s radar detection distance will be reduced and lead the result of its missile launch distance be less than its missile range. Compared with the former case, the effect of RCS factor increases and the effect of missile range factor decreases. However, the effect of height is not significant.

  1. The effect of electron range on electron beam induced current collection and a simple method to extract an electron range for any generation function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lahreche, A.; Beggah, Y.; Corkish, R.

    2011-01-01

    The effect of electron range on electron beam induced current (EBIC) is demonstrated and the problem of the choice of the optimal electron ranges to use with simple uniform and point generation function models is resolved by proposing a method to extract an electron range-energy relationship (ERER). The results show that the use of these extracted electron ranges remove the previous disagreement between the EBIC curves computed with simple forms of generation model and those based on a more realistic generation model. The impact of these extracted electron ranges on the extraction of diffusion length, surface recombination velocity and EBIC contrast of defects is discussed. It is also demonstrated that, for the case of uniform generation, the computed EBIC current is independent of the assumed shape of the generation volume. -- Highlights: → Effect of electron ranges on modeling electron beam induced current is shown. → A method to extract an electron range for simple form of generation is proposed. → For uniform generation the EBIC current is independent of the choice of it shape. → Uses of the extracted electron ranges remove some existing literature ambiguity.

  2. Effective theory and breakdown of conformal symmetry in a long-range quantum chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepori, L.; Vodola, D.; Pupillo, G.; Gori, G.; Trombettoni, A.

    2016-11-01

    We deal with the problem of studying the symmetries and the effective theories of long-range models around their critical points. A prominent issue is to determine whether they possess (or not) conformal symmetry (CS) at criticality and how the presence of CS depends on the range of the interactions. To have a model, both simple to treat and interesting, where to investigate these questions, we focus on the Kitaev chain with long-range pairings decaying with distance as power-law with exponent α. This is a quadratic solvable model, yet displaying non-trivial quantum phase transitions. Two critical lines are found, occurring respectively at a positive and a negative chemical potential. Focusing first on the critical line at positive chemical potential, by means of a renormalization group approach we derive its effective theory close to criticality. Our main result is that the effective action is the sum of two terms: a Dirac action SD, found in the short-range Ising universality class, and an "anomalous" CS breaking term SAN. While SD originates from low-energy excitations in the spectrum, SAN originates from the higher energy modes where singularities develop, due to the long-range nature of the model. At criticality SAN flows to zero for α > 2, while for α limit α → ∞ the ELI is restored. In order to test the validity of the determined effective theory, we compared the two-fermion static correlation functions and the von Neumann entropy obtained from them with the ones calculated on the lattice, finding agreement. These results explain two observed features characteristic of long-range models, the hybrid decay of static correlation functions within gapped phases and the area-law violation for the von Neumann entropy. The proposed scenario is expected to hold in other long-range models displaying quasiparticle excitations in ballistic regime. From the effective theory one can also see that new phases emerge for α model, are not altered. This also shows

  3. Effective sampling range of a synthetic protein-based attractant for Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epsky, Nancy D; Espinoza, Hernán R; Kendra, Paul E; Abernathy, Robert; Midgarden, David; Heath, Robert R

    2010-10-01

    Studies were conducted in Honduras to determine effective sampling range of a female-targeted protein-based synthetic attractant for the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae). Multilure traps were baited with ammonium acetate, putrescine, and trimethylamine lures (three-component attractant) and sampled over eight consecutive weeks. Field design consisted of 38 traps (over 0.5 ha) placed in a combination of standard and high-density grids to facilitate geostatistical analysis, and tests were conducted in coffee (Coffea arabica L.),mango (Mangifera indica L.),and orthanique (Citrus sinensis X Citrus reticulata). Effective sampling range, as determined from the range parameter obtained from experimental variograms that fit a spherical model, was approximately 30 m for flies captured in tests in coffee or mango and approximately 40 m for flies captured in orthanique. For comparison, a release-recapture study was conducted in mango using wild (field-collected) mixed sex C. capitata and an array of 20 baited traps spaced 10-50 m from the release point. Contour analysis was used to document spatial distribution of fly recaptures and to estimate effective sampling range, defined by the area that encompassed 90% of the recaptures. With this approach, effective range of the three-component attractant was estimated to be approximately 28 m, similar to results obtained from variogram analysis. Contour maps indicated that wind direction had a strong influence on sampling range, which was approximately 15 m greater upwind compared with downwind from the release point. Geostatistical analysis of field-captured insects in appropriately designed trapping grids may provide a supplement or alternative to release-recapture studies to estimate sampling ranges for semiochemical-based trapping systems.

  4. Effects of Resolution, Range, and Image Contrast on Target Acquisition Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollands, Justin G; Terhaar, Phil; Pavlovic, Nada J

    2018-05-01

    We sought to determine the joint influence of resolution, target range, and image contrast on the detection and identification of targets in simulated naturalistic scenes. Resolution requirements for target acquisition have been developed based on threshold values obtained using imaging systems, when target range was fixed, and image characteristics were determined by the system. Subsequent work has examined the influence of factors like target range and image contrast on target acquisition. We varied the resolution and contrast of static images in two experiments. Participants (soldiers) decided whether a human target was located in the scene (detection task) or whether a target was friendly or hostile (identification task). Target range was also varied (50-400 m). In Experiment 1, 30 participants saw color images with a single target exemplar. In Experiment 2, another 30 participants saw monochrome images containing different target exemplars. The effects of target range and image contrast were qualitatively different above and below 6 pixels per meter of target for both tasks in both experiments. Target detection and identification performance were a joint function of image resolution, range, and contrast for both color and monochrome images. The beneficial effects of increasing resolution for target acquisition performance are greater for closer (larger) targets.

  5. Dissipative Effects on Inertial-Range Statistics at High Reynolds Numbers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinhuber, Michael; Bewley, Gregory P; Bodenschatz, Eberhard

    2017-09-29

    Using the unique capabilities of the Variable Density Turbulence Tunnel at the Max Planck Institute for Dynamics and Self-Organization, Göttingen, we report experimental measurements in classical grid turbulence that uncover oscillations of the velocity structure functions in the inertial range. This was made possible by measuring extremely long time series of up to 10^{10} samples of the turbulent fluctuating velocity, which corresponds to O(10^{7}) integral length scales. The measurements were conducted in a well-controlled environment at a wide range of high Reynolds numbers from R_{λ}=110 up to R_{λ}=1600, using both traditional hot-wire probes as well as the nanoscale thermal anemometry probe developed at Princeton University. An implication of the observed oscillations is that dissipation influences the inertial-range statistics of turbulent flows at scales significantly larger than predicted by current models and theories.

  6. Extending the Effective Ranging Depth of Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography by Spatial Frequency Domain Multiplexing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tong Wu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available We present a spatial frequency domain multiplexing method for extending the imaging depth range of a spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SDOCT system without any expensive device. This method uses two galvo scanners with different pivot-offset distances in two independent reference arms for spatial frequency modulation and multiplexing. The spatial frequency contents corresponding to different depth regions of the sample can be shifted to different frequency bands. The spatial frequency domain multiplexing SDOCT system provides an approximately 1.9-fold increase in the effective ranging depth compared with that of a conventional full-range SDOCT system. The reconstructed images of phantom and biological tissue demonstrate the expected increase in ranging depth. The parameters choice criterion for this method is discussed.

  7. State of the Art Report on Fracture Mechanics (Fracture in the Creep Range). Volume 3: Appendices H - M

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellison, E.G.; Musicco, G.G.; Pineau, A.

    1988-01-01

    A CEC State of the Art Report on Fracture Mechanics for Fast Breeder Reactors (Fracture below the Creep Range) has recently been published by Bhandari and coworkers (1984). There has also been a compilation of Creep Crack Growth Data from Germany, France and the U.K. for 304 and 316 stainles steel by Lloyd et al (1984). The present Report provides considerably more data and analytical techniques taken from Worldwide sources on creep crack initiation and propagation. Since the subject is moving quickly there is an emphasis on the most recent work; indeed research studies as yet unpublished are also included. The total Report is in 3 volumes. Volume 3 contains the most important and up-to-date information in some detail in Appendices H to M; this provides a sound base for the Report and for future workers

  8. State of the Art Report on Fracture Mechanics (Fracture in the Creep Range). Volume 2: Appendices A - G

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellison, E.G.; Musicco, G.G.; Pineau, A.

    1988-01-01

    A CEC State of the Art Report on Fracture Mechanics for Fast Breeder Reactors (Fracture below the Creep Range) has recently been published by Bhandari and coworkers (1984). There has also been a compilation of Creep Crack Growth Data from Germany, France and the U.K. for 304 and 316 stainles steel by Lloyd et al (1984). The present Report provides considerably more data and analytical techniques taken from Worldwide sources on creep crack initiation and propagation. Since the subject is moving quickly there is an emphasis on the most recent work; indeed research studies as yet unpublished are also included. The total Report is in 3 volumes. Volume 2 contains the most important and up-to-date information in some detail in Appendices A to G; this provides a sound base for the Report and for future workers

  9. Report of the advisory panel on the prospects for e+e- colliders in the TeV range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, K.; Amaldi, U.; Montague, B.W.; Schnell, W.; Meer, S. van der; Willis, W.; Lawson, J.D.

    1987-01-01

    This is the concluding report of the Advisory Panel on the Prospects for e + e - Colliders in the TeV range, a panel set up by the CERN Long-Range Planning Committee chaired by C. Rubbia. The report covers general considerations, particle sources and the final focus and interaction point, before looking at various possible acceleration methods in some detail - normal rf linacs, superconducting acceleration structures, structures excited by opto-electrical switches, wake-field acceleration, and plasma beat-wave acceleration. It is concluded that one approach to a TeV collider, based on a normal conducting linear accelerator at a frequency of approximately 30 GHz and with a gradient of about 100 MeV/m, seems to give promise of leading to a real project in three to five years if enough manpower and money were invested in research and development. In the scheme outlined in the report, the drive power is obtained from an auxiliary beam of a few GeV, which in turn is accelerated by superconducting cavities identical to the ones now under construction for LEP 200. The panel also proposes that sufficient effort be devoted to continuing the research on more exotic schemes of acceleration, which in the longer term may lead to much higher gradients. The report was originally issued as CLIC note 38, and a complete list of these internal reports is given as an appendix. (orig.)

  10. U.S. Department of Energy NESHAP Annual Report for CY 2014 Sandia National Laboratories Tonopah Test Range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evelo, Stacie [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Miller, Mark L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-05-01

    This National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) Annual Report has been prepared in a format to comply with the reporting requirements of 40 CFR 61.94 and the April 5, 1995 Memorandum of Agreement (MOA) between the Department of Energy (DOE) and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). According to the EPA approved NESHAP Monitoring Plan for the Tonopah Test Range (TTR), 40 CFR 61, subpart H, and the MOA, no additional monitoring or measurements are required at TTR in order to demonstrate compliance with the NESHAP regulation.

  11. Full inelastic cross section, effective stopping and ranges of fast multiply charged ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alimov, R.A.; Arslanbekov, T.U.; Matveev, B.I.; Rakhmatov, A.S.

    1994-01-01

    Inelastic processes taking place in collision of fast multiply charged ions with atoms are considered on the base of mechanism of sudden momentum transfer. The simple estimations are proposed of full inelastic cross sections, effective stopping and ion ranges in gaseous medium. (author). 10 refs

  12. Assessment of shoulder external rotation range-of-motion on throwing athletes: the effects of testing end-range determination (active versus passive).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, A; Pascoal, A

    2015-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of active or passive end-range determination (supine position) for external rotation range of motion (ROM) in overhead throwing athletes and verify if athletes' ROM is similar to non-athletes. Kinematic data from the dominant shoulder of 24 healthy male subjects, divided into two groups (12 athletes and 12 non-athletes) were recorded at end-range external rotation, thoracohumeral and glenohumeral external rotation angles were compared and a 2-way repeated-measures ANOVA was used to calculate the effects of end-range determination (passive versus active) across groups (athlete and non-athlete). A significant main effect (p external end-range angles was observed while the highest end-range determination values were associated with passive motion. No differences were observed between the athletic or non-athletic groups for either thoracohumeral (p = 0.784) or glenohumeral (p = 0.364) motion.

  13. Theory of mass-discrimination effects in ion extraction from a plasma of wide pressure range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, J.-S.; Kodera, K.

    1979-01-01

    Mass-discrimination effects in stagnation-point ion extraction are treated for a plasma with a wide range of Knudsen number, i.e. when the charged particle's mean free path 3 , ion Schmidt numbers, from 0 to 10 4 , the effective Knudsen number K from 0 to infinity, and the Debye ratio Rsub(p)/lambdasub(D) from 0 to 10 -1 . Numerical results show that: (1) for a non-flowing plasma, mass-discrimination effects increase with increasing effective Knudsen number (or gas pressure) and decreasing sampling potential; (2) for a non-flowing plasma, no significant effect of the Debye ratio on mass-discrimination was found; (3) for a flowing plasma, mass-discrimination effects decrease with increasing Reynolds number (or flow velocity) and ion Schmidt number, and with decreasing sampling potential and effective Knudsen number. (Auth.)

  14. Effects of free-range and confined housing on joint health in a herd of fattening pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etterlin, Pernille Engelsen; Ytrehus, Bjørnar; Lundeheim, Nils; Heldmer, Eva; Österberg, Julia; Ekman, Stina

    2014-09-11

    Free-range housing, in which pigs have access to both indoor and outdoor areas, is mandatory in organic pig production in Europe, but little is known about the effects of this housing on joint health in pigs. A high level of joint condemnations at slaughter has been reported in organic free-range pigs in Sweden, compared with pigs raised in conventional confined housing. We hypothesised that biomechanical forces imposed on the joints of pigs that range freely promote the development of osteochondrosis and lead to joint condemnation. We compared the prevalence of osteochondrosis and other joint lesions (e.g. arthritis, traumatic) in the elbow and hock joints of 91 crossbred Hampshire (Yorkshire × Landrace) fattening pigs that were housed in a free-range indoor/outdoor system with that in 45 pigs housed in confined indoor pens. A larger proportion of free-range than confined pigs had osteochondrosis in the elbow joints (69 vs. 50%, p free-range pigs showed moderate or severe lesions (33 vs. 16%, p free-range pigs also showed a higher prevalence of osteochondrosis in the hock joints (83 vs. 62%, p free-range pigs had condemned joints, all of which showed severe osteochondrosis, while no joints of confined pigs were condemned. In this experiment the prevalence of osteochondrosis in the elbow and the hock was higher, and lesions were more severe, in free-range than in confined pigs, suggesting that free-range housing increases the risk of acquiring osteochondrosis. Increased biomechanical stress to vulnerable joint structures may be the mechanism behind this effect, however more studies are needed to verify these results. This study suggests that modification of housing, and breeding for joints that are more adapted to free-range movement may be needed in free-range pig production. Severe osteochondrosis is a cause of joint condemnation, but the condemnation rate at slaughter underestimates the actual frequency of joint lesions and hence is a poor assessment of joint

  15. Outdoor stocking density in free-range laying hens: effects on behaviour and welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, D L M; Hinch, G N; Downing, J A; Lee, C

    2017-06-01

    Free-range laying hen systems are increasing within Australia and research is needed to determine optimal outdoor stocking densities. Six small (n=150 hens) experimental flocks of ISA Brown laying hens were housed with access to ranges simulating one of three outdoor stocking densities with two pen replicates per density: 2000 hens/ha, 10 000 hens/ha or 20 000 hens/ha. Birds were provided daily range access from 21 to 36 weeks of age and the range usage of 50% of hens was tracked using radio-frequency identification technology. Throughout the study, basic external health assessments following a modified version of the Welfare Quality® protocol showed most birds were in visibly good condition (although keel damage was increasingly present with age) with few differences between stocking densities. Toenail length at 36 weeks of age was negatively correlated with hours spent ranging for all pens of birds (all r⩾-0.23, P⩽0.04). At 23 weeks of age, there were no differences between outdoor stocking densities in albumen corticosterone concentrations (P=0.44). At 35 weeks of age, density effects were significant (Prange and indoors showed more dust bathing and foraging (scratching followed by ground-pecking) was performed outdoors, but more resting indoors (all Prange but the most resting outdoors, with hens from the 20 000 hens/ha densities showing the least amount of resting outdoors (all Pfree-range system management practices.

  16. Characterization of the range effect in synthetic aperture radar images of concrete specimens for width estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alzeyadi, Ahmed; Yu, Tzuyang

    2018-03-01

    Nondestructive evaluation (NDE) is an indispensable approach for the sustainability of critical civil infrastructure systems such as bridges and buildings. Recently, microwave/radar sensors are widely used for assessing the condition of concrete structures. Among existing imaging techniques in microwave/radar sensors, synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imaging enables researchers to conduct surface and subsurface inspection of concrete structures in the range-cross-range representation of SAR images. The objective of this paper is to investigate the range effect of concrete specimens in SAR images at various ranges (15 cm, 50 cm, 75 cm, 100 cm, and 200 cm). One concrete panel specimen (water-to-cement ratio = 0.45) of 30-cm-by-30-cm-by-5-cm was manufactured and scanned by a 10 GHz SAR imaging radar sensor inside an anechoic chamber. Scatterers in SAR images representing two corners of the concrete panel were used to estimate the width of the panel. It was found that the range-dependent pattern of corner scatters can be used to predict the width of concrete panels. Also, the maximum SAR amplitude decreases when the range increases. An empirical model was also proposed for width estimation of concrete panels.

  17. Long-Range Electron Effects upon Irradiation of Molecular Solids and Polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feldman, V.I.

    2006-01-01

    Long-range electron effects are responsible for specific localization and selectivity of the radiation-induced chemical transformations occurring in molecular solids and polymers, when the classic diffusion mobility is essentially restricted. In particullar, understanding of the effects of this kind may be of key significance for establishing new ways to control the radiation sensitivity of macromolecules and organized polymeric systems, nanomaterials and biopolymers. This talk will present an overview of model studies of the long-range electron effects with the characteristic scale from several angstroms to ten nanometers. The following aspects of the problem will be analyzed: (1) Positive hole delocalization in ionized molecules. This phenomenon has been demonstrated experimentally and confirmed by quantum chemical calculations for a number of various-type molecules (alkanes, conjugated polyenes, bifunctional compounds). The effective delocalization length was found to be up to 2 nm (or even larger). The role of this effect in site-selective radiation chemistry will be discussed in the frame of concepts of distributed reactivity and 'switching' between delocalized and localized states. (2) Trap-to-trap positive hole and electron migration between isolated molecules or functional groups. The characteristic distance for this process was estimated to be 2 to 4 nm. Special impact will be made on the possible role of this process in selection of specific isomers or conformers upon irradiation of complex systems and macromolecules. (3) The effects of long-range scavenging of low-energy secondary electrons in polymers and organized polymeric systems. As revealed by model experiments, the radius of electron capture in solid polymers may be in the range of 1 to 10 nm. Possible implications of scavenging effects for controlling the radiation chemistry of polymers and organized polymeric systems will be considered

  18. Effect of external magnetic field on locking range of spintronic feedback nano oscillator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanuman Singh

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available In this work we have studied the effect of external applied magnetic field on the locking range of spintronic feedback nano oscillator. Injection locking of spintronic feedback nano oscillator at integer and fractional multiple of its auto oscillation frequency was demonstrated recently. Here we show that the locking range increases with increasing external magnetic field. We also show synchronization of spintronic feedback nano oscillator at integer (n=1,2,3 multiples of auto oscillation frequency and side band peaks at higher external magnetic field values. We have verified experimental results with macro-spin simulation using similar conditions as used for the experimental study.

  19. Effect of external magnetic field on locking range of spintronic feedback nano oscillator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Hanuman; Konishi, K.; Bose, A.; Bhuktare, S.; Miwa, S.; Fukushima, A.; Yakushiji, K.; Yuasa, S.; Kubota, H.; Suzuki, Y.; Tulapurkar, A. A.

    2018-05-01

    In this work we have studied the effect of external applied magnetic field on the locking range of spintronic feedback nano oscillator. Injection locking of spintronic feedback nano oscillator at integer and fractional multiple of its auto oscillation frequency was demonstrated recently. Here we show that the locking range increases with increasing external magnetic field. We also show synchronization of spintronic feedback nano oscillator at integer (n=1,2,3) multiples of auto oscillation frequency and side band peaks at higher external magnetic field values. We have verified experimental results with macro-spin simulation using similar conditions as used for the experimental study.

  20. Effects of corridors on home range sizes and interpatch movements of three small mammal species.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mabry, Karen, E.; Barrett, Gary, W.

    2002-04-30

    Mabry, K.E., and G.W. Barrett. 2002. Effects of corridors on home range sizes and interpatch movements of three small mammal species. Landscape Ecol. 17:629-636. Corridors are predicted to benefit populations in patchy habitats by promoting movement, which should increase population densities, gene flow, and recolonization of extinct patch populations. However, few investigators have considered use of the total landscape, particularly the possibility of interpatch movement through matrix habitat, by small mammals. This study compares home range sizes of 3 species of small mammals, the cotton mouse, old field mouse and cotton rat between patches with and without corridors. Corridor presence did not have a statistically significant influence on average home range size. Habitat specialization and sex influenced the probability of an individual moving between 2 patches without corridors. The results of this study suggest that small mammals may be more capable of interpatch movement without corridors than is frequently assumed.

  1. Orthogonal design on range hood with air curtain and its effects on kitchen environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaomin; Wang, Xing; Xi, Guang

    2014-01-01

    Conventional range hoods cannot effectively prevent the oil fumes containing cooking-induced harmful material from escaping into the kitchen Air curtains and guide plates have been used in range hoods to reduce the escape of airborne emissions and heat, thereby improving the kitchen environment and the cook's degree of comfort. In this article, numerical simulations are used to study the effects of the jet velocity of an air curtain, the jet angle of the air curtain, the width of the jet slot, the area of the guide plate, and the exhaust rate of the range hood on the perceived temperature, the perceived concentration of oil fumes, the release temperature of oil fumes, and the concentration of escaped oil fumes in a kitchen. The orthogonal experiment results show that the exhaust rate of the range hood is the main factor influencing the fumes concentration and the temperature distribution in the kitchen. For the range hood examined in the present study, the optimum values of the exhaust rate, the jet velocity of the air curtain, the jet angle of the air curtain, the width of the jet slot, and the area of the guide plate are 10.5 m(3)/min, 1.5 m/s, -5°, 4 mm, and 0.22 m(2), respectively, based on the results of the parametric study. In addition, the velocity field, temperature field, and oil fumes concentration field in the kitchen using the proposed range hood with the air curtain and guide plate are analyzed for those parameters. The study's results provide significant information needed for improving the kitchen environment.

  2. Effect of long-range repulsive Coulomb interactions on packing structure of adhesive particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Sheng; Li, Shuiqing; Liu, Wenwei; Makse, Hernán A

    2016-02-14

    The packing of charged micron-sized particles is investigated using discrete element simulations based on adhesive contact dynamic model. The formation process and the final obtained structures of ballistic packings are studied to show the effect of interparticle Coulomb force. It is found that increasing the charge on particles causes a remarkable decrease of the packing volume fraction ϕ and the average coordination number 〈Z〉, indicating a looser and chainlike structure. Force-scaling analysis shows that the long-range Coulomb interaction changes packing structures through its influence on particle inertia before they are bonded into the force networks. Once contact networks are formed, the expansion effect caused by repulsive Coulomb forces are dominated by short-range adhesion. Based on abundant results from simulations, a dimensionless adhesion parameter Ad*, which combines the effects of the particle inertia, the short-range adhesion and the long-range Coulomb interaction, is proposed and successfully scales the packing results for micron-sized particles within the latest derived adhesive loose packing (ALP) regime. The structural properties of our packings follow well the recent theoretical prediction which is described by an ensemble approach based on a coarse-grained volume function, indicating some kind of universality in the low packing density regime of the phase diagram regardless of adhesion or particle charge. Based on the comprehensive consideration of the complicated inter-particle interactions, our findings provide insight into the roles of short-range adhesion and repulsive Coulomb force during packing formation and should be useful for further design of packings.

  3. Towards biodiversity hotspots effective for conserving mammals with small geographic ranges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrara, Rodolfo; San Blas, Germán; Agrain, Federico; Roig-Juñent, Sergio

    2017-01-01

    The main goal of using global biodiversity hotspots for conservation purposes is to protect taxa with small geographic ranges because these are highly vulnerable to extinction. However, the extent to what different hotspots types are effective for meeting this goal remains controversial because hotspots have been previously defined as either the richest or most threatened and richest sites in terms of total, endemic or threatened species. In this regard, the use of species richness to set conservation priorities is widely discussed because strategies focused on this diversity measure tend to miss many of the taxa with small geographic ranges. Here we use data on global terrestrial mammal distributions to show that, hotspots of total species, endemism and threat defined in terms of species richness are effective in including 27%, 29% and 11% respectively, of the taxa with small geographic ranges. Whilst, the same hotspot types defined in terms of a simple diversity index, which is a function of species richness and range-size rarity, include 68%, 44% and 90% respectively, of these taxa. In addition, we demonstrate that index hotspot types are highly efficient because they conserve 79% of mammal species (21% more species than richness hotspot types), with 59% of species shared by three hotspot types (31% more than richness hotspot types). These results suggest that selection of different diversity measures to define hotspots may strongly affect the achievement of conservation goals.

  4. Effects of salinity variations on CODAR ranges during the 2016 Bonnet Carré Spillway Opening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howden, S. D.; Diercks, A. R.; Hode, L. E.; Cambazoglu, M. K.; Martin, K. M.

    2017-12-01

    On January 10, 2016 the Bonnet Carré Spillway was opened to relieve flooding on the Mississippi River, diverting river water into Lake Pontchartrain and then through the western Mississippi Sound. As part of the response to understand the effects of the spillway opening on the Mississippi Sound, a pair of 25 MHz CODAR SeaSondes were deployed on the coast of the western Mississippi Sound to monitor surface currents. This presented the additional opportunity to run a natural experiment on the effect of salinity on the range of CODAR signals. During the spillway event, salinities in the CODAR coverage area, as measured by monitoring stations operated by a partnership between the Mississippi Department of Marine Resources and the United States Geological Survey in the Sound ranged from over 30 to less than 2. Ranges from the CODAR stations were significantly correlated with these salinities. Additionally, the Naval Coastal Ocean Model output, run with real-time river input plus the Bonnet Carré Spillway freshwater input, was available for the analyzes for the spillway event time frame. The observations and modeling were used to investigate the role of salinity on SeaSonde range and how well those variations agree with theory.

  5. The watercolor effect: quantitative evidence for luminance-dependent mechanisms of long-range color assimilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devinck, Frédéric; Delahunt, Peter B; Hardy, Joseph L; Spillmann, Lothar; Werner, John S

    2005-05-01

    When a dark chromatic contour delineating a figure is flanked on the inside by a brighter chromatic contour, the brighter color will spread into the entire enclosed area. This is known as the watercolor effect (WCE). Here we quantified the effect of color spreading using both color-matching and hue-cancellation tasks. Over a wide range of stimulus chromaticities, there was a reliable shift in color appearance that closely followed the direction of the inducing contour. When the contours were equated in luminance, the WCE was still present, but weak. The magnitude of the color spreading increased with increases in luminance contrast between the two contours. Additionally, as the luminance contrast between the contours increased, the chromaticity of the induced color more closely resembled that of the inside contour. The results support the hypothesis that the WCE is mediated by luminance-dependent mechanisms of long-range color assimilation.

  6. Environment-effect reporting. Chapter 6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hermens, P.A.H.

    1989-01-01

    Environment-effect reporting is a tool in the resolution of one or more government bodies about activities which may have important disadvantageous impacts upon the environment. This chapter gives a treatment of environment-effect reporting as a process consisting of the preparation, draw-up, judgement and use of an environment-effect report (MER), followed by an evaluation. The contentsof an environment-effect report are indicated. The role of environment-effect reporting in relation with other procedures is discussed. Some experience with the application of environment-effect reporting is presented and a number of experiences in the application are discussed. (H.W.). 5 refs.; 3 figs.; 3 tabs

  7. Spontaneous Lorentz violation and the long-range gravitational preferred-frame effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graesser, Michael L.; Jenkins, Alejandro; Wise, Mark B.

    2005-01-01

    Lorentz-violating operators involving Standard Model fields are tightly constrained by experimental data. However, bounds are more model-independent for Lorentz violation appearing in purely gravitational couplings. The spontaneous breaking of Lorentz invariance by the vacuum expectation value of a vector field selects a universal rest frame. This affects the propagation of the graviton, leading to a modification of Newton's law of gravity. We compute the size of the long-range preferred-frame effect in terms of the coefficients of the two-derivative operators in the low-energy effective theory that involves only the graviton and the Goldstone bosons

  8. Effective sampling range of food-based attractants for female Anastrepha suspensa (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendra, Paul E; Epsky, Nancy D; Heath, Robert R

    2010-04-01

    Release-recapture studies were conducted with both feral and sterile females of the Caribbean fruit fly, Anastrepha suspensa (Loew) (Diptera: Tephritidae), to determine sampling range for a liquid protein bait (torula yeast/borax) and for a two-component synthetic lure (ammonium acetate and putrescine). Tests were done in a guava, Psidium guajava L., grove and involved releasing flies at a central point and recording the numbers captured after 7 h and 1, 2, 3, and 6 d in an array of 25 Multilure traps located 9-46 m from the release point. In all tests, highest rate of recapture occurred within the first day of release, so estimations of sampling range were based on a 24-h period. Trap distances were grouped into four categories (30 m from release point) and relative trapping efficiency (percentage of capture) was determined for each distance group. Effective sampling range was defined as the maximum distance at which relative trapping efficiency was > or = 25%. This corresponded to the area in which 90% of the recaptures occured. Contour analysis was also performed to document spatial distribution of fly dispersal. In tests with sterile flies, immature females dispersed farther and were recovered in higher numbers than mature females, regardless of attractant, and recapture of both cohorts was higher with torula yeast. For mature feral flies, range of the synthetic lure was determined to be 30 m. With sterile females, effective range of both attractants was 20 m. Contour maps indicated that wind direction had a strong influence on the active space of attractants, as reflected by distribution of captured flies.

  9. The Consumer Reports Effectiveness Score: What Did Consumers Report?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Stevan Lars; Smart, David W.; Isakson, Richard L.; Worthen, Vaughn E.; Gregersen, Ann T.; Lambert, Michael J.

    2004-01-01

    From readers' ratings of satisfaction, problem resolution, and perceived emotional change during treatment, Consumer Reports magazine (CR, 1995) concluded both that psychotherapy is effective and that longer, more intensive therapy is more effective. The authors compared prospectively gathered 45-Item Outcome Questionnaire scores (OQ-45; M. J.…

  10. Effect of thermal processing on retinol levels of free-range and caged hen eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramalho, Héryka M M; Santos, Videanny V A; Medeiros, Vanessa P Q; Silva, Keith H D; Dimenstein, Roberto

    2006-01-01

    Purpose Eggs are a food item of high nutritional value, a source of vitamin A and readily accessible to the general population. Methods This paper analysed the effect of cooking on the retinol levels of free-range and caged hen eggs, using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The retinol levels of hen and quail eggs were also compared. Results The raw egg yolk retinol concentrations of free-range and caged hen eggs were 476.53+/-39.44 and 474.93+/-41.10 microg/100 g and cooked egg yolk concentrations were 393.53+/-24.74 and 379.01+/-30.78 microg/100 g, respectively; quail egg concentration was 636.56+/-32.71 microg retinol/100 g. No significant difference was found between the retinol of free-range and caged hen egg yolks; however, cooking diminished retinol levels, causing a loss of 17 and 20% in the free-range and caged hen egg yolks, respectively. Quail egg retinol concentration was significantly higher than that of the hens. Conclusion The retinol found in 100 g of hen and quail egg yolks could supply around 42 and 70.7% of the vitamin A requirements of an adult man, and is accordingly considered an excellent source of this vitamin.

  11. Investigating Effects of Participatory Range Management Plans on Species Diversity in Semirum-Isfahan Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Borhani

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate the effects of range management plans on species diversity, richness and evenness in Semirum rangelands, 52 sites (28 with treated plan and 24 without treated plan were selected. The non-parametric indices for species richness (Margalof, Menhinick, Jacknife and counting method and species diversity (Simpson, Camargo, Smith and Wilson and modified Nee were compared in two management plans. The mean comparisons were made by independent T Student Test and Mann-Witheny U Test, and correlation was determined between diversity indices and vegetation parameters. Based on the results there was no significant difference between the two management systems regarding environmental features, while the implementation of range management plans caused significant reduction of stocking rate. Among the studied indices, evenness of species in sites without treated plan was significantly more than the sites with treated plan. The correlation matrix showed that there was a significant positive correlation between species richness and vegetation cover, production of perennial plans, and the rangeland condition and trend, while evenness showed significant negative correlation with these indices. Generally, implementation of range management plans has considerable effect on increasing climax species, dominance of Bromus tomentellus and it causes improvement of rangeland condition and reduction of evenness. This behavior could be explained by the balance between species competition and grazing pressure. Further, succession process of the studied communities demonstrates domination of some desirable species, high production and less diversity.

  12. NEUTRON-PROTON EFFECTIVE RANGE PARAMETERS AND ZERO-ENERGY SHAPE DEPENDENCE.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HACKENBURG, R.W.

    2005-06-01

    A completely model-independent effective range theory fit to available, unpolarized, np scattering data below 3 MeV determines the zero-energy free proton cross section {sigma}{sub 0} = 20.4287 {+-} 0.0078 b, the singlet apparent effective range r{sub s} = 2.754 {+-} 0.018{sub stat} {+-} 0.056{sub syst} fm, and improves the error slightly on the parahydrogen coherent scattering length, a{sub c} = -3.7406 {+-} 0.0010 fm. The triplet and singlet scattering lengths and the triplet mixed effective range are calculated to be a{sub t} = 5.4114 {+-} 0.0015 fm, a{sub s} = -23.7153 {+-} 0.0043 fm, and {rho}{sub t}(0,-{epsilon}{sub t}) = 1.7468 {+-} 0.0019 fm. The model-independent analysis also determines the zero-energy effective ranges by treating them as separate fit parameters without the constraint from the deuteron binding energy {epsilon}{sub t}. These are determined to be {rho}{sub t}(0,0) = 1.705 {+-} 0.023 fm and {rho}{sub s}(0,0) = 2.665 {+-} 0.056 fm. This determination of {rho}{sub t}(0,0) and {rho}{sub s}(0,0) is most sensitive to the sparse data between about 20 and 600 keV, where the correlation between the determined values of {rho}{sub t}(0,0) and {rho}{sub s}(0,0) is at a minimum. This correlation is responsible for the large systematic error in r{sub s}. More precise data in this range are needed. The present data do not event determine (with confidence) that {rho}{sub t}(0,0) {ne} {rho}{sub t}(0, -{epsilon}{sub t}), referred to here as ''zero-energy shape dependence''. The widely used measurement of {sigma}{sub 0} = 20.491 {+-} 0.014 b from W. Dilg, Phys. Rev. C 11, 103 (1975), is argued to be in error.

  13. The short range effective interaction and the spectra of calcium isotopes in (f-p) space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qing-ying, Z.; Shen-wu, L.; Jian-xin, W.

    1986-01-01

    In this work, the authors use a new type of extremely short range interaction, the double delta interaction (DDI) to calculate the low-lying spectra of calcium isotopes /sup 41/Ca through /sup 48/Ca. The configuration space (f-p) includes configurations ( f/sub 7/2//sup n/ ) and ( f/sub 7/2//sup n-1/2p/sub 3/2/). The calculated energies are compared with experimental data for 75 levels. For comparison, they also use usual modified surface delta interaction (MSDI) to calculate the same spectra aforementioned. It is clear that the results calculated with DDI are better than with MSDI. Therefore, in the short-range effective interaction the addition of body delta force to the modified surface delta force may improve the agreement with experiment. The authors believe that the conclusion will not be changed if one enlarges the shell model space

  14. A New Theoretical Analysis of the Effects of Short Range Correlations in Inclusive Lepton Scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedetta Mezzetti, Chiara; Ciofi Degli Atti, Claudio

    2009-05-01

    Recently, evidence of short range correlations (SRC) has been provided by experimental data on inclusive lepton A(e, e')X scattering by the observation of a scaling behavior of the ratios of the cross sections on heavy nuclei to those on the deuteron and ^3He. Other attempts to get information on SRC rely on the concept of Y-scaling, whose interest has been renewed by new Jlab data. A new approach to Y-scaling, relying on the definition of a new relativistic scaling variable which incorporates the momentum dependence of the excitation energy of the (A - 1) system is presented, with the resulting scaling function being closely related to the longitudinal momentum distributions. Taking into account final state interaction effects, the new analysis of experimental data on nuclei, ranging from ^3He to Nuclear Matter, provides unique information on the nucleon momentum distributions and confirms the analysis in terms of cross section ratios.

  15. Study of the effect of short ranged ordering on the magnetism in FeCr alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jena, Ambika Prasad, E-mail: apjena@bose.res.in [Department of Condensed Matter and Materials Science, S N Bose National Centre for Basic Sciences, JD Block, Sector III, Salt Lake City, Kolkata 700098 (India); Sanyal, Biplab, E-mail: biplab.sanyal@physics.uu.se [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University, Box 516, SE-75120 Uppsala (Sweden); Mookerjee, Abhijit, E-mail: abhijit.mookerjee61@gmail.com [Department of Condensed Matter and Materials Science, S N Bose National Centre for Basic Sciences, JD Block, Sector III, Salt Lake City, Kolkata 700098 (India)

    2014-01-15

    For the study of magnetism in systems where the local environment plays an important role, we propose a marriage between the Monte Carlo simulation and Zunger's special quasi-random structures. We apply this technique on disordered FeCr alloys and show that our estimates of the transition temperature is in good agreement with earlier experiments. - Highlights: • The magnetism in FeCr is sensitively depended on the ordering of the atoms : disordered or with short ranged ordering. • This work uses the SQS technique suggested by Zunger has been used to generate various degrees of short range ordering in FeCr. • The electronic structure and pair energies have been obatined from first principles ASR and Lichtenstein methods. • The effect of chemical ordering on magnetic ordering is studied in detail. • Only those situations where the chemical ordering is complete have been studied.

  16. Study of the effect of short ranged ordering on the magnetism in FeCr alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jena, Ambika Prasad; Sanyal, Biplab; Mookerjee, Abhijit

    2014-01-01

    For the study of magnetism in systems where the local environment plays an important role, we propose a marriage between the Monte Carlo simulation and Zunger's special quasi-random structures. We apply this technique on disordered FeCr alloys and show that our estimates of the transition temperature is in good agreement with earlier experiments. - Highlights: • The magnetism in FeCr is sensitively depended on the ordering of the atoms : disordered or with short ranged ordering. • This work uses the SQS technique suggested by Zunger has been used to generate various degrees of short range ordering in FeCr. • The electronic structure and pair energies have been obatined from first principles ASR and Lichtenstein methods. • The effect of chemical ordering on magnetic ordering is studied in detail. • Only those situations where the chemical ordering is complete have been studied

  17. Capital Allocation Effects of Financial Reporting Regulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koenigsgruber, R.

    2012-01-01

    This paper analyses the effects of stricter financial reporting enforcement on capital allocation and reporting quality in a game-theoretic model and derives conclusions about optimal enforcement strictness. Analysis of the model shows that reporting quality strictly increases with tighter

  18. Measurement of peak impact loads differ between accelerometers - Effects of system operating range and sampling rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziebart, Christina; Giangregorio, Lora M; Gibbs, Jenna C; Levine, Iris C; Tung, James; Laing, Andrew C

    2017-06-14

    A wide variety of accelerometer systems, with differing sensor characteristics, are used to detect impact loading during physical activities. The study examined the effects of system characteristics on measured peak impact loading during a variety of activities by comparing outputs from three separate accelerometer systems, and by assessing the influence of simulated reductions in operating range and sampling rate. Twelve healthy young adults performed seven tasks (vertical jump, box drop, heel drop, and bilateral single leg and lateral jumps) while simultaneously wearing three tri-axial accelerometers including a criterion standard laboratory-grade unit (Endevco 7267A) and two systems primarily used for activity-monitoring (ActiGraph GT3X+, GCDC X6-2mini). Peak acceleration (gmax) was compared across accelerometers, and errors resulting from down-sampling (from 640 to 100Hz) and range-limiting (to ±6g) the criterion standard output were characterized. The Actigraph activity-monitoring accelerometer underestimated gmax by an average of 30.2%; underestimation by the X6-2mini was not significant. Underestimation error was greater for tasks with greater impact magnitudes. gmax was underestimated when the criterion standard signal was down-sampled (by an average of 11%), range limited (by 11%), and by combined down-sampling and range-limiting (by 18%). These effects explained 89% of the variance in gmax error for the Actigraph system. This study illustrates that both the type and intensity of activity should be considered when selecting an accelerometer for characterizing impact events. In addition, caution may be warranted when comparing impact magnitudes from studies that use different accelerometers, and when comparing accelerometer outputs to osteogenic impact thresholds proposed in literature. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The effect of reporting speed on plain film reporting errors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwards, A.J.; Ricketts, C.; Dubbins, P.A.; Roobottom, C.A.; Wells, I.P.

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To determine whether reporting plain films at faster rates lead to a deterioration in accuracy. METHODS: Fourteen consultant radiologists were asked to report a total of 90 radiographs in three sets of 30. They reported the first set at the rate they would report normally and the subsequent two sets in two thirds and one half of the original time. The 90 radiographs were the same for each radiologist, however, the order was randomly generated for each. RESULTS: There was no significant difference in overall accuracy for each of the three film sets (p=0.74). Additionally no significant difference in the total number of false-negatives for each film set was detected (p=0.14). However, there was a significant decrease in the number of false-positive reports when the radiologists were asked to report at higher speeds (p=0.003). CONCLUSIONS: When reporting accident and emergency radiographs increasing reporting speed has no overall effect upon accuracy, however, it does lead to less false-positive reports

  20. Hedgehogs on the move: Testing the effects of land use change on home range size and movement patterns of free-ranging Ethiopian hedgehogs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad A Abu Baker

    Full Text Available Degradation and alteration of natural environments because of agriculture and other land uses have major consequences on vertebrate populations, particularly on spatial organization and movement patterns. We used GPS tracking to study the effect of land use and sex on the home range size and movement of a typical model species, the Ethiopian hedgehogs. We used free-ranging hedgehogs from two areas with different land use practices: 24 from an area dominated by irrigated farms (12 ♂♂, 12 ♀♀ and 22 from a natural desert environment within a biosphere reserve (12 ♂♂, 10 ♀♀. Animals were significantly heavier in the resource-rich irrigated farms area (417.71 ±12.77SE g in comparison to the natural desert area (376.37±12.71SE g. Both habitat and sex significantly influenced the home range size of hedgehogs. Home ranges were larger in the reserve than in the farms area. Total home ranges averaged 103 ha (±17 SE for males and 42 ha (±11SE for females in the farms area, but were much larger in the reserve averaging 230 ha (±33 SE for males and 150 ha (±29 SE for females. The home ranges of individuals of both sexes overlapped. Although females were heavier than males, body weight had no effect on home range size. The results suggest that resources provided in the farms (e.g. food, water, and shelters influenced animal density and space use. Females aggregated around high-resource areas (either farms or rawdhats, whereas males roamed over greater distances, likely in search of mating opportunities to maximize reproductive success. Most individual home ranges overlapped with many other individuals of either sex, suggesting a non-territorial, promiscuous mating. Patterns of space use and habitat utilization are key factors in shaping aspects of reproductive biology and mating system. To minimize the impacts of agriculture on local wildlife, we recommend that biodiversity-friendly agro-environmental schemes be introduced in the Middle

  1. Hedgehogs on the move: Testing the effects of land use change on home range size and movement patterns of free-ranging Ethiopian hedgehogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu Baker, Mohammad A; Reeve, Nigel; Conkey, April A T; Macdonald, David W; Yamaguchi, Nobuyuki

    2017-01-01

    Degradation and alteration of natural environments because of agriculture and other land uses have major consequences on vertebrate populations, particularly on spatial organization and movement patterns. We used GPS tracking to study the effect of land use and sex on the home range size and movement of a typical model species, the Ethiopian hedgehogs. We used free-ranging hedgehogs from two areas with different land use practices: 24 from an area dominated by irrigated farms (12 ♂♂, 12 ♀♀) and 22 from a natural desert environment within a biosphere reserve (12 ♂♂, 10 ♀♀). Animals were significantly heavier in the resource-rich irrigated farms area (417.71 ±12.77SE g) in comparison to the natural desert area (376.37±12.71SE g). Both habitat and sex significantly influenced the home range size of hedgehogs. Home ranges were larger in the reserve than in the farms area. Total home ranges averaged 103 ha (±17 SE) for males and 42 ha (±11SE) for females in the farms area, but were much larger in the reserve averaging 230 ha (±33 SE) for males and 150 ha (±29 SE) for females. The home ranges of individuals of both sexes overlapped. Although females were heavier than males, body weight had no effect on home range size. The results suggest that resources provided in the farms (e.g. food, water, and shelters) influenced animal density and space use. Females aggregated around high-resource areas (either farms or rawdhats), whereas males roamed over greater distances, likely in search of mating opportunities to maximize reproductive success. Most individual home ranges overlapped with many other individuals of either sex, suggesting a non-territorial, promiscuous mating. Patterns of space use and habitat utilization are key factors in shaping aspects of reproductive biology and mating system. To minimize the impacts of agriculture on local wildlife, we recommend that biodiversity-friendly agro-environmental schemes be introduced in the Middle East where

  2. Biological effects of tritium on fish cells in the concentration range of international drinking water standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuart, Marilyne; Festarini, Amy; Schleicher, Krista; Tan, Elizabeth; Kim, Sang Bog; Wen, Kendall; Gawlik, Jilian; Ulsh, Brant

    2016-10-01

    To evaluate whether the current Canadian tritium drinking water limit is protective of aquatic biota, an in vitro study was designed to assess the biological effects of low concentrations of tritium, similar to what would typically be found near a Canadian nuclear power station, and higher concentrations spanning the range of international tritium drinking water standards. Channel catfish peripheral blood B-lymphoblast and fathead minnow testis cells were exposed to 10-100,000 Bq l(-1) of tritium, after which eight molecular and cellular endpoints were assessed. Increased numbers of DNA strand breaks were observed and ATP levels were increased. There were no increases in γH2AX-mediated DNA repair. No differences in cell growth were noted. Exposure to the lowest concentrations of tritium were associated with a modest increase in the viability of fathead minnow testicular cells. Using the micronucleus assay, an adaptive response was observed in catfish B-lymphoblasts. Using molecular endpoints, biological responses to tritium in the range of Canadian and international drinking water standards were observed. At the cellular level, no detrimental effects were noted on growth or cycling, and protective effects were observed as an increase in cell viability and an induced resistance to a large challenge dose.

  3. Effects of Analog-to-Digital Converter Nonlinearities on Radar Range-Doppler Maps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doerry, Armin Walter [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Dubbert, Dale F. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Tise, Bertice L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2014-07-01

    Radar operation, particularly Ground Moving Target Indicator (GMTI) radar modes, are very sensitive to anomalous effects of system nonlinearities. These throw off harmonic spurs that are sometimes detected as false alarms. One significant source of nonlinear behavior is the Analog to Digital Converter (ADC). One measure of its undesired nonlinearity is its Integral Nonlinearity (INL) specification. We examine in this report the relationship of INL to GMTI performance.

  4. Post-Closure Inspection Report for the Tonopah Test Range, Nevada: For Calendar Year 2017, Revision 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarado, Juan; Matthews, Patrick

    2018-05-01

    This report provides the results of the annual post-closure inspections conducted at the closed corrective action units (CAUs) located on the Tonopah Test Range (TTR) and the Nevada Test and Training Range (NTTR). This report covers calendar year 2017 and includes visual inspection and repair activities completed at the following CAUs: • CAU 400: Bomblet Pit and Five Points Landfill (TTR) • CAU 407: Roller Coaster RadSafe Area (TTR) • CAU 424: Area 3 Landfill Complexes (TTR) • CAU 453: Area 9 UXO Landfill (TTR) • CAU 487: Thunderwell Site (TTR) Visual inspections were conducted according to the post-closure plans in the approved closure reports and subsequent correspondence with the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection. The annual post-closure inspections were conducted on May 23, 2017. No maintenance or repair issues were noted at CAU 400 and CAU 487. Maintenance items and subsequent repairs include the following: • CAU 407: A large animal burrow was observed in the southeast corner of the cover during the inspection. Two additional animal burrows were discovered during repair actions. All cover defects were repaired on January 9, 2018. • CAU 424: CAS 03-08-002-A304 (Landfill Cell A3-4): A new monument was installed and the subsidence area was repaired on January 9, 2018. • CAU 424: CAS 03-08-002-A308 (Landfill Cell A3-8): Lava rock, used to mark the two eastern monument locations, was noted as missing during the inspection. The lava rock was replaced on January 9, 2018. • CAU 453: Five large animal burrows, located near the east–central portion of cover, was noted during the inspection. Eight additional animal burrows were discovered during repair actions. All cover defects were repaired on January 9, 2018.

