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Sample records for reported depressed mood

  1. Delayed mood transitions in major depressive disorder.

    Korf, Jakob

    2014-05-01

    The hypothesis defended here is that the process of mood-normalizing transitions fails in a significant proportion of patients suffering from major depressive disorder. Such a failure is largely unrelated to the psychological content. Evidence for the hypothesis is provided by the highly variable and unpredictable time-courses of the depressive episodes. The main supporting observations are: (1) mood transitions within minutes or days have been reported during deep brain stimulation, naps after sleep deprivation and bipolar mood disorders; (2) sleep deprivation, electroconvulsive treatment and experimental drugs (e.g., ketamine) may facilitate mood transitions in major depressive disorder within hours or a few days; (3) epidemiological and clinical studies show that the time-to-recovery from major depressive disorder can be described with decay models implying very short depressive episodes; (4) lack of relationship between the length of depression and recovery episodes in recurrent depression; (5) mood fluctuations predict later therapeutic success in major depressive disorder. We discuss some recent models aimed to describe random mood transitions. The observations together suggest that the mood transitions have a wide variety of apparently unrelated causes. We suggest that the mechanism of mood transition is compromised in major depressive disorder, which has to be recognized in diagnostic systems.

  2. State depression: Mood or syndrome?

    Novović Zdenka

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A State Depression Scale was developed in order to register variations of depressive mood. The Scale has satisfactory reliability, as shown by its internal homogeneity and temporal stability. Concurrent validity of the Scale indicated that the Scale correlates with a POMS-D scale (r = 0.41; p < 0.00, and with the Depressive Personality Scale (r = 0.36; p < 0.00. Divergent validity of the Scale was tested by Scale's correlation with the two measures of state anxiety (STAI-S and POMS-A and was shown to be unsatisfactory since it was as high as the Scale's correlation with scales of depressive affect. Principal Component Analysis extracted four factors: two broader factors, which included depressive-affective contents combined with anxious and depressive-cognitive symptoms, respectively; and another two factors which related to motivational and behavioral characteristics. Sensitivity of the Scale was tested in an experimental setting involving induction of depressive and euphoric mood. The Scale showed high ability to register changes following induction of depressive mood. .

  3. Mindful mood balance: a case report of Web-based treatment of residual depressive symptoms.

    Felder, Jennifer; Dimidjian, Sona; Beck, Arne; Boggs, Jennifer M; Segal, Zindel

    2014-01-01

    Residual depressive symptoms are associated with increased risk for relapse and impaired functioning. Although there is no definitive treatment for residual depressive symptoms, Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy has been shown to be effective, but access is limited. Mindful Mood Balance (MMB), a Web-based adaptation of Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy, was designed to address this care gap. In this case study, we describe a composite case that is representative of the course of intervention with MMB and its implementation in a large integrated delivery system. Specifically, we describe the content of each of eight weekly sessions, and the self-management skills developed by participating in this program. MMB may be a cost-effective and scalable option in primary care for increasing access to treatments for patients with residual depressive symptoms.

  4. Depressed mood and smoking experimentation among preteens.

    Polen, Michael R; Curry, Susan J; Grothaus, Louis C; Bush, Terry M; Hollis, Jack F; Ludman, Evette J; McAfee, Timothy A

    2004-06-01

    The authors examined children's depressed mood, parental depressed mood, and parental smoking in relation to children's smoking susceptibility and experimentation over 20 months in a cohort of 418 preteens (ages 10-12 at baseline) and their parents. Depressed mood in preteens was strongly related to experimentation but not to susceptibility. In cross-sectional analyses parental depressed mood was related to children's experimentation, but in longitudinal analyses parental depressed mood at baseline did not differentiate children who experimented from those who did not. Although parental smoking was strongly related to experimentation, it was not related to susceptibility either cross-sectionally or longitudinally. Depressed mood among preteens and parents appeared to be more strongly related to children's smoking behaviors than to their intentions to smoke.

  5. Influences of mood variability, negative moods, and depression on adolescent cigarette smoking.

    Weinstein, Sally M; Mermelstein, Robin J

    2013-12-01

    Understanding the emotional risk factors for cigarette smoking in adolescence can greatly inform prevention efforts. The current study examined prospective relationships between 3 affective dimensions--negative mood variability, overall negative mood, and depression---affect-related smoking motives, and future smoking patterns among adolescents. The current study expands on prior research by using real-time methods to assess mood and by focusing on a key developmental transition in smoking behavior: the progression from experimentation or low level, infrequent use to higher use. Ninth- and 10th-grade students (N = 461; 55% girls) provided data on cigarette use at a baseline and follow-up 15-month wave, and also provided ecological momentary assessments of negative moods via palmtop computers for 1 week at each wave. Negative mood was examined via the means of negative mood reports at each wave, and mood variability was examined via the intraindividual standard deviations of negative mood reports at each wave. Depressive symptoms and smoking motives were also assessed. Findings supported a complex self-medication model of smoking escalation in adolescence whereby mood-smoking relationships differed by affect dimension and gender. For girls, greater negative mood variability at baseline significantly predicted rapid escalation in smoking over time, whereas depressive symptoms and overall negative mood were unrelated to girls' smoking patterns. In contrast, overall negative mood significantly predicted boys' smoking escalation among those with affect-related motives for smoking. Results thus suggest that inconsistent mood-smoking relations in past work may be driven by the complex interrelationships among affect vulnerabilities, gender, and smoking patterns.

  6. Depressed patients' parental representations: stability across changes in depressed mood and specificity across diagnoses.

    Gerlsma, C; Das, J; Emmelkamp, P M

    1993-03-01

    Parental representations of a Dutch sample of psychiatric patients with diagnoses of dysthymia and unipolar depression were compared with those of a matched sample of non-depressed patients and a matched sample of healthy controls. No differences in recalled parental rearing styles were found between depressives with a diagnosis of dysthymia and those with a diagnosis of unipolar depression. Depressive did not differ from the mixed (but non-depressed) sample of psychiatric patients, whereas both the depressed and the mixed group of patients reported more adverse parenting than the healthy controls. Analysis of repeated measurements of parental representations showed that memories of parental behavior were highly stable across clinically significant changes in depressed mood, so that it seems unlikely that patients' relatively negative recollections of their parents' behavior were due to mood state dependent recall. Results are discussed within the framework of depression theories and with regard to the validity and utility of self-report instruments for parental rearing styles.

  7. Delayed mood transitions in major depressive disorder

    Korf, Jakob

    2014-01-01

    The hypothesis defended here is that the process of mood-normalizing transitions fails in a significant proportion of patients suffering from major depressive disorder. Such a failure is largely unrelated to the psychological content. Evidence for the hypothesis is provided by the highly variable an

  8. Management of bipolar depression with Lamotrigine: an antiepileptic mood stabilizer

    Kedar S Prabhavalkar

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The efficacy of lamotrigine in the treatment of focal epilepsies have already been reported in several case reports and open studies, which is thought to act by inhibiting glutamate release through voltage-sensitive sodium channels blockade and neuronal membrane stabilization. However, recent findings have also illustrated the importance of lamotrigine in alleviating the depressive symptoms of bipolar disorder, without causing mood destabilization or precipitating mania. Currently, no mood stabilizers are available having equal efficacy in the treatment of both mania and depression, two of which forms the extreme sides of the bipolar disorder. Lamotrigine, a well established anticonvulsant has received regulatory approval for the treatment and prevention of bipolar depression in more than 30 countries worldwide. Lamotrigine, acts through several molecular targets and overcomes the major limitation of other conventional antidepressants by stabilizing mood from ‘below baseline’ thereby preventing switches to mania or episode acceleration, thus being effective for bipolar I disorder. Recent studies have also suggested that these observations could also be extended to patients with bipolar II disorder. Thus, lamotrigine may supposedly fulfill the unmet requirement for an effective depression mood stabilizer.

  9. A meta-analytic review of mood-congruent implicit memory in depressed mood.

    Gaddy, Melinda A; Ingram, Rick E

    2014-07-01

    In studies of explicit memory, researchers have reliably demonstrated that mood-congruent, depressive information is especially likely to be recalled by individuals exhibiting depressed mood. Results from studies of implicit mood-congruent memory in depressed mood, however, have been largely discrepant. The current research reviews 20 studies of implicit mood-congruent memory for emotionally valenced words in the context of dysphoria and clinical depression. Meta-analytic techniques were used to summarize this research. Results indicated that depressive groups exhibited preferential implicit recall of negative information and nondepressed groups exhibited preferential implicit recall of positive information. Also, depressive implicit mood-congruent memory for negative information was associated with recall and encoding tasks that matched with regard to the perceptual versus conceptual processes required. Furthermore, self-relevance emerged as an important moderator for implicit recall in analyses that compared clinically depressed groups to nondepressed groups. These results provide partial support both for the transfer appropriate processing framework of memory and cognitive theories of depression that emphasize self-relevant information. Finally, certain participant characteristics, particularly age and severity of depressive symptoms, emerged as important moderators of the effect of group status on depressive implicit recall biases.

  10. Nonmedical use of prescription stimulants and depressed mood among college students: frequency and routes of administration.

    Teter, Christian J; Falone, Anthony E; Cranford, James A; Boyd, Carol J; McCabe, Sean Esteban

    2010-04-01

    Studies demonstrate associations between nonmedical use of prescription stimulants (NMUPS) and depressed mood; however, relevance of NMUPS route of administration and frequency of use have not been examined. We hypothesized frequent NMUPS and nonoral routes would be significantly associated with depressed mood. A Web survey was self-administered by a probability sample of 3,639 undergraduate students at a large U.S. university. The survey contained substance use (e.g., frequency, route of administration) and depressed mood measurement. Past-year prevalence of NMUPS was 6.0% (n = 212). Approximately 50% of frequent or nonoral NMUPS reported depressed mood. Adjusted odds of depressed mood were over two times greater among frequent monthly NMUPS (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 2.3, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.01-5.15) and nonoral routes of administration (AOR = 2.2, 95% CI = 1.36-3.70), after controlling for other variables. Nonmedical users of prescription stimulants should be screened for depressed mood, especially those who report frequent and nonoral routes of administration.

  11. Mood-congruent true and false memory: effects of depression.

    Howe, Mark L; Malone, Catherine

    2011-02-01

    The Deese/Roediger-McDermott paradigm was used to investigate the effect of depression on true and false recognition. In this experiment true and false recognition was examined across positive, neutral, negative, and depression-relevant lists for individuals with and without a diagnosis of major depressive disorder. Results showed that participants with major depressive disorder falsely recognised significantly more depression-relevant words than non-depressed controls. These findings also parallel recent research using recall instead of recognition and show that there are clear mood congruence effects for depression on false memory performance.

  12. The effects of Chinese five-element music therapy on nursing students with depressed mood.

    Chen, Chen-Jung; Sung, Huei-Chuan; Lee, Ming-Shinn; Chang, Ching-Yuan

    2015-04-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effects of Chinese five-element music therapy on nursing students with depressed mood. We randomly assigned 71 nursing students from Taiwan with depressed mood to the music and control groups. The music group (n = 31) received Chinese five-element music therapy, whereas the participants in the control group (n = 40) maintained their routine lifestyles with no music therapy. All of the participants were assessed using the Depression Mood Self-Report Inventory for Adolescence, and their salivary cortisol levels were measured. The study found that there was a significant reduction in depression between the pre- and posttherapy test scores and in salivary cortisol levels over time in the music group. After receiving the music therapy, the nursing students' depression levels were significantly reduced (P = 0.038) compared with the control group (P music therapy has the potential to reduce the level of depression in nursing students with depressed mood.

  13. Dejian Mind-Body Intervention on Depressive Mood of Community-Dwelling Adults: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Agnes S. Chan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study evaluated the effectiveness of a short-term mind-body intervention program on improving the depressive mood of an adult community sample. Forty adult volunteers with various degrees of depressive mood were randomly assigned to the experimental group (Dejian Mind-Body Intervention, DMBI and control group (Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy, CBT. For each group, a total of four 90-min weekly sessions were conducted. Treatment-related changes were measured using the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II, an electroencephalographic indicator of positive affect (i.e., prefrontal activation asymmetry, and self-report ratings on physical health. Results indicated that both the DMBI and the CBT group demonstrated significant reduction in depressive mood. However, among individuals with moderate to severe depressive mood at baseline, only those in the DMBI but not the CBT group showed significant reduction in depressive mood. Besides, only the DMBI group demonstrated a significant increase in prefrontal activation asymmetry, suggesting increase in positive affect. While most psychological therapies for depressive mood normally take several months to show treatment effect, the present findings provided initial data suggesting that the DMBI was effective in improving depressive mood of community adults after 1 month of training.

  14. Adolescents' Perceptions of Family Connectedness, Intrinsic Religiosity, and Depressed Mood

    Houltberg, Benjamin J.; Henry, Carolyn S.; Merten, Michael J.; Robinson, Linda C.

    2011-01-01

    Using a sample of 248 ninth and tenth grade students at public high schools, we examined adolescents' perceptions of family connectedness, intrinsic religiosity, and adolescents' gender in relation to depressed mood and whether intrinsic religiosity and gender moderated the association of aspects of family connectedness to adolescent depressed…

  15. Neck/shoulder pain is more strongly related to depressed mood in adolescent girls than in boys.

    Pollock, C M; Harries, R L; Smith, A J; Straker, L M; Kendall, G E; O'Sullivan, P B

    2011-06-01

    A cross-sectional study of 1258, 14 year old girls and boys used self-report and physical examination measures to assess neck/shoulder pain in the last month, depressed mood, physical fitness, body composition, self-efficacy, global self-worth, family functioning and social advantage. The data was used to compare the relationship between depressed mood and neck/shoulder pain (NSP) in adolescent girls and boys. The prevalence of NSP in girls (34%, 211/621) was significantly greater than in boys (21%, 134/637; p < .001). After controlling for covariates, girls with medium (OR = 4.28; CI = 2.31-7.92; p < .001) and high depressed mood (OR = 8.63; CI = 4.39-16.98; p < .001) were significantly more likely to report NSP than girls with low depressed mood. Depressed mood was also a significant correlate of NSP in boys after controlling for covariates, although the association was substantially weaker (OR = 2.44; CI = 1.29-4.61; p < .001). After controlling for relevant biological, psychological and social covariates, depressed mood was a significant correlate of NSP in both sexes; but the association between depressed mood and NSP was significantly stronger for girls than for boys.

  16. Adolescent Perceptions of Parental Behaviors, Adolescent Self-Esteem, and Adolescent Depressed Mood

    Plunkett, Scott W.; Henry, Carolyn S.; Robinson, Linda C.; Behnke, Andrew; Falcon, Pedro C., III

    2007-01-01

    Using symbolic interaction, we developed a research model that proposed adolescent perceptions of parental support and psychological control would be related to adolescent depressed mood directly and indirectly through self-esteem. We tested the model using self-report questionnaire data from 161 adolescents living with both of their biological…

  17. Depressive moods and marital happiness: within-person synchrony, moderators, and meaning.

    Smith, David A; Breiding, Matthew J; Papp, Lauren M

    2012-06-01

    Recent studies using within-persons designs conceptually replicate and substantively extend prior research that has shown marital distress to be a robust risk factor for depression. The present investigation further extends this within-persons research tradition by increasing the frequency of assessments and by adding new moderators and measures in a sample of both newlywed (n = 24) and maritally distressed (n = 31) wives. In both samples, the average within-persons association between 21 daily assessments of wives' depressed mood and marital happiness approximated previous estimates of analogous effects (overall r = -.54). Wives reported worse depressive mood symptoms on days they experienced lower marital happiness, even after accounting for time and between-person variation in marital happiness. Each participant's within-persons mood and marital happiness association was then treated as a dependent variable to be predicted from theoretically relevant individual differences. Multilevel modeling showed that the negative within-person association between daily depressed mood and daily marital happiness was especially strong for women who were relatively high in depressive symptoms, who had avoidant attachment styles, and who were relatively low in marital adjustment.

  18. Longitudinal Characterization of Depression and Mood States Beginning in Primary HIV Infection

    2014-01-01

    Though depression is known to frequently afflict those with chronic HIV, mood during the early course of HIV is not well characterized. In a prospective study we assessed mood during primary HIV infection [primary HIV infection (PHI),

  19. Loss of interest, depressed mood and impact on the quality of life: Cross-sectional survey

    Gattaz Wagner F

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Depressive symptoms and chronic disease have adverse effects on patients' health-related quality of life (H-RQOL. However, little is known about this effect on H-RQOL when only the two core depressive symptoms - loss of interest and depressed mood - are considered. The objective of this study is to investigate H-RQOL in the presence of loss of interest and depressed mood at a general medical outpatient unit. Methods We evaluated 553 patients at their first attendance at a general medical outpatient unit of a teaching hospital. H-RQOL was assessed with the Medical Outcomes Study 36-item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36. Depressed mood and loss of interest were assessed by the Primary Care Evaluation of Mental Disorders (PRIME-MD-Patient Questionnaire. A physician performed the diagnosis of chronic diseases by clinical judgment and classified them in 13 possible pre-defined categories. We used multiple linear regression to investigate associations between each domain of H-RQOL and our two core depression symptoms. The presence of chronic diseases and demographic variables were included in the models as covariates. Results Among the 553 patients, 70.5% were women with a mean age of 41.0 years (range 18-85, SD ± 15.4. Loss of interest was reported by 54.6%, and depressed mood by 59.7% of the patients. At least one chronic disease was diagnosed in 59.5% of patients; cardiovascular disease was the most prevalent, affecting 20.6% of our patients. Loss of interest and depressed mood was significantly associated with decreased scores in all domains of H-RQOL after adjustment for possible confounders. The presence of any chronic disease was associated with a decrease in the domain of vitality. The analysis of each individual chronic disease category revealed that no category was associated with a decrease in more than one domain of H-RQOL. Conclusion Loss of interest and depressed mood were associated with significant decreases in H

  20. Amitriptyline relieves diabetic neuropathy pain in patients with normal or depressed mood.

    Max, M B; Culnane, M; Schafer, S C; Gracely, R H; Walther, D J; Smoller, B; Dubner, R

    1987-04-01

    In a randomized, double-blind crossover study, 29 patients with painful diabetic neuropathy received 6 weeks of amitriptyline and 6 weeks of an "active" placebo that mimicked amitriptyline side effects. Amitriptyline was superior to placebo in relieving pain in weeks 3 through 6. Both steady, burning pain and lancinating pains were relieved. Patients able to tolerate higher amitriptyline doses reported greater relief, through the maximum dose of 150 mg nightly. Amitriptyline analgesia was similar in depressed and nondepressed subgroups and was not associated with mood improvement. We conclude that amitriptyline relieves pain in diabetic neuropathy; this effect is independent of mood elevation.

  1. Interactive Effect of Child Maltreatment and Substance Use on Depressed Mood Among Adolescents Presenting to Community-Based Substance Use Treatment.

    Gomez, Judelysse; Becker, Sara; O'Brien, Kimberly; Spirito, Anthony

    2015-10-01

    Adolescents referred to community behavioral health centers (CBHC) for substance use (SU) problems report high rates of child maltreatment. Although SU and maltreatment are independent risk factors for adolescent depression, few studies have examined their interactive effects. This study examined the interactive effects of SU (alcohol and marijuana) and exposure to different types of trauma on depressed mood among 74 adolescents referred to a CBHC for SU. Hierarchical regressions controlling for sex and common adolescent comorbidities showed that sexual abuse had a stronger relationship with depressed mood than other types of maltreatment. Although SU was not independently related to depressed mood, consistent with the self-medication hypothesis, increased SU was associated with lower levels of depressed mood among adolescents with greater exposure to sexual abuse. Results suggest that teens presenting to CBHCs for SU should be assessed for multiple forms of maltreatment and for depressed mood.

  2. The effects of cognitive-behavioural therapy on mood-related ruminative response style in depressed adolescents

    Goodyer Ian M

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A mood-related ruminative response style increases the risk of onset and persistence of depression. This preliminary study investigated whether, in depressed adolescents, cognitive-behaviour therapy reduces mood-related ruminative response style. Whether specific factors within the rumination scale were differentially affected by CBT is also reported. Methods 26 depressed adolescents were randomised to receiving serotonin-specific reuptake inhibitor antidepressants (SSRI plus psychosocial treatment as usual or SSRI and psychosocial treatment as usual plus CBT. Ruminative response style and depressive symptoms were measured at baseline and after 30 weeks of treatment, with the Responses to Depression Questionnaire and Mood and Feelings Questionnaire. Results There were significantly greater reductions in ruminations in the CBT group compared to the non-CBT group (p = .002. There was no significant difference in the reduction in self-reported depressive symptoms between the groups. Rumination was reduced to levels of never-depressed controls in adolescents who had recovered from depression and received CBT. There were greater falls in the CBT group in the more pathological 'brooding' factor of rumination. Conclusion These findings suggest that adding CBT to SSRI medication in the presence of active clinical care causes a greater reduction in mood-related ruminative response style in depressed adolescents. This may reduce the risk of future relapse. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCNT83809224.

  3. Longitudinal association between neighborhood cohesion and depressive mood in old age: A Japanese prospective study.

    Murayama, Hiroshi; Nishi, Mariko; Nofuji, Yu; Matsuo, Eri; Taniguchi, Yu; Amano, Hidenori; Yokoyama, Yuri; Fujiwara, Yoshinori; Shinkai, Shoji

    2015-07-01

    Despite increasing evidence of the relationship between neighborhood cohesion and depressive mood, little is known about this longitudinal association in old age. This study examined the association between perceived neighborhood cohesion and depressive mood and the stress-buffering effect of perceived neighborhood cohesion on depressive mood among older Japanese people using the 2010 (baseline) and 2012 (follow-up) Hatoyama Cohort Study datasets. We analyzed 655 participants aged 65-84 at baseline. Although perceived neighborhood cohesion at baseline was not associated with depressive mood at follow-up, high neighborhood cohesion partially offset the deleterious effect of anticipated daily stressors on depressive mood. This effect was stronger for long-term residents of the neighborhood. Interventions to strengthen neighborhood cohesion may help reduce the deleterious effect of stressors on older residents' depressive mood.

  4. An investigation of the longitudinal relationship between sleep and depressed mood in developing teens

    Lovato, Nicole; Short, Michelle A; Micic, Gorica; Hiller, Rachel M; Gradisar, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Objective The prospective, bidirectional relationship between sleep disturbance and depressed mood was assessed in a school-based sample of adolescents. Method One hundred and thirty-eight Australian adolescents (mean age time 1 =15.69, standard deviation =0.92; 64% male) completed questionnaires to assess sleep parameters and depressed mood, on two occasions over 1 year. Results Cross-sectional associations were observed between depressed mood and sleep duration, as well as wakefulness in bed. Prospective analyses revealed depressed mood predicted less total sleep time on school nights and a longer latency to sleep onset on weekends 1 year later. There was no prospective support for sleep predicting later depressed mood. Conclusion Contrary to prediction, our results suggest in this case that depressed mood may act as a precursor to poor sleep rather than the converse. PMID:28243156

  5. Breakfast consumption and depressive mood: A focus on socioeconomic status.

    Lee, Sang Ah; Park, Eun-Cheol; Ju, Yeong Jun; Lee, Tae Hoon; Han, Euna; Kim, Tae Hyun

    2017-04-08

    Skipping breakfast can be potentially harmful because breakfast consumption is considered one of the important health-related behaviors that benefit physical and mental health. As the rate of depression has increased recently, we investigated the association between the frequency of eating breakfast and depression in adults. We obtained the data from the 2013 Korean Community Health Survey; a total of 207,710 survey participants aged 20 years or over were studied. Participants were categorized into three groups by the frequency of breakfast consumption as follows: "seldom," "sometimes," and "always." We performed a multiple logistic regression to investigate the association between breakfast consumption and depressive mood. Subgroup analyses were conducted by stratifying socioeconomic variables controlling for variables known to be associated with depressive symptoms. Participants who had breakfast seldom or sometimes had higher depressive symptoms than those who always ate breakfast ("seldom": OR = 1.43, 95% CI 1.36-1.52; "sometimes": OR = 1.32, 95% CI 1.23-1.40). Subgroup analyses showed that this association was more marked in those who were 80 years or older, those who had low household income, or those with elementary school education level or less. The result of this study suggests that lack of breakfast consumption is associated with depression among adults with different socioeconomic factors.

  6. Does outdoor work during the winter season protect against depression and mood difficulties?

    Hahn, Ina H; Grynderup, Matias Brødsgaard; Dalsgaard, Sofie B;

    2011-01-01

    At temperate latitudes, 1-5% of the population suffer from winter depression; during winter, mood difficulties tend to increase but may be alleviated by bright light therapy. Unlike indoor workers, outdoor workers are exposed to therapeutic levels of sunlight during winter. We hypothesized...... that outdoor work may protect against mood difficulties and depression....

  7. The influence of depressed mood on action tendencies toward alcohol: the moderational role of drinking motives

    Ralston, T.E.; Palfai, T.P.; Rinck, M.

    2013-01-01

    Background Research suggests that depressed mood is associated with alcohol-related problems, though its relation with drinking behavior has been inconsistent across studies. Efforts to better understand the link between depressed mood and alcohol use have examined drinking motives as a potentially

  8. Inhibitory Control Mediates the Relationship between Depressed Mood and Overgeneral Memory Recall in Children

    Raes, Filip; Verstraeten, Katrien; Bijttebier, Patricia; Vasey, Michael W.; Dalgleish, Tim

    2010-01-01

    It has been well established that depressed mood is related to overgeneral memory recall (OGM), which refers to a relative difficulty in retrieving specific information from one's autobiographical memory (AM). The present study examined whether OGM is also related to depressed mood in children and whether lack of inhibitory control mediates this…

  9. Mood-Reactive Self-Esteem and Depression Vulnerability: Person-Specific Symptom Dynamics via Smart Phone Assessment.

    Clasen, Peter C; Fisher, Aaron J; Beevers, Christopher G

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive theories of depression suggest that mood-reactive self-esteem, a pattern of cognitive reactivity where low self-esteem is temporally dependent on levels of sadness, represents vulnerability for depression. Few studies have directly tested this hypothesis, particularly using intensive data collection methods (i.e., experience sampling) required to capture the temporal dynamics of sadness and self-esteem as they unfold naturally, over time. In this study we used participants' smartphones to collect multiple daily ratings of sadness and self-esteem over three weeks, in the real world. We then applied dynamic factor modeling to explore theoretically driven hypotheses about the temporal dependency of self-esteem on sadness (i.e., mood-reactive self-esteem) and its relationship to indices of depression vulnerability both contemporaneously (e.g., rumination, sad mood persistence) and prospectively (e.g., future symptomatology). In sum, individuals who demonstrated mood-reactive self-esteem reported higher levels of rumination at baseline, more persistent sad mood over three weeks, and increased depression symptoms at the end of three weeks above and beyond a trait-like index of self-esteem. The integration of smartphone assessment and person-specific analytics employed in this study offers an exiting new avenue to advance the study and treatment of depression.

  10. Mood-Reactive Self-Esteem and Depression Vulnerability: Person-Specific Symptom Dynamics via Smart Phone Assessment.

    Peter C Clasen

    Full Text Available Cognitive theories of depression suggest that mood-reactive self-esteem, a pattern of cognitive reactivity where low self-esteem is temporally dependent on levels of sadness, represents vulnerability for depression. Few studies have directly tested this hypothesis, particularly using intensive data collection methods (i.e., experience sampling required to capture the temporal dynamics of sadness and self-esteem as they unfold naturally, over time. In this study we used participants' smartphones to collect multiple daily ratings of sadness and self-esteem over three weeks, in the real world. We then applied dynamic factor modeling to explore theoretically driven hypotheses about the temporal dependency of self-esteem on sadness (i.e., mood-reactive self-esteem and its relationship to indices of depression vulnerability both contemporaneously (e.g., rumination, sad mood persistence and prospectively (e.g., future symptomatology. In sum, individuals who demonstrated mood-reactive self-esteem reported higher levels of rumination at baseline, more persistent sad mood over three weeks, and increased depression symptoms at the end of three weeks above and beyond a trait-like index of self-esteem. The integration of smartphone assessment and person-specific analytics employed in this study offers an exiting new avenue to advance the study and treatment of depression.

  11. Developing a measure of interpretation bias for depressed mood: An ambiguous scenarios test

    Berna, Chantal; Lang, Tamara J.; Goodwin, Guy M.; Holmes, Emily A.

    2011-01-01

    The tendency to interpret ambiguous everyday situations in a relatively negative manner (negative interpretation bias) is central to cognitive models of depression. Limited tools are available to measure this bias, either experimentally or in the clinic. This study aimed to develop a pragmatic interpretation bias measure using an ambiguous scenarios test relevant to depressed mood (the AST-D).1 In Study 1, after a pilot phase (N = 53), the AST-D was presented via a web-based survey (N = 208). Participants imagined and rated each AST-D ambiguous scenario. As predicted, higher dysphoric mood was associated with lower pleasantness ratings (more negative bias), independent of mental imagery measures. In Study 2, self-report ratings were compared with objective ratings of participants’ imagined outcomes of the ambiguous scenarios (N = 41). Data were collected in the experimental context of a functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging scanner. Consistent with subjective bias scores, independent judges rated more sentences as negatively valenced for the high versus low dysphoric group. Overall, results suggest the potential utility of the AST-D in assessing interpretation bias associated with depressed mood. PMID:21822348

  12. Risk Factors Linking Maternal Depressed Mood to Growth in Adolescent Substance Use

    Cortes, Rebecca C.; Fleming, Charles B.; Mason, W. Alex; Catalano, Richard F.

    2009-01-01

    Maternal depression has been implicated in the development of adolescent substance use. Conceptualizing depression as a continuum, the aims of this study are to (a) understand the relationship between maternal depressed mood and risk factors associated with adolescent substance use; (b) understand the relationship between maternal depressed mood…

  13. Trajectories of alcohol use and consequences in college women with and without depressed mood.

    Kenney, Shannon; Abar, Caitlin C; O'Brien, Kimberly; Clark, Gabrielle; LaBrie, Joseph W

    2016-02-01

    College students with depressed mood face heightened risk for experiencing drinking-related negative consequences. However, few studies have examined prospective patterns of alcohol consequences among depressed students. In the present investigation, we assessed how first-year college women's trajectories of heavy episodic drinking (HED) and alcohol consequences differed as a function of depressed mood at college entry. Participants were 233 heavy drinking incoming first-year college females (61% White) at a mid-sized West Coast University. Participants completed an online baseline survey, attended a single brief group intervention session, and completed 1- and 6-month post-intervention follow-up surveys. Depressed mood, alcohol consumption, and alcohol consequences were assessed at each time point. We employed latent growth curve analyses. Females with depressed mood, versus without depressed mood, experienced greater levels of alcohol consequences overall, particularly during transitions to college. However, contrary to hypotheses, participants with depressed mood (vs. without) exhibited significantly steeper declining trends in consequences, controlling for treatment condition, age, race, and ethnicity, and despite stable drinking levels, depressed mood, and use of protective behaviors over time. Potential explanations and suggestions for future research are discussed.

  14. Cognitive reactivity to sad mood: The importance of the first depressive episode

    Marić Zorica

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive reactivity to sad mood refers to the degree to which a mild dysphoric state reactivates negative thinking patterns. In this research, the contribution of the history of depression, the length of the current depressive episode and the intensity of the depressive symptoms were assessed in explaining the cognitive reactivity to sad mood measured with the Leiden Index of Depression Sensitivity (LEIDS. The sample consisted of 123 depressed outpatients. The results of principal components analysis suggested a three-factor solution of the LEIDS. The intensity of depressive symptoms, the history of depression and the length of the current depressive episode were all significant in explaining cognitive reactivity to sad mood. We have also found out a significant effect of interaction of the history of depression and the length of the current depressive episode, which demonstrated that a prolonged depression does not induce a stronger cognitive reactivity to sad mood during the relapse of a depressive episode, while during the first depressive episode a longer duration of depression does induce a stronger cognitive reactivity. Such a result demonstrates that the length of the first depressive episode, regardless of its intensity, is crucially important for the formation of cognitive reactivity.

  15. Cortisol response to acute stress in asthma: Moderation by depressive mood.

    Trueba, Ana F; Simon, Erica; Auchus, Richard J; Ritz, Thomas

    2016-05-15

    Both individuals with asthma and depression show signs of a dysregulated hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis. However, little is known about the cortisol response to stress in the context of co-occurring asthma and depressive mood. Thirty-nine individuals with asthma and 41 healthy controls underwent a combined speech and mental arithmetic stressor. During the course of the laboratory session, salivary cortisol was collected 5 times, with 1 sample at 0min before the stressor and 4 samples at 0, 15, 30 and 45min after the stressor. Depressive mood in the past week was assessed with the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale at the beginning of the session. Depressive symptoms moderated cortisol response to the acute stressor, but only among asthmatic patients. Higher depressive mood was associated with a significant increase in cortisol, whereas low depressive mood was associated with no cortisol response. In healthy participants, depressive mood had no substantial effect on cortisol response to the stressor. These findings suggest that depressive mood and chronic inflammatory diseases such as asthma can interact to augment cortisol response to stress.

  16. Autobiographical memory in adults with autism spectrum disorder: the role of depressed mood, rumination, working memory and theory of mind.

    Crane, Laura; Goddard, Lorna; Pring, Linda

    2013-03-01

    Autobiographical memory difficulties have been widely reported in adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The aim of the current study was to explore the potential correlates of autobiographical memory performance (including depressed mood, rumination, working memory and theory of mind) in adults with ASD, relative to a group of typical adults matched for age, gender and IQ. Results demonstrated that the adults with ASD reported higher levels of depressed mood and rumination than the typical adults, and also received lower scores on measures of theory of mind and working memory. Correlational analysis suggested that theory of mind and working memory were associated with autobiographical memory performance in the adults with ASD, but no significant relationships were observed between autobiographical memory, depressed mood and rumination in this group. To explore these patterns further, two cases of adults with a dual diagnosis of ASD and depression are discussed. These participants present a profile in line with the idea that depressed mood and rumination do not have the same influence on autobiographical memory in adults with ASD as they do in typical adults.

  17. Autobiographical Memory in Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder: The role of Depressed Mood, Rumination, Working Memory and Theory of Mind

    Crane, Laura; Goddard, Lorna; Pring, Linda

    2013-01-01

    Autobiographical memory difficulties have been widely reported in adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The aim of the current study was to explore the potential correlates of autobiographical memory performance (including depressed mood, rumination, working memory and theory of mind) in adults with ASD, relative to a group of typical adults…

  18. The impact of sleep on adolescent depressed mood, alertness and academic performance.

    Short, Michelle A; Gradisar, Michael; Lack, Leon C; Wright, Helen R

    2013-12-01

    The present study developed and tested a theoretical model examining the inter-relationships among sleep duration, sleep quality, and circadian chronotype and their effect on alertness, depression, and academic performance. Participants were 385 adolescents aged 13-18 years (M = 15.6, SD = 1.0; 60% male) were recruited from eight socioeconomically diverse high schools in South Australia. Participants completed a battery of questionnaires during class time and recorded their sleep patterns in a sleep diary for 8 days. A good fit was found between the model and the data (χ(2)/df = 1.78, CFI = .99, RMSEA = .04). Circadian chronotype showed the largest association with on adolescent functioning, with more evening-typed students reporting worse sleep quality (β = .50, p Sleep quality was significantly associated with poor outcomes: adolescents with poorer sleep quality reported less sleep on school nights (β = -.28, p more depressed mood (β = .47, p sleep quality and/or more evening chronotype were also more likely to report worse grades, through the association with depression. Sleep duration showed no direct effect on adolescent functioning. These results identified the importance of two lesser-studied aspects of sleep: circadian chronotype and sleep quality. Easy-to-implement strategies to optimize sleep quality and maintain an adaptive circadian body clock may help to increase daytime alertness, elevate mood, and improve academic performance.

  19. Depressive mood, eating disorder symptoms, and perfectionism in female college students: a mediation analysis.

    García-Villamisar, Domingo; Dattilo, John; Del Pozo, Araceli

    2012-01-01

    Although perfectionism has long been established as an important risk factor for depressive mood and eating disorders, the mechanisms through which this temperamental predisposition mediates the relationship between depressive mood and eating disorder symptoms are still relatively unclear. In this study we hypothesized that both perfectionism dimensions, self-oriented perfectionism and socially prescribed perfectionism, would mediate the relationship between current symptoms of depression and eating disorders in a non-clinical sample of Spanish undergraduate females. Two hundred sixteen female undergraduate students of the University Complutense of Madrid (Spain) completed the Spanish versions of the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-40), the Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale (MPS), OBQ-44, and BDI-II and BAI. Results demonstrated the importance of socially prescribed perfectionism in mediation of the relationship between depressive mood and symptoms of eating disorders. Socially prescribed perfectionism mediates the relationship between depressive mood and eating disorder symptoms for female college students.

  20. Frailty as a Predictor of the Incidence and Course of Depressed Mood

    Collard, Rose M.; Comijs, Hannie C.; Naarding, Paul; Penninx, Brenda W.; Milaneschi, Yuri; Ferrucci, Luigi; Oude Voshaar, Richard C.

    2016-01-01

    Background Late-life depression and physical frailty are supposed to be reciprocally associated, however, longitudinal studies are lacking. Objectives This study examines whether physical frailty predicts a higher incidence of depression, as well as a less favorable course of depression. Methods A population-based cohort study of 888 people aged 65 years and over with follow-up measures at 3, 6, and 9 years. Cox proportional hazards models adjusted for age, sex, education, smoking, alcohol usage, and global cognitive functioning were applied to calculate the incidence of depressed mood in those nondepressed at baseline (n = 699) and remission in those with depressed mood at baseline (n = 189). Depressed mood onset or remission was defined as crossing the cut-off score of 20 points on the Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression Scale combined with a relevant change in this score. Physical frailty was based on the presence of ≥3 out of 5 components (ie, weight loss, weakness, slowness, exhaustion, and low physical activity level). Results A total of 214 out of 699 (30.6%) nondepressed persons developed depressed mood during follow-up. Physical frailty predicted the onset of depressed mood with a hazard rate of 1.26 (95% confidence interval 1.09–1.45, P = .002). Of the 189 persons with depressed mood at baseline, 96 (50.8%) experienced remission during follow-up. Remission was less likely in the presence of a higher level of physical frailty (hazard rate = 0.72, 95% confidence interval 0.58–0.91, P = .005). Conclusions Because physical frailty predicts both the onset and course of late-life depressed mood, physical frailty should receive more attention in mental health care planning for older persons as well as its interference with treatment. Future studies into the pathophysiological mechanisms may guide the development of new treatment opportunities for these vulnerable patients. PMID:25737263

  1. An investigation of the longitudinal relationship between sleep and depressed mood in developing teens

    Lovato N

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Nicole Lovato,1 Michelle A Short,2 Gorica Micic,3 Rachel M Hiller,4 Michael Gradisar3 1Adelaide Institute for Sleep Health: A Flinders Centre of Research Excellence, Repatriation General Hospital, Flinders University, 2Centre for Sleep Research, University of South Australia, 3School of Psychology, Flinders University, Adelaide, SA, Australia; 4Department of Psychology, University of Bath, North East Somerset, UK Objective: The prospective, bidirectional relationship between sleep disturbance and depressed mood was assessed in a school-based sample of adolescents. Method: One hundred and thirty-eight Australian adolescents (mean age time 1 =15.69, standard deviation =0.92; 64% male completed questionnaires to assess sleep parameters and depressed mood, on two occasions over 1 year. Results: Cross-sectional associations were observed between depressed mood and sleep duration, as well as wakefulness in bed. Prospective analyses revealed depressed mood predicted less total sleep time on school nights and a longer latency to sleep onset on weekends 1 year later. There was no prospective support for sleep predicting later depressed mood. Conclusion: Contrary to prediction, our results suggest in this case that depressed mood may act as a precursor to poor sleep rather than the converse. Keywords: adolescence, sleep disturbance, school-based, prospective, depressive symptoms

  2. The effect of acupuncture on mood and working memory in patients with depression and schizophrenia

    Bosch, M.P.C.; Noort, M.W.M.L. van den; Yeo, S.; Lim, S.; Coenen, A.M.L.; Luijtelaar, E.L.J.M. van

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In patients with depression, as well as in patients with schizophrenia, both mood and working memory performance are often impaired. Both issues can only be addressed and improved with medication to some extent. OBJECTIVE: This study investigates the mood and the working memory performan

  3. Mood and Global Symptom Changes among Psychotherapy Clients with Depressive Personality

    Rachel E. Maddux

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study assessed the rate of depressive personality (DP, as measured by the self-report instrument depressive personality disorder inventory (DPDI, among 159 clients entering psychotherapy at an outpatient university clinic. The presenting clinical profile was evaluated for those with and without DP, including levels of depressed mood, other psychological symptoms, and global severity of psychopathology. Clients were followed naturalistically over the course of therapy, up to 40 weeks, and reassessed on these variables again after treatment. Results indicated that 44 percent of the sample qualified for DP prior to treatment, and these individuals had a comparatively more severe and complex presenting disposition than those without DP. Mixed-model repeated-measures analysis of variance was used to examine between-groups changes on mood and global severity over time, with those with DP demonstrating larger reductions on both outcome variables, although still showing more symptoms after treatment, than those without DP. Only eleven percent of the sample continued to endorse DP following treatment. These findings suggest that in routine clinical situations, psychotherapy may benefit individuals with DP.

  4. Correlation of within-individual fluctuation of depressed mood with prefrontal cortex activity during verbal working memory task: optical topography study

    Sato, Hiroki; Aoki, Ryuta; Katura, Takusige; Matsuda, Ryoichi; Koizumi, Hideaki

    2011-12-01

    Previous studies showed that interindividual variations in mood state are associated with prefrontal cortex (PFC) activity. In this study, we focused on the depressed-mood state under natural circumstances and examined the relationship between within-individual changes over time in this mood state and PFC activity. We used optical topography (OT), a functional imaging technique based on near-infrared spectroscopy, to measure PFC activity for each participant in three experimental sessions repeated at 2-week intervals. In each session, the participants completed a self-report questionnaire of mood state and underwent OT measurement while performing verbal and spatial working memory (WM) tasks. The results showed that changes in the depressed-mood score between successive sessions were negatively correlated with those in the left PFC activation for the verbal WM task (ρ = -0.56, p < 0.05). In contrast, the PFC activation for the spatial WM task did not co-vary with participants' mood changes. We thus demonstrated that PFC activity during a verbal WM task varies depending on the participant's depressed mood state, independent of trait factors. This suggests that using optical topography to measure PFC activity during a verbal WM task can be used as a potential state marker for an individual's depressed mood state.

  5. Correlation of within-individual fluctuation of depressed mood with prefrontal cortex activity during verbal working memory task: optical topography study.

    Sato, Hiroki; Aoki, Ryuta; Katura, Takusige; Matsuda, Ryoichi; Koizumi, Hideaki

    2011-12-01

    Previous studies showed that interindividual variations in mood state are associated with prefrontal cortex (PFC) activity. In this study, we focused on the depressed-mood state under natural circumstances and examined the relationship between within-individual changes over time in this mood state and PFC activity. We used optical topography (OT), a functional imaging technique based on near-infrared spectroscopy, to measure PFC activity for each participant in three experimental sessions repeated at 2-week intervals. In each session, the participants completed a self-report questionnaire of mood state and underwent OT measurement while performing verbal and spatial working memory (WM) tasks. The results showed that changes in the depressed-mood score between successive sessions were negatively correlated with those in the left PFC activation for the verbal WM task (ρ = -0.56, p mood changes. We thus demonstrated that PFC activity during a verbal WM task varies depending on the participant's depressed mood state, independent of trait factors. This suggests that using optical topography to measure PFC activity during a verbal WM task can be used as a potential state marker for an individual's depressed mood state.

  6. Sensorimotor modulation of mood and depression: In search of an optimal mode of stimulation

    RESIT eCANBEYLI

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Depression involves a dysfunction in an affective fronto-limbic circuitry including the prefrontal cortices, several limbic structures including the cingulate cortex, the amygdala and the hippocampus as well as the basal ganglia. A major emphasis of research on the etiology and treatment of mood disorders has been to assess the impact of centrally generated (top-down processes impacting the affective fronto-limbic circuitry. The present review shows that peripheral (bottom-up unipolar stimulation via the visual and the auditory modalities as well as by physical exercise modulates mood and depressive symptoms in humans and animals and activates the same central affective neurocircuitry involved in depression. It is proposed that the amygdala serves as a gateway by articulating the mood regulatory sensorimotor stimulation with the central affective circuitry by emotionally labeling and mediating the storage of such emotional events in long-term memory. Since both amelioration and aggravation of mood is shown to be possible by unipolar stimulation, the review suggests that a psychophysical assessment of mood modulation by multi-modal stimulation may uncover mood ameliorative synergisms and serve as adjunctive treatment for depression. Thus, the integrative review not only emphasizes the relevance of investigating the optimal levels of mood regulatory sensorimotor stimulation, but also provides a conceptual springboard for related future research.

  7. Tinnitus severity is reduced with reduction of depressive mood--a prospective population study in Sweden.

    Sylvie Hébert

    Full Text Available Tinnitus, the perception of sound without external source, is a highly prevalent public health problem with about 8% of the population having frequently occurring tinnitus, and about 1-2% experiencing significant distress from it. Population studies, as well as studies on self-selected samples, have reported poor psychological well-being in individuals with tinnitus. However, no study has examined the long-term co-variation between mood and tinnitus prevalence or tinnitus severity. In this study, the relationship between depression and tinnitus prevalence and severity over a 2-year period was examined in a representative sample of the general Swedish working population. Results show that a decrease in depression is associated with a decrease in tinnitus prevalence, and even more markedly with tinnitus severity. Hearing loss was a more potent predictor than depression for tinnitus prevalence, but was a weaker predictor than depression for tinnitus severity. In addition, there were sex differences for tinnitus prevalence, but not for tinnitus severity. This study shows a direct and long-term association between tinnitus severity and depression.

  8. Tinnitus severity is reduced with reduction of depressive mood--a prospective population study in Sweden.

    Hébert, Sylvie; Canlon, Barbara; Hasson, Dan; Magnusson Hanson, Linda L; Westerlund, Hugo; Theorell, Töres

    2012-01-01

    Tinnitus, the perception of sound without external source, is a highly prevalent public health problem with about 8% of the population having frequently occurring tinnitus, and about 1-2% experiencing significant distress from it. Population studies, as well as studies on self-selected samples, have reported poor psychological well-being in individuals with tinnitus. However, no study has examined the long-term co-variation between mood and tinnitus prevalence or tinnitus severity. In this study, the relationship between depression and tinnitus prevalence and severity over a 2-year period was examined in a representative sample of the general Swedish working population. Results show that a decrease in depression is associated with a decrease in tinnitus prevalence, and even more markedly with tinnitus severity. Hearing loss was a more potent predictor than depression for tinnitus prevalence, but was a weaker predictor than depression for tinnitus severity. In addition, there were sex differences for tinnitus prevalence, but not for tinnitus severity. This study shows a direct and long-term association between tinnitus severity and depression.

  9. Subjective Mood in Young Unmedicated Depressed Women under High and Low Sleep Pressure Conditions

    Angelina Birchler-Pedross

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Diurnal mood variations are one of the core symptoms in depression, and total sleep deprivation (SD can induce rapid, short-lasting clinical improvement in depressed patients. Here, we investigated if differential sleep pressure conditions impact on subjective mood levels in young women with major depressive disorder (MDD without sleep disturbances, and in healthy controls. Eight healthy and eight MDD women underwent 40-h SD (high sleep pressure and 40-h multiple NAP (low sleep pressure protocols under constant routine conditions during which subjective mood was assessed every 30-min. MDD women rated overall significantly worse mood than controls, with minimal values for both groups during the biological night (ca. 4 a.m., under high and low sleep pressure conditions. During SD, nighttime mood ratings in MDD women were lower than in controls and partially recovered during the second day of SD, but never attained control levels. The degree of this diurnal time-course in mood under SD correlated positively with sleep quality in MDD women. Our data indicate that MDD women without sleep disturbances did not exhibit a SD-induced antidepressant response, suggesting that the mood enhancement response to sleep deprivation might be related to the co-existence of sleep disturbances, which is an association that remains to be fully established.

  10. Parasympathetic nervous system activity predicts mood repair use and its effectiveness among adolescents with and without histories of major depression.

    Yaroslavsky, Ilya; Rottenberg, Jonathan; Bylsma, Lauren M; Jennings, J Richard; George, Charles; Baji, Ildikó; Benák, István; Dochnal, Roberta; Halas, Kitti; Kapornai, Krisztina; Kiss, Enikő; Makai, Attila; Varga, Hedvig; Vetró, Ágnes; Kovacs, Maria

    2016-04-01

    Depressive disorders that onset in the juvenile years have been linked to far-reaching adverse consequences, making it imperative to elucidate key mechanisms and contributory factors. Excessive use of regulatory responses that exacerbate sadness (maladaptive mood repair) or insufficient use of regulatory responses that reduce it (adaptive mood repair) may reflect behavioral mechanisms of depression risk. Cardiac vagal control, indexed by patterns of respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA), has received attention as a putative physiological risk factor for depression. Although mood repair and RSA are related, the nature of this relationship is not well characterized in the context of depression risk. Therefore, we tested alternative models of the relationships between RSA patterns (at rest and in response to a sad film), trait mood repair, and the effectiveness of a mood repair response in the laboratory (state mood repair) among adolescents with depression histories (n = 210) and emotionally healthy peers (n = 161). In our data, a mediation model best explained the association between the key constructs: Adolescents with normative RSA patterns exhibited lower levels of depression and trait maladaptive mood repair, and benefited more from instructed (state) mood repair in the laboratory. By contrast, adolescents with atypical RSA patterns exhibited higher levels of depression and dispositional maladaptive mood repair, which, in turn, mediated the relations of RSA patterns and depression symptoms. Atypical RSA patterns also predicted reduced benefits from laboratory mood repair.

  11. Depressive Mood and Testosterone Related to Declarative Verbal Memory Decline in Middle-Aged Caregivers of Children with Eating Disorders.

    Romero-Martínez, Ángel; Ruiz-Robledillo, Nicolás; Moya-Albiol, Luis

    2016-03-04

    Caring for children diagnosed with a chronic psychological disorder such as an eating disorder (ED) can be used as a model of chronic stress. This kind of stress has been reported to have deleterious effects on caregivers' cognition, particularly in verbal declarative memory of women caregivers. Moreover, high depressive mood and variations in testosterone (T) levels moderate this cognitive decline. The purpose of this study was to characterize whether caregivers of individuals with EDs (n = 27) show declarative memory impairments compared to non-caregivers caregivers (n = 27), using for this purpose a standardized memory test (Rey's Auditory Verbal Learning Test). Its purpose was also to examine the role of depressive mood and T in memory decline. Results showed that ED caregivers presented high depressive mood, which was associated to worse verbal memory performance, especially in the case of women. In addition, all caregivers showed high T levels. Nonetheless, only in the case of women caregivers did T show a curvilinear relationship with verbal memory performance, meaning that the increases of T were associated to the improvement in verbal memory performance, but only up to a certain point, as after such point T continued to increase and memory performance decreased. Thus, chronic stress due to caregiving was associated to disturbances in mood and T levels, which in turn was associated to verbal memory decline. These findings should be taken into account in the implementation of intervention programs for helping ED caregivers cope with caregiving situations and to prevent the risk of a pronounced verbal memory decline.

  12. Expert consensus statement on diagnosis and treatment of cancer-related depressed mood state based on Chinese medicine

    2015-01-01

    This consensus statement is organized into six parts: 1) Definitions: cancer-related depressed mood state is defined as a group of depressive symptoms, rather than major depressive disorder. Thus, “cancer-related depression” or “depressed mood state” is introduced as standard terminology and associated with the Chinese medicine concept of “yu zheng” (depression syndrome). 2) Pathogenesis: factors including psychological stress, cancer pain, cancer fatigue, sleep disorders, surgery trauma, che...

  13. Subjective memory complaints of Chinese HIV-infected patients in Hong Kong: relationships with social support, depressive mood and medical symptoms.

    Chan, I; Chan, E; Au, A; Leung, P; Li, P; Lee, M P; Chung, R; Yu, P

    2007-10-01

    The present study aimed at investigating the contribution of social support, depressive mood, medical symptoms and objective memory performance to the subjective memory complaints of Chinese HIV-infected persons in Hong Kong. Ninety HIV-infected persons were administered the Hong Kong List Learning Test (HKLLT) as an objective measure of memory. They also reported their subjective memory complaints, HIV-related medical symptoms, depressive mood and perceived social support by self-administered questionnaires. Path analyses were conducted to evaluate models that depicted the relationships among the variables. The final model that showed the best fit to the data suggested that objective memory performance had no significant role to play in patients' subjective memory complaints. Depressive mood was found to be a significant factor that directly affected patient's subjective memory complaints and social support played an indirect role with depressive mood as a mediating variable. These findings suggest that memory complaints might be an indicator of mood disturbance and social support might be useful in ameliorating depressive mood and these complaints. The need of assessment of other cognitive functions in future research is also discussed.

  14. Trauma exposure interacts with impulsivity in predicting emotion regulation and depressive mood

    Grazia Ceschi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Traumatic exposure may modulate the expression of impulsive behavioral dispositions and change the implementation of emotion regulation strategies associated with depressive mood. Past studies resulted in only limited comprehension of these relationships, especially because they failed to consider impulsivity as a multifactorial construct. Objective: Based on Whiteside and Lynam's multidimensional model that identifies four distinct dispositional facets of impulsive-like behaviors, namely urgency, (lack of premeditation, (lack of perseverance, and sensation seeking (UPPS, the current study used a sample of community volunteers to investigate whether an interaction exists between impulsivity facets and lifetime trauma exposure in predicting cognitive emotion regulation and depressive mood. Methods: Ninety-three adults completed questionnaires measuring lifetime trauma exposure, impulsivity, cognitive emotion regulation, and depressive mood. Results: Results showed that trauma-exposed participants with a strong disposition toward urgency (predisposition to act rashly in intense emotional contexts tended to use fewer appropriate cognitive emotion regulation strategies than other individuals. Unexpectedly, participants lacking in perseverance (predisposition to have difficulties concentrating on demanding tasks used more appropriate emotion regulation strategies if they had experienced traumatic events during their life than if they had not. Emotion regulation mediated the path between these two impulsivity facets and depressive mood. Conclusions: Together, these findings suggest that impulsivity has a differential impact on emotion regulation and depressive mood depending on lifetime exposure to environmental factors, especially traumatic events.

  15. Depression

    Kessing, Lars Veddel; Bukh, Jens Drachmann

    2014-01-01

    , that these diagnostic criteria represent an oversimplification, which has blurred the concept of depression. We suggest a greater emphasis on the depressed mood as the core symptom of depression, which may increase the specificity of the diagnosis. Furthermore, basic principles for the treatment of depression......The prevalence of depression is not clearly established, but estimated to 3-4% in a Danish questionnaire study. Lifetime's prevalences of 12-17% are reported in other community samples. In the current diagnostic system depression is defined categorically and operationally. It has been argued...

  16. Depression

    Kessing, Lars Veddel; Bukh, Jens Otto Drachmann

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of depression is not clearly established, but estimated to 3-4% in a Danish questionnaire study. Lifetime's prevalences of 12-17% are reported in other community samples. In the current diagnostic system depression is defined categorically and operationally. It has been argued......, that these diagnostic criteria represent an oversimplification, which has blurred the concept of depression. We suggest a greater emphasis on the depressed mood as the core symptom of depression, which may increase the specificity of the diagnosis. Furthermore, basic principles for the treatment of depression...

  17. Health-related quality of life (HRQOL), activity of daily living (ADL) and depressive mood disorder in temporal lobe epilepsy patients.

    Lehrner, J; Kalchmayr, R; Serles, W; Olbrich, A; Pataraia, E; Aull, S; Bacher, J; Leutmezer, F; Gröppel, G; Deecke, L; Baumgartner, C

    1999-04-01

    We determined the interrelations of chronological age, age at seizure onset, duration of seizure disorder, cognitive functioning (IQ), scales of activities of daily living, depressive mood disorder and measures of health-related quality of life (HRQOL). Furthermore, we investigated the association of the laterality of seizure onset zone and absence/presence of hippocampal atrophy and/or sclerosis (HA/HS) with measures of HRQOL, activities of daily living (ADL) and depressive mood disorder. In the setting of pre-surgical epilepsy evaluation, a sample of 56 patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) was studied using the Bonner Skalen für Epilepsie (BPSE) and the depression inventory D-S of von Zerssen. Patients reported high levels of dependency on others and poor coping capabilities. Our data also showed specific ADL-behaviour suggesting social withdrawal and isolation. Our results indicate emotional impairment as a major problem in TLE, because 45% of our patients scored in the depressive range of the D-S depression scale. Depression score was found to be a powerful predictor of self-reported quality of life after adjusting for seizure-related variables, demographic variables and cognitive functioning (IQ). The only scale showing a significant laterality effect was ADL-home. No relationship between the dependent measures of HRQOL, ADL-social, ADL-cultural, depressive mood disorder and laterality of the epileptogenic zone or absence/presence of HA/HS was found. HRQOL and depressive mood disorder are strongly interrelated indicating that patients with depressive symptoms report lower quality of life and specific patterns of ADL. HRQOL, ADL and depressive mood disorder are largely independent of biological markers such as laterality of seizure onset zone and absence/presence of HA/HS in TLE.

  18. Physical activity, depressed mood and pregnancy worries in European obese pregnant women

    de Wit, Linda; Jelsma, Judith G M; van Poppel, Mireille N M

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to examine the association between mental health status (i.e. depressed mood and pregnancy-related worries) and objectively measured physical activity levels in obese pregnant women from seven European countries. METHODS: Baseline data from the vitamin D...... with less physical activity. The combined risk of poor mental health and low physical activity levels makes women vulnerable for pregnancy complications. Whether a depressed mood may be a barrier for improving physical activity warrants further study....... and lifestyle intervention for the prevention of gestational diabetes mellitus (DALI) study were used. Time spent in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and sedentary behaviour was measured with accelerometers. Depressed mood was measured with the WHO well-being index (WHO-5) and pregnancy...