  5. Does a weekend effect in diurnal temperature range exist in the eastern and central Tibetan Plateau?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    You Qinglong; Kang Shichang; Xu Yanwei; Huang Jie; Fluegel, Wolfgang-Albert; Sanchez-Lorenzo, Arturo; Yan Yuping

    2009-01-01

    The 'weekend effect' method (defined here as the average for Saturday through Monday minus the average for Wednesday through Friday) has been used to identify fingerprints of anthropogenic emissions. Based on daily maximum and minimum temperature series from the China Meteorological Administration homogenized dataset, the weekend effect in diurnal temperature range (DTR) at 71 stations with elevations above 2000 m asl in the eastern and central Tibetan Plateau (TP) during 1961-2004 is examined, and principal component analysis (PCA) is performed to cluster series into four subregions with similar weekend effect variability. The DTR demonstrates a much stronger negative weekend effect in autumn and shows larger positive values in winter, which provides a strong evidence of anthropogenic activity in this region, especially in the central TP. Analysis by topographic type and degree of urbanization shows a clear weekly cycle which cannot be explained by a microclimate effect. We hypothesize that the interaction with anthropogenic aerosols from local emissions and transported by atmospheric circulation may account for the weekly cycle in the TP. More caution should be paid to the driving mechanism of the weekend effect in the most remote and clear regions in the world.

  6. Effects of a range-expanding sea urchin on behaviour of commercially fished abalone.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth M A Strain

    Full Text Available Global climate change has resulted in a southerly range expansion of the habitat modifying sea urchin Centrostephanus rodgersii to the east coast of Tasmania, Australia. Various studies have suggested that this urchin outcompetes black-lipped abalone (Haliotis rubra for resources, but experiments elucidating the mechanisms are lacking.We outline a new framework involving experimental manipulations and Markov chain and Pareto modelling to examine the effects of interspecific competition between urchins and abalone and the effect of intraspecific competition in abalone, assessed as effects on behaviour. Manipulations of abalone densities had no detectable effect on urchin behavioural transitions, movement patterns or resightability through time. In contrast, additions of urchins resulted in abalone shifting microhabitats from exposed to sheltered positions, an increase in the proportion of mobile abalone, and declines in abalone resightability through time relative to controls without the urchins. Our results support the hypothesis of asymmetrical competitive interactions between urchins and abalone.The introduction of urchins to intact algal beds causes abalone to flee and seek shelter in cryptic microhabitat which will negatively impact both their accessibility to such microhabitats, and productivity of the abalone fishery, and will potentially affect their growth and survival, while the presence of the abalone has no detectable effect on the urchin. Our approach involving field-based experiments and modelling could be used to test the effects of other invasive species on native species behaviour.

  7. Effects of a range-expanding sea urchin on behaviour of commercially fished abalone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strain, Elisabeth M A; Johnson, Craig R; Thomson, Russell J

    2013-01-01

    Global climate change has resulted in a southerly range expansion of the habitat modifying sea urchin Centrostephanus rodgersii to the east coast of Tasmania, Australia. Various studies have suggested that this urchin outcompetes black-lipped abalone (Haliotis rubra) for resources, but experiments elucidating the mechanisms are lacking. We outline a new framework involving experimental manipulations and Markov chain and Pareto modelling to examine the effects of interspecific competition between urchins and abalone and the effect of intraspecific competition in abalone, assessed as effects on behaviour. Manipulations of abalone densities had no detectable effect on urchin behavioural transitions, movement patterns or resightability through time. In contrast, additions of urchins resulted in abalone shifting microhabitats from exposed to sheltered positions, an increase in the proportion of mobile abalone, and declines in abalone resightability through time relative to controls without the urchins. Our results support the hypothesis of asymmetrical competitive interactions between urchins and abalone. The introduction of urchins to intact algal beds causes abalone to flee and seek shelter in cryptic microhabitat which will negatively impact both their accessibility to such microhabitats, and productivity of the abalone fishery, and will potentially affect their growth and survival, while the presence of the abalone has no detectable effect on the urchin. Our approach involving field-based experiments and modelling could be used to test the effects of other invasive species on native species behaviour.

  8. Link Design Rules for Cost-Effective Short-Range Radio Over Multimode Fiber Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Visani, Davide; Tartarini, Giovanni; Petersen, Martin Nordal

    2010-01-01

    Referring to short-range radio over multimode fiber links, we find out important guidelines for the realization of cost-effective intensity modulated directly detected systems. Since the quality of today's connectors is considerably higher than in the past, we demonstrate that two important...... parameters of the system are the finite detecting area of the photodiode and the laser frequency chirp. Furthemore, we show that the use of the central launch technique inherently determines a lower impact of modal noise fluctuations with respect to the offset launch one. This makes CL more convenient...

  9. Covariant spectator theory of $np$ scattering:\\\\ Effective range expansions and relativistic deuteron wave functions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franz Gross, Alfred Stadler

    2010-09-01

    We present the effective range expansions for the 1S0 and 3S1 scattering phase shifts, and the relativistic deuteron wave functions that accompany our recent high precision fits (with \\chi^2/N{data} \\simeq 1) to the 2007 world np data below 350 MeV. The wave functions are expanded in a series of analytical functions (with the correct asymptotic behavior at both large and small arguments) that can be Fourier-transformed from momentum to coordinate space and are convenient to use in any application. A fortran subroutine to compute these wave functions can be obtained from the authors.

  10. Research on effect of rough surface on FMCW laser radar range accuracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Huirong

    2018-03-01

    The non-cooperative targets large scale measurement system based on frequency-modulated continuous-wave (FMCW) laser detection and ranging technology has broad application prospects. It is easy to automate measurement without cooperative targets. However, the complexity and diversity of the surface characteristics of the measured surface directly affects the measurement accuracy. First, the theoretical analysis of range accuracy for a FMCW laser radar was studied, the relationship between surface reflectivity and accuracy was obtained. Then, to verify the effect of surface reflectance for ranging accuracy, a standard tool ball and three standard roughness samples were measured within 7 m to 24 m. The uncertainty of each target was obtained. The results show that the measurement accuracy is found to increase as the surface reflectivity gets larger. Good agreements were obtained between theoretical analysis and measurements from rough surfaces. Otherwise, when the laser spot diameter is smaller than the surface correlation length, a multi-point averaged measurement can reduce the measurement uncertainty. The experimental results show that this method is feasible.

  11. The effects of heavy metal contamination on the soil arthropod community of a shooting range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Migliorini, Massimo; Pigino, Gaia; Bianchi, Nicola; Bernini, Fabio; Leonzio, Claudio

    2004-01-01

    Soils in clay pigeon shooting ranges can be seriously contaminated by heavy metals. The pellets contained in ammunition are composed of Pb, Sb, Ni, Zn, Mn and Cu. The total concentrations of these metals in soils, and the effects of their increasing levels on the arthropod community were investigated at seven sampling sites in a clay pigeon shooting range and compared with two controls. Research revealed that the spatial distribution of Pb and Sb contamination in the shot-fall area was strongly correlated with the flight path of the pellets. Ordination obtained through Redundance Analysis showed that Collembola, Protura and Diplura were positively correlated with major detected contaminants (Pb, Sb), while Symphyla showed a negative correlation with these pollutants. Determination of the soluble lead fraction in soil, and of its bioaccumulation in the saprophagous Armadillidium sordidum (Isopoda) and the predator Ocypus olens (Coleoptera), showed that a significant portion of metallic Pb from spent pellets is bioavailable in the soil and can be bioaccumulated by edaphic organisms, entering the soil trophic network, but without biomagnification. - Significant relationships were found between lead accumulation in soil from a shooting range and inhabiting arthropod communities

  12. Analytically calculated post-Keplerian range and range-rate perturbations: the solar Lense-Thirring effect and BepiColombo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iorio, Lorenzo

    2018-05-01

    We analytically calculate the time series for the perturbations Δ ρ \\left(t\\right), Δ \\dot{ρ }\\left(t\\right) induced by a general disturbing acceleration A on the mutual range ρ and range-rate \\dot{ρ } of two test particles A, B orbiting the same spinning body. We apply it to the general relativistic Lense-Thirring effect, due to the primary's spin S, and the classical perturbation arising from its quadrupole mass moment J2 for arbitrary orbital geometries and orientation of the source's symmetry axis {\\hat{S}}. The Earth-Mercury range and range-rate are nominally affected by the Sun's gravitomagnetic field to the 10 m, 10-3 cm s-1 level, respectively, during the extended phase (2026-2028) of the forthcoming BepiColombo mission to Mercury whose expected tracking accuracy is of the order of ≃0.1 m, 2 × 10-4 cm s-1. The competing signatures due to the solar quadrupole J_2^{\\odot }, if modelled at the σ _{J_2^{\\odot }}˜eq 10^{-9} level of the latest planetary ephemerides INPOP17a, are nearly 10 times smaller than the relativistic gravitomagnetic effects. The position and velocity vectors \\boldsymbol {r}, \\boldsymbol {v} of Mercury and Earth are changed by the solar Lense-Thirring effect by about 10 m, 1.5 m and 10-3 cm s-1, 10-5 cm s-1, respectively, over 2 yr; neglecting such shifts may have an impact on long-term integrations of the inner Solar system dynamics over ˜Gyr time-scales.

  13. The dependence of the nuclear charge form factor on short range correlations and surface fluctuation effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Massen, S. E.; Garistov, V. P.; Grypeos, M. E.

    1996-01-01

    The effects of nuclear surface fluctuations on harmonic oscillator elastic charge form factor of light nuclei are investigated, simultaneously approximating the short-range correlations through a Jastrow correlation factor. Inclusion of the surface fluctuation effects within this description, by truncating the cluster expansion at the two-body part, is found to improve somewhat the fit to the elastic charge form-factor of 16 O and 40 Ca. However, the convergence of the cluster expansion is expected to deteriorate. An additional finding is that surface-fluctuation correlations produce a drastic change in the asymptotic behaviour of the point-proton form-factor, which now falls off quite slowly (i.e. as const.q -4 ) at large values of the momentum transfer q

  14. Effect of Pilates Exercise on Range of Motion and Edema of Upper Limb in Mastectomy Side

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Ghorbani

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives : The surgery of breast cancer like any other surgeries may bring about some problems and complications, which the knowledge of these problems may be an effective way for prevention or dealing with the complications. The motor and sensory impairments in the upper limb of the surgery side necessitate the utilization of the rehabilitation methods. The main purpose of this research was to show the effect of Pilates exercise on range of motion and edema of upper limb in females suffering from breast cancer after going through surgery.   Methods: This quasi- experimental study was conducted on 25 patients randomly chosen among the patients referring to Cancer Institute. The designed exercise included five "Mat Pilates" moves which were done for 15 sessions until the patient reached fatigue borderlines. Meantime, the control group was doing routine active exercises in physiotherapy center. The range of motion and edema of upper limb was measured before and after applying the designed exercise. For describing the data, the mean and standard deviation, and for inferential analysis, the correlated T-tests and one way analysis of variance were used in level of significance of 5%, to compare the variants before and after applying the designed exercise.   Results: The results showed a significant difference between the flexion, extension, and internal, external rotation of shoulder, flexion and extension of elbow, flexion, extension, supination deviation and pronation deviation of the wrist and forearm before and after experiment in Pilates group. While in the control group, flexion, extension, internal and external rotation of shoulder, flexion and extension of elbow, and flexion of wrist showed a significant difference before and after the experiment.   Conclusion: The use of Pilates exercise after mastectomy surgery can increase the range of motion of the upper limb in the involved side of the patients, and decrease the edema

  15. Coulomb corrections to nuclear scattering lengths and effective ranges for weakly bound systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mur, V.D.; Popov, V.S.; Sergeev, A.V.

    1996-01-01

    A procedure is considered for extracting the purely nuclear scattering length as and effective range rs (which correspond to a strong-interaction potential Vs with disregarded Coulomb interaction) from the experimentally determined nuclear quantities acs and rcs, which are modified by Coulomb interaction. The Coulomb renormalization of as and rs is especially strong if the system under study involves a level with energy close to zero (on the nuclear scale). This applies to formulas that determine the Coulomb renormalization of the low-energy parameters of s scattering (l=0). Detailed numerical calculations are performed for coefficients appearing in the equations that determine Coulomb corrections for various models of the potential Vs(r). This makes it possible to draw qualitative conclusions that the dependence of Coulomb corrections on the form of the strong-interaction potential and, in particular, on its small-distance behavior. A considerable enhancement of Coulomb corrections to the effective range rs is found for potentials with a barrier

  16. Biological Effects of Osteoblast-Like Cells on Nanohydroxyapatite Particles at a Low Concentration Range

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaochen Liu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The biological effects of osteoblast-like MG-63 cells on nanohydroxyapatite (n-HA at the low concentration range (5–25 g/mL for 5 days was investigated. The results showed the viability and actin cytoskeleton of the cells descended with the increase of the concentration of n-HA, and the actin cytoskeleton of cells was depolymerised and became more disordered. Apoptotic rate of cells (1.85%, 1.99%, and 2.29% increased with the increase of n-HA concentration (5, 15, and 25 g/mL and become significantly higher than the control. Total intracellular protein content decreased with n-HA concentration increase, showing significant difference between 25 g/mL and the control, and no significant change of ALP activity was observed at the 5th day. The results revealed that the cell growth was inhibited by n-HA in a concentration-dependent manner, and the obvious biological effects of MG-63 cells on n-HA existed at the low concentration range from 5 to 25 g/mL.

  17. SPECIFIC AND CROSS-OVER EFFECTS OF FOAM ROLLING ON ANKLE DORSIFLEXION RANGE OF MOTION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beardsley, Chris

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background Flexibility is an important physical quality. Self-myofascial release (SMFR) methods such as foam rolling (FR) increase flexibility acutely but how long such increases in range of motion (ROM) last is unclear. Static stretching (SS) also increases flexibility acutely and produces a cross-over effect to contralateral limbs. FR may also produce a cross-over effect to contralateral limbs but this has not yet been identified. Purpose To explore the potential cross-over effect of SMFR by investigating the effects of a FR treatment on the ipsilateral limb of 3 bouts of 30 seconds on changes in ipsilateral and contralateral ankle DF ROM and to assess the time-course of those effects up to 20 minutes post-treatment. Methods A within- and between-subject design was carried out in a convenience sample of 26 subjects, allocated into FR (n=13) and control (CON, n=13) groups. Ankle DF ROM was recorded at baseline with the in-line weight-bearing lunge test for both ipsilateral and contralateral legs and at 0, 5, 10, 15, 20 minutes following either a two-minute seated rest (CON) or 3 3 30 seconds of FR of the plantar flexors of the dominant leg (FR). Repeated measures ANOVA was used to examine differences in ankle DF ROM. Results No significant between-group effect was seen following the intervention. However, a significant within-group effect (pin the FR group was seen between baseline and all post-treatment time-points (0, 5, 10, 15 and 20 minutes). Significant within-group effects (pin the ipsilateral leg between baseline and at all post-treatment time-points, and in the contralateral leg up to 10 minutes post-treatment, indicating the presence of a cross-over effect. Conclusions FR improves ankle DF ROM for at least 20 minutes in the ipsilateral limb and up to 10 minutes in the contralateral limb, indicating that FR produces a cross-over effect into the contralateral limb. The mechanism producing these cross-over effects is unclear but may involve

  18. Effectiveness of adaptive silverware on range of motion of the hand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan S. McDonald

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background. Hand function is essential to a person’s self-efficacy and greatly affects quality of life. Adapted utensils with handles of increased diameters have historically been used to assist individuals with arthritis or other hand disabilities for feeding, and other related activities of daily living. To date, minimal research has examined the biomechanical effects of modified handles, or quantified the differences in ranges of motion (ROM when using a standard versus a modified handle. The aim of this study was to quantify the ranges of motion (ROM required for a healthy hand to use different adaptive spoons with electrogoniometry for the purpose of understanding the physiologic advantages that adapted spoons may provide patients with limited ROM. Methods. Hand measurements included the distal interphalangeal joint (DIP, proximal interphalangeal joint (PIP, and metacarpophalangeal joint (MCP for each finger and the interphalangeal (IP and MCP joint for the thumb. Participants were 34 females age 18–30 (mean age 20.38 ± 1.67 with no previous hand injuries or abnormalities. Participants grasped spoons with standard handles, and spoons with handle diameters of 3.18 cm (1.25 inch, and 4.45 cm (1.75 inch. ROM measurements were obtained with an electrogoniometer to record the angle at each joint for each of the spoon handle sizes. Results. A 3 × 3 × 4 repeated measures ANOVA (Spoon handle size by Joint by Finger found main effects on ROM of Joint (F(2, 33 = 318.68, Partial η2 = .95, p < .001, Spoon handle size (F(2, 33 = 598.73, Partial η2 = .97, p < .001, and Finger (F(3, 32 = 163.83, Partial η2 = .94, p < .001. As the spoon handle diameter size increased, the range of motion utilized to grasp the spoon handle decreased in all joints and all fingers (p < 0.01. Discussion. This study confirms the hypothesis that less range of motion is required to grip utensils with larger diameter handles, which in turn may reduce challenges for

  19. Confidence Intervals: From tests of statistical significance to confidence intervals, range hypotheses and substantial effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominic Beaulieu-Prévost

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available For the last 50 years of research in quantitative social sciences, the empirical evaluation of scientific hypotheses has been based on the rejection or not of the null hypothesis. However, more than 300 articles demonstrated that this method was problematic. In summary, null hypothesis testing (NHT is unfalsifiable, its results depend directly on sample size and the null hypothesis is both improbable and not plausible. Consequently, alternatives to NHT such as confidence intervals (CI and measures of effect size are starting to be used in scientific publications. The purpose of this article is, first, to provide the conceptual tools necessary to implement an approach based on confidence intervals, and second, to briefly demonstrate why such an approach is an interesting alternative to an approach based on NHT. As demonstrated in the article, the proposed CI approach avoids most problems related to a NHT approach and can often improve the scientific and contextual relevance of the statistical interpretations by testing range hypotheses instead of a point hypothesis and by defining the minimal value of a substantial effect. The main advantage of such a CI approach is that it replaces the notion of statistical power by an easily interpretable three-value logic (probable presence of a substantial effect, probable absence of a substantial effect and probabilistic undetermination. The demonstration includes a complete example.

  20. Effects of diurnal temperature range on mortality in Hefei city, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Jing; Xiao, Chang-chun; Li, Yu-rong; Zhang, Jun-qing; Zhai, Hao-yuan; Geng, Xi-ya; Ding, Rui; Zhai, Jin-xia

    2018-05-01

    Although several studies indicated an association between diurnal temperature range (DTR) and mortality, the results about modifiers are inconsistent, and few studies were conducted in developing inland country. This study aims to evaluate the effects of DTR on cause-specific mortality and whether season, gender, or age might modify any association in Hefei city, China, during 2007-2016. Quasi-Poisson generalized linear regression models combined with a distributed lag non-linear model (DLNM) were applied to evaluate the relationships between DTR and non-accidental, cardiovascular, and respiratory mortality. We observed a J-shaped relationship between DTR and cause-specific mortality. With a DTR of 8.3 °C as the reference, the cumulative effects of extremely high DTR were significantly higher for all types of mortality than effects of lower or moderate DTR in full year. When stratified by season, extremely high DTR in spring had a greater impact on all cause-specific mortality than other three seasons. Male and the elderly (≥ 65 years) were consistently more susceptible to extremely high DTR effect than female and the youth (groups from extremely high DTR especially in the spring.

  1. Influence of retardation effects on photodisintegration of a quantum system bound by short-range forces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preobrazhenskii, M.A.; Golovinskii, P.A.

    1996-01-01

    Expressions for cross sections for multiphonon disintegration of quantum systems bound by short-range forces are obtained in the plane-wave approximation taking into account retardation effects. It is shown that, in the region of nonrelativistic energies, their contribution is factored, and the resulting universal factor is expressed for an arbitrary degree of process nonlinearity n in terms of elementary functions. Arguments of functions are determined only by the mode ω, the radiation spectrum width β, and the bound-state energy of a system. The dependence of the contribution of retardation effects on ω, β, and n is studied in detail. Analytical expressions for cross sections for multiquantum disintegration in the first nonvanishing order with respect to correlation interaction, which exactly take into account retardation effects, are obtained. It is shown that for two-quantum processes, the contribution of correlation effects is expressed in terms of a function representing an extension of dipole polarizability, whereas for n>2, it can be described in the dipole approximation

  2. Effects of short range ΔN interaction on observables of the πNN system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexandrou, C.; Blankleider, B.

    1990-01-01

    The inadequacy of standard few-body approaches in describing the πNN system has motivated searches for the responsible missing mechanism. In the case of πd scattering, it has recently been asserted that an additional short range ΔN interaction can account for essentially all the discrepancies between a few-body calculation and experimental data. This conclusion, however, has been based on calculations where a phenomenological ΔN interaction is added only in Born term to background few-body amplitudes. In the present work we investigate the effect of including such a ΔN interaction to all orders within a unitary few-body calculation of the πNN system. Besides testing the validity of adding the ΔN interaction in Born term in πd scattering, our fully coupled approach also enables us to see the influence of the same ΔN interaction on the processes NN→πd and NN→NN. For πd elastic scattering, we find that the higher order ΔN interaction terms can have as much influence on πd observables as the lowest order contribution alone. Moreover, we find that the higher order contributions tend to cancel the effect obtained by adding the ΔN interaction in Born term only. The effect of the same ΔN interaction on NN→πd and NN→NN appears to be as significant as in πd→πd, suggesting that future investigations of the short range ΔN interaction should be done in the context of the fully coupled πNN system

  3. An improved broadband method to evaluate effective parameters of slab metamaterials in the microwave frequency range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rybin, O.; Nawaz, T.; Abbasi, T.

    2007-01-01

    An improved broadband method for determining complex effective refractive index, permittivity and permeability of an arbitrary passive metamaterial in microwave frequency range has been proposed. Evaluation of the effective parameters is realized using the reflection-transmission S-parameters obtained by simulation or experimental measurements and analytically evaluated interface reflection coefficient of the slab. Formulas for evaluation of effective permittivity and permeability which contain the square root of complex functions of S-parameters have been proposed in (1-2). But this method does not propose a way to avoid an ambiguity arising in choosing the square root branch of product of effective permittivity and permeability. Moreover the above calculation procedure requires evaluating the square root branch of function of S-parameters. Proposed way to choose the square root branch gives sometimes mistaken results. Our method is much simple as compared with the above mentioned formulas and it does not require making a choice of square root branch of complex functions of S-parameters in order to evaluate any of the parameters (refractive index, permittivity or permeability). Instead we obtain a formula for complex refractive index which is simple. On the basis of proposed model effective permittivity and permeability for rod meta-materials can be evaluated with enhanced precision and accuracy. Proposed method is easy to be implemented in engineering problems and does not require using complicated mathematical calculations. Comparison of precision of the presented method with the Nicolson-Ross techniques (1-2) has been made using the simulations for different configurations of rod meta-materials. Some discussion concerning the sensitivity of the effective parameters of meta-materials for the accuracy of the frequency dependent S -parameters is also presented in this paper. (author)

  4. Lagged effect of diurnal temperature range on mortality in a subtropical megacity of China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Luo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Many studies have found extreme temperature can increase the risk of mortality. However, it is not clear whether extreme diurnal temperature range (DTR is associated with daily disease-specific mortality, and how season might modify any association. OBJECTIVES: To better understand the acute effect of DTR on mortality and identify whether season is a modifier of the DTR effect. METHODS: The distributed lag nonlinear model (DLNM was applied to assess the non-linear and delayed effects of DTR on deaths (non-accidental mortality (NAD, cardiovascular disease (CVD, respiratory disease (RD and cerebrovascular disease (CBD in the full year, the cold season and the warm season. RESULTS: A non-linear relationship was consistently found between extreme DTR and mortality. Immediate effects of extreme low DTR on all types of mortality were stronger than those of extreme high DTR in the full year. The cumulative effects of extreme DTRs increased with the increment of lag days for all types of mortality in cold season, and they were greater for extreme high DTRs than those of extreme low DTRs. In hot season, the cumulative effects for extreme low DTRs increased with the increment of lag days, but for extreme high DTR they reached maxima at a lag of 13 days for all types of mortality except for CBD(at lag6 days, and then decreased. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that extreme DTR is an independent risk factor of daily mortality, and season is a modifier of the association of DTR with daily mortality.

  5. Novel cytokinin derivatives do not show negative effects on root growth and proliferation in submicromolar range.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kateřina Podlešáková

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: When applied to a nutrition solution or agar media, the non-substituted aromatic cytokinins caused thickening and shortening of the primary root, had an inhibitory effect on lateral root branching, and even showed some negative effects on development of the aerial part at as low as a 10 nanomolar concentration. Novel analogues of aromatic cytokinins ranking among topolins substituted on N9-atom of adenine by tetrahydropyranyl or 4-chlorobutyl group have been prepared and tested in standardized cytokinin bioassays [1]. Those showing comparable activities with N(6-benzylaminopurine were further tested in planta. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The main aim of the study was to explain molecular mechanism of function of novel cytokinin derivatives on plant development. Precise quantification of cytokinin content and profiling of genes involved in cytokinin metabolism and perception in treated plants revealed several aspects of different action of m-methoxytopolin base and its substituted derivative on plant development. In contrast to standard cytokinins, N9- tetrahydropyranyl derivative of m-topolin and its methoxy-counterpart showed the negative effects on root development only at three orders of magnitude higher concentrations. Moreover, the methoxy-derivative demonstrates a positive effect on lateral root branching and leaf emerging in a nanomolar range of concentrations, in comparison with untreated plants. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Tetrahydropyranyl substitution at N9-position of cytokinin purine ring significantly enhances acropetal transport of a given cytokinins. Together with the methoxy-substitution, impedes accumulation of non-active cytokinin glucoside forms in roots, allows gradual release of the active base, and has a significant effect on the distribution and amount of endogenous isoprenoid cytokinins in different plant tissues. The utilization of novel aromatic cytokinin derivatives can distinctively improve expected

  6. Increased frequency and range of sexual behavior in a patient with Parkinson's disease after use of pramipexole: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munhoz, Renato P; Fabiani, Giorgio; Becker, Nilson; Teive, Hélio A G

    2009-04-01

    Several recent reports have linked the use of dopamine agonists (DAs) to a variety of compulsive behaviors in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). These inappropriate behaviors may include pathological gambling, compulsive shopping, and hypersexuality. To report the case of a patient with increased range of sexual behavior after use of pramipexole, a DA. A 67-year-old man with a 7-year diagnosis of PD treated with levodopa and pramipexole presented with a dramatic change in sexual behavior after an increase in DA dose. The patient, who historically was a very shy and conservative person, started to present increased frequency of sexual intercourse with his wife, during which he began speaking obscenities with an extreme preference for anal intercourse, preferences never requested before. After pramipexole was withdrawn, complete remission was observed with return to his usual sexual behavior. Hypersexuality and paraphilias are complications not uncommonly found in patients with PD under dopaminergic treatment. Further studies are needed for the understanding of this complex complication, and particularly the most prevalent relationship between pathological hypersexuality and use of DAs.

  7. Calendar year 2007 annual site environmental report for Tonopah Test Range, Nevada and Kauai Test Facility, Hawaii,

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agogino, Karen [Department of Energy, Albuquerque, NM (United States). National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA); Sanchez, Rebecca [Sandia Corp., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2008-09-30

    Tonopah Test Range (TTR) in Nevada and Kauai Test Facility (KTF) in Hawaii are government-owned, contractor-operated facilities operated by Sandia Corporation (Sandia), a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)/National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), through the Sandia Site Offi ce (SSO), in Albuquerque, NM, administers the contract and oversees contractor operations at TTR and KTF. Sandia manages and conducts operations at TTR in support of the DOE/NNSA’s Weapons Ordnance Program and has operated the site since 1957. Washington Group International subcontracts to Sandia in administering most of the environmental programs at TTR. Sandia operates KTF as a rocket preparation launching and tracking facility. This Annual Site Environmental Report (ASER) summarizes data and the compliance status of the environmental protection and monitoring program at TTR and KTF through Calendar Year (CY) 2007. The compliance status of environmental regulations applicable at these sites include state and federal regulations governing air emissions, wastewater effluent, waste management, terrestrial surveillance, and Environmental Restoration (ER) cleanup activities. Sandia is responsible only for those environmental program activities related to its operations. The DOE/NNSA/Nevada Site Offi ce (NSO) retains responsibility for the cleanup and management of ER TTR sites. Currently, there are no ER Sites at KTF. Environmental monitoring and surveillance programs are required by DOE Order 450.1, Environmental Protection Program (DOE 2007a) and DOE Manual 231.1-1A, Environment, Safety, and Health Reporting Manual (DOE 2007).

  8. Calendar year 2002 annual site environmental report for Tonopah Test Range, Nevada and Kauai Test Facility, Hawaii.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, Katrina; Sanchez, Rebecca V.; Mayeux, Lucie; Koss, Susan I.; Salinas, Stephanie A.

    2003-09-01

    Tonopah Test Range (TTR) in Nevada and Kauai Test Facility (KTF) in Hawaii are government-owned, contractor-operated facilities operated by Sandia Corporation, a subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), through the Sandia Site Office (SSO), in Albuquerque, NM, oversees TTR and KTF's operations. Sandia Corporation conducts operations at TTR in support of DOE/NNSA's Weapons Ordnance Program and has operated the site since 1957. Westinghouse Government Services subcontracts to Sandia Corporation in administering most of the environmental programs at TTR. Sandia Corporation operates KTF as a rocket preparation launching and tracking facility. This Annual Site Environmental Report (ASER) summarizes data and the compliance status of the environmental protection and monitoring program at TTR and KTF through Calendar Year (CY) 2002. The compliance status of environmental regulations applicable at these sites include state and federal regulations governing air emissions, wastewater effluent, waste management, terrestrial surveillance, and Environmental Restoration (ER) cleanup activities. Sandia Corporation is responsible only for those environmental program activities related to its operations. The DOE/NNSA, Nevada Site Office (NSO) retains responsibility for the cleanup and management of ER TTR sites. Currently, there are no ER Sites at KTF. Environmental monitoring and surveillance programs are required by DOE Order 5400.1, General Environmental Protection Program (DOE 1990) and DOE Order 231.1, Environment, Safety, and Health Reporting (DOE 1996).

  9. 2013 Annual Site Environmental Report for Sandia National Laboratories Tonopah Test Range Nevada & Kauai Test Facility Hawaii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griffith, Stacy Rene [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Agogino, Karen [National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Washington, DC (United States); Li, Jun [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); White, Nancy [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Minitrez, Alexandra [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Avery, Penny [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Bailey-White, Brenda [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Bonaguidi, Joseph [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Catechis, Christopher [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); duMond, Michael [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Eckstein, Joanna [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Evelo, Stacie [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Forston, William [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Herring, III, Allen [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Lantow, Tiffany [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Martinez, Reuben [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Mauser, Joseph [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Miller, Amy [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Miller, Mark [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Payne, Jennifer [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Peek, Dennis [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Reiser, Anita [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Ricketson, Sherry [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Roma, Charles [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Salinas, Stephanie [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Ullrich, Rebecca [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2014-08-01

    Tonopah Test Range (TTR) in Nevada and Kauai Test Facility (KTF) in Hawaii are government-owned, contractor-operated facilities managed and operated by Sandia Corporation (Sandia), a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), through the Sandia Field Office (SFO), in Albuquerque, New Mexico, administers the contract and oversees contractor operations at TTR and KTF. Sandia manages and conducts operations at TTR in support of the DOE/NNSA’s Weapons Ordnance Program and has operated the site since 1957. Navarro Research and Engineering subcontracts to Sandia in administering most of the environmental programs at TTR. Sandia operates KTF as a rocket preparation launching and tracking facility. This Annual Site Environmental Report summarizes data and the compliance status of the sustainability, environmental protection, and monitoring program at TTR and KTF through Calendar Year 2013. The compliance status of environmental regulations applicable at these sites include state and federal regulations governing air emissions, wastewater effluent, waste management, terrestrial surveillance, Environmental Restoration (ER) cleanup activities, and the National Environmental Policy Act. Sandia is responsible only for those environmental program activities related to its operations. The DOE/NNSA/Nevada Field Office retains responsibility for the cleanup and management of TTR ER sites. Environmental monitoring and surveillance programs are required by DOE Order 231.1B, Environment, Safety, and Health Reporting (DOE 2012).

  10. IMMEDIATE EFFECT OF CERVICAL MANIPULATION ON PAIN AND RANGE OF MOTION IN PATIENTS WITH CHRONIC MECHANICAL NECK PAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kabir Isah Mayana

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Neck pain has been reported as a prevalent musculoskeletal disorder globally with more than half of the general population being affected once or more within their life span. Methods: A randomized clinical trial research design was used which investigated the immediate effect of cervical manipulation on neck pain and cervical range of motion among patients with chronic mechanical neck pain. 20 male and female participants between the ages of 26 to 60 years with chronic mechanical neck pain attending physiotherapy clinics were recruited. They were randomly assigned into two groups (A and B of 10 patients each. Group A received soft tissue massage, and cervical manipulation and group B served as the control group, and they received only soft tissue massage. There were two outcomes measured; Pain intensity was rated using visual analog scale (VAS before and immediately after the intervention. Pre and Post intervention measurements of cervical spine range of motion using Goniometer were also taken. Results: Findings of the study revealed significant immediate improvement of pain and Cervical Range of Motions (p<0.05 in all dimensions in the experimental group while Pain, flexion and right side Cervical flexion significantly improved in the control group. It was also found out after comparing the outcomes between the two groups that, the experimental group had significantly (p<0.05 better improvement than the control group in post-intervention pain, cervical flexion, cervical extension and cervical (right and left lateral rotations. Conclusion: Cervical manipulation is effective in immediate pain relief and improvement in cervical range of motion in patients with mechanical neck pain

  11. Post-Closure Inspection Report for the Tonopah Test Range, Nevada. For Calendar Year 2015, Revision 0

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matthews, Patrick; Petrello, Jaclyn

    2016-01-01

    This report provides the results of the annual post-closure inspections conducted at the closed corrective action units (CAUs) located on the Tonopah Test Range (TTR), Nevada. This report covers calendar year 2015 and includes inspection and repair activities completed at the following CAUs; CAU 400: Bomblet Pit and Five Points Landfill (TTR); CAU 407: Roller Coaster RadSafe Area (TTR); CAU 424: Area 3 Landfill Complexes (TTR); CAU 453: Area 9 UXO Landfill (TTR); and CAU 487: Thunderwell Site (TTR) Inspections were conducted according to the post-closure plans in the approved closure reports and subsequent correspondence with the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection. The post-closure inspection plans and subsequent correspondence modifying the requirements for each CAU are included in Appendix B. The inspection checklists are included in Appendix C. Field notes are included in Appendix D. The annual post-closure inspections were conducted on May 12, 2015. Maintenance was required at CAU 453. Cracking along the north trench was repaired. One monument is missing at CAU 424; it will be replaced in 2016. Postings at CAUs 407, 424, 453, and 487 contain contact information for TTR Security. It was noted that protocols may not be in place to ensure that the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Field Office (NNSA/NFO) is notified if access is needed at these sites. NNSA/NFO is working with the U.S. Air Force and Sandia to determine whether more appropriate contact information or new protocols are warranted for each CAU. Based on these inspections, there has not been a significant change in vegetation, and vegetation monitoring was not recommended at CAU 400 or CAU 407 in 2015.

  12. Post-Closure Inspection Report for the Tonopah Test Range, Nevada. For Calendar Year 2015, Revision 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matthews, Patrick [Navarro, Las Vegas, NV (United States); Petrello, Jaclyn [Navarro, Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    2016-03-01

    This report provides the results of the annual post-closure inspections conducted at the closed corrective action units (CAUs) located on the Tonopah Test Range (TTR), Nevada. This report covers calendar year 2015 and includes inspection and repair activities completed at the following CAUs; CAU 400: Bomblet Pit and Five Points Landfill (TTR); CAU 407: Roller Coaster RadSafe Area (TTR); CAU 424: Area 3 Landfill Complexes (TTR); CAU 453: Area 9 UXO Landfill (TTR); and CAU 487: Thunderwell Site (TTR) Inspections were conducted according to the post-closure plans in the approved closure reports and subsequent correspondence with the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection. The post-closure inspection plans and subsequent correspondence modifying the requirements for each CAU are included in Appendix B. The inspection checklists are included in Appendix C. Field notes are included in Appendix D. The annual post-closure inspections were conducted on May 12, 2015. Maintenance was required at CAU 453. Cracking along the north trench was repaired. One monument is missing at CAU 424; it will be replaced in 2016. Postings at CAUs 407, 424, 453, and 487 contain contact information for TTR Security. It was noted that protocols may not be in place to ensure that the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Field Office (NNSA/NFO) is notified if access is needed at these sites. NNSA/NFO is working with the U.S. Air Force and Sandia to determine whether more appropriate contact information or new protocols are warranted for each CAU. Based on these inspections, there has not been a significant change in vegetation, and vegetation monitoring was not recommended at CAU 400 or CAU 407 in 2015.

  13. Water mist effect on cooling range and efficiency of casting die

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Władysiak

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This project is showing investigation results of cooling process of casting die in the temperature range 570÷100 °C with 0.40 MPa compressed air and water mist streamed under pressure 0.25÷0.45 MPa in air jet 0.25÷0.50 MPa using open cooling system.The character and the speed of changes of temperature, forming of the temperture’s gradient along parallel layer to cooled surface of die is shawing with thermal and derivative curves. The effect of kind of cooling factor on the temperature and time and distance from cooling nozzle is presented in the paper. A designed device for generating the water mist cooling the die and the view of sprying water stream is shown here. It’s proved that using of the water mist together with the change of heat transfer interface increases intensity of cooling in the zone and makes less the range cooling zone and reduces the porosity of cast microstructure.

  14. Energy Impacts of Effective Range Hood Use for all U.S. Residential Cooking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Logue, Jennifer M; Singer, Brett

    2014-06-01

    Range hood use during residential cooking is essential to maintaining good indoor air quality. However, widespread use will impact the energy demand of the U.S. housing stock. This paper describes a modeling study to determine site energy, source energy, and consumer costs for comprehensive range hood use. To estimate the energy impacts for all 113 million homes in the U.S., we extrapolated from the simulation of a representative weighted sample of 50,000 virtual homes developed from the 2009 Residential Energy Consumption Survey database. A physics-based simulation model that considered fan energy, energy to condition additional incoming air, and the effect on home heating and cooling due to exhausting the heat from cooking was applied to each home. Hoods performing at a level common to hoods currently in U.S. homes would require 19?33 TWh [69?120 PJ] of site energy, 31?53 TWh [110-190 PJ] of source energy; and would cost consumers $1.2?2.1 billion (U.S.$2010) annually in the U.S. housing stock. The average household would spend less than $15 annually. Reducing required airflow, e.g. with designs that promote better pollutant capture has more energy saving potential, on average, than improving fan efficiency.

  15. The Relation Between Stretching Typology and Stretching Duration: The Effects on Range of Motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Ewan; Bianco, Antonino; Paoli, Antonio; Palma, Antonio

    2018-04-01

    Different stretching strategies and protocols are widely used to improve flexibility or maintain health, acting on the muscle tendon-unit, in order to improve the range of motion (ROM) of the joints. This review aims to evaluate the current body of literature in order to understand the relation between stretching typology and ROM, and secondly to evaluate if a relation exists between stretching volume (either as a single training session, weekly training and weekly frequency) and ROM, after long-term stretching. Twenty-three articles were considered eligible and included in the quantitative synthesis. All stretching typologies showed ROM improvements over a long-term period, however the static protocols showed significant gains (p<0.05) when compared to the ballistic or PNF protocols. Time spent stretching per week seems fundamental to elicit range of movement improvements when stretches are applied for at least or more than 5 min, whereas the time spent stretching within a single session does not seem to have significant effects for ROM gains. Weekly frequency is positively associated to ROM. Evaluated data indicates that performing stretching at least 5 days a week for at least 5 min per week using static stretching may be beneficial to promote ROM improvements. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  16. Climate Effects on Plant Range Distributions and Community Structure of Pacific Northwest Prairies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bridgham, Scott D. [Univ. of Oregon, Eugene, OR (United States); Johnson, Bart [Univ. of Oregon, Eugene, OR (United States)

    2013-09-26

    Pacific Northwest (PNW) prairies are an imperiled ecosystem that contain a large number of plant species with high fidelity to this habitat. The few remaining high-quality PNW prairies harbor a number of sensitive, rare, and endangered plant species that may be further at-risk with climate change. Thus, PNW prairies are an excellent model system to examine how climate change will affect the distribution of native plant species in grassland sites. Our experimental objectives were to determine: (i) how climate change will affect the range distribution of native plant species; (ii) what life history stages are most sensitive to climate change in a group of key indicator native species; (iii) the robustness of current restoration techniques and suites of species to changing climate, and in particular, the relative competitiveness of native species versus exotic invasive species; and (iv) the effects of climate change on carbon and nutrient cycling and soil-microbial-plant feedbacks. We addressed these objectives by experimentally increasing temperature 2.5 to 3.0 ºC above ambient with overhead infrared lamps and increasing wet-season precipitation by 20% above ambient in three upland prairie sites in central-western Washington, central-western Oregon, and southwestern Oregon from fall 2010 through 2012. Additional precipitation was applied within 2 weeks of when it fell so precipitation intensity was increased, particularly during the winter rainy season but with minimal additions during the summer dry season. These three sites also represent a 520-km natural climate gradient of increasing degree of severity of Mediterranean climate from north to south. After removing the extant vegetation, we planted a diverse suite of 12 native species that have their northern range limit someplace within the PNW in each experimental plot. An additional 20 more wide-spread native species were also planted into each plot. We found that recruitment of plant species within their ranges

  17. Human-Induced Effects on RSS Ranging Measurements for Cooperative Positioning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Della Rosa, Francescantonio; Pelosi, Mauro; Nurmi, Jari

    2012-01-01

    of human-induced perturbations for enhancing the final positioning accuracy through cooperative schemes has been assessed. It has been proved that the effect of cooperation is very limited if human factors are not taken into account when performing experimental activities.......We present experimental evaluations of human-induced perturbations on received-signal-strength-(RSS-) based ranging measurements for cooperative mobile positioning. To the best of our knowledge, this work is the first attempt to gain insight and understand the impact of both body loss and hand grip...... on the RSS for enhancing proximity measurements among neighbouring devices in cooperative scenarios. Our main contribution is represented by experimental investigations. Analysis of the errors introduced in the distance estimation using path-loss-based methods has been carried out. Moreover, the exploitation...

  18. Exercise induced effects on muscle function and range of motion in patients with hip osteoarthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bieler, Theresa; Siersma, Volkert; Magnusson, S Peter

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Patients with hip osteoarthritis have impairments in muscle function (muscle strength and power) and hip range of motion (ROM), and it is commonly believed that effective clinical management of osteoarthritis should address these impairments to reduce pain and disability......-two patients were randomized to either 4 months of physiotherapist-supervised, moderate, progressive, strength training (n = 50), physiotherapist-supervised NW (n = 50), or unsupervised HBE (n = 52). Maximal isometric hip and thigh muscle strength and leg extensor power and active hip ROM were assessed...... at baseline 2, 4, and 12 months. RESULTS: Intention-to-treat-analyses did not show any significant between-group differences for improvements in muscle strength and power or ROM at any time points. Short-term significant (p

  19. Mass dependence of short-range correlations in nuclei and the EMC effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cosyn Wim

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available We sketch an approximate method to quantify the number of correlated pairs in any nucleus A. It is based on counting independent-particle model (IPM nucleon-nucleon pairs in a relative S-state with no radial excitation. We show that IPM pairs with those quantum numbers are most prone to short-range correlations and are at the origin of the high-momentum tail of the nuclear momentum distributions. Our method allows to compute the a2 ratios extracted from inclusive electron scattering. Furthermore, our results reproduce the observed linear correlation between the number of correlated pairs and the magnitude of the EMC effect. We show that the width of the pair center-ofmass distribution in exclusive two-nucleon knockout yields information on the quantum numbers of the pairs.

  20. Bond alternation in the infinite polyene: effect of long range Coulomb interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazumdar, S.; Campbell, D.K.

    1985-01-01

    We investigate the effects of long-range Coulomb interactions on bond and site dimerizations in a one-dimensional half-filled band. It is shown that the ground state broken symmetry is determined by two sharp inequalities involving the Coulomb parameters. Broken symmetry with periodicity 2k/sub F/ is guaranteed only if the first inequality (downward convexity of the intersite potential) is obeyed, while the second inequality gives the phase boundary between the bond-dimerized and site-dimerized phases. Application of these inequalities to the Pariser-Parr-Pople model for linear polyenes shows that the infinite polyene has enhanced bond alternation for both Ohno and Mataga-Nishimoto parametrizations of the intersite Coulomb terms. The possible role of distant neighbor interactions in photogeneration experiments is discussed. 26 refs., 3 figs

  1. Memory effects, two color percolation, and the temperature dependence of Mott variable-range hopping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agam, Oded; Aleiner, Igor L.

    2014-06-01

    There are three basic processes that determine hopping transport: (a) hopping between normally empty sites (i.e., having exponentially small occupation numbers at equilibrium), (b) hopping between normally occupied sites, and (c) transitions between normally occupied and unoccupied sites. In conventional theories all these processes are considered Markovian and the correlations of occupation numbers of different sites are believed to be small (i.e., not exponential in temperature). We show that, contrary to this belief, memory effects suppress the processes of type (c) and manifest themselves in a subleading exponential temperature dependence of the variable-range hopping conductivity. This temperature dependence originates from the property that sites of type (a) and (b) form two independent resistor networks that are weakly coupled to each other by processes of type (c). This leads to a two-color percolation problem which we solve in the critical region.

  2. Effect of interaction range on phonon relaxation in Fermi-Pasta-Ulam beta chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santhosh, G; Kumar, Deepak

    2007-08-01

    We study the effect of increasing the range of interactions on phonon relaxation in a chain of atoms with quartic anharmonicity. The study is motivated by recent numerical studies, showing that the value of the exponent alpha characterizing the divergence of conductivity with system size apparently depends on the presence of second neighbor couplings. We perform a quantum calculation of the wave-vector (q) dependent relaxation rate gamma(q) in the second order perturbation theory. The nonanalytic dependence of gamma(q) arises due to small-q singularity of the collision integral. We find that gamma(q) proportional to Aq(5/3) + Bq2. This gives rise to an asymptotic value alpha = 0.4, but the q2 terms lead to a higher apparent value of alpha at small sizes of the chain.

  3. Effects of diurnal temperature range on mortality in Hefei city, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Jing; Xiao, Chang-chun; Li, Yu-rong; Zhang, Jun-qing; Zhai, Hao-yuan; Geng, Xi-ya; Ding, Rui; Zhai, Jin-xia

    2017-12-01

    Although several studies indicated an association between diurnal temperature range (DTR) and mortality, the results about modifiers are inconsistent, and few studies were conducted in developing inland country. This study aims to evaluate the effects of DTR on cause-specific mortality and whether season, gender, or age might modify any association in Hefei city, China, during 2007-2016. Quasi-Poisson generalized linear regression models combined with a distributed lag non-linear model (DLNM) were applied to evaluate the relationships between DTR and non-accidental, cardiovascular, and respiratory mortality. We observed a J-shaped relationship between DTR and cause-specific mortality. With a DTR of 8.3 °C as the reference, the cumulative effects of extremely high DTR were significantly higher for all types of mortality than effects of lower or moderate DTR in full year. When stratified by season, extremely high DTR in spring had a greater impact on all cause-specific mortality than other three seasons. Male and the elderly (≥ 65 years) were consistently more susceptible to extremely high DTR effect than female and the youth (< 65 years) for non-accidental and cardiovascular mortality. To the contrary, female and the youth were more susceptible to extremely high DTR effect than male and the elderly for respiratory morality. The study suggests that extremely high DTR is a potential trigger for non-accidental mortality in Hefei city, China. Our findings also highlight the importance of protecting susceptible groups from extremely high DTR especially in the spring.

  4. Methods for root effects, tip effects and extending the angle of attack range to {+-} 180 deg., with application to aerodynamics for blades on wind turbines and propellers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montgomerie, Bjoern

    2004-06-01

    For wind turbine and propeller performance calculations aerodynamic data, valid for several radial stations along the blade, are used. For wind turbines the data must be valid for the 360 degree angle of attack range. The reason is that all kinds of abnormal conditions must be analysed especially during the design of the turbine. Frequently aerodynamic data are available from wind tunnel tests where the angle of attack range is from say -5 to +20 degrees. This report describes a method to extend such data to be valid for {+-} 180 degrees. Previously the extension of data has been very approximate following the whim of the moment with the analyst. Furthermore, the Himmelskamp effect at the root and tip effects are treated in the complete method.

  5. TFTR Ion Cyclotron Range of Frequencies (ICRF) experimental data analysis collaboration. Annual progress report, December 1, 1993--November 30, 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharer, J.E.; Bettenhausen, M.; Lam, N.; Sund, R.