  19. The association of air pollution and depressed mood in 70,928 individuals from four European cohorts

    Zijlema, W. L.; Wolf, K.; Emeny, R.; Ladwig, K. H.; Peters, A.; Kongsgard, H.; Hveem, K.; Kvaloy, K.; Yli-Tuomi, T.; Partonen, T.; Lanki, T.; Eeftens, M.; de Hoogh, K.; Brunekreef, B.; Stolk, R. P.; Rosmalen, J. G. M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Exposure to ambient air pollution may be associated with impaired mental health, including depression. However, evidence originates mainly from animal studies and epidemiological studies in specific subgroups. We investigated the association between air pollution and depressed mood in fo

  20. The association of air pollution and depressed mood in 70,928 individuals from four European cohorts

    Zijlema, W L; Wolf, K; Emeny, R; Ladwig, K H; Peters, A.; Kongsgård, H; Hveem, K; Kvaløy, K; Yli-Tuomi, T; Partonen, T; Lanki, T; Eeftens, M; de Hoogh, K; Brunekreef, B; Stolk, R P; Rosmalen, J G M

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Exposure to ambient air pollution may be associated with impaired mental health, including depression. However, evidence originates mainly from animal studies and epidemiological studies in specific subgroups. We investigated the association between air pollution and depressed mood in fo

  1. Longitudinal characterization of depression and mood states beginning in primary HIV infection.

    Gold, Jessica A; Grill, Marie; Peterson, Julia; Pilcher, Christopher; Lee, Evelyn; Hecht, Frederick M; Fuchs, Dietmar; Yiannoutsos, Constantin T; Price, Richard W; Robertson, Kevin; Spudich, Serena

    2014-06-01

    Though depression is known to frequently afflict those with chronic HIV, mood during the early course of HIV is not well characterized. In a prospective study we assessed mood during primary HIV infection [primary HIV infection (PHI), ART). The Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and Profile of Mood States (POMS) subscales were longitudinally administered prior to and after ART in PHI subjects. This evaluation of mood was done concurrently with blood, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and neuropsychological [total z and global deficit score (GDS)] evaluation at each visit. Analysis employed Spearman's rho, logistic regression, and linear mixed models. 47.7 % of the 65 men recruited at a median 3.5 months HIV duration met BDI criteria for clinical depression at baseline, classified as 'mild' (n = 11), 'moderate' (n = 11), or 'severe' (n = 9). Drug, alcohol, and depression history did not associate with BDI score. Proportional somatic-performance scores were worse than cognitive-affective scores (p = .0045). Vigor subscore of POMS was reduced compared to norms and correlated with total z (r = 0.33, p = 0.013) and GDS (r = -0.32, p = 0.016). BDI and POMS correlated with one another (r = 0.85, p ART. Depression was prevalent during PHI in our subjects, associated with abnormal somatic-performance and vigor scores. Neither neuropsychological performance nor disease biomarkers correlated with depressed mood. Mood indices did not improve over time in the presence of ART.

  2. Depressed mood and speech in Chilean mothers of 5½-year-old children.

    Clark, Katy M; Su, Jing; Kaciroti, Niko; Castillo, Marcela; Millan, Rebeca; Rule, Heather; Lozoff, Besty

    2010-01-01

    Previous research on maternal speech and depression has focused almost exclusively on how depressed mothers talk to their infants and toddlers in the U.S. and U.K., two English-speaking countries. This study considered how depressed Spanish-speaking mothers from a Latin American country talk about their preschool-age children. Five-minute speech samples were provided by 178 Chilean mothers who were asked to talk about their 5½-year-old children to a project psychologist. Maternal depressive symptomatology was measured by the Spanish-language version of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). In multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA), higher maternal depressed mood showed statistically significant associations with the following maternal speech characteristics: more criticisms, less laughter, fewer medium pauses, less positive satisfaction with the child's behavior or characteristics, a rating of a negative overall relationship with the child, and more crying (suggestive trend). A structural equation model confirmed these findings and found an indirect effect between laughter and criticisms: mothers with higher depressed mood who laughed less criticized their children less. The findings illustrate that depressed mood adversely affects how a group of Chilean mothers speak about their children.

  3. Glucocorticoid mediated regulation of inflammation in human monocytes is associated with depressive mood and obesity.

    Cheng, Tiefu; Dimitrov, Stoyan; Pruitt, Christopher; Hong, Suzi

    2016-04-01

    Dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is observed in various conditions, including depression and obesity, which are also often related. Glucocorticoid (GC) resistance and desensitization of peripheral GC receptors (GRs) are often the case in HPA dysregulation seen in depression, and GC plays a critical role in regulation of inflammation. Given the growing evidence that inflammation is a central feature of some depression cases and obesity, we aimed to investigate the immune-regulatory role of GC-GR in relation to depressive mood and obesity in 35 healthy men and women. Depressive mood and level of obesity were assessed, using Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-Ia) and body mass index (BMI), respectively. We measured plasma cortisol levels via enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and lipopolysaccharide-stimulated intracellular tumor necrosis factor (TNF) production by monocytes, using flow cytometry. Cortisol sensitivity was determined by the difference in monocytic TNF production between the conditions of 1 and 0 μM cortisol incubation ("cortisol-mediated inflammation regulation, CoMIR"). GR vs. mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) antagonism for CoMIR was examined by using mifepristone and spironolactone. A series of multiple regression analyses were performed to investigate independent contribution of depressive mood vs. obesity after controlling for age, gender, systolic blood pressure (SBP), and plasma cortisol in predicting CoMIR. CoMIR was explained by somatic subcomponents of depressive mood (BDI-S: β=-0.499, p=0.001), or BMI (β=-0.466, pobesity and somatic depressive symptoms were associated with smaller efficacy of the blockers, which warrants further investigation. Our findings, although in a preclinical sample, signify the shared pathophysiology of immune dysregulation in depression and obesity and warrant further mechanistic investigation.

  4. Feeling and time: the phenomenology of mood disorders, depressive realism, and existential psychotherapy.

    Ghaemi, S Nassir

    2007-01-01

    Phenomenological research suggests that pure manic and depressive states are less common than mixtures of the two and that the two poles of mood are characterized by opposite ways of experiencing time. In mania, the subjective experience of time is sped up and in depression it is slowed down, perhaps reflecting differences in circadian pathophysiology. The two classic mood states are also quite different in their effect on subjective awareness: manic patients lack insight into their excitation, while depressed patients are quite insightful into their unhappiness. Consequently, insight plays a major role in overdiagnosis of unipolar depression and misdiagnosis of bipolar disorder. The phenomenology of depression also is relevant to types of psychotherapies used to treat it. The depressive realism (DR) model, in contrast to the cognitive distortion model, appears to better apply to many persons with mild to moderate depressive syndromes. I suggest that existential psychotherapy is the necessary corollary of the DR model in those cases. Further, some depressive morbidities may in fact prove, after phenomenological study, to involve other mental states instead of depression. The chronic sub-syndromal depression that is often the long-term consequence of treated bipolar disorder may in fact represent existential despair, rather than depression proper, again suggesting intervention with existential psychotherapeutic methods.

  5. Neurofeedback Treatment of College Students' Test on Anxiety, Depression, Personality, and Mood

    Dan Zhu; Yuan Li; Jin Yang

    2009-01-01

    Biofeedback is used to treat the mental diseases of college students, such as test anxiety, depression, personality, and mood. Anxiety of the colleague students was first tested by test anxiety scale (TAS) and then treated by biofeedback. After getting the biofeedback treatment, the students' TAS scores, blood volume pulse, and skin conductance were decreased, especially, their TAS scores dropped markedly. Meanwhile, the level of EEG ((1 rhythm/( rhythm) and peripheral temperature increased observably. Then, neurofeedback ((1 rhythm/( rhythm) was applied to treat students' depression, personality, and mood. As a result, these three kinds of symptoms got alleviated. And their therapeutic effects based on neurofeedback were more stable, durative and less recrudescent.

  6. Anxiety and Depressed Mood in Obese Pregnant Women: A Prospective Controlled Cohort Study

    Annick.F.L. Bogaerts

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: The psychological health in obese women during pregnancy has been poorly studied. Objective: To compare levels of anxiety and depressed mood during pregnancy in obese versus normal-weight women. Methods: 63 obese pregnant women and 156 normal-weight controls were included prospectively before 15 weeks of gestation. Levels of state and trait anxiety and depressed mood were measured during the first, second and third trimester of pregnancy. A linear mixed-effect model with repeated measures was used to evaluate group differences. Results: The levels of state anxiety significantly increased from trimester 1 to trimester 3 in obese pregnant women (beta = 3.70; p = 0.007, while this parameter remained constant throughout pregnancy in normal-weight women. Levels of trait anxiety and depressed mood significantly decreased from trimester 1 to trimester 2 in controls, but not in obese pregnant women. Variables such as maternal education, ethnicity, marital state, psychological history and miscarriages, parity and smoking behaviour had significant effects on anxiety and/or depressed moods during pregnancy. Obese pregnant women show higher levels of anxiety and depressive symptomatology compared to normal-weight pregnant women. Conclusion: Interventional programmes aiming at preventing the deleterious influence of maternal obesity on perinatal outcomes should include a psycho-educational program specifically tailored to this high-risk group.

  7. Depressive Mood Among Within-Country Migrants in Periurban Shantytowns of Lima, Peru.

    Ruiz-Grosso, Paulo; Bernabe-Ortiz, Antonio; Diez-Canseco, Francisco; Gilman, Robert H; Checkley, William; Bennett, Ian M; Miranda, J Jaime

    2015-12-01

    In low- and middle-income countries, migration to urban settings has reshaped the sprawl and socio demographic profiles of major cities. Depressive episodes make up a large portion of the burden of disease worldwide and are related to socio-demographic disruptions. As a result of terrorism, political upheaval, followed by economic development, Peru has undergone major demographic transitions over the previous three decades including large migrations within the country. We aimed to determine the prevalence of current depressive mood and its relationship with parameters of internal migration, i.e. region of origin, age at migration, and years since migration. A community-wide census was carried out between January and June 2010 within a shantytown immigrant receiving community in Lima, Peru. One male or female adult per household completed a survey. Depressive mood was assessed with a 2-item Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression (CESD) scale. Migration-related variables included place of birth, duration of residence in Lima, and age at migration. Prevalence ratios (PR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were calculated. A total of 8,551 out of 9,561 participants, response rate 89%, participated in the census. Of these, 8,091 records were analyzed: 71.8% were women [average age 39.4 (SD 13.9 years)] and 59.3% were immigrants. The overall prevalence of individuals with current depressive mood was 17.1% (95% CI 16.2-17.9%) and varied significantly by all socio-demographic and migration variables assessed. On unadjusted analyses, immigrants to Lima had higher prevalence of depressive mood if they originated in other costal or Andean areas, had lived in Lima for more than 20 years, or were <30 years of age when they out-migrated. When controlling for age, gender and socio-demographic variables the association was no longer significant, the only exception being a 20% lower prevalence of current depressive mood among those who out-migrated aged ≥30 years old (PR

  8. Deciphering Depressive Mood in Relapsing-Remitting and Progressive Multiple Sclerosis and Its Consequence on Quality of Life.

    Delphine Lamargue Hamel

    Full Text Available Depressive mood and other emotional symptoms are common in multiple sclerosis (MS. The patient-reported outcome version of the "Echelle d'Humeur Dépressive" (EHD-PRO aims to differentiate between two dimensions of depressive mood in people living with MS (PwMS.First, to compare EHD-PRO assessment and its two dimensions, lack of emotional control and emotional blunting, between a large sample of healthy controls (HCs and two samples of PwMS, relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS and primary progressive MS (PPMS; and second, to analyse the relationships between EHD-PRO scores with neurological disability, cognitive function, fatigue and health-related quality of life (HR-QOL.Regardless of their phenotype, PwMS had significantly higher EHD-PRO scores than HCs. EHD-PRO scores did not differ between the two MS groups. EHD-PRO scores did not correlate with disability and fatigue scores, disease duration or cognitive z scores. In RRMS, the lack of emotional control was independently associated with a decrease in HR-QOL.The EHD-PRO is able to easily detect depressive mood and to differentiate between two clinical dimensions, emotional blunting and lack of emotional control. The scale is sensitive and seems robust to confounding factors. Lack of emotional control seems to contribute significantly to altered HR-QOL in RRMS.

  9. Depressive Mood and Social Maladjustment: Differential Effects on Academic Achievement

    Aluja, Anton; Blanch, Angel

    2004-01-01

    The Children Depression Inventory (CDI) is a multidimensional instrument that includes items of social withdrawal, anhedonia, asthenia, low self-esteem (internalized) and behavioral problems (externalized). Child depression has been related with low academic achievement, neurotic and introverted personality traits and social maladjustment defined…

  10. Mood switch in bipolar depression : comparison of adjunctive venlafaxine, bupropion and sertraline

    Post, R. M.; Altshuler, L. L.; Leverich, G. S.; Frye, M. A.; Nolen, W. A.; Kupka, R. W.; Suppes, T.; McElroy, S.; Keck, P. E.; Denicoff, K. D.; Grunze, H.; Kitchen, C. M. R.; Mintz, J.

    2006-01-01

    Background: Few studies have examined the relative risks of switching into hypomania or mania associated with second-generation antidepressant drugs in bipolar depression. Aims: To examine the relative acute effects of bupropion, sertraline and venlafaxine as adjuncts to mood stabilisers. Method: In

  11. A LONGITUDINAL-STUDY OF DIURNAL MOOD VARIATION IN DEPRESSION - CHARACTERISTICS AND SIGNIFICANCE

    GORDIJN, MCM; BEERSMA, DGM; BOUHUYS, AL; REININK, E; VANDENHOOFDAKKER, RH

    1994-01-01

    The course of 39 depressed in-patients' daily mood was recorded by means of frequent self-ratings during their entire stay (in total 3718 days). The frequency of diurnal variations largely varies between subjects without clear dichotomy in 'diurnal' and 'non-diurnal' subjects and the occurrence of d

  12. Mood Management Intervention for College Smokers with Elevated Depressive Symptoms: A Pilot Study

    Schleicher, Holly E.; Harris, Kari Jo; Campbell, Duncan G.; Harrar, Solomon W.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This pilot study examined smoking reduction and cessation among college smokers with elevated depressive symptomatology participating in a group-based behavioral counseling, mood management, and motivational enhancement combined intervention (CBT). Participants and Methods: Fifty-eight smokers (smoked 6 days in the past 30) were…

  13. Dietary patterns and depressive mood in a multiethnic representative sample of Texas eighth graders

    The purpose of the study was to examine the relation between dietary patterns and depressive mood among 8th grade students in Texas. Data were from the 2004–2005 School Physical Activity and Nutrition study, a multistage probability-based sample of Texas 8th graders. Participants (n=8827; 14.7% Afri...

  14. Infant sleep and feeding patterns are associated with maternal sleep, stress, and depressed mood in women with a history of major depressive disorder (MDD).

    Sharkey, Katherine M; Iko, Ijeoma N; Machan, Jason T; Thompson-Westra, Johanna; Pearlstein, Teri B

    2016-04-01

    Our goal was to examine associations of infant sleep and feeding patterns with maternal sleep and mood among women at risk for postpartum depression. Participants were 30 women (age ± SD = 28.3 ± 5.1 years) with a history of MDD (but not in a mood episode at enrollment) who completed daily sleep diaries, wore wrist actigraphs to estimate sleep, and had their mood assessed with the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D-17) during four separate weeks of the perinatal period (33 weeks pregnancy and weeks 2, 6, and 16 postpartum). They logged their infants' sleep and feeding behaviors daily and reported postnatal stress on the Childcare Stress Inventory (CSI) at week 16. Mothers' actigraphically estimated sleep showed associations with infant sleep and feeding patterns only at postpartum week 2. Shorter duration of the longest infant-sleep bout was associated with shorter maternal sleep duration (p = .02) and lower sleep efficiency (p = .04), and maternal sleep efficiency was negatively associated with the number of infant-sleep bouts (p = .008) and duration of infant feeding (p = .008). Neither infant sleep nor feeding was associated with maternal sleep at 6 or 16 weeks, but more disturbed infant sleep and more frequent feeding at 6 weeks were associated with higher HAM-D scores at 6 and 16 weeks and higher CSI scores. Sleep in the mother-infant dyad is most tightly linked in the early postpartum weeks, but mothers continue to experience disturbed sleep and infant sleep and feeding behaviors continue to be associated with mothers' depressive symptoms and stress ratings as long as 16 weeks postpartum. These data imply that interventions designed to improve maternal sleep and postpartum mood should include both mothers and infants because improving infant sleep alone is not likely to improve maternal sleep, and poor infant sleep is linked to postpartum depression and stress.

  15. Expert consensus statement on diagnosis and treatment of cancer-related depressed mood state based on Chinese medicine

    Shaodan Tian

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This consensus statement is organized into six parts: 1 Definitions: cancer-related depressed mood state is defined as a group of depressive symptoms, rather than major depressive disorder. Thus, “cancer-related depression” or “depressed mood state” is introduced as standard terminology and associated with the Chinese medicine concept of “yu zheng” (depression syndrome. 2 Pathogenesis: factors including psychological stress, cancer pain, cancer fatigue, sleep disorders, surgery trauma, chemotherapy, and radiation therapy are strongly associated with cancer-related depressed mood state. Crucial elements of pathogenesis are cancer caused by depression, depression caused by cancer, and the concurrence of phlegm, dampness, and stasis from constrained liver-qi and spleen deficiency. 3 Symptoms: these include core symptoms, psychological symptoms, and somatic symptoms. Depressed mood and loss of interest are the main criteria for diagnosis. 4 Clinical evaluation: based on the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview and a numeric rating scale, and taking mood changes during cancer diagnosis and treatment into consideration, a questionnaire can be drafted to distinguish between major depressive disorder and cancer-related depression. The aim is to assist oncology clinicians to identify, treat, and refer patients with cancer-related depression. 5 Diagnosis: diagnosis should be based on the Chinese Classification for Mental Disorders (CCMD-3, taking patients' mood changes during diagnosis and treatment into consideration. 6 Treatment: treatments for cancer-related depression must be performed concurrently with cancer treatment. For mild depression, non-pharmacologic comprehensive therapies, including psychological intervention, music therapy, patient education, physical activity, and acupuncture, are recommended; for moderate depression, classical Chinese herbal formulas based on syndrome pattern differentiation combined with

  16. Depressive Mood and Testosterone Related to Declarative Verbal Memory Decline in Middle-Aged Caregivers of Children with Eating Disorders

    Ángel Romero-Martínez

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Caring for children diagnosed with a chronic psychological disorder such as an eating disorder (ED can be used as a model of chronic stress. This kind of stress has been reported to have deleterious effects on caregivers’ cognition, particularly in verbal declarative memory of women caregivers. Moreover, high depressive mood and variations in testosterone (T levels moderate this cognitive decline. The purpose of this study was to characterize whether caregivers of individuals with EDs (n = 27 show declarative memory impairments compared to non-caregivers caregivers (n = 27, using for this purpose a standardized memory test (Rey’s Auditory Verbal Learning Test. Its purpose was also to examine the role of depressive mood and T in memory decline. Results showed that ED caregivers presented high depressive mood, which was associated to worse verbal memory performance, especially in the case of women. In addition, all caregivers showed high T levels. Nonetheless, only in the case of women caregivers did T show a curvilinear relationship with verbal memory performance, meaning that the increases of T were associated to the improvement in verbal memory performance, but only up to a certain point, as after such point T continued to increase and memory performance decreased. Thus, chronic stress due to caregiving was associated to disturbances in mood and T levels, which in turn was associated to verbal memory decline. These findings should be taken into account in the implementation of intervention programs for helping ED caregivers cope with caregiving situations and to prevent the risk of a pronounced verbal memory decline.

  17. Mood-congruent memory in depression - the influence of personal relevance and emotional context.

    Wittekind, Charlotte E; Terfehr, Kirsten; Otte, Christian; Jelinek, Lena; Hinkelmann, Kim; Moritz, Steffen

    2014-03-30

    The investigation of veridical mood-congruent memory (MCM) in major depressive disorder (MDD) has been subject of many studies, whereas mood-congruent false memory has received comparatively little attention. The present study examined the influence of valence, personal relevance and the valence of the context of the learning material on true and false MCM in 20 inpatients with MDD and 20 healthy controls. Sixty positive, negative, neutral or personally relevant nouns were either combined with a positive, negative or neutral adjective. Word pairs were presented to participants in a learning trial. In a recognition task, participants had to identify the previously studied word pairs. A MCM effect could not be found for hits. However, in exploratory analyses, word pairs containing personally relevant nouns were more rated towards old by the patient relative to the control group. Furthermore, depressed patients tended to rate items more towards old than controls when the words were presented in a negative new context. Results are in line with previous findings in depression research emphasizing the role of mood-congruent false memories for mood disorders.

  18. Sleep Disturbances in Mood Disorders.

    Rumble, Meredith E; White, Kaitlin Hanley; Benca, Ruth M

    2015-12-01

    The article provides an overview of common and differentiating self-reported and objective sleep disturbances seen in mood-disordered populations. The importance of considering sleep disturbances in the context of mood disorders is emphasized, because a large body of evidence supports the notion that sleep disturbances are a risk factor for onset, exacerbation, and relapse of mood disorders. In addition, potential mechanisms for sleep disturbance in depression, other primary sleep disorders that often occur with mood disorders, effects of antidepressant and mood-stabilizing drugs on sleep, and the adjunctive effect of treating sleep in patients with mood disorders are discussed.

  19. Adolescent self-control predicts joint trajectories of marijuana use and depressive mood into young adulthood among urban African Americans and Puerto Ricans.

    Pahl, Kerstin; Brook, Judith S; Lee, Jung Yeon

    2014-08-01

    Previous studies have identified an association between depressive mood and marijuana use. We examined adolescent self-control as a predictor of membership in joint developmental trajectories of depressive mood and marijuana use from adolescence to young adulthood. Urban African Americans and Puerto Ricans (N = 838) were sampled when participants were on average 14, 19, 24, and 29 years old. Using growth mixture modeling, four joint trajectory groups of depressive mood and marijuana use were established: low marijuana use/low depressive mood, low marijuana use/intermediate depressive mood, high marijuana use/low depressive mood, and high marijuana use/high depressive mood. Weighted logistic regression analysis showed that self-control at age 14 distinguished the high marijuana use/high depressive mood group and the low marijuana use/low depressive mood group from each of the other groups. Findings show that the co-occurrence of high levels of marijuana use and depressive mood from adolescence into young adulthood is predicted by low levels of self-control in adolescence. On the other hand, high selfcontrol is associated with low marijuana use and low levels of depression over time. Thus, while deficits in self-control in adolescence constitute a significant risk for maladjustment over time, high self-control exerts a protective factor with regard to marijuana use and depressive mood into young adulthood.

  20. Associations between Sexual Abuse and Family Conflict/Violence, Self-Injurious Behavior, and Substance Use: The Mediating Role of Depressed Mood and Anger

    Asgeirsdottir, Bryndis Bjork; Sigfusdottir, Inga Dora; Gudjonsson, Gisli H.; Sigurdsson, Jon Fridrik

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To examine whether depressed mood and anger mediate the effects of sexual abuse and family conflict/violence on self-injurious behavior and substance use. Methods: A cross-sectional national survey was conducted including 9,085 16-19 year old students attending all high schools in Iceland in 2004. Participants reported frequency of…

  1. Interactive Effect of Child Maltreatment and Substance Use on Depressed Mood among Adolescents Presenting to Community-Based Substance Use Treatment

    Gomez, Judelysse; Becker, Sara; O’Brien, Kimberly; Spirito, Anthony

    2015-01-01

    Adolescents referred to community behavioral health centers (CBHC) for substance use (SU) problems report high rates of child maltreatment. Although SU and maltreatment are independent risk factors for adolescent depression, few studies have examined their interactive effects. This study examined the interactive effects of SU (alcohol and marijuana) and exposure to different types of trauma on depressed mood among 74 adolescents referred to a CBHC for SU. Hierarchical regressions controlling ...

  2. The effect of acupuncture on mood and working memory in patients with depression and schizophrenia

    Peggy Bosch; Maurits van den Noort; Sujung Yeo; Sabina Lim; Anton Coenen; Gilles van Luijtelaar

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In patients with depression, as wel as in patients with schizophrenia, both mood and working memory performance are often impaired. Both issues can only be addressed and improved with medication to some extent. OBJECTIVE: This study investigates the mood and the working memory performance in patients with depression or schizophrenia and whether acupuncture can improve these. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS AND INTERVENTIONS: A pragmatic clinical trial design was used. The study was conducted in a psychiatric clinic. Fifty patients with depression and 50 with schizophrenia were randomly divided into an experimental and a waiting-list group. Additional y, 25 healthy control participants were included. Twelve weeks of individualized acupuncture treatment was used as the clinical intervention. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Al patients were tested before (T1) and after (T2) acupuncture treatment on a mood scale (Beck Depression Inventory-II, BDI-II), a simple working memory task (digit span), and a complex working memory task (letter-number sequencing); the healthy controls were tested at T1 only. RESULTS: Patients with depression scored worse than the others on the BDI-II, and patients with schizophrenia scored worse than the healthy controls. On the digit span, patients with schizophrenia did not differ from healthy controls whereas they scored worse of al on the letter-number sequencing. With respect to the acupuncture findings, first, the present study showed that the use of acupuncture to treat patients with schizophrenia was both practical and safe. Moreover, acupuncture had a positive effect on the BDI-II for the depression group, but acupuncture had no effect on the digit span and on the letter-number sequencing performance for the two clinical groups. CONCLUSION: The clinical improvement in patients with depression after acupuncture treatment was not accompanied by any significant change in a simple working memory task or in a more complex working memory

  3. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN CARDIAC VAGAL ACTIVITY AND MOOD CONGRUENT MEMORY BIAS IN MAJOR DEPRESSION

    Garcia, Ronald G.; Valenza, Gaetano

    2015-01-01

    Background Previous studies suggest that autonomic reactivity during encoding of emotional information could modulate the neural processes mediating mood-congruent memory. In this study, we use a point-process model to determine dynamic autonomic tone in response to negative emotions and its influence on long-term memory of major depressed subjects. Methods Forty-eight patients with major depression and 48 healthy controls were randomly assigned to either neutral or emotionally arousing audiovisual stimuli. An adaptive point-process algorithm was applied to compute instantaneous estimates of the spectral components of heart rate variability [Low frequency (LF), 0.04 to 0.15 Hz; High frequency (HF), 0.15 to 0.4 Hz]. Three days later subjects were submitted to a recall test. Results A significant increase in HF power was observed in depressed subjects in response to the emotionally arousing stimulus (p=0.03). The results of a multivariate analysis revealed that the HF power during the emotional segment of the stimulus was independently associated with the score of the recall test in depressed subjects, after adjusting for age, gender and educational level (Coef. 0.003, 95%CI, 0.0009-0.005, p=0.008). Limitations These results could only be interpreted as responses to elicitation of specific negative emotions, the relationship between HF changes and encoding/recall of positive stimuli should be further examined. Conclusions Alterations on parasympathetic response to emotion are involved in the mood-congruent cognitive bias observed in major depression. These findings are clinically relevant because it could constitute the mechanism by which depressed patients maintain maladaptive patterns of negative information processing that trigger and sustain depressed mood. PMID:26480207

  4. Depressed mood and self-esteem in young Asian, black, and white women in America.

    Woods, N F; Lentz, M; Mitchell, E; Oakley, L D

    1994-01-01

    During the last two decades, investigators have explored the relationship between women's life conditions and their mental health. Some have related women's socially disadvantaged status, or their socialization to a traditional feminine role, to depression and low self-esteem. Others have emphasized the consequences of women's roles, or the balance of social demands and resources, on their well-being. More recently, feminist scholars have proposed a developmental account of depression. We tested a model comparing the effects of personal resources, social demands and resources, socialization, and women's roles, on self-esteem and depressed mood in young adult Asian, Black, and White women in America. Women who resided in middle-income and racially mixed neighborhoods were interviewed in their homes. Personal resources were indicated by education and income and social resources by unconflicted network size as measured by Barrera's (1981) Arizona Social Support Interview Schedule. Social demands were assessed by conflicted network size as measured by the Barrera scale and by the Positive Life Events and Negative Life Events scales from Norbeck's (1984) revision of the Sarason Life Events Scale. Women's roles included employment, parenting, and partnership with an adult (e.g., marriage). Self-esteem was assessed with the Rosenberg Self Esteem Scale (Rosenberg, 1965) and depressed mood with the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scale (Radloff, 1977). Although models for Asian, Black, and White women differed, social network and social demands as well as personal resources were common to each group as predictors of self-esteem and depression.

  5. The effect of negative mood and major depressive episode on working memory and implicit learning.

    Borbély-Ipkovich, Emőke; Janacsek, Karolina; Németh, Dezső; Gonda, Xenia

    2014-03-01

    Major depressive episode (MDE) is one of the most common psychiatric diagnoses and it has long-term mental and physiological consequences. The status of cognitive functions is of specific importance in case of affective disorders, due to their influence not only on patients' behaviour, but to a certain extent also on the success of psychotherapy. In addition, examining the impact of mood and affective disorders on cognitive functions also helps us understand the relationship between brain plasticity and neurocognitive networks. While the relationship between explicit, conscious memory and mood are relatively well-explored, the effect of mood and affective disorders on working memory and implicit sequence learning received less attention. The present review aims to overview available results in these less-explored areas. Research suggests that while working memory performance shows impairments in MDE and in some specific mood conditions, effects of affective disorders and mood on implicit sequence learning are more contradictory, highlighting the need for further studies in this field.

  6. Body Dissatisfaction Prospectively Predicts Depressive Mood and Low Self-Esteem in Adolescent Girls and Boys

    Paxton, Susan J.; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; Hannan, Peter J.; Eisenberg, Marla E.

    2006-01-01

    This research examined whether body dissatisfaction prospectively predicted depressive mood and low self-esteem in adolescent girls and boys 5 years later. Participants were early-adolescent girls (n = 440, Time 1 M age = 12.7 years) and boys (n = 366, Time 1 M age = 12.8 years) and midadolescent girls (n = 946, Time 1 M age = 15.8 years) and boys…

  7. The examination of sport managers and coaches’ stress levels and depressed mood at work in Turkey

    Bilge Donuk

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper is an investigation of stress levels and depressed mood at work in sport managers and coaches. Three different questionnaires were applied to professional sport managers (n=60 and coaches (n=52 in Turkey to regard to potential sources of stress before, during and after competitions. This sample represented approximately 21% of the total professional football, basketball and volleyball clubs in Turkey. The questionnaires used are “Perceived Stress Questionnaire”, “Anxiety-Stress Questionnaire” and “Depressed Mood at Work Questionnaire”. Our findings indicated that: The aim of first questionnaire was to assess perceived stressful situations and results show that general stress levels of managers and coaches are under the average. When we examine the second questionnaire consisting of health, physical condition, tension caused by stress; it is seen that negative effects of these factors increase. At last; according to the depressed mood at work questionnaire which evaluates the physiological conditions related to stress; it’s found out that both managers and coaches aren’t satisfied with their working atmosphere and managers’ unhappiness levels are higher than coaches are.

  8. rs6295 [C]-Allele Protects Against Depressive Mood in Elderly Endurance Athletes.

    Haslacher, Helmuth; Michlmayr, Matthias; Batmyagmar, Delgerdalai; Perkmann, Thomas; Ponocny-Seliger, Elisabeth; Scheichenberger, Vanessa; Scherzer, Thomas M; Nistler, Sonja; Pilger, Alexander; Dal-Bianco, Peter; Lehrner, Johann; Pezawas, Lukas; Wagner, Oswald F; Winker, Robert

    2015-12-01

    A single nucleotide variant within the promoter of the 5-hydroxytryptamine1A (5HT1A) receptor, rs6295, is part of a binding site for the transcription factor. We aimed to ascertain whether the rs6295 mediates the effect of exercise on depressive mood in elderly endurance athletes. We prospectively enrolled 55 elderly athletes (marathon runners/bicyclists) and 58 controls. In a controlled, univariate model, an interaction between the [C]-allele and physical activity indicated that only among athletes, the variant resulting in an imperfect NUDR binding site was associated with a lower depression score. Hence, athletes presented with a significantly lower relative risk of achieving a suspicious depression score among carriers of at least one [C]-allele. Our results suggest that the positive effect of physical exercise on depressive mood might be mediated by the 5HT1A receptor and the extent of this protective effect seems to be enhanced by the [C]-allele of the rs6295 variant.

  9. Apathy and depressive mood in nursing home patients with early-onset dementia.

    Leontjevas, Ruslan; van Hooren, Susan; Waterink, Wim; Mulders, Ans

    2009-01-01

    The study explored whether apathy and depressive mood symptoms (DMS) are related to cognitive and functional features of dementia in 63 nursing home (NH) residents with early-onset dementia (EOD). All EOD residents from one NH (n = 41) and a random sample from another NH were assessed for depressive symptoms (Montgomery Asberg Depression Rating Scale [MADRS]), apathy (Neuropsychiatric Inventory [NPI]), global cognitive functions (Mini-Mental State Examination [MMSE]), activities of daily living (ADL, Minimum Data Set-Resident Assessment Instrument [MDS-RAI]), and overall dementia severity (Global Deterioration Scale [GDS]). DMS were not associated with apathy and dementia severity. Regression analyses adjusted for age, gender, the type of dementia, and DMS revealed that dementia severity measures accounted, respectively, for 14% (ADL), 13% (GDS), and 9% (MMSE) of the variance in apathy. In line with previous research in older patients, the higher apathy scores were associated with more cognitive and functional problems in EOD.

  10. The role of Personality, Mood, Subjective Health, and Stress in Depressive Symptoms among High School Students

    K. Gunnar Götestam

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Traditionally, depression among adolescents has been considered uncommon, with around 5% estimated to suffer from depressive disorder. The purpose is to investigate occurrence and psychological correlates for depressive symptoms in male and female high school adolescents in urban and rural settings. Methods: Participants were 1,069 high school students (response rate 92.0% with a mean age of 17.6 years. The instruments used were the Zung Depression Self-Rating Scale (SDS, Life Regard Index (LRI, the Neuroticism scale by Eysenck (EPQ-N, the Tension and Effort Stress Inventory (TESI, the Subjective Health Complaints scale (SHC, and the Sense of Humour Questionnaire (SHQ-6. Results: Analyzes of Variance showed sex and urban/rural main effects, and/or interactions (boys and rural students showing highest positive ratings. Stepwise regression analyzes on depression showed all but the TESI variables to significantly explain 41% of the variance in depression. The Sense of Humour and Life Regard Index were strong contributors to depression (55% of variation when effects of bodily complaints and scores on stressors and efforts were eliminated. Conclusions: The present study showed an unexpectedly high prevalence of severe (12.7% as well as moderate depressive symptoms (total of 49.2%. Therefore, the results indicate an increase of adolescent depression in recent years. Negative and positive mood, as well as sense of humour, goals in life, and fulfilment of goals seemed to be protecting. Prevalence of depressive symptoms in adolescents was shown to be higher than expected. Positive resource variables appeared to be protecting.

  11. Yoga as a Complementary Treatment of Depression: Effects of Traits and Moods on Treatment Outcome

    David Shapiro

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Preliminary findings support the potential of yoga as a complementary treatment of depressed patients who are taking anti-depressant medications but who are only in partial remission. The purpose of this article is to present further data on the intervention, focusing on individual differences in psychological, emotional and biological processes affecting treatment outcome. Twenty-seven women and 10 men were enrolled in the study, of whom 17 completed the intervention and pre- and post-intervention assessment data. The intervention consisted of 20 classes led by senior Iyengar yoga teachers, in three courses of 20 yoga classes each. All participants were diagnosed with unipolar major depression in partial remission. Psychological and biological characteristics were assessed pre- and post-intervention, and participants rated their mood states before and after each class. Significant reductions were shown for depression, anger, anxiety, neurotic symptoms and low frequency heart rate variability in the 17 completers. Eleven out of these completers achieved remission levels post-intervention. Participants who remitted differed from the non-remitters at intake on several traits and on physiological measures indicative of a greater capacity for emotional regulation. Moods improved from before to after the yoga classes. Yoga appears to be a promising intervention for depression; it is cost-effective and easy to implement. It produces many beneficial emotional, psychological and biological effects, as supported by observations in this study. The physiological methods are especially useful as they provide objective markers of the processes and effectiveness of treatment. These observations may help guide further clinical application of yoga in depression and other mental health disorders, and future research on the processes and mechanisms.

  12. Fahr’s disease with bipolar mood disorder presentation (Case report)

    Azari, P.

    2006-01-01

    Fahr’s disease is a progressive and idiopathic basal ganglia calcification with normal metabolism of calcium and phosphore with motor and psychiatric sings and symptoms. Dementi, chorea attetosise, psychosis and depression due to Fahr’s disease are frequently reported, but Fahr’s disease with bipolar mood disorder manifestation is very rare and we found only 3 cases in review of literature from 1995 to 2005. In this case report, a 21-years old girl is presented who was admitted to Sari-Zare p...

  13. Occurrence of symptoms and depressive mood among working-aged coronary heart disease patients

    Sillanmäki Lauri H

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The typical symptoms of coronary heart disease (CHD, chest pain and breathlessness, are well-known. They are considered quite dramatic, and can thus be fairly reliably mapped by a survey. However, people might have other clearly unpleasant symptoms impairing quality of life. The aim of this study is to evaluate the appearance of these complaints of working-aged people with self-reported CHD. Methods The study consists of a postal questionnaire of randomly selected Finns in age groups 30–34, 40–44 and 50–54, a response rate of 39% (N = 15,477. The subjects were asked whether or not a doctor had told them that they had angina pectoris or had had myocardial infarction. Four randomly selected age and sex matched controls were chosen for every patient. The occurrence of self-reported dyspnoea, chest pain during anger or other kind of emotion, palpitation and perspiration without physical exercise, irregular heartbeats, flushing, trembling of hands and voice, jerking of muscles, depression and day-time sleepiness were examined. Odds ratios (OR with 95% confidence intervals (CI, between occurrence of symptoms and CHD with and without heart infarction, were computed by multivariate logistic regression analysis. Results The sample eventually comprised 319 CHD patients. Dyspnoea, chest pain during anger or other kind of emotion, palpitation, perspiration without physical exercise, irregular heartbeats daily or almost daily, trembling of hands and voice, and jerking of muscles occurred statistically significantly more frequently among CHD patients than among controls. The CHD patients also reported more depressive mood according to Beck's inventory scores and poorer sleep and more frequent day-time sleepiness than controls. In the multivariate logistic regression analysis chest pain during anger or other kind of emotion (ORs 4.12 and 3.61 and dyspnoea (ORs 2.33 and 3.81 were the symptoms most associated with CHD. Conclusions

  14. Thought suppression as a mediator of the association between depressed mood and prescription opioid craving among chronic pain patients.

    Garland, Eric L; Brown, Samantha M; Howard, Matthew O

    2016-02-01

    Emerging research suggests that prescription opioid craving is associated with negative mood and depression, but less is known about cognitive factors linking depressive symptoms to opioid craving among adults with chronic pain. The present cross-sectional study examined thought suppression as a mediator of the relation between depression and prescription opioid craving in a sample of chronic pain patients receiving long-term opioid pharmacotherapy. Data were obtained from 115 chronic pain patients recruited from primary care, pain, and neurology clinics who had taken prescription opioids daily or nearly every day for ≥90 days prior to assessment. In this sample, 60 % of participants met DSM-IV criteria for current major depressive disorder. Depressed mood (r = .36, p craving. Multivariate path analyses with bootstrapping indicated the presence of a significant indirect effect of thought suppression on the association between depressed mood and opioid craving (indirect effect = .09, 95 % CI .01, .20). Sensitivity analyses showed a similar indirect effect of suppression linking major depressive disorder diagnosis and opioid craving. Attempts to suppress distressing and intrusive thoughts may result in increased craving to use opioids among chronic pain patients with depressive symptoms. Results highlight the need for interventions that mitigate thought suppression among adults with pain and mood disorders.

  15. Is blunted cardiovascular reactivity in depression mood-state dependent? A comparison of major depressive disorder remitted depression and healthy controls.

    Salomon, Kristen; Bylsma, Lauren M; White, Kristi E; Panaite, Vanessa; Rottenberg, Jonathan

    2013-10-01

    Prior work has repeatedly demonstrated that people who have current major depression exhibit blunted cardiovascular reactivity to acute stressors (e.g., Salomon et al., 2009). A key question regards the psychobiological basis for these deficits, including whether such deficits are depressed mood-state dependent or whether these effects are trait-like and are observed outside of depression episodes in vulnerable individuals. To examine this issue, we assessed cardiovascular reactivity to a speech stressor task and a forehead cold pressor in 50 individuals with current major depressive disorder (MDD), 25 with remitted major depression (RMD), and 45 healthy controls. Heart rate (HR), blood pressure and impedance cardiography were assessed and analyses controlled for BMI and sex. Significant group effects were found for SBP, HR, and PEP for the speech preparation period and HR, CO, and PEP during the speech. For each of these parameters, only the MDD group exhibited attenuated reactivity as well as impaired SBP recovery. Reactivity and recovery in the RMD group more closely resembled the healthy controls. Speeches given by the MDD group were rated as less persuasive than the RMD or healthy controls' speeches. No significant differences were found for the cold pressor. Blunted cardiovascular reactivity and impaired recovery in current major depression may be mood-state dependent phenomena and may be more reflective of motivational deficits than deficits in the physiological integrity of the cardiovascular system.

  16. Central beliefs in patients with depressive mood disorder diagnosis in a colombian sample

    Londoño Arredondo, Nora Helena; Ramírez Posada, Maria Isabel

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to identify the central beliefs of character disorders in patients diagnosed with depressive mood disorder, compared with a control group in the city of Medellín, Colombia. The method chosen is a transversal control case study. Sample: 87 adults: 43 in the case study group (30 women and 14 men) and 44 in the control group (36 women and 7 men). Variables of analysis: central beliefs of the obsessive- compulsive, passive-aggressive, histrionic, narcissistic, schizoi...

  17. The evaluation of mood condition among depressed adolescent students in Isfahan after 6 years

    Shakibaei, Fereshteh; Alikhani, Mahmood; Mahaki, Behzad; Sichani, Naeimeh Karimian; Tabatabaei, Haleh Dormiani

    2016-01-01

    Background: This study has carried out to find the recovery rate, depression recurrence, changing of diagnose into bipolar mood disorder (BMD) and appearing other psychiatric disorders including obsessive compulsive disorder, oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), substance induced disorders, attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder, and anxiety disorders after 6 years among students having major depression disorder in Isfahan and its relation to some demographic factors. Materials and Methods: In this historical cohort study, 278 students studying in guidance school, in 2006 being 11–16-year-old and were diagnosed to have major depressive disorder participated. Data collection was done by completing children depression on inventory, Young Maria Rating Scale and also final diagnosis determination through interview by psychiatrists. To analyze the data, in addition to use descriptive statistics, multinomial and multiple logistic regressions were used to evaluate the relationships. All the analyses were done using SPSS 20. Results: About 34.9 of adolescents have suffered from depression after 6 years. Depression in 12.2% has been changed into BMD. The BMD morbidity chance was less in girls rather than depression one. The ratio of drug abuse in girls was less than boys (odds ratio [OR] = 0.471, P = 0.046). Students received no treatment or only pharmacotherapy, were more caught by ODD in comparison with those cases who received both pharmacotherapy and psychotherapy (P = 0.005, 0.038 and OR = 4.29 and 5.88). Conclusion: About half of students after 6 years are caught by depression or BMD. It reveals the importance of this disorder and its role in making behavioral problems for adolescents in their future. PMID:27308266

  18. DEPRESSED-PATIENTS PARENTAL REPRESENTATIONS - STABILITY ACROSS CHANGES IN DEPRESSED MOOD AND SPECIFICITY ACROSS DIAGNOSES

    GERLSMA, C; DAS, J; EMMELKAMP, PMG

    1993-01-01

    Parental representations of a Dutch sample of psychiatric patients with diagnoses of dysthymia and unipolar depression were compared with those of a matched sample of non-depressed patients and a matched sample of healthy controls. No differences in recalled parental rearing styles were found betwee

  19. PREDICTION OF THE ANTIDEPRESSANT RESPONSE TO TOTAL SLEEP-DEPRIVATION OF DEPRESSED-PATIENTS - LONGITUDINAL VERSUS SINGLE DAY ASSESSMENT OF DIURNAL MOOD VARIATION

    REININK, E; BOUHUYS, AL; GORDIJN, MCM; VANDENHOOFDAKKER, RH

    1993-01-01

    The relationship between diurnal variation of mood and the clinical response to total sleep deprivation (TSD) was investigated in 43 depressed patients. The question asked was whether the propensity to produce diurnal variations of mood or the actual mood course on the day before TSD determines the

  20. Depressed visual field and mood are associated with sleep disorder in glaucoma patients

    Ayaki, Masahiko; Shiba, Daisuke; Negishi, Kazuno; Tsubota, Kazuo

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate sleep and mood disorders and related ocular parameters in glaucoma patients. We focused on visual fields and the retinal nerve fibre layer, because decreased circadian photoreception by damaged intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells is suspected in glaucoma. A cross-sectional study was performed on 140 subjects: 69 with glaucoma and 71 normal controls. Individuals with cataract, dry eye, or retinal pathology were excluded from the study. Participants completed the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and underwent comprehensive ophthalmological examinations for glaucoma. Patients with advanced glaucoma had significantly worse PSQI scores than normal controls (P < 0.05). Stepwise multivariate linear regression analysis revealed PSQI was significantly correlated with the mean deviation in the worse eye, the number and frequency of medications, and anxiety and depression subscores of the HADS after adjustment for age and sex (P < 0.05). We did not find a significant correlation between PSQI scores and the thickness of retinal nerve fibre layer. In conclusion, the subjective sleep quality of glaucoma patients was correlated with visual field loss and mood status. PMID:27168309

  1. Resting and reactive frontal brain electrical activity (EEG among a non-clinical sample of socially anxious adults: Does concurrent depressive mood matter?

    Elliott A Beaton

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Elliott A Beaton1, Louis A Schmidt2, Andrea R Ashbaugh2,5, Diane L Santesso2, Martin M Antony1,3,4, Randi E McCabe1,31Department of Psychiatry and Behavioural Neurosciences, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada; 2Department of Psychology, Neuroscience and Behaviour, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada; 3Anxiety Treatment and Research Centre, St. Joseph’s Healthcare, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada; 4Department of Psychology, Ryerson University, Toronto, Ontario, Canada; 5Concordia University, Montreal, Quebec, CanadaAbstract: A number of studies have noted that the pattern of resting frontal brain electrical activity (EEG is related to individual differences in affective style in healthy infants, children, and adults and some clinical populations when symptoms are reduced or in remission. We measured self-reported trait shyness and sociability, concurrent depressive mood, and frontal brain electrical activity (EEG at rest and in anticipation of a speech task in a non-clinical sample of healthy young adults selected for high and low social anxiety. Although the patterns of resting and reactive frontal EEG asymmetry did not distinguish among individual differences in social anxiety, the pattern of resting frontal EEG asymmetry was related to trait shyness after controlling for concurrent depressive mood. Individuals who reported a higher degree of shyness were likely to exhibit greater relative right frontal EEG activity at rest. However, trait shyness was not related to frontal EEG asymmetry measured during the speech-preparation task, even after controlling for concurrent depressive mood. These findings replicate and extend prior work on resting frontal EEG asymmetry and individual differences in affective style in adults. Findings also highlight the importance of considering concurrent emotional states of participants when examining psychophysiological correlates of personality.Keywords: social anxiety, shyness, sociability

  2. Major depressive disorder induced by prolactinoma--a case report.

    Liao, Wei-Ting; Bai, Ya-Mei

    2014-01-01

    Prolactinomas, the most common type of pituitary tumor, can induce hyperprolactinemia and cause some psychiatric symptoms, such as anxiety, depression and even psychotic symptoms. However, in previous case reports, no information about estrogen levels was mentioned. Here, we present a 48-year-old female patient who had a recurrent episode of major depressive disorder (MDD) and amenorrhea. Hyperprolactinemia (167 ng/ml), low estrogen (15.31 pg/ml) and a pituitary prolactinoma were found by MRI. After a dopamine agonist (Dostinex) and aripiprazole were prescribed, the patient's depressed mood remitted and her menstruation normalized. The possible mechanism of MDD induced by prolactinoma is discussed.

  3. Coping with obesity stigma affects depressed mood in African-American and white candidates for bariatric surgery.

    Fettich, Karla C; Chen, Eunice Y

    2012-05-01

    Depressed mood in severely obese, bariatric surgery-seeking candidates is influenced by obesity stigma, yet the strategies for coping with this stigma are less well understood. This study hypothesized that coping strategies are significantly associated with depressed mood above and beyond demographic factors and frequency of weight-related stigma, with specific coping strategies differing between racial groups. Severely obese, bariatric surgery-seeking adults (N = 234; 91 African Americans) completed the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and Stigmatizing Situations Inventory (SSI). Two hierarchical linear regressions were conducted separately for African Americans and whites. For both racial groups, age, sex, BMI, years overweight, annual income, and education level did not account for a significant portion of the variance in BDI scores. The frequency of stigmatizing situations and coping strategies significantly explained 16.4% and 33.2%, respectively, of the variance for whites, and 25.9% and 25%, respectively, for African Americans (P self-statements, and less self-love and more crying; while in African Americans greater depressed mood was associated only with ignoring the situation (P < 0.05). The study found that regardless of race, depressed mood in severely obese, bariatric surgery-seeking clients is related to the frequency of stigmatizing experiences and associated coping strategies. This suggests that efforts to reduce the deleterious effects of weight-related stigma need to focus both on reducing the frequency of stigmatization and on teaching effective coping strategies. These efforts also need to take into account the client's racial background.

  4. Tinnitus Severity Is Reduced with Reduction of Depressive Mood – a Prospective Population Study in Sweden

    Sylvie Hébert; Barbara Canlon; Dan Hasson; Linda L Magnusson Hanson; Hugo Westerlund; Töres Theorell

    2012-01-01

    Tinnitus, the perception of sound without external source, is a highly prevalent public health problem with about 8% of the population having frequently occurring tinnitus, and about 1-2% experiencing significant distress from it. Population studies, as well as studies on self-selected samples, have reported poor psychological well-being in individuals with tinnitus. However, no study has examined the long-term co-variation between mood and tinnitus prevalence or tinnitus severity. In this st...

  5. Academic exam stress and depressive mood are associated with reductions in exhaled nitric oxide in healthy individuals.

    Trueba, Ana F; Smith, Noelle B; Auchus, Richard J; Ritz, Thomas

    2013-04-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) has beneficial effects on cardiovascular and immune health. Stress and depression have been linked to a reduction in serum NO. In this study, we examined the effect of academic exam stress on the fraction of NO in exhaled air (FeNO) and spirometric lung function in 41 healthy college students. Participants completed assessments at mid-semester as well as in the early and late phase of an academic exam period. Negative affect, depressive mood, and salivary cortisol were elevated during exams, whereas FeNO and lung function decreased. Higher depressive mood was associated with lower FeNO, whereas higher negative affect was associated higher FeNO across time. These findings provide initial evidence that depression and prolonged stress can alter FeNO and lung function in healthy individuals, which could have adverse consequences for cardiovascular, airway, and immune health.

  6. Abnormal brain glucose metabolism and depressive mood in patients with pre-dialytic chronic kidney disease: SPM analysis of F-18 FDG positron emission tomography

    Jun, Sung Min; Song, Sang Heon; Kim, Seong Jang; Kim, Ji Hoon; Kwak, Ihm Soo; Kim, In Ju; Kim, Yong Ki [Pusan National University Hospital, Pusan (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between depressive mood and pre-dialytic CKD, to localize and quantify depressive mood -related lesions in pre-dialytic CKD patients through statistical parametric mapping (SPM) analysis of brain positron emission tomography (PET), and to examine the usefulness of brain PET for early detection and proper treatment of depressive mood. Twenty one patients with stage 5 CKD and 22 healthy volunteers were analyzed by depressive mood assessment and statistical parametric mapping (SPM) analysis of 18F-FDG PET. Depressive mood assessment was done by Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS). The largest clusters were areas including precentral gyrus, prefrontal cortex, and anterior cingulated cortex of left hemisphere. Other clusters were left transverse temporal gyrus, left superior temporal gyrus, right prefrontal cortex, right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (BA 46, 44), right inferior frontal gyrus, right inferior parietal lobule, left angular gyrus. In addition, correlation was found between hypometabolized areas and HDRS scores of CKD patients in right prefrontal cortex (BA 11) and right anterior cingulated gyrus (BA 24). In conclusion, this study demonstrated specific depressive mood-related abnormal metabolic lesion. Interestingly, in CKD patients with severe depressive mood, cerebral metabolism was similar to that of MDD.

  7. Unequal depression for equal work? How the wage gap explains gendered disparities in mood disorders.

    Platt, Jonathan; Prins, Seth; Bates, Lisa; Keyes, Katherine

    2016-01-01

    Mood disorders, such as depression and anxiety, are more prevalent among women than men. This disparity may be partially due to the effects of structural gender discrimination in the work force, which acts to perpetuate gender differences in opportunities and resources and may manifest as the gender wage gap. We sought to quantify and operationalize the wage gap in order to explain the gender disparity in depression and anxiety disorders, using data from a 2001-2002 US nationally representative survey of 22,581 working adults ages 30-65. Using established Oaxaca-Blinder decomposition methods to account for gender differences in individual-level productivity, our models reduced the wage gap in our sample by 13.5%, from 54% of men's pay to 67.5% of men's pay. We created a propensity-score matched sample of productivity indicators to test if the direction of the wage gap moderated the effects of gender on depression or anxiety. Where female income was less than the matched male counterpart, odds of both disorders were significantly higher among women versus men (major depressive disorder OR: 2.43, 95% CI: 1.95-3.04; generalized anxiety disorder OR: 4.11, 95% CI: 2.80-6.02). Where female income was greater than the matched male, the higher odds ratios for women for both disorders were significantly attenuated (Major Depressive Disorder OR: 1.20; 95% CI: 0.96-1.52) (Generalized Anxiety Disorder OR: 1.5; 95% CI: 1.04-2.29). The test for effect modification by sex and wage gap direction was statistically significant for both disorders. Structural forms of discrimination may explain mental health disparities at the population level. Beyond prohibiting overt gender discrimination, policies must be created to address embedded inequalities in procedures surrounding labor markets and compensation in the workplace.

  8. The mediating role of deviant peers on the link between depressed mood and harmful drinking: Analyses in a population-based sample of adolescents

    Pesola, Francesca; Shelton, Katherine H.; Heron, Jon; Munafò, Marcus; Maughan, Barbara; Hickman, Matthew; van den Bree, Marianne B.M.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose One’s peer group can have a strong impact on depressed mood and harmful drinking in adolescence. It remains unclear whether affiliation with deviant peers explains the link between these traits. Our study aims to: a) explore the developmental relationship between harmful drinking and depressed mood in adolescence; and b) establish to which extent affiliation with deviant peers explains this relationship. Methods 4,863 adolescents from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) were assessed between the ages of 14 and 16. Harmful drinking was established using age-appropriate measures: the Semi-Structured Assessment for the Genetics of Alcoholism (SSAGA) in mid-adolescence (age 14) and the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) in late adolescence (age 16). Depressed mood was measured by the Short Mood and Feelings Questionnaire (SMFQ) at both ages. Affiliation with deviant peers was assessed at age 15. Results Harmful drinking at age 14 predicted depressed mood two years later. This association was explained by affiliation with deviant peers and remained present even after adjustment for earlier depressed mood. Depressed mood at age 14 predicted harmful drinking at age 16 via affiliation with deviant peers; however, this indirect effect disappeared when adjusting for adolescents’ earlier harmful alcohol use (age 14). No gender differences were observed. Conclusions Adolescents who engage in early harmful drinking and subsequently become affiliated with a deviant peer group may be at particular risk of later depressed mood. PMID:25620300

  9. Neural state and trait bases of mood-incongruent memory formation and retrieval in first-episode major depression.

    van Wingen, Guido A; van Eijndhoven, Philip; Cremers, Henk R; Tendolkar, Indira; Verkes, Robbert Jan; Buitelaar, Jan K; Fernández, Guillén

    2010-06-01

    Mood-congruent cognitive biases constitute critical factors for the vulnerability to depression and its maintenance. One important aspect is impaired memory for positive information during depression and after recovery. To elucidate its state (during depression only) and trait (during depression and recovery) related neural bases, we investigated medication free depressed, recovered, and healthy individuals with functional MRI while they memorized and recognized happy and neutral face stimuli. The imaging results revealed group differences in mood-incongruent successful memory encoding and retrieval activity already in the absence of significant memory performance differences. State effects were observed in the amygdala and posterior cingulate cortex. Whereas the amygdala was generally involved in memory formation, its activity predicted subsequent forgetting of neutral faces in depressed patients. Furthermore, the amygdala and posterior cingulate cortex were involved in memory retrieval of happy faces in depressed patients only. Trait effects were observed in the fusiform gyrus and prefrontal cortex. The fusiform gyrus was involved in memory formation and retrieval of happy faces in both patient groups, whereas it was involved in memory formation and retrieval of neutral faces in healthy individuals. Similar trait effects were observed during memory retrieval in the orbitofrontal cortex and left inferior frontal gyrus. Thus, while memory processing of positive information in the amygdala and posterior cingulate cortex is biased during depression only, memory processing in the fusiform gyrus and prefrontal cortex is biased also after recovery. These distinct neural mechanisms may respectively constitute symptom maintenance and cognitive vulnerability factors for depression.

  10. Pituitary gigantism presenting with depressive mood disorder and diabetic ketoacidosis in an Asian adolescent.

    Kuo, Sheng-Fong; Chuang, Wen-Yu; Ng, Sohching; Chen, Chih-Hung; Chang, Chen-Nen; Chou, Chi-Hsiang; Weng, Wei-Chieh; Yeh, Chih-Hua; Lin, Jen-Der

    2013-01-01

    Hyperglycemia is seldom described in young patients with pituitary gigantism. Here, we describe the case of a 17-year-old Taiwanese boy who developed depressive mood disorder and diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) at the presentation of pituitary gigantism. The boy complained of lethargy and dysphoric mood in June 2008. He presented at the emergency department with epigastralgia and dyspnea in January 2009. Results of laboratory tests suggested type 1 diabetes mellitus with DKA. However, serum C-peptide level was normal on follow-up. Although he had no obvious features of acral enlargement, a high level of insulin-like growth factor 1 was detected, and a 75 g oral glucose suppression test showed no suppression of serum growth hormone levels. A pituitary macroadenoma was found on subsequent magnetic resonance imaging. The pituitary adenoma was surgically removed, followed by gamma-knife radiosurgery, and Sandostatin long-acting release treatment. He was then administered metformin, 500 mg twice daily, and to date, his serum glycohemoglobin has been <7%.

  11. Relationship between maternal depression as a risk factor for childhood trauma and mood disorders in young adults

    Luana Porto Barbosa

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background Maternal depression may be a risk factor for childhood trauma (CT, with resultant offspring development of mood disorders (MD in adult life. Objective To verify the relationship between maternal depression (as a risk factor for childhood trauma and mood disorders in young adults. Methods The sample was composed of 164 young adults and their mothers. Maternal depression was identified through the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (M.I.N.I.. Mood Disorders in the young adults were confirmed with the Structured Interview for the DSM-IV (SCID, whereas the CT was evaluated using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ. Results In the group of young adults with MD, individuals who had depressed mothers presented higher mean scores of CT in comparison to the ones who did not have mothers with Depression (p < 0.005. Childhood trauma was also associated with lower social classes (p < 0.005. In the group of young adults without MD, the only variable that was associated with CT was the young adult’s (not current work (p < 0.005. Discussion Maternal depression was considered to be a risk factor for CT and MD in young adults. Thus, preventing and treating maternal psychiatric disorders may diminish the risk of offspring childhood trauma, and, consequently, avoid negative effects in the offspring’s adult life.