    1994-08-01

    The research performed under this grant during the past year has concentrated on coupling, heating, and current drive issues for TFTR. The authors have developed a code and submitted for publication a open-quotes 3-Dclose quotes coupling analysis of the TFIR ICRF cavity-backed coil antennas to plasma edge profiles including the Faraday shield blade angle and fast wave coupling for heating and current drive. They have also carried out TFTR ICRF full-wave field solutions and heating analyses for the second harmonic tritium supershot, and the effects of fusion alpha particle and tritium ion tail populations on the ICRF absorption. They have also published a paper on the effects of alpha particle absorption on fundamental deuterium ion cyclotron absorption incorporating self-consistent deuterium tails and fusion reactivity. Research progress, publications, and conference presentations are summarized in this report

  6. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 412: Clean Slate I Plutonium Dispersion (TTR) Tonopah Test Range, Nevada, Revision 0

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matthews, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    This Closure Report (CR) presents information supporting the clean closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 412: Clean Slate I Plutonium Dispersion (TTR), located on the Tonopah Test Range, Nevada. CAU 412 consists of a release of radionuclides to the surrounding soil from a storage-transportation test conducted on May 25, 1963. Corrective action investigation (CAI) activities were performed in April and May 2015, as set forth in the Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) Plan for Corrective Action Unit 412: Clean Slate I Plutonium Dispersion (TTR), Tonopah Test Range, Nevada; and in accordance with the Soils Activity Quality Assurance Plan. The purpose of the CAI was to fulfill data needs as defined during the data quality objectives process. The CAU 412 dataset of investigation results was evaluated based on a data quality assessment. This assessment demonstrated the dataset is complete and acceptable for use in fulfilling the data needs identified by the data quality objectives process. This CR provides documentation and justification for the clean closure of CAU 412 under the FFACO without further corrective action. This justification is based on historical knowledge of the site, previous site investigations, implementation of the 1997 interim corrective action, and the results of the CAI. The corrective action of clean closure was confirmed as appropriate for closure of CAU 412 based on achievement of the following closure objectives: Radiological contamination at the site is less than the final action level using the ground troops exposure scenario (i.e., the radiological dose is less than the final action level): Removable alpha contamination is less than the high contamination area criterion: No potential source material is present at the site, and any impacted soil associated with potential source material has been removed so that remaining soil contains contaminants at concentrations less than the final action levels: and There is

  7. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 412: Clean Slate I Plutonium Dispersion (TTR) Tonopah Test Range, Nevada, Revision 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matthews, Patrick [Navarro, Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    2016-08-22

    This Closure Report (CR) presents information supporting the clean closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 412: Clean Slate I Plutonium Dispersion (TTR), located on the Tonopah Test Range, Nevada. CAU 412 consists of a release of radionuclides to the surrounding soil from a storage–transportation test conducted on May 25, 1963. Corrective action investigation (CAI) activities were performed in April and May 2015, as set forth in the Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) Plan for Corrective Action Unit 412: Clean Slate I Plutonium Dispersion (TTR), Tonopah Test Range, Nevada; and in accordance with the Soils Activity Quality Assurance Plan. The purpose of the CAI was to fulfill data needs as defined during the data quality objectives process. The CAU 412 dataset of investigation results was evaluated based on a data quality assessment. This assessment demonstrated the dataset is complete and acceptable for use in fulfilling the data needs identified by the data quality objectives process. This CR provides documentation and justification for the clean closure of CAU 412 under the FFACO without further corrective action. This justification is based on historical knowledge of the site, previous site investigations, implementation of the 1997 interim corrective action, and the results of the CAI. The corrective action of clean closure was confirmed as appropriate for closure of CAU 412 based on achievement of the following closure objectives: Radiological contamination at the site is less than the final action level using the ground troops exposure scenario (i.e., the radiological dose is less than the final action level): Removable alpha contamination is less than the high contamination area criterion: No potential source material is present at the site, and any impacted soil associated with potential source material has been removed so that remaining soil contains contaminants at concentrations less than the final action levels: and There is

  8. Effect of anionic surfactant concentration on the variable range hopping conduction in polypyrrole nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rawal, Ishpal; Kaur, Amarjeet

    2014-01-01

    The mechanism of charge transport in polypyrrole (PPy) nanoparticles prepared with different concentrations (5 to 30 mM) of anionic surfactant (sodium dodecyl sulfate) is reported. Transmission electron microscopy technique confirms the formation of PPy nanoparticles of sizes ∼52 to 28 nm under surfactant directed approach. The room temperature electrical conductivity of the prepared nanoparticles found to increase from 3 to 22 S/cm with surfactant concentration. The temperature dependent activation energy rules out the possibility of band conduction mechanism in the prepared PPy nanoparticles and thus the synthesized nanoparticles are analyzed under variable range hopping (VRH) model for conduction mechanism. The PPy nanoparticles, reduced with liquid ammonia, hold 3D VRH conduction mechanism for the charge transport. However, in the doped samples, some deviation from 3D VRH conduction behavior at higher temperatures (>150 K) has been observed. This may be attributed to the presence of anionic surfactant in these samples. The doping of anionic surfactant causes rise in conducting islands, which may lead to the change in the shape/distribution of density of states governed by Gaussian or exponential type near Fermi level

  9. Effect of anionic surfactant concentration on the variable range hopping conduction in polypyrrole nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawal, Ishpal; Kaur, Amarjeet

    2014-01-01

    The mechanism of charge transport in polypyrrole (PPy) nanoparticles prepared with different concentrations (5 to 30 mM) of anionic surfactant (sodium dodecyl sulfate) is reported. Transmission electron microscopy technique confirms the formation of PPy nanoparticles of sizes ˜52 to 28 nm under surfactant directed approach. The room temperature electrical conductivity of the prepared nanoparticles found to increase from 3 to 22 S/cm with surfactant concentration. The temperature dependent activation energy rules out the possibility of band conduction mechanism in the prepared PPy nanoparticles and thus the synthesized nanoparticles are analyzed under variable range hopping (VRH) model for conduction mechanism. The PPy nanoparticles, reduced with liquid ammonia, hold 3D VRH conduction mechanism for the charge transport. However, in the doped samples, some deviation from 3D VRH conduction behavior at higher temperatures (>150 K) has been observed. This may be attributed to the presence of anionic surfactant in these samples. The doping of anionic surfactant causes rise in conducting islands, which may lead to the change in the shape/distribution of density of states governed by Gaussian or exponential type near Fermi level.

  10. Evaluating the effects of cutoffs and treatment of long-range electrostatics in protein folding simulations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Piana

    Full Text Available The use of molecular dynamics simulations to provide atomic-level descriptions of biological processes tends to be computationally demanding, and a number of approximations are thus commonly employed to improve computational efficiency. In the past, the effect of these approximations on macromolecular structure and stability has been evaluated mostly through quantitative studies of small-molecule systems or qualitative observations of short-timescale simulations of biological macromolecules. Here we present a quantitative evaluation of two commonly employed approximations, using a test system that has been the subject of a number of previous protein folding studies--the villin headpiece. In particular, we examined the effect of (i the use of a cutoff-based force-shifting technique rather than an Ewald summation for the treatment of electrostatic interactions, and (ii the length of the cutoff used to determine how many pairwise interactions are included in the calculation of both electrostatic and van der Waals forces. Our results show that the free energy of folding is relatively insensitive to the choice of cutoff beyond 9 Å, and to whether an Ewald method is used to account for long-range electrostatic interactions. In contrast, we find that the structural properties of the unfolded state depend more strongly on the two approximations examined here.

  11. Laboratory piping system vibration tests to determine parametric effects on damping in the seismic frequency range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ware, A.G.

    1987-01-01

    A pipe damping research program is being conducted for the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory to establish more realistic, best-estimate damping values for use in dynamic structural analyses of piping systems. As part of this program, tests were conducted on a 5-in. (128 mm ID) laboratory piping system to determine the effects of pressure, support configuration, insulation and response amplitude on damping. The tests were designed to produce a wide range of damping values, from very low damping in lightly excited uninsulated systems with few supports, to higher damping under conditions of either/or insulation, high level excitation, and various support arrangements. The effect of pressure at representative seismic levels was considered to be minimal. The supports influence damping at all excitation levels; damping was highest when a mechanical snubber was present in the system. The addition of insulation produced a large increase in damping for the hydraulic shaker excitation tests, but there was no comparable increase for the snapback excitation tests. Once a response amplitude of approximately one-half yield stress was reached, overall damping increased to relatively high levels (>10% of critical)

  12. Long-range memory and non-Markov statistical effects in human sensorimotor coordination

    Science.gov (United States)

    M. Yulmetyev, Renat; Emelyanova, Natalya; Hänggi, Peter; Gafarov, Fail; Prokhorov, Alexander

    2002-12-01

    In this paper, the non-Markov statistical processes and long-range memory effects in human sensorimotor coordination are investigated. The theoretical basis of this study is the statistical theory of non-stationary discrete non-Markov processes in complex systems (Phys. Rev. E 62, 6178 (2000)). The human sensorimotor coordination was experimentally studied by means of standard dynamical tapping test on the group of 32 young peoples with tap numbers up to 400. This test was carried out separately for the right and the left hand according to the degree of domination of each brain hemisphere. The numerical analysis of the experimental results was made with the help of power spectra of the initial time correlation function, the memory functions of low orders and the first three points of the statistical spectrum of non-Markovity parameter. Our observations demonstrate, that with the regard to results of the standard dynamic tapping-test it is possible to divide all examinees into five different dynamic types. We have introduced the conflict coefficient to estimate quantitatively the order-disorder effects underlying life systems. The last one reflects the existence of disbalance between the nervous and the motor human coordination. The suggested classification of the neurophysiological activity represents the dynamic generalization of the well-known neuropsychological types and provides the new approach in a modern neuropsychology.

  13. Effect of flow characteristics on ultrafine particle emissions from range hoods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Li-Ching; Chen, Chih-Chieh

    2013-08-01

    In order to understand the physical mechanisms of the production of nanometer-sized particulate generated from cooking oils, the ventilation of kitchen hoods was studied by determining the particle concentration, particle size distribution, particle dimensions, and hood's flow characteristics under several cooking scenarios. This research varied the temperature of the frying operation on one cooking operation, with three kinds of commercial cooking oils including soybean oil, olive oil, and sunflower oil. The variations of particle concentration and size distributions with the elevated cooking oil temperatures were presented. The particle concentration increases as a function of temperature. For oil temperatures ranging between 180°C and 210°C, a 5°C increase in temperature increased the number concentration of ultrafine particles by 20-50%. The maximum concentration of ultrafine particles was found to be approximately 6 × 10(6) particles per cm(3) at 260°C. Flow visualization techniques and particle distribution measurement were performed for two types of hood designs, a wall-mounted range hood and an island hood, at a suction flow rate of 15 m(3) min(-1). The flow visualization results showed that different configurations of kitchen hoods induce different aerodynamic characteristics. By comparing the results of flow visualizations and nanoparticle measurements, it was found that the areas with large-scale turbulent vortices are more prone to dispersion of ultrafine particle leakage because of the complex interaction between the shear layers and the suction movement that results from turbulent dispersion. We conclude that the evolution of ultrafine particle concentration fluctuations is strongly affected by the location of the hood, which can alter the aerodynamic features. We suggest that there is a correlation between flow characteristics and amount of contaminant leakage. This provides a comprehensive strategy to evaluate the effectiveness of kitchen hoods

  14. Wetting at the nanometer scale: effects of long-range forces and substrate heterogeneities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Checco, Antonio

    2003-01-01

    Wetting phenomena on the nano-scale remain poorly understood in spite of their growing theoretical and practical interest. In this context, the present work aimed at studying partial wetting of nanometer-sized alkane droplets on 'model' surfaces build by self-assembly of organic monolayers. For this purpose a novel technique, based on 'noncontact' Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM), has been developed to image, with minimal artefacts, drops of adjustable size directly condensed on so- lid surfaces. We have thus shown that contact angle of alkanes, wetting a weakly heterogeneous, silanized substrate, noticeably decreases from its macroscopic value for droplets sizes in the submicron range. The line tension, arising in this case from purely dispersive long-range interactions between the liquid and the substrate, is theoretically too weak to be responsible for the observed effect. Therefore we have supposed that contact angle is affected by mesoscopic chemical heterogeneities of the substrate whenever the droplets size becomes sufficiently small. This scenario has been supported by numerical simulations based on a simplified model of the spatial distribution of surface defects. Similar experiments, performed on different substrates (monolayers made of alkane-thiols self-assembled on gold and of alkyl chains covalently bound onto a silicon surface), have also shown that wetting on small scales is strongly affected by minimal physical and chemical surface heterogeneities. Finally, to provide further examples of the potential of the above mentioned AFM technique, we have studied the wettability of nano-structured surfaces and the local wetting properties of hair. (author) [fr

  15. Effects of hearing-aid dynamic range compression on spatial perception in a reverberant environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hassager, Henrik Gert; Wiinberg, Alan; Dau, Torsten

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of fast-acting hearing-aid compression on normal-hearing and hearing-impaired listeners’ spatial perception in a reverberant environment. Three compression schemes—independent compression at each ear, linked compression between the two ears, and “spatially ideal......” compression operating solely on the dry source signal—were considered using virtualized speech and noise bursts. Listeners indicated the location and extent of their perceived sound images on the horizontal plane. Linear processing was considered as the reference condition. The results showed that both...... independent and linked compression resulted in more diffuse and broader sound images as well as internalization and image splits, whereby more image splits were reported for the noise bursts than for speech. Only the spatially ideal compression provided the listeners with a spatial percept similar...

  16. Effectiveness of Pentavalent Rotavirus Vaccine Against a Diverse Range of Circulating Strains in Nicaragua.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Manish; Pedreira, Cristina; De Oliveira, Lúcia Helena; Tate, Jacqueline; Leshem, Eyal; Mercado, Juan; Umaña, Jazmina; Balmaceda, Angel; Reyes, Martha; Kerin, Tara; McDonald, Sharla; Gentsch, Jon; Bowen, Michael D; Parashar, Umesh

    2016-05-01

    Because >60 rotavirus strains have been reported worldwide, concerns exist about strain replacement after the introduction of rotavirus vaccines, particularly in developing countries with diverse strains and lower efficacy. We used the case-control design in 4 hospitals in Nicaragua to assess strain-specific vaccine effectiveness (VE) of a pentavalent rotavirus vaccine (RotaTeq) against rotavirus diarrhea. Cases were identified through prospective strain surveillance with reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction for 3 years among children hospitalized for diarrhea, and controls were children negative for rotavirus. We enrolled 1178 case-patients, 1082 (92%) with G and P typing, and 4927 controls. A different strain predominated each year with increasing age of the vaccine-eligible cohort during the study period: G2P[4] in 2008 (97%; mean age, 11.9 months), G1P[8] in 2009 (55%; mean age, 17.0 months), and G3P[8] in 2010 (78%; mean age, 17.3 months). Overall VE was 45% (95% confidence interval, 25%-59%). Regardless of the strain, VE estimates were 12%-79% lower among children aged ≥12 months relative to those 6-11 months of age. The lower VE for G3P[8] was related to the higher mean age of cases (17.3 months) compared with the G2P[4] strains (11.9 months), with a significant trend (R(2)= 0.819;P< .001) of declining effectiveness with increasing mean age of the cases. Introduction of RotaTeq did not result in sustained emergence of any particular strain in Nicaragua. Variation in strain-specific effectiveness was due to an age-related decline in effectiveness rather than differences in protection against the observed strains. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America 2016. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  17. Real-life effectiveness of omalizumab in severe allergic asthma above the recommended dosing range criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hew, M; Gillman, A; Sutherland, M; Wark, P; Bowden, J; Guo, M; Reddel, H K; Jenkins, C; Marks, G B; Thien, F; Rimmer, J; Katsoulotos, G P; Cook, M; Yang, I; Katelaris, C; Bowler, S; Langton, D; Wright, C; Bint, M; Yozghatlian, V; Burgess, S; Sivakumaran, P; Yan, K Y; Kritikos, V; Peters, M; Baraket, M; Aminazad, A; Robinson, P; Jaffe, A; Powell, H; Upham, J W; McDonald, V M; Gibson, P G

    2016-11-01

    Omalizumab (Xolair) dosing in severe allergic asthma is based on serum IgE and bodyweight. In Australia, patients eligible for omalizumab but exceeding recommended ranges for IgE (30-1500 IU/mL) and bodyweight (30-150 kg) may still receive a ceiling dose of 750 mg/4 weeks. About 62% of patients receiving government-subsidized omalizumab are enrolled in the Australian Xolair Registry (AXR). To determine whether AXR participants above the recommended dosing ranges benefit from omalizumab and to compare their response to within-range participants. Data were stratified according to dose range status (above-range or within-range). Further sub-analyses were conducted according to the reason for being above the dosing range (IgE only vs. IgE and weight). Data for 179 participants were analysed. About 55 (31%) were above recommended dosing criteria; other characteristics were similar to within-range participants. Above-range participants had higher baseline IgE [812 (IQR 632, 1747) IU/mL vs. 209 (IQR 134, 306) IU/mL] and received higher doses of omalizumab [750 (IQR 650, 750) mg] compared to within-range participants [450 (IQR, 300, 600) mg]. At 6 months, improvements in Juniper 5-item Asthma Control Questionnaire (ACQ-5, 3.61 down to 2.01 for above-range, 3.47 down to 1.93 for within-range, P omalizumab have significantly improved symptom control, quality of life and lung function to a similar degree to within-range participants, achieved without dose escalation above 750 mg. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. A plasmid-transposon hybrid mutagenesis system effective in a broad range of Enterobacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita eMonson

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Random transposon mutagenesis is a powerful technique used to generate libraries of genetic insertions in many different bacterial strains. Here we develop a system facilitating random transposon mutagenesis in a range of different Gram-negative bacterial strains, including Pectobacterium atrosepticum, Citrobacter rodentium, Serratia sp. ATCC39006, Serratia plymuthica, Dickeya dadantii and many more. Transposon mutagenesis was optimized in each of these strains and three studies are presented to show the efficacy of this system. Firstly, the important agricultural pathogen D. dadantii was mutagenized. Two mutants that showed reduced protease production and one mutant producing the previously cryptic pigment, indigoidine, were identified and characterized. Secondly, the enterobacterium, Serratia sp. ATCC39006 was mutagenized and mutants incapable of producing gas vesicles, proteinaceous intracellular organelles, were identified. One of these contained a β-galactosidase transcriptional fusion within the gene gvpA1, essential for gas vesicle production. Finally, the system was used to mutate the biosynthetic gene clusters of the antifungal, anti-oomycete and anticancer polyketide, oocydin A, in the plant-associated enterobacterium, Dickeya solani MK10. The mutagenesis system was developed to allow easy identification of transposon insertion sites by sequencing, after facile generation of a replicon encompassing the transposon and adjacent DNA, post-excision. Furthermore, the system can also create transcriptional fusions with either β-galactosidase or β-glucuronidase as reporters, and exploits a variety of drug resistance markers so that multiple selectable fusions can be generated in a single strain. This system of various transposons has wide utility and can be combined in many different ways.

  19. Long-range transverse spin Seebeck effect in permalloy stripes using Sagnac interferometer microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Haoliang; McLaughlin, Ryan; Sun, Dali; Valy Vardeny, Z.

    2018-04-01

    Coupling of spins and phonons in ferromagnets (FM) may persist up to mm length scale, thus generating macroscopic spatially distributed spin accumulation along the direction of an applied thermal gradient to an FM slab. This typical feature of transverse spin Seebeck effect (TSSE) has been demonstrated so far using electrical detection methods in FM films, in particular in a patterned structure, in which FM stripes grown onto a substrate perpendicular to the applied thermal gradient direction are electrically and magnetically isolated. Here we report optically detected TSSE response in isolated FM stripes based on permalloy deposited on SiN substrate, upon the application of a thermal gradient. For these measurements we used the magneto-optic Kerr effect measured by an ultrasensitive Sagnac interferometer microscope that is immune to thermo-electrics artefacts. We found that the optical TSSE coefficient in the NiFe stripes geometry is about one order of magnitude smaller than that in the continuous NiFe film, which is due to the limited phonons path in the FM stripes along the thermal gradient direction. Our results further confirm the existence of TSSE response in conducting FM compounds.

  20. Probing odd-triplet contributions to the long-ranged proximity effect by scanning tunneling spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diesch, Simon; Machon, Peter; Belzig, Wolfgang; Scheer, Elke [Universitaet Konstanz, Konstanz (Germany); Suergers, Christoph; Beckmann, Detlef [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    In conventional superconductors, electrons are bound in singlet Cooper pairs, i.e. with opposite spin. More recently, experiments on superconductor-ferromagnet-systems have shown Cooper pairs tunneling through ferromagnetic layers, indicating Cooper pairs of equal spin, thus corresponding to a long-range triplet proximity effect. Most experimental evidence for triplet superconductivity comes from observations of the thickness dependence of the Josephson current through a ferromagnetic barrier, but there is an increasing interest in obtaining direct spectroscopic evidence. This project aims at analyzing the electronic density of states of a thin diffusive normal metal layer (Ag) coupled to a superconductor (Al) across a ferromagnetic insulator (EuS) using a scanning tunneling microscope in spectroscopy mode at 280 mK. For this purpose, we fabricated EuS films of different thicknesses and acquired spectroscopic data at different magnetic fields. We observe significant broadening of the superconductive energy gap and a variety of sub-gap structures including zero-bias conductance peaks induced by the presence of the ferromagnet.

  1. Strouhal number effect on synchronized vibration range of a circular cylinder in cross flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawamura, T.; Nakao, T.; Hayashi, M.; Murayama, K.

    2001-01-01

    Synchronized vibrations were measured for a circular cylinder subjected to a water cross flow in the subcritical Reynolds numbers in order to compare the synchronized vibration range between the subcritical and supercritical regions and clarify the effect of the Strouhal number on it. A small peak vibration in the lift direction was found when the Karman vortex shedding frequency was about 1/5 of the cylinder natural frequency in only the subcritical region. The ratio of the Karman vortex frequency to the natural frequency where the self-excited vibration in the drag direction by the symmetrical vortices began was about 1/4 in the subcritical region, and increased to 0,32 at the Strouhal number of 0,29 in the supercritical region. The frequency ratio at the beginning of the lock-in vibration in the drag direction by the Karman vortex was about 1/2, and that in the lift direction decreased from 1 to about 0,8 with decreasing Strouhal number. (author)

  2. The effects of stand characteristics on reindeer lichens and range use by semi-domesticated reindeer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Helle

    1990-09-01

    Full Text Available The study was carried out in Kuusamo (66°15'N, 29°05'E and Inari (68°30'N, 28°15'E, northern Finland, where 24 and 22 Scots pine stands were studied respectively. Clear-cutting (logging residue caused a decline in lichen biomass for some few years, but otherwise the age of the stand had no effect upon lichen biomass. Instead, a positive correlation was found between litter/logging residue and the mean height of lichens; in Kuusamo, logging residue decreased significantly with the age of the stand. Grazing pressure in terms of fecal group density increased with the age of the stand. The preference of old forests came visible also as a lower mean height of lichens, which eliminates the possibility that the preference of old forests is associated only to the use of arboreal lichens. In Inari, grazing pressure sharply increased after the stand had reached the age of 100 years despite scarce litter/logging residue and fair lichen ranges in younger forests; there prevailed a negative correlation between stand density and grazing pressure. It has been suggested that there might be three main reasons for reindeers preferring old forests: 1 hardening of the snow (because of winds on clear-cut areas, 2 logging residue preventing digging for the food beneath the snow, and 3 poor visibility in young pine stands (Inari which might increase predation risk.

  3. Searching for long-range dependence in real effective exchange rate: towards parity?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André M. Marques

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract After the widespread adoption of flexible exchange rate regime since 1973 the volatility of the exchange rate has increased, as a consequence of greater trade openness and financial integration. As a result, it has become difficult to find evidence of the purchasing power parity hypothesis (PPP. This study investigates the possibility of a fall in the persistence of the real exchange rate as a consequence of the financial and commercial integration by employing monthly real effective exchange rate dataset provided by the International Monetary Fund (IMF. Beginning with an exploratory data analysis in the frequency domain, the fractional coefficient d was estimated employing the bias-reduced estimator on a sample of 20 countries over the period ranging from 1975 to 2011. As the main novelty, this study applies a bias-reduced log-periodogram regression estimator instead of the traditional method proposed by GPH which eliminates the first and higher orders biases by a data-dependent plug-in method for selecting the number of frequencies to minimize asymptotic mean-squared error (MSE. Additionally, this study also estimates a moving window of fifteen years to observe the path of the fractional coefficient in each country. No evidence was found of a statistically significant change in the persistence of the real exchange rate.

  4. Effect of the magnetic field on positron range using GATE for PET-MR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eleftheriou, Afroditi; Tsoumpas, Charalampos; Bertolli, Ottavia; Stiliaris, Efstathios

    2014-01-01

    Positron range is an important spatial resolution limiting factor in PET. When imaging inside a magnetic field the positron range is non-uniformly affected. A decrease of the positron range is expected in the directions perpendicular to the direction of the magnetic field, whereas no variation is expected in the direction of the magnetic field. Monte Carlo simulations were performed to validate these expectations.

  5. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 408: Bomblet Target Area Tonopah Test Range (TTR), Nevada, Revision 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mark Krauss

    2010-09-01

    This Closure Report (CR) presents information supporting the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 408: Bomblet Target Area (TTR), Tonopah Test Range, Nevada. This CR complies with the requirements of the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order that was agreed to by the State of Nevada; U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Environmental Management; U.S. Department of Defense; and DOE, Legacy Management. Corrective Action Unit 408 is located at the Tonopah Test Range, Nevada, and consists of Corrective Action Site (CAS) TA-55-002-TAB2, Bomblet Target Areas. This CAS includes the following seven target areas: • Mid Target • Flightline Bomblet Location • Strategic Air Command (SAC) Target Location 1 • SAC Target Location 2 • South Antelope Lake • Tomahawk Location 1 • Tomahawk Location 2 The purpose of this CR is to provide documentation supporting the completed corrective actions and data confirming that the closure objectives for the CAS within CAU 408 were met. To achieve this, the following actions were performed: • Review the current site conditions, including the concentration and extent of contamination. • Implement any corrective actions necessary to protect human health and the environment. • Properly dispose of corrective action and investigation wastes. • Document Notice of Completion and closure of CAU 408 issued by the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection. From July 2009 through August 2010, closure activities were performed as set forth in the Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration Plan for CAU 408: Bomblet Target Area, Tonopah Test Range (TTR), Nevada. The purposes of the activities as defined during the data quality objectives process were as follows: • Identify and remove munitions of explosive concern (MEC) associated with DOE activities. • Investigate potential disposal pit locations. • Remove depleted uranium-contaminated fragments and soil. • Determine whether contaminants of concern (COCs) are

  6. Effect of lipopolysaccharide on sickness behaviour in hens kept in cage and free range environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, N G; Payne, S R; Devine, C D; Cook, C J

    2009-08-01

    The aim of this study was to assess whether environmental enrichment and environmental conditions can influence the expression of sickness behaviour. The behaviour in response to injection of lipopolysaccharide or saline was examined in a total of 96 62-weeks old hatchmate hens kept in a free range or cage environment. There were eight experimental treatments, each with 12 birds. Half the birds were sourced from a commercial cage layer unit (C/-) and half from a commercial free range unit (FR/-). After intraperitoneal injection with either lipopolysaccharide or saline (as a control), the hens were placed in either a cage (-/C) or free range (-/FR) environment. Lipopolysaccharide caused greater suppression of activity in free range (FR/FR) than in caged hens, including less walking (53% reduction), roosting (-86%) and preening (-60%) (pfree range, nor in free range birds introduced to cages, suggesting that both the presence of and the familiarity with an environment affected sickness behaviour patterns. Increased sleeping was the most consistent response (+147%; pfree range layer hens can express a greater range of sickness behaviours than caged hens, and this may make it more difficult to recognise disease expression in the caged environment.

  7. Effect of diet supplementation on growth and reproduction in camels under arid range conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdouli H.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Eighteen pregnant dromedary females (Camelus dromedarius were used to determine the effect of concentrate supplement on growth and reproductive performances in peri-partum period. The females were divided into supplemented (n = 9; S and unsupplemented (n = 9; C experimental groups. All animals grazed, with one mature male, 7 to 8 hours per day on salty pasture rangelands. During night, they were kept in pen, where each female of group S received 4 kg per day of concentrate supplement during the last 3 months of gestation and 5 kg per day during the first 3 months post-partum. During the last 90 days of gestation daily body weight gain (DBG was at least tenfold more important in group S than in group C (775 g vs. 72 g respectively. Supplementation affected birth weight of offspring (30.3 kg vs. 23.4 kg and its DBG (806 g vs. 430 g in group S and group C respectively. During the post-partum period, females in group S gained in weight (116 g per day whereas females in group C lost more than 200 g per day. The mean post-partum interval to the first heat and the percentage of females in heat were 29.5 day and 44.4/ vs. 41.2 day and 71.4/ for the C and S groups, respectively. We conclude that under range conditions, dietary supplementation of dromedary during late pregnancy stage and post-partum period improves productive and reproductive parameters.

  8. Effectiveness of Manual Therapy and Stretching for Baseball Players With Shoulder Range of Motion Deficits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Lane B; Thigpen, Charles A; Hawkins, Richard J; Beattie, Paul F; Shanley, Ellen

    Baseball players displaying deficits in shoulder range of motion (ROM) are at increased risk of arm injury. Currently, there is a lack of consensus regarding the best available treatment options to restore shoulder ROM. Instrumented manual therapy with self-stretching will result in clinically significant deficit reductions when compared with self-stretching alone. Controlled laboratory study. Shoulder ROM and humeral torsion were assessed in 60 active baseball players (mean age, 19 ± 2 years) with ROM deficits (nondominant - dominant, ≥15°). Athletes were randomly assigned to receive a single treatment of instrumented manual therapy plus self-stretching (n = 30) or self-stretching only (n = 30). Deficits in internal rotation, horizontal adduction, and total arc of motion were compared between groups immediately before and after a single treatment session. Treatment effectiveness was determined by mean comparison data, and a number-needed-to-treat (NNT) analysis was used for assessing the presence of ROM risk factors. Prior to intervention, players displayed significant ( P < 0.001) dominant-sided deficits in internal rotation (-26°), total arc of motion (-18°), and horizontal adduction (-17°). After the intervention, both groups displayed significant improvements in ROM, with the instrumented manual therapy plus self-stretching group displaying greater increases in internal rotation (+5°, P = 0.010), total arc of motion (+6°, P = 0.010), and horizontal adduction (+7°, P = 0.004) compared with self-stretching alone. For horizontal adduction deficits, the added use of instrumented manual therapy with self-stretching decreased the NNT to 2.2 (95% CI, 2.1-2.4; P = 0.010). Instrumented manual therapy with self-stretching significantly reduces ROM risk factors in baseball players with motion deficits when compared with stretching alone. The added benefits of manual therapy may help to reduce ROM deficits in clinical scenarios where stretching alone is

  9. Adsorption of a single polymer chain on a surface: effects of the potential range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klushin, Leonid I; Polotsky, Alexey A; Hsu, Hsiao-Ping; Markelov, Denis A; Binder, Kurt; Skvortsov, Alexander M

    2013-02-01

    We investigate the effects of the range of adsorption potential on the equilibrium behavior of a single polymer chain end-attached to a solid surface. The exact analytical theory for ideal lattice chains interacting with a planar surface via a box potential of depth U and width W is presented and compared to continuum model results and to Monte Carlo (MC) simulations using the pruned-enriched Rosenbluth method for self-avoiding chains on a simple cubic lattice. We show that the critical value U(c) corresponding to the adsorption transition scales as W(-1/ν), where the exponent ν=1/2 for ideal chains and ν≈3/5 for self-avoiding walks. Lattice corrections for finite W are incorporated in the analytical prediction of the ideal chain theory U(c)≈(π(2)/24)(W+1/2)(-2) and in the best-fit equation for the MC simulation data U(c)=0.585(W+1/2)(-5/3). Tail, loop, and train distributions at the critical point are evaluated by MC simulations for 1≤W≤10 and compared to analytical results for ideal chains and with scaling theory predictions. The behavior of a self-avoiding chain is remarkably close to that of an ideal chain in several aspects. We demonstrate that the bound fraction θ and the related properties of finite ideal and self-avoiding chains can be presented in a universal reduced form: θ(N,U,W)=θ(NU(c),U/U(c)). By utilizing precise estimations of the critical points we investigate the chain length dependence of the ratio of the normal and lateral components of the gyration radius. Contrary to common expectations this ratio attains a limiting universal value /=0.320±0.003 only at N~5000. Finite-N corrections for this ratio turn out to be of the opposite sign for W=1 and for W≥2. We also study the N dependence of the apparent crossover exponent φ(eff)(N). Strong corrections to scaling of order N(-0.5) are observed, and the extrapolated value φ=0.483±0.003 is found for all values of W. The strong correction to scaling effects found here explain why

  10. The effect of short-range spatial variability on soil sampling uncertainty

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perk, Marcel van der [Department of Physical Geography, Utrecht University, P.O. Box 80115, 3508 TC Utrecht (Netherlands)], E-mail: m.vanderperk@geo.uu.nl; De Zorzi, Paolo; Barbizzi, Sabrina; Belli, Maria [Agenzia per la Protezione dell' Ambiente e per i Servizi Tecnici (APAT), Servizio Laboratori, Misure ed Attivita di Campo, Via di Castel Romano, 100-00128 Roma (Italy); Fajgelj, Ales; Sansone, Umberto [International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Agency' s Laboratories Seibersdorf, A-1400 Vienna (Austria); Jeran, Zvonka; Jacimovic, Radojko [Jozef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2008-11-15

    This paper aims to quantify the soil sampling uncertainty arising from the short-range spatial variability of elemental concentrations in the topsoils of agricultural, semi-natural, and contaminated environments. For the agricultural site, the relative standard sampling uncertainty ranges between 1% and 5.5%. For the semi-natural area, the sampling uncertainties are 2-4 times larger than in the agricultural area. The contaminated site exhibited significant short-range spatial variability in elemental composition, which resulted in sampling uncertainties of 20-30%.

  11. The effect of short-range spatial variability on soil sampling uncertainty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van der Perk, Marcel; de Zorzi, Paolo; Barbizzi, Sabrina; Belli, Maria; Fajgelj, Ales; Sansone, Umberto; Jeran, Zvonka; Jaćimović, Radojko

    2008-11-01

    This paper aims to quantify the soil sampling uncertainty arising from the short-range spatial variability of elemental concentrations in the topsoils of agricultural, semi-natural, and contaminated environments. For the agricultural site, the relative standard sampling uncertainty ranges between 1% and 5.5%. For the semi-natural area, the sampling uncertainties are 2-4 times larger than in the agricultural area. The contaminated site exhibited significant short-range spatial variability in elemental composition, which resulted in sampling uncertainties of 20-30%.

  12. Prediction methods environmental-effect reporting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jonker, R.J.; Koester, H.W.

    1987-12-01

    This report provides a survey of prediction methods which can be applied to the calculation of emissions in cuclear-reactor accidents, in the framework of environment-effect reports (dutch m.e.r.) or risk analyses. Also emissions during normal operation are important for m.e.r.. These can be derived from measured emissions of power plants being in operation. Data concerning the latter are reported. The report consists of an introduction into reactor technology, among which a description of some reactor types, the corresponding fuel cycle and dismantling scenarios - a discussion of risk-analyses for nuclear power plants and the physical processes which can play a role during accidents - a discussion of prediction methods to be employed and the expected developments in this area - some background information. (aughor). 145 refs.; 21 figs.; 20 tabs

  13. The Effect of Broadened Ranges of Expectancy on Satisfaction with Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-08-01

    Campbell, D.T. (1971). Hedonic relativism and planning the good society . In M.H. Appley (Ed.), Adaptation-level theory. New York: Academic Press. "€ Brickman...a lower plausible outcome within the expectancy range and see the current outcome as favorable (e.g. This is a good score. It was possible that I...improvement). Persons with narrow ranges of expectancies cannot make these hedonically preferable selective comparisons. Giving Up Too Early and

  14. Production of Short-Rotation Woody Crops Grown with a Range of Nutrient and Water Availability: Establishment Report and First-Year Responses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D.R. Coyle; J. Blake; K. Britton; M.; R.G. Campbell; J. Cox; B. Cregg; D. Daniels; M. Jacobson; K. Johnsen; T. McDonald; K. McLeod; E.; D. Robison; R. Rummer; F. Sanchez; J.; B. Stokes; C. Trettin; J. Tuskan; L. Wright; S. Wullschleger

    2003-12-31

    Coleman, M.D., et. al. 2003. Production of Short-Rotation Woody Crops Grown with a Range of Nutrient and Water Availability: Establishment Report and First-Year Responses. Report. USDA Forest Service, Savannah River, Aiken, SC. 26 pp. Abstract: Many researchers have studied the productivity potential of intensively managed forest plantations. However, we need to learn more about the effects of fundamental growth processes on forest productivity; especially the influence of aboveground and belowground resource acquisition and allocation. This report presents installation, establishment, and first-year results of four tree species (two cottonwood clones, sycamore, sweetgum, and loblolly pine) grown with fertilizer and irrigation treatments. At this early stage of development, irrigation and fertilization were additive only in cottonwood clone ST66 and sweetgum. Leaf area development was directly related to stem growth, but root production was not always consistent with shoot responses, suggesting that allocation of resources varies among treatments. We will evaluate the consequences of these early responses on resource availability in subsequent growing seasons. This information will be used to: (1) optimize fiber and bioenergy production; (2) understand carbon sequestration; and (3) develop innovative applications such as phytoremediation; municipal, industrial, and agricultural wastes management; and protection of soil, air, and water resources.

  15. Next neighbors effect along the Ca-Sr-Ba-åkermanite join: Long-range vs. short-range structural features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dondi, Michele; Ardit, Matteo; Cruciani, Giuseppe

    2013-06-01

    An original approach has been developed herein to explore the correlations between short- and long-range structural properties of solid solutions. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and electronic absorption spectroscopy (EAS) data were combined on a (Ca,Sr,Ba)2(Mg0.7Co0.3)Si2O7 join to determine average and local distances, respectively. Instead of varying the EAS-active ion concentration along the join, as has commonly been performed in previous studies, the constant replacement of Mg2+ by a minimal fraction of a similar size cation (Co2+) has been used to assess the effects of varying second-nearest neighbor cations (Ca, Sr, Ba) on the local distances of the first shell. A comparison between doped and un-doped series has shown that, although the overall symmetry of the Co-centered T1-site was retained, greater relaxation occurs at the CoO4 tetrahedra which become increasingly large and more distorted than the MgO4 tetrahedra. This is indicated by an increase in both the quadratic elongation (λT1) and the bond angle variance (σ2T1) distortion indices, as the whole structure expands due to an increase in size in the second-nearest neighbors. This behavior highlights the effect of the different electronic configurations of Co2+ (3d7) and Mg2+ (2p6) in spite of their very similar ionic size. Furthermore, although the overall symmetry of the Co-centered T1-site is retained, relatively limited (Co2+-O occur along the solid solution series and large changes are found in molar absorption coefficients showing that EAS Co2+-bands are highly sensitive to change in the local structure.

  16. Effect of Aspect on Climate Variation in Mountain Ranges of Shen-nongjia Massif, Central China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yi

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to better understand the mechanisms of regional climate variation in mountain ranges with con-trasting aspects as mediated by changes in global climate. It may help predict trends of vegetation variations in native ecosystems in natural reserves. As measures of climate response, temperature and precipitation data from the north, east, and south-facing mountain ranges of Shennongjia Massif in the coldest and hottest months (January and July), different seasons (spring, summer, autumn, and win-ter) and each year were analyzed from a long-term dataset (1960 to 2003) to tested variations characteristics, temporal and spatial quan-titative relationships of climates. The results showed that the average seasonal temperatures and precipitation in the north, east, and south aspects of the mountain ranges changed at different rates. The average seasonal temperatures change rate ranges in the north, east, and south-facing mountain ranges were from –0.0210℃ /yr to 0.0143℃ /yr,–0.0166℃ /yr to 0.0311℃ /yr, and –0.0290℃ /yr to 0.0084℃ /yr, respectively,and seasonal precipitation variation magnitude were from –1.4940 mm/yr to 0.6217 mm/yr, –1.6833 mm/yr to 2.6182 mm/yr, and –0.8567 mm/yr to 1.4077 mm/yr, respectively. The climates variation trend among the three mountain ranges were different in magnitude and direction, showing a complicated change of the climates in mountain ranges and some inconsistency with general trends in global climate change. The climate variations were significantly different and positively correlated cross mountain ranges, revealing that aspects significantly affected on climate variations and these variations resulted from a larger air circulation sys-tem, which were sensitive to global climate change. We conclude that location and terrain of aspect are the main factors affecting dif-ferences in climate variation among the mountain ranges with contrasting aspects.

  17. Annual report of Radiation Effects Research Foundation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    The Radiation Effects Research Foundation was established in April, 1975, as a private nonprofit Japanese Foundation supported equally by the Government of Japan through the Ministry of Health and Welfare, and the Government of the United States through the National Academy of Sciences under contract with the Energy Research and Development Administration. First, the messages from the chairman and the vice-chairman are described. In the annual report, the review of ABCC-RERF studies of atomic bomb survivors, the summary of research activities, the research projects, the technical report abstracts, the research papers published in Japanese and foreign journals, and the oral presentation and lectures, all from April 1, 1978, to March 31, 1979, are reported. Also the report from the Secretariat and the appendixes are given. The surveys and researches carried out in Hiroshima and Nagasaki have offered very valuable informations to the atomic bomb survivors. Many fears were eliminated, medical interests were given to the serious effects of the exposure to atomic bombs, and many things concerning the cancer induced by radiation were elucidated. The knowledges obtained will save many human lives in future by utilizing them for setting up the health and safety standard in the case of handling ionizing radiation. The progress in researches such as life span study, adult health study, pathology study, genetics program, special cancer program and so on is reported. (Kako, I.)

  18. Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation (PNF): Its Mechanisms and Effects on Range of Motion and Muscular Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hindle, Kayla B.; Whitcomb, Tyler J.; Briggs, Wyatt O.; Hong, Junggi

    2012-01-01

    Proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) is common practice for increasing range of motion, though little research has been done to evaluate theories behind it. The purpose of this study was to review possible mechanisms, proposed theories, and physiological changes that occur due to proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation techniques. Four theoretical mechanisms were identified: autogenic inhibition, reciprocal inhibition, stress relaxation, and the gate control theory. The studies suggest that a combination of these four mechanisms enhance range of motion. When completed prior to exercise, proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation decreases performance in maximal effort exercises. When this stretching technique is performed consistently and post exercise, it increases athletic performance, along with range of motion. Little investigation has been done regarding the theoretical mechanisms of proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation, though four mechanisms were identified from the literature. As stated, the main goal of proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation is to increase range of motion and performance. Studies found both of these to be true when completed under the correct conditions. These mechanisms were found to be plausible; however, further investigation needs to be conducted. All four mechanisms behind the stretching technique explain the reasoning behind the increase in range of motion, as well as in strength and athletic performance. Proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation shows potential benefits if performed correctly and consistently. PMID:23487249

  19. The timeliness of patients reporting the side effects of chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olver, Ian; Carey, Mariko; Boyes, Allison; Hall, Alix; Noble, Natasha; Bryant, Jamie; Walsh, Justin; Sanson-Fisher, Rob

    2018-05-03

    To explore the actions cancer patients reported they would take in response to a range of common side effects of chemotherapy and whether these were considered appropriate based on current guidelines and evidence; and to explore the sociodemographic and cancer-related variables associated with patients selecting the appropriate action (immediate medical attention or reporting) for two potentially life-threatening side effects: fever, and unusual bleeding and bruising. Four hundred thirty-six medical oncology and haematology patients receiving chemotherapy completed two surveys to provide demographic, disease and treatment characteristics, and details on how they would respond if they experienced a range of specified side effects of chemotherapy (for example, nausea and vomiting, fatigue, and skin rash or nail changes). The proportion of patients reporting the appropriate action for each side effect was calculated. Multiple logistic regressions examined the patient demographic and cancer characteristics associated with selecting the appropriate action (seeking immediate medical attention) for two potentially life-threatening side effects of chemotherapy: high fever of 38 °C or more, and unusual bleeding or bruising. Two thirds of patients indicated that they would seek immediate medical attention for high fever (67%), but only 41% would seek immediate attention for bleeding or bruising. Cancer type and time since diagnosis were significantly associated with patients indicating that they would seek immediate medical attention for high fever; while time since diagnosis was the only variable significantly associated with patients reporting that they would seek immediate medical attention for unusual bleeding or bruising. For chronic side effects, like skin rash or nail changes, and tingling or numbness, which usually do not require urgent reporting, only between 12 and 16% would report them immediately. A significant proportion of patients reported that they would

  20. Effect of disorder with long-range correlation on transport in graphene nanoribbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, G P; Gao, M; Shangguan, M H; Zhang, Y Y; Liu, N; Qin, Z J

    2012-01-01

    Transport in disordered armchair graphene nanoribbons (AGR) with long-range correlation between quantum wire contacts is investigated by a transfer matrix combined with Landauer’s formula. The metal-insulator transition is induced by disorder in neutral AGR. Therein, the conductance is one conductance quantum for the metallic phase and exponentially decays otherwise, when the length of AGR approaches infinity and far longer than its width. Similar to the case of long-range disorder, the conductance of neutral AGR first increases and then decreases while the conductance of doped AGR monotonically decreases, as the disorder strength increases. In the presence of strong disorder, the conductivity depends monotonically and non-monotonically on the aspect ratio for heavily doped and slightly doped AGR, respectively. For edge disordered graphene nanoribbon, the conductance increases with the disorder strength of long-range correlated disordered while no delocalization exists, since the edge disorder induces localization. (paper)

  1. The effect of different natural enemies on the performance of Cirsium arvense in its native range

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Abela-Hofbauerová, Inés; Münzbergová, Zuzana; Skuhrovec, J.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 51, č. 4 (2011), s. 394-403 ISSN 0043-1737 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA526/08/0706 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : Cirsium arvense * native range * invasive species Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 1.924, year: 2011

  2. Climate change effects on historical range and variability of two large landscapes in western Montana, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert E. Keane; Lisa M. Holsinger; Russell A. Parsons; Kathy Gray

    2008-01-01

    Quantifying the historical range and variability of landscape composition and structure using simulation modeling is becoming an important means of assessing current landscape condition and prioritizing landscapes for ecosystem restoration. However, most simulated time series are generated using static climate conditions which fail to account for the predicted major...

  3. Electronically driven short-range lattice instability: Cluster effects in superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szasz, A.

    1991-01-01

    In the first part of this series, short- and medium-range interactions in superconductors were investigated. In this paper a discussion is made on the cluster-mass dependence of the superconductive transition temperature and the relevant phenomenon of electron localization. A comparison with experiments is given; the predictions fit well to the observations

  4. Habitat-effectiveness index for elk on Blue Mountain Winter Ranges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jack Ward Thomas; Donavin A. Leckenby; Mark Henjum; Richard J. Pedersen; Larry D. Bryant

    1988-01-01

    An elk-habitat evaluation procedure for winter ranges in the Blue Mountains of eastern Oregon and Washington is described. The index is based on an interaction of size and spacing of cover and forage areas, roads open to traffic per unit of area, cover quality, and quantity and quality of forage.

  5. Effects of Range of Stress and of Special Notches on Fatigue Properties of Aluminum Alloys Suitable for Airplane Propellers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolan, Thomas J

    1942-01-01

    Laboratory tests were made to obtain information on the load-resisting properties of X76S-T aluminum alloy when subjected to static, impact, and repeated loads. Results are presented from static-load test of unnotched specimens in tension and in torsion and of notched specimens in tension. Charpy impact values obtained from bend tests on notched specimens and tension impact values for both notched and unnotched specimens tested at several different temperatures are included. The endurance limits obtained from repeated bending fatigue tests made on three different types of testing machine are given for unnotched polished specimens, and the endurance limits of notched specimens subjected to six different ranges of bending stress are also reported. The results indicated that: (a) polished rectangular specimens had an endurance limit about 30 percent less than that obtained for round specimens; (b) a comparison of endurance limits obtained from tests on three different types of machine indicated that there was no apparent effect of speed of testing on the endurance limit for the range of speeds used (1,750 to 13,000 rpm). (c) the fatigue strength (endurance limit) of the X76S-T alloy was greatly decreased by the presence of a notch in the specimens; (d) no complete fractures of the entire specimens occurred in notched fatigue specimens when subjected to stress cycles for which the mean stress at the notch during the cycle was a compressive stress; for this test condition a microscopic cracking occurred near the root of the notch and was used as a criterion of failure of the specimen. (e) as the mean stress at the notch was decreased from a tensile (+) stress to a compressive (-) stress, it was found that the alternating stress that could be superimposed on the mean stress in the cycle without causing failure of the specimens was increased.

  6. Current Practices of Measuring and Reference Range Reporting of Free and Total Testosterone in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Margaret; Flores, David; May, Danica; Gourley, Eric; Nangia, Ajay K

    2016-05-01

    The evaluation and management of male hypogonadism should be based on symptoms and on serum testosterone levels. Diagnostically this relies on accurate testing and reference values. Our objective was to define the distribution of reference values and assays for free and total testosterone by clinical laboratories in the United States. Upper and lower reference values, assay methodology and source of published reference ranges were obtained from laboratories across the country. A standardized survey was reviewed with laboratory staff via telephone. Descriptive statistics were used to tabulate results. We surveyed a total of 120 laboratories in 47 states. Total testosterone was measured in house at 73% of laboratories. At the remaining laboratories studies were sent to larger centralized reference facilities. The mean ± SD lower reference value of total testosterone was 231 ± 46 ng/dl (range 160 to 300) and the mean upper limit was 850 ± 141 ng/dl (range 726 to 1,130). Only 9% of laboratories where in-house total testosterone testing was performed created a reference range unique to their region. Others validated the instrument recommended reference values in a small number of internal test samples. For free testosterone 82% of laboratories sent testing to larger centralized reference laboratories where equilibrium dialysis and/or liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry was done. The remaining laboratories used published algorithms to calculate serum free testosterone. Reference ranges for testosterone assays vary significantly among laboratories. The ranges are predominantly defined by limited population studies of men with unknown medical and reproductive histories. These poorly defined and variable reference values, especially the lower limit, affect how clinicians determine treatment. Copyright © 2016 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Chemical composition of douglas-fir foliage on mule deer winter range. Research report No. RR 91003-CA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waterhouse, M J; Armleder, H M; Dawson, R J

    1991-01-01

    In the interior of British Columbia, Douglas-fir litterfall is a major source of mule deer winter food. An earlier study found that preference for Douglas-fir foliage was correlated with tree diameter. This study identified the underlying factors of selection so that wildlife managers might have a wider range of forage enhancement options on mule deer winter range. Samples of Douglas-fir foliage were collected from trees at Knife Creek and Big Lake, and analyzed for minerals, tannins, and in vitro digestible dry matter.