  12. Work-related boredom and depressed mood from a daily perspective: The moderating roles of work centrality and need satisfaction

    Hooff, M.L.M. van; Hooft, E.A.J. van

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to advance insight into inter- and intrapersonal processes that may affect the associations between work-related boredom and employee well-being. We employed a daily perspective to examine (1) the relations between work-related boredom and depressed mood at the end of the workday an

  13. Criterion Validity of the Mood and Feelings Questionnaire for Depressive Episodes in Clinic and Non-Clinic Subjects

    Daviss, W. Burleson; Birmaher, Boris; Melhem, Nadine A.; Axelson, David A.; Michaels, Shana M.; Brent, David A.

    2006-01-01

    Background: Previous measures of pediatric depression have shown inconsistent validity in groups with differing demographics, comorbid diagnoses, and clinic or non-clinic origins. The current study re-examines the criterion validity of child- and parent-versions of the Mood and Feelings Questionnaire (MFQ-C, MFQ-P) in a heterogeneous sample of…

  14. Can a one-item mood scale do the trick? Predicting relapse over 5.5-years in recurrent depression

    van Rijsbergen, Gerard D.; Bockting, Claudi L. H.; Berking, Matthias; Koeter, Maarten W.J.; Schene, Aart H.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To examine whether a simple Visual Analogue Mood Scale (VAMS) is able to predict time to relapse over 5.5-years. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: 187 remitted recurrently depressed out-patients were interviewed using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders (SCID-I) a

  15. Induction of depressed and elated mood by music influences the perception of facial emotional expressions in healthy subjects

    Bouhuys, Antoinette L.; Bloem, Gerda M.; Groothuis, Ton G.G.

    1995-01-01

    The judgement of healthy subject rating the emotional expressions of a set of schematic drawn faces is validated (study 1) to examine the relationship between mood (depressed/elated) and judgement of emotional expressions of these faces (study 2). Study 1: 30 healthy subjects judged 12 faces with re

  16. Bullying and victimization, depressive mood, and non-suicidal self-injury in adolescents: The moderating role of parental support

    Claes, L.; Luyckx, K.; Baetens, I.; Ven, M.O.M. van de; Witteman, C.L.M.

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the associations of bullying and victimization with non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI), as well as the mediating role of depressive mood in a sample of 785 adolescents. Further, we explored the moderating role of parental support in these associations. All participants completed questio

  17. Effects of Induced Rumination and Distraction on Mood and Overgeneral Autobiographical Memory in Adolescent Major Depressive Disorder and Controls

    Park, R. J.; Goodyer, I. M.; Teasdale, J. D.

    2004-01-01

    Background: In adults there is evidence that the affective-cognitive processes of rumination and overgeneral autobiographical memory retrieval may play a part in maintaining depression. This study investigated the effects of induced rumination as compared to distraction on mood and categoric overgeneral memory in adolescents with first episode…

  18. IRRITABLE MOOD IN ADULT MAJOR DEPRESSIVE DISORDER: RESULTS FROM THE WORLD MENTAL HEALTH SURVEYS

    Kovess-Masfety, Viviane; Alonso, Jordi; Angermeyer, Matthias; Bromet, Evelyn; de Girolamo, Giovanni; de Jonge, Peter; Demyttenaere, Koen; Florescu, Silvia E.; Gruber, Michael J.; Gureje, Oye; Hu, Chiyi; Huang, Yueqin; Karam, Elie G.; Jin, Robert; Lépine, Jean-Pierre; Levinson, Daphna; McLaughlin, Katie A.; Medina-Mora, María E.; O’Neill, Siobhan; Ono, Yutaka; Posada-Villa, José A.; Sampson, Nancy A.; Scott, Kate M.; Shahly, Victoria; Stein, Dan J.; Viana, Maria C.; Zarkov, Zahari; Kessler, Ronald C.

    2014-01-01

    Background Although irritability is a core symptom of DSM-IV major depressive disorder (MDD) for youth but not adults, clinical studies find comparable rates of irritability between nonbipolar depressed adults and youth. Including irritability as a core symptom of adult MDD would allow detection of depression-equivalent syndromes with primary irritability hypothesized to be more common among males than females. We carried out a preliminary examination of this issue using cross-national community-based survey data from 21 countries in the World Mental Health (WMH) Surveys (n = 110,729). Methods The assessment of MDD in the WHO Composite International Diagnostic Interview includes one question about persistent irritability. We examined two expansions of the definition of MDD involving this question: (1) cases with dysphoria and/or anhedonia and exactly four of nine Criterion A symptoms plus irritability; and (2) cases with two or more weeks of irritability plus four or more other Criterion A MDD symptoms in the absence of dysphoria or anhedonia. Results Adding irritability as a tenth Criterion A symptom increased lifetime prevalence by 0.4% (from 11.2 to 11.6%). Adding episodes of persistent irritability increased prevalence by an additional 0.2%. Proportional prevalence increases were significantly higher, but nonetheless small, among males compared to females. Rates of severe role impairment were significantly lower among respondents with this irritable depression who did not meet conventional DSM-IV criteria than those with DSM-IV MDD. Conclusion Although limited by the superficial assessment in this single question on irritability, results do not support expanding adult MDD criteria to include irritable mood. PMID:23364997

  19. Integrative deficits in depression and in negative mood states as a result of fronto-parietal network dysfunctions.

    Brzezicka, Aneta

    2013-01-01

    Depression is a disorder characterized not only by persistent negative mood, lack of motivation and a "ruminative" style of thinking, but also by specific deficits in cognitive functioning. These deficits are especially pronounced when integration of information is required. Previous research on linear syllogisms points to a clear pattern of cognitive disturbances present in people suffering from depressive disorders, as well as in people with elevated negative mood. Such disturbances are characterized by deficits in the integration of piecemeal information into coherent mental representations. In this review, I present evidence which suggests that the dysfunction of specific brain areas plays a crucial role in creating reasoning and information integration problems among people with depression and with heightened negative mood. As the increasingly prevalent systems neuroscience approach is spreading into the study of mental disorders, it is important to understand how and which brain networks are involved in creating certain symptoms of depression. Two large brain networks are of particular interest when considering depression: the default mode network (DMN) and the fronto-parietal (executive) network (FNP). The DMN network shows abnormally high activity in the depressed population, whereas FNP circuit activity is diminished. Disturbances within the FNP network seem to be strongly associated with cognitive problems in depression, especially those concerning executive functions. The dysfunctions within the fronto-parietal network are most probably connected to ineffective transmission of information between prefrontal and parietal regions, and also to an imbalance between FNP and DMN circuits. Inefficiency of this crucial circuits functioning may be a more general mechanism leading to problems with flexible cognition and executive functions, and could be the cause of more typical symptoms of depression like persistent rumination.

  20. Are neighborhood bonding and bridging social capital protective against depressive mood in old age? A multilevel analysis in Japan.

    Murayama, Hiroshi; Nofuji, Yu; Matsuo, Eri; Nishi, Mariko; Taniguchi, Yu; Fujiwara, Yoshinori; Shinkai, Shoji

    2015-01-01

    While the importance of distinguishing between bonding and bridging social capital is now understood, evidence remains sparse on their contextual effects on health. We examined the associations of neighborhood bonding and bridging social capital with depressive mood among older Japanese. A questionnaire survey of all community residents aged 65 and older in the city of Yabu, Hyogo Prefecture, Japan was conducted in July and August 2012. Bonding and bridging social capital were assessed by evaluating individual homogeneous and heterogeneous social networks in relation to age, gender, and socioeconomic status. Individual responses in each neighborhood were aggregated to create an index of neighborhood-level bonding/bridging social capital. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated to evaluate the associations of such social capital with depressive mood using multilevel binomial logistic regression analysis. Of the 7271 questionnaires distributed, 6416 were analyzed (covering 152 administrative neighborhoods). Approximately 56.8% of respondents were women, and the mean age was 76.2 ± 7.1 years. Neighborhood-level bonding social capital was inversely associated with depressive mood (OR = 0.84, 95% CI = 0.75-0.94), but neighborhood-level bridging social capital was not. Gender-stratified analysis revealed that neighborhood-level bonding social capital was inversely associated with depressive mood in both genders (OR = 0.83, 95% CI = 0.72-0.96 for men; OR = 0.85, 95% CI = 0.72-0.99 for women), while neighborhood-level bridging social capital was positively associated with depressive mood in women (OR = 1.15, 95% CI = 1.00-1.34). There was also a significant interaction between individual- and neighborhood-level bonding social capital, indicating that people with a weaker homogeneous network and living in a neighborhood with weaker bonding social capital were more likely to have depressive mood. Our results suggest that neighborhood social

  1. Usefulness of the Spanish version of the mood disorder questionnaire for screening bipolar disorder in routine clinical practice in outpatients with major depression

    Montes José

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background According to some studies, almost 40% of depressive patients – half of them previously undetected – are diagnosed of bipolar II disorder when systematically assessed for hypomania. Thus, instruments for bipolar disorder screening are needed. The Mood Disorder Questionnaire (MDQ is a self-reported questionnaire validated in Spanish in stable patients with a previously known diagnosis. The purpose of this study is to evaluate in the daily clinical practice the usefulness of the Spanish version of the MDQ in depressive patients. Methods Patients (n = 87 meeting DSM-IV-TR criteria for a major depressive episode, not previously known as bipolar were included. The affective module of the Structured Clinical Interview (SCID was used as gold standard. Results MDQ screened 24.1% of depressive patients as bipolar, vs. 12.6% according to SCID. For a cut-off point score of 7 positive answers, sensitivity was 72.7% (95% CI = 63.3 – 82.1 and specificity 82.9% (95% CI = 74.9–90.9. Likelihood ratio of positive and negative tests were 4,252 y 0,329 respectively. Limitations The small sample size reduced the power of the study to 62%. Conclusion Sensitivity and specificity of the MDQ were high for screening bipolar disorder in patients with major depression, and similar to the figures obtained in stable patients. This study confirms that MDQ is a useful instrument in the daily clinical assessment of depressive patients.

  2. Do bonding and bridging social capital affect self-rated health, depressive mood and cognitive decline in older Japanese? A prospective cohort study.

    Murayama, Hiroshi; Nishi, Mariko; Matsuo, Eri; Nofuji, Yu; Shimizu, Yumiko; Taniguchi, Yu; Fujiwara, Yoshinori; Shinkai, Shoji

    2013-12-01

    Little is known regarding the longitudinal effects of bonding and bridging social capital on health. This study examined the longitudinal associations of bonding and bridging social capital with self-rated health, depressive mood, and cognitive decline in community-dwelling older Japanese. Data analyzed in this study were from the 2010 (baseline) and 2012 (follow-up) Hatoyama Cohort Study. Bonding social capital was assessed by individual perception of homogeneity of the neighborhood (the level of homogeneity among neighbors) and of networks (the amount of homogeneous personal networks) in relation to age, gender, and socioeconomic status. Bridging social capital was assessed by individual perception of heterogeneity of networks (the amount of heterogeneous personal networks) in relation to age, gender, and socioeconomic status. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated to evaluate the effects of baseline social capital on poor health outcome at follow-up by logistic regression analysis. In total, 681 people completed baseline and follow-up surveys. The mean age of participants was 71.8 ± 5.1 years, and 57.9% were male. After adjusting for sociodemographics, lifestyle factors, comorbidity, functional capacity, baseline score of each outcome, and other bonding/bridging social capital, stronger perceived neighborhood homogeneity was inversely associated with poor self-rated health (OR = 0.55, 95% CI = 0.30-1.00) and depressive mood assessed by the Geriatric Depression Scale (OR = 0.58, 95% CI = 0.34-0.99). When participants who reported a depressive mood at baseline were excluded, stronger perceived heterogeneous network was inversely associated with depressive mood (OR = 0.40, 95% CI = 0.19-0.87). Neither bonding nor bridging social capital was significantly associated with cognitive decline assessed by the Mini-Mental State Examination. In conclusion, bonding and bridging social capital affect health in different ways, but they both have

  3. Contingent negative variation of mood disorder patients

    Yingzhi Lu; Wenbin Zong; Qingtao Ren; Jinyu Pu; Jun Chen; Juan Li; Xingshi Chen; Yong Wang

    2011-01-01

    Studies on brain-evoked potential and contingent negative variation (CNV) in mood disorder remain controversial. To date, no CNV difference between unipolar and bipolar depression has been reported. Brain-evoked potentials were measured in the present study to analyze CNV in three subtypes of mood disorder (mania, unipolar depression, and bipolar depression), and these results were compared with normal controls. In the mania group, CNV amplitude B was greater than in controls, and the depression group exhibited lower CNV amplitude B and smaller A-S'2 area, and prolonged post-imperative negative variation latency. The CNV comparison between unipolar and bipolar depression found that the prolonged post-imperative negative variation latency was only in unipolar depression. These results suggest that prolonged post-imperative negative variation latency is a characteristic of unipolar depression, and CNV amplitude change is a state characteristic of mood disorder patients.

  4. Dietary omega-3 Fatty acids and psychiatry: mood, behaviour, stress, depression, dementia and aging.

    Bourre, J M

    2005-01-01

    In view of the high omega-3 poly unsaturated fatty acid content of the brain, it is evident that these fats are involved in brain biochemistry, physiology and functioning; and thus in some neuropsychiatric diseases and in the cognitive decline of ageing. Though omega-3 fatty acids (from fatty fish in the human diet) appear effective in the prevention of stress, their role as regulator of mood and of libido is a matter for discussion pending experimental proof in animal and human models. Dietary omega-3 fatty acids play a role in the prevention of some disorders including depression, as well as in dementia, particularly Alzheimer's disease. Their direct role in major depression, bipolar disorder (manic-depressive disease) and schizophrenia is not yet established. Their deficiency can prevent the renewal of membranes, and thus accelerate cerebral ageing; none the less, the respective roles of the vascular component on one hand (where the omega-3's are active) and the cerebral parenchyma itself on the other, have not yet been clearly resolved. The role of omega-3 in certain diseases such as dyslexia and autism is suggested. In fact, omega-3 fatty acids participated in the first coherent experimental demonstration of the effect of dietary substances (nutrients) on the structure and function of the brain. Experiments were first of all carried out one x-vivo cultured brain cells (1), then on in vivo brain cells(2), finally on physiochemical, biochemical, physiological, neurosensory, and behavioural parameters (3). These findings indicated that the nature of poly unsaturated fatty acids(in particular omega-3) present in formula milks for infants (both premature and term) determines the visual, cerebral,and intellectual abilities, as described in a recent review (4). Indeed,the insufficient dietary supply of omega-3 fatty acids in today's French and occidental diet raises the problem of how to correct dietary habits so that the consumer will select foods that are genuinely

  5. Prediction of depression in individuals at high familial risk of mood disorders using functional magnetic resonance imaging.

    Heather C Whalley

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Bipolar disorder is a highly heritable condition. First-degree relatives of affected individuals have a more than a ten-fold increased risk of developing bipolar disorder (BD, and a three-fold risk of developing major depressive disorder (MDD than the general population. It is unclear however whether differences in brain activation reported in BD and MDD are present before the onset of illness. METHODS: We studied 98 young unaffected individuals at high familial risk of BD and 58 healthy controls using functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI scans and a task involving executive and language processing. Twenty of the high-risk subjects subsequently developed MDD after the baseline fMRI scan. RESULTS: At baseline the high-risk subjects who later developed MDD demonstrated relatively increased activation in the insula cortex, compared to controls and high risk subjects who remained well. In the healthy controls and high-risk group who remained well, this region demonstrated reduced engagement with increasing task difficulty. The high risk subjects who subsequently developed MDD did not demonstrate this normal disengagement. Activation in this region correlated positively with measures of cyclothymia and neuroticism at baseline, but not with measures of depression. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that increased activation of the insula can differentiate individuals at high-risk of bipolar disorder who later develop MDD from healthy controls and those at familial risk who remain well. These findings offer the potential of future risk stratification in individuals at risk of mood disorder for familial reasons.

  6. Prevalence of mood and anxiety disorder in self reported irritable bowel syndrome (IBS. An epidemiological population based study of women

    Mykletun Arnstein

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS is commonly regarded as a functional disorder, and is hypothesized to be associated with anxiety and depression. This evidence mainly rests on population-based studies utilising self-report screening instruments for psychopathology. Other studies applying structured clinical interviews are generally based on small clinical samples, which are vulnerable to biases. The extant evidence base for an association between IBS and psychopathology is hence not conclusive. The aim of this study was therefore to re-examine the hypothesis using population-based data and psychiatric morbidity established with a structured clinical interview. Methods Data were derived from a population-based epidemiological study (n = 1077. Anxiety and mood disorders were established using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV-TR (SCID-I/NP and the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12. Current and lifetime IBS was self-reported. Hypertension and diabetes were employed as comparison groups as they are expected to be unrelated to mental health. Results Current IBS (n = 69, 6.4% was associated with an increased likelihood of current mood and/or anxiety disorders (OR = 2.62, 95%CI 1.49 - 4.60. Half the population reporting a lifetime IBS diagnosis also had a lifetime mood or anxiety disorder. Exploratory analyses demonstrated an increased prevalence of IBS across most common anxiety and mood disorders, the exception being bipolar disorder. The association with IBS and symptoms load (GHQ-12 followed a curved dose response pattern. In contrast, hypertension and diabetes were consistently unrelated to psychiatric morbidity. Conclusions IBS is significantly associated with anxiety and mood disorders. This study provides indicative evidence for IBS as a disorder with a psychosomatic aspect.

  7. An Instrumental Variable Probit (IVP) Analysis on Depressed Mood in Korea: The Impact of Gender Differences and Other Socio-Economic Factors

    Lara Gitto; Yong-Hwan Noh; Antonio Andrés

    2015-01-01

    Background Depression is a mental health state whose frequency has been increasing in modern societies. It imposes a great burden, because of the strong impact on people’s quality of life and happiness. Depression can be reliably diagnosed and treated in primary care: if more people could get effective treatments earlier, the costs related to depression would be reversed. The aim of this study was to examine the influence of socio-economic factors and gender on depressed mood, focusing on...

  8. Prenatal exposure to maternal depressed mood and the MTHFR C677T variant affect SLC6A4 methylation in infants at birth.

    Angela M Devlin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Prenatal and early postnatal exposure to maternal depression may "program" childhood behavior via epigenetic processes such as DNA methylation. Methylenetetrahydro-folate reductase (MTHFR is an important enzyme in the generation of methyl groups for DNA methylation. The common MTHFR C677T variant is associated with depression in men and non-pregnant women, and with global changes in DNA methylation. This study investigated the effect of maternal MTHFR C677T genotype on antenatal maternal mood, and their impact on the gene-specific methylation in pregnant women and their newborn infants. The methylation status of SLC6A4, which encodes the transmembrane serotonin transporter, and BDNF, which encodes brain derived neurotrophic factor, were assessed because of their potential role in behaviour. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Depressed mood was assessed by the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS and the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAM-D in women (n = 82, all taking folate during the 2(nd and 3(rd trimesters of pregnancy. The methylation status of SLC6A4 and BDNF were assessed in 3rd trimester maternal peripheral leukocytes and in umbilical cord leukocytes collected from their infants at birth. Women with the MTHFR 677TT genotype had greater 2(nd trimester depressed mood (p<0.05. Increased 2(nd trimester maternal depressed mood (EPDS scores was associated with decreased maternal and infant SLC6A4 promoter methylation (p<0.05, but had no effect on BDNF promoter methylation. CONCLUSIONS: These findings show that the MTHFR C677T variant is associated with greater depressed mood during pregnancy. We further showed that prenatal exposure to maternal depressed mood affects gene-specific DNA methylation patterns. These findings support the concept that alterations in epigenetic processes may contribute to developmental programming of behaviour by maternal depression.

  9. Effectiveness of a mood management component as an adjunct to a telephone counselling smoking cessation intervention for smokers with a past major depression: a pragmatic randomized controlled trial

    R.M. van der Meer; M.C. Willemsen; F. Smit; P. Cuijpers; G.M. Schippers

    2010-01-01

    Aims To assess whether the addition of a mood management component to telephone counselling produces higher abstinence rates in smokers with past major depression and helps to prevent recurrence of depressive symptoms. Design Pragmatic randomized controlled trial with two conditions, with follow-up

  10. Effectiveness of a mood management component as an adjunct to a telephone counselling smoking cessation intervention for smokers with a past major depression: A pragmatic randomized controlled trial

    Meer, van der R.; Willemsen, M.C.; Smit, H.F.E.; Cuijpers, P.; Schippers, G.M.

    2010-01-01

    Aims To assess whether the addition of a mood management component to telephone counselling produces higher abstinence rates in smokers with past major depression and helps to prevent recurrence of depressive symptoms. Design Pragmatic randomized controlled trial with two conditions, with follow-up

  11. The associations between body dissatisfaction, body figure, self-esteem, and depressed mood in adolescents in the United States and Korea: A moderated mediation analysis.

    Choi, Eunsoo; Choi, Injae

    2016-12-01

    The perception of one's body image becomes particularly important in adolescence. Body dissatisfaction has been associated with negative psychological functioning, such as self-esteem and depression. Previous findings showed that the decreased self-esteem due to body dissatisfaction explained the association between negative attitude toward body and psychological well-being in different cultural contexts. The present study examined adolescents from the US (N = 1002) and Korea (N = 3993) and replicated and extended the previous findings regarding body dissatisfaction and associated psychological outcomes. The results showed that body dissatisfaction predicted higher depressed mood and that self-esteem mediated this association for both American and Korean adolescents. Notably, the indirect effect of body dissatisfaction and perceived body image on depressed mood via self-esteem was greater for American adolescents than for Korean adolescents. The implications of the cultural difference in the significance of self-esteem in mediating the body dissatisfaction and depressed mood are discussed.

  12. Reactivity to smartphone-based ecological momentary assessment of depressive symptoms (MoodMonitor: protocol of a randomised controlled trial

    Wouter van Ballegooijen

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ecological momentary assessment (EMA of mental health symptoms may influence the symptoms that it measures, i.e. assessment reactivity. In the field of depression, EMA reactivity has received little attention. We aim to investigate whether EMA of depressive symptoms induces assessment reactivity. Reactivity will be operationalised as an effect of EMA on depressive symptoms measured by a retrospective questionnaire, and, secondly, as a change in response rate and variance of the EMA ratings. Methods This study is a 12-week randomised controlled trial comprising three groups: group 1 carries out EMA of mood and completes a retrospective questionnaire, group 2 carries out EMA of how energetic they feel and completes a retrospective questionnaire, group 3 is the control group, which completes only the retrospective questionnaire. The retrospective questionnaire (Centre for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scale; CES-D assesses depressive symptoms and is administered at baseline, 6 weeks after baseline and 12 weeks after baseline. We aim to recruit 160 participants who experience mild to moderate depressive symptoms, defined as a Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9 score of 5 to 15. This study is powered to detect a small between-groups effect, where no clinically relevant effect is defined as the effect size margin −0.25< d <0.25. Discussion To our knowledge, this is the first study to investigate whether self-rated EMA of depressive symptoms could induce assessment reactivity among mildly depressed individuals. Trial registration Netherlands Trial Register NTR5803. Registered 12 April 2016. http://www.trialregister.nl/trialreg/admin/rctview.asp?TC=5803 .

  13. Induction of depressed and elated mood by music influences the perception of facial emotional expressions in healthy subjects.

    Bouhuys, A L; Bloem, G M; Groothuis, T G

    1995-04-04

    The judgement of healthy subject rating the emotional expressions of a set of schematic drawn faces is validated (study 1) to examine the relationship between mood (depressed/elated) and judgement of emotional expressions of these faces (study 2). Study 1: 30 healthy subjects judged 12 faces with respect to the emotions they express (fear, happiness, anger, sadness, disgust, surprise, rejection and invitation). It was found that a particular face could reflect various emotions. All eight emotions were reflected in the set of faces and the emotions were consensually judged. Moreover, gender differences in judgement could be established. Study 2: In a cross-over design, 24 healthy subjects judged the faces after listening to depressing or elating music. The faces were subdivided in six 'ambiguous' faces (i.e., expressing similar amounts of positive and negative emotions) and six 'clear' faces (i.e., faces showing a preponderance of positive or negative emotions). In addition, these two types of faces were distinguished with respect to the intensity of emotions they express. 11 subjects who showed substantial differences in experienced depression after listening to the music were selected for further analysis. It was found that, when feeling more depressed, the subjects perceived more rejection/sadness in ambiguous faces (displaying less intensive emotions) and less invitation/happiness in clear faces. In addition, subjects saw more fear in clear faces that express less intensive emotions. Hence, results show a depression-related negative bias in the perception of facial displays.

  14. Abnormal functional connectivity with mood regulating circuit in unmedicated individual with major depression: a resting-state functional magnetic resonance study

    PENG Dai-hui; SHEN Ting; ZHANG Jie; HUANG Jia; LIU Jun; LIU Shu-yong; JIANG Kai-da; XU Yi-feng; FANG Yi-ru

    2012-01-01

    Background Reports on mood regulating circuit (MRC) indicated different activities between depressed patients and healthy controls.The functional networks based on MRC have not been described in major depression disorder (MDD).Both the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and thalamus are all the key regions of MRC.This study was to investigate the two functional networks related to ACC and thalamus in MDD.Methods Sixteen patients with MDD on first episode which never got any medication and sixteen matched health controls were scanned by 3.0 T functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during resting-state.The pregenual anterior cingulate cortex (pgACC) was used as seed region to construct the functional network by cortex section.The thalamus was used as seed region to construct the functional network by limbic section.Paired-t tests between-groups were performed for the seed-target correlations based on the individual fisher z-transformed correlation maps by SPM2.Results Depressed subjects exhibited significantly great functional connectivity (FC) between pgACC and the parahippocampus gyrus in one cluster (size 923) including left parahippocampus gyrus (-21,-49,7),left parietal lobe (-3,-46,52) and left frontal lobe (-27,-46,28).The one cluster (size 962) of increased FC on thalamus network overlapped the precuneus near to right parietal lobe (9,-52,46) and right cingulate gyrus (15,-43,43) in health controls.Conclusions Abnormal functional networks exist in earlier manifestation of MDD related to MRC by both cortex and limbic sections.The increased functional connectivity of pgACC and decreased functional connectivity of thalamus is mainly involved in bias mood processing and cognition.

  15. Manipulation of Self-Esteem as a Determinant of Mood of Elated and Depressed Women

    Coleman, Ronald E.

    1975-01-01

    This study suggests that a determinant of depression is evaluative self-statements, supports the utility of cognitive therapy for depressives, and demonstrates a potentially useful technique for inducing more appropriate self-evaluations. (Editor)

  16. The Velten Mood Induction Procedure: Effects on Mood and Memory.

    Riskind, John H.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Examined the hypothesis that the self-devaluative aspects of the Velton Mood Induction Procedure (VMIP) do not lower mood but that the depression-related somatic states of the VMIP do lower mood. Found that both aspects of the VMIP have a powerful impact on mood. (Author/RC)

  17. Locus of Control, Self-Reported Depression, and Perceived Causes of Depression

    Calhoun, Lawrence G.; And Others

    1974-01-01

    Examines the relation of depression to locus of control and to the perceived causes of depression in a nonpsychiatric population. Findings suggest that adolescent females tend to hold themselves more responsible than males for unsatisfactory personal situations, and this extends to the attribution of causes for unhappy moods. (Author/PC)

  18. Major depressive disorder in an adolescent with Turner syndrome: a case report.

    Mao, Shujiong; Sun, Liying; Li, Rong; Zhao, Zhengyan; Yang, Rongwang

    2016-01-01

    Turner syndrome (TS) is a chromosomal abnormality, of which the presence and impact of coexisting psychiatric morbidity has received little attention. The present report describes an adolescent with mosaic karyotype TS who had major depressive disorder with the predisposing cause of psychosocial burden, and relieved with the treatment of sertraline and complete remission with combined use of estradiol valerate. The report suggests us to pay more attention on the mood disorders in children with TS, especially in adolescents. For treatment aspect, medications for improving the puberty development and short stature should be added to in addition to antidepressants if they had mood disorders.

  19. Phenylthiocarbamide (PTC) Tasting and Reported Depression.

    Whittemore, Paul B.

    1986-01-01

    The phenylthiocarbamide (PTC) taste test was investigated for its potential as a genetically based biological marker for depression. Results indicated PTC tasters reported significantly higher levels of depression on the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) than nontasters and they scored higher on 5 of the 21 items. (Author/BL)

  20. Positive Affect Stimulation and Sustainment (PASS) Module for Depressed Mood: A preliminary investigation of treatment-related effects.

    McMakin, Dana L; Siegle, Greg J; Shirk, Stephen R

    2011-06-01

    Positive affective functioning (PAF) is critical to the development, course and treatment of depressive symptoms. Targeting key features of PAF during treatment may provide a new angle through which to improve affective functioning and reduce symptoms. The current study was a treatment development trial for the Positive Affect Stimulation and Sustainment (PASS) Module. PASS is conceptualized as a means of capitalizing on positive events (e.g. planned through behavioral activation) by enhancing and sustaining positive affective states through savoring, and establishing positive attributions and expectancies. Participants were 27 female college students with dysphoric symptoms. There was a moderate effect of PASS on depressive symptoms. There was also a significant within session increase in positive affect from pre to post session among the PASS group, relative to active control; and a significant decrease in positive affect from pre (baseline) to post (follow-up) treatment among the control group, relative to PASS. Results provide preliminary evidence for the efficacy of the treatment module among young adults with depressed mood, and lay the foundation for future research.

  1. An Evaluation of Depressed Mood in Two Classes of Medical Students

    Levine, Ruth E.; Litwins, Stephanie D.; Frye, Ann W.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To assess depression rates in contemporary medical students. Method: The Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) was administered anonymously to two medical school classes at matriculation, the end of first year, and the end of second year. Results: Median scores for both classes were low at all points. The proportion of students scoring in the…

  2. Continuity and Discontinuity of Depressed Mood from Late Adolescence to Young Adulthood: The Mediating and Stabilizing Roles of Young Adults' Socioeconomic Attainment

    Wickrama, K. A. S.; Conger, Rand D.; Lorenz, Federick O.; Martin, Monica

    2012-01-01

    Using prospective, longitudinal data from 467 youth over a 13-year period (late adolescence and young adulthood), the present study investigates three research questions: (1) to what extent do elevations in depressed mood continue (homotypic continuity) from adolescence to young adulthood, (2) to what extent do young adults' socioeconomic…

  3. Effects of a cognitive behavioral self-help program and a computerized structured writing intervention on depressed mood for HIV-infected people : A pilot randomized controlled trial

    Kraaij, Vivian; van Emmerik, Arnold; Garnefski, Nadia; Schroevers, Maya J.; Lo-Fo-Wong, Deborah; van Empelen, Pepijn; Dusseldorp, Elise; Witlox, Robert; Maes, Stan

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The aim of the present study was to examine whether low-resource, cost-effective intervention programs can be effective in improving depressed mood in people with HIV. The efficacy of a cognitive-behavioral self-help program (CBS) and a computerized structured writing intervention (SWI) w

  4. The Anxiety Depression Distress Inventory-27 (ADDI-27): a short version of the Mood and Anxiety Symptom Questionnaire-90.

    Osman, Augustine; Freedenthal, Stacey; Gutierrez, Peter M; Wong, Jane L; Emmerich, Ashley; Lozano, Gregorio

    2011-06-01

    The authors conducted three studies to construct and examine the psychometric properties of a 27-item version of the Mood and Anxiety Symptom Questionnaire-90 (MASQ-90; Watson & Clark, 1991a). The Anxiety Depression Distress Inventory-27 (ADDI-27) contains three empirically derived scales: Positive Affect, Somatic Anxiety, and General Distress, which are relevant dimensions of the tripartite model of affect. Each scale is composed of nine items, and the estimate of scale reliability for each scale score was ≥ .80 across the three studies. Results of exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses provided adequate support for a 3-factor model. Additional estimates of concurrent validity documented the ADDI-27 scales' convergent and discriminant validity. We also identified three construct relevant correlates for each scale score. Overall, the ADDI-27 appears to be a content valid, reliable, and multidimensional measure of the tripartite model of affect.

  5. The evaluation of mood condition among depressed adolescent students in Isfahan after 6 years

    Fereshteh Shakibaei

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: About half of students after 6 years are caught by depression or BMD. It reveals the importance of this disorder and its role in making behavioral problems for adolescents in their future.

  6. Chronobiology and Mood Disorders

    Yavuz Selvi

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Living organizms show cyclic rhythmicity in a variety of physiological, hormonal, behavioral, and psychological processes. Sleep-wake cycles, body temperature, hormone levels, mood and cognition display a circadian rhythm in humans. Delays, advances or desynchronizations of circadian rhythm are known to be strongly associated with mental illness especially mood disorders such as bipolar disorder, major depression and seasonal affective disorder. Furthermore, some of the mood stabilizers, sleep deprivation and light treatment are employed to treat mood disorders by shifting circadian rhythm. This paper reviews the relationship between mood disorders and circadian rhythm, and describes treatment options by altering circadian rhythm.

  7. Perceived economic strain exacerbates the effect of paternal depressed mood on hostility.

    Reeb, Ben T; Conger, Katherine J; Martin, Monica J

    2013-04-01

    Depression in fathers has been associated with impaired parenting, which, in turn, may function as a central environmental mechanism underlying the adverse effects of paternal depression on children's development. Despite this, evidence suggests that many depressed fathers are able to maintain positive relationships with their children, and little is known about factors associated with better or worse parenting outcomes when fathers experience depression. Using two waves of prospective, longitudinal data from a community sample of fathers and their high school-aged adolescent offspring (N = 324), perceived economic strain was examined as a moderator of the effect of fathers' depressive symptoms on subsequent observer ratings of hostile parenting behaviors. Among fathers experiencing high levels of economic strain, depressive symptoms at offspring age 15 were a significant predictor of hostility toward their adolescent sons at age 18, controlling for family demographics and previous hostile parenting behaviors. Findings and directions for future research are discussed in relation to contemporary models of intergenerational psychopathology transmission. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. Depressed mood: changes during a five-year follow-up in 75-year-old men and women in three Nordic localities

    Heikkinen, Riitta-Liisa; Berg, Stig; Avlund, Kirsten

    2002-01-01

    if they predicted depressed mood in this study. The study is a part of a 5-year follow-up of the Nordic comparative NORA study on functional capacity. A 5-year follow-up was carried out with the survivors in 1994. Depressive symptomatology was assessed by the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES...... men in all three localities, and at the follow-up in Göteborg and Glostrup. In the follow-up study, men and women in Jyväskylä scored higher means on the CES-D scale than did the groups in Göteborg and Glostrup. During the follow-up, there was no significant change in the mean score describing...... depressed mood (CES-D total scale) in any locality in either men or women. The mean score of those who died during the follow-up period differed significantly from the score of survivors among women in Göteborg and in Glostrup. The most clear predictors for depressed mood in this Nordic 5-year follow...

  9. Signs and Symptoms of Mood Disorders

    ... Public Service Announcements Partnering with DBSA Signs and Symptoms of Mood Disorders Depression and bipolar disorder (also ... a Confidential Online Mood Disorder Screening Signs and symptoms of depression Prolonged sadness or unexplained crying spells ...

  10. Bipolar disorder recurrence prevention using self-monitoring daily mood charts: case reports from a 5 year period

    Yasui-Furukori, Norio; Nakamura, Kazuhiko

    2017-01-01

    Mood symptoms in bipolar disorders are significantly related to psychosocial events, and the personalized identification of symptom triggers is important. Ecological momentary assessments have been used in paper-and-pencil form to explore emotional reactivity to daily life stress in patients with bipolar disorder. However, there are few data on long-term recurrence prevention effects using ecological momentary assessments. Subjects were three outpatients with bipolar disorder who had a history of at least one admission. They recorded self-monitoring daily mood charts using a 5-point Likert scale. Paper-and-pencil mood charts included mood, motivation, thinking speed, and impulsivity. Additionally, they recorded waking time, bedtime, and medication compliance. Fewer manic or depressive episodes including admissions occurred after self-monitoring daily mood charts compared to patients’ admissions in the past 3 years. This study suggests that self-monitoring daily mood in addition to mood stabilizing medication has some effect on recurrence prevention in follow-up periods of at least 5 years. Further studies with rigorous designs and large sample sizes are needed. PMID:28331323

  11. The Influence of Parental Emotional Neglect on Assault Victims Seeking Treatment for Depressed Mood and Alcohol Misuse: A Pilot Study

    Kylie A. Bailey

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This study explores the relationship between reported parental emotional neglect when a child, assault type experienced, posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS, depression, and alcohol consumption in treatment seekers for comorbid depressive symptoms and alcohol misuse. Participants (n = 220 with concurrent depression and alcohol misuse were recruited from the DAISI (Depression and Alcohol Integrated and Single-focussed Interventions project. Assault type and PTSS were retrospectively assessed by the Posttraumatic Stress Diagnostic Scale. The Measure of Parenting Style is a self-report measure that retrospectively assessed emotional neglect experienced as a child. An exploratory factor analysis using the tetrachoric correlation matrix (applying principal factor extraction with a varimax rotation identified the two assault factors of sexual assault (SA and physical assault (PA. A path analysis revealed that Maternal Emotional Neglect increased the impact of PTSS and depression. Paternal Emotional Neglect increased the impact of PA on PTSS and alcohol dependence symptoms. There appears to be differential effects of assault type and Maternal/Paternal emotional neglect on depression and alcohol misuse, suggesting that parenting roles serve distinct protective functions.

  12. Daily and Retrospective Mood and Physical Symptom Self-Reports and Their Relationship to the Menstrual Cycle.

    Swandby, Janet R.

    The literature on the relationships between changes in mood and the menstrual cycle reveals many inconsistencies due to the absence of certain control procedures. Daily self-reports of moods and physical symptoms were collected from women with normal cycles, women using oral contraceptives, and men for 35 days in a camouflaged study. Retrospective…

  13. Ovariectomy results in variable changes in nociception, mood and depression in adult female rats.

    Li-Hong Li

    Full Text Available Decline in the ovarian hormones with menopause may influence somatosensory, cognitive, and affective processing. The present study investigated whether hormonal depletion alters the nociceptive, depressive-like and learning behaviors in experimental rats after ovariectomy (OVX, a common method to deplete animals of their gonadal hormones. OVX rats developed thermal hyperalgesia in proximal and distal tail that was established 2 weeks after OVX and lasted the 7 weeks of the experiment. A robust mechanical allodynia was also occurred at 5 weeks after OVX. In the 5th week after OVX, dilute formalin (5%-induced nociceptive responses (such as elevating and licking or biting during the second phase were significantly increased as compared to intact and sham-OVX females. However, chronic constriction injury (CCI of the sciatic nerve-induced mechanical allodynia did not differ as hormonal status (e.g. OVX and ovarian intact. Using formalin-induced conditioned place avoidance (F-CPA, which is believed to reflect the pain-related negative emotion, we further found that OVX significantly attenuated F-CPA scores but did not alter electric foot-shock-induced CPA (S-CPA. In the open field and forced swimming test, there was an increase in depressive-like behaviors in OVX rats. There was no detectable impairment of spatial performance by Morris water maze task in OVX rats up to 5 weeks after surgery. Estrogen replacement retrieved OVX-induced nociceptive hypersensitivity and depressive-like behaviors. This is the first study to investigate the impacts of ovarian removal on nociceptive perception, negative emotion, depressive-like behaviors and spatial learning in adult female rats in a uniform and standard way.

  14. Mood expression by seniors in digital communication: Evaluative comparison of four mood-reporting instruments with elderly users

    Alberts, J.W.; Vastenburg, M.H.; Desmet, P.M.A.

    2013-01-01

    Elderly users have widely adopted digital communication. Digital communication is often text-only, e.g. instant messaging (IM) and e-mail. Text-only communication has been found less effective than communication that uses richer channels such as audio and video. Mood expression instruments, such as

  15. Paternal postpartum mood: bipolar episodes? Depressão paterna: episódio bipolar?

    Karen Amaral Tavares Pinheiro

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: We describe the prevalence of depressive and bipolar spectrum episodes in fathers in antenatal and postnatal periods, as well as at 12 months after childbirth. METHOD: A longitudinal follow-up study was conducted with a representative sample of 739 fathers whose children were born between April 2007 and May 2008 in maternity wards in the city of Pelotas, southern Brazil. Paternal psychopathology was measured with the Mini Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI across three time points: between 28 and 34 weeks of pregnancy (T1, 30 to 60 days postpartum (T2, and 12 months after childbirth (T3. RESULTS: The prevalence of depressive episodes was 5.0% at T1, 4.5% at T2, and 4.3% at T3. Mixed episodes were present in 3%, 1.7%, and 0.9% of subjects, respectively, and accounted for 61.1% of the cases of depression in the antenatal period, 37.5% in postpartum, and 21.4% at 12 months. Depressive and manic/hypomanic episodes were significantly associated during pregnancy and in postpartum, but not at 12 months after childbirth. CONCLUSION: Bipolar episodes were common in men with depressive symptoms during their partner's pregnancy in the postpartum period and, to a lesser extent, 12 months after childbirth. Therefore, this population should be carefully investigated for manic and hypomanic symptoms.OBJETIVO: Verificar a prevalência dos episódios depressivos e bipolares em homens no período pré e pós-natal, assim como 12 meses após o parto. MÉTODO: Estudo longitudinal com amostra de pais cujas crianças nasceram entre abril de 2007 e maio de 2008 em maternidades da cidade de Pelotas-RS, no sul do Brasil. Episódios depressivos e maníacos/hipomaníacos foram mensurados com o Mini Neuropsychiatric Interview em três tempos diferentes: entre a 28ª e 34ª semanas de gestação (T1, 30 a 60 dias após o parto (T2 e 12 meses após o nascimento da criança. RESULTADOS: A prevalência de episódios depressivos foi 5,0% em T1, 4,5% em T2 e 4,3% em T3

  16. Paternal postpartum mood: bipolar episodes? Depressão paterna: episódio bipolar?

    Karen Amaral Tavares Pinheiro

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: We describe the prevalence of depressive and bipolar spectrum episodes in fathers in antenatal and postnatal periods, as well as at 12 months after childbirth. METHOD: A longitudinal follow-up study was conducted with a representative sample of 739 fathers whose children were born between April 2007 and May 2008 in maternity wards in the city of Pelotas, southern Brazil. Paternal psychopathology was measured with the Mini Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI across three time points: between 28 and 34 weeks of pregnancy (T1, 30 to 60 days postpartum (T2, and 12 months after childbirth (T3. RESULTS: The prevalence of depressive episodes was 5.0% at T1, 4.5% at T2, and 4.3% at T3. Mixed episodes were present in 3%, 1.7%, and 0.9% of subjects, respectively, and accounted for 61.1% of the cases of depression in the antenatal period, 37.5% in postpartum, and 21.4% at 12 months. Depressive and manic/hypomanic episodes were significantly associated during pregnancy and in postpartum, but not at 12 months after childbirth. CONCLUSION: Bipolar episodes were common in men with depressive symptoms during their partner's pregnancy in the postpartum period and, to a lesser extent, 12 months after childbirth. Therefore, this population should be carefully investigated for manic and hypomanic symptoms.OBJETIVO: Verificar a prevalência dos episódios depressivos e bipolares em homens no período pré e pós-natal, assim como 12 meses após o parto. MÉTODO: Estudo longitudinal com amostra de pais cujas crianças nasceram entre abril de 2007 e maio de 2008 em maternidades da cidade de Pelotas-RS, no sul do Brasil. Episódios depressivos e maníacos/hipomaníacos foram mensurados com o Mini Neuropsychiatric Interview em três tempos diferentes: entre a 28ª e 34ª semanas de gestação (T1, 30 a 60 dias após o parto (T2 e 12 meses após o nascimento da criança. RESULTADOS: A prevalência de episódios depressivos foi 5,0% em T1, 4,5% em T2 e 4,3% em T3

  17. Coenzyme Q10 Effects on Creatine Kinase Activity and Mood in Geriatric Bipolar Depression

    Forester, Brent P.; Zuo, Chun S.; Ravichandran, Caitlin; Harper, David G.; Du, Fei; Kim, Susan; Cohen, Bruce M.; Renshaw, Perry F.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Despite the prevalence, associated comorbidities, and functional consequences of bipolar depression (BPD), underlying disease mechanisms remain unclear. Published studies of individuals with bipolar disorder implicate abnormalities in cellular energy metabolism. This study tests the hypotheses that the forward rate constant (kfor) of creatine kinase (CK) is altered in older adults with BPD and that CoEnzyme Q10 (CoQ10), known to have properties that enhance mitochondrial function, increases kfor in elderly individuals with BPD treated with CoQ10 compared with untreated age- and sex-matched controls. Methods Ten older adults (ages 55 and above) with Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (Fourth Edition [DSM IV]) bipolar disorder, current episode depressed and 8 older controls underwent two 4 Tesla 31Phosphorus magnetic resonance spectroscopy (31PMRS) scans 8 weeks apart using a magnetization transfer (MT) acquisition scheme to calculate kfor. The BPD group was treated with open-label CoEnzyme Q10 400 mg/d titrated up by 400 mg/d every 2 weeks to a maximum of 1200 mg/d. The Montgomery Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) was used to measure depression symptom severity. Baseline kfor and changes in kfor were compared between individuals with BPD and controls, not receiving CoQ. Clinical ratings were compared across time and associated with kfor changes using repeated measures linear regression. Results The kfor of CK was non-significantly lower for BPD than healthy controls at baseline (BPD mean (standard deviation [SD]) = 0.19 (0.02), control mean (SD) = 0.20 (0.02), Wilcoxon rank sum exact P = .40). The kfor for both CoQ10-treated BPD and controls increased after 8 weeks (mean increase (SD) = 0.03 (0.04), Wilcoxon signed rank exact P = .01), with no significant difference in 8-week changes between groups (BPD mean change (SD) = 0.03 (0.03), control mean change (SD) = 0.03 (0.05), Wilcoxon rank sum exact P = .91). In an exploratory

  18. Relationships between college students' depression moods and behavioral inhibition characteristics%大学生抑郁情绪与行为抑制特征的关系

    李玉霞

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To explore the relationships between college students' depression moods and behavioral inhibition characteristics. METHODS The college students were assessed with the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) , Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale (SDS) and Behavioral Inhibition Scale. The differences of behavioral inhibition scale between healthy college students and students with depression moods were compared and the correlations between groups were analyzed. RESULTS (1) Compared with healthy college students, students with depression moods significantly scored higher in the four dimensions of behavioral inhibition scales: help-seeking, confidence, intimacy (P 0.05). (2) The scores of depression in depression moods groups had a significant correlation with the five dimensions of behavioral inhibition except estrangement (r = 0.28-0.64, P< 0.05 or 0.01). CONCLUSION Behavioral inhibition characteristics have a significant positive correlation with depression.%目的 探讨大学生抑郁情绪与行为抑制特征的关系.方法 采用Beck抑郁问卷、Zung氏抑郁自评问卷和行为抑制量表对大学生抑郁情绪组和正常对照组进行测查,比较2组在行为抑制量表得分上的差异,并做抑郁与行为抑制量表的相关分析.结果 (1)抑郁情绪组的行为抑制量表中对求助的抑制、对支配的抑制、对自信心的抑制、对拒绝的抑制和对亲密的抑制各维度得分均高于对照组,对疏远的抑制得分低于对照组,除在拒绝抑制维度上差异无统计学意义外,在其他5个维度差异均有统计学意义(P< 0.01或0.001); (2)除了对疏远的抑制维度,抑郁情绪组抑郁得分与行为抑制量表的其他5个维度呈不同程度的正相关(r=0.28~0.64,P<O.05或0.01).结论 行为抑制特征与抑郁情绪密切相关.

  19. Meditation with yoga, group therapy with hypnosis, and psychoeducation for long-term depressed mood: a randomized pilot trial.

    Butler, Lisa D; Waelde, Lynn C; Hastings, T Andrew; Chen, Xin-Hua; Symons, Barbara; Marshall, Jonathan; Kaufman, Adam; Nagy, Thomas F; Blasey, Christine M; Seibert, Elizabeth O; Spiegel, David

    2008-07-01

    This randomized pilot study investigated the effects of meditation with yoga (and psychoeducation) versus group therapy with hypnosis (and psychoeducation) versus psychoeducation alone on diagnostic status and symptom levels among 46 individuals with long-term depressive disorders. Results indicate that significantly more meditation group participants experienced a remission than did controls at 9-month follow-up. Eight hypnosis group participants also experienced a remission, but the difference from controls was not statistically significant. Three control participants, but no meditation or hypnosis participants, developed a new depressive episode during the study, though this difference did not reach statistical significance in any case. Although all groups reported some reduction in symptom levels, they did not differ significantly in that outcome. Overall, these results suggest that these two interventions show promise for treating low- to moderate-level depression.

  20. Milnacipran in panic disorder with agoraphobia and major depressive disorder: a case report.

    Chen, Mu-Hong; Liou, Ying-Jay

    2011-01-01

    A 51-year-old woman had panic disorder with agoraphobia and major depressive disorder sequentially. The aforementioned symptoms subsided significantly after treatment with milnacipran, 125 mg, administered daily for 2 months. However, panic attacks with agoraphobia were noted frequently when she tapered down milnacipran to 50 mg daily. She consequently experienced depression that gradually increased in degree, with poor energy, poor sleep, thoughts of helplessness, and ideas of death. After administration of a daily dose of 125 mg of milnacipran for 1 month, her panic attacks with agoraphobia and depressed mood were again alleviated. The present report shows significant effects of milnacipran on the comorbidity of panic disorder with agoraphobia and major depressive disorder.

  1. Ecological momentary assessment versus standard assessment instruments for measuring mindfulness, depressed mood, and anxiety among older adults.

    Moore, Raeanne C; Depp, Colin A; Wetherell, Julie Loebach; Lenze, Eric J

    2016-04-01

    As mobile data capture tools for patient-reported outcomes proliferate in clinical research, a key dimension of measure performance is sensitivity to change. This study compared performance of patient-reported measures of mindfulness, depression, and anxiety symptoms using traditional paper-and-pencil forms versus real-time, ambulatory measurement of symptoms via ecological momentary assessment (EMA). Sixty-seven emotionally distressed older adults completed paper-and-pencil measures of mindfulness, depression, and anxiety along with two weeks of identical items reported during ambulatory monitoring via EMA before and after participation in a randomized trial of Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) or a health education intervention. We calculated effect sizes for these measures across both measurement approaches and estimated the Number-Needed-to-Treat (NNT) in both measurement conditions. Study outcomes greatly differed depending on which measurement method was used. When EMA was used to measure clinical symptoms, older adults who participated in the MBSR intervention had significantly higher mindfulness and significantly lower depression and anxiety than participants in the health education intervention at post-treatment. However, these significant changes in symptoms were not found when outcomes were measured with paper-and-pencil measures. The NNT for mindfulness and depression measures administered through EMA were approximately 25-50% lower than NNTs derived from paper-and-pencil administration. Sensitivity to change in anxiety was similar across administration modes. In conclusion, EMA measures of depression and mindfulness substantially outperformed paper-and-pencil measures with the same items. The additional resources associated with EMA in clinical trials would seem to be offset by its greater sensitivity to detect change in key outcome variables.

  2. Canadian Network for Mood and Anxiety Treatments (CANMAT) 2016 Clinical Guidelines for the Management of Adults with Major Depressive Disorder

    Balneaves, Lynda G.; Faulkner, Guy; Ortiz, Abigail; McIntosh, Diane; Morehouse, Rachel L.; Ravindran, Lakshmi; Yatham, Lakshmi N.; Kennedy, Sidney H.; Lam, Raymond W.; MacQueen, Glenda M.; Milev, Roumen V.; Parikh, Sagar V.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The Canadian Network for Mood and Anxiety Treatments (CANMAT) conducted a revision of the 2009 guidelines by updating the evidence and recommendations. The scope of the 2016 guidelines remains the management of major depressive disorder (MDD) in adults, with a target audience of psychiatrists and other mental health professionals. Methods: Using the question-answer format, we conducted a systematic literature search focusing on systematic reviews and meta-analyses. Evidence was graded using CANMAT-defined criteria for level of evidence. Recommendations for lines of treatment were based on the quality of evidence and clinical expert consensus. “Complementary and Alternative Medicine Treatments” is the fifth of six sections of the 2016 guidelines. Results: Evidence-informed responses were developed for 12 questions for 2 broad categories of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) interventions: 1) physical and meditative treatments (light therapy, sleep deprivation, exercise, yoga, and acupuncture) and 2) natural health products (St. John’s wort, omega-3 fatty acids; S-adenosyl-L-methionine [SAM-e], dehydroepiandrosterone, folate, Crocus sativus, and others). Recommendations were based on available data on efficacy, tolerability, and safety. Conclusions: For MDD of mild to moderate severity, exercise, light therapy, St. John’s wort, omega-3 fatty acids, SAM-e, and yoga are recommended as first- or second-line treatments. Adjunctive exercise and adjunctive St. John’s wort are second-line recommendations for moderate to severe MDD. Other physical treatments and natural health products have less evidence but may be considered as third-line treatments. CAM treatments are generally well tolerated. Caveats include methodological limitations of studies and paucity of data on long-term outcomes and drug interactions. PMID:27486153

  3. Physical capacity and psychological mood in association with self-reported work ability in vibration-exposed patients with hand symptoms

    Edlund Maria

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to investigate whether self-reports of work ability correlated to the results of quantitative tests measuring physical capacity and a questionnaire assessing psychological mood in vibration-exposed patients with hand symptoms. Methods The participants comprised 47 patients (36 men and eleven women with exposure to hand vibration and vascular and/or neurological symptoms in the hands. They performed several quantitative tests (manual dexterity, hand grip strength, finger strength and completed the Work Ability Index (WAI and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS questionnaires. Results Correlation analysis revealed statistically significant associations between the WAI results, the HADS indices, hand grip and finger strength, and manual dexterity measured using the Purdue Pegboard®. Multiple regression analysis revealed age and HADS indices as the strongest predictors of work ability. Conclusions The patient’s age and psychological mood may be stronger predictors of work ability compared with results from tests measuring physical capacity of the hands in vibration-exposed patients with hand symptoms. When using the WAI as an instrument for assessing work ability in these patients, health care providers need to be more aware of the impact of the psychological mood.

  4. 抑郁个体的内隐心境一致性记忆%The Mood-Congruent Memory of Implicit Memory in Depressed Indivduals

    王恩国; 姚俊娜

    2009-01-01

    情绪和记忆的关系始终足认知心理学的重要研究领域,随着临床心理学和认知心理学的融合与发展,抑郁个体的心境一致性记忆的临床价值逐渐受到重视.就目前来看,抑郁个体的内隐心境一致件记忆的研究结论仍存在较大分歧,在被试群体、样本大小、任务难度、测验类型、抑郁程度等众多变量中,测验纯度和学习/测验的匹配程度足最重要的影响因素.%The relationship between emotion and memory is always an important area of cognitive psychology. With the integration and development of clinical psychology and cognitive psychology, the clinical value of depressed indivduals' mood-congruent memory gradually came to be taken seriously. At present, the conclusions of depressed indivduals' implicit mood-congruent memory are still greatly different in terms of test group, sample size, task difficulty and test type, the degree of depression, and many other variables. However, the purity of tests and the match degree of learning / test are the most important factors.

  5. Epilepsy and Mood Disorders

    Sermin Kesebir

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Mood disorders are the most common psychiatric comorbid disorder that affects quality of life and prognosis in epilepsy. The relation between depression and epilepsy is bidirectional. Not only the risk of having a depression among epilepsy cases is more than the healthy control cases, but also the risk of having epilepsy among depressive cases is more than the healthy control cases. People diagnosed with epilepsy are five times more likely than their peers to commit suicide. Moreover it seems that some epilepsy types like temporal lobe epilepsy have a much higher risk (25 times for suicide. Risk of suicide in epilepsy, which is independent from depression, increases more with the presence of depression. The common pathway between epilepsy, depression and suicide is hypofrontality and irregularity of serotonin metabolism. Contrary to depression, data on relationship between bipolar disorder and epilepsy is limited. However, mood disorder, mixed episodes with irritable character and mania are more frequent than assumed. As a matter of fact, both disorders share some common features. Both are episodic and can become chronic. Kindling phenomenon, irregularities in neurotransmitters, irregularities in voltage gate ion channels and irregularities in secondary messenger systems are variables that are presented in the etiologies of both disorders. Anticonvulsant drugs with mood regulatory effects are the common points of treatment. Understanding their mechanisms of action will clarify the pathophysiological processes. In this article, the relationhip between epilepsy and mood disorders, comorbidity, secondary states and treatment options in both cases have been discussed.

  6. Prevalence of Mood Disorders in Iran

    Hamid Reza Pouretemad

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective:To study the prevalence and demographic characteristics of mood disorders among Iranian adults. Method: In this cross-sectional population-based epidemiological study (age > 18 in Iran, 25180 individuals were selected through a randomized cluster sampling method for a diagnosis using the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia (SADS. They were then interviewed at home by 250 trained clinical psychologists. Results: The estimated lifetime prevalence of Major Depressive Disorder (MDD and Minor Depressive Disorder (mDD were 3.1% and 0.3% respectively. Also, the estimated lifetime prevalence of Bipolar Mood disorder (BMD type I and type II were 0.1% and 0.7% respectively. The current prevalence of MDD, mDD, BMD-I, and BMD-II were 1.8%, 0.2%, 0.04%, and 0.3% respectively. Mood disorders were associated with female gender, lower education, being married, being middle-aged, living in cities, and not being a homemaker. Conclusion: The prevalence of mood disorders was lower among Iranian adults than reported in Western studies, and a number of demographic associations differed from those reported in Western studies. Important cultural differences in the nature or manifestation of depression are implied by these results.

  7. A randomised, feasibility trial of a tele-health intervention for Acute Coronary Syndrome patients with depression ('MoodCare': Study protocol

    Hare David L

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Coronary heart disease (CHD and depression are leading causes of disease burden globally and the two often co-exist. Depression is common after Myocardial Infarction (MI and it has been estimated that 15-35% of patients experience depressive symptoms. Co-morbid depression can impair health related quality of life (HRQOL, decrease medication adherence and appropriate utilisation of health services, lead to increased morbidity and suicide risk, and is associated with poorer CHD risk factor profiles and reduced survival. We aim to determine the feasibility of conducting a randomised, multi-centre trial designed to compare a tele-health program (MoodCare for depression and CHD secondary prevention, with Usual Care (UC. Methods Over 1600 patients admitted after index admission for Acute Coronary Syndrome (ACS are being screened for depression at six metropolitan hospitals in the Australian states of Victoria and Queensland. Consenting participants are then contacted at two weeks post-discharge for baseline assessment. One hundred eligible participants are to be randomised to an intervention or a usual medical care control group (50 per group. The intervention consists of up to 10 × 30-40 minute structured telephone sessions, delivered by registered psychologists, commencing within two weeks of baseline screening. The intervention focuses on depression management, lifestyle factors (physical activity, healthy eating, smoking cessation, alcohol intake, medication adherence and managing co-morbidities. Data collection occurs at baseline (Time 1, 6 months (post-intervention (Time 2, 12 months (Time 3 and 24 months follow-up for longer term effects (Time 4. We are comparing depression (Cardiac Depression Scale [CDS] and HRQOL (Short Form-12 [SF-12] scores between treatment and UC groups, assessing the feasibility of the program through patient acceptability and exploring long term maintenance effects. A cost-effectiveness analysis of

  8. The association between self-reported and clinically determined hypomanic symptoms and the onset of major mood disorders

    Preisig, Martin; Gholamrezaee, Mehdi; Grof, Paul; Angst, Jules; Duffy, Anne

    2017-01-01

    Background Hypomanic symptoms may be a useful predictor of mood disorder among young people at high risk for bipolar disorder. Aims To determine whether hypomanic symptoms differentiate offspring of parents with bipolar disorder (high risk) and offspring of well parents (control) and predict the development of mood episodes. Method High-risk and control offspring were prospectively assessed using semi-structured clinical interviews annually and completed the Hypomania Checklist-32 Revised (HCL-32). Clinically significant sub-threshold hypomanic symptoms (CSHS) were coded. Results HCL-32 total and active or elated scores were higher in control compared with high-risk offspring, whereas 14% of high-risk and 0% of control offspring had CSHS. High-risk offspring with CSHS had a fivefold increased risk of developing recurrent major depression (P=0.0002). The median onset of CSHS in high-risk offspring was 16.4 (6–31) years and was before the onset of major mood episodes. Conclusions CSHS are precursors to major mood episodes in high-risk offspring and could identify individuals at ultra-high risk for developing bipolar disorder. Declaration of interest None. Copyright and usage © The Royal College of Psychiatrists 2017. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Non-Commercial, No Derivatives (CC BY-NC-ND) license.