  8. Task force report on health effects assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, C.; Hushon, J.

    1978-08-01

    From April to August, 1978 MITRE supported the Health Effects Assessment Task Force sponsored by the Office of the Assistant Secretary for the Environment at DOE. The findings of that Task Force are incorporated in this report and include a detailed definition of health effects assessment, a survey of the mandates for health effects assessments within DOE/EV, a review of current DOE-EV health effects assessment activities, an analysis of the constraints affecting the health effects assessment process and a discussion of the Task Force recommendations. Included as appendices are summaries of two workshops conducted by the Task Force to determine the state-of-the-art of health effects assessment and modeling and a review of risk assessment activities in other federal agencies. The primary recommendation of the panel was that an office be designated or created under the Office of the Assistant Secretary for the Environment to coordinate the Health Effects Risk Assessment effort covering up to 40 program and policy areas; a similar need was expressed for the environmental effects assessment area. 1 tab

  9. Effect of spa physiotherapy on the range of motion and muscle strength in women with gonarthrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lizis, Paweł

    2013-01-01

    Degeneration arthritis is a chronic disease of undetermined progressiveness and unknown pathogenesis. It can affect one or more joints. It reveals itself most frequently between 40 - 60 years of age, and affects the lives of professionally active individuals. The aim of the presented study was to assess the impact of a 21-day stay at a rehabilitation facility on the range of motion and muscle strength of the knee in women with gonarthrosis. The study group consisted of 30 women aged 50-74 years diagnosed with degeneration of the knee joint. The average age of the study group was 65.9 ± 7.2 years. Patients remained in the 21-day rehabilitation facility of Rehabilitational Hospital No. 21 in Busko Zdrój SP ZOZ, Poland. We measured with the help of protractor in SFTR range the motion bending and straightening of the knee with an accuracy of 1°. The Lovett strength test was assessed of the ischio-tibial muscles, quadriceps, sartorius--acting on the knee joint of the patient. The study was carried out on the first and the last day of the stay in the rehabilitation facility. There was improvement in the range of flexion and strength of muscles acting on the knee joint of the afflicted women. The study showed that 21-day rehabilitation holiday improved the range and strength of the muscles acting on the knee joint of the afflicted women. This proved that comprehensive rehabilitation improves the function of the knee joint with gonarthrosis, prevents disease progression and is an alternative to drug therapy.

  10. Report on the Development of a Close Range Photogrammetry (CRP) Educational Technician Program (Museum and Archive Use).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobelin, Joel

    A close range photogrammetry (CRP) technician training program was developed at Miami-Dade Community College and used to teach the technology to 16 students. Although the results of the study show that it is possible to teach CRP in a two-year program, the technology is too new in the United States to support a sustaining educational program. The…

  11. Varying the item format improved the range of measurement in patient-reported outcome measures assessing physical function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liegl, Gregor; Gandek, Barbara; Fischer, H. Felix

    2017-01-01

    precision between the short forms using different item formats. Results: Sufficient unidimensionality of all short-form items and the original PF item bank was supported. Compared to formats A and B, format C increased the range of reliable measurement by about 0.5 standard deviations on the positive side...

  12. Voice Range Profiles of Singing Students: The Effects of Training Duration and Institution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lycke, Hugo; Siupsinskiene, Nora

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to assess differences in voice parameters measured by the physiological voice range profile (VRP) in groups of vocally healthy subjects differentiated by the duration of vocal training and the training institution. Six basic frequency- and intensity-related VRP parameters and the frequency dip of the register transition zone were determined from VRP recordings of 162 females studying in individual singing lessons (1st-5th level) in Dutch, Belgian, English, and French public or private training facilities. Sixty-seven nonsinging female students served as controls. Singing students in more advanced singing classes demonstrated a significantly greater frequency range, particularly at high frequencies, than did first-year students. Students with private training showed a significantly increased mean intensity range in comparison to those in group classes, while students with musical theater training exhibited significantly increased frequency- and intensity-related VRP parameters in comparison to the students with classical training. When compared to nonsingers, all singing student subgroups showed significant increases in all basic VRP parameters. However, the register transition parameter was not influenced by training duration or institution. Our study suggests that the extension of physiological vocal limits might depend on training duration and institution. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. Atomic size effects on local coordination and medium range order in molten trivalent metal chlorides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tatlipinar, H.; Akdeniz, Z.; Pastore, G.

    1992-08-01

    Structural correlations in molten trivalent metal chlorides are evaluated as functions of the metal ion size R M across the range from LaCl 3 (R M approx. 1.4 A) to AlCl 3 (R M approx. 0.8 A), using a charged soft-sphere model and the hypernetted chain approximation. Main attention is given to trends in the local liquid structure (partial radial distribution functions, coordination numbers and bond lengths) and in the intermediate range order (first sharp diffraction peak in the number-number and partial structure factors). The trend towards fourfold local coordination of the metal ions, the stabilization of their first-neighbour chlorine cage and the growth of medium range order are found to proceed in parallel as the size of the metal ion is allowed to decrease at constant number density and temperature. A tendency to molecular-type local structure and liquid-vapour phase separation is found within the hypernetted chain scheme at small metal ion sizes corresponding to AlCl 3 and is emphasized by decreasing the number density of the fluid. The predicted molecular units are rather strongly distorted Al 2 Cl 6 dimers, in agreement with observation. The calculated structural trends for other trichlorides are compared with diffraction and transport data. (author). 17 refs, 8 figs, 1 tab

  14. Effects of plant sex on range distributions and allocation to reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Marc T J; Smith, Stacey D; Rausher, Mark D

    2010-05-01

    Despite an abundance of theory, few empirical studies have explored the ecological and evolutionary consequences of sex. We used a comparative phylogenetic approach to examine whether transitions between sexual and asexual reproduction are associated with changes in the size and distribution of species' geographical ranges, and their investment in reproduction. Here, we reconstructed the phylogeny of the genus Oenothera sections Oenothera and Calylophus (Onagraceae), which contain 35 sexual and 30 functionally asexual species. From each species, we collected data on the geographical distribution and variation in plant traits related to reproduction. Functionally asexual species occurred at higher latitudes, but did not differ in range size, compared with sexual species. Transitions to asexuality were associated with decreased investment in floral structures, including the length of petals, floral tubes and styles. Decreased anther size and increased seed size within asexual species also suggest altered allocation to male and female fitness. The observed range shifts are consistent with superior colonization of environments by asexual species following glaciation, and the observed changes in reproductive allocation support predictions made by models relating to the evolution of selfing. Our results suggest that the evolutionary consequences of asexual reproduction might be less restrictive than previously thought.

  15. Effect of Drought on Herbivore-Induced Plant Gene Expression: Population Comparison for Range Limit Inferences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunbharpur Singh Gill

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Low elevation “trailing edge” range margin populations typically face increases in both abiotic and biotic stressors that may contribute to range limit development. We hypothesize that selection may act on ABA and JA signaling pathways for more stable expression needed for range expansion, but that antagonistic crosstalk prevents their simultaneous co-option. To test this hypothesis, we compared high and low elevation populations of Boechera stricta that have diverged with respect to constitutive levels of glucosinolate defenses and root:shoot ratios; neither population has high levels of both traits. If constraints imposed by antagonistic signaling underlie this divergence, one would predict that high constitutive levels of traits would coincide with lower plasticity. To test this prediction, we compared the genetically diverged populations in a double challenge drought-herbivory growth chamber experiment. Although a glucosinolate defense response to the generalist insect herbivore Spodoptera exigua was attenuated under drought conditions, the plastic defense response did not differ significantly between populations. Similarly, although several potential drought tolerance traits were measured, only stomatal aperture behavior, as measured by carbon isotope ratios, was less plastic as predicted in the high elevation population. However, RNAseq results on a small subset of plants indicated differential expression of relevant genes between populations as predicted. We suggest that the ambiguity in our results stems from a weaker link between the pathways and the functional traits compared to transcripts.

  16. Nonlinear effects in propagation of long-range surface plasmon polaritons in gold strip waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lysenko, Oleg; Bache, Morten; Malureanu, Radu

    2016-01-01

    cladding. The optical characterization was performed using a high power picosecond laser at 1064 nm. The experiments reveal two nonlinear optical effects: nonlinear power transmission and spectral broadening of the LRSPP mode in the waveguides. Both nonlinear optical effects depend on the gold layer...

  17. Effect of medium range order on pulsed laser crystallization of amorphous germanium thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, T. T., E-mail: li48@llnl.gov; Bayu Aji, L. B.; Heo, T. W.; Kucheyev, S. O.; Campbell, G. H. [Materials Science Division, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Ave., Livermore, California 94551 (United States); Santala, M. K. [Mechanical, Industrial, and Manufacturing Engineering, Oregon State University, 204 Rogers Hall, Corvallis, Oregon 97331 (United States)

    2016-05-30

    Sputter deposited amorphous Ge thin films had their nanostructure altered by irradiation with high-energy Ar{sup +} ions. The change in the structure resulted in a reduction in medium range order (MRO) characterized using fluctuation electron microscopy. The pulsed laser crystallization kinetics of the as-deposited versus irradiated materials were investigated using the dynamic transmission electron microscope operated in the multi-frame movie mode. The propagation rate of the crystallization front for the irradiated material was lower; the changes were correlated to the MRO difference and formation of a thin liquid layer during crystallization.

  18. Effect of medium range order on pulsed laser crystallization of amorphous germanium thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, T. T.; Bayu Aji, L. B.; Heo, T. W.; Kucheyev, S. O.; Campbell, G. H.; Santala, M. K.

    2016-01-01

    Sputter deposited amorphous Ge thin films had their nanostructure altered by irradiation with high-energy Ar"+ ions. The change in the structure resulted in a reduction in medium range order (MRO) characterized using fluctuation electron microscopy. The pulsed laser crystallization kinetics of the as-deposited versus irradiated materials were investigated using the dynamic transmission electron microscope operated in the multi-frame movie mode. The propagation rate of the crystallization front for the irradiated material was lower; the changes were correlated to the MRO difference and formation of a thin liquid layer during crystallization.

  19. Historic Properties Report: White Sands Missile Range, New Mexico and Subinstallation Utah Launch Complex, Green River, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-07-01

    and cinder block construction (and are similar to many buildings on the main post area), only the Stallion , Rhodes Canyon, and North Oscura Range...stakes bound with wire, although they could be made of virtually any material including simple barbed wire strung on posts. Windmills are of the...outbuilding. Grave of Mrs. Foster located nearby. Located near Foster Well, about 3/4 mile off Route 7 on access road to Stallion W.I.T. (WSMR N85 W3

  20. Decontamination of Explosives-Contaminated Range Scrap Using A Transportable Hot Gas Decontamination (HGD) System: Cost & Performance Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    nonirritating, and a 9-micron diameter fiber nonrespirable, making handling safe and easy. • Basalt Mat, manufactured by BGF Industries (bgf.com). High...temperature mineral wool ( basalt fiber wool) mat blanket good to 1,500oF. Product is still under development as of 2002 but shows promise. 6.3...hazard to range technicians. • The Cerablanket® (manufactured by Thermal Ceramics) contains refractory ceramic fibers , which can potentially cause

  1. Long-range Coulomb interaction effects on the topological phase transitions between semimetals and insulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, SangEun; Moon, Eun-Gook

    2018-06-01

    Topological states may be protected by a lattice symmetry in a class of topological semimetals. In three spatial dimensions, the Berry flux around gapless excitations in momentum space concretely defines a chirality, so a protecting symmetry may be referred to as a chiral symmetry. Prime examples include a Dirac semimetal (DSM) in a distorted spinel, BiZnSiO4, protected by a mirror symmetry, and a DSM in Na3Bi , protected by a rotational symmetry. In these states, topology and chiral symmetry are intrinsically tied. In this Rapid Communication, the characteristic interplay between a chiral symmetry order parameter and an instantaneous long-range Coulomb interaction is investigated with the standard renormalization group method. We show that a topological transition associated with chiral symmetry is stable under the presence of a Coulomb interaction and the electron velocity always becomes faster than the one of a chiral symmetry order parameter. Thus, the transition must not be relativistic, which implies that supersymmetry is intrinsically forbidden by the long-range Coulomb interaction. Asymptotically exact universal ratios of physical quantities such as the energy gap ratio are obtained, and connections with experiments and recent theoretical proposals are also discussed.

  2. Spin-interaction effects for ultralong-range Rydberg molecules in a magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hummel, Frederic; Fey, Christian; Schmelcher, Peter

    2018-04-01

    We investigate the fine and spin structure of ultralong-range Rydberg molecules exposed to a homogeneous magnetic field. Each molecule consists of a 87Rb Rydberg atom the outer electron of which interacts via spin-dependent s - and p -wave scattering with a polarizable 87Rb ground-state atom. Our model includes also the hyperfine structure of the ground-state atom as well as spin-orbit couplings of the Rydberg and ground-state atom. We focus on d -Rydberg states and principal quantum numbers n in the vicinity of 40. The electronic structure and vibrational states are determined in the framework of the Born-Oppenheimer approximation for varying field strengths ranging from a few up to hundred Gauss. The results show that the interplay between the scattering interactions and the spin couplings gives rise to a large variety of molecular states in different spin configurations as well as in different spatial arrangements that can be tuned by the magnetic field. This includes relatively regularly shaped energy surfaces in a regime where the Zeeman splitting is large compared to the scattering interaction but small compared to the Rydberg fine structure, as well as more complex structures for both weaker and stronger fields. We quantify the impact of spin couplings by comparing the extended theory to a spin-independent model.

  3. Surface and finite size effect on fluctuations dynamics in nanoparticles with long-range order

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morozovska, A. N.; Eliseev, E. A.

    2010-02-01

    The influence of surface and finite size on the dynamics of the order parameter fluctuations and critical phenomena in the three-dimensional (3D)-confined systems with long-range order was not considered theoretically. In this paper, we study the influence of surface and finite size on the dynamics of the order parameter fluctuations in the particles of arbitrary shape. We consider concrete examples of the spherical and cylindrical ferroic nanoparticles within Landau-Ginzburg-Devonshire phenomenological approach. Allowing for the strong surface energy contribution in micro and nanoparticles, the analytical expressions derived for the Ornstein-Zernike correlator of the long-range order parameter spatial-temporal fluctuations, dynamic generalized susceptibility, relaxation times, and correlation radii discrete spectra are different from those known for bulk systems. Obtained analytical expressions for the correlation function of the order parameter spatial-temporal fluctuations in micro and nanosized systems can be useful for the quantitative analysis of the dynamical structural factors determined from magnetic resonance diffraction and scattering spectra. Besides the practical importance of the correlation function for the analysis of the experimental data, derived expressions for the fluctuations strength determine the fundamental limits of phenomenological theories applicability for 3D-confined systems.

  4. Effects of diurnal temperature range and drought on wheat yield in Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez-Barrera, S.; Rodriguez-Puebla, C.; Challinor, A. J.

    2017-07-01

    This study aims to provide new insight on the wheat yield historical response to climate processes throughout Spain by using statistical methods. Our data includes observed wheat yield, pseudo-observations E-OBS for the period 1979 to 2014, and outputs of general circulation models in phase 5 of the Coupled Models Inter-comparison Project (CMIP5) for the period 1901 to 2099. In investigating the relationship between climate and wheat variability, we have applied the approach known as the partial least-square regression, which captures the relevant climate drivers accounting for variations in wheat yield. We found that drought occurring in autumn and spring and the diurnal range of temperature experienced during the winter are major processes to characterize the wheat yield variability in Spain. These observable climate processes are used for an empirical model that is utilized in assessing the wheat yield trends in Spain under different climate conditions. To isolate the trend within the wheat time series, we implemented the adaptive approach known as Ensemble Empirical Mode Decomposition. Wheat yields in the twenty-first century are experiencing a downward trend that we claim is a consequence of widespread drought over the Iberian Peninsula and an increase in the diurnal range of temperature. These results are important to inform about the wheat vulnerability in this region to coming changes and to develop adaptation strategies.

  5. Effect of free-range access, shelter type and weather conditions on free-range use and welfare of slow-growing broiler chickens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stadig, Lisanne M.; Rodenburg, Bas; Ampe, Bart; Reubens, Bert; Tuyttens, Frank A.M.

    2017-01-01

    Free-range access for broiler chickens can benefit animal welfare because the birds have access to a more natural environment and more opportunities to perform natural behaviours than in indoor systems. Also, they have more space and more environmental enrichment, which could lead to better leg

  6. Characterization and Fate of Gun and Rocket Propellant Residues on Testing and Training Ranges: Interim Report 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    Restoration Project 1481, Phase II. DISCLAIMER: The contents of this report are not to be used for advertising , publication, or promotional purposes...acetonitrile APFSDS armour -piercing fin-stabilized discarding sabot °C degrees Celsius CFB Canadian Forces Base CRREL Cold Regions Research Engineering

  7. Cytogenetic effect of Alternanthera philoxeroides (alligator weed) on Agasicles hygrophila (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) in its native range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plant polyploidy potentially affects plant-insect interactions; however, its effect on insect fitness remains largely unexplored. Alternanthera philoxeroides is a South American amphibious Amaranthaceae, which invades aquatic and terrestrial habitats. Different morphotypes and cytotypes were identif...

  8. STUDY ON SHADOW EFFECTS OF VARIOUS FEATURES ON CLOSE RANGE THERMAL IMAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. L. Liao

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Thermal infrared data become more popular in remote sensing investigation, for it could be acquired both in day and night. The change of temperature has special characteristic in natural environment, so the thermal infrared images could be used in monitoring volcanic landform, the urban development, and disaster prevention. Heat shadow is formed by reflecting radiating capacity which followed the objects. Because of poor spatial resolution of thermal infrared images in satellite sensor, shadow effects were usually ignored. This research focus on discussing the shadow effects of various features, which include metals and nonmetallic materials. An area-based thermal sensor, FLIR-T360 was selected to acquire thermal images. Various features with different emissivity were chosen as reflective surface to obtain thermal shadow in normal atmospheric temperature. Experiments found that the shadow effects depend on the distance between sensors and features, depression angle, object temperature and emissivity of reflective surface. The causes of shadow effects have been altered in the experiment for analyzing the variance in thermal infrared images. The result shows that there were quite different impacts by shadow effects between metals and nonmetallic materials. The further research would be produced a math model to describe the shadow effects of different features in the future work.

  9. Effects of Microbial and Phosphate Amendments on the Bioavailability of Lead (Pb) in Shooting Range Soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brigmon, Robin; Wilson, Christina; Knox, Anna; Seaman, John; Smith, Garriet

    2005-06-16

    Heavy metals including lead (Pb) are released continually into the environment as a result of industrial, recreational, and military activities. Lead ranked number two on the CERCLA Priority List of Hazardous Substances and was identified as a major hazardous chemical found on 47% of USEPA's National Priorities List sites (Hettiarachchi and Pierzynski 2004). In-situ remediation of lead (Pb) contaminated soils may be accomplished by changing the soil chemistry and structure with the application of microbial and phosphate amendments. Soil contaminated with lead bullets was collected from the surface of the berm at Savannah River Site (SRS) Small Arms Training Academy (SATA) in Aiken, SC. While uncontaminated soils typically have Pb levels ranging from 2 to 200 mg/kg (Berti et al. 1998), previous analysis show Pb levels of the SATA berm to reach 8,673 mg/kg. Biosurfactants are surface-active compounds naturally produced by soil bacteria that can bind metals. Biosurfactants have a wide variety of chemical structures that reduce interfacial surface tensions (Jennings and Tanner 2000) and have demonstrated efficient metal complexion (Lin 1996). Biosurfactants also have the potential to change the availability of natural organic matter (Strong-Gunderson 1995). Two types of bacteria, Alcaligenes piechaudii and Pseudomonas putida, were employed as amendments based on their ability to produce biosurfactants and survive in metal-contaminated soils. Apatites (calcium phosphate compounds) are important in the formation of Pb phosphates. Pb phosphates form rapidly when phosphate is available and are the most stable environmental form of lead in soil (Ruby et al.1998). Pyromorphites in particular remain insoluble under a wide range of environmental conditions (Zhang et al. 1998). The three apatites evaluated in the current study were North Carolina apatite (NCA), Florida apatite (FA), and biological apatite (BA). BA is ground fish bone that has few impurities such as As, Cr

  10. Demographic effects of canine parvovirus on a free-ranging wolf population over 30 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mech, L.D.; Goyal, S.M.; Paul, W.J.; Newton, W.E.

    2008-01-01

    We followed the course of canine parvovinis (CPV) antibody prevalence in a subpopulation of wolves (Canis 1upus) in northeastern Minnesota from 1973, when antibodies were first detected, through 2004. Annual early pup survival was reduced by 70%, and wolf population change was related to CPV antibody prevalence. In the greater Minnesota population of 3,000 wolves, pup survival was reduced by 40-60%. This reduction limited the Minnesota wolf population rate of increase to about 4% per year compared with increases of 16-58% in other populations. Because it is young wolves that disperse, reduced pup survival may have caused reduced dispersal and reduced recolonization of new range in Minnesota. ?? Wildlife Disease Association 2008.

  11. Verification of the effects of Schumann frequency range electromagnetic fields on the human cardiovascular system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuzhilkin, D. A.; Borodin, A. S.

    2017-11-01

    The results of the study of variations in the electromagnetic background parameters of the Schumann resonator frequency range and the variability indices of the human heart period during its free activity are presented on the basis of 24-hour synchronous monitoring data. It is shown that the integral evaluation of the conjugacy of the heart rate variability indices from the Schumann resonance parameters is extremely weak. In this case, the differential evaluation of this dependence with separation into characteristic time intervals of the day, characterized by different motor activity of the subjects, becomes significantly higher. The number of volunteers whose conjugacy is characterized by a strong correlation in some cases reaches 35 percent of the sample.

  12. PECULIARITIES OF THE EFFECTS OF ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES OF THE VISIBLE RANGE ON LIVING ORGANISMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Gulyar

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Our experimental studies and a set of the published data allow one to conclude that animals and humans can perceive visible light not only with mediation of the visual sensory system, but also due to the existence of specific extraocular photoreceptors. In the latter system, we can classify three separate stable levels of interaction with exogeneous electromagnetic waves (EMW of the visible range. The first, most simple level is the cellular level (cells possessing sensor proteins reactable to EMW. The next, higher level is based on interaction of EVW with specialized electromagnetoreceptors; acupuncture points and meridians providing the maintenance of electromagnetic homeostasis of the organism cam be considered such a receptor system. Finally, the most complex level involves specialized sensory pathways and central brain structures controlling general homeostasis of the organism with mediation of the processes of metabolism.

  13. Long-lasting effects of maternal condition in free-ranging cervids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric D Freeman

    Full Text Available Causes of phenotypic variation are fundamental to evolutionary ecology because they influence the traits acted upon by natural selection. One such cause of phenotypic variation is a maternal effect, which is the influence of the environment experienced by a female (and her corresponding phenotype on the phenotype of her offspring (independent of the offspring's genotype. While maternal effects are well documented, the longevity and fitness impact of these effects remains unclear because it is difficult to follow free-living individuals through their reproductive lifetimes. For long-lived species, it has been suggested that maternal effects are masked by environmental variables acting on offspring in years following the period of dependence. Our objective was to use indirect measures of maternal condition to determine if maternal effects have long-lasting influences on male offspring in two species of cervid. Because antlers are sexually selected, we used measures of antler size at time of death, 1.5-21.5 years after gestation to investigate maternal effects. We quantified antler size of 11,000 male elk and mule deer born throughout the intermountain western US (6 states over nearly 30 years. Maternal condition during development was estimated indirectly using a suite of abiotic variables known to influence condition of cervids (i.e., winter severity, spring and summer temperature, and spring and summer precipitation. Antler size of male cervids was significantly associated with our indirect measure of maternal condition during gestation and lactation. Assuming the correctness of our indirect measure, our findings demonstrate that antler size is a sexually selected trait that is influenced-into adulthood-by maternal condition. This link emphasizes the importance of considering inherited environmental effects when interpreting population dynamics or examining reproductive success of long-lived organisms.

  14. Effects of dark brooders and overhangs on free-range use and behaviour of slow-growing broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stadig, L M; Rodenburg, T B; Reubens, B; Ampe, B; Tuyttens, F A M

    2017-12-04

    Broiler chickens often make limited use of the free-range area. Range use is influenced by type of shelter available. Range use may possibly be improved by a more gradual transition from the house to the range and by using dark brooders (secluded warm, dark areas in the home pen) that mimic aspects of a broody hen and possibly reduce fearfulness. The aim of this study was to assess effects of dark brooders on fearfulness, free-range use and behaviour later in life. Another aim was to test the chickens' preference for shelter type and the effects of overhangs outside of the pop holes to provide a gradual transition to the range. Three production rounds, each with 440 Sasso broiler chickens (110/group), were completed. Chicks were housed indoors from days 0 to 25; per round, two groups had access to a dark brooder, whereas the other two groups had conventional IR lamps. Fearfulness was assessed by the open field (OF) and tonic immobility (TI) tests on days 22 to 24 on 25 chicks/group per round. Birds were then moved to four mobile houses from which they could access both grassland with artificial shelter (AS) and short rotation coppice (SRC). Two of the houses had overhangs extending from the pop holes; these were switched between the four houses weekly. Free-range use and behaviour were observed three times daily from Monday to Friday. Dark brooders did not affect results from the OF or TI test, except for jumps in the OF test which tended to occur less often in brooded chicks. Neither dark brooders (34.9% without v. 31.7% with brooder) nor overhangs (32.5% without v. 34.1% with overhangs) influenced the percentage of chickens outside. Chickens showed a clear preference for SRC, range use increased over time in SRC, and more birds ranged farther from the house in SRC. Behaviours of chickens observed outside were mainly influenced by shelter type, age of the birds and distance from the house. Locomotion tended to occur more in the presence of overhangs. Overall

  15. Cross transfer acute effects of foam rolling with vibration on ankle dorsiflexion range of motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Gutiérrez, María Teresa; Guillén-Rogel, Paloma; Cochrane, Darryl J; Marín, Pedro J

    2018-06-01

    Foam roller is a device used as a massage intervention for rehabilitation and fitness performance. To examine the effects on the ankle dorsiflexion mobility of the foam roller as well as the combination of foam roller and vibration applied to the ankle plantarflexors muscles, and to observe the possible cross-effect. Thirty-eight undergraduate students participated in the study (19 males and 19 females). This study investigated. Three conditions (3 sets of 20 s) were performed in a randomized order (independent variables): 1) foam roller (Roller), 2) foam roller and vibration (Roller+VIB), and 3) no foam roller or vibration (Control). to determine whether of foam roller with or without vibration would benefit ankle dorsiflexion mobility. Ankle dorsiflexion ROM and plantar flexor were measured in both legs before and immediately after the treatment. A cross-effect was found in the non-stimulated leg. There was a significant effect on ankle mobility of Roller and Roller+VIB conditions (6% and 7%, pFoam roller massage and vibration stimulus' foam roller massage increase ankle mobility producing a cross-effect.

  16. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 425: Area 9 Main Lake Construction Debris Disposal Area, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K. B. Campbell

    2003-03-01

    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 425 is located on the Tonopah Test Range, approximately 386 kilometers (240 miles) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. CAU 425 is listed in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO, 1996) and is comprised of one Corrective Action Site (CAS). CAS 09-08-001-TA09 consisted of a large pile of concrete rubble from the original Hard Target and construction debris associated with the Tornado Rocket Sled Tests. CAU 425 was closed in accordance with the FFACO and the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection-approved Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration Plan for CAU 425: Area 9 Main Lake Construction Debris Disposal Area, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada (U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office, 2002). CAU 425 was closed by implementing the following corrective actions: The approved corrective action for this unit was clean closure. Closure activities included: (1) Removal of all the debris from the site. (2) Weighing each load of debris leaving the job site. (3) Transporting the debris to the U.S. Air Force Construction Landfill for disposal. (4) Placing the radioactive material in a U.S. Department of Transportation approved container for proper transport and disposal. (5) Transporting the radioactive material to the Nevada Test Site for disposal. (6) Regrading the job site to its approximate original contours/elevation.

  17. European Union emission inventory report 1990 - 2011 under the UNECE convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution (LRTAP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-06-15

    Under the LRTAP Convention, Parties (including the European Union) are obliged to report emissions data for a large number of air pollutants, including nitrogen oxides (NO{sub X}), non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs), sulphur oxides (SO{sub X}), ammonia (NH{sub 3}), carbon monoxide (CO), primary particulate matter (PM{sub 2.5} and PM{sub 10}), heavy metals (among which lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd) and mercury (Hg)) and persistent organic pollutants (POPs) (among which polychlorinated dibenzodioxin/polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/F), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs)). This report describes: 1) the institutional arrangements that underpin the European Union's emission inventory; 2) emission trends for the EU-27 as a whole, and individual Member States, and the contribution made by important individual emission sources to emissions; 3) sector emission trends for key pollutants; 4) information on recalculations and future planned improvements. Emissions data presented in this report are included as accompanying annexes and are also available for direct download through the EEA's dataservice. (LN)

  18. European Union emission inventory report 1990 - 2010 under the UNECE convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution (LRTAP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2012-07-15

    Under the LRTAP Convention, Parties (including the European Union) are obliged to report emissions data for a large number of air pollutants, including nitrogen oxides (NO{sub X}), non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs), sulphur oxides (SO{sub X}), ammonia (NH{sub 3}), carbon monoxide (CO), primary particulate matter (PM{sub 2.5} and PM{sub 10}), heavy metals (among which lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd) and mercury (Hg)) and persistent organic pollutants (POPs) (among which polychlorinated dibenzodioxin/polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/F), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs)). This report describes: 1) the institutional arrangements that underpin the European Union's emission inventory; 2) emission trends for the EU.27 as a whole, and individual Member States, and the contribution made by important individual emission sources to emissions; 3) sector emission trends for key pollutants; 4) information on recalculations and future planned improvements. Emissions data presented in this report are included as accompanying annexes and are also available for direct download through the EEA's dataservice. (LN)

  19. European Union emission inventory report 1990 - 2009 under the UNECE convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution (LRTAP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-05-15

    Under the LRTAP Convention, Parties (including the European Union) are obliged to report emissions data for a large number of air pollutants, including nitrogen oxides (NO{sub X}), non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs), sulphur oxides (SO{sub X}), ammonia (NH{sub 3}), carbon monoxide (CO), primary particulate matter (PM{sub 2.5} and PM{sub 10}), heavy metals (among which lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd) and mercury (Hg)) and persistent organic pollutants (POPs) (among which polychlorinated dibenzodioxin/polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/F), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs)). This report describes: 1) the institutional arrangements that underpin the European Union's emission inventory; 2) emission trends for the EU.27 as a whole (2), and individual Member States, and the contribution made by important individual emission sources to emissions; 3) sector emission trends for key pollutants; 4) information on recalculations and future planned improvements. Emissions data presented in this report are included as accompanying annexes and are also available for direct download through the EEA's dataservice. (LN)

  20. The search for molecular effects in range corrections: boron determination by proton bombardment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olivier, C.; Peisach, M.

    1985-01-01

    Three different nuclear reactions viz. 10 B(p,αγ) 7 Be, 10 B(p,p,'γ) 10 B, and 11 B(p,p'γ) 11 B were used to analyse 21 pure boron compounds and mixtures of known composition by prompt gamma-ray spectrometry under proton bombardment. Elemental stopping powers were calculated from tables and used to compute the stopping power of the target matrices by Bragg's Law. Apparent discrepancies in the measured yield could point to deviations from Bragg's Law and hence to molecular effects. The maximum value for any molecular effect was found to be < 8,3%

  1. Effect of Free-range Rearing on Meat Composition, Physical Properties and Sensory Evaluation in Taiwan Game Hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Cheng-Yung; Kuo, Hsiao-Yun; Wan, Tien-Chun

    2014-06-01

    Experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of an outdoor-grazed raising model on meat composition, physical properties and sensory attributes of Taiwan game hens. Six hundred 1-d old female chicks were raised on a floor for 8 weeks. On day 57, 600 healthy birds, with similar body weight, were selected and randomly assigned to three treatment groups (cage, floor-pen and free-range). The results showed that different feeding models had no effect on drip loss, cooking loss, moisture, crude protein, crude fat, crude ash, zinc and calorie contents in breast meat and moisture content in thigh meat. The free-range group had the lowest fat content in both breast and thigh meat, and the lowest calorie content in thigh meat. The firmness and toughness in both thigh and breast of the free-range group were the highest values (pmeat and total collagen content in breast meat of the free-range group were significantly higher than those of the cage-feeding group (pmeat sensory scores of flavor, chewiness and overall acceptability of both thigh and breast meat of the free-range group were significantly (pgame hens of the free-range feeding model displayed well-received carcass traits and meat quality, with higher scores for flavor, chewiness and overall acceptability for greater sensory satisfaction in both breast and thigh meat. In addition, the thigh meat contained high protein and total collage but low fat, offering a healthier diet choice.

  2. Microcomputer software for calculating an elk habitat effectiveness index on Blue Mountain winter ranges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark Hitchcock; Alan. Ager

    1992-01-01

    National Forests in the Pacific Northwest Region have incorporated elk habitat standards into Forest plans to ensure that elk habitat objectives are met on multiple use land allocations. Many Forests have employed versions of the habitat effectiveness index (HEI) as a standard method to evaluate habitat. Field application of the HEI model unfortunately is a formidable...

  3. Dependence of four-body observables on the range of UPA-like effective interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perne, R.; Sandhas, W.

    1977-07-01

    A generalized unitary pole approximation (UPA) concerning the three-body amplitudes in the kernel of four-body integral equations is introduced. We furhtermore study the dependence of the 4 He binding energy and of four-body cross sections upon a position space cut-off parameter in the effective interactions. (orig.) [de

  4. Downstream changes in spring-fed stream invertebrate communities: the effect of increased temperature range?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russell G. DEATH

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Reduced thermal amplitude has been highlighted as a limiting factor for aquatic invertebrate diversity in springs. Moving downstream water temperature range increases and invertebrate richness is expected to change accordingly. In the present study temperature patterns were investigated in seven spring-fed streams, between April 2001 and November 2002, and compared to five run-off-fed streams to assess the degree of crenic temperature constancy. Temperature and physico-chemical characteristics of the water, and food resource levels were measured, and the invertebrate fauna collected at 4 distances (0, 100, 500 m and 1 km from seven springs in the North and South Islands of New Zealand. Temperature variability was greater for run-off-fed streams than for springs, and increased in the spring-fed streams with distance from the source. Periphyton and physico-chemical characteristics of the water did not change markedly over the 1 km studied, with the exception of water velocity and organic matter biomass, which increased and decreased, respectively. The rate of increase in temperature amplitude differed greatly for the studied springs, probably being affected by flow, altitude, and the number and type of tributaries (i.e., spring- or run-off-fed joining the spring-fed stream channel. Longitudinal changes in the number and evenness of invertebrate taxa were positively correlated to thermal amplitude (rs = 0.8. Moving downstream, invertebrate communities progressively incorporated taxa with higher mobility and taxa more common in nearby run-off-fed streams. Chironomids and non-insect taxa were denser at the sources. Chironomid larvae also numerically dominated communities 100 and 500 m downstream from the sources, together with Pycnocentria spp. and Zelolessica spp., while taxa such as Hydora sp. and Hydraenidae beetles, the mayflies Deleatidium spp. and Coloburiscus humeralis, and the Trichoptera Pycnocentrodes spp., all had greater abundances 1 km

  5. THE EFFECTS OF COLD WHIRLPOOL ON POWER, SPEED, AGILITY, AND RANGE OF MOTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen M. Patterson

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose was to determine if cold whirlpool treatment decreases functional performance equally regardless of gender. A secondary aim was to determine if there is a gradual increase in functional performance across time. Twenty-one college-aged subjects volunteered to participate in this study and were required to perform four measures of functional performance including: counter movement vertical jump, T-test, 36.58-meter dash (40-yard, and active range of motion of the ankle. Participants were treated with a 20 minute, 10 degree Celsius cold whirlpool following the pre-test of a given functional performance measure. Participants demonstrated significant decreases in counter movement vertical jump, T-test, and 40-yard dash performance immediately following treatment. Vertical jump performance remained impaired for at least 32 minutes. While both the T-test and 40-yard dash were affected for 7 and 22 minutes post- treatment, respectively. Participants also demonstrated significant decreases in peak power and average power immediately after and for 32 minutes post-treatment. Dorsiflexion was significantly decreased 7 and 12 minutes following treatment. There were no differences for plantar flexion, inversion, or eversion. These data suggest functional performance was affected immediately following and for up to 32 minutes after cold whirlpool treatment. It was also evident that there is a gradual performance increase for each measure of functional performance across time. Therefore, the consequences should be carefully considered before returning athletes to activity following cold whirlpool treatment

  6. The effect of range and ammunition type on fracture patterns in porcine postcranial flat bones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fragkouli, Kleio; Al Hakeem, Eyad; Bulut, Ozgur; Simmons, Tal

    2018-01-01

    Pig half-carcasses were shot in scapulae, ribs and mandibles with either 0.243 hunting rifle using high velocity expanding ammunition (N = 30) or AK47 using full metal jacketed (FMJ) ammunition (N = 12) from a range of either 5 or 20 m. Fracture patterns related to distance of fire and ammunition type were compared on de-fleshed, macerated, and reconstructed bones. For expanding ammunition, location of fracture on ribs affected the resulting pattern. Scapulae shot from 5 m presented a comminuted pattern different from those shot from 20 m. Mandibles shot from 20 m showed a characteristic radiating pattern at entrance with the opposite ramus un-fractured; those shot from 5 m exhibited fractures to both rami. Using decision tree analysis provided accuracies of 93.8% for scapulae and 87.5% for mandibles. For FMJ, no distance dependent fracture differences were apparent in any bone. Decision tree analysis facilitated the interpretation of fracture patterns caused by projectile trauma. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Diversification of the phaseoloid legumes: effects of climate change, range expansion and habit shift.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Honglei; Wang, Wei; Lin, Li; Zhu, Xiangyun; Li, Jianhua; Zhu, Xinyu; Chen, Zhiduan

    2013-01-01

    Understanding which factors have driven the evolutionary success of a group is a fundamental question in biology. Angiosperms are the most successful group in plants and have radiated and adapted to various habitats. Among angiosperms, legumes are a good example for such successful radiation and adaptation. We here investigated how the interplay of past climate changes, geographical expansion and habit shifts has promoted diversification of the phaseoloid legumes, one of the largest clades in the Leguminosae. Using a comprehensive genus-level phylogeny from three plastid markers, we estimate divergence times, infer habit shifts, test the phylogenetic and temporal diversification heterogeneity, and reconstruct ancestral biogeographical ranges. We found that the phaseoloid lineages underwent twice dramatic accumulation. During the Late Oligocene, at least six woody clades rapidly diverged, perhaps in response to the Late Oligocene warming and aridity, and a result of rapidly exploiting new ecological opportunities in Asia, Africa and Australia. The most speciose lineage is herbaceous and began to rapidly diversify since the Early Miocene, which was likely ascribed to arid climates, along with the expansion of seasonally dry tropical forests in Africa, Asia, and America. The phaseoloid group provides an excellent case supporting the idea that the interplay of ecological opportunities and key innovations drives the evolutionary success.

  8. Realization of High Dynamic Range Imaging in the GLORIA Network and Its Effect on Astronomical Measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanislav Vítek

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Citizen science project GLORIA (GLObal Robotic-telescopes Intelligent Array is a first free- and open-access network of robotic telescopes in the world. It provides a web-based environment where users can do research in astronomy by observing with robotic telescopes and/or by analyzing data that other users have acquired with GLORIA or from other free-access databases. Network of 17 telescopes allows users to control selected telescopes in real time or schedule any more demanding observation. This paper deals with new opportunity that GLORIA project provides to teachers and students of various levels of education. At the moment, there are prepared educational materials related to events like Sun eclipse (measuring local atmosphere changes, Aurora Borealis (calculation of Northern Lights height, or transit of Venus (measurement of the Earth-Sun distance. Student should be able to learn principles of CCD imaging, spectral analysis, basic calibration like dark frames subtraction, or advanced methods of noise suppression. Every user of the network can design his own experiment. We propose advanced experiment aimed at obtaining astronomical image data with high dynamic range. We also introduce methods of objective image quality evaluation in order to discover how HDR methods are affecting astronomical measurements.

  9. Evidence for the 'grasshopper' effect and fractionation during long-range atmospheric transport of organic contaminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gouin, T.; Mackay, D.; Jones, K.C.; Harner, T.; Meijer, S.N.

    2004-01-01

    Although there is indisputable evidence that long-range atmospheric transport (LRAT) of organic contaminants occurs on a global scale, uncertainties remain about the detailed mechanism and extent of this phenomenon as well as the physical-chemical properties which facilitate LRAT. In this study, we discuss how mass balance models and monitoring data can contribute to a fuller understanding of the mechanism and extent of LRAT. Specifically we address the issues of 'grasshopping' or 'hopping' (the extent to which molecules are subject to multiple hops as distinct from a single emission-deposition event) and 'global fractionation' (the differing behavior of chemicals as they are transported). It is shown that simple mass balance models can be used to assist the interpretation of monitoring data while also providing an instrument that can be used to assess the LRAT potential and the extent of hopping that organic substances may experience. The available evidence supports the notion that many persistent organic pollutants experience varying degrees of 'hopping' during their environmental journey and as a consequence become fractionated with distance from source. - Evidence for global scale fractionation and hopping of POPs is reviewed

  10. Improving the effectiveness of detailed processing by dynamic control of processing with high sports range

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu.V. Shapoval

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article the possibility of increasing the efficiency of the processing of parts with a diameter of up to 20 mm is analyzed, namely: vibration resistance of the cutting process at pinching due to cutting speed control in the processing, forecasting and selection of rotational frequencies, which ensure the stability of the processing system, controlling the dynamics of the process of displacement of the additional mass. The method of investigation of vibration processes during the sharpening is developed. As a result of the processing of experimental data, it was found that when an oscillatory motion is applied to the spindle rotation, the overall level of oscillation decreases, which is reflected on the quality of the treated surface. The choice of a previously known spindle rotation frequency range at which the lowest value of the oscillation amplitude of the instrument is observed in the radial direction to the detail part, allows you to increase the processing efficiency while maintaining the drawing requirements for roughness by increasing the spindle rotational speed. The combination of the node of the own forms of oscillation and the cutting zone, by dynamically controlling the fluctuations of the lathe armature due to the increase of the inertia characteristics of the machine and the reduction of the oscillation amplitude of the tool, can improve the accuracy of machining and roughness of the processed surface of the component at higher spindle speeds.

  11. Screening variability and change of soil moisture under wide-ranging climate conditions: Snow dynamics effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verrot, Lucile; Destouni, Georgia

    2015-01-01

    Soil moisture influences and is influenced by water, climate, and ecosystem conditions, affecting associated ecosystem services in the landscape. This paper couples snow storage-melting dynamics with an analytical modeling approach to screening basin-scale, long-term soil moisture variability and change in a changing climate. This coupling enables assessment of both spatial differences and temporal changes across a wide range of hydro-climatic conditions. Model application is exemplified for two major Swedish hydrological basins, Norrström and Piteälven. These are located along a steep temperature gradient and have experienced different hydro-climatic changes over the time period of study, 1950-2009. Spatially, average intra-annual variability of soil moisture differs considerably between the basins due to their temperature-related differences in snow dynamics. With regard to temporal change, the long-term average state and intra-annual variability of soil moisture have not changed much, while inter-annual variability has changed considerably in response to hydro-climatic changes experienced so far in each basin.

  12. Diversification of the phaseoloid legumes: Effects of climate change, range expansion and habit shift

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Honglei eLi

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Understanding which factors have driven the evolutionary success of a group is a fundamental question in biology. Angiosperms are the most successful group in plants and have radiated and adapted to various habitats. Among angiosperms, legumes are a good example for such successful radiation and adaptation. We here investigated how the interplay of past climate changes, geographical expansion and habit shifts have promoted diversification of the phaseoloid legumes, one of the largest clades in the Leguminosae. Using a comprehensive genus-level phylogeny from three plastid markers, we estimate divergence times, infer habit shifts, test the phylogenetic and temporal diversification heterogeneity, and reconstruct ancestral biogeographical ranges. We found that the phaseoloid lineages underwent twice dramatic accumulation. During the Late Oligocene, at least six woody clades rapidly diverged, perhaps in response to the Late Oligocene warming and aridity, and a result of rapidly exploiting new ecological opportunities in Asia, Africa and Australia. The most speciose lineage is herbaceous and began to rapidly diversify since the Early Miocene, which was likely ascribed to arid climates, along with the expansion of seasonally dry tropical forests in Africa, Asia and America. The phaseoloid group provides an excellent case supporting the idea that the interplay of ecological opportunities and key innovations drive the evolutionary success.

  13. Effect of long-range interactions on the phase transition of Axelrod's model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reia, Sandro M.; Fontanari, José F.

    2016-11-01

    Axelrod's model with F =2 cultural features, where each feature can assume k states drawn from a Poisson distribution of parameter q , exhibits a continuous nonequilibrium phase transition in the square lattice. Here we use extensive Monte Carlo simulations and finite-size scaling to study the critical behavior of the order parameter ρ , which is the fraction of sites that belong to the largest domain of an absorbing configuration averaged over many runs. We find that it vanishes as ρ ˜(qc0-q )β with β ≈0.25 at the critical point qc0≈3.10 and that the exponent that measures the width of the critical region is ν0≈2.1 . In addition, we find that introduction of long-range links by rewiring the nearest-neighbors links of the square lattice with probability p turns the transition discontinuous, with the critical point qcp increasing from 3.1 to 27.17, approximately, as p increases from 0 to 1. The sharpness of the threshold, as measured by the exponent νp≈1 for p >0 , increases with the square root of the number of nodes of the resulting small-world network.

  14. Combining short- and long-range fluorescence reporters with simulations to explore the intramolecular dynamics of an intrinsically disordered protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zosel, Franziska; Haenni, Dominik; Soranno, Andrea; Nettels, Daniel; Schuler, Benjamin

    2017-10-01

    Intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) are increasingly recognized as a class of molecules that can exert essential biological functions even in the absence of a well-defined three-dimensional structure. Understanding the conformational distributions and dynamics of these highly flexible proteins is thus essential for explaining the molecular mechanisms underlying their function. Single-molecule fluorescence spectroscopy in combination with Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) is a powerful tool for probing intramolecular distances and the rapid long-range distance dynamics in IDPs. To complement the information from FRET, we combine it with photoinduced electron transfer (PET) quenching to monitor local loop-closure kinetics at the same time and in the same molecule. Here we employed this combination to investigate the intrinsically disordered N-terminal domain of HIV-1 integrase. The results show that both long-range dynamics and loop closure kinetics on the sub-microsecond time scale can be obtained reliably from a single set of measurements by the analysis with a comprehensive model of the underlying photon statistics including both FRET and PET. A more detailed molecular interpretation of the results is enabled by direct comparison with a recent extensive atomistic molecular dynamics simulation of integrase. The simulations are in good agreement with experiment and can explain the deviation from simple models of chain dynamics by the formation of persistent local secondary structure. The results illustrate the power of a close combination of single-molecule spectroscopy and simulations for advancing our understanding of the dynamics and detailed mechanisms in unfolded and intrinsically disordered proteins.

  15. Assessment of density-functional approximations: Long-range correlations and self-interaction effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, J.; Alvarellos, J.E.; Garcia-Gonzalez, P.; Godby, R.W.

    2004-01-01

    The complex nature of electron-electron correlations is made manifest in the very simple but nontrivial problem of two electrons confined within a sphere. The description of highly nonlocal correlation and self-interaction effects by widely used local and semilocal exchange-correlation energy density functionals is shown to be unsatisfactory in most cases. Even the best such functionals exhibit significant errors in the Kohn-Sham potentials and density profiles

  16. [Electronic cigarettes - effects on health. Previous reports].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napierała, Marta; Kulza, Maksymilian; Wachowiak, Anna; Jabłecka, Katarzyna; Florek, Ewa

    2014-01-01

    Currently very popular in the market of tobacco products have gained electronic cigarettes (ang. E-cigarettes). These products are considered to be potentially less harmful in compared to traditional tobacco products. However, current reports indicate that the statements of the producers regarding to the composition of the e- liquids not always are sufficient, and consumers often do not have reliable information on the quality of the product used by them. This paper contain a review of previous reports on the composition of e-cigarettes and their impact on health. Most of the observed health effects was related to symptoms of the respiratory tract, mouth, throat, neurological complications and sensory organs. Particularly hazardous effects of the e-cigarettes were: pneumonia, congestive heart failure, confusion, convulsions, hypotension, aspiration pneumonia, face second-degree burns, blindness, chest pain and rapid heartbeat. In the literature there is no information relating to passive exposure by the aerosols released during e-cigarette smoking. Furthermore, the information regarding to the use of these products in the long term are not also available.