  9. Progress in understanding mood disorders: optogenetic dissection of neural circuits.

    Lammel, S; Tye, K M; Warden, M R

    2014-01-01

    Major depression is characterized by a cluster of symptoms that includes hopelessness, low mood, feelings of worthlessness and inability to experience pleasure. The lifetime prevalence of major depression approaches 20%, yet current treatments are often inadequate both because of associated side effects and because they are ineffective for many people. In basic research, animal models are often used to study depression. Typically, experimental animals are exposed to acute or chronic stress to generate a variety of depression-like symptoms. Despite its clinical importance, very little is known about the cellular and neural circuits that mediate these symptoms. Recent advances in circuit-targeted approaches have provided new opportunities to study the neuropathology of mood disorders such as depression and anxiety. We review recent progress and highlight some studies that have begun tracing a functional neuronal circuit diagram that may prove essential in establishing novel treatment strategies in mood disorders. First, we shed light on the complexity of mesocorticolimbic dopamine (DA) responses to stress by discussing two recent studies reporting that optogenetic activation of midbrain DA neurons can induce or reverse depression-related behaviors. Second, we describe the role of the lateral habenula circuitry in the pathophysiology of depression. Finally, we discuss how the prefrontal cortex controls limbic and neuromodulatory circuits in mood disorders.

  10. Mind and mood in modern art, II: Depressive disorders, spirituality, and early deaths in the abstract expressionist artists of the New York School.

    Schildkraut, J J; Hirshfeld, A J; Murphy, J M

    1994-04-01

    This article documents the high prevalence of mood disorders in a group of 15 of the mid-twentieth-century Abstract Expressionist artists of the New York School. These artists, using the technique of psychic automatism (based on free association) in order to reveal unconscious material, created a psychologically and spiritually significant art that addressed the mythic themes of creation, birth, life, and death. Over 50% of the 15 artists in this group had some form of psychopathology, predominantly mood disorders and preoccupation with death, often compounded by alcohol abuse. At least 40% sought treatment and 20% were hospitalized for psychiatric problems. Two committed suicide; two died in single-vehicle accidents while driving; and two others had fathers who killed themselves. Many of these artists died early deaths, and close to 50% of the group (seven of 15) were dead before the age of 60. The material presented in this article suggests the following formulation and hypothesis. Depression inevitably leads to a turning inward and to the painful reexamination of the purpose of living and the possibility of dying. Thus, by bringing the artist into direct and lonely confrontation with the ultimate existential question, whether to live or to die, depression may have put these artists in touch with the inexplicable mystery that lies at the heart of the "tragic and timeless" art that the Abstract Expressionists aspired to produce.

  11. A Test of the Effects of Acute Sleep Deprivation on General and Specific Self-Reported Anxiety and Depressive Symptoms: An Experimental Extension

    Babson, Kimberly A; Trainor, Casey D.; Feldner, Matthew T.; Blumenthal, Heidemarie

    2010-01-01

    Evidence indicates acute sleep deprivation affects negative mood states. The present study experimentally tested the effects of acute sleep deprivation on self-reported symptoms of state anxiety and depression as well as general distress among 88 physically and psychologically healthy adults. As hypothesized, the effects of acute sleep deprivation increased state anxiety and depression, as well as general distress, relative to a normal night of sleep control condition. Based on the tripartite...

  12. Depression

    Grace Sherry L

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Health Issue Depression causes significant distress or impairment in physical, social, occupational and other key areas of functioning. Women are approximately twice as likely as men to experience depression. Psychosocial factors likely mediate the risks for depression incurred by biological influences. Key Findings Data from the 1999 National Population Health Survey show that depression is more common among Canadian women, with an annual self-reported incidence of 5.7% compared with 2.9% in men. The highest rates of depression are seen among women of reproductive age. Predictive factors for depression include previous depression, feeling out of control or overwhelmed, chronic health problems, traumatic events in childhood or young adulthood, lack of emotional support, lone parenthood, and low sense of mastery. Although depression is treatable, only 43% of depressed women had consulted a health professional in 1998/99 and only 32.4% were taking antidepressant medication. People with lower education, inadequate income, and fewer contacts with a health professional were less likely to receive depression treatment. Data Gaps and Recommendations A better understanding of factors that increase vulnerability and resilience to depression is needed. There is also a need for the collection and analysis of data pertaining to: prevalence of clinical anxiety; the prevalence of depression band 12 months after childbirth factors contributing to suicide contemplation and attempts among adolescent girls, current treatments for depression and their efficacy in depressed women at different life stages; interprovincial variation in depression rates and hospitalizations and the impact and costs of depression on work, family, individuals, and society.

  13. Branched-Chain Amino Acids as New Biomarkers of Major Depression - A Novel Neurobiology of Mood Disorder

    Baranyi, Andreas; Amouzadeh-Ghadikolai, Omid; von Lewinski, Dirk; Rothenhäusler, Hans-Bernd; Theokas, Simon; Robier, Christoph; Mangge, Harald; Reicht, Gerhard; Hlade, Peter; Meinitzer, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Background The proteinogenic branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) valine, leucine and isoleucine might play an unrecognised crucial role in the development of depression through their activation of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTor) pathway. The aim of this research project is to evaluate whether BCAAs are altered in patients with major depression and might thus be appropriate biomarkers for major depression. Methods The concentrations of valine, leucine and isoleucine were determined in 71 in-patients with major depression and 48 healthy controls by high-pressure liquid chromatography. Psychiatric and laboratory assessments were obtained at the time of in-patient admittance. Results The BCAAs are significantly decreased in patients with major depression in comparison with healthy subjects (valine: Mann-Whitney-U: 968.0; p <0.0001, leucine: Mann-Whitney-U: 1246.5; p = 0.013, isoleucine: Mann-Whitney-U: 1252.5; p = 0.014). Furthermore, as shown by Spearman's rank correlation coefficients, there is a significant negative correlation between valine, leucine and isoleucine concentrations and the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD-17) as well as Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II) scores. Conclusions Our study results are strong evidence that in patients with major depression, BCAAs might be appropriate biomarkers for depression. Reduced activation of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTor) due to a reduction of BCAAs might play a crucial unrecognised factor in the etiology of depression and may evoke depressive symptomatology and lower energy metabolism in patients with major depression. In the future, mTor and its up- and downstream signalling partners might be important targets for the development of novel antidepressants. PMID:27490818

  14. The Effect of Cognitive Behavior Therapies on the Tendency of Women Suicides Suffering Mood Disorders Based on Frustration and Depression Indicators

    Mehran Rostamzadeh

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Depression disorders occur in all age ranges. However, the prevalence of this disorder is twice in women than men. Most women with a tendency to suicide or suicide attempts (successful or unsuccessful they are suffering from major depression. Given the increasing mood disorders during the past three decades, evidences suggest that the cognitive-behavioral treatments are the most effective. Methods: This was a semi-experimental study, that was examined the effects of cognitive behavior therapies in woman with mood disorder that have a tendency to suicide. The subjects in this study were 30women in Imam Reza (SA hospital in Mashhad with mood disorders who were selected by available sampling method. All of the subjects completed the Kazdian disappointment questionnaire and the (D section of the mental health questionnaire. They were randomly divided into control and experimental groups. Next, the experimental group received 10sessions of cognitive behavioral therapy sessions and post-test was performed on all of them. Covariance and independent T test were used in order to analyze the obtained data. Results: The obtained data showed a significant difference between the mean scores of the two groups after the intervention and based on T test value (0.745 at the significance level of Sig=0.001 in terms of H scale. Given the significant differences between the experimental and control groups after the implementation of therapeutic interventions and the control of other variables, ANCOVA was used. The obtained F value (134.242 at the significance level of Sig=0.001 confirmed the hypothesis that cognitive behavioral therapies in women would reduce the frustration level. The mean difference between control and experimental groups after the interventions based on T test value (0.762 at the significance level of Sig=0.001 indicated that there was a significant difference between the two groups in terms of the D scale. By using the covariance

  15. MOOD CHANGES FOLLOWING GOLF AMONG SENIOR RECREATIONAL PLAYERS

    Haydn Jarrett

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Golf has been recommended as a relatively risk-free form of exercise for an ageing population. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of playing a round of golf on mood states in recreational players. Ageing male golfers (N = 34; Age: M = 68.7, SD = 5.4 years completed a mood measure immediately before and after an 18-hole round of golf. Distance walked per game was measured using a pedometer. Results indicate reported scores on Anger, Depression, and Fatigue increased and Vigor reduced following the game. However, it should be noted that although there was an increase in unpleasant mood states, this should be seen in the context of the overall mood profile, which was positive. Pedometer results indicated golfers walked a mean distance of 10.21 km (± 1.11. Results show participants of this age-group engaged in a meaningful exercise session and that mood scores deteriorated following play. Findings from the present study show that elderly golfers experienced mood profiles following golf similar to younger athletes following competition. For golf to be recommended as an activity for promoting physical activity among an aging population, the player's ability to regulate unpleasant mood states should be considered. Future research should investigate the effects of experiencing negative mood states following golf on motivation to participate.

  16. Validity and Acceptability of Kimberley Mum’s Mood Scale to Screen for Perinatal Anxiety and Depression in Remote Aboriginal Health Care Settings

    Kotz, Jayne; Engelke, Catherine; Williams, Melissa; Stephen, Donna; Coutinho, Sudha; Trust, Stephanie K.

    2017-01-01

    Background The Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) is widely recommended for perinatal anxiety and depression screening. However, many Aboriginal women find EPDS language complex and confusing, and providers find using it with Aboriginal women challenging. The two part Kimberley Mum’s Mood Scale (KMMS) was developed to improve screening: Part 1 is a Kimberley version of EPDS; Part 2 is a psychosocial tool that enables contextualisation of Part 1 scores. We aimed to determine if KMMS is a valid and acceptable method of identifying Kimberley Aboriginal perinatal women at risk of anxiety or depressive disorders compared to a semi-structured clinical interview. Methods Across 15 sites in the Kimberley, Western Australia, 97 Aboriginal women aged 16 years and older who intended to continue with their pregnancy or had a baby within the previous 12 months were administered the KMMS by trained healthcare providers who provided an overall assessment of no, low, moderate or high risk; 91 participants were then independently assessed by a blinded clinical expert using Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition criteria. A qualitative approach was used to determine KMMS’ acceptability. Results Part 1 had high internal consistency (Cronbach’s alpha, 0.89), and overall KMMS risk equivalence for screening for anxiety or depressive disorders was moderate (sensitivity, 83%; specificity, 87%; positive predictive value, 68%). Participants found the process easy and useful, and healthcare providers found KMMS more useful than EPDS. Part 2 allowed healthcare providers to ask questions that gave participants an opportunity to express themselves, resulting in a deeper understanding between them. Conclusion KMMS is an effective tool for identifying Kimberley Aboriginal perinatal women at risk of anxiety and depressive disorders. Adoption of KMMS with culturally safe training and support is likely to improve screening processes, and with further

  17. Depression, mood change and self-esteem among adolescents aged 12-25 years with acne vulgaris in India

    Saravanan Dharshana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Acne vulgaris is a medical condition of serious concern among adolescents. This study was conducted with the aim to compare psychosocial factors such as depression, self-esteem, and social impairments between females who had acne vulgaris and those who did not have acne vulgaris. Materials and Methods: Fifty (50 female acne cases and 100 controls (hereafter nonacne participants in the age group of 12-25 years who were seeking treatment at the Dermatology Outpatient Department (OPD of Saveetha Medical College, were enrolled in the study. Information about sociodemographic profiles, disease management, and normative perception was gathered. Further assessment of self-esteem, cognitive and behavioral factors, and self-efficacy was done. Results: Seventy-four percent (74% of the acne cases were overwhelmed by their skin condition, and this was found to be statistically significant (P < .0001. More than half (58%; P < .0001 of the acne cases experienced anger while thinking of their skin conditions. Half of the number of acne cases (52% felt that people perceived them as being dirty due to their skin condition and that it hindered them from interacting with the opposite sex. Conclusion: Adolescent females who had acne reported difficulties in overcoming the emotional disturbances occurring due to acne vulgaris.

  18. Depression

    Pouwer, Frans

    2017-01-01

    There is ample evidence that depression is000  a common comorbid health issue in people with type 1 or type 2 diabetes. Reviews have also concluded that depression in diabetes is associated with higher HbA1c levels, less optimal self-care behaviours, lower quality of life, incident vascular...... complications and higher mortality rates. However, longitudinal studies into the course of depression in people with type 1 diabetes remain scarce. In this issue of Diabetologia, Kampling and colleagues (doi: 10.1007/s00125-016-4123-0 ) report the 5 year trajectories of depression in adults with newly diagnosed...... type 1 diabetes (mean age, 28 years). Their baseline results showed that shortly after the diagnosis of type 1 diabetes a major depressive episode was diagnosed in approximately 6% of participants, while 8% suffered from an anxiety disorder. The longitudinal depression data showed that, in a 5 year...

  19. Neurobehavioral impact of menopause on mood.

    Alexander, Jeanne Leventhal; Dennerstein, Lorraine; Woods, Nancy Fugate; Kotz, Krista; Halbreich, Uriel; Burt, Vivien; Richardson, Gregg

    2007-11-01

    The menopausal transition is a time of risk for mood change ranging from distress to minor depression to major depressive disorder in a vulnerable subpopulation of women in the menopausal transition. Somatic symptoms have been implicated as a risk factor for mood problems, although these mood problems have also been shown to occur independently of somatic symptoms. Mood problems have been found to increase in those with a history of mood continuum disorders, but can also occur de novo as a consequence of the transition. Stress has been implicated in the etiology and the exacerbation of these mood problems. Estrogen and add-back testosterone have both been shown to positively affect mood and well-being. In most cases, the period of vulnerability to mood problems subsides when the woman's hormonal levels stabilize and she enters full menopause.

  20. Anxious mood and memory.

    Foa, E B; McNally, R; Murdock, T B

    1989-01-01

    Influenced by Bower (Am. Psychol. 36, 129-148, 1981) and Lang (Anxiety and the Anxiety Disorders, Erlbaum, Hillsdale, N.J., 1985), we tested three hypotheses concerning anxious mood and memory: (1) the mood state dependent hypothesis which states that memory retrieval will be greater when mood at encoding and at recall are the same than when they are different: (2) the encoding mood congruent hypothesis which states that information semantically related to mood at encoding is retrieved more readily than information unrelated to mood at encoding; and (3) the recall mood congruent hypothesis which states that information semantically related to mood at recall is retrieved more readily than information unrelated to mood at recall. We induced anxiety in speech anxious students by informing them that they would be delivering a speech during the experiment. Mood could be either anxious or nonanxious at encoding, recall, both, or neither. Hence, there were four groups: Anxiety-Anxiety, Anxiety-Nonanxiety, Nonanxiety-Anxiety, and Nonanxiety-Nonanxiety. Subjects were asked to rate the self-descriptiveness of anxiety (e.g. NERVOUS) and nonanxiety adjective (e.g. POLITE) during the encoding phase, and to recall them later. Anxious mood was measured by self-report scales and by heart rate. No support was obtained for any of the three hypotheses. However, post-hoc analyses indicated that anxiety words were recalled least often in subjects whose heart rate increased from encoding to recall. This suggests that attention to threat information may diminish in aroused nonclinical subjects.

  1. Mood disorder with mixed, psychotic features due to vitamin b12 deficiency in an adolescent: case report

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Vitamin B12 is one of the essential vitamins affecting various systems of the body. Reports of psychiatric disorders due to its deficiency mostly focus on middle aged and elderly patients. Here we report a case of vitamin B 12 deficiency in a 16-year old, male adolescent who presented with mixed mood disorder symptoms with psychotic features. Chief complaints were “irritability, regressive behavior, apathy, crying and truancy” which lasted for a year. Premorbid personality was unrema...

  2. Mood modulation by food: an exploration of affect and cravings in 'chocolate addicts'.

    Macdiarmid, J I; Hetherington, M M

    1995-02-01

    To test the hypothesis that some foods are eaten to alter mood, the relationship between mood and intake of chocolate was investigated in 40 women. Twenty self-identified chocolate 'addicts' and 20 controls rated hunger, mood, intensity of craving and amount of chocolate eaten in a diary for seven consecutive days. The 'addicts' reported a significantly greater number of eating episodes and consumed a larger amount of chocolate than controls. 'Addicts' also rated depression, guilt and craving higher and feeling content and relaxed as lower before eating than controls. However, eating chocolate resulted in increased feelings of guilt in the 'addicts' and no significant changes in feeling depressed or relaxed. On indices of disordered eating and depression, 'addicts' scored significantly higher than controls; however, eating chocolate did not improve mood. Although chocolate is a food which provides pleasure, for those who consider intake of this food to be excessive, any pleasure experienced is short lived and accompanied by feelings of guilt.

  3. The dynamics of mood and coping in bipolar disorder: longitudinal investigations of the inter-relationship between affect, self-esteem and response styles.

    Hana Pavlickova

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Previous research has suggested that the way bipolar patients respond to depressive mood impacts on the future course of the illness, with rumination prolonging depression and risk-taking possibly triggering hypomania. However, the relationship over time between variables such as mood, self-esteem, and response style to negative affect is complex and has not been directly examined in any previous study--an important limitation, which the present study seeks to address. METHODS: In order to maximize ecological validity, individuals diagnosed with bipolar disorder (N = 48 reported mood, self-esteem and response styles to depression, together with contextual information, up to 60 times over a period of six days, using experience sampling diaries. Entries were cued by quasi-random bleeps from digital watches. Longitudinal multilevel models were estimated, with mood and self-esteem as predictors of subsequent response styles. Similar models were then estimated with response styles as predictors of subsequent mood and self-esteem. Cross-sectional associations of daily-life correlates with symptoms were also examined. RESULTS: Cross-sectionally, symptoms of depression as well as mania were significantly related to low mood and self-esteem, and their increased fluctuations. Longitudinally, low mood significantly predicted rumination, and engaging in rumination dampened mood at the subsequent time point. Furthermore, high positive mood (marginally instigated high risk-taking, and in turn engaging in risk-taking resulted in increased positive mood. Adaptive coping (i.e. problem-solving and distraction was found to be an effective coping style in improving mood and self-esteem. CONCLUSIONS: This study is the first to directly test the relevance of response style theory, originally developed to explain unipolar depression, to understand symptom changes in bipolar disorder patients. The findings show that response styles significantly impact on

  4. Alterations in plasma prolyl endopeptidase activity in depression, mania, and schizophrenia: effects of antidepressants, mood stabilizers, and antipsychotic drugs.

    Maes, M; Goossens, F; Scharpé, S; Calabrese, J; Desnyder, R; Meltzer, H Y

    1995-10-16

    The activity of prolyl endopeptidase (PEP), a serine proteinase, has been found to be significantly lower in the blood of patients with major depression than in normal volunteers. The present study investigates plasma PEP activity in 25 major depressed, 10 manic, and 14 schizophrenic subjects versus 30 normal volunteers. It also examines the effects of antidepressants, valproate, and neuroleptic drugs on plasma PEP activity. PEP activity was significantly lower in major depressed subjects than in normal volunteers and in patients with mania and schizophrenia. In depressed subjects, plasma PEP activity was significantly increased during treatment with antidepressant drugs, such as fluoxetine. Plasma PEP activity was significantly increased in manic and schizophrenic subjects compared with normal volunteers. In manic subjects, short-term treatment with valproate had a significant suppressive effect on PEP activity. No significant effects of neuroleptics on PEP activity could be found in the schizophrenic patients. The results support the hypothesis that lower PEP activity could play a role in the pathophysiology of major depression, while increased PEP activity may be related to psychotic conditions, such as mania and schizophrenia.

  5. Diurnal pattern of serum BDNF before partial sleep deprivation in stress-related mood disorders – an association with therapy response in major depression

    Maria Giese

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background : Depression is one of the most prevalent forms of mood disorders. Compelling evidence suggests that mood disorders are characterized by reduced neuronal plasticity, which can be brought about by exposure to stress. Furthermore, there is good agreement in considering key proteins such as the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF, as a central player for the effects of stress on brain function and plasticity and psychopathological implications. Still, there is a high non-responder rate in antidepressant therapy, which explains the need to find reliable predictors for adequate treatment. Previous studies revealed that plasma and serum BDNF levels in depressed patients were significantly lower than in healthy controls. Since the protein can cross the blood brain-barrier serum content correspondingly correlates with cortical BDNF concentrations suggesting BDNF levels as a promising candidate biomarker for depression and antidepressant treatment response. Methods : To investigate the association between serum BDNF levels and treatment outcome, blood was drawn from 28 patients with a major depressive episode (DMS-IV, ICD-10 that participated in a double-blind placebo controlled treatment study. All patients were treated with a stable mirtazapine monotherapy. Partial sleep deprivation (PSD was performed after one week. Placebo controlled additional morning treatment with the stimulant modafinil to reduce microsleep throughout the day was started during PSD and maintained over two weeks. Serum concentrations of BDNF and cortisol were assessed by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA from day 1 (“before PSD” at 8 am, 2 pm, 8 pm and day 2 (“after PSD” at 8 am, 2 pm and 8 pm. Samples were appropriately diluted and detection of soluble BDNF or cortisol was carried out in an antibody sandwich format in duplicates and means were calculated for the corresponding group. Moreover, sleep EEG and microsleep episodes were

  6. A proof of principle for using adaptive testing in routine Outcome Monitoring: the efficiency of the Mood and Anxiety Symptoms Questionnaire -Anhedonic Depression CAT

    Smits Niels

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Routine Outcome Monitoring (ROM there is a high demand for short assessments. Computerized Adaptive Testing (CAT is a promising method for efficient assessment. In this article, the efficiency of a CAT version of the Mood and Anxiety Symptom Questionnaire, - Anhedonic Depression scale (MASQ-AD for use in ROM was scrutinized in a simulation study. Methods The responses of a large sample of patients (N = 3,597 obtained through ROM were used. The psychometric evaluation showed that the items met the requirements for CAT. In the simulations, CATs with several measurement precision requirements were run on the item responses as if they had been collected adaptively. Results CATs employing only a small number of items gave results which, both in terms of depression measurement and criterion validity, were only marginally different from the results of a full MASQ-AD assessment. Conclusions It was concluded that CAT improved the efficiency of the MASQ-AD questionnaire very much. The strengths and limitations of the application of CAT in ROM are discussed.

  7. Testosterone and Depression

    Şükrü Kartalcı

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Androgens have various effects on human body and mood. Testosterone, a hormone mainly secreted from testes and adrenals, is one of the most potent androgens. Multiple studies have found that testosterone plays a role in regulating sexual activity, libido, social behaviors, aggression, cognitive functions, sleep control and well-being in men and women. Testosterone deficiency in hypogonadic or elderly men leads to neuropsychiatric problems, such as fatigue, loss of libido, irritability, insomnia and depressive mood. Testosterone replacement therapy consistently reverses these sequel in men. On the other hand, hyperandrogenic states in women are related to aggression and antisocial behavior, which might lead to depressive mood. Low testosterone levels may also result in depression among oophorectomized women. Because of such effects, a relationship between testosterone and depression has long been an issue of speculation, but yet very few studies have addressed this relation. Along with clinical studies, experimental and epidemiological studies show that testosterone is related to depression in men and women. But studies of testosterone concentrations in depression have yielded inconsistent results reporting low as well as high testosterone levels associated with depression. In this article, the physiological and psychological effects of testosterone and evidence regarding its relationship to depressive disorders and possible gender differences have been reviewed.

  8. Temper Outbursts in Paediatric Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder and Their Association with Depressed Mood and Treatment Outcome

    Krebs, Georgina; Bolhuis, Koen; Heyman, Isobel; Mataix-Cols, David; Turner, Cynthia; Stringaris, Argyris

    2013-01-01

    Background: Temper outbursts in youth with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) are a common source of concern, but remain poorly understood. This study examined a set of hypotheses related to: (a) the prevalence of temper outbursts in paediatric OCD, (b) the associations of temper outbursts with OCD severity and depressive symptoms; and (c) the…

  9. Stress and Depressed Mood in Medical Students, Law Students, and Graduate Students at McGill University.

    Helmers, Karin F.; Danoff, Deborah; Steinert, Yvonne; Young, Simon N.; Leyton, Marco

    1997-01-01

    Administration of the Derogatis Stress Profile to 509 medical students, 380 law students, and 215 graduate students at McGill University (Ontario) revealed that medical students are not greatly stressed relative to other groups, so other explanations must be sought for elevated levels of depression in some. One clear stressor found is the…

  10. [Epidemiology of mood disorders].

    Rouillon, Frédéric

    2008-02-29

    The 12 months and lifetime prevalence of is respectively 5 and 9% in the general population; moreover 10 to 20% of general practice patients are depressed. Depression is involved in about 40 to 80% of suicide and induces one of the greatest social burden. Mood disorders are more frequent in women, individual living alone and people with low socio-economic level. Risk factors are stressfull life events, biological vulnerability (genetic factors), somatic diseases, psychiatric comorbidity including personality disorders and addictions. Depressive disorders are underdiagnosed and undertreated despite efficacious pharmacological and psychotherapeutic strategies in their treatment. It's the reason why public health programs to prevent depression have been promoted by many countries like European Alliance against Depression. Their efficacy must be evaluated as their cost-efficiency.

  11. Depressive disorders co-existing with Addison–Biermer anemia – case report

    Just MJ

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Mark Jean Just,1 Mariusz Kozakiewicz2 1Department of General and Endocronological Surgery, Piekary Medical Centre, Piekary Slaskie, 2Department of Food Chemistry Collegium Medicum in Bydgoszcz, Nicolaus Copernicus University, Torun, Poland Background: Anemia is a disease that can co-exist with depression, other mental disorders, or somatic diseases. Anemia can imitate symptoms of depression, while depression symptoms can mask concurring symptoms of anemia.Case presentation: I am presenting a case of a 48-year-old woman with Addison–Biermer anemia, with co-existing mood disorders. The clinical analysis of the presented patient’s history indicates diagnostic problems and a need for a detailed analysis of drug-related complications that occurred during previous treatment, eg, in the form of neuroleptic malignant syndrome.Conclusion: The presented case report contains valuable guidelines that can be of assistance in diagnostics and treatment of patients treated for mental disorders, who are also diagnosed with somatic diseases. Keywords: anemia, autoimmune diseases, depression, neuroleptic malignant syndrome

  12. The Bipolar II Depression Questionnaire: A Self-Report Tool for Detecting Bipolar II Depression.

    Chi Ming Leung

    Full Text Available Bipolar II (BP-II depression is often misdiagnosed as unipolar (UP depression, resulting in suboptimal treatment. Tools for differentiating between these two types of depression are lacking. This study aimed to develop a simple, self-report screening instrument to help distinguish BP-II depression from UP depressive disorder. A prototype BP-II depression questionnaire (BPIIDQ-P was constructed following a literature review, panel discussions and a field trial. Consecutively assessed patients with a diagnosis of depressive disorder or BP with depressive episodes completed the BPIIDQ-P at a psychiatric outpatient clinic in Hong Kong between October and December 2013. Data were analyzed using discriminant analysis and logistic regression. Of the 298 subjects recruited, 65 (21.8% were males and 233 (78.2% females. There were 112 (37.6% subjects with BP depression [BP-I = 42 (14.1%, BP-II = 70 (23.5%] and 182 (62.4% with UP depression. Based on family history, age at onset, postpartum depression, episodic course, attacks of anxiety, hypersomnia, social phobia and agoraphobia, the 8-item BPIIDQ-8 was constructed. The BPIIDQ-8 differentiated subjects with BP-II from those with UP depression with a sensitivity/specificity of 0.75/0.63 for the whole sample and 0.77/0.72 for a female subgroup with a history of childbirth. The BPIIDQ-8 can differentiate BP-II from UP depression at the secondary care level with satisfactory to good reliability and validity. It has good potential as a screening tool for BP-II depression in primary care settings. Recall bias, the relatively small sample size, and the high proportion of females in the BP-II sample limit the generalization of the results.

  13. Job strain and the risk of depression: is reporting biased?

    Kolstad, Henrik; Hansen, Åse Marie; Kærgaard, Anette

    2011-01-01

    It is unknown whether the relation between job strain and depression reflects causal characteristics of the working environment or reporting bias. The authors investigated reporting bias by analyzing individual versus work-unit measures of job strain and the risk of depressive symptoms (n = 287) ...