  17. Effects of milk intake on forage intake and performance of suckling range calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansotegui, R P; Havstad, K M; Wallace, J D; Hallford, D M

    1991-03-01

    A study to examine the relationships between milk intake, forage intake, and performance of Hereford-Angus suckling range calves was conducted during July, August, and September of 1984 and 1985. Twenty calves were used each year. The study was conducted at the Red Bluff Research Ranch located 56 km west of Bozeman, Montana. Average daily gain, milk intake (MI), forage digestibility, and fecal output (FO) were measured at 28-d intervals, beginning when the average calf age was 66 +/- 4 d. Milk intake was estimated using weigh-suckle-weigh techniques. Total fecal collections were used to measure FO. Forage digestibility and rates of passage were determined using nylon bag in situ techniques and external markers in ruminally cannulated calves of the same age. Fecal output by calves increased as body weight and age increased. Milk intake was higher (P less than .05) in 1985 than in 1984, but FO was higher (P less than .01) in 1984 than in 1985. Fecal output by calves was negatively correlated to MI in July (r = -.62; P less than .05) and August (r = -.56; P less than .05). No significant correlations were detected between MI and ADG (P greater than .10). Forage intake estimates were derived from FO, rate of passage, and in situ digestibility values. During July, calves consumed .3 kg more forage for each kilogram of reduction in fluid MI (P less than .05). In both August and September, calves consumed .6 kg more forage for each kilogram of reduction in fluid MI (P less than .10). Calves maintained similar digestible energy (DE) intake both years, although the source of DE varied.

  18. Effectiveness of massage therapy on the range of motion of the shoulder: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeun, Young-Ran

    2017-02-01

    [Purpose] This study was conducted to identify and analyze the degree of effect of massage therapy on the range of motion of the shoulder. [Subjects and Methods] The database search was conducted using PubMed, CINAHL, Embase, PsycINFO, RISS, NDSL, NANET, DBpia, and KoreaMed. The meta-analysis was based on 7 studies, covered a total of 237 participants, and used a random-effects model. [Results] The effect size estimate showed that massage therapy significantly improved the shoulder range of motion, especially the flexion (SMD: 18.21, 95% CI 1.57-34.85) and abduction (SMD: 22.07, 95% CI 5.84-38.30). [Conclusion] The review findings suggest that massage therapy is effective in improving the shoulder flexion and abduction.

  19. Effects of range-wide variation in climate and isolation on floral traits and reproductive output of Clarkia pulchella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bontrager, Megan; Angert, Amy L

    2016-01-01

    Plant mating systems and geographic range limits are conceptually linked by shared underlying drivers, including landscape-level heterogeneity in climate and in species' abundance. Studies of how geography and climate interact to affect plant traits that influence mating system and population dynamics can lend insight to ecological and evolutionary processes shaping ranges. Here, we examined how spatiotemporal variation in climate affects reproductive output of a mixed-mating annual, Clarkia pulchella. We also tested the effects of population isolation and climate on mating-system-related floral traits across the range. We measured reproductive output and floral traits on herbarium specimens collected across the range of C. pulchella. We extracted climate data associated with specimens and derived a population isolation metric from a species distribution model. We then examined how predictors of reproductive output and floral traits vary among populations of increasing distance from the range center. Finally, we tested whether reproductive output and floral traits vary with increasing distance from the center of the range. Reproductive output decreased as summer precipitation decreased, and low precipitation may contribute to limiting the southern and western range edges of C. pulchella. High spring and summer temperatures are correlated with low herkogamy, but these climatic factors show contrasting spatial patterns in different quadrants of the range. Limiting factors differ among different parts of the range. Due to the partial decoupling of geography and environment, examining relationships between climate, reproductive output, and mating-system-related floral traits reveals spatial patterns that might be missed when focusing solely on geographic position. © 2016 Botanical Society of America.

  20. Effects of gamma radiation in a wide range of doses on the morphological characteristics of Lemna minor L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasskazova, M.M.; Berestina, A.V.

    2011-01-01

    The effects of gamma radiation on the morphological parameters of Lemna minor L. were studied. As the sensitive parameters were invited to use chlorosis and necrosis. Significant differences between samples begin to show after 14 days of observation. The presence of effect, irrespective of the dose in the range 0,1-30 Gy, shows the efficiency of a sufficiently small dose (0,1 Gy) was revealed.

  1. Intelligibility and Clarity of Reverberant Speech: Effects of Wide Dynamic Range Compression Release Time and Working Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhart, Paul N.; Souza, Pamela E.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of varying wide dynamic range compression (WDRC) release time on intelligibility and clarity of reverberant speech. The study also considered the role of individual working memory. Method: Thirty older listeners with mild to moderately-severe sloping sensorineural hearing loss…

  2. Two-nucleon electromagnetic current in chiral effective field theory: One-pion exchange and short-range contributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koelling, S.; Epelbaum, E.; Krebs, H.; Meissner, U.-G.

    2011-01-01

    We derive the leading one-loop contribution to the one-pion exchange and short-range two-nucleon electromagnetic current operator in the framework of chiral effective field theory. The derivation is carried out using the method of unitary transformation. Explicit results for the current and charge densities are given in momentum and coordinate space.

  3. Effect of Jahn-Teller distortion on the short range magnetic order in copper ferrite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdellatif, M.H., E-mail: Mohamed.abdellatif@iit.it [Nanostrctures Department, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, via Morego 30, I-16163 Genova (Italy); Innocenti, Claudia [INSTM—Department of Chemistry, University of Florence, via della Lastruccia 3, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino, FI (Italy); Liakos, Ioannis [Nanostrctures Department, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, via Morego 30, I-16163 Genova (Italy); Scarpellini, Alice; Marras, Sergio [Nanochemistry Department, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, via Morego 30, I-16163 Genova (Italy); Salerno, Marco [Nanostrctures Department, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, via Morego 30, I-16163 Genova (Italy)

    2017-02-15

    Copper ferrite of spinel crystal structure was synthesized in the form of nano-particles using citrate-gel auto-combustion method. The sample morphology and composition were identified using scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and X-ray spectroscopy. The latter technique reveals an inverse spinel structure with Jahn-Teller tetragonal distortion. The static magnetization was measured using vibrating sample magnetometer. Magnetic force microscopy was used in combination with the magnetization data to demonstrate the finite size effect of the magnetic spins and their casting behavior due to the introduction of copper ions in the tetrahedral magnetic sub-lattices, which results in tetragonal distorting the spinel structure of the copper ferrite. The magnetic properties of materials are a result of the collective behavior of the magnetic spins, and magnetic force microscopy can probe the collective behavior of the magnetic spins in copper ferrite, yet providing a sufficient resolution to map the effects below the micrometer size scale, such as the magnetic spin canting. A theoretical study was done to clarify the finite size effect of Jahn-Teller distortion on the magnetic properties of the material. When the particles are in the nano-scale, below the single domain size, their magnetic properties are very sensitive to their size change. - Highlights: • The spin canting due to Jahn-Teller distortion in Copper ferrite can be detected using magnetic force microscope. • The contrast in the magnetic AFM image can be analyzed to give information not only about the surface spins but also about the canting of the core spins inside the aggregated cluster of magnetic nanoparticle.

  4. Direct and preequilibrium effects in the fission-product mass range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruppelaar, H.; Hogenbirk, A.

    1992-07-01

    Until recently inelastic scattering did not gain the proper attention in fission-product cross section evaluations. In many existing evaluations global spherical optical models have been used, neglecting direct and pre-equilibrium effects. There are also few experimental data relevant to inelastic scattering in fission products. This paper is focussed on the anomalously high inelastic scattering cross sections observed in even-mass nuclei near mass A=100 at low energies. Both more data and more refined theoretical analyses are required. A number of suggestions for relevant coupled-channel calculations is made. (author). 29 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

  5. The state of transboundary air pollution 1992 update. Report prepared within the framework of the Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This ninth volume of the series of Air Pollution Studies, published under the auspices of the Executive Body for the Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution, contains documents reviewed and approved for publication at the tenth session of the Executive Body held at Geneva from 17 to 19 November 1992. Part One is the Annual Review of Strategies and Policies for Air Pollution Abatement. It is compiled on the basis of national data and reports received up to 31 December 1992. National emission data and forecasts for sulphur dioxide (SO 2 ), nitrogen oxides (NO x ), volatile organic compounds (VOCs), ammonia (NH 3 ), and carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) from 1980 to the year 2005 is presented. Part Two contains results of scenario analysis for sulphur abatement strategies. It is concluded, inter alia, that strategies can be found which, by differentiating emission reductions, provide greater environmental benefit than a uniform reduction at the same cost. It is also shown that a small number of high-emitting countries in Central Europe have significant impact on deposition of sulphur throughout Europe, and that emission reduction in these countries proves to be a cost-effective way of moving towards critical loads in Europe as a whole. Most of the scenarios analysed are based on reductions of current deposition in relation to critical loads, i.e., a decrease in the exceedances of critical loads. Part Three is an executive summary of the 1992 Report on Forest Condition in Europe, carried out under the International Cooperative Programme for Assessment and Monitoring of Air Pollution Effects on Forests. The full report has been jointly published by ECE and the Commission of the European Communities. It summarizes the results of surveys carried out in 1991 in 28 European countries and in several additional regions, conducted in accordance with common guidelines. Of 214 million hectares of forest in Europe (including major parts of the forests in the western part of the

  6. Underwater sound from vessel traffic reduces the effective communication range in Atlantic cod and haddock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Jenni A; Van Parijs, Sofie M; Hatch, Leila T

    2017-11-07

    Stellwagen Bank National Marine Sanctuary is located in Massachusetts Bay off the densely populated northeast coast of the United States; subsequently, the marine inhabitants of the area are exposed to elevated levels of anthropogenic underwater sound, particularly due to commercial shipping. The current study investigated the alteration of estimated effective communication spaces at three spawning locations for populations of the commercially and ecologically important fishes, Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) and haddock (Melanogrammus aeglefinus). Both the ambient sound pressure levels and the estimated effective vocalization radii, estimated through spherical spreading models, fluctuated dramatically during the three-month recording periods. Increases in sound pressure level appeared to be largely driven by large vessel activity, and accordingly exhibited a significant positive correlation with the number of Automatic Identification System tracked vessels at the two of the three sites. The near constant high levels of low frequency sound and consequential reduction in the communication space observed at these recording sites during times of high vocalization activity raises significant concerns that communication between conspecifics may be compromised during critical biological periods. This study takes the first steps in evaluating these animals' communication spaces and alteration of these spaces due to anthropogenic underwater sound.

  7. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 428: Area 3 Septic Waste Systems 1 and 5 Tonopah Test Range, Nevada; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D. H. Cox

    2001-01-01

    The following site closure activities were performed at the CAU 428 site located at the TTR and are documented in this report: Preplanning and site preparation; Excavating and removing impacted soil; Removing septic tank contents; Closing septic tanks by filling them with clean soil; Collecting verification samples to verify that COCs have been removed to approved levels; Backfilling the excavations to surface grade with clean soil; Disposal of excavated materials following applicable federal, state, and DOE/NV regulations in accordance with Section 2.3 of the CAP (DOE/NV, 2000); and Decontamination of equipment as necessary. Closure was accomplished following the approved CAP (DOE/NV, 2000). Verification sample data demonstrate that all COCs were removed to the remediation standards. Therefore, the site is clean-closed

  8. Modeling and Analysis of Target Echo and Clutter in Range-Dependent Bistatic Environments: FY12 Annual Report for ONR

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-30

    la ti v e L a ti tu d e ( d e g N ) FORA triplet (no cardioid) −0.1 0 0.1 −0.15 −0.1 −0.05 0 0.05 0.1 0.15 d B 40 50 60 70 80 90 100...Relative Longitude (deg E) R e la ti v e L a ti tu d e ( d e g N ) FORA triplet (left and right cardioids) −0.1 0 0.1 −0.15 −0.1 −0.05 0...the Oceans (GEBCO): The GEBCO 08 Grid. Technical report, Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission (IOC) (of UNESCO ) and the

  9. Effect of Free-range Rearing on Meat Composition, Physical Properties and Sensory Evaluation in Taiwan Game Hens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Cheng-Yung; Kuo, Hsiao-Yun; Wan, Tien-Chun

    2014-01-01

    Experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of an outdoor-grazed raising model on meat composition, physical properties and sensory attributes of Taiwan game hens. Six hundred 1-d old female chicks were raised on a floor for 8 weeks. On day 57, 600 healthy birds, with similar body weight, were selected and randomly assigned to three treatment groups (cage, floor-pen and free-range). The results showed that different feeding models had no effect on drip loss, cooking loss, moisture, crude protein, crude fat, crude ash, zinc and calorie contents in breast meat and moisture content in thigh meat. The free-range group had the lowest fat content in both breast and thigh meat, and the lowest calorie content in thigh meat. The firmness and toughness in both thigh and breast of the free-range group were the highest values (pmeat and total collagen content in breast meat of the free-range group were significantly higher than those of the cage-feeding group (pmeat sensory scores of flavor, chewiness and overall acceptability of both thigh and breast meat of the free-range group were significantly (pmeat quality, with higher scores for flavor, chewiness and overall acceptability for greater sensory satisfaction in both breast and thigh meat. In addition, the thigh meat contained high protein and total collage but low fat, offering a healthier diet choice. PMID:25050027

  10. Effects of sample size and sampling frequency on studies of brown bear home ranges and habitat use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arthur, Steve M.; Schwartz, Charles C.

    1999-01-01

    We equipped 9 brown bears (Ursus arctos) on the Kenai Peninsula, Alaska, with collars containing both conventional very-high-frequency (VHF) transmitters and global positioning system (GPS) receivers programmed to determine an animal's position at 5.75-hr intervals. We calculated minimum convex polygon (MCP) and fixed and adaptive kernel home ranges for randomly-selected subsets of the GPS data to examine the effects of sample size on accuracy and precision of home range estimates. We also compared results obtained by weekly aerial radiotracking versus more frequent GPS locations to test for biases in conventional radiotracking data. Home ranges based on the MCP were 20-606 km2 (x = 201) for aerial radiotracking data (n = 12-16 locations/bear) and 116-1,505 km2 (x = 522) for the complete GPS data sets (n = 245-466 locations/bear). Fixed kernel home ranges were 34-955 km2 (x = 224) for radiotracking data and 16-130 km2 (x = 60) for the GPS data. Differences between means for radiotracking and GPS data were due primarily to the larger samples provided by the GPS data. Means did not differ between radiotracking data and equivalent-sized subsets of GPS data (P > 0.10). For the MCP, home range area increased and variability decreased asymptotically with number of locations. For the kernel models, both area and variability decreased with increasing sample size. Simulations suggested that the MCP and kernel models required >60 and >80 locations, respectively, for estimates to be both accurate (change in area bears. Our results suggest that the usefulness of conventional radiotracking data may be limited by potential biases and variability due to small samples. Investigators that use home range estimates in statistical tests should consider the effects of variability of those estimates. Use of GPS-equipped collars can facilitate obtaining larger samples of unbiased data and improve accuracy and precision of home range estimates.

  11. Modeling the effect of climate change to the potential invasion range of Piper aduncum Linnaeus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.C. Paquit

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The potential effect of invasive plant species on biodiversity is one of most important subject of inquiry at present. In many parts of the world, the alarming spread of these plants has been documented. Knowing that climate exerts a dominant control over the distribution of plant species, predictions can therefore be made to determine which areas the species would likely spread under a climate change scenario and that is what this study aims to tackle. In the current study, a total of 211 species occurrence points were used to model the current and projected suitability of Piper aduncum in Bukidnon, Philippines using Maxent. Results revealed that the suitability of the species was determined primarily by climatic factors with Bio 18 (precipitation of the warmest quarter as the strongest influencing variable with a mean percent contribution of 22.1%. The resulting model was highly accurate based on its mean test Area Under Curve that is equal to 0.917. Current prediction shows that suitable areas for Piper are concentrated along the southern portion of Bukidnon. Only 9% of the province is suitable for the species at present but is predicted to increase to 27% because of climate change. The central and southwestern parts of the province are the areas of high threat for invasion by Piper.

  12. Effect of elimination of nitrogen and/or hypoxia or restricted visual environment on color vision and range of accommodation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolbarsht, M. L.; White, C. W.; Anderson, W. B., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    The effects upon range of accommodation and color vision of reduced atmospheric pressure, at partial and complete elimination of nitrogen, of hypoxia, and of exposure for varying periods of time to restricted visual environment, have been studied alone or in various combinations. Measurements were made on the electroretinogram, the electrooculogram, and the diameter of the retinal vessels as an indicator of blood flow to the retina at the time of total elimination of nitrogen. An objective method was used to test range of accommodation. In the color vision test the flicker colors of a Benham's top were matched with a colorimeter.

  13. Magnetorefractive effect in La0.7Ca0.3MnO3 in the infrared spectral range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sukhorukov, Yu. P.; Telegin, A. V.; Granovskii, A. B.; Gan'shina, E. A.; Naumov, S. V.; Kostromitina, N. V.; Elokhina, L. V.; Gonzalez, J.

    2010-01-01

    The reflection and magnetic reflection spectra, magnetic resistance, electrical properties, and equatorial Kerr effect in La 0.7 Ca 0.3 MnO 3 crystals have been complexly investigated. The measurements have been performed in wide temperature and spectral ranges in magnetic fields up to 3.5 kOe. It has been found that magnetic reflection is a high-frequency response in the infrared spectral range to the colossal magnetore-sistance near the Curie temperature. Correlation between the field and temperature dependences of the magnetic reflection and colossal magnetoresistance has been revealed. The previously developed theory of the magnetorefractive effect for metallic systems makes it possible to explain the experimental data at the qualitative level. Both demerits of the theory of the magnetorefractive effect in application to the magnets and possible additional mechanisms responsible for the magnetic reflection are discussed.

  14. The Moessbauer effect data center: A report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevens, J.G.

    1990-01-01

    The Moessbauer Effect Data Center is unique in its operation and the kind of information services that it provides. It is probably the only user-supported information center in the basic sciences. This has been primarily possible due to the broad support and encouragement the center receives from the international Moessbauer community. This report also discusses the demographics of the Moessbauer community: identifying such items as the most active areas of research in Moessbauer Spectroscopy, where is this research being done and who is doing it. Also, examined is where Moessbauer research investigations are being published. BITNET and other forms of electronic mail are being widely used in the scientific community. This is also the case in the Moessbauer community. Directories and list-servers are being established. (orig.)

  15. Compressive effect of the magnetic field on the positron range in commonly used positron emitters simulated using Geant4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chong; Cao, Xingzhong; Liu, Fuyan; Tang, Haohui; Zhang, Zhiming; Wang, Baoyi; Wei, Long

    2017-11-01

    The compressive effect of a magnetic field on the positron range from commonly used positron emitters in PET (Positron Emission Tomography) was simulated using the Geant4 toolkit with H2O as the environmental material. The compression of the positron range, which was different in the directions parallel and perpendicular to the magnetic field, showed finite final variation of relative change rate versus the magnetic field. The variation greatly depended on the positron-emission energy spectrum in the same medium. Furthermore, the volume of the positron annihilation point was dramatically compressed as the magnetic field was set in the range of 3-6T. It was more prominent for 82Rb , which is generally used as a positron source in PET technology.

  16. Monitoring of long range transported pollutants. Annual report for 1997; Overvaaking av langtransportert forurenset luft og nedboer. Atmosfaerisk tilfoersel, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luekewille, A.; Manoe, S.; Toerseth, K

    1998-05-01

    The report includes the 1997 monitoring results from the rural air and precipitation chemistry network in Norway. In 1997, main components in precipitation were measured at 33 sites. Trace elements were determined at 14 sites, air concentrations of sulphur and nitrogen compounds at 13 sites and ozone concentrations at 14 sites. An overview of the measurement programme is given in appendix B2. The highest mean volume weighted concentrations of sulphate, nitrate, ammonium and strong acid in precipitation were found along the southern Norwegian coast. The lowest values were measured in the central and northern parts of Norway. In almost all parts of the country the mean pollutant concentrations in precipitation were generally lower in 1997 compared to 1996. At most places in Norway pollutant deposition was generally the lowest measured so far. The annual mean concentrations of sulphate and strong acid in precipitation have been decreasing since the end of the 1970's. Since 1980 the content of sulphate has decreased by about 40-55% in southern Norway and by about 50-60% in northern Norway. The observed reductions in concentration levels are in agreement with reported downwards trends in pollutant emissions in Europe. There is no significant decrease in nitrogen compounds in precipitation. Sea salts deposited along the western coast was measured. The highest content of particulate sulphate and of nitrogen components in air and precipitation were measured in southern Norway. Due to emissions from nickel smelters in Russia the mean concentrations of sulphur dioxide were highest in Finnmark. The annual mean air concentrations of particulate sulphate have generally decreased by 45 to 60% compared to those measured in 1980. At Ny-Aalesund, annual mean concentrations of sulphur dioxide and sulphate have decreased by 58% and 54%, respectively. Since the late 1970's, the mean concentrations have shown similar developments in all parts of Norway. Due to emission

  17. Monitoring of long range transported pollutants. Annual report for 1997; Overvaaking av langtransportert forurenset luft og nedboer. Atmosfaerisk tilfoersel, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luekewille, A; Manoe, S; Toerseth, K

    1998-05-01

    The report includes the 1997 monitoring results from the rural air and precipitation chemistry network in Norway. In 1997, main components in precipitation were measured at 33 sites. Trace elements were determined at 14 sites, air concentrations of sulphur and nitrogen compounds at 13 sites and ozone concentrations at 14 sites. An overview of the measurement programme is given in appendix B2. The highest mean volume weighted concentrations of sulphate, nitrate, ammonium and strong acid in precipitation were found along the southern Norwegian coast. The lowest values were measured in the central and northern parts of Norway. In almost all parts of the country the mean pollutant concentrations in precipitation were generally lower in 1997 compared to 1996. At most places in Norway pollutant deposition was generally the lowest measured so far. The annual mean concentrations of sulphate and strong acid in precipitation have been decreasing since the end of the 1970's. Since 1980 the content of sulphate has decreased by about 40-55% in southern Norway and by about 50-60% in northern Norway. The observed reductions in concentration levels are in agreement with reported downwards trends in pollutant emissions in Europe. There is no significant decrease in nitrogen compounds in precipitation. Sea salts deposited along the western coast was measured. The highest content of particulate sulphate and of nitrogen components in air and precipitation were measured in southern Norway. Due to emissions from nickel smelters in Russia the mean concentrations of sulphur dioxide were highest in Finnmark. The annual mean air concentrations of particulate sulphate have generally decreased by 45 to 60% compared to those measured in 1980. At Ny-Aalesund, annual mean concentrations of sulphur dioxide and sulphate have decreased by 58% and 54%, respectively. Since the late 1970's, the mean concentrations have shown similar developments in all parts of Norway. Due to emission reductions in

  18. Effect of Free-range Rearing on Meat Composition, Physical Properties and Sensory Evaluation in Taiwan Game Hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Yung Lin

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of an outdoor-grazed raising model on meat composition, physical properties and sensory attributes of Taiwan game hens. Six hundred 1-d old female chicks were raised on a floor for 8 weeks. On day 57, 600 healthy birds, with similar body weight, were selected and randomly assigned to three treatment groups (cage, floor-pen and free-range. The results showed that different feeding models had no effect on drip loss, cooking loss, moisture, crude protein, crude fat, crude ash, zinc and calorie contents in breast meat and moisture content in thigh meat. The free-range group had the lowest fat content in both breast and thigh meat, and the lowest calorie content in thigh meat. The firmness and toughness in both thigh and breast of the free-range group were the highest values (p<0.05. The crude protein, total collagen, zinc and iron contents in thigh meat and total collagen content in breast meat of the free-range group were significantly higher than those of the cage-feeding group (p<0.05. The meat sensory scores of flavor, chewiness and overall acceptability of both thigh and breast meat of the free-range group were significantly (p<0.05 better than those of the other two groups. Moreover, the current findings also indicate that the Taiwan game hens of the free-range feeding model displayed well-received carcass traits and meat quality, with higher scores for flavor, chewiness and overall acceptability for greater sensory satisfaction in both breast and thigh meat. In addition, the thigh meat contained high protein and total collage but low fat, offering a healthier diet choice.

  19. The uptake and effects of lead on small mammals and frogs at a trap and skeet range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stansley, W.; Roscoe, D.E. [New Jersey Division of Fish, Game and Wildlife, Trenton, NJ (United States)

    1995-12-31

    This study was performed to evaluate the bioavailability and effects of lead in wildlife at a trap and skeet range. The total lead concentration in a composite soil sample (pellets removed) was 75,000 {micro}g/g dry weight. Mean tissue lead concentrations ({micro}g/g dry wt.) in while footed mice at the range (liver = 4.98, kidney = 34.9, femur = 245) were elevated (P < 0.01) 5 to 64-fold relative to concentrations in mice from a control area. Tissue lead concentrations in the only short tail shrew captured at the range (liver = 34.1, kidney = 1506, femur = 437) were elevated 35 to 1,038-fold. Femur lead concentrations in green frogs at the range (1,728 {micro}g/g) were elevated nearly 1,000-fold, and the lead concentration in a pooled kidney sample (96.2 {micro}g/g) was elevated 67-fold. There was significant depression of blood ALAD activity in mice (P = 0.0384) and depression of blood and liver ALAD activity in frogs (P<0.001). Hemoglobin concentrations were reduced 6.7% in mice (P = 0.0249), but hematocrit was not significantly affected in mice or frogs. Kidney:body weight ratios were similar in range and control mice. Intranuclear inclusions were present in the renal proximal tubular epithelium of two of the mice and the shrew that were captured at the range, and necrosis of the tubular epithelium was also evident in one of the mice, Soil ingestion may be a significant route of lead uptake in small mammals at the range. However, the tendency of lead to concentrate in the bones rather than in more digestible soft tissues may minimize food chain uptake of lead by predators, especially raptors that regurgitate undigestible material.

  20. Underwater Ranging

    OpenAIRE

    S. P. Gaba

    1984-01-01

    The paper deals with underwater laser ranging system, its principle of operation and maximum depth capability. The sources of external noise and methods to improve signal-to-noise ratio are also discussed.

  1. Effective atomic number and effective electron densities of some inorganic compounds for Compton effect in the gamma energy range 280 keV to 1115 keV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prasannakumar, S.; Umesh, T.K.

    2014-01-01

    The effective atomic number and effective electron densities of some inorganic compounds for Compton effect in the gamma energy range 280 keV to 1115 keV by using Compton scattering cross sections which are determined on a goniometer assembly. An ORTEC model 23210 gamma-x high purity germanium detector (HpGe) has been used to record the data along with a personal computer based MCA in the angular region 50°-110°. The effective atomic numbers so obtained were found to be equal to the total number of electrons present in the sample in accordance with the chemical formula. The results so obtained are of first of their kind at these energies and are expected to be important in a variety of applications of radiation physics and chemistry. (author)

  2. Effect of production system (barn and free range) and slaughter age on some production traits of guinea fowl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamak, U S; Sarica, M; Boz, M A; Ucar, A

    2018-01-01

    A total of 200 guinea fowl was reared in either barn or free-range systems and slaughtered at 14, 16, or 18 wk of age in order to determine the effects of production system on live weight, feed consumption, and some carcass and slaughter traits. Production system had a significant effect on live weight until 14 wk of age. Live weights were similar between free-range and indoor production systems at 16 (1,150 g vs. 1,152 g) and 18 (1,196 g vs. 1,203 g) wk of age. Guinea fowl reared in a free-range system consumed more feed (7,693 g vs. 6,983 g), and guinea fowl reared in a barn had better feed conversion ratio (5.80 vs. 6.43) (P free-range system had significantly less abdominal fat (P < 0.05). © 2017 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  3. LDRD report: Smoke effects on electrical equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    TANAKA, TINA J.; BAYNES, EDWARD E. JR.; NOWLEN, STEVEN P.; BROCKMANN, JOHN E.; GRITZO, LOUIS A.; SHADDIX, Christopher R.

    2000-01-01

    Smoke is known to cause electrical equipment failure, but the likelihood of immediate failure during a fire is unknown. Traditional failure assessment techniques measure the density of ionic contaminants deposited on surfaces to determine the need for cleaning or replacement of electronic equipment exposed to smoke. Such techniques focus on long-term effects, such as corrosion, but do not address the immediate effects of the fire. This document reports the results of tests on the immediate effects of smoke on electronic equipment. Various circuits and components were exposed to smoke from different fields in a static smoke exposure chamber and were monitored throughout the exposure. Electrically, the loss of insulation resistance was the most important change caused by smoke. For direct current circuits, soot collected on high-voltage surfaces sometimes formed semi-conductive soot bridges that shorted the circuit. For high voltage alternating current circuits, the smoke also tended to increase the likelihood of arcing, but did not accumulate on the surfaces. Static random access memory chips failed for high levels of smoke, but hard disk drives did not. High humidity increased the conductive properties of the smoke. The conductivity does not increase linearly with smoke density as first proposed; however, it does increase with quantity. The data can be used to give a rough estimate of the amount of smoke that will cause failures in CMOS memory chips, dc and ac circuits. Comparisons of this data to other fire tests can be made through the optical and mass density measurements of the smoke

  4. The effectiveness of an educational programme on occupational disease reporting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits, P. B. A.; de Boer, A. G. E. M.; Kuijer, P. P. F. M.; Braam, I.; Spreeuwers, D.; Lenderink, A. F.; Verbeek, J. H. A. M.; van Dijk, F. J. H.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Occupational diseases are under reported. Targeted education of occupational physicians (OPs) may improve their rate of reporting occupational diseases. Aim: To study the effectiveness of an active multifaceted workshop aimed at improving OPs' reporting of occupational diseases. Methods:

  5. A study on the ranges of low energy ions in biological samples and its mechanism of biological effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Ting; Xie Liqing; Li Junping; Xia Ji

    1993-01-01

    The seeds of wheat and bean are irradiated by iron ion beam with energy 100 keV. The RBS spectra of the samples are observed and the ranges and distributions of the iron ions in the wheat and bean are calculated theoretically by means of Monte Carlo method. The results of theory and experiment are compared and the mechanism of biological effects induced by ion is discussed

  6. DWBA (d,N) Calculations Including Dirac Phenomenological Potentials and an Exact Treatment of Finite-range Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawk, Eric

    2005-04-01

    An algorithm for the inclusion of both Dirac phenomenological potentials and an exact treatment of finite-range effects within the DWBA is presented. The numerical implementation of this algorithm is used to calculate low-energy deuteron stripping cross sections, analyzing powers, and polarizations. These calculations are compared with experimental data where available. The impact of using several commonly employed nuclear potentials (Reid soft-core, Bonn, Argonne v18) for the internal deuteron wave function is also examined.

  7. Effects of physical exercise on articular range of motion of the lower limb in the Parkinson's disease individuals

    OpenAIRE

    Barbieri, Fabio Augusto; Batistela, Rosangela Alice; Rinaldi, Natália Madalena; Teixeira-Arroyo, Claudia; Stella, Florindo; Gobbi, Lilian Teresa Bucken

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of eight months of a multimodal program of physical exercise on articular range of motion of the lower limb of patients with Parkinson disease (PD), considering gender and disease stage. Seventeen individuals with PD participated in this study. Participants were assessed before of multimodal program of the physical exercise and after four and eight months of physical exercise. In these periods were evaluated the clinical aspects and articula...

  8. Indirect Effects on Heathland Conservation and Wolf Persistence of Contradictory Policies that Threaten Traditional Free-Ranging Horse Husbandry

    OpenAIRE

    López-Bao, José V.; Sazatorníl, V.; LLaneza, Luis; Rodríguez, Alejandro

    2013-01-01

    Conservation agencies within the European Union promote the restoration of traditional land uses as a cost-effective way to preserve biodiversity outside reserves. Although the European Union pursues the integration of the environment into strategic decision-making, it also dictates sectoral policies that may damage farmland biodiversity. We illustrate this point by outlining the socioeconomic factors that allow the persistence of traditional free-ranging horse husbandry in Galicia, northwest...

  9. Electron irradiation effect on short-range ordering in Cu-Al and Ag-Al alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulish, N.P.; Mel'nikova, N.A.; Petrenko, P.V.; Ryabishchuk, A.L.; Tatarov, A.A.

    1990-01-01

    Method of X-ray diffuse scattering is used to study short-range order variation in Cu-Al and Ag-Al alloys under radiation effect and the following heat treatment. Irradiation was carried out at -40 deg C by 1.6 MeV electrons, fluence of 5x10 7 cm -2 and 0.5 MeV gamma-rays, the dose being 10 7 pH

  10. The influence of interlayer exchange coupling in giant-magnetoresistive devices on spin diode effect in wide frequency range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ziętek, Sławomir, E-mail: zietek@agh.edu.pl; Skowroński, Witold; Wiśniowski, Piotr; Czapkiewicz, Maciej; Stobiecki, Tomasz [Department of Electronics, AGH University of Science and Technology, Al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Kraków (Poland); Ogrodnik, Piotr [Department of Electronics, AGH University of Science and Technology, Al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Kraków (Poland); Faculty of Physics, Warsaw University of Technology, ul. Koszykowa 75, 00-662 Warszawa (Poland); Institute of Molecular Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, ul. Smoluchowskiego 17, 60-179 Poznań (Poland); Barnaś, Józef [Institute of Molecular Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, ul. Smoluchowskiego 17, 60-179 Poznań (Poland); Faculty of Physics, Adam Mickiewicz University, ul. Umultowska 85, 61-614 Poznań (Poland)

    2015-09-21

    Spin diode effect in a giant magnetoresistive strip is measured in a broad frequency range, including resonance and off-resonance frequencies. The off-resonance dc signal is relatively strong and also significantly dependent on the exchange coupling between magnetic films through the spacer layer. The measured dc signal is described theoretically by taking into account magnetic dynamics induced by Oersted field created by an ac current flowing through the system.

  11. A revised geographical range for Liolaemus elongates Koslowsky, 1896 (Squamata: Liolaemini in Argentina: review of reported and new-data based distribution with new localities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio Minoli

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Estimating the effective geographical ranges of species is central to species-oriented conservation and management. In this paper, we review the geographical distribution of Liolaemus elongatus Koslowsky, 1896 with three new records for northern Chubut and southern Río Negro provinces, Argentina. Based on detailed locality records pooled from multiple data sources, including new records obtained for this study, we revise the range of L. elongatus sensu stricto and provide geographical distribution maps comparing the previously recognized range to that proposed herein. Our results show that L. elongatus possesses a much more limited geographic distribution than previously thought, being restricted to areas south of 38°S latitude; the newly proposed range is merely half the species formerly recognized geographical distribution.

  12. The state of transboundary air pollution. Report prepared within the framework of the Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    This twelfth volume of the series of Air Pollution Studies, published under the auspices of the Executive Body for the Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution, contains the documents reviewed and approved for publication at the thirteenth session of the Executive Body held at Geneva from 28 November to 1 December 1995. Part One is the Annual Review of Strategies and Policies for Air Pollution Abatement. Part Two is an executive summary of the 1994 Report on the Forest Condition in Europe. The main objective of this report is to give a condensed description of the condition of forests in Europe, as it has been assessed by the transnational and national annual surveys, carried out jointly by ECE under the Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution and by the European Community (EC). Part Three is a summary report on the development of a library of default values for each of the input variables to the simple mass balance equation for the calculation of critical loads of nitrogen and for a range of ecosystems. Part Four presents the modelling results of European sulphur and nitrogen emissions, depositions for 1980 and 1993, and export/import budgets

  13. Effective oscillator strength distributions of spherically symmetric atoms for calculating polarizabilities and long-range atom–atom interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Jun, E-mail: phyjiang@yeah.net [Key Laboratory of Atomic and Molecular Physics and Functional Materials of Gansu Province, College of Physics and Electronic Engineering, Northwest Normal University, Lanzhou 730070 (China); School of Engineering, Charles Darwin University, Darwin, Northern Territory, 0909 (Australia); Mitroy, J. [School of Engineering, Charles Darwin University, Darwin, Northern Territory, 0909 (Australia); Cheng, Yongjun, E-mail: cyj83mail@gmail.com [School of Engineering, Charles Darwin University, Darwin, Northern Territory, 0909 (Australia); Academy of Fundamental and Interdisciplinary Science, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150080 (China); Bromley, M.W.J., E-mail: brom@physics.uq.edu.au [School of Mathematics and Physics, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Queensland 4075 (Australia)

    2015-01-15

    Effective oscillator strength distributions are systematically generated and tabulated for the alkali atoms, the alkaline-earth atoms, the alkaline-earth ions, the rare gases and some miscellaneous atoms. These effective distributions are used to compute the dipole, quadrupole and octupole static polarizabilities, and are then applied to the calculation of the dynamic polarizabilities at imaginary frequencies. These polarizabilities can be used to determine the long-range C{sub 6}, C{sub 8} and C{sub 10} atom–atom interactions for the dimers formed from any of these atoms and ions, and we present tables covering all of these combinations.

  14. Effective oscillator strength distributions of spherically symmetric atoms for calculating polarizabilities and long-range atom–atom interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, Jun; Mitroy, J.; Cheng, Yongjun; Bromley, M.W.J.

    2015-01-01

    Effective oscillator strength distributions are systematically generated and tabulated for the alkali atoms, the alkaline-earth atoms, the alkaline-earth ions, the rare gases and some miscellaneous atoms. These effective distributions are used to compute the dipole, quadrupole and octupole static polarizabilities, and are then applied to the calculation of the dynamic polarizabilities at imaginary frequencies. These polarizabilities can be used to determine the long-range C 6 , C 8 and C 10 atom–atom interactions for the dimers formed from any of these atoms and ions, and we present tables covering all of these combinations

  15. Prediction of rain effects on earth-space communication links operating in the 10 to 35 GHz frequency range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stutzman, Warren L.

    1989-01-01

    This paper reviews the effects of precipitation on earth-space communication links operating the 10 to 35 GHz frequency range. Emphasis is on the quantitative prediction of rain attenuation and depolarization. Discussions center on the models developed at Virginia Tech. Comments on other models are included as well as literature references to key works. Also included is the system level modeling for dual polarized communication systems with techniques for calculating antenna and propagation medium effects. Simple models for the calculation of average annual attenuation and cross-polarization discrimination (XPD) are presented. Calculation of worst month statistics are also presented.

  16. Thermal effects of an ICL-based mid-infrared CH4 sensor within a wide atmospheric temperature range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Weilin; Zheng, Chuantao; Sanchez, Nancy P.; Girija, Aswathy V.; He, Qixin; Zheng, Huadan; Griffin, Robert J.; Tittel, Frank K.

    2018-03-01

    The thermal effects of an interband cascade laser (ICL) based mid-infrared methane (CH4) sensor that uses long-path absorption spectroscopy were studied. The sensor performance in the laboratory at a constant temperature of ∼25 °C was measured for 5 h and its Allan deviation was ∼2 ppbv with a 1 s averaging time. A LabVIEW-based simulation program was developed to study thermal effects on infrared absorption and a temperature compensation technique was developed to minimize these effects. An environmental test chamber was employed to investigate the thermal effects that occur in the sensor system with variation of the test chamber temperature between 10 and 30 °C. The thermal response of the sensor in a laboratory setting was observed using a 2.1 ppm CH4 standard gas sample. Indoor/outdoor CH4 measurements were conducted to evaluate the sensor performance within a wide atmospheric temperature range.

  17. Cooling rate and size effects on the medium-range structure of multicomponent oxide glasses simulated by molecular dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tilocca, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    A set of molecular dynamics simulations were performed to investigate the effect of cooling rate and system size on the medium-range structure of melt-derived multicomponent silicate glasses, represented by the quaternary 45S5 Bioglass composition. Given the significant impact of the glass degradation on applications of these materials in biomedicine and nuclear waste disposal, bulk structural features which directly affect the glass dissolution process are of particular interest. Connectivity of the silicate matrix, ion clustering and nanosegregation, distribution of ring and chain structural patterns represent critical features in this context, which can be directly extracted from the models. A key issue is represented by the effect of the computational approach on the corresponding glass models, especially in light of recent indications questioning the suitability of conventional MD approaches (that is, involving melt-and-quench of systems containing ∼10 3 atoms at cooling rates of 5-10 K/ps) when applied to model these glasses. The analysis presented here compares MD models obtained with conventional and nonconventional cooling rates and system sizes, highlighting the trend and range of convergence of specific structural features in the medium range. The present results show that time-consuming computational approaches involving much lower cooling rates and/or significantly larger system sizes are in most cases not necessary in order to obtain a reliable description of the medium-range structure of multicomponent glasses. We identify the convergence range for specific properties and use them to discuss models of several glass compositions for which a possible influence of cooling-rate or size effects had been previously hypothesized. The trends highlighted here represent an important reference to obtain reliable models of multicomponent glasses and extract converged medium-range structural features which affect the glass degradation and thus their application

  18. Cooling rate and size effects on the medium-range structure of multicomponent oxide glasses simulated by molecular dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tilocca, Antonio [Department of Chemistry, University College London, 20 Gordon Street, London WC1H 0AJ (United Kingdom)

    2013-09-21

    A set of molecular dynamics simulations were performed to investigate the effect of cooling rate and system size on the medium-range structure of melt-derived multicomponent silicate glasses, represented by the quaternary 45S5 Bioglass composition. Given the significant impact of the glass degradation on applications of these materials in biomedicine and nuclear waste disposal, bulk structural features which directly affect the glass dissolution process are of particular interest. Connectivity of the silicate matrix, ion clustering and nanosegregation, distribution of ring and chain structural patterns represent critical features in this context, which can be directly extracted from the models. A key issue is represented by the effect of the computational approach on the corresponding glass models, especially in light of recent indications questioning the suitability of conventional MD approaches (that is, involving melt-and-quench of systems containing ∼10{sup 3} atoms at cooling rates of 5-10 K/ps) when applied to model these glasses. The analysis presented here compares MD models obtained with conventional and nonconventional cooling rates and system sizes, highlighting the trend and range of convergence of specific structural features in the medium range. The present results show that time-consuming computational approaches involving much lower cooling rates and/or significantly larger system sizes are in most cases not necessary in order to obtain a reliable description of the medium-range structure of multicomponent glasses. We identify the convergence range for specific properties and use them to discuss models of several glass compositions for which a possible influence of cooling-rate or size effects had been previously hypothesized. The trends highlighted here represent an important reference to obtain reliable models of multicomponent glasses and extract converged medium-range structural features which affect the glass degradation and thus their

  19. Effects of age and health on the euthyroid reference ranges for serum free thyroxine and free triiodothyronine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Midgley, J.E.M.

    1985-01-01

    Age-related trends in serum free thyroxine (FT 4 ) and free triiodothyronine (FT 3 ) concentrations were measured in 7248 euthyroid subjects (age-range 3 months to 106 years). 5700 were patients referred to hospitals for investigation of suspected thyroid dysfunction, but who were diagnosed euthyroid. 1548 were healthy blood donors (age-range 18-63 years) with no indication of thyroid dysfunction. FT 4 concentrations were little affected by the age, the sex or the state of health of the subjects in either group. Serum FT 3 concentrations were significantly affected by both age and health factors. The upper limit of the euthyroid reference range for young subjects up to 15 years was about 20% higher (10.4 pmol/l) than for adult subjects older than 25 years (8.8 pmol/l). The change in the upper limits typical of young subjects to that typical of adults occurred steadily over the decade 15-25 years. After this age, little further change occurred, especially in healthy subjects. Additionally, the lower limit of the euthyroid range for FT 3 was extended by the inclusion in the reference group of patients referred to hospitals. Compared with the lower limit of the FT 3 range for healthy subjects (5 pmol/l), the corresponding limit for referred subjects (young or adult) was 3.5-3.8 pmol/l. Broadening of the FT 3 reference range was probably brought about by a significant number of patients in the hospital-referred group with the 'low-T 3 syndrome' of mild non-thyroidal illness. Accordingly, FT 3 was inferior to FT 4 in the discrimination of hypothyroidism, as FT 4 was unaffected by this phenomenon. Effects of age and non-thyroidal illness on serum FT 3 concentrations require great care when selecting subjects for a laboratory euthyroid reference range typical of the routine workload. Constraints on the choice of subjects for FT 4 reference ranges are less stringent. (orig.) [de

  20. The effect of tax reporting in financial reporting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shqipe Xhaferri

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the importance of building financial statements and their compliance with the activities by running an entity, primarily for micro units. Main objective of this paper is to present the necessity of the implementation of legal frameworks in the field of accounting and the application of accounting standards for financial reporting. National Accounting Standards are significant factors to increase the quality of financial information, bringing new technologies, increased competition and culture of service etc. National Accounting Standards help in the sustainable economic development of the country and integration into the EU. This paper analyzes a series of articles in the field of research in the field of accounting. This paper presents the theoretical and practical aspects of a company’s long-term assets, treating the amortization calculated according to accounting standards. An important point is the appearance of these items in the balance sheet. According to the empirical viewpoint, various studies give different results. Also, the entities as a primary source of economic development are part of this paper. The application of accounting standards began in Albania on 1 January 2009. From these date all the units are obliged to draw up financial statements according to national and international standards of accounting. Actually nowadays (starting from the fiscal year 2014 the submission of balance sheet is made electronically.

  1. Suppression of the Nonlinear Zeeman Effect and Heading Error in Earth-Field-Range Alkali-Vapor Magnetometers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Guzhi; Wickenbrock, Arne; Rochester, Simon; Zhang, Weiping; Budker, Dmitry

    2018-01-19

    The nonlinear Zeeman effect can induce splitting and asymmetries of magnetic-resonance lines in the geophysical magnetic-field range. This is a major source of "heading error" for scalar atomic magnetometers. We demonstrate a method to suppress the nonlinear Zeeman effect and heading error based on spin locking. In an all-optical synchronously pumped magnetometer with separate pump and probe beams, we apply a radio-frequency field which is in phase with the precessing magnetization. This results in the collapse of the multicomponent asymmetric magnetic-resonance line with ∼100  Hz width in the Earth-field range into a single peak with a width of 22 Hz, whose position is largely independent of the orientation of the sensor within a range of orientation angles. The technique is expected to be broadly applicable in practical magnetometry, potentially boosting the sensitivity and accuracy of Earth-surveying magnetometers by increasing the magnetic-resonance amplitude, decreasing its width, and removing the important and limiting heading-error systematic.

  2. Suppression of the Nonlinear Zeeman Effect and Heading Error in Earth-Field-Range Alkali-Vapor Magnetometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Guzhi; Wickenbrock, Arne; Rochester, Simon; Zhang, Weiping; Budker, Dmitry

    2018-01-01

    The nonlinear Zeeman effect can induce splitting and asymmetries of magnetic-resonance lines in the geophysical magnetic-field range. This is a major source of "heading error" for scalar atomic magnetometers. We demonstrate a method to suppress the nonlinear Zeeman effect and heading error based on spin locking. In an all-optical synchronously pumped magnetometer with separate pump and probe beams, we apply a radio-frequency field which is in phase with the precessing magnetization. This results in the collapse of the multicomponent asymmetric magnetic-resonance line with ˜100 Hz width in the Earth-field range into a single peak with a width of 22 Hz, whose position is largely independent of the orientation of the sensor within a range of orientation angles. The technique is expected to be broadly applicable in practical magnetometry, potentially boosting the sensitivity and accuracy of Earth-surveying magnetometers by increasing the magnetic-resonance amplitude, decreasing its width, and removing the important and limiting heading-error systematic.

  3. First-principles supercell calculations of small polarons with proper account for long-range polarization effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokott, Sebastian; Levchenko, Sergey V.; Rinke, Patrick; Scheffler, Matthias

    2018-03-01

    We present a density functional theory (DFT) based supercell approach for modeling small polarons with proper account for the long-range elastic response of the material. Our analysis of the supercell dependence of the polaron properties (e.g., atomic structure, binding energy, and the polaron level) reveals long-range electrostatic effects and the electron–phonon (el–ph) interaction as the two main contributors. We develop a correction scheme for DFT polaron calculations that significantly reduces the dependence of polaron properties on the DFT exchange-correlation functional and the size of the supercell in the limit of strong el–ph coupling. Using our correction approach, we present accurate all-electron full-potential DFT results for small polarons in rocksalt MgO and rutile TiO2.

  4. Effect Of Platooning on Fuel Consumption of Class 8 Vehicles Over a Range of Speeds, Following Distances, and Mass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lammert, M. P.; Duran, A.; Diez, J.; Burton, K.; Nicholson, A.

    2014-10-01

    This research project evaluates fuel consumption results of two Class 8 tractor-trailer combinations platooned together compared to their standalone fuel consumption. A series of ten modified SAE Type II J1321 fuel consumption track tests were performed to document fuel consumption of two platooned vehicles and a control vehicle at varying steady-state speeds, following distances, and gross vehicle weights (GVWs). The steady-state speeds ranged from 55 mph to 70 mph, the following distances ranged from a 20-ft following distance to a 75-ft following distance, and the GVWs were 65K lbs and 80K lbs. All tractors involved had U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) SmartWay-compliant aerodynamics packages installed, and the trailers were equipped with side skirts. Effects of vehicle speed, following distance, and GVW on fuel consumption were observed and analyzed. The platooning demonstration system used in this study consisted of radar systems, Dedicated Short-Range Communication (DSRC) vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) communications, vehicle braking and torque control interface, cameras and driver displays. The lead tractor consistently demonstrated an improvement in average fuel consumption reduction as following distance decreased, with results showing 2.7% to 5.3% fuel savings at a GVW of 65k. The trailing vehicle achieved fuel consumption savings ranging from 2.8% to 9.7%; tests during which the engine cooling fan did not operate achieved savings of 8.4% to 9.7%. 'Team' fuel savings, considering the platooned vehicles as one, ranged from 3.7% to 6.4%, with the best combined result being for 55 mph, 30-ft following distance, and 65k GVW.

  5. Effect of decimeter range waves in combination with drug electroaerosols on immunoinflammatory processes during chronic nonspecific lung diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ayrapetova, N.S.; Tkachenko, A.F.

    An attempt was made to optimize the therapy of chronic nonspecific pulmonary diseases using a combination of decimeter range waves (DRW) and broncholytic electroaerosols. The electroaerosols penetrate rapidly deep into the lungs up to the aveoli, combining the action of an electric charge with the pharmaceutical effect. In all, 232 patients were studied (94.8% with chronic bronchitis, 5.2% with chronic pneumonia) manifesting an active inflammatory process, disturbance of the immune status and diminished glucocorticoid activity. After 15 procedures of combined therapy, 88.5% of the patients showed improvement in their clinical status; 65.4% of the control group (receiving only the electroaerosol) also showed improvement. In this combined therapy, the antiinflammatory and immunosuppressive effect were achieved due to the action of DRW; the electroaerosols had a positive effect on the function state of the cardiorespiratory system. 11 references.

  6. Post-Closure Inspection Report for Corrective Action Unit 453: Area 9 UXO Landfill Tonopah Test Range, Nevada, Calendar Year 2000; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    K. B. Campbell

    2001-01-01

    Post-closure monitoring requirements for the Area 9 Unexploded Ordnance Landfill (Corrective Action Unit[CAU] 453) (Figure 1) are described in Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 453: Area 9 UXO Landfill, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada, report number DOE/NV-284. The Closure Report (CR) was submitted to the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP) on August 5,1999. The CR (containing the Post-Closure Monitoring Plan) was approved by the NDEP on September 10,1999. Post-closure monitoring at CAU 453 consists of the following: (1) Site inspections done twice a year to evaluate the condition of the unit; (2) Verification that the site is secure; (3) Notice of any subsidence or deficiencies that may compromise the integrity of the unit; (4) Remedy of any deficiencies within 90 days of discovery; and (5) Preparation and submittal of an annual report. Site inspections were conducted on June 20, 2000 and November 21, 2000. Both site inspections were conducted after NDEP approval of the CR, and in accordance with the Post-Closure Monitoring Plan in the NDEP-approved CR. This report includes copies of the inspection checklists, photographs, recommendations, and conclusions. The Post-Closure Inspection Checklists are found in Attachment A, a copy of the field notes is found in Attachment B, and inspection photographs are found in Attachment C

  7. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 415: Project 57 No. 1 Plutonium Dispersion (NTTR) Nevada Test and Training Range, Nevada, Revision 0 with ROTC-1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sloop, Christina

    2017-12-01

    This Closure Report (CR) presents information supporting the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 415: Project 57 No. 1 Plutonium Dispersion, which is located on Range 4808A of the Nevada Test and Training Range (NTTR). This CR complies with the requirements of the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) that was agreed to by the State of Nevada; U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Environmental Management; U.S. Department of Defense; and DOE, Legacy Management. CAU 415 comprises one corrective action site (CAS): NAFR-23-02, Pu Contaminated Soil. The purpose of this CR is to provide justification and documentation supporting the recommendation that no further corrective action is needed for CAU 415 based on the implementation of the corrective action of Closure in Place.

  8. Effects of chiral three-nucleon forces on 4He-nucleus scattering in a wide range of incident energies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyokawa, Masakazu; Yahiro, Masanobu; Matsumoto, Takuma; Kohno, Michio

    2018-02-01

    An important current subject is to clarify the properties of chiral three-nucleon forces (3NFs) not only in nuclear matter but also in scattering between finite-size nuclei. Particularly for elastic scattering, this study has just started and the properties are not understood for a wide range of incident energies (E_in). We investigate basic properties of chiral 3NFs in nuclear matter with positive energies by using the Brueckner-Hartree-Fock method with chiral two-nucleon forces at N3LO and 3NFs at NNLO, and analyze the effects of chiral 3NFs on 4He elastic scattering from targets ^{208}Pb, ^{58}Ni, and ^{40}Ca over a wide range of 30 ≲ E_in/A_P ≲ 200 MeV by using the g-matrix folding model, where A_P is the mass number of the projectile. In symmetric nuclear matter with positive energies, chiral 3NFs make the single-particle potential less attractive and more absorptive. The effects mainly come from the Fujita-Miyazawa 2π-exchange 3NF and become slightly larger as E_in increases. These effects persist in the optical potentials of 4He scattering. As for the differential cross sections of 4He scattering, chiral-3NF effects are large for E_in/A_P ≳ 60 MeV and improve the agreement of the theoretical results with the measured ones. Particularly for E_in/A_P ≳ 100 MeV, the folding model reproduces measured differential cross sections pretty well. Cutoff (Λ) dependence is investigated for both nuclear matter and 4He scattering by considering two cases of Λ=450 and 550 MeV. The uncertainty coming from the dependence is smaller than chiral-3NF effects even at E_in/A_P=175 MeV.

  9. Lung and chest wall impedances in the dog in normal range of breathing: effects of pulmonary edema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnas, G M; Stamenović, D; Lutchen, K R

    1992-09-01

    We evaluated the effect of pulmonary edema on the frequency (f) and tidal volume (VT) dependences of respiratory system mechanical properties in the normal ranges of breathing. We measured resistance and elastance of the lungs (RL and EL) and chest wall of four anesthetized-paralyzed dogs during sinusoidal volume oscillations at the trachea (50-300 ml, 0.2-2 Hz), delivered at a constant mean airway pressure. Measurements were made before and after severe pulmonary edema was produced by injection of 0.06 ml/kg oleic acid into the right atrium. Chest wall properties were not changed by the injection. Before oleic acid, EL increased slightly with increasing f in each dog but was independent of VT. RL decreased slightly and was independent of VT from 0.2 to 0.4 Hz, but above 0.4 Hz it tended to increase with increasing flow, presumably due to the airway contribution. After oleic acid injection, EL and RL increased greatly. Large negative dependences of EL on VT and of RL on f were also evident, so that EL and RL after oleic acid changed two- and fivefold, respectively, within the ranges of f and VT studied. We conclude that severe pulmonary edema changes lung properties so as to make behavior VT dependent (i.e., nonlinear) and very frequency dependent in the normal range of breathing.

  10. Effect of short-range ordering on the electrical conductivity and superconducting properties of Nb6C5 single crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Utkina, T.G.

    1995-01-01

    Niobium carbide, NbC x , belongs to the family of so called interstital phases. Metal atoms form a face-centered cubic lattice, whose octahedral interstices are occupied by carbon atoms. The fraction (1 - x) of interstices remain vacant, and this determines the nonstoichiometry of these phases: most of them are characterized by a wide homogeneity range, 0.70 m ≅ 3308 - 3886 K). In contrast, the metalloid atoms exhibit high mobility at relatively low temperatures. For compositions close to Nb 6 C 5 (0.81 O-D ≅ 1300 K. The presence of vacancies in the carbon sublattice considerably affects the physical properties of carbides, which depend not only on total vacancy concentration but also on their distribution, i.e., on the degree of ordering (both short-range and long-range order) in the metalloid sublattice. The purpose of this work is to study the effects of such ordering on the superconducting properties of Nb 6 C 5 single crystals

  11. Regional Operations Research Program for Commercialization of Geothermal Energy in the Rocky Mountain Basin and Range. Final Technical Report, January 1980--March 1981

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1981-07-01

    This report describes the work accomplished from January 1980 to March 1981 in the Regional Operations Research efforts for the Rocky Mountain Basin and Range Geothermal Commercialization Program. The scope of work is as described in New Mexico State University Proposal 80-20-207. The work included continued data acquisition and extension of the data base, enhancement and refinement of the economic models for electric and direct use applications, site-specific and aggregated analyses in support of the state teams, special analyses in support of several federal agencies, and marketing assistance to the state commercialization teams.

  12. First report of a multidrug-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae of sequence type 11 causing sepsis in a free-ranging beaver (Castor fiber).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilo, Paola; Vogt, Debora; Origgi, Francesco C; Endimiani, Andrea; Peterson, Susanne; Perreten, Vincent

    2015-04-01

    Klebsiella pneumoniae of sequence type (ST) 11 is a hyper-epidemic nosocomial clone spreading worldwide among humans and also emerging in pets. In this report, we describe a clinical case of fatal sepsis due to this multidrug-resistant (MDR) pathogen in a Eurasian beaver. The isolate showed resistance to six different classes of antimicrobials including third generation cephalosporins and fluoroquinolones. This is the first report describing the detection of a MDR K. pneumoniae ST11 in a free-ranging animal. Our finding highlights the potential for environmental dissemination of hyper-epidemic clones of K. pneumoniae and possible spread in wildlife and cause epizootics. © 2014 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Production of Short-Rotation Woody Crops Grown with a Range of Nutrient and Water Availability: Establishment Report and First-Year Responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark D. Coleman; David R. Coyle; J. Blake; M. Buford; R.G. Campbell; J. Cox; B. Cregg; D. Daniels; M. Jacobson; Kurt Johnsen; Timothy McDonald; K. McLeod; E. Nelson; D. Robison; R. Rummer; F. Sanchez; John A. Stanturf; B. Stokes; Carl Trettin; J. Tuskan; L. Wright; S. Wullschleger

    2004-01-01

    Many researchers have studied the productivity potential of intensively managed forest plantations. However, we need to learn more about the effects of fundamental growth processes on forest productivity; especially the influence of above- and belowground resource acquisition and allocation. This report presents installation, establishment, and first-year results of...

  14. Effective conductivity and permittivity of unsaturated porous materials in the frequency range 1 mHz–1GHz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revil, A

    2013-01-01

    A model combining low-frequency complex conductivity and high-frequency permittivity is developed in the frequency range from 1 mHz to 1 GHz. The low-frequency conductivity depends on pore water and surface conductivities. Surface conductivity is controlled by the electrical diffuse layer, the outer component of the electrical double layer coating the surface of the minerals. The frequency dependence of the effective quadrature conductivity shows three domains. Below a critical frequency fp, which depends on the dynamic pore throat size Λ, the quadrature conductivity is frequency dependent. Between fp and a second critical frequency fd, the quadrature conductivity is generally well described by a plateau when clay minerals are present in the material. Clay-free porous materials with a narrow grain size distribution are described by a Cole-Cole model. The characteristic frequency fd controls the transition between double layer polarization and the effect of the high-frequency permittivity of the material. The Maxwell-Wagner polarization is found to be relatively negligible. For a broad range of frequencies below 1 MHz, the effective permittivity exhibits a strong dependence with the cation exchange capacity and the specific surface area. At high frequency, above the critical frequency fd, the effective permittivity reaches a high-frequency asymptotic limit that is controlled by the two Archie's exponents m and n like the low-frequency electrical conductivity. The unified model is compared with various data sets from the literature and is able to explain fairly well a broad number of observations with a very small number of textural and electrochemical parameters. It could be therefore used to interpret induced polarization, induction-based electromagnetic methods, and ground penetrating radar data to characterize the vadose zone. PMID:23576823

  15. Possibility of a 4He2 bound state, effective range theory, and very low energy He--He scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uang, Y.; Stwalley, W.C.

    1982-01-01

    The best available intermolecular potential for helium by Aziz, Nain, Carley, Taylor, and McConville is shown here for the first time to have a 4 He 2 bound state. Two numerical analyses, namely, eigenvalue solution and effective range theory, are used to support this conclusion. Unlike usual chemically bound species, the binding energy of this very weakly bound level is found to be only 8.3 x 10 -4 K, which is four orders of magnitude smaller than the potential well depth epsilon = 10.8 K. The scattering length for He+He collisions, determined from effective range theory, is used to calculate the elastic cross section in the very low energy limit. The results (1.878 x 10 5 A 2 for 4 He+ 4 He and 6.035 x 10 2 A for 3 He+ 3 He) are consistent with measurements at the lowest velocities yet attained. In terms of the estimated uncertainties of the parameters of the potential of Aziz and co-workers, it is shown that it is very likely that a bound state of the 4 He 2 molecule does in fact exist

  16. Sustaining Biodiversity in the Oregon Coast Range: Potential effects of Forest Policies in a Multi-ownership Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brenda C. McComb

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available To understand the potential effects of forest policies on sustaining biological diversity at broad scales, we used spatial simulation models to evaluate current and potential future habitat availability over 100 yr for three focal species: Pacific Fisher (Martes pennanti, Pileated Woodpecker (Dryocopus pileatus, and Warbling Vireo (Vireo gilvus. The habitats of these species represent a broad range of spatial scales and forest types. Area of habitat for fishers and Pileated Woodpeckers is predicted to increase over time under current forest land management policies. Habitat for Warbling Vireos is predicted to decline. These patterns are consistent with past analyses that predicted declines in diverse early successional forests and hardwood forests and increases in late-successional forests under current and two alternative policies. Land ownership influenced the spatial arrangement of habitat for all three focal species. Public lands subsidized habitat for wide-ranging species on adjacent private lands. A land use policy that required greater green tree retention on private lands seemed to result in modest increases in habitat quality over 100 yr for Pileated Woodpeckers. Thinning of plantations on federal lands had little effect on these focal species. Policy analyses such as these highlight incongruities between historic habitat patterns and contemporary spatial and temporal scales of habitat in managed landscapes. This information can be used to assess risks and inform the policy debates surrounding biodiversity conservation.

  17. The Effective Dynamic Ranges for Glaucomatous Visual Field Progression With Standard Automated Perimetry and Stimulus Sizes III and V.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, Michael; Zamba, Gideon K D; Artes, Paul H

    2018-01-01

    It has been shown that threshold estimates below approximately 20 dB have little effect on the ability to detect visual field progression in glaucoma. We aimed to compare stimulus size V to stimulus size III, in areas of visual damage, to confirm these findings by using (1) a different dataset, (2) different techniques of progression analysis, and (3) an analysis to evaluate the effect of censoring on mean deviation (MD). In the Iowa Variability in Perimetry Study, 120 glaucoma subjects were tested every 6 months for 4 years with size III SITA Standard and size V Full Threshold. Progression was determined with three complementary techniques: pointwise linear regression (PLR), permutation of PLR, and linear regression of the MD index. All analyses were repeated on "censored'' datasets in which threshold estimates below a given criterion value were set to equal the criterion value. Our analyses confirmed previous observations that threshold estimates below 20 dB contribute much less to visual field progression than estimates above this range. These findings were broadly similar with stimulus sizes III and V. Censoring of threshold values < 20 dB has relatively little impact on the rates of visual field progression in patients with mild to moderate glaucoma. Size V, which has lower retest variability, performs at least as well as size III for longitudinal glaucoma progression analysis and appears to have a larger useful dynamic range owing to the upper sensitivity limit being higher.

  18. Bobcats (Lynx rufus) as a Model Organism to Investigate the Effects of Roads on Wide-Ranging Carnivores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litvaitis, John A; Reed, Gregory C; Carroll, Rory P; Litvaitis, Marian K; Tash, Jeffrey; Mahard, Tyler; Broman, Derek J A; Callahan, Catherine; Ellingwood, Mark

    2015-06-01

    We are using bobcats (Lynx rufus) as a model organism to examine how roads affect the abundance, distribution, and genetic structure of a wide-ranging carnivore. First, we compared the distribution of bobcat-vehicle collisions to road density and then estimated collision probabilities for specific landscapes using a moving window with road-specific traffic volume. Next, we obtained incidental observations of bobcats from the public, camera-trap detections, and locations of bobcats equipped with GPS collars to examine habitat selection. These data were used to generate a cost-surface map to investigate potential barrier effects of roads. Finally, we have begun an examination of genetic structure of bobcat populations in relation to major road networks. Distribution of vehicle-killed bobcats was correlated with road density, especially state and interstate highways. Collision models suggested that some regions may function as demographic sinks. Simulated movements in the context of the cost-surface map indicated that some major roads may be barriers. These patterns were supported by the genetic structure of bobcats. The sharpest divisions among genetically distinct demes occurred along natural barriers (mountains and large lakes) and in road-dense regions. In conclusion, our study has demonstrated the utility of using bobcats as a model organism to understand the variety of threats that roads pose to a wide-ranging species. Bobcats may also be useful as one of a group of focal species while developing approaches to maintain existing connectivity or mitigate the negative effects of roads.

  19. Post-Closure Inspection Report for Corrective Action Unit 427: Septic Waste Systems 2 and 6 Tonopah Test Range, Nevada Calendar Year 2000; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    K. B. Campbell

    2001-01-01

    Post-closure inspection requirements for the Area 3 Septic Waste Systems 2 and 6 (Corrective Action Unit[CAU] 427) (Figure 1) are described in Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 427. Area 3 Septic Waste Systems 2 and 6. Tonopah Test Range, Nevada, report number DOE/NV-561. The Closure Report (CR) was submitted to the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP) on August 16, 1999. The CR (containing the Post-Closure Inspection Plan) was approved by the NDEP on August 27, 1999. The annual post-closure inspection at CAU 427 consists of the following: Verification of the presence of all leachfield and septic tank below-grade markers; Verification that the warning signs are in-place, intact, and readable; and Visual observation of the soil and asphalt cover for indications of subsidence, erosion, and unauthorized use. The site inspections were conducted on June 20, 2000, and November 21, 2000. All inspections were made after NDEP approval of the CR and were conducted in accordance with the Post-Closure Inspection Plan in the NDEP-approved CR. No maintenance or repairs were conducted at the site. This report includes copies of inspection checklists, photographs, recommendations, and conclusions. Copies of the Post-Closure Inspection Checklists are found in Attachment A, a copy of the field notes is found in Attachment B, and a copy of the inspection photographs is found in Attachments C

  20. Health assessment of free-ranging endangered Australian sea lion (Neophoca cinerea) pups: effect of haematophagous parasites on haematological parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcus, Alan D; Higgins, Damien P; Gray, Rachael

    2015-06-01

    Evaluation of the health status of free-ranging populations is important for understanding the impact of disease on individuals and on population demography and viability. In this study, haematological reference intervals were developed for free-ranging endangered Australian sea lion (Neophoca cinerea) pups within the context of endemic hookworm (Uncinaria sanguinis) infection and the effects of pathogen, host, and environment factors on the variability of haematological parameters were investigated. Uncinaria sanguinis was identified as an important agent of disease, with infection causing regenerative anaemia, hypoproteinaemia, and a predominantly lymphocytic-eosinophilic systemic inflammatory response. Conversely, the effects of sucking lice (Antarctophthirus microchir) were less apparent and infestation in pups appears unlikely to cause clinical impact. Overall, the effects of U. sanguinis, A. microchir, host factors (standard length, body condition, pup sex, moult status, and presence of lesions), and environment factors (capture-type and year of sampling) accounted for 26-65% of the total variance observed in haematological parameters. Importantly, this study demonstrated that anaemia in neonatal Australian sea lion pups is not solely a benign physiological response to host-environment changes, but largely reflects a significant pathological process. This impact of hookworm infection on pup health has potential implications for the development of foraging and diving behaviour, which would subsequently influence the independent survival of juveniles following weaning. The haematological reference intervals developed in this study can facilitate long-term health surveillance, which is critical for the early recognition of changes in disease impact and to inform conservation management. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. The effect of entrainment through atmospheric boundary layer growth on observed and modeled surface ozone in the Colorado Front Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaser, L.; Patton, E. G.; Pfister, G. G.; Weinheimer, A. J.; Montzka, D. D.; Flocke, F.; Thompson, A. M.; Stauffer, R. M.; Halliday, H. S.

    2017-06-01

    Ozone concentrations at the Earth's surface are controlled by meteorological and chemical processes and are a function of advection, entrainment, deposition, and net chemical production/loss. The relative contributions of these processes vary in time and space. Understanding the relative importance of these processes controlling surface ozone concentrations is an essential component for designing effective regulatory strategies. Here we focus on the diurnal cycle of entrainment through atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) growth in the Colorado Front Range. Aircraft soundings and surface observations collected in July/August 2014 during the DISCOVER-AQ/FRAPPÉ (Deriving Information on Surface conditions from Column and Vertically Resolved Observations Relevant to Air Quality/Front Range Air Pollution and Photochemistry Éxperiment) campaigns and equivalent data simulated by a regional chemical transport model are analyzed. Entrainment through ABL growth is most important in the early morning, fumigating the surface at a rate of 5 ppbv/h. The fumigation effect weakens near noon and changes sign to become a small dilution effect in the afternoon on the order of -1 ppbv/h. The chemical transport model WRF-Chem (Weather Research and Forecasting Model with chemistry) underestimates ozone at all altitudes during this study on the order of 10-15 ppbv. The entrainment through ABL growth is overestimated by the model in the order of 0.6-0.8 ppbv/h. This results from differences in boundary layer growth in the morning and ozone concentration jump across the ABL top in the afternoon. This implicates stronger modeled fumigation in the morning and weaker modeled dilution after 11:00 LT.

  2. Effects of climate and plant phenology on recruitment of moose at the southern extent of their range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteith, Kevin L.; Klaver, Robert W.; Hersey, Kent R.; Holland, A. Andrew; Thomas, Timothy P.; Kauffman, Matthew J.

    2015-01-01

    Climate plays a fundamental role in limiting the range of a species, is a key factor in the dynamics of large herbivores, and is thought to be involved in declines of moose populations in recent decades. We examined effects of climate and growing-season phenology on recruitment (8–9 months old) of young Shiras moose (Alces alces shirasi) over three decades, from 18 herds, across a large geographic area encompassing much of the southern extent of their range. Recruitment declined in 8 of 18 herds during 1980–2009, whereas others did not exhibit a temporal trend (none showed a positive trend). During those three decades, seasonal temperatures increased, spring–summer precipitation decreased, and spring occurred earlier, became shorter in duration, and green-up occurred faster. Recruitment was influenced negatively by warm temperatures during the year before young were born, but only for herds with declining recruitment. Dry spring–summers of the previous year and rapid rates of spring green-up in the year of birth had similar negative influences across declining and stable herds. Those patterns indicate both direct (year t ) and delayed (year t−1) effects of weather and plant phenology on recruitment of young, which we hypothesize was mediated through effects on maternal nutritional condition. Suppressed nutrition could have been induced by (1) increased thermoregulatory costs associated with warming temperatures and (2) shortened duration of availability of high-quality forage in spring. Progressive reductions in net energetic gain for species that are sensitive to climate may continue to hamper individual fitness and population dynamics.

  3. Effect of diatomaceous earth on parasite load, egg production, and egg quality of free-range organic laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, D C; Yee, A; Rhee, Y-J; Cheng, K M

    2011-07-01

    The effectiveness of diatomaceous earth (DE) as a treatment against parasites and to increase feed efficiency and egg production of organically raised free-range layer hens was evaluated in 2 breeds of commercial egg layers [Bovan Brown (BB) and Lowmann Brown (LB)] that differ in their resistance to internal parasitic infections. Half the hens of each breed were fed diets supplemented with DE (2%). Their internal parasite loads were assessed by biweekly fecal egg counts (FEC) and by postmortem examination of the gastrointestinal tract. Supplementing DE in diets of LB hens, the more parasite-resistant breed, did not significantly affect their FEC and adult parasite load. However, BB hens treated with dietary DE had significantly lower Capillaria FEC, slightly lower Eimeria FEC, fewer birds infected with Heterakis, and significantly lower Heterakis worm burden than control BB hens. Both BB and LB hens fed the diet containing DE were significantly heavier, laid more eggs, and consumed more feed than hens fed the control diet, but feed efficiency did not differ between the 2 dietary treatments. Additionally, BB hens consuming the DE diet laid larger eggs containing more albumen and yolk than hens consuming the control diet. In a subsequent experiment, the effectiveness of DE to treat a Northern fowl mite (Ornithonyssus sylviarum) infestation was tested. Relative to controls, both breeds of hens that were dusted with DE had reduced number of mites. The results of this study indicate the DE has the potential to be an effective treatment to help control parasites and improve production of organically raised, free-range layer hens.

  4. Effects of dark brooders and overhangs on free-range use and behaviour of slow-growing broilers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stadig, L.M.; Rodenburg, T.B.; Reubens, B.; Ampe, B.; Tuyttens, F.A.M.

    2017-01-01

    Broiler chickens often make limited use of the free-range area. Range use is influenced by type of shelter available. Range use may possibly be improved by a more gradual transition from the house to the range and by using dark brooders (secluded warm, dark areas in the home pen) that mimic aspects

  5. Brain oscillatory subsequent memory effects differ in power and long-range synchronization between semantic and survival processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fellner, Marie-Christin; Bäuml, Karl-Heinz T; Hanslmayr, Simon

    2013-10-01

    Memory crucially depends on the way information is processed during encoding. Differences in processes during encoding not only lead to differences in memory performance but also rely on different brain networks. Although these assumptions are corroborated by several previous fMRI and ERP studies, little is known about how brain oscillations dissociate between different memory encoding tasks. The present study therefore compared encoding related brain oscillatory activity elicited by two very efficient encoding tasks: a typical deep semantic item feature judgment task and a more elaborative survival encoding task. Subjects were asked to judge words either for survival relevance or for animacy, as indicated by a cue presented prior to the item. This allowed dissociating pre-item activity from item-related activity for both tasks. Replicating prior studies, survival processing led to higher recognition performance than semantic processing. Successful encoding in the semantic condition was reflected by a strong decrease in alpha and beta power, whereas successful encoding in the survival condition was related to increased alpha and beta long-range phase synchrony. Moreover, a pre-item subsequent memory effect in theta power was found which did not vary with encoding condition. These results show that measures of local synchrony (power) and global long range-synchrony (phase synchronization) dissociate between memory encoding processes. Whereas semantic encoding was reflected in decreases in local synchrony, increases in global long range synchrony were related to elaborative survival encoding, presumably reflecting the involvement of a more widespread cortical network in this task. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. The role of environment and core-margin effects on range-wide phenotypic variation in a montane grasshopper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noguerales, V; García-Navas, V; Cordero, P J; Ortego, J

    2016-11-01

    The integration of genetic information with ecological and phenotypic data constitutes an effective approach to gain insight into the mechanisms determining interpopulation variability and the evolutionary processes underlying local adaptation and incipient speciation. Here, we use the Pyrenean Morales grasshopper (Chorthippus saulcyi moralesi) as study system to (i) analyse the relative role of genetic drift and selection in range-wide patterns of phenotypic differentiation and (ii) identify the potential selective agents (environment, elevation) responsible for variation. We also test the hypothesis that (iii) the development of dispersal-related traits is associated with different parameters related to population persistence/turnover, including habitat suitability stability over the last 120 000 years, distance to the species distribution core and population genetic variability. Our results indicate that selection shaped phenotypic differentiation across all the studied morphological traits (body size, forewing length and shape). Subsequent analyses revealed that among-population differentiation in forewing length was significantly explained by a temperature gradient, suggesting an adaptive response to thermoregulation or flight performance under contrasting temperature regimes. We found support for our hypothesis predicting a positive association between the distance to the species distribution core and the development of dispersal-related morphology, which suggests an increased dispersal capability in populations located at range edges that, in turn, exhibit lower levels of genetic variability. Overall, our results indicate that range-wide patterns of phenotypic variation are partially explained by adaptation in response to local environmental conditions and differences in habitat persistence between core and peripheral populations. © 2016 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2016 European Society For Evolutionary

  7. Seasonal Fluctuations in Air Pollution in Dazaifu, Japan, and Effect of Long-Range Transport from Mainland East Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulibaly, Souleymane; Minami, Hiroki; Abe, Maho; Hasei, Tomohiro; Sera, Nobuyuki; Yamamoto, Shigekazu; Funasaka, Kunihiro; Asakawa, Daichi; Watanabe, Masanari; Honda, Naoko; Wakabayashi, Keiji; Watanabe, Tetsushi

    2015-01-01

    To clarify the seasonal fluctuations in air pollution and the effect of long-range transport, we collected airborne particles (n=118) at Dazaifu in Fukuoka, Japan, from June 2012 to May 2013 and measured Pb and SO4(2-), which are indicators of the long-range transport of anthropogenic air pollutants, as well as their mutagenicity, and other factors. The levels of airborne particles, Pb, and SO4(2-) were very high on March 4, 8, 9, and 19, and May 13, 21, and 22, 2013. The backward trajectories indicated that air masses had arrived from the Gobi Desert and northern China on those days. The mutagenicity of airborne particles was examined using the Ames test on Salmonella typhimurium YG1024. Highly mutagenic airborne particles were mostly collected in winter, and most of them showed high activity both with and without S9 mix. High levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were found in many samples that showed high mutagenicity. For the samples collected on January 30, February 21, and March 4, the levels of Pb, SO4(2-), PAHs, and mutagenicity were high, and the backward trajectories indicated that air masses present on those days had passed through northern or central China. The Japan Meteorological Agency registered Asian dust events at Fukuoka on March 8, 9, and 19, 2013. The results of the present study suggest that high levels of anthropogenic air pollutants were transported with Asian dust. Similarly, long-range transport of air pollutants including mutagens occurred on days when Asian dust events were not registered.

  8. Effect of baseplate size on primary glenoid stability and impingement-free range of motion in reverse shoulder arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chae, Soo-Won; Kim, Soung-Yon; Lee, Haea; Yon, Joung-Ro; Lee, Juneyoung; Han, Seung-Ho

    2014-12-09

    Use of a baseplate with a smaller diameter in reverse shoulder arthroplasty is increasing, especially in patients with a small glenoid or glenoid wear. However, the effect of a smaller baseplate on stability of the glenoid component has not been evaluated. Thus, the purpose of this study was to determine whether a smaller baseplate (25 mm) is beneficial to the initial stability of the glenoid component compared to that with a baseplate of a commonly used size (29 mm). Micromotion of glenoid components attached to 14 scapulae of fresh-frozen cadavers was measured and compared between 25- and 29-mm baseplates in biomechanical testing. Impingement-free range of motion in abduction, adduction, internal rotation, and external rotation was evaluated by using a simulated computer model constructed based on the same fresh-frozen cadavers used in biomechanical testing. Micromotion at the inferior third of the glenoid-glenosphere interface was higher in the 29-mm baseplate group than in the 25-mm baseplate group during both 0.7- and 1-body weight cyclic loading in biomechanical testing. Adduction deficit was smaller, and total impingement-free range of motion from abduction to adduction and rotation were greater in the 25-mm baseplate group than in the 29-mm baseplate group in the simulated computer model. Use of a baseplate with a smaller diameter (25 mm) in reverse shoulder arthroplasty is suitable for improving the primary stability of the glenoid component. With a smaller baseplate, impingement-free range of motion is optimized in a smaller glenoid.

  9. Patients who are candidates for subacromial decompression have more pronounced range of motion deficits, but do not differ in self-reported shoulder function, strength or pain compared to non-candidates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Witten, Adam; Clausen, Mikkel B; Thorborg, Kristian

    2018-01-01

    -reported shoulder function, shoulder strength, ROM, and pain in patients with SIS considered candidates and non-candidates for subacromial decompression (SAD). METHOD: Self-reported shoulder function (Q-DASH and SPADI), maximum isometric muscle strength in shoulder abduction (Abd-strength) and external rotation (ER...... or non-candidates for SAD based on their consultation with an orthopedic specialist blinded to test results and self-reported shoulder function. All outcomes and age, gender, weight and duration of symptoms were compared using the unpaired t test or Mann-Whitney's U test as appropriate. RESULTS: One.......3 vs. 3.7, p = 0.02, effect size = 0.21). No other differences were found between the groups. CONCLUSION: A decrease in abduction and internal rotation range of motion, and increased pain during maximal abduction strength effort are associated with being considered a candidate for subacromial...

  10. Post-Closure Inspection Report for Corrective Action Unit 404: Roller Coaster Sewage Lagoons and North Disposal Trench Tonopah Test Range, Nevada, Calendar Year 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K. B. Campbell

    2001-06-01

    Post-closure monitoring requirements for the Roller Coaster Sewage Lagoons and North Disposal Trench (Corrective Action Unit [CAW 404]) (Figure 1) are described in Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 404, Roller Coaster Sewage Lagoons and North Disposal Trench, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada, report number DOE/NV--187. The Closure Report (CR) was submitted to the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP) on September 11, 1998. Permeability results of soils adjacent to the engineered cover and a request for closure of CAU 404 were transmitted to the NDEP on April 29, 1999. The CR (containing the Post-Closure Monitoring Plan) was approved by the NDEP on May 18, 1999. Post-closure monitoring at CAU 404 consists of the following: (1) Site inspections done twice a year to evaluate the condition of the unit; (2) Verification that the site is secure; (3) Notice of any subsidence or deficiencies that may compromise the integrity of the unit; (4) Remedy of any deficiencies within 90 days of discovery; and (5) Preparation and submittal of an annual report. Site inspections were conducted on June 19, 2000, and November 21, 2000. The site inspections were conducted after completion of the revegetation activities (October 30, 1997) and NDEP approval of the CR (May 18, 1999). All site inspections were conducted in accordance with the Post-Closure Monitoring Plan in the NDEP-approved CR. This report includes copies of inspection checklists, photographs, recommendations, and conclusions. The Post-Closure Inspection Checklists are found in Attachment A, a copy of the field notes is found in Attachment B, and copies of the inspection photographs are found in Attachment C.

  11. Post-Closure Inspection Report for Corrective Action Unit 404: Roller Coaster Sewage Lagoons and North Disposal Trench Tonopah Test Range, Nevada, Calendar Year 2000; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    K. B. Campbell

    2001-01-01

    Post-closure monitoring requirements for the Roller Coaster Sewage Lagoons and North Disposal Trench (Corrective Action Unit[CAW 404]) (Figure 1) are described in Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 404, Roller Coaster Sewage Lagoons and North Disposal Trench, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada, report number DOE/NV-187. The Closure Report (CR) was submitted to the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP) on September 11, 1998. Permeability results of soils adjacent to the engineered cover and a request for closure of CAU 404 were transmitted to the NDEP on April 29, 1999. The CR (containing the Post-Closure Monitoring Plan) was approved by the NDEP on May 18, 1999. Post-closure monitoring at CAU 404 consists of the following: (1) Site inspections done twice a year to evaluate the condition of the unit; (2) Verification that the site is secure; (3) Notice of any subsidence or deficiencies that may compromise the integrity of the unit; (4) Remedy of any deficiencies within 90 days of discovery; and (5) Preparation and submittal of an annual report. Site inspections were conducted on June 19, 2000, and November 21, 2000. The site inspections were conducted after completion of the revegetation activities (October 30, 1997) and NDEP approval of the CR (May 18, 1999). All site inspections were conducted in accordance with the Post-Closure Monitoring Plan in the NDEP-approved CR. This report includes copies of inspection checklists, photographs, recommendations, and conclusions. The Post-Closure Inspection Checklists are found in Attachment A, a copy of the field notes is found in Attachment B, and copies of the inspection photographs are found in Attachment C

  12. Effect of thermal cycling on the transformation temperature ranges of a Ni-Ti shape memory alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paula, A.S.; Canejo, J.P.H.G.; Martins, R.M.S.; Braz Fernandes, F.M.

    2003-01-01

    Shape memory alloys (SMA) represents a class of metallic materials that has the capability of recovering a previously defined initial shape when subject to an adequate thermomechanical treatment. The present work aims to study the influence of thermal cycles on the transition temperatures of a Ni-Ti alloy. In this system, small variations around the equiatomic composition give rise to significant transformation temperature variations ranging from 173 to 373 K. SMA usually presents the shape memory effect after an annealing treatment at ca. 973 K. The optimisation of the thermomechanical treatment will allow to 'tune' the material to different transformation temperature ranges from the same starting material, just by changing the processing conditions. Differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) and in situ high-temperature X-ray diffraction (XRD) have been used to identify the transformation temperatures and the phases that are present after different thermal cycles. The results concerning a series of thermal cycles with different heating and cooling rates (from 1.67x10 -2 to 1.25x10 -1 K/s) and different holding temperatures (from 473 to 1033 K) are presented

  13. EFFECT OF CAFFEINE ON THE AMOUNT OF PERCEIVED PAIN, JOINT RANGE OF MOTION AND EDEMA AFTER DELAYED MUSCLE SORENESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karabalaeifar Sara

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Delayed onset muscle soreness usually occurs after doing a new unusual physical activity, especially when, associated with repeated eccentric contractions and then it gradually disappears. There is not an extensive agreement in the case of treatment method of soreness signs quick reduction. This research was carried out with the aim of investigation caffeine consumption effect to find a good way in order to reduce the signs of delayed onset muscle soreness. In this semi-experimental with Double-blind design, 16 female volleyball player with an age average of 22.5+2.5 in 2 homogeneous 8 subject control and experimental group were studied. In this research, the effect of caffeine existing in coffee in 5 stages (24h before exercise, 12h before, immediately before exercise, after exercise and 12h after it and 1mg per 1kg of body weight on amount of perceived pain and range of motion of the joint and edema due to delay onset muscle soreness because of 50 jumps and lands of a 1 meter stage was investigated. The results showed that caffeine consumption has a meaningful effect on reduction of all the expressed signs after eccentric contractions. So it is recommended that physio thrapysts, doctors and athletes use this method to reduce delayed onset muscle soreness consequences after the injury.

  14. Post-Closure Inspection Report for Corrective Action Unit 424: Area 3 Landfill Complexes Tonopah Test Range, Nevada Calendar Year 2001; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    K. B. Campbell

    2002-01-01

    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 424, the Area 3 Landfill Complexes at Tonopah Test Range, consists of eight Corrective Action Sites (CASs), seven of which are landfill cells that were closed previously by capping. (The eighth CAS, A3-7, was not used as a landfill site and was closed without taking any corrective action.) Figure 1 shows the general location of the landfill cells. Figure 2 shows in more detail the location of the eight landfill cells. CAU 424 closure activities included removing small volumes of soil containing petroleum hydrocarbons, repairing cell covers that were cracked or had subsided, and installing above-grade and at-grade monuments marking the comers of the landfill cells. Post-closure monitoring requirements for CAU 424 are detailed in Section 5.0, Post-Closure Inspection Plan, contained in the Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 424: Area 3 Landfill Complexes, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada, report number DOE/NV-283, July 1999. The Closure Report (CR) was approved by the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP) in July 1999. The CR includes compaction and permeability results of soils that cap the seven landfill cells. As stated in Section 5.0 of the NDEP-approved CR, post-closure monitoring at CAU 424 consists of the following: (1) Site inspections conducted twice a year to evaluate the condition of the unit. (2) Verification that landfill markers and warning signs are in-place, intact, and readable. (3) Notice of any subsidence, erosion, unauthorized use, or deficiencies that may compromise the integrity of the landfill covers. (4) Remedy of any deficiencies within 90 days of discovery. (5) Preparation and submittal of an annual report. Site inspections were conducted on May 16, 2001, and November 6, 2001. The inspections were preformed after the NDEP approval of the CR. This report includes copies of the inspection checklist, photographs, recommendations, and conclusions. The Post-Closure Inspection Checklists are found in

  15. Scattering length and effective range for charged-particle scattering in a plane and in higher dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verhaar, B.J.; de Goey, L.P.H.; Vredenbregt, E.J.D.

    1985-01-01

    The concepts of scattering length a and effective range r/sub e/ previously introduced for low-energy scattering from a potential V(r) in a plane and in higher dimensions are extended to include a 1/r potential (strength parameter γ). Both a and r/sub e/ have the physical significance of being equal to the radius of an equivalent hard sphere giving rise to the same O(k 0 ) and O(k 2 ) terms in the expression for the phase shift. The method used is based on the properties of the ''local scattering length'' a(r,γ) for the potential V(r) cut off at radius r and an ''equivalent hard-sphere radius'' a(r,k,γ) for wave number knot =0. It is shown that these quantities have a smooth behavior for γ→0 and for dimension n→2

  16. Wide-range and fast thermally-tunable silicon photonic microring resonators using the junction field effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoxi; Lentine, Anthony; DeRose, Christopher; Starbuck, Andrew L; Trotter, Douglas; Pomerene, Andrew; Mookherjea, Shayan

    2016-10-03

    Tunable silicon microring resonators with small, integrated micro-heaters which exhibit a junction field effect were made using a conventional silicon-on-insulator (SOI) photonic foundry fabrication process. The design of the resistive tuning section in the microrings included a "pinched" p-n junction, which limited the current at higher voltages and inhibited damage even when driven by a pre-emphasized voltage waveform. Dual-ring filters were studied for both large (>4.9 THz) and small (850 GHz) free-spectral ranges. Thermal red-shifting was demonstrated with microsecond-scale time constants, e.g., a dual-ring filter was tuned over 25 nm in 0.6 μs 10%-90% transition time, and with efficiency of 3.2 μW/GHz.

  17. Effect of crystalline electric fields and long-range magnetic order on superconductivity in rare earth alloys and compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCallum, R.W.

    1977-01-01

    The behavior of rare earth ions in a superconducting matrix has been studied in two distinct regimes. First, the effects of crystal field splitting of the 4f levels of a magnetic rare earth ion in the alloy system (LaPr)Sn 3 were investigated in the limit of low Pr 3+ concentration. In this system the rare earth impurity ions occupy random La sites in the crystal lattice. Second, the interaction of long-range magnetic order and superconductivity was explored in the ternary rare earth molybdenum chalcogenide systems. In these compounds the rare earth ions occupy periodic lattice sites in contrast to the random distribution of magnetic ions in dilute impurity alloy systems such as (LaPr)Sn 3

  18. The effect of glenosphere diameter in reverse shoulder arthroplasty on muscle force, joint load, and range of motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langohr, G Daniel G; Giles, Joshua W; Athwal, George S; Johnson, James A

    2015-06-01

    Little is known about the effects of glenosphere diameter on shoulder joint loads. The purpose of this biomechanical study was to investigate the effects of glenosphere diameter on joint load, load angle, and total deltoid force required for active abduction and range of motion in internal/external rotation and abduction. A custom, instrumented reverse shoulder arthroplasty implant system capable of measuring joint load and varying glenosphere diameter (38 and 42 mm) and glenoid offset (neutral and lateral) was implanted in 6 cadaveric shoulders to provide at least 80% power for all variables. A shoulder motion simulator was used to produce active glenohumeral and scapulothoracic motion. All implant configurations were tested with active and passive motion with joint kinematics, loads, and moments recorded. At neutral and lateralized glenosphere positions, increasing diameter significantly increased joint load (+12 ± 21 N and +6 ± 9 N; P  .8). Passive internal rotation was reduced with increased diameter at both neutral and lateralized glenosphere positions (-6° ± 6° and -12° ± 6°; P  .05). At neutral glenosphere position, increasing diameter increased the maximum angles of both adduction (+1° ± 1°; P = .03) and abduction (+8° ± 9°; P < .05). Lateralization also increased abduction range of motion compared with neutral (P < .01). Although increasing glenosphere diameter significantly increased joint load and deltoid force, the clinical impact of these changes is presently unclear. Internal rotation, however, was reduced, which contradicts previous bone modeling studies, which we postulate is due to increased posterior capsular tension as it is forced to wrap around a larger 42 mm implant assembly. Copyright © 2015 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. [The effectiveness of error reporting promoting strategy on nurse's attitude, patient safety culture, intention to report and reporting rate].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Myoungsoo

    2010-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of strategies to promote reporting of errors on nurses' attitude to reporting errors, organizational culture related to patient safety, intention to report and reporting rate in hospital nurses. A nonequivalent control group non-synchronized design was used for this study. The program was developed and then administered to the experimental group for 12 weeks. Data were analyzed using descriptive analysis, X(2)-test, t-test, and ANCOVA with the SPSS 12.0 program. After the intervention, the experimental group showed significantly higher scores for nurses' attitude to reporting errors (experimental: 20.73 vs control: 20.52, F=5.483, p=.021) and reporting rate (experimental: 3.40 vs control: 1.33, F=1998.083, porganizational culture and intention to report. The study findings indicate that strategies that promote reporting of errors play an important role in producing positive attitudes to reporting errors and improving behavior of reporting. Further advanced strategies for reporting errors that can lead to improved patient safety should be developed and applied in a broad range of hospitals.

  20. The range and effectiveness of short-term measures to reduce traffic emissions during high air pollution episodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elsom, Derek M.

    1999-01-01

    Concern for continuing poor urban air quality, caused primarily by motor vehicles emissions, and the slow progress being made towards reducing total vehicle emissions by long-term measures, such as improving fuel and vehicle technologies, has prompted some authorities to try to reduce the severity and duration of high air pollution episodes by implementing short-term traffic restraint measures. This paper reviews the range of episodic air quality management schemes applied in cities around the world and comments on the effectiveness of such schemes. The difficulty of targeting vehicles according to the contribution they make to the air quality problem is highlighted. The problem of some schemes simply causing a displacement of the area of excessive vehicle emissions rather than reducing total emissions is reviewed. Rapid developments in telematics and improved urban air quality and traffic monitoring networks (e.g. Urban Traffic Management and Control systems) may offer significant improvements in the effectiveness of episodic management schemes in the future. (Author)

  1. The Effect of Weekly Progress Reports on Academic Achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armour, Katherine S.

    This study investigated the effect of weekly progress reports on the academic achievement of seventh grade language arts students. It also investigated the effects of weekly progress reports on locus of control attribution and the relationship between academic achievement and locus of control attribution. The study took place in a suburban school…

  2. 33 CFR 222.4 - Reporting earthquake effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reporting earthquake effects. 222..., DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE ENGINEERING AND DESIGN § 222.4 Reporting earthquake effects. (a) Purpose. This... significant earthquakes. It primarily concerns damage surveys following the occurrences of earthquakes. (b...

  3. Effects of a home-exercise therapy programme on cervical and lumbar range of motion among nurses with neck and lower back pain: a quasi-experimental study

    OpenAIRE

    Freimann, Tiina; Merisalu, Eda; P??suke, Mati

    2015-01-01

    Background Cervical and lumbar range of motion limitations are usually associated with musculoskeletal pain in the neck and lower back, and are a major health problem among nurses. Physical exercise has been evaluated as an effective intervention method for improving cervical and lumbar range of motion, and for preventing and reducing musculoskeletal pain. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of a home-exercise therapy programme on cervical and lumbar range of motion among...

  4. THE EFFECTS OF BACK EXTENSION TRAINING ON BACK MUSCLE STRENGTH AND SPINAL RANGE OF MOTION IN YOUNG FEMALES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yıldız Yaprak

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the effects of a 10-week dynamic back extension training programme and its effects on back muscle strength, back muscle endurance and spinal range of motion (ROM for healthy young females. Seventy-three young females (age: 19.32±1.80 years, height: 158.89±4.71 cm, body weight: 55.67±6.30 kg volunteered for the study. Prior to the training period, all participants completed anthropometric measurements, back muscle strength and endurance test, lateral bending and spinal ROM measurements. After measurements, the participants were divided into two groups. The exercise group (N:35 performed the dynamic back extension exercise 3 days per week for 10 weeks. The control group (N:38 did not participate in any type of exercise. The mixed design ANOVA (group x time was used to determine the difference in pre- and post-training values. The present findings show that there were significant differences between pre-training and post-training values for back muscle strength and spinal ROM in the exercise group. Following the dynamic strength training programme, back muscle strength and spine ROM values except flexion of the lumbar 5-sacrum 1 (L5-S1 segment of the exercise group showed a significant increase when compared with the pre test values. The control group did not show any significant changes when compared with the pre-training values. The results demonstrate that the 10-week dynamic strength training programme was effective for spinal extension ROM and back muscle strength, but there was no change in back muscle endurance. In this context, this programme could potentially be used to prevent the decrease of spinal ROM as well as provide an increase in the fitness parameters of healthy individuals.

  5. The geomagnetic coast effect at two 80° S stations in Antarctica, observed in the ULF range

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Regi

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available We examined the coast effect in Antarctica along the 80° S magnetic parallel. We used the geomagnetic field measurements at the two coastal stations of Mario Zucchelli Station and Scott Base, and, as a reference, at the inland temporary station Talos Dome, during 18 January–14 March 2008. Spectral analysis in the Pc5 frequency range (1–7 mHz revealed large differences between coastal and inland stations, such as higher spectral power levels in the vertical component and higher coherence between horizontal and vertical components at coastal stations. Using the interstation method on selected active time intervals, with Talos Dome as a remote reference station, we found that remote reference induction arrows are directed almost perpendicularly with respect to their respective coastlines. Moreover, the single-station analysis shows that at Talos Dome the amplitude of the induction arrows is much smaller than at coastal stations. These results clearly indicate that coast effect at a few hundred kilometers from the coastline is relatively small. The coast effect on polarization parameters was examined, for a Pc5 event that occurred on 11 March 2008. The results evidenced that the azimuthal angle of polarized signals at one of the coastal stations is largely different with respect to the inland station (by  ∼  110°, while the polarization ratio and ellipticity attain comparable values. We proposed a correction method of the polarization parameters, which operates directly in the frequency domain, obtaining comparable azimuthal angles at coastal and inland stations.

  6. From effective accounting and reporting to efficient outsourcing

    OpenAIRE

    Meyr, Daria

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to identify an effective management accounting and reporting concept for efficient outsourcing performance in sustainable organizations. Existing reporting norms of the “Systemanalyse und Programmentwicklung (SAP)” platform, used in JSC "Russian Railways" (further Russian Railways) were analysed. Thereby, in the paper a method of the formation of internal management accounting and reporting on the costs of outsourcing were developed. Currently, the analysis of the reports and ...

  7. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 404: Roller Coaster Sewage Lagoons and North Disposal Trench, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada with ROTC 1, Revision 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lynn Kidman

    1998-09-01

    This Closure Report provides the documentation for closure of the Roller Coaster Sewage Lagoons and North Disposal Trench Comective Action Unit (CAU) 404. CAU 404 consists of the Roller Coaster Sewage Lagoons (Corrective Action Site [CAS] TA-03-O01-TA-RC) and the North Disposal Trench (CAS TA-21-001-TA-RC). The site is located on the Tonopah Test Range, approximately 225 kilometers (km) (140 miles [mi]) northwest ofLas Vegas, Nevada. . The sewage lagoons received ~quid sanitary waste horn the Operation Roller Coaster Man Camp in 1963 and debris from subsequent range and construction cleanup activities. The debris and ordnance was subsequently removed and properly dispos~, however, pesticides were detected in soil samples born the bottom of the lagoons above the U,S. Environmental Protection Agency Region IX Prelimimuy Remediation Goals (EPA 1996). . The North Disposal Trench was excavated in 1963. Debris from the man camp and subsequent range and construction cleanup activities was placed in the trench. Investigation results indicated that no constituents of concern were detected in soil samples collected from the trench. Remedial alternative proposed in the Comctive Action Decision Document (CADD) fm the site was “Covering” (DOE, 1997a). The Nevada Division of”Enviromnental Protection (NDEP)-approved Correction Action Plan (CAP) proposed the “Covering” niethodology (1997b). The closure activities were completed in accorhce with the approwil CAP and consisted of baclctllling the sewage lagoons and disposal trench, constructing/planting an engineered/vegetative cover in the area of the sewage lagoons and dikposal trencQ installing a perimeter fence and signs, implementing restrictions on fi~e use, and preparing a Post-Closure Monitoring Plan. “ Since closure activities. for CAU 404 have been completed in accordance with the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection-approved CAP (DOE, 1997b) as documented in this Closure Report, the U.S. Department of

  8. The basic approaches to evaluation of effects of the long-therm radiation exposure in a range of 'low' doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takhauov, R.M.; Karpov, A.B.; Litvyakov, N.V.

    2010-01-01

    for evaluation the genetic effects of radiation exposure. DNA bank donors are workers of Siberian Group of Chemical Enterprises (SGCE) their descendants and also residents of the nearby territories. Taking into account the value of the accumulated material, it should be noted that DNA bank is one of the world's biggest biological material storage obtained from the exposed to long-term radiation influence in the range of 'low' doses. Due to present approaches using for evaluation of traditional and proposal stochastic effects of long-term radiation exposure in 'low' doses we can obtain the objective information of fundamental character. On the basis of this data it is possibility the additional of any radiation safety postulates and the development of the most importance diseases modern prophylactic strategy for populations exposuring radiation.

  9. Method to estimate the effective temperatures of late-type giants using line-depth ratios in the wavelength range 0.97-1.32 μm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taniguchi, Daisuke; Matsunaga, Noriyuki; Kobayashi, Naoto; Fukue, Kei; Hamano, Satoshi; Ikeda, Yuji; Kawakita, Hideyo; Kondo, Sohei; Sameshima, Hiroaki; Yasui, Chikako

    2018-02-01

    The effective temperature, one of the most fundamental atmospheric parameters of a star, can be estimated using various methods; here, we focus on a method using line-depth ratios (LDRs). This method combines low- and high-excitation lines and makes use of relations between LDRs of these line pairs and the effective temperature. It has an advantage, for example, of being minimally affected by interstellar reddening, which changes stellar colours. We report 81 relations between LDRs and effective temperature established with high-resolution, λ/Δλ ∼ 28 000, spectra of nine G- to M-type giants in the Y and J bands. Our analysis gives the first comprehensive set of LDR relations for this wavelength range. The combination of all these relations can be used to determine the effective temperatures of stars that have 3700 < Teff < 5400 K and -0.5 < [Fe/H] < +0.3 dex, to a precision of ±10 K in the best cases.

  10. Cross-scale analysis of the region effect on vascular plant species diversity in southern and northern European mountain ranges.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Lenoir

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The divergent glacial histories of southern and northern Europe affect present-day species diversity at coarse-grained scales in these two regions, but do these effects also penetrate to the more fine-grained scales of local communities? METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We carried out a cross-scale analysis to address this question for vascular plants in two mountain regions, the Alps in southern Europe and the Scandes in northern Europe, using environmentally paired vegetation plots in the two regions (n = 403 in each region to quantify four diversity components: (i total number of species occurring in a region (total γ-diversity, (ii number of species that could occur in a target plot after environmental filtering (habitat-specific γ-diversity, (iii pair-wise species compositional turnover between plots (plot-to-plot β-diversity and (iv number of species present per plot (plot α-diversity. We found strong region effects on total γ-diversity, habitat-specific γ-diversity and plot-to-plot β-diversity, with a greater diversity in the Alps even towards distances smaller than 50 m between plots. In contrast, there was a slightly greater plot α-diversity in the Scandes, but with a tendency towards contrasting region effects on high and low soil-acidity plots. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We conclude that there are strong regional differences between coarse-grained (landscape- to regional-scale diversity components of the flora in the Alps and the Scandes mountain ranges, but that these differences do not necessarily penetrate to the finest-grained (plot-scale diversity component, at least not on acidic soils. Our findings are consistent with the contrasting regional Quaternary histories, but we also consider alternative explanatory models. Notably, ecological sorting and habitat connectivity may play a role in the unexpected limited or reversed region effect on plot α-diversity, and may also affect the larger-scale diversity

  11. Does an electronic continuum correction improve effective short-range ion-ion interactions in aqueous solution?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce, Ellen E.; van der Vegt, Nico F. A.

    2018-06-01

    Non-polarizable force fields for hydrated ions not always accurately describe short-range ion-ion interactions, frequently leading to artificial ion clustering in bulk aqueous solutions. This can be avoided by adjusting the nonbonded anion-cation or cation-water Lennard-Jones parameters. This approach has been successfully applied to different systems, but the parameterization is demanding owing to the necessity of separate investigations of each ion pair. Alternatively, polarization effects may effectively be accounted for using the electronic continuum correction (ECC) of Leontyev et al. [J. Chem. Phys. 119, 8024 (2003)], which involves scaling the ionic charges with the inverse square-root of the water high-frequency dielectric permittivity. ECC has proven to perform well for monovalent salts as well as for divalent salts in water. Its performance, however, for multivalent salts with higher valency remains unexplored. The present work illustrates the applicability of the ECC model to trivalent K3PO4 and divalent K2HPO4 in water. We demonstrate that the ECC models, without additional tuning of force field parameters, provide an accurate description of water-mediated interactions between salt ions. This results in predictions of the osmotic coefficients of aqueous K3PO4 and K2HPO4 solutions in good agreement with experimental data. Analysis of ion pairing thermodynamics in terms of contact ion pair (CIP), solvent-separated ion pair, and double solvent-separated ion pair contributions shows that potassium-phosphate CIP formation is stronger with trivalent than with divalent phosphate ions.

  12. Microscopic Behavior Of Colloidal Particles Under The Effect Of Acoustic Stimulations In The Ultrasonic To Megasonic Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Fattah, Amr I.; Roberts, Peter M.

    2006-05-01

    It is well known that colloid attachment and detachment at solid surfaces are influenced strongly by physico-chemical conditions controlling electric double layer (EDL) and solvation-layer effects. We present experimental observations demonstrating that, in addition, acoustic waves can produce strong effects on colloid/surface interactions that can alter the behavior of colloid and fluid transport in porous media. Microscopic colloid visualization experiments were performed with polystyrene micro-spheres suspended in water in a parallel-plate glass flow cell. When acoustic energy was applied to the cell at frequencies from 500 kHz to 5 MHz, changes in colloid attachment to and detachment from the glass cell surfaces were observed. Quantitative measurements of acoustically-induced detachment of 300-nm microspheres in 0.1M NaCl solution demonstrated that roughly 30% of the colloids that were attached to the glass cell wall during flow alone could be detached rapidly by applying acoustics at frequencies in the range of 0.7 to 1.2 MHz. The remaining attached colloids could not be detached by acoustics. This implies the existence of both "strong" and "weak" attachment sites at the cell surface. Subsequent re-attachment of colloids with acoustics turned off occurred only at new, previously unoccupied sites. Thus, acoustics appears to accelerate simultaneously both the deactivation of existing weak sites where colloids are already attached, and the activation of new weak sites where future attachments can occur. Our observations indicate that acoustics (and, in general, dynamic stress) can influence colloid-colloid and colloid-surface interactions in ways that could cause significant changes in porous-media permeability and mass transport. This would occur due to either buildup or release of colloids present in the porous matrix.

  13. Blubber cortisol: a potential tool for assessing stress response in free-ranging dolphins without effects due to sampling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas M Kellar

    Full Text Available When paired with dart biopsying, quantifying cortisol in blubber tissue may provide an index of relative stress levels (i.e., activation of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis in free-ranging cetacean populations while minimizing the effects of the act of sampling. To validate this approach, cortisol was extracted from blubber samples collected from beach-stranded and bycaught short-beaked common dolphins using a modified blubber steroid isolation technique and measured via commercially available enzyme immunoassays. The measurements exhibited appropriate quality characteristics when analyzed via a bootstraped stepwise parallelism analysis (observed/expected = 1.03, 95%CI: 99.6 - 1.08 and showed no evidence of matrix interference with increasing sample size across typical biopsy tissue masses (75-150 mg; r(2 = 0.012, p = 0.78, slope = 0.022 ng(cortisol deviation/ul(tissue extract added. The relationships between blubber cortisol and eight potential cofactors namely, 1 fatality type (e.g., stranded or bycaught, 2 specimen condition (state of decomposition, 3 total body length, 4 sex, 5 sexual maturity state, 6 pregnancy status, 7 lactation state, and 8 adrenal mass, were assessed using a Bayesian generalized linear model averaging technique. Fatality type was the only factor correlated with blubber cortisol, and the magnitude of the effect size was substantial: beach-stranded individuals had on average 6.1-fold higher cortisol levels than those of bycaught individuals. Because of the difference in conditions surrounding these two fatality types, we interpret this relationship as evidence that blubber cortisol is indicative of stress response. We found no evidence of seasonal variation or a relationship between cortisol and the remaining cofactors.

  14. Effect of cutoff radius, long range interaction and temperature controller on thermodynamic properties of fluids: Methanol as an example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obeidat, Abdalla; Jaradat, Adnan; Hamdan, Bushra; Abu-Ghazleh, Hind

    2018-04-01

    The best spherical cutoff radius, long range interaction and temperature controller were determined using surface tension, density, and diffusion coefficients of van Leeuwen and Smit methanol. A quite good range of cutoff radii from 0.75 to 1.45 nm has been studied on Coulomb cut-off and particle mesh Ewald (PME) long range interaction to determine the best cutoff radius and best long range interaction as well for four sets of temperature: 200, 230, 270 and 300 K. To determine the best temperature controller, the cutoff radius of 1.25 nm was fixed using PME long range interaction on calculating the above properties at low temperature range: 200-300 K.

  15. Effective range of chlorine transport in an aquifer during disinfection of wells: From laboratory experiments to field application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paufler, S.; Grischek, T.; Adomat, Y.; Herlitzius, J.; Hiller, K.; Metelica, Y.

    2018-04-01

    Microbiological contamination usually leads to erratic operation of drinking water wells and disinfection is required after disasters and sometimes to restore proper well performance for aquifer storage and recovery (ASR) and subsurface iron removal (SIR) wells. This study focused on estimating the fate of chlorine around an infiltration well and improving the knowledge about processes that control the physical extent of the disinfected/affected radius. Closed bottle batch tests revealed low chlorine consumption rates for filter gravel and sand (0.005 mg/g/d) and higher rates for clay (0.030 mg/g/d) as well as natural aquifer material (0.054 mg/g/d). Smaller grain sizes disinfection ability at grain sizes >1 mm, but results in more effective disinfection for very fine material disinfection zone at the example well seems to extend to maximum 3.5 m into the aquifer. Excessive chlorine dosage of >10 mg/l would not further extend the disinfected radius. A preferable way to increase the range of chlorine application is to increase the total infiltrated volume and time. Three approaches are proposed for adapting lab results to actual infiltration wells, that are in principle applicable to any other site.

  16. Non-destructive study of the ion-implantation-affected zone (the long-range effect) in titanium nitride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perry, A.J.; Treglio, J.R.; Schaffer, J.P.; Brunner, J.; Valvoda, V.; Rafaja, D.

    1994-01-01

    The depth to which metal ion implantation can change the structure of titanium nitride coatings is studied using two techniques - positron annihilation spectroscopy (PAS) and glancing-angle X-ray diffraction (GA-XRD) -which are normally applied to the study of bulk materials. The PAS results indicate that the depth to which vacancies are found greatly exceeds the depth at which the implanted material resides. In addition, the concentration of vacancies continues to increase with the dose of implanted ions. The GA-XRD data show that the implantation does not change the residual stress - it remains slightly tensile. Furthermore, there is an increase in the diffraction peak broadening, which is attributed to an increase in the local strain distribution resulting from the generation of a dislocation network at depths of up to several tenths of a micrometer below the implanted zone. The data support the view of a long-range effect, where metal ion implantation causes lattice defect generation within an implantation-affected zone (IAZ) to depths well beyond the implanted zone. The defective nature of the IAZ depends on the implanted dose and the acceleration voltage, as well as on the nature of the ions implanted. In the present work, there is no residual stress in the samples, so this cannot induce the IAZ. ((orig.))

  17. Effective depth-of-penetration range due to hardness variation for different lots of nominally identical target material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Frueh

    2016-04-01

    A linear regression analysis of penetration vs. hardness shows that a target hardness increase within the given range of 280–330 BHN may result in a reduction of penetration depth of about 5.8 mm at constant velocity. This is equal to a change of −12% at an impact velocity of 1250 m/s. A multiple linear regression analysis included also the influence of yaw angle and impact velocity. It shows that small yaw angles and slight variations of impact velocities provide a smaller variation of the semi-infinite penetration depths than a variation of target hardness within a typical specification span of 50 BHN. For such a span a change in penetration of approximately −4.8 mm due to hardness variation is found, whereas 1° of yaw angle or −10 m/s of velocity variation gives a change of about −1.0 mm respectively −0.9 mm. For the given example, the overwhelming part of the variation is to be attributed to hardness effects – 4.8 mm out of 5.8 mm (83%. For nominally identical target material the target hardness thus influences the ballistic test results more severely than the typical scatter in impact conditions.

  18. Effect of voice recognition on radiologist reporting time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhan, S.N.; Coblentz, C.L.; Norman, G.R.; Ali, S.H.

    2008-01-01

    To study the effect that voice recognition (VR) has on radiologist reporting efficiency in a clinical setting and to identify variables associated with faster reporting time. Five radiologists were observed during the routine reporting of 402 plain radiograph studies using either VR (n 217) or conventional dictation (CD) (n = 185). Two radiologists were observed reporting 66 computed tomography (CT) studies using either VR (n - 39) or CD (n - 27). The time spent per reporting cycle, defined as the radiologist's time spent on a study from report finalization to the subsequent report finalization, was compared. As well, characteristics about the radiologist and their reporting style were collected and correlated against reporting time. For plain radiographs, radiologists took 134% (P = 0.048) more time to produce reports using VR, but there was significant variability between radiologists. Significant association with faster reporting times using VR included: English as a first language (r-0.24), use of a template (r -0.34), use of a headset microphone (r -0.46), and increased experience with VR (r -0.43). Experience as a staff radiologist and having previous study for comparison did not correlate with reporting time. For CT, there was no significant difference in reporting time identified between VR and CD (P 0.61). Overall, VR slightly decreases the reporting efficiency of radiologists. However, efficiency may be improved if English is a first language, a headset microphone, and macros and templates are use. (author)

  19. Neighborhood and habitat effects on vital rates: expansion of the Barred Owl in the Oregon Coast Ranges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yackulic, Charles B.; Reid, Janice; Davis, Raymond; Hines, James E.; Nichols, James D.; Forsman, Eric

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we modify dynamic occupancy models developed for detection-nondetection data to allow for the dependence of local vital rates on neighborhood occupancy, where neighborhood is defined very flexibly. Such dependence of occupancy dynamics on the status of a relevant neighborhood is pervasive, yet frequently ignored. Our framework permits joint inference about the importance of neighborhood effects and habitat covariates in determining colonization and extinction rates. Our specific motivation is the recent expansion of the Barred Owl (Strix varia) in western Oregon, USA, over the period 1990-2010. Because the focal period was one of dramatic range expansion and local population increase, the use of models that incorporate regional occupancy (sources of colonists) as determinants of dynamic rate parameters is especially appropriate. We began our analysis of 21 years of Barred Owl presence/nondetection data in the Tyee Density Study Area (TDSA) by testing a suite of six models that varied only in the covariates included in the modeling of detection probability. We then tested whether models that used regional occupancy as a covariate for colonization and extinction outperformed models with constant or year-specific colonization or extinction rates. Finally we tested whether habitat covariates improved the AIC of our models, focusing on which habitat covariates performed best, and whether the signs of habitat effects are consistent with a priori hypotheses. We conclude that all covariates used to model detection probability lead to improved AIC, that regional occupancy influences colonization and extinction rates, and that habitat plays an important role in determining extinction and colonization rates. As occupancy increases from low levels toward equilibrium, colonization increases and extinction decreases, presumably because there are more and more dispersing juveniles. While both rates are affected, colonization increases more than extinction decreases

  20. Adverse effects of aromatherapy: a systematic review of case reports and case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posadzki, Paul; Alotaibi, Amani; Ernst, Edzard

    2012-01-01

    This systematic review was aimed at critically evaluating the evidence regarding the adverse effects associated with aromatherapy. Five electronic databases were searched to identify all relevant case reports and case series. Forty two primary reports met our inclusion criteria. In total, 71 patients experienced adverse effects of aromatherapy. Adverse effects ranged from mild to severe and included one fatality. The most common adverse effect was dermatitis. Lavender, peppermint, tea tree oil and ylang-ylang were the most common essential oils responsible for adverse effects. Aromatherapy has the potential to cause adverse effects some of which are serious. Their frequency remains unknown. Lack of sufficiently convincing evidence regarding the effectiveness of aromatherapy combined with its potential to cause adverse effects questions the usefulness of this modality in any condition.

  1. Heavy ion induced genetic effects in mammalian cells. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiefer, J.; Brend'amour, M.; Casares, A.; Egenolf, R.; Gutermuth, F.; Ikpeme, S.E.; Koch, S.; Kost, M.; Loebrich, M.; Pross, H.D.; Russmann, C.; Schmidt, P.; Schneider, E.; Stoll, U.; Weber, K.J.

    2001-01-01

    DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) are generally assumed to be the most relevant initial event producing radiation-induced cellular lethality, as well as mutations and transformations. The dependence of their formation on radiation quality has been recently reviewed. Contrary to earlier observations there seems to be now agreement that the RBE does not increase above unity with increasing LET in mammalian cells when conventional techniques are applied which are not able to resolve smaller fragments. If they are, however, included in the analysis maximum RBE values around 2 are obtained. The situation is different with yeast: An increased effectiveness for DSB induction has been reported with alpha particles, as well as for heavy ions. This may be due to differences in methods or to chromosomal structure, as discussed in more detail in this paper. DSB induction was measured for a LET range of 100 to 11500 keV/? m in yeast cells using pulsed field gel electrophoresis. Under the conditions applied the chromosomes of the yeast cells could be separated according to size allowing the direct quantification of the DSB yield by measuring the intensity of the largest chromosomes. The results demonstrate clearly that DSB induction in yeast depends on radiation quality. The derived cross-sections for DSB induction were also compared to those for cell inactivation determined in parallel experiments under identical irradiation conditions. (orig.)

  2. The Effect of Financial Reporting Quality on Financing and Investment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Windy Angela

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper analysis the effect of reporting quality on financing and investment. It is important for us to understand the relation among them in order to prepare Indonesian companies for ASEAN Economic Community in 2015. The study examines the effect of financial reporting quality on financing and investment of 15 Indonesian companies with large market capitalization based on the Standard and Poor’s Rating Services in its first survey of the major corporate credit trends in the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN. Those companies may still be under-investing in relation to its regional peers. The results suggest that (1 financial reporting quality has negative effect on financing. (2 financial reporting quality has positive effect on investment among companies with higher likelihood of over-investing and negative effect on investment among those with higher likelihood of under-investing.DOI: 10.15408/etk.v16i1.4600 

  3. FUNCTIONAL IMPROVEMENT UP TO SIX MONTHS AFTER TOTAL KNEE ARTHROPLASTY: MEASURED BY KNEE RANGE OF MOTION AND SELF-REPORTED QUESTIONNAIRE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirjana Kocić

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The primary aim of this study was to assess knee range of motion (ROM as well as patients’ reported pain, stiffness and function up to six months after total knee arthroplasty (TKA. The secondary aim was to analyze the extent to which knee ROM correlates with patient-rated outcome. A prospective study included 60 patients with primary TKA for osteorthritis, admitted at Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Clinic from April 2009 to October 2014. The patients were evaluated at 4 time points: at admission and at discharge, as well as at follow-up at 3 and at 6 months after surgery. The outcome parameters included: active knee ROM, as well as pain, stiffness and function according to self reported Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis (WOMAC questionnaire. Statistically highly significant improvement in flexion and extension was observed from admission to all other assessment time points (p<0.001. Also, statistically significant improvement of all three WOMAC subscales (pain, stiffness and function was found between all assessments points (p<0.001. According to values of Spearman correlation coefficient, there was significant negative correlation of flexion with all WOMAC subscales at all assessment points, whereas correlation of extension with any assessed outcome parameter was without significance. It can be concluded that in TKA patients all outcome measures improved significantly from admission to 6 months follow-up. Knee flexion ROM negatively and moderately to strongly correlated with pain, stiffness and function, whereas correlation of extension with any assessed outcome measure was without significance.

  4. 2016 Annual Site Environmental report Sandia National Laboratories Tonopah Test Range Nevada & Kaua'i Test Facility Hawai'i.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salas, Angela Maria [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Griffith, Stacy R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-07-01

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) is a multimission laboratory managed and operated by National Technology & Engineering Solutions of Sandia, LLC, a wholly owned subsidiary of Honeywell International Inc., for the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s), National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) under contract DE-NA0003525. The DOE/NNSA Sandia Field Office administers the contract and oversees contractor operations at the SNL, Tonopah Test Range (SNL/TTR) in Nevada and the SNL, Kaua‘i Test Facility (SNL/KTF) in Hawai‘i. SNL personnel manage and conduct operations at SNL/TTR in support of the DOE/NNSA’s Weapons Ordnance Program and have operated the site since 1957. Navarro Research and Engineering personnel perform most of the environmental programs activities at SNL/TTR. The DOE/NNSA/Nevada Field Office retains responsibility for cleanup and management of SNL/TTR Environmental Restoration sites. SNL personnel operate SNL/KTF as a rocket preparation launching and tracking facility. This Annual Site Environmental Report (ASER) summarizes data and the compliance status of sustainability, environmental protection, and monitoring programs at SNL/TTR and SNL/KTF during calendar year 2016. Major environmental programs include air quality, water quality, groundwater protection, terrestrial and biological surveillance, waste management, pollution prevention, environmental restoration, oil and chemical spill prevention, and implementation of the National Environmental Policy Act. This ASER is prepared in accordance with and as required by DOE O 231.1B, Admin Change 1, Environment, Safety, and Health Reporting.

  5. Effect of Feed Additives on Productivity and Campylobacter spp. Loads in Broilers Reared under Free Range Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guyard-Nicodème, Muriel; Huneau-Salaün, Adeline; Tatone, Fabrizio A; Skiba, Fabien; Quentin, Maxime; Quesne, Ségolène; Poezevara, Typhaine; Chemaly, Marianne

    2017-01-01

    The poultry reservoir, especially broiler meat, is generally recognized as one of the most-important sources for human Campylobacteriosis. The measures to control Campylobacter targeted essentially the primary production level. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effectiveness of different treatments against natural Campylobacter colonization in a French experimental farm of free-range broilers during the whole rearing period. Five commercial products and a combination of two of them were tested and all the products were added to feed or to water at the dose recommended by the suppliers. Campylobacter loads in caeca and on carcasses of broilers at the slaughter were determined by culture methods. Natural contamination of the flock occurred at the end of the indoor rearing period between day 35 and day 42. At day 42, the multispecies probiotic added to the feed reduced the contamination of 0.55 log 10 CFU/g ( p = 0.02) but was not significant ( p > 0.05) at the end of rearing at day 78. However, another treatment, a combination of a cation exchange clay-based product in feed and an organic acid mixture (formic acid, sodium formate, lactic acid, propionic acid) in water, led to a slight but significant reduction of 0.82 ± 0.25 log 10 CFU/g ( p = 0.02) compared to the control group at day 78. Testing this combination in field conditions in several flocks is needed to determine if it is biologically relevant and if it could be a valuable measure to reduce Campylobacter in broiler flocks.

  6. Effects of coarse-graining on the scaling behavior of long-range correlated and anti-correlated signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yinlin; Ma, Qianli D Y; Schmitt, Daniel T; Bernaola-Galván, Pedro; Ivanov, Plamen Ch

    2011-11-01

    We investigate how various coarse-graining (signal quantization) methods affect the scaling properties of long-range power-law correlated and anti-correlated signals, quantified by the detrended fluctuation analysis. Specifically, for coarse-graining in the magnitude of a signal, we consider (i) the Floor, (ii) the Symmetry and (iii) the Centro-Symmetry coarse-graining methods. We find that for anti-correlated signals coarse-graining in the magnitude leads to a crossover to random behavior at large scales, and that with increasing the width of the coarse-graining partition interval Δ, this crossover moves to intermediate and small scales. In contrast, the scaling of positively correlated signals is less affected by the coarse-graining, with no observable changes when Δ 1 a crossover appears at small scales and moves to intermediate and large scales with increasing Δ. For very rough coarse-graining (Δ > 3) based on the Floor and Symmetry methods, the position of the crossover stabilizes, in contrast to the Centro-Symmetry method where the crossover continuously moves across scales and leads to a random behavior at all scales; thus indicating a much stronger effect of the Centro-Symmetry compared to the Floor and the Symmetry method. For coarse-graining in time, where data points are averaged in non-overlapping time windows, we find that the scaling for both anti-correlated and positively correlated signals is practically preserved. The results of our simulations are useful for the correct interpretation of the correlation and scaling properties of symbolic sequences.

  7. Effect of Feed Additives on Productivity and Campylobacter spp. Loads in Broilers Reared under Free Range Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muriel Guyard-Nicodème

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The poultry reservoir, especially broiler meat, is generally recognized as one of the most-important sources for human Campylobacteriosis. The measures to control Campylobacter targeted essentially the primary production level. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effectiveness of different treatments against natural Campylobacter colonization in a French experimental farm of free-range broilers during the whole rearing period. Five commercial products and a combination of two of them were tested and all the products were added to feed or to water at the dose recommended by the suppliers. Campylobacter loads in caeca and on carcasses of broilers at the slaughter were determined by culture methods. Natural contamination of the flock occurred at the end of the indoor rearing period between day 35 and day 42. At day 42, the multispecies probiotic added to the feed reduced the contamination of 0.55 log10 CFU/g (p = 0.02 but was not significant (p > 0.05 at the end of rearing at day 78. However, another treatment, a combination of a cation exchange clay-based product in feed and an organic acid mixture (formic acid, sodium formate, lactic acid, propionic acid in water, led to a slight but significant reduction of 0.82 ± 0.25 log10 CFU/g (p = 0.02 compared to the control group at day 78. Testing this combination in field conditions in several flocks is needed to determine if it is biologically relevant and if it could be a valuable measure to reduce Campylobacter in broiler flocks.

  8. The effect of instantaneous input dynamic range setting on the speech perception of children with the nucleus 24 implant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Lisa S; Skinner, Margaret W; Holstad, Beth A; Fears, Beverly T; Richter, Marie K; Matusofsky, Margaret; Brenner, Christine; Holden, Timothy; Birath, Amy; Kettel, Jerrica L; Scollie, Susan

    2009-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a wider instantaneous input dynamic range (IIDR) setting on speech perception and comfort in quiet and noise for children wearing the Nucleus 24 implant system and the Freedom speech processor. In addition, children's ability to understand soft and conversational level speech in relation to aided sound-field thresholds was examined. Thirty children (age, 7 to 17 years) with the Nucleus 24 cochlear implant system and the Freedom speech processor with two different IIDR settings (30 versus 40 dB) were tested on the Consonant Nucleus Consonant (CNC) word test at 50 and 60 dB SPL, the Bamford-Kowal-Bench Speech in Noise Test, and a loudness rating task for four-talker speech noise. Aided thresholds for frequency-modulated tones, narrowband noise, and recorded Ling sounds were obtained with the two IIDRs and examined in relation to CNC scores at 50 dB SPL. Speech Intelligibility Indices were calculated using the long-term average speech spectrum of the CNC words at 50 dB SPL measured at each test site and aided thresholds. Group mean CNC scores at 50 dB SPL with the 40 IIDR were significantly higher (p Speech in Noise Test were not significantly different for the two IIDRs. Significantly improved aided thresholds at 250 to 6000 Hz as well as higher Speech Intelligibility Indices afforded improved audibility for speech presented at soft levels (50 dB SPL). These results indicate that an increased IIDR provides improved word recognition for soft levels of speech without compromising comfort of higher levels of speech sounds or sentence recognition in noise.

  9. Cryptococcus neoformans granuloma in the lung and spinal cord of a free-ranging cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus). A clinical report and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millward, I R; Williams, M C

    2005-12-01

    A 6-year-old, male, wild-born, free-ranging cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) was evaluated for acute onset of progressive lameness in the right hind limb. Survey radiographs were unrewarding and myelography indicated an intramedullary compressive mass at the L3-L4 region. A fine needle aspirate of the lesion indicated the presence of Cryptococcus organisms. Necropsy confirmed the presence of granulomas (cryptococcoma) in the lung and the spinal cord (meningomyelitis) caused by Cryptococcus neoformans var. gattii. Cryptococcus neoformans is a yeast-like organism that is a potential pathogen to many species. Initial infection is thought to be of respiratory origin and then it commonly disseminates systemically from the nasal cavity or lungs to the skin, eyes and central nervous system in particular. The cheetah tested negative for both feline leukaemia virus (FeLV) and feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), as have all the previously reported cheetah cases. C. neoformans is a non-contagious, opportunistic organism and is the most common systemic mycoses in domestic cats and the cheetah.

  10. Cryptococcus neoformans granuloma in the lung and spinal cord of a free-ranging cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus. A clinical report and literature review : clinical communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.R. Millward

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available A 6-year-old, male, wild-born, free-ranging cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus was evaluated for acute onset of progressive lameness in the right hind limb. Survey radiographs were unrewarding and myelography indicated an intramedullary compressive mass at the L3-L4 region. A fine needle aspirate of the lesion indicated the presence of Cryptococcus organisms. Necropsy confirmed the presence of granulomas (cryptococcoma in the lung and the spinal cord (meningomyelitis caused by Cryptococcus neoformans var. gattii. Cryptococcus neoformans is a yeast-like organism that is a potential pathogen to many species. Initial infection is thought to be of respiratory origin and then it commonly disseminates systemically from the nasal cavity or lungs to the skin, eyes and central nervous system in particular. The cheetah tested negative for both feline leukaemia virus (FeLV and feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV, as have all the previously reported cheetah cases. C. neoformans is a non-contagious, opportunistic organism and is the most common systemic mycoses in domestic cats and the cheetah.

  11. Prediction ranges. Annual review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parker, J.C.; Tharp, W.H.; Spiro, P.S.; Keng, K.; Angastiniotis, M.; Hachey, L.T.

    1988-01-01

    Prediction ranges equip the planner with one more tool for improved assessment of the outcome of a course of action. One of their major uses is in financial evaluations, where corporate policy requires the performance of uncertainty analysis for large projects. This report gives an overview of the uses of prediction ranges, with examples; and risks and uncertainties in growth, inflation, and interest and exchange rates. Prediction ranges and standard deviations of 80% and 50% probability are given for various economic indicators in Ontario, Canada, and the USA, as well as for foreign exchange rates and Ontario Hydro interest rates. An explanatory note on probability is also included. 23 tabs.

  12. Executive Financial Reporting: Seven Principles to Use in Developing Effective Reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, William A.; Fischer, Mary

    1991-01-01

    Higher education institution business officers need to follow principles of presentation, judgment, and measurement in developing effective executive financial reports. Principles include (1) keep the statement simple; (2) be consistent in reporting from year to year; (3) determine user needs and interests; (4) limit data; (5) provide trend lines;…

  13. Soliton microcomb range measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suh, Myoung-Gyun; Vahala, Kerry J.

    2018-02-01

    Laser-based range measurement systems are important in many application areas, including autonomous vehicles, robotics, manufacturing, formation flying of satellites, and basic science. Coherent laser ranging systems using dual-frequency combs provide an unprecedented combination of long range, high precision, and fast update rate. We report dual-comb distance measurement using chip-based soliton microcombs. A single pump laser was used to generate dual-frequency combs within a single microresonator as counterpropagating solitons. We demonstrated time-of-flight measurement with 200-nanometer precision at an averaging time of 500 milliseconds within a range ambiguity of 16 millimeters. Measurements at distances up to 25 meters with much lower precision were also performed. Our chip-based source is an important step toward miniature dual-comb laser ranging systems that are suitable for photonic integration.

  14. Monitoring of long-range transported air pollutants and precipitation. Monitoring programme for forest damage. Abstract of annual reports 1996; Overvaaking av langtransportert forurenset luft og nedboer. Overvaakingsprogram for skogskader. Sammendrag av aarsrapporter 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    This report sums up the results for 1996 of two monitoring programmes: `` Norwegian Monitoring Programme for Long-Range Transported Air Pollutants`` and ``Norwegian forest monitoring programme``. The atmospheric pollution is monitored by measurements of chemical main components in the air and in precipitation. The effects of the pollutants on water quality are followed by monitoring of rivers, lakes and field research areas. The effects on fish are followed by regional investigations on benthic organisms, zooplankton and fish populations in rivers and lakes. Water chemical samples are taken each month from 16 rivers and acid material is monitored at seven field research areas. Samples are also taken from 200 lakes every autumn. The biological monitoring programme comprises fish in lakes and streams and benthic animals in lakes. The monitoring of forest damage uses three nation-wide areas from which registrations have been taken over a period of ten years. 28 figs., 6 tabs.

  15. Reporting effect sizes as a supplement to statistical significance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of the article is to review the statistical significance reporting practices in reading instruction studies and to provide guidelines for when to calculate and report effect sizes in educational research. A review of six readily accessible (online) and accredited journals publishing research on reading instruction ...

  16. Professional Bandwagons and Local Discursive Effects: Reporting the Literate Student.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comber, Barbara

    Despite the considerable attention given to literacy assessment, there has been very little examination of one of the most common assessment and reporting practices; namely, the teacher written report card. What kinds of literate subjects are constructed in teachers' written assessments of students and what are the effects for different students?…

  17. Effectiveness Monitoring Report, MWMF Tritium Phytoremediation Interim Measures.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hitchcock, Dan; Blake, John, I.

    2003-02-10

    This report describes and presents the results of monitoring activities during irrigation operations for the calendar year 2001 of the MWMF Interim Measures Tritium Phytoremediation Project. The purpose of this effectiveness monitoring report is to provide the information on instrument performance, analysis of CY2001 measurements, and critical relationships needed to manage irrigation operations, estimate efficiency and validate the water and tritium balance model.

  18. Improved Models and Tools for Prediction of Radiation Effects on Space Electronics in Wide Temperature Range, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — All NASA exploration systems operate in the extreme environments of space and require reliable electronics capable of handling a wide temperature range (-180ºC to...

  19. The effect of neighbourhood definitions on spatio-temporal models of disease outbreaks: Separation distance versus range overlap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laffan, Shawn W; Wang, Zhaoyuan; Ward, Michael P

    2011-12-01

    The definition of the spatial relatedness between infectious and susceptible animal groups is a fundamental component of spatio-temporal modelling of disease outbreaks. A common neighbourhood definition for disease spread in wild and feral animal populations is the distance between the centroids of neighbouring group home ranges. This distance can be used to define neighbourhood interactions, and also to describe the probability of successful disease transmission. Key limitations of this approach are (1) that a susceptible neighbour of an infectious group with an overlapping home range - but whose centroid lies outside the home range of an infectious group - will not be considered for disease transmission, and (2) the degree of overlap between the home ranges is not taken into account for those groups with centroids inside the infectious home range. We assessed the impact of both distance-based and range overlap methods of disease transmission on model-predicted disease spread. Range overlap was calculated using home ranges modelled as circles. We used the Sirca geographic automata model, with the population data from a nine-county study area in Texas that we have previously described. For each method we applied 100 model repetitions, each of 100 time steps, to 30 index locations. The results show that the rate of disease spread for the range-overlap method is clearly less than the distance-based method, with median outbreaks modelled using the latter being 1.4-1.45 times larger. However, the two methods show similar overall trends in the area infected, and the range-overlap median (48 and 120 for cattle and pigs, respectively) falls within the 5th-95th percentile range of the distance-based method (0-96 and 0-252 for cattle and pigs, respectively). These differences can be attributed to the calculation of the interaction probabilities in the two methods, with overlap weights generally resulting in lower interaction probabilities. The definition of spatial

  20. Study of short range order in alloy of glassy metals and effect of neutron irradiation on them

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Habibi, S.; Banaee, N.; Salman, M.; Gupta, A.; Principi, G.

    2000-04-01

    In this paper, we have studied a series of glassy metals with composition Fe 78-x Ni x Si 8 B 14 with x=0, 15, 25,38,53, 58. We have used Moessbauer spectroscopy to get information about short range order and local structure in these alloys. The specimens are exposed to neutron irradiation to perturb local structure and their short range order. The hyperfine parameters obtained from spectra before and after n-irradiation and are compared

  1. Free range and deep litter poultry production systems: effect on performance, carcass yield and meat composition of cockerel chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sogunle, Olajide Mark; Olaniyi, Olagoke Ayobami; Egbeyale, Lawrence Tokunbo; Akinola, Olufemi Sunday; Shittu, Taofeek A; Abiola, Samuel Soladoye; Ladokun, Abimbola O; Sobayo, Richard Abayomi

    2013-01-01

    This study was carried out on 150 cockerel chickens each of Harco Black and Novogen strains to determine their performance, carcass yield and meat composition on free range and deep litter production systems. The birds were brooded for 4 weeks and thereafter allotted to the different production systems for a period of 12 weeks. Each production system was allotted 150 chicks (75 chicks per strain) with three replicates of 25 chicks. The birds on deep litter production system were fed ad libitum while each bird on free range was fed 50 % of its daily feed requirement. On the 84 th day, a total of 36 birds were randomly selected for analysis of the carcass yield and meat composition. The data generated were subjected to a two-way analysis of variance in a 2 × 2 factorial experimental arrangement. Novogen strain consumed less feed (P free range and had the best feed/gain (2.72). A higher (P free range. The tibia proximal length and breadth, and tibia distal length and breadth were significantly (P free range, Harco black had more meat (85.69 g) than bone (18.07 g) in the breast while Novogen had the lowest meat/bone (2.38). Conclusively, Novogen strain should be raised on free range for a better performance in terms of feed/gain, but for higher meat composition, Harco black is a better strain.

  2. SHORT-TERM EFFECTS OF INSTRUMENT-ASSISTED SOFT TISSUE MOBILIZATION ON PAIN FREE RANGE OF MOTION IN A WEIGHTLIFTER WITH SUBACROMIAL PAIN SYNDROME.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coviello, Joseph Paul; Kakar, Rumit Singh; Reynolds, Timothy James

    2017-02-01

    While there is limited evidence supporting the use of soft tissue mobilization techniques for Subacromial Pain Syndrome (SAPS), synonymous with subacromial impingement syndrome, previous studies have reported successful outcomes using soft tissue mobilization as a treatment technique. The purpose of this case report is to document the results of Instrument-Assisted Soft Tissue Mobilization (IASTM) for the treatment of SAPS. Diagnosis was reached based on the subject's history, tenderness to palpation, and four out of five positive tests in the diagnostic cluster. Treatment consisted of three visits where the IASTM technique was applied to the pectoral muscles as well as periscapular musculature followed by retesting pain-free shoulder flexion active range of motion (AROM) and Numerical Pain Rating Scale (NPRS) during active shoulder flexion. Scapulothoracic mobilization and stretching were performed after AROM measurement. The subject reported an NPRS of 0/10 and demonstrated improvements in pain free flexion AROM in each of the three treatment sessions post-IASTM: 85 ° to 181 °, 110 ° to 171 °, and 163 ° to 174 ° with some carryover in pain reduction and pain free AROM to the next treatment. Through three treatments, DASH score improved by 17.34%, Penn Shoulder Score improved 29%, worst NPRS decreased from 4/10 to 0/10, and a GROC score of 6. IASTM may have a beneficial acute effect on pain free shoulder flexion. In conjunction with scapulothoracic mobilizations and stretching, IASTM may improve function, decrease pain, and improve patient satisfaction. While this technique will not ameliorate the underlying pathomechanics contributing to SAPS, it may serve as a valuable tool to restore ROM and decrease pain allowing the patient to reap the full benefits of a multi-modal treatment approach. 5.

  3. A closed-form solution for the two-dimensional transport equation by the LTS{sub N} nodal method in the energy range of Compton effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez, B.D.A., E-mail: barbararodriguez@furg.b [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande, Instituto de Matematica, Estatistica e Fisica, Rio Grande, RS (Brazil); Vilhena, M.T., E-mail: vilhena@mat.ufrgs.b [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Departamento de Matematica Pura e Aplicada, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Hoff, G., E-mail: hoff@pucrs.b [Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio Grande do Sul, Faculdade de Fisica, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Bodmann, B.E.J., E-mail: bardo.bodmann@ufrgs.b [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Departamento de Matematica Pura e Aplicada, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)

    2011-01-15

    In the present work we report on a closed-form solution for the two-dimensional Compton transport equation by the LTS{sub N} nodal method in the energy range of Compton effect. The solution is determined using the LTS{sub N} nodal approach for homogeneous and heterogeneous rectangular domains, assuming the Klein-Nishina scattering kernel and a multi-group model. The solution is obtained by two one-dimensional S{sub N} equation systems resulting from integrating out one of the orthogonal variables of the S{sub N} equations in the rectangular domain. The leakage angular fluxes are approximated by exponential forms, which allows to determine a closed-form solution for the photons transport equation. The angular flux and the parameters of the medium are used for the calculation of the absorbed energy in rectangular domains with different dimensions and compositions. In this study, only the absorbed energy by Compton effect is considered. We present numerical simulations and comparisons with results obtained by using the simulation platform GEANT4 (version 9.1) with its low energy libraries.

  4. Annual report of the Committee for the environment-effect-reporting for the year 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    This annual report over 1988 presents a general survey of the activities of the Dutch Committee for the environment-effect-reporting (m.e.r.). Besides two themes are discussed in depth: the signifcance of m.e.r. in the decision-making and the discharging from the m.e.r. duty. The appendices contain an overview of the assembly of the Committee, of the gaps in knowledge and information observed in environment-effect reports, the durations of the projects, descriptions of the state of affairs per project and a list of advises brought out by the Committee. (author)

  5. Potential effects of climate change on the distribution range of the main silicate sinker of the Southern Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinkernell, Stefan; Beszteri, Bánk

    2014-08-01

    Fragilariopsis kerguelensis, a dominant diatom species throughout the Antarctic Circumpolar Current, is coined to be one of the main drivers of the biological silicate pump. Here, we study the distribution of this important species and expected consequences of climate change upon it, using correlative species distribution modeling and publicly available presence-only data. As experience with SDM is scarce for marine phytoplankton, this also serves as a pilot study for this organism group. We used the maximum entropy method to calculate distribution models for the diatom F. kerguelensis based on yearly and monthly environmental data (sea surface temperature, salinity, nitrate and silicate concentrations). Observation data were harvested from GBIF and the Global Diatom Database, and for further analyses also from the Hustedt Diatom Collection (BRM). The models were projected on current yearly and seasonal environmental data to study current distribution and its seasonality. Furthermore, we projected the seasonal model on future environmental data obtained from climate models for the year 2100. Projected on current yearly averaged environmental data, all models showed similar distribution patterns for F. kerguelensis. The monthly model showed seasonality, for example, a shift of the southern distribution boundary toward the north in the winter. Projections on future scenarios resulted in a moderately to negligibly shrinking distribution area and a change in seasonality. We found a substantial bias in the publicly available observation datasets, which could be reduced by additional observation records we obtained from the Hustedt Diatom Collection. Present-day distribution patterns inferred from the models coincided well with background knowledge and previous reports about F. kerguelensis distribution, showing that maximum entropy-based distribution models are suitable to map distribution patterns for oceanic planktonic organisms. Our scenario projections indicate

  6. EV range sensitivity analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ostafew, C. [Azure Dynamics Corp., Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    This presentation included a sensitivity analysis of electric vehicle components on overall efficiency. The presentation provided an overview of drive cycles and discussed the major contributors to range in terms of rolling resistance; aerodynamic drag; motor efficiency; and vehicle mass. Drive cycles that were presented included: New York City Cycle (NYCC); urban dynamometer drive cycle; and US06. A summary of the findings were presented for each of the major contributors. Rolling resistance was found to have a balanced effect on each drive cycle and proportional to range. In terms of aerodynamic drive, there was a large effect on US06 range. A large effect was also found on NYCC range in terms of motor efficiency and vehicle mass. figs.

  7. Side effects are incompletely reported among systematic reviews in gastroenterology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahady, Suzanne E; Schlub, Timothy; Bero, Lisa; Moher, David; Tovey, David; George, Jacob; Craig, Jonathan C

    2015-02-01

    Systematic reviews are an integral component of evidence-based health care. However, little is known on how well they report the potential harms of interventions. We assessed the reporting of harms in recently published systematic reviews of interventions relevant to clinical gastroenterology. We identified all systematic reviews of randomized trials of gastroenterology interventions published from 2008 to 2012 in highly cited gastroenterology and general medical journals. We adapted the Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials guidelines for harms and assessed qualitative and quantitative parameters of harms reporting. Regression analyses determined predictors of more comprehensive harms reporting. In total, 78 systematic reviews were identified, with 72 published in gastroenterology journals and six in general medical journals. Overall, one in three systematic reviews (26/78, 33%) did not refer to harms of the intervention anywhere in the article. Less than half of the studies included adverse events as an outcome measure, and data on absolute rates of adverse events were only provided in 28%. Most (65%) did not include any figures or tables on adverse event; however, all included these on efficacy outcomes (mean, 3 and range, 1-7). Regression analyses indicated that the use of reporting guidelines was significantly associated with better harms reporting (P = 0.04). The reporting of harms in gastroenterology systematic reviews is largely inadequate and highly asymmetrical compared with the reporting of benefits. We suggest that review authors routinely assess both efficacy and harms outcomes of an intervention and that reporting guidelines specifically targeting harms reporting be developed. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Report of tests carried out on Viton O-ring seals to assess suitability for operation over the temperature range -400 C to +2200 C when used in Package Design 2863B

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    To satisfy the requirements of US Regulatory bodies the O-ring seals in the containment vessels of Package Design 2863B have to be shown to operate satisfactorily (i.e. remain leaktight) at the extremes of temperature that they are expected to experience during both normal and hypothetical accident conditions of transport. For Package Design 2863B this effectively means that the seals must remain leaktight over the temperature range -40 C to + 220 C, but to ensure that an adequate safety margin exists the seals should preferably remain leaktight over the range -50 C to +250 C. This test report describes the procedures and results of tests carried out on Viton seals over the temperature range -50 C to +250 C. The variability of the results at low temperature, by both pressure drop and helium leakage testing, would indicate that the particular formulation of Viton tested cannot be used to provide a reliable leaktight seal at -40 C. Although the results of the pressure drop tests at high temperature were satisfactory, insufficient testing has been carried out using helium leakage testing to draw a firm conclusion about the high temperature performance of the material tested

  9. The effect of fog on the probability density distribution of the ranging data of imaging laser radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Wenhua; Lai, JianCheng; Ghassemlooy, Zabih; Gu, Zhiyong; Yan, Wei; Wang, Chunyong; Li, Zhenhua

    2018-02-01

    This paper outlines theoretically investigations of the probability density distribution (PDD) of ranging data for the imaging laser radar (ILR) system operating at a wavelength of 905 nm under the fog condition. Based on the physical model of the reflected laser pulses from a standard Lambertian target, a theoretical approximate model of PDD of the ranging data is developed under different fog concentrations, which offer improved precision target ranging and imaging. An experimental test bed for the ILR system is developed and its performance is evaluated using a dedicated indoor atmospheric chamber under homogeneously controlled fog conditions. We show that the measured results are in good agreement with both the accurate and approximate models within a given margin of error of less than 1%.

  10. The effect of fog on the probability density distribution of the ranging data of imaging laser radar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenhua Song

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper outlines theoretically investigations of the probability density distribution (PDD of ranging data for the imaging laser radar (ILR system operating at a wavelength of 905 nm under the fog condition. Based on the physical model of the reflected laser pulses from a standard Lambertian target, a theoretical approximate model of PDD of the ranging data is developed under different fog concentrations, which offer improved precision target ranging and imaging. An experimental test bed for the ILR system is developed and its performance is evaluated using a dedicated indoor atmospheric chamber under homogeneously controlled fog conditions. We show that the measured results are in good agreement with both the accurate and approximate models within a given margin of error of less than 1%.

  11. Interpreting and Reporting Effect Sizes in Research Investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapia, Martha; Marsh, George E., II

    Since 1994, the American Psychological Association (APA) has advocated the inclusion of effect size indices in reporting research to elucidate the statistical significance of studies based on sample size. In 2001, the fifth edition of the APA "Publication Manual" stressed the importance of including an index of effect size to clarify…

  12. Effects of climate changes on forest ecosystems. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lasch, P.; Lindner, M.; Bellmann, K.

    1995-08-01

    The report evalutates the current state of knowledge on the effects of site-related climate factors (temperature sum in the vegetation period, frost, water supply and arid phases) on the growth and distribution of different tree species. The effects of increasing CO2 levels in the atmosphere are discussed as well. ( orig./MG) [de

  13. Effect of the product type, of the amount of applied sunscreen product and the level of protection in the UVB range on the level of protection achieved in the UVA range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couteau, C; Diarra, H; Coiffard, L

    2016-03-16

    Using a topical product is part of the overall strategy for skin cancer prevention. The level of protection attainable when using commercial products is indicated by the Sun Protection Factor (SPF) value, in use everywhere. This value reflects the level of protection primarily in the UVB range. However, UVA radiation also has deleterious effects on the skin, and it is essential to prevent it, which is why products must offer a wide spectrum of protection. Tests conducted in vivo, before any marketing, are done by applying the studied product at a rate of 2.0 mg cm(-2), while users, in practice, only use 1.0-1.5 mg cm(-2). We now know that this reduction in the amount of applied product greatly affects the SPF. To complete the state of knowledge in this area, we sought to evaluate the effect of a decrease in the amount of applied sunscreen product by studying sunscreen creams and oils on the level of protection attainable in the UVA range. We have shown that the PF-UVA is divided by a factor of 2.2, on average, when the amount of applied product is reduced by half, with differences depending on the product type under consideration (cream or oil) and depending on the SPF of the preparation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Effects of supplements with increasing glucogenic precursor content on reproduction and nutrient partitioning in young postpartum range cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altering nutrient partitioning in young postpartum beef cows from milk production to body weight gain has potential to improve reproductive performance. A 2-yr study conducted at the Corona Range and Livestock Research Center from February to July in 2003 (n = 33) and 2004 (n = 26) evaluated respons...

  15. Dynamic-range reduction by peak clipping or compression and its effects on phoneme perception in hearing-impaired listeners

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dreschler, W. A.

    1988-01-01

    In this study, differences between dynamic-range reduction by peak clipping and single-channel compression for phoneme perception through conventional hearing aids have been investigated. The results from 16 hearing-impaired listeners show that compression limiting yields significantly better

  16. The effect of mature elephant bull introductions on ranging patterns of resident bulls: Phinda Private Game Reserve, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heleen Druce

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Increasing popularity of wildlife viewing has resulted in a rapid increase in small, enclosed reserves in South Africa. The African elephant is one of the many species that has been reintroduced into these reserves for eco-tourism. These elephant populations were established as young (smaller that 10 years old orphans from prior Kruger National Park culling operations. Consequently, this abnormal sex and age structure of these introduced populations has influenced their behavioural and spatial ecology. In Pilanesberg National Park, this abnormal behaviour was corrected by introducing older bulls and culling certain problem elephants. In July 2003, three older bulls (29–41 years old were introduced into Phinda Private Game Reserve, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa in order to normalise the bull age structure. These introduced bulls were monitored intensively after release, as was the resident bull population, both before and after introduction of the older bulls. The introduced bulls settled into restricted ranges separate from the family groups. All the resident bulls decreased their home ranges at first, with most increasing their home ranges a year later. The resident bulls’ change in ranging patterns was due more to ecological factors than to the influence of the mature bull introduction. This study indicates that the introduction of older male elephants into small populations does not pose major risks or animal welfare concerns.

  17. Measuring Relativistic effects in the field of the Earth with Laser Ranged Satellites and the LARASE research program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucchesi, David; Anselmo, Luciano; Bassan, Massimo; Magnafico, Carmelo; Pardini, Carmen; Peron, Roberto; Pucacco, Giuseppe; Stanga, Ruggero; Visco, Massimo

    2017-04-01

    The main goal of the LARASE (LAser RAnged Satellites Experiment) research program is to obtain refined tests of Einstein's theory of General Relativity (GR) by means of very precise measurements of the round-trip time among a number of ground stations of the International Laser Ranging Service (ILRS) network and a set of geodetic satellites. These measurements are guaranteed by means of the powerful and precise Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR) technique. In particular, a big effort of LARASE is dedicated to improve the dynamical models of the LAGEOS, LAGEOS II and LARES satellites, with the objective to obtain a more precise and accurate determination of their orbit. These activities contribute to reach a final error budget that should be robust and reliable in the evaluation of the main systematic errors sources that come to play a major role in masking the relativistic precession on the orbit of these laser-ranged satellites. These error sources may be of gravitational and non-gravitational origin. It is important to stress that a more accurate and precise orbit determination, based on more reliable dynamical models, represents a fundamental prerequisite in order to reach a sub-mm precision in the root-mean-square of the SLR range residuals and, consequently, to gather benefits in the fields of geophysics and space geodesy, such as stations coordinates knowledge, geocenter determination and the realization of the Earth's reference frame. The results reached over the last year will be presented in terms of the improvements achieved in the dynamical model, in the orbit determination and, finally, in the measurement of the relativistic precessions that act on the orbit of the satellites considered.

  18. Autonomous Target Ranging Techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Peter Siegbjørn; Jørgensen, John Leif; Denver, Troelz

    2003-01-01

    of this telescope, a fast determination of the range to and the motion of the detected targets are important. This is needed in order to prepare the future observation strategy for each target, i.e. when is the closest approach where imaging will be optimal. In order to quickly obtain such a determination two...... ranging strategies are presented. One is an improved laser ranger with an effective range with non-cooperative targets of at least 10,000 km, demonstrated in ground tests. The accuracy of the laser ranging will be approximately 1 m. The laser ranger may furthermore be used for trajectory determination...... of nano-gravity probes, which will perform direct mass measurements of selected targets. The other is triangulation from two spacecraft. For this method it is important to distinguish between detection and tracking range, which will be different for Bering since different instruments are used...

  19. The Effect of 2 Forms of Talocrural Joint Traction on Dorsiflexion Range of Motion and Postural Control in Those With Chronic Ankle Instability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powden, Cameron J; Hogan, Kathleen K; Wikstrom, Erik A; Hoch, Matthew C

    2017-05-01

    Talocrural joint mobilizations are commonly used to address deficits associated with chronic ankle instability (CAI). Examine the immediate effects of talocrural joint traction in those with CAI. Blinded, crossover. Laboratory. Twenty adults (14 females; age = 23.80 ± 4.02 y; height = 169.55 ± 12.38 cm; weight = 78.34 ± 16.32 kg) with self-reported CAI participated. Inclusion criteria consisted of a history of ≥1 ankle sprain, ≥2 episodes of giving way in the previous 3 mo, answering "yes" to ≥4 questions on the Ankle Instability Instrument, and ≤24 on the Cumberland Ankle Instability Tool. Subjects participated in 3 sessions in which they received a single treatment session of sustained traction (ST), oscillatory traction (OT), or a sham condition in a randomized order. Interventions consisted of four 30-s sets of traction with 1 min of rest between sets. During ST and OT, the talus was distracted distally from the ankle mortise to the end-range of accessory motion. ST consisted of continuous distraction and OT involved 1-s oscillations between the mid and end-range of accessory motion. The sham condition consisted of physical contact without force application. Preintervention and postintervention measurements of weight-bearing dorsiflexion, dynamic balance, and static single-limb balance were collected. The independent variable was treatment (ST, OT, sham). The dependent variables included pre-to-posttreatment change scores for the WBLT (cm), normalized SEBTAR (%), and time-to-boundary (TTB) variables(s). Separate 1-way ANOVAs examined differences between treatments for each dependent variable. Alpha was set a priori at P manual therapies.

  20. Effects of Lumbar Core Stability Exercise Programme on Knee Pain, Range of Motion, and Function Post Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyanka Panchal

    2017-12-01

    Conclusion: Institutional conventional exercise protocol is effective in reducing pain and improving the ROM post and lumbar core stability exercise programme is effective in improving function, post ACL reconstruction.

  1. Soil conditions and land use intensification effects on soil microbial communities across a range of European field sites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thomson, Bruce C.; Tisserant, Emilie; Plassart, Pierre; Uroz, Stéphane; Griffiths, Rob I.; Hannula, S. Emilia; Buée, Marc; Mougel, Christophe; Ranjard, Lionel; Van Veen, Johannes A.; Martin, Francis; Bailey, Mark J.; Lemanceau, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Intensive land use practices necessary for providing food and raw materials are known to have a deleterious effect on soil. However, the effects such practices have on soil microbes are less well understood. To investigate the effects of land use intensification on soil microbial

  2. The effect of large decoherence on mixing time in continuous-time quantum walks on long-range interacting cycles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salimi, S; Radgohar, R, E-mail: shsalimi@uok.ac.i, E-mail: r.radgohar@uok.ac.i [Faculty of Science, Department of Physics, University of Kurdistan, Pasdaran Ave, Sanandaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2010-01-28

    In this paper, we consider decoherence in continuous-time quantum walks on long-range interacting cycles (LRICs), which are the extensions of the cycle graphs. For this purpose, we use Gurvitz's model and assume that every node is monitored by the corresponding point-contact induced by the decoherence process. Then, we focus on large rates of decoherence and calculate the probability distribution analytically and obtain the lower and upper bounds of the mixing time. Our results prove that the mixing time is proportional to the rate of decoherence and the inverse of the square of the distance parameter (m). This shows that the mixing time decreases with increasing range of interaction. Also, what we obtain for m = 0 is in agreement with Fedichkin, Solenov and Tamon's results [48] for cycle, and we see that the mixing time of CTQWs on cycle improves with adding interacting edges.

  3. The effect of range changes on the functional turnover, structure and diversity of bird assemblages under future climate scenarios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbet-Massin, Morgane; Jetz, Walter

    2015-08-01

    Animal assemblages fulfill a critical set of ecological functions for ecosystems that may be altered substantially as climate change-induced distribution changes lead to community disaggregation and reassembly. We combine species and community perspectives to assess the consequences of projected geographic range changes for the diverse functional attributes of avian assemblages worldwide. Assemblage functional structure is projected to change highly unevenly across space. These differences arise from both changes in the number of species and changes in species' relative local functional redundancy or distinctness. They sometimes result in substantial losses of functional diversity that could have severe consequences for ecosystem health. Range expansions may counter functional losses in high-latitude regions, but offer little compensation in many tropical and subtropical biomes. Future management of local community function and ecosystem services thus relies on understanding the global dynamics of species distributions and multiscale approaches that include the biogeographic context of species traits. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Acute effects of static stretching on peak and end-range hamstring-to-quadriceps functional ratios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekir, Ufuk; Arabaci, Ramiz; Akova, Bedrettin

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate if static stretching influences peak and end-range functional hamstring-to-quadriceps (H/Q) strength ratios in elite women athletes. METHODS: Eleven healthy female athletes in an elite competitive level participated to the study. All the participants fulfilled the static stretching or non-stretching (control) intervention protocol in a randomized design on different days. Two static unassisted stretching exercises, one in standing and one in sitting position, were used to stretch both the hamstring and quadriceps muscles during these protocols. The total time for the static stretching was 6 ± 1 min. The isokinetic peak torque measurements for the hamstring and quadriceps muscles in eccentric and concentric modes and the calculations for the functional H/Q strength ratios at angular velocities of 60°/s and 180°/s were made before (pre) and after (post) the control or stretching intervention. The strength measurements and functional strength ratio calculations were based during the entire- and end-range of knee extension. RESULTS: The pre-test scores for quadriceps and hamstring peak torque and end range values were not significantly different between the groups (P > 0.05). Subsequently, although the control group did not exhibit significant changes in quadriceps and hamstring muscle strength (P > 0.05), static stretching decreased eccentric and concentric quadriceps muscle strength at both the 60°/s and 180°/s test speeds (P hamstring muscle strength at both the 60°/s and 180°/s test speeds (P 0.05). Furthermore, the functional H/Q strength ratios exhibited no significant alterations during the entire and end ranges of knee extension both in the static stretching or the control intervention (P > 0.05). CONCLUSION: According to our results, static stretching routine does not influence functional H/Q ratio. Athletes can confidently perform static stretching during their warm-up routines. PMID:26495249

  5. The Effect of Parkinson's Disease on Time Estimation as a Function of Stimulus Duration Range and Modality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jared G.; Harper, David N.; Gittings, David; Abernethy, David

    2007-01-01

    The present research sought to investigate the role of the basal ganglia in timing of sub- and supra-second intervals via an examination of the ability of people with Parkinson's disease (PD) to make temporal judgments in two ranges, 100-500 ms, and 1-5 s. Eighteen non-demented medicated patients with PD were compared with 14 matched controls on a…

  6. ANALYSIS OF DESIGN RANGE FOR A STROKING SEAT ON A STROKING FLOOR TO MITIGATE BLAST LOADING EFFECTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-16

    addition, due to the extreme range in the mobility and other operational requirements in the battlefield, there is also a need even for light tactical...Government or the DoA, and shall not be used for advertising or product endorsement purposes. REFERENCES [1] Bird, S., and Fairweather. C., "Recent...UNCLASSIFIED LIST OF SYMBOLS, ABBREVIATIONS, ACRONYMS ATD Anthropomorphic Test Device , or Dummy CAMEL Concept for Advanced Military Explosion-mitigating

  7. The effect of intervertebral cartilage on neutral posture and range of motion in the necks of sauropod dinosaurs

    OpenAIRE

    Taylor, Michael P; Wedel, Mathew J.

    2013-01-01

    The necks of sauropod dinosaurs were a key factor in their evolution. The habitual posture and range of motion of these necks has been controversial, and computer-aided studies have argued for an obligatory sub-horizontal pose. However, such studies are compromised by their failure to take into account the important role of intervertebral cartilage. This cartilage takes very different forms in different animals. Mammals and crocodilians have intervertebral discs, while birds have synovial joi...

  8. Final report on CCT-K6: Comparison of local realisations of dew-point temperature scales in the range -50 °C to +20 °C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, S.; Stevens, M.; Abe, H.; Benyon, R.; Bosma, R.; Fernicola, V.; Heinonen, M.; Huang, P.; Kitano, H.; Li, Z.; Nielsen, J.; Ochi, N.; Podmurnaya, O. A.; Scace, G.; Smorgon, D.; Vicente, T.; Vinge, A. F.; Wang, L.; Yi, H.

    2015-01-01

    A key comparison in dew-point temperature was carried out among the national standards held by NPL (pilot), NMIJ, INTA, VSL, INRIM, MIKES, NIST, NIM, VNIIFTRI-ESB and NMC. A pair of condensation-principle dew-point hygrometers was circulated and used to compare the local realisations of dew point for participant humidity generators in the range -50 °C to +20 °C. The duration of the comparison was prolonged by numerous problems with the hygrometers, requiring some repairs, and several additional check measurements by the pilot. Despite the problems and the extended timescale, the comparison was effective in providing evidence of equivalence. Agreement with the key comparison reference value was achieved in the majority of cases, and bilateral degrees of equivalence are also reported. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCT, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  9. Damage growth in Si during self-ion irradiation: A study of ion effects over an extended energy range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holland, O.W.; El-Ghor, M.K.; White, C.W.

    1989-01-01

    Damage nucleation/growth in single-crystal Si during ion irradiation is discussed. For MeV ions, the rate of growth as well as the damage morphology are shown to vary widely along the track of the ion. This is attributed to a change in the dominant, defect-related reactions as the ion penetrates the crystal. The nature of these reactions were elucidated by studying the interaction of MeV ions with different types of defects. The defects were introduced into the Si crystal prior to high-energy irradiation by self-ion implantation at a medium energy (100 keV). Varied damage morphologies were produced by implanting different ion fluences. Electron microscopy and ion-channeling measurements, in conjunction with annealing studies, were used to characterize the damage. Subtle changes in the predamage morphology are shown to result in markedly different responses to the high-energy irradiation, ranging from complete annealing of the damage to rapid growth. These divergent responses occur over a narrow range of dose (2--3 times 10 14 cm -2 ) of the medium-energy ions; this range also marks a transition in the growth behavior of the damage during the predamage implantation. A model is proposed which accounts for these observations and provides insight into ion-induced growth of amorphous layers in Si and the role of the amorphous/crystalline interface in this process. 15 refs, 9 figs

  10. Molecular-scale tribology of amorphous carbon coatings: effects of film thickness, adhesion, and long-range interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, G T; Mikulski, Paul T; Harrison, Judith A

    2002-06-19

    Classical molecular dynamics simulations have been conducted to investigate the atomic-scale friction and wear when hydrogen-terminated diamond (111) counterfaces are in sliding contact with diamond (111) surfaces coated with amorphous, hydrogen-free carbon films. Two films, with approximately the same ratio of sp(3)-to-sp(2) carbon, but different thicknesses, have been examined. Both systems give a similar average friction in the load range examined. Above a critical load, a series of tribochemical reactions occur resulting in a significant restructuring of the film. This restructuring is analogous to the "run-in" observed in macroscopic friction experiments and reduces the friction. The contribution of adhesion between the probe (counterface) and the sample to friction was examined by varying the saturation of the counterface. Decreasing the degree of counterface saturation, by reducing the hydrogen termination, increases the friction. Finally, the contribution of long-range interactions to friction was examined by using two potential energy functions that differ only in their long-range forces to examine friction in the same system.

  11. Effects of long-range transported acidification on the bio-diversity in terrestrial ecosystems; Effekter av langtransporterte forsuringer paa biodiversitet i terrestriske oekosystemer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoeiland, K [Oslo Univ. (Norway)

    1996-01-01

    The conference paper deals with the environmental effects of long-range transported pollutants on the biodiversity in the terrestrial ecosystems. The paper discusses different chemical substances existing in the atmosphere and their influence on vegetation together with the effects on biodiversity from acidification. 4 refs.

  12. Analysis of self-consistency effects in range-separated density-functional theory with Møller-Plesset perturbation theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fromager, Emmanuel; Jensen, Hans Jørgen Aagaard

    2011-01-01

    Range-separated density-functional theory combines wave function theory for the long-range part of the two-electron interaction with density-functional theory for the short-range part. When describing the long-range interaction with non-variational methods, such as perturbation or coupled......-cluster theories, self-consistency effects are introduced in the density functional part, which for an exact solution requires iterations. They are generally assumed to be small but no detailed study has been performed so far. Here, the authors analyze self-consistency when using Møller-Plesset-type (MP......) perturbation theory for the long range interaction. The lowest-order self-consistency corrections to the wave function and the energy, that enter the perturbation expansions at the second and fourth order, respectively, are both expressed in terms of the one-electron reduced density matrix. The computational...

  13. A Wide-Range Tunable Level-Keeper Using Vertical Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Field-Effect Transistors for Current-Reuse Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanoi, Satoru; Endoh, Tetsuo

    2012-04-01

    A wide-range tunable level-keeper using vertical metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs) is proposed for current-reuse analog systems. The design keys for widening tunable range of the operation are a two-path feed-back and a vertical MOSFET with back-bias-effect free. The proposed circuit with the vertical MOSFETs shows the 1.23-V tunable-range of the input level with the 2.4-V internal-supply voltage (VDD) in the simulation. This tunable-range of the proposed circuit is 4.7 times wider than that of the conventional. The achieved current efficiency of the proposed level-keeper is 66% at the 1.2-V output with the 2.4-V VDD. This efficiency of the proposed circuit is twice higher than that of the traditional voltage down converter.

  14. The effects of complex exercise on shoulder range of motion and pain for women with breast cancer-related lymphedema: a single-blind, randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jin-Hyuck

    2017-07-01

    This study was to investigate the effects of complex exercise on shoulder range of motion and pain for women with breast cancer-related lymphedema. 69 women participated in this study and then they were randomly allocated to complex exercise group (n = 35) or the conventional decongestive therapy group (n = 34). All subjects received 8 sessions for 4 weeks. To identify the effects on shoulder range of motion and pain, goniometer and visual analog scale were used, respectively. The outcome measurements were performed before and after the 4 week intervention. After 4 weeks, complex exercise group had greater improvements in shoulder range of motion and pain compared with the conventional decongestive therapy group (p women with breast cancer-related lymphedema. Complex exercise would be useful to improve shoulder range of motion and pain of the women with breast cancer-related lymphedema.

  15. Siting Report for Theater Missile Defense Mid-Range Test Launch Complex at Ft. Wingate Depot Activity, NM: Based on Sit Survey, 14-18 February 1994

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1994-01-01

    This study is provided to assess the capability of Ft. Wingate Depot Activity to act as a Ballistic Missile Defense Test Support Complex for the launch of target missiles toward White Sands Missile Range...

  16. Effects of coarse-graining on the scaling behavior of long-range correlated and anti-correlated signals

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Yinlin; Ma, Qianli D.Y.; Schmitt, Daniel T.; Bernaola-Galván, Pedro; Ivanov, Plamen Ch.

    2011-01-01

    We investigate how various coarse-graining methods affect the scaling properties of long-range power-law correlated and anti-correlated signals, quantified by the detrended fluctuation analysis. Specifically, for coarse-graining in the magnitude of a signal, we consider (i) the Floor, (ii) the Symmetry and (iii) the Centro-Symmetry coarse-graining methods. We find, that for anti-correlated signals coarse-graining in the magnitude leads to a crossover to random behavior at large scales, and th...

  17. Effects of Hen Age and Egg Weight Class on the Hatchability of Free Range Indigenous Chicken Eggs

    OpenAIRE

    Abudabos, AM; Aljumaah, RS; Algawaan, AS; Al-Sornokh, H; Al-Atiyat, RM

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT In total, 806 eggs of free-range Hassawi indigenous chickens were collected from local farm in Saudi Arabia. Eggs were weekly collected for 11 weeks. Initial egg weight (IEW) was recorded, and eggs were graded into four classes (A: 35-40 g, B: 40-45 g, C: 45-50 g, and D: 50-55 g). Eggs were stored for seven days at 75-80% relative humidity and 14-16 C, after which egg weight losses (WL0) were calculated. During incubation, eggs were weighed on days 7 (W7) and 14 (W14), and egg weight...

  18. Causes for torque degradation during deceleration and the effect on the driving range of battery electric vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lieb, Johannes [BMW PEUGEOT CITROEN ELECTRIFICATION, Muenchen (Germany); Wilde, Andreas [BMW Group, Muenchen (Germany); Baeker, Bernard [Dresden Univ. of Technology (Germany). Dept. of Vehicle Mechatronics

    2012-11-01

    The ability to regain considerable amounts of the kinetic energy during deceleration phases is a key aspect to increase the efficiency of battery electric vehicles (BEV). Especially in urban and highly congested areas brake energy recovery (BER) can drastically improve the vehicle's driving range. However, due to the high power peaks that go along even with moderate braking maneuvers, severe requirements are being put on the electric drivetrain. Any limitation of power in one of the components of the powertrain inevitably leads to degradation of the regenerative brake torque, thus limiting the car's energy regeneration capability. Without an integrated brake system that can compensate the torque variations during deceleration, BER may need to be decreased even further to prevent a loss of driving comfort due to dynamic changes in the vehicle's behavior. This paper deals with the causes of these torque restraints within the electric drivetrain and how they affect the energy consumption and therefore the electric driving range. A simulation environment was set up and verified based on an existing BEV to conduct parameter studies and depict the sensitivities towards environmental influences. The calculated efficiencies are based on standard drive cycles and incorporate continuous fading between regenerative braking and the use of friction brakes. Special attention was laid on the battery system since energy storage still poses a particular challenge in the development of electric vehicles. Also through the high mutual dependence of the various parameters of the battery enviromental influences become most evident. (orig.)

  19. The effects of phenotypic plasticity and local adaptation on forecasts of species range shifts under climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valladares, Fernando; Matesanz, Silvia; Guilhaumon, François; Araújo, Miguel B; Balaguer, Luis; Benito-Garzón, Marta; Cornwell, Will; Gianoli, Ernesto; van Kleunen, Mark; Naya, Daniel E; Nicotra, Adrienne B; Poorter, Hendrik; Zavala, Miguel A

    2014-11-01

    Species are the unit of analysis in many global change and conservation biology studies; however, species are not uniform entities but are composed of different, sometimes locally adapted, populations differing in plasticity. We examined how intraspecific variation in thermal niches and phenotypic plasticity will affect species distributions in a warming climate. We first developed a conceptual model linking plasticity and niche breadth, providing five alternative intraspecific scenarios that are consistent with existing literature. Secondly, we used ecological niche-modeling techniques to quantify the impact of each intraspecific scenario on the distribution of a virtual species across a geographically realistic setting. Finally, we performed an analogous modeling exercise using real data on the climatic niches of different tree provenances. We show that when population differentiation is accounted for and dispersal is restricted, forecasts of species range shifts under climate change are even more pessimistic than those using the conventional assumption of homogeneously high plasticity across a species' range. Suitable population-level data are not available for most species so identifying general patterns of population differentiation could fill this gap. However, the literature review revealed contrasting patterns among species, urging greater levels of integration among empirical, modeling and theoretical research on intraspecific phenotypic variation. © 2014 The Authors. Ecology Letters published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and CNRS.

  20. Facilitative Effect of a Generalist Herbivore on the Recovery of a Perennial Alga: Consequences for Persistence at the Edge of Their Geographic Range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilera, Moisés A; Valdivia, Nelson; Broitman, Bernardo R

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the impacts of consumers on the abundance, growth rate, recovery and persistence of their resources across their distributional range can shed light on the role of trophic interactions in determining species range shifts. Here, we examined if consumptive effects of the intertidal grazer Scurria viridula positively influences the abundance and recovery from disturbances of the alga Mazzaella laminarioides at the edge of its geographic distributions in northern-central Chilean rocky shores. Through field experiments conducted at a site in the region where M. laminarioides overlaps with the polar range edge of S. viridula, we estimated the effects of grazing on different life stages of M. laminarioides. We also used long-term abundance surveys conducted across ~700 km of the shore to evaluate co-occurrence patterns of the study species across their range overlap. We found that S. viridula had positive net effects on M. laminarioides by increasing its cover and re-growth from perennial basal crusts. Probability of occurrence of M. laminarioides increased significantly with increasing density of S. viridula across the range overlap. The negative effect of S. viridula on the percentage cover of opportunistic green algae-shown to compete for space with corticated algae-suggests that competitive release may be part of the mechanism driving the positive effect of the limpet on the abundance and recovery from disturbance of M. laminarioides. We suggest that grazer populations contribute to enhance the abundance of M. laminarioides, facilitating its recolonization and persistence at its distributional range edge. Our study highlights that indirect facilitation can determine the recovery and persistence of a resource at the limit of its distribution, and may well contribute to the ecological mechanisms governing species distributions and range shifts.

  1. Facilitative Effect of a Generalist Herbivore on the Recovery of a Perennial Alga: Consequences for Persistence at the Edge of Their Geographic Range.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moisés A Aguilera

    Full Text Available Understanding the impacts of consumers on the abundance, growth rate, recovery and persistence of their resources across their distributional range can shed light on the role of trophic interactions in determining species range shifts. Here, we examined if consumptive effects of the intertidal grazer Scurria viridula positively influences the abundance and recovery from disturbances of the alga Mazzaella laminarioides at the edge of its geographic distributions in northern-central Chilean rocky shores. Through field experiments conducted at a site in the region where M. laminarioides overlaps with the polar range edge of S. viridula, we estimated the effects of grazing on different life stages of M. laminarioides. We also used long-term abundance surveys conducted across ~700 km of the shore to evaluate co-occurrence patterns of the study species across their range overlap. We found that S. viridula had positive net effects on M. laminarioides by increasing its cover and re-growth from perennial basal crusts. Probability of occurrence of M. laminarioides increased significantly with increasing density of S. viridula across the range overlap. The negative effect of S. viridula on the percentage cover of opportunistic green algae-shown to compete for space with corticated algae-suggests that competitive release may be part of the mechanism driving the positive effect of the limpet on the abundance and recovery from disturbance of M. laminarioides. We suggest that grazer populations contribute to enhance the abundance of M. laminarioides, facilitating its recolonization and persistence at its distributional range edge. Our study highlights that indirect facilitation can determine the recovery and persistence of a resource at the limit of its distribution, and may well contribute to the ecological mechanisms governing species distributions and range shifts.

  2. The development of a statistical procedure to correct the effects of restriction of range on validity coefficients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Scheepers

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available In the validation of tests used for selection purposes, the obtained validity coefficients are invariably underestimates of the true validities, due to explicit and implicit selection in respect of the relevant variables. Both explicit and implicit selection leads to restriction of range of the relevant variables, and this in turn reduces the obtained validites. A formal proof for this is given. A number of researchers have developed formulae for correcting sample validities in order to get better estimates of the true validities (Pearson/ 1903; Thorndike, 1949; Gulliksen, 1950; Rydberg, 1962 and Lord & Novick, 1968. It is, however, virtually impossible to obtain a complete view of the problem of restriction of range in this way. In the present paper a different approach has been followed: Population correlations have been computed for various degrees of truncation of the explicit selection variable. This has been done for population correlations ranging from 0,10 to 0,99. A graphical display, indicating the shrinkage of the population correlations for various truncation ratios, has been prepared. Opsomming In die geldigheidsbepaling van toetse wat vir keuringsdoeleindes gebruik word, is die verkree geldigheidskoeffisiente sender uitsondering onderskattings van die ware geldighede as gevolg van eksplisiete en implisiete keuring ten opsigte van die tersaaklike veranderlikes. Sowel eksplisiete as implisiete keuring lei tot inperking van die variasiewydte van die relevante veranderiikes, en dit reduseer om die beurt weer die verkree geldighede. 'n Formele bewys hiervoor word in die referaat gegee. 'n Aantal navorsers het formules ontwikkel om steekproefgeldighede te korrigeer ten einde beter beramings van die ware geldighede te verkry (Pearson/ 1903; horndike, 1949: Gulliksen, 1950; Rygberg, 1962 en Lord & Novick, 1968. Dit is egter bykans onmoontlik om op hierdie wyse 'n geheelbeeld van die probleem van inperking van variasiewydte te vorm. In die

  3. Effect of free-range days on a local chicken breed: growth performance, carcass yield, meat quality, and lymphoid organ index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, H B; Wang, Q; Lu, J; Zou, J M; Chang, L L; Fu, S Y

    2014-08-01

    An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of free-range days on growth performance, carcass yield, meat quality, and lymphoid organ index of a local chicken breed. In total, 1,000 one-day-old male Suqin yellow chickens were raised for 21 d. On d 21, 720 birds with similar BW (536 ± 36 g) were selected and randomly assigned to free-range treatment at 21, 28, 35, and 42 d of age (assigned to free-range treatment for 21, 14, 7, and 0 d, respectively). Each treatment was represented by 5 replicates (pens) containing 36 birds (180 birds per treatment). All the birds were raised in indoor floor pens measuring 1.42 × 1.42 m (2 m(2), 18 birds/m(2)) in conventional poultry research houses before free-range treatment. In the free-range treatment, the chickens were raised in indoor floor houses measuring 3 × 5 m (15 m(2), 2.4 birds/m(2)). In addition, they also had an outdoor free-range paddock measuring 3 × 8 m (24 m(2), 1.5 birds/m(2)). The BW of birds after being assigned to free-range treatment for 7 d decreased significantly compared with that in the conventional treatment (P free-range days on the BW at 42 d of age (P > 0.05). The daily weight gain, feed per gain, daily feed intake, and mortality from 21 to 42 d of age were unaffected by free-range days (P > 0.05). At 42 d of age, the breast yield increased linearly with increasing free-range days (P free-range days (P free-range days (P 0.05). The absolute thymus weight and thymus:BW ratio showed a significant increasing and then decreasing quadratic response to increasing free-range days (P free-range days advantageously affects breast yield, but decreases thigh, leg, thigh bone, and foot yields as well as the water-holding capacity of thigh. No evidence was found that increasing free-range days caused changes in growth performance, meat quality, and lymphoid organs except for changes in water-holding capacity and thymus. © Poultry Science Association Inc.

  4. Addendum to the Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 404: Roller Coaster Sewage Lagoons and North Disposal Trench, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada, Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lynn Kidman

    2009-02-01

    This document constitutes an addendum to the September 1998, Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 404: Roller Coaster Lagoons and Trench, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada as described in the document Recommendations and Justifications for Modifications for Use Restrictions Established under the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (UR Modification document) dated February 2008. The UR Modification document was approved by NDEP on February 26, 2008. The approval of the UR Modification document constituted approval of each of the recommended UR modifications. In conformance with the UR Modification document, this addendum consists of: • This cover page that refers the reader to the UR Modification document for additional information • The cover and signature pages of the UR Modification document • The NDEP approval letter • The corresponding section of the UR Modification document This addendum provides the documentation justifying the modification of the UR for CAS TA-03-001-TARC Roller Coaster Lagoons. This UR was established as part of Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) corrective actions and was based on the presence of contaminants at concentrations greater than the action levels established at the time of the initial investigation (FFACO, 1996; as amended August 2006). Since this UR was established, practices and procedures relating to the implementation of risk-based corrective actions (RBCA) have changed. Therefore, this UR was re-evaluated against the current RBCA criteria as defined in the Industrial Sites Project Establishment of Final Action Levels (NNSA/NSO, 2006c). This reevaluation consisted of comparing the original data (used to define the need for the UR) to risk-based final action levels (FALs) developed using the current Industrial Sites RBCA process. The re-evaluation resulted in a recommendation to modify the UR for CAS TA-03

  5. Effective Transition (Project E.T.) Final Evaluation Report, 1992-93. OER Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musante, Patricia

    This report presents an evaluation of the Effective Transition (ET) project, an Elementary and Secondary Education Act Title VII-funded project in its second year of operation at Lafayette High School and Pershing Intermediate School in Brooklyn, New York. The project served a total of 300 students of limited English proficiency who were native…

  6. Effect of a temperature increase in the non-noxious range on proton-evoked ASIC and TRPV1 activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchard, Maxime G; Kellenberger, Stephan

    2011-01-01

    Acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs) are neuronal H(+)-gated cation channels, and the transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 channel (TRPV1) is a multimodal cation channel activated by low pH, noxious heat, capsaicin, and voltage. ASICs and TRPV1 are present in sensory neurons. It has been shown that raising the temperature increases TRPV1 and decreases ASIC H(+)-gated current amplitudes. To understand the underlying mechanisms, we have analyzed ASIC and TRPV1 function in a recombinant expression system and in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons at room and physiological temperature. We show that temperature in the range studied does not affect the pH dependence of ASIC and TRPV1 activation. A temperature increase induces, however, a small alkaline shift of the pH dependence of steady-state inactivation of ASIC1a, ASIC1b, and ASIC2a. The decrease in ASIC peak current amplitudes at higher temperatures is likely in part due to the observed accelerated open channel inactivation kinetics and for some ASIC types to the changed pH dependence of steady-state inactivation. The increase in H(+)-activated TRPV1 current at the higher temperature is at least in part due to a hyperpolarizing shift in its voltage dependence. The contribution of TRPV1 relative to ASICs to H(+)-gated currents in DRG neurons increases with higher temperature and acidity. Still, ASICs remain the principal pH sensors of DRG neurons at 35°C in the pH range ≥6.

  7. The effect of intervertebral cartilage on neutral posture and range of motion in the necks of sauropod dinosaurs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael P Taylor

    Full Text Available The necks of sauropod dinosaurs were a key factor in their evolution. The habitual posture and range of motion of these necks has been controversial, and computer-aided studies have argued for an obligatory sub-horizontal pose. However, such studies are compromised by their failure to take into account the important role of intervertebral cartilage. This cartilage takes very different forms in different animals. Mammals and crocodilians have intervertebral discs, while birds have synovial joints in their necks. The form and thickness of cartilage varies significantly even among closely related taxa. We cannot yet tell whether the neck joints of sauropods more closely resembled those of birds or mammals. Inspection of CT scans showed cartilage:bone ratios of 4.5% for Sauroposeidon and about 20% and 15% for two juvenile Apatosaurus individuals. In extant animals, this ratio varied from 2.59% for the rhea to 24% for a juvenile giraffe. It is not yet possible to disentangle ontogenetic and taxonomic signals, but mammal cartilage is generally three times as thick as that of birds. Our most detailed work, on a turkey, yielded a cartilage:bone ratio of 4.56%. Articular cartilage also added 11% to the length of the turkey's zygapophyseal facets. Simple image manipulation suggests that incorporating 4.56% of neck cartilage into an intervertebral joint of a turkey raises neutral posture by 15°. If this were also true of sauropods, the true neutral pose of the neck would be much higher than has been depicted. An additional 11% of zygapophyseal facet length translates to 11% more range of motion at each joint. More precise quantitative results must await detailed modelling. In summary, including cartilage in our models of sauropod necks shows that they were longer, more elevated and more flexible than previously recognised.

  8. The effect of intervertebral cartilage on neutral posture and range of motion in the necks of sauropod dinosaurs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Michael P; Wedel, Mathew J

    2013-01-01

    The necks of sauropod dinosaurs were a key factor in their evolution. The habitual posture and range of motion of these necks has been controversial, and computer-aided studies have argued for an obligatory sub-horizontal pose. However, such studies are compromised by their failure to take into account the important role of intervertebral cartilage. This cartilage takes very different forms in different animals. Mammals and crocodilians have intervertebral discs, while birds have synovial joints in their necks. The form and thickness of cartilage varies significantly even among closely related taxa. We cannot yet tell whether the neck joints of sauropods more closely resembled those of birds or mammals. Inspection of CT scans showed cartilage:bone ratios of 4.5% for Sauroposeidon and about 20% and 15% for two juvenile Apatosaurus individuals. In extant animals, this ratio varied from 2.59% for the rhea to 24% for a juvenile giraffe. It is not yet possible to disentangle ontogenetic and taxonomic signals, but mammal cartilage is generally three times as thick as that of birds. Our most detailed work, on a turkey, yielded a cartilage:bone ratio of 4.56%. Articular cartilage also added 11% to the length of the turkey's zygapophyseal facets. Simple image manipulation suggests that incorporating 4.56% of neck cartilage into an intervertebral joint of a turkey raises neutral posture by 15°. If this were also true of sauropods, the true neutral pose of the neck would be much higher than has been depicted. An additional 11% of zygapophyseal facet length translates to 11% more range of motion at each joint. More precise quantitative results must await detailed modelling. In summary, including cartilage in our models of sauropod necks shows that they were longer, more elevated and more flexible than previously recognised.

  9. Home range and travels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stickel, L.F.; King, John A.

    1968-01-01

    The concept of home range was expressed by Seton (1909) in the term 'home region,' which Burr (1940, 1943) clarified with a definition of home range and exemplified in a definitive study of Peromyscus in the field. Burt pointed out the ever-changing characteristics of home-range area and the consequent absence of boundaries in the usual sense--a finding verified by investigators thereafter. In the studies summarized in this paper, sizes of home ranges of Peromyscus varied within two magnitudes, approximately from 0.1 acre to ten acres, in 34 studies conducted in a variety of habitats from the seaside dunes of Florida to the Alaskan forests. Variation in sizes of home ranges was correlated with both environmental and physiological factors; with habitat it was conspicuous, both in the same and different regions. Food supply also was related to size of home range, both seasonally and in relation to habitat. Home ranges generally were smallest in winter and largest in spring, at the onset of the breeding season. Activity and size also were affected by changes in weather. Activity was least when temperatures were low and nights were bright. Effects of rainfall were variable. Sizes varied according to sex and age; young mice remained in the parents' range until they approached maturity, when they began to travel more widely. Adult males commonly had larger home ranges than females, although there were a number of exceptions. An inverse relationship between population density and size of home range was shown in several studies and probably is the usual relationship. A basic need for activity and exploration also appeared to influence size of home range. Behavior within the home range was discussed in terms of travel patterns, travels in relation to home sites and refuges, territory, and stability of size of home range. Travels within the home range consisted of repeated use of well-worn trails to sites of food, shelter, and refuge, plus more random exploratory travels

  10. The probable effect of integrated reporting on audit quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamer A. El Nashar

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines a probable effect of integrated reporting on improving the audit quality of organizations. I correlate the hypothesis of this paper in relation to the current trends of protecting the economies, the financial markets and the societies. I predict an improvement of the audit quality, as a result to an estimated percentage of organizations’ reliance on the integrated reporting in their accountability perspective. I used a decision tree and a Bayes’ theorem approach, to predict the probabilities of the significant effect on improving the auditing quality. I find the overall result of this paper, indicates that the probability of organizations to rely on the integrated reporting by a significant percentage, predicts also a significant improvement in audit quality.

  11. Ocular side effect of tinidazole: A rare case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hina Kauser

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Ocular side effects in the form of punctate epithelial erosions with the use of tinidazole - a 5-nitroimidazole group of drugs is very rare. A 32-year-old male was prescribed tablet tinidazole for the treatment of amoebiasis but developed adverse effects in the form of blisters on both upper and lower lips with itching and burning sensation, itching and burning on penile and anal area associated with punctate epithelial erosions of cornea of both the eyes. All these are rare manifestations but punctate epithelial erosions of cornea has never been reported in the literature so far. Punctate epithelial erosions of cornea have not previously been reported and should be added to the list of complications of tinidazole. Hence, this case is being reported .

  12. In Brief: Report details climate change effects on cultural sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zielinski, Sarah

    2007-04-01

    A new report from UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization) details how 26 World Heritage sites could be affected by coming climate changes. The 26 examples, which are meant to be representative of the range of threats to the 830 sites inscribed in the World Heritage List, are divided into five types: archaeological sites, glaciers, historic cities and settlements, marine biodiversity, and terrestrial biodiversity. Some of the examples include the Great Barrier Reef, which is expected to experience more frequent episodes of coral bleaching; Timbuktu in Mali, threatened by desertification; and the Chavín Archaeological Site in the Peruvian Central Andes, one of the earliest and best-known pre-Columbian sites, which could be affected by glacier melting and flooding. The report, ``Case Studies on Climate Change and World Heritage,'' is available at http://whc.unesco.org/documents/publi_climatechange.pdf

  13. Final report: Compiled MPI. Cost-Effective Exascale Application Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gropp, William Douglas [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States)

    2015-12-21

    This is the final report on Compiled MPI: Cost-Effective Exascale Application Development, and summarizes the results under this project. The project investigated runtime enviroments that improve the performance of MPI (Message-Passing Interface) programs; work at Illinois in the last period of this project looked at optimizing data access optimizations expressed with MPI datatypes.

  14. Self-reported adverse effects as barriers to adherence to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusions: In conclusion, self-reported barriers to optimal adherence included the use of non-prescribed drugs, and the presence of side effects such as insomnia, headaches and abdominal pain; while eating well was a facilitator. These findings emphasise the need for better communication between patients and ...

  15. From effective accounting and reporting to efficient outsourcing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meyr Daria

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to identify an effective management accounting and reporting concept for efficient outsourcing performance in sustainable organizations. Existing reporting norms of the “Systemanalyse und Programmentwicklung (SAP” platform, used in JSC "Russian Railways" (further Russian Railways were analysed. Thereby, in the paper a method of the formation of internal management accounting and reporting on the costs of outsourcing were developed. Currently, the analysis of the reports and effectiveness of outsourcing is based on the technique comparison “costs on outsourcing should be less than the cost of own units”. Effective analysis should include not one, but several factors and be based on multi-criteria approach. The main influence on the variation of such determinants as cost, productivity and staff members outsourcing has when the volume of production and prices are constant. According to the features of railway transport enterprises, existing method has been completed with statistical. It shows how outsourcing changed the performance of the company and by what factors - the average cost, or productivity, or staffing or due to variations of all three factors simultaneously. Further, the results of quantitative data analysis will be used to identify an effective management accounting in sustainable organizations while supporting the development of outsourcing.

  16. Study of Effective Alternative Education Programs: Final Grant Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Mary Magee; Poirier, Jeffrey M.

    2007-01-01

    This report presents findings of a study conducted to identify the components of systems that effectively meet the diverse, ever changing needs of children with disabilities for whom traditional school settings do not work. A secondary goal of this study was to develop a conceptually clear and empirically grounded definition of alternative…

  17. Comparing the Effects of Therapeutic Exercise and Hydrotherapy on Pain Severity and Knee Range of Motion in Patients with Hemophilia: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V Mazloum

    2013-10-01

    . Results: Both experimental groups exhibited significant reduction of pain along with improved knee flexion and extension compared with the control group (P<0.001. Pain reduction in subjects treated in water treatment was significantly higher than exercise group in drought (P0.05. Conclusion: The use of therapeutic exercise in water with regular exercise rehabilitation for patients with hemophilia can be helpful to reduce pain and improve range of motion in hemophilia patients. The effect of exercise therapy on pain reduction is more effective compared to traditional pain therapy. Key words: Hydrotherapy, Exercise Therapy, Hemophilia, Knee Range of Motion

  18. The effect of environmental conditions and soil physicochemistry on phosphate stabilisation of Pb in shooting range soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanderson, Peter; Naidu, Ravi; Bolan, Nanthi

    2016-04-01

    The stabilisation of Pb in the soil by phosphate is influenced by environmental conditions and physicochemical properties of the soils to which it is applied. Stabilisation of Pb by phosphate was examined in four soils under different environmental conditions. The effect of soil moisture and temperature on stabilisation of Pb by phosphate was examined by measurement of water extractable and bioaccessible Pb, sequential fractionation and X-ray absorption spectroscopy. The addition of humic acid, ammonium nitrate and chloride was also examined for inhibition or improvement of Pb stability with phosphate treatment. The effect of moisture level varied between soils. In soil MB and DA a soil moisture level of 50% water holding capacity was sufficient to maximise stabilisation of Pb, but in soil TV and PE reduction in bioaccessible Pb was inhibited at this moisture level. Providing moisture at twice the soil water holding capacity did not enhance the effect of phosphate on Pb stabilisation. The difference of Pb stability as a result of incubating phosphate treated soils at 18 °C and 37 °C was relatively small. However wet-dry cycles decreased the effectiveness of phosphate treatment. The reduction in bioaccessible Pb obtained was between 20 and 40% with the most optimal treatment conditions. The reduction in water extractable Pb by phosphate was substantial regardless of incubation conditions and the effect of different temperature and soil moisture regimes was not significant. Selective sequential extraction showed phosphate treatment converted Pb in fraction 1 (exchangeable, acid and water soluble) to fraction 2 (reducible). There were small difference in fraction 4 (residual) Pb and fraction 1 as a result of treatment conditions. X-ray absorption spectroscopy of stabilised PE soil revealed small differences in Pb speciation under varying soil moisture and temperature treatments. The addition of humic acid and chloride produced the greatest effect on Pb speciation in

  19. The effect of temperature on pulsed positive streamer discharges in air over the range 292 K–1438 K

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, Ryo; Ishikawa, Yuta

    2018-05-01

    The effect of temperature on pulsed positive streamer discharges in air is measured by comparing atmospheric-pressure, high-temperature discharges with low-pressure, room-temperature discharges at the same air densities n and discharge voltages. Both discharges have the same reduced electric field E/n, so the differences between the two discharges only depend on the temperature, which is varied from 292 K to 1438 K. Temperature affects the discharge pulse energy most significantly; at 1438 K, the energy of an atmospheric-pressure discharge pulse is approximately 30 times larger than that of the corresponding 20.5 kPa, room-temperature discharge. Temperature also affects the shapes of the streamers when K, but no significant effect is observed for K. There is also no significant temperature effect on the spatially integrated intensity of N2(C–B) emission. However, temperature strongly affects the ratio of the integrated emission intensity to the discharge energy. No effect of the temperature is observed on the propagation velocity of the primary streamer or on the length of the secondary streamer.

  20. Effect of genomic long-range correlations on DNA persistence length: from theory to single molecule experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moukhtar, Julien; Faivre-Moskalenko, Cendrine; Milani, Pascale; Audit, Benjamin; Vaillant, Cedric; Fontaine, Emeline; Mongelard, Fabien; Lavorel, Guillaume; St-Jean, Philippe; Bouvet, Philippe; Argoul, Françoise; Arneodo, Alain

    2010-04-22

    Sequence dependency of DNA intrinsic bending properties has been emphasized as a possible key ingredient to in vivo chromatin organization. We use atomic force microscopy (AFM) in air and liquid to image intrinsically straight (synthetic), uncorrelated (hepatitis C RNA virus) and persistent long-range correlated (human) DNA fragments in various ionic conditions such that the molecules freely equilibrate on the mica surface before being captured in a particular conformation. 2D thermodynamic equilibrium is experimentally verified by a detailed statistical analysis of the Gaussian nature of the DNA bend angle fluctuations. We show that the worm-like chain (WLC) model, commonly used to describe the average conformation of long semiflexible polymers, reproduces remarkably well the persistence length estimates for the first two molecules as consistently obtained from (i) mean square end-to-end distance measurement and (ii) mean projection of the end-to-end vector on the initial orientation. Whatever the operating conditions (air or liquid, concentration of metal cations Mg(2+) and/or Ni(2+)), the persistence length found for the uncorrelated viral DNA underestimates the value obtained for the straight DNA. We show that this systematic difference is the signature of the presence of an uncorrelated structural intrinsic disorder in the hepatitis C virus (HCV) DNA fragment that superimposes on local curvatures induced by thermal fluctuations and that only the entropic disorder depends upon experimental conditions. In contrast, the WLC model fails to describe the human DNA conformations. We use a mean-field extension of the WLC model to account for the presence of long-range correlations (LRC) in the intrinsic curvature disorder of human genomic DNA: the stronger the LRC, the smaller the persistence length. The comparison of AFM imaging of human DNA with LRC DNA simulations confirms that the rather small mean square end-to-end distance observed, particularly for G