  14. My Time, My Space (an arts-based group for women with postnatal depression): a project report.

    Morton, Alison; Forsey, Philippa

    2013-05-01

    This paper will describe an innovative method of treatment for women with postnatal depression that has been used in the south west of England since 2004 and has now been successfully piloted in other areas of the UK. My Time My Space is an arts-based group for women with postnatal depression that aims to improve mood by reducing social isolation and using creativity to improve self-esteem. Results of the programme will be shared, in addition to the ways in which the project has been implemented using collaborative working with children's centres and building community capacity by engaging local charities. The qualitative results have been collected from participants (n = 30) over the last two years using post-course evaluation forms with open questions to elicit participants' views. The quantitative results of a small pilot study (n = 8) based on pre- and post-group Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale scores (EPDS) are also reported. The findings suggest My Time My Space has a positive effect on women's mood and perceived social support, and provides an effective alternative or additional method of treatment for postnatal depression.

  15. Sleep disorders and depression: brief review of the literature, case report, and nonpharmacologic interventions for depression

    Luca A

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Antonina Luca,1 Maria Luca,2 Carmela Calandra2 1Department GF Ingrassia, Section of Neuroscience, 2Department of Medical and Surgery Specialties, Psychiatry Unit, University Hospital Policlinico-Vittorio Emanuele, Catania, Sicily, Italy Abstract: Sleep disorders are so frequently associated with depression that, in the absence of sleep complaints, a diagnosis of depression should be made with caution. Insomnia, in particular, may occur in 60%–80% of depressed patients. Depressive symptoms are important risk factors for insomnia, and depression is considered an important comorbid condition in patients with chronic insomnia of any etiology. In addition, some drugs commonly prescribed for the treatment of depression may worsen insomnia and impair full recovery from the illness. The aim of this paper is to review briefly and discuss the following topics: common sleep disturbances during depression (in particular pavor nocturnus, nightmares, hypersomnia, and insomnia; circadian sleep disturbances; and treatment of depression by manipulation of the sleep-wake rhythm (chronotherapy, light therapy, cycles of sleep, and manipulation of the sleep-wake rhythm itself. Finally, we present a case report of a 65-year-old Caucasian woman suffering from insomnia associated with depression who was successfully treated with sleep deprivation. Keywords: sleep disorders, depression, insomnia, sleep-wake rhythm

  16. A Randomized, Controlled Trial of Meditation for Work Stress, Anxiety and Depressed Mood in Full-Time Workers

    R. Manocha

    2011-01-01

    Results. There was a significant improvement for the meditation group compared to both the relaxation control and the wait-list groups the PSQ (P=.026, and DD (P=.019. Conclusions. Mental silence-orientated meditation, in this case Sahaja Yoga meditation, is a safe and effective strategy for dealing with work stress and depressive feelings. The findings suggest that “thought reduction” or “mental silence” may have specific effects relevant to work stress and hence occupational health.

  17. A comparison of self-report and caregiver assessment of depression, apathy, and irritability in Huntington's disease.

    Chatterjee, Anjan; Anderson, Karen E; Moskowitz, Carol B; Hauser, Willard A; Marder, Karen S

    2005-01-01

    The natural history of psychiatric syndromes associated with Huntington's disease (HD) remains unclear, and longitudinal studies of symptoms such as depression, apathy, and irritability are required to better understand the progression and role of these syndromes and their effect on disability. Self-administered scales such as the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) may be useful to document changes in symptoms over time, but the validity of self-report may be questionable with the inevitable progression of cognitive deficits. An alternative to the patient's self-report would be assessments by the caregiver. The authors assessed interrater agreement between patient self-assessment and caregiver assessment of patients status for the presence of depressed mood using the BDI and apathy and irritability using an apathy and irritability scale. Agreement between these scales across strata of cognitive status was also examined. Interrater agreement varied from moderate to good for the BDI, depending on patient cognitive status. Agreement for the apathy scores was low for patients with poor cognition and fair in patients with better cognition. Irritability scale agreement was fair at best and was the worst in patients with the most intact cognition. Caregiver assessment of patients' moods and apathy may be an acceptable alternative to patient self-report as patients' cognitive status worsens.

  18. GANGGUAN MOOD PADA STROKE

    Gabriella Tantular

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Stroke adalah salah satu sindrom neurologi yang dapat menimbulkan kecacatan dalam kehidupanmanusia. Salah  satu gejala yang dapat  timbul  setelah  seseorang  terkena  stroke adalah gangguanmood. Gangguan mood berhubungan dengan disabilitas fisik, beratnya stroke dan gangguan kognitif.Gangguan mood yang ditemukan pada stroke adalah depresi, gangguan afektif bipolar dan mania.Gambaran  gejala  berhubungan dengan  lesi  anatomis  stroke. Terapi  yang diberikan dapat  berupafarmakologis, psikoterapi, dan rehabilitasi. [MEDICINA 2015;46:33-36].Stroke is one of neurology syndrome that cause disability in human life. One of the symptoms thatappear after stroke was mood disorder. Mood disorder were related to physical disability, severity ofstroke  and  cognitive  dysfunction. Mood  disorder  found  in  stroke was  depression,  affective  bipolardisorder, and mania. Symptoms were associated with anatomical lesion. Treatment for this disorderare pharmacologic treatment, psychotherapy, and rehabilitation. [MEDICINA 2015;46:33-36].

  19. 中学生抑郁情绪与家庭环境的关系研究%Correlation between students' family environment and their depressed mood

    吴国兰; 傅茂笋; 刘丹; 赵安全; 何荣霞; 雷洪敏; 徐广焕; 王东新

    2013-01-01

    [目的]探讨家庭环境因素与中学生抑郁情绪的关系,为改善中学生心理健康提供依据. [方法]采用抑郁自评(SDS)和家庭环境量表(FES-CV)对840名中学生进行了问卷调查. [结果]43.5%的中学生存在不同程度的抑郁情绪,但以轻度抑郁(30.8%)为主;女生的抑郁得分高于男生,高中生抑郁和家庭矛盾性得分高于初中生;中学生抑郁均分与家庭亲密度、情感表达、文化性、娱乐性和组织性存在显著负相关(r=-0.24、-0.23、-0.20、-0.20、-0.19、-0.23,P均<0.01),与家庭矛盾性有显著正相关(r=0.27,P<0.01). [结论]家庭环境因素对中学生抑郁情绪具有重要影响,社会、学校和家庭应该共同关注不良家庭环境青少年的心理发展.%[Objective] To explore the relationship between depressive mood of middle school students and family environment, and provide basis for students' mental health improvement. [Method] A sample of 840 students were surveyed by using questionnaires on the Zung Self-rating Depression Scale (SDS) and Family Environment Scale (FES-CV), and Self-rated Inventory. [Results] Of all the respondents,365(43. 5%)had depression (SDS>40),and mild,moderate and severe depression were 259(30. 8%),87(10. 4%) and 19(2. 3)% .respectively. Depression score of girls was higher than boys,depression and family conflict score of senior high school students were both higher than junior high school students. Scores of depression were negative correlated with the family cohesion, expressiveness, intellectual-cultural orientation, active-recreational orientation, and organization r = -0. 24,-0. 23,-0. 20,-0. 20,-0. 19 and -0. 23, respectively, P<0. 01),and scores were significantly positive correlation with family conflict (r=0. 27,P<0. 01). [Conclusion] Family environmental factors have important influence on depression,health services should pay attention to psychology develops of adolescents who lived in bad family environment.

  20. Temporal Relations in Daily-Reported Maternal Mood and Disruptive Child Behavior

    Elgar, Frank J.; Waschbusch, Daniel A.; McGrath, Patrick J.; Stewart, Sherry H.; Curtis, Lori J.

    2004-01-01

    Examined temporal relations between maternal mood and disruptive child behaviour using daily assessments of 30 mother-child dyads carried out over 8 consecutive weeks (623 pooled observations). Pooled time-series analyses showed synchronous fluctuation in child behaviour and maternal distress. Time-lagged models showed temporal relations between…

  1. Spotlight on depression: a Pharma Matters report.

    D'Souza, P; Jago, C

    2014-03-01

    Depression represents a huge pharmaceutical market opportunity. There are approximately 350 million people worldwide with depression, and it is the leading cause of disability in the world. In the U.S., 9.1% of the population suffers from depression. Globally, fewer than half of depression sufferers receive treatment for their illness, and in some countries this figure falls to fewer than 1 in 10. The high incidence rate, combined with limited market penetration, makes depression a high potential market for pharmaceuticals. However, companies developing drugs for depression also face a number of serious challenges. Psychosocial treatment options remain the preferred first-line therapy ahead of medication-and when it comes to drug treatment, the abundance of generic options available has significantly contributed to halving the value of the branded antidepressant market over recent years. Another hurdle faced by new drugs is the requirement that all antidepressants carry a black-box warning regarding the increased risk of suicide in children, adolescents and young adults, which limits their use in this population. Switching between medications presents both an opportunity and a challenge, as a significant number of patients will switch away from their first medication within the first year of treatment. The lack of complete understanding of why depression occurs also makes this area a difficult one, although it opens the door for the development of drugs with novel mechanisms of action.

  2. Mood-Congruent Cognitive Bias in Depressed Individuals%抑郁症人群的心境一致性认知偏向

    何振宏; 张丹丹; 罗跃嘉

    2015-01-01

    Mood-congruent cognitive bias ("cognitive bias" for short) is defined as a cognitive processing bias towards negative stimuli in depressed individuals. The cognitive bias mainly includes biased processing in perception, attention, memory and interpretation. We summarized the associated behavioral, electrophysiological and neuroimaging studies in this field and proposed that the severe bias in depressed individuals is characterized by preferring negative stimuli and insufficient processing for positive stimuli. Accordingly, the brain mechanism shows that the limbic system (amygdala) is hyperactive in response to negative stimuli while the striatum is hypoactive in response to positive stimuli; the activation in frontal area is also abnormal. However, there are three problems unsolved in this area: (1) Data indicate that different cognitive biases are correlated with each other (Everaert, 2012), which is currently not clearly understood; (2) The causality between cognitive bias and depression is not clear; (3) Inconsistent results are often achieved in different studies, which is usually interpreted as demographic and methodological issues. We argue the discrepancy of effect sizes of experimental paradigm and the influence of self-relevance materials may also contribute to the inconsistence. Future cognitive bias studies in depression might help for solving these problems.%心境一致性认知偏向指的是抑郁病人的认知加工偏向负性情绪效价, 简称认知偏向.大量行为学、电生理学以及脑成像学的研究显示该认知偏向主要包括知觉偏向、注意偏向、记忆偏向以及解释偏向.该认知偏向以加工偏向负性、积极偏向缺失以及认知控制受损为特点, 且是杏仁核等边缘系统对负性信息过度激活、纹状体对正性信息激活不足以及额区激活模式异常三个相应脑机制协同作用的产物.目前此领域存在各认知偏向之间联系不清楚

  3. Validation of the Chinese version of the "Mood Disorder Questionnaire" for screening bipolar disorder among patients with a current depressive episode

    Gan Zhaoyu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Mood Disorder Questionnaire (MDQ is a well-recognized screening tool for bipolar disorder, but its Chinese version needs further validation. This study aims to measure the accuracy of the Chinese version of the MDQ as a screening instrument for bipolar disorder (BPD in a group of patients with a current major depressive episode. Methods 142 consecutive patients with an initial DSM-IV-TR diagnosis of a major depressive episode were screened for BPD using the Chinese translation of the MDQ and followed up for one year. The final diagnosis, determined by a special committee consisting of three trained senior psychiatrists, was used as a 'gold standard' and ROC was plotted to evaluate the performance of the MDQ. The optimal cut-off was chosen by maximizing the Younden's index. Results Of the 142 patients, 122 (85.9% finished the one year follow-up. On the basis of a semi-structured clinical interview 48.4% (59/122 received a diagnosis of unipolar depression (UPD, 36.9% (45/122 BPDII and 14.8% (18/122 BPDI. At the end of the one year follow-up,9 moved from UPD to BPD, 2 from BPDII to UPD, 1 from BPDII to BPDI, the overall rate of initial misdiagnosis was 16.4%. MDQ showed a good accuracy for BPD: the optimal cut-off was 4, with a sensitivity of 0.72 and a specificity of 0.73. When BPDII and BPDI were calculated independently, the optimal cut-off for BPDII was 4, with a sensitivity of 0.70 and a specificity of 0.73; while the optimal cut-off for BPDI was 5, with a sensitivity of 0.67 and a specificity of 0.86. Conclusions Our results show that the Chinese version of MDQ is a valid tool for screening BPD in a group of patients with current depressive episode on the Chinese mainland.

  4. Cellular circadian clocks in mood disorders.

    McCarthy, Michael J; Welsh, David K

    2012-10-01

    Bipolar disorder (BD) and major depressive disorder (MDD) are heritable neuropsychiatric disorders associated with disrupted circadian rhythms. The hypothesis that circadian clock dysfunction plays a causal role in these disorders has endured for decades but has been difficult to test and remains controversial. In the meantime, the discovery of clock genes and cellular clocks has revolutionized our understanding of circadian timing. Cellular circadian clocks are located in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), the brain's primary circadian pacemaker, but also throughout the brain and peripheral tissues. In BD and MDD patients, defects have been found in SCN-dependent rhythms of body temperature and melatonin release. However, these are imperfect and indirect indicators of SCN function. Moreover, the SCN may not be particularly relevant to mood regulation, whereas the lateral habenula, ventral tegmentum, and hippocampus, which also contain cellular clocks, have established roles in this regard. Dysfunction in these non-SCN clocks could contribute directly to the pathophysiology of BD/MDD. We hypothesize that circadian clock dysfunction in non-SCN clocks is a trait marker of mood disorders, encoded by pathological genetic variants. Because network features of the SCN render it uniquely resistant to perturbation, previous studies of SCN outputs in mood disorders patients may have failed to detect genetic defects affecting non-SCN clocks, which include not only mood-regulating neurons in the brain but also peripheral cells accessible in human subjects. Therefore, reporters of rhythmic clock gene expression in cells from patients or mouse models could provide a direct assay of the molecular gears of the clock, in cellular clocks that are likely to be more representative than the SCN of mood-regulating neurons in patients. This approach, informed by the new insights and tools of modern chronobiology, will allow a more definitive test of the role of cellular circadian clocks

  5. 抑郁情绪大学生反应抑制的眼动特点%The Eye-movement Characteristics of Undergraduates with Depressed Mood in Their Response Inhibition

    罗新玉; 陈睿; 高鑫; 邹吉林; 周仁来

    2012-01-01

    采用反眼动实验范式,通过BDI和SDS量表选取11名抑郁情绪大学生和12名正常大学生被试,旨在探讨抑郁情绪大学生对情绪刺激的眼动抑制能力。发现抑郁情绪组的眼跳反应时比正常组更慢,错误率更高;反朝向眼跳任务中,抑郁情绪组在高兴、悲伤图片上的错误率高于中性图片,且在悲伤图片上的错误率最高。表明抑郁情绪个体的认知加工速度慢于正常个体,且对高兴、悲伤刺激存在眼动抑制困难,对悲伤刺激抑制能力最差。%Depression is one of the harmful and negative emotions to individuals. The aim of the present study was to investigate the capacity of depressed undergraduates to inhibit prepotent response to emotional faces. The undergraduates were described as experiencing depression but had not been diagnosed with depressive disorder. Eleven subjects with depressed mood and 12 non-depressed subjects were chosen from 377 undergraduates according to the results from the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and the Self-rating Depression Scale (SDS). The materials in this experiment were facial expressions with happy, neutral and sad emotions ; each emotion included 20 pictures from the picture system of Chinese tacial expression. Non-facial features were removed and faces were resized to 5cm x 7. 5cm and presented in grayscale against a black background. All of these stimuli were programmed by the E-prime 1. 0 version software and were displayed on a 19"CRT screen. Antisaccade tasks were composed of the prosaccade task and the antisaccade task. Each trial began with a fixation cross in the center of the screen. After 1600 ms, a face stimulus was randomly shown on the left or right side of the cross for 1000 ms. The participants were first required to fixate at the cross when the face appeared, they had to look toward the targets in the prosaccade condition trials, but look toward the mirror position of the targets in the

  6. Mood and affect disorders.

    Tang, Michael H; Pinsky, Elizabeth G

    2015-02-01

    Depressive disorders are common in children and adolescents, with estimates for depressive episodes as high as 18.2% for girls and 7.7% for boys by age 17 years, and are a major cause of morbidity and even mortality. The primary care pediatrician should be able to (1) diagnose depressive disorders and use standardized instruments; (2) ask about suicide, self-harm, homicide, substance use, mania, and psychosis; (3) triage the severity of illness; (4) be aware of the differential diagnosis, including normal development, other depressive disorders, bipolar disorders, and comorbid disorders, such as anxiety and substance use; (5) refer to evidenced-based psychotherapies; (6) prescribe first-line medications; and (7) provide ongoing coordination in a medical home. Pediatric bipolar disorders and the new disruptive mood dysregulation disorder (DMDD) diagnoses are controversial but not uncommon, with prevalence estimates ranging from 0.8% to 4.3% in children at various ages. Although the pediatrician is not likely to be prescribing medications for children with bipolar disorder and DMDD diagnoses, all clinicians should be familiar with common neuroleptics and other mood stabilizers, including important potential adverse effects. Basic management of depressive and bipolar disorders is an important skill for primary care pediatricians.

  7. Patient Mood and Instrumental Activities of Daily Living in Alzheimer Disease: Relationship Between Patient and Caregiver Reports.

    Votruba, Kristen L; Persad, Carol; Giordani, Bruno

    2015-09-01

    This retrospective study investigated the relationship between self-reports and caregiver perceptions of patients' depressive symptoms and the respective ability of these reports to predict instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs) beyond what is accounted for by cognitive abilities in 71 patients with mild Alzheimer disease. Patients completed the Geriatric Depression Scale-Short Form, and caregivers completed the Behavior Rating Scale for Dementia assessing their perception of patients' depressive symptoms. Caregivers also completed IADL items from the Alzheimer's Disease Cooperative Study Activities of Daily Living Inventory. Cognitive measures included the Mini-Mental State Examination, Logical Memory from the Wechsler Memory Scale III, and Trail Making Test, Part B. The relationship between self-reported depressive symptoms and caregiver report of patients' depressive symptoms showed a trend toward significance (r = .22, P = .06). Measures of depressive symptoms significantly predicted 12.5% of the variance in IADLs performance, beyond that accounted for by patient demographics and cognitive functioning. Interestingly, patients' reports, rather than caregivers', were particularly useful in this prediction.

  8. Correlation analysis between depressed mood and life events among medical college students%医学院校大学生抑郁情绪与生活事件的相关分析

    王俊; 金岳龙; 陈燕; 余结根; 贺连平; 姚应水

    2013-01-01

    目的:了解医学生抑郁状态并探讨其与生活事件的相关性,为进一步对具有抑郁情绪的医学生进行心理干预提供科学依据.方法:采用整群抽样的方法抽取安徽省某医学院校1 720名大学生进行自填式问卷调查,并做影响因素分析.结果:大学生抑郁症状检出率为25.96%,且不同性别、不同专业差别无统计学意义(P>0.05);但不同专业抑郁水平差异有统计学意义(P 0. 05 ), yet the difference was significant regarding the levels of depressed mood in students majoring different specialty ( P<0.05 ),with the highest in those majoring in nursing. The significant life events associated with prevalence or levels of depressed mood included "not sleeping well at night" , " feelings of loneliness ", "lack of friends" , "discordant relationship of parents" and "no understanding from classmates ,etc. Conclusion : Negative life events are associated with the prevalence or levels of depressed mood in medical college students, which shall call our attention by taking active measures to reduce the disorders in these population.

  9. Depressants

    ... Loss Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Depressants KidsHealth > For Teens > Depressants A A A What's ... How Can Someone Quit? Avoiding Depressants What Are Depressants? Depressants are drugs that calm nerves and relax ...

  10. Stimulation dependent induction of fear and depression in deep brain stimulation: a case report

    Sabolek Michael

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Psychiatric side effects of deep brain stimulation are not uncommon. It is often limited to transient mood alterations. We report for the first time a case of acute stimulation-dependent fear during intraoperative test stimulation. Case presentation During test stimulation for electrode placement to the left subthalamic nucleus, a 58-year-old caucasian man with Parkinson's disease developed a severe reproducible feeling of fear together with elevated heart rate and sweating. Postoperatively, the patient developed a therapy refractory major depression in spite of excellent motor-control. Reprogramming the stimulator using a more rostral contact resulted in an abrupt and complete disappearance of the depressive syndrome. Conclusion Postoperative re-evaluation of the stimulation site of the patient inducing acute fear by analyzing his intraoperative microrecordings and Talairach coordinates revealed stimulation within his right substantia nigra. The contrast analysis of the postoperative stimulation site suggests induction of depression in the patient by stimulation of the caudal part of his subthalamic nucleus. Acute psychiatric side effects of deep brain stimulation are relatively rare but must not be overlooked while concentrating on the improvement of motor deficit.

  11. Child Depression: Prevalence and Comparison between Self-Reports and Teacher Reports.

    Jaureguizar, Joana; Bernaras, Elena; Garaigordobil, Maite

    2017-02-22

    Depression is one of the most worrying diseases nowadays. The study had three main purposes: 1) to identify the prevalence of depressive symptomatology in 7-10 year olds, exploring differences according to gender and age; 2) to analyze the consistency between self-reports and teacher reports; and 3) to explore the relationship between depression and academic performance. Regarding the methodology, the sample comprised 420 students aged between 7 and 10 years from the Basque Country (53.3% boys, 46.7% girls). With a descriptive, comparative and correlational design, 4 assessment instruments were used. Results from the self-reports showed a depression rate fluctuating between 4.6% and 4.8% (clinically significant), and between 4.3% and 5% (moderate depression). However, prevalence rates from teacher reports varied between 0.2% and 3.6% (clinically significant) and between 4.6% and 7.7% (moderate depression). The consistency rate between self-reports and teacher reports was small. Differences according to gender varied depending on the instruments used and depression was higher in boys (BASC, d = .23; SPECI d = .36). Symptomatology did not increase with age. Depression correlated negatively with academic performance (self-reported depression: CDS-T r = -.12, SPECI r = -.17; depression reported by teachers: CDS-T r = -.24, SPECI r = -.50). The importance of training teachers to better identify child depression is discussed, as well as the relevance of developing prevention programs.

  12. Sadness and Depression

    ... dientes Video: Getting an X-ray Sadness and Depression KidsHealth > For Kids > Sadness and Depression Print A ... big difference in your life. When Sadness Is Depression When you're in a sad mood, it ...

  13. Postpartum Depression Facts

    ... Where can I find more information? Share Postpartum Depression Facts Download PDF Download ePub Download Mobi Order ... for herself or her family. What is postpartum depression? Postpartum depression is a mood disorder that can ...

  14. Sadness and Depression

    ... What Happens in the Operating Room? Sadness and Depression KidsHealth > For Kids > Sadness and Depression A A ... big difference in your life. When Sadness Is Depression When you're in a sad mood, it ...

  15. Small Acute Benefits of 4 Weeks Processing Speed Training Games on Processing Speed and Inhibition Performance and Depressive Mood in the Healthy Elderly People: Evidence from a Randomized Control Trial.

    Nouchi, Rui; Saito, Toshiki; Nouchi, Haruka; Kawashima, Ryuta

    2016-01-01

    Background: Processing speed training using a 1-year intervention period improves cognitive functions and emotional states of elderly people. Nevertheless, it remains unclear whether short-term processing speed training such as 4 weeks can benefit elderly people. This study was designed to investigate effects of 4 weeks of processing speed training on cognitive functions and emotional states of elderly people. Methods: We used a single-blinded randomized control trial (RCT). Seventy-two older adults were assigned randomly to two groups: a processing speed training game (PSTG) group and knowledge quiz training game (KQTG) group, an active control group. In PSTG, participants were asked to play PSTG (12 processing speed games) for 15 min, during five sessions per week, for 4 weeks. In the KQTG group, participants were asked to play KQTG (four knowledge quizzes) for 15 min, during five sessions per week, for 4 weeks. We measured several cognitive functions and emotional states before and after the 4 week intervention period. Results: Our results revealed that PSTG improved performances in processing speed and inhibition compared to KQTG, but did not improve performance in reasoning, shifting, short term/working memory, and episodic memory. Moreover, PSTG reduced the depressive mood score as measured by the Profile of Mood State compared to KQTG during the 4 week intervention period, but did not change other emotional measures. Discussion: This RCT first provided scientific evidence related to small acute benefits of 4 week PSTG on processing speed, inhibition, and depressive mood in healthy elderly people. We discuss possible mechanisms for improvements in processing speed and inhibition and reduction of the depressive mood. Trial registration: This trial was registered in The University Hospital Medical Information Network Clinical Trials Registry (UMIN000022250).

  16. Lycanthropy in depression: two case reports.

    Rao, K; Gangadhar, B N; Janakiramiah, N

    1999-01-01

    Two cases of lycanthropy presenting as part of a depressive disorder are described. The patients responded favorably to pharmacotherapy. In both cases, a positive history of dog bite influenced the presentation of symptoms. The authors speculate whether the defense of identification with the aggressor was operative.

  17. Nutrients, neurodevelopment, and mood.

    Casper, Regina C

    2004-12-01

    Human neurodevelopment is the result of genetic and environmental interactions. This paper examines the role of prenatal nutrition relative to psychiatric disorders and explores the relationship among nutrients, mood changes, and mood disorders. Epidemiologic studies have found that adults who were born with a normal, yet low birth weight have an increased susceptibility to diseases such as coronary heart disease, diabetes, and stroke in adulthood. Prenatal caloric malnutrition, low birth weight, and prematurity also increase the risk for neurodevelopmental disorders, schizophrenia, affective disorders, and schizoid and antisocial personality disorders. Placebo-controlled studies in medicated patients suggest that add-on treatment with omega-3 fatty acids, particularly eicosapentaenoic acid, may ameliorate symptoms of major depressive disorder. Additional studies are necessary to confirm any benefits for bipolar disorders.

  18. Severity of depressive symptoms and accuracy of dietary reporting among obese women with major depressive disorder seeking weight loss treatment.

    Whited, Matthew C; Schneider, Kristin L; Appelhans, Bradley M; Ma, Yunsheng; Waring, Molly E; DeBiasse, Michele A; Busch, Andrew M; Oleski, Jessica L; Merriam, Philip A; Olendzki, Barbara C; Crawford, Sybil L; Ockene, Ira S; Lemon, Stephenie C; Pagoto, Sherry L

    2014-01-01

    An elevation in symptoms of depression has previously been associated with greater accuracy of reported dietary intake, however this association has not been investigated among individuals with a diagnosis of major depressive disorder. The purpose of this study was to investigate reporting accuracy of dietary intake among a group of women with major depressive disorder in order to determine if reporting accuracy is similarly associated with depressive symptoms among depressed women. Reporting accuracy of dietary intake was calculated based on three 24-hour phone-delivered dietary recalls from the baseline phase of a randomized trial of weight loss treatment for 161 obese women with major depressive disorder. Regression models indicated that higher severity of depressive symptoms was associated with greater reporting accuracy, even when controlling for other factors traditionally associated with reporting accuracy (coefficient  =  0.01 95% CI = 0.01 - 0.02). Seventeen percent of the sample was classified as low energy reporters. Reporting accuracy of dietary intake increases along with depressive symptoms, even among individuals with major depressive disorder. These results suggest that any study investigating associations between diet quality and depression should also include an index of reporting accuracy of dietary intake as accuracy varies with the severity of depressive symptoms.

  19. MOOD AND PERFORMANCE IN YOUNG MALAYSIAN KARATEKA

    Rebecca S. K. Wong

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available In an attempt to test the conceptual model by Lane and Terry, the purposes of this study were 1 to assess mood states in non-depressed and depressed young karate athletes; 2 to assess mood states in relation to performance in young karate athletes. The participants were recruited from the 2004 Malaysian Games (72 males, 19.20 ± 1.16 years; 37 females, 18.78 ± 0.88 years. The athletes were divided into winners (medalists and losers. The Brunel Mood Scale (BRUMS was administered prior to the start of competition. MANOVA was employed to treat the data, while Pearson correlations were calculated for mood states in each depressed mood group and by gender. In terms of non-depressed and depressed mood, tension in the females was higher in the depressed group (5.61 ± 3.02 vs. 3.11 ± 1.90, p = 0.026, eta2 = 0.133, as was fatigue (3.64 ± 2.61 vs. 0.89 ± 1.69, p = 0.006, eta2 = 0.199. Tension in the males was higher in the depressed group (4.41 ± 2.52 vs. 1.50 ± 1.55, p < 0.001, eta2 = 0.215, as was anger (1.43 ± 1.88 vs. 0.25 ± 1.00, p = 0.019, eta2 = 0.076. The highest associations among mood subscales were between anger and depression (r = 0.57, and between depression and fatigue ( r = 0.55 in depressed males. The female winning karateka scored higher on anger (3.08 ± 2.96 vs. 1.29 ± 2.24, p = 0.046, eta2 = 0.109. The highest correlations between mood dimensions in depressed females were between depression and anger (r = 0.85 and between depression and confusion (r = 0.85. Contrary to previous research on the influence of depression on anger, only the female winners scored higher on anger. Several negative mood dimensions were higher in both male and female depressed groups, lending some support to the conceptual model advanced by Lane and Terry

  20. A test of the effects of acute sleep deprivation on general and specific self-reported anxiety and depressive symptoms: an experimental extension.

    Babson, Kimberly A; Trainor, Casey D; Feldner, Matthew T; Blumenthal, Heidemarie

    2010-09-01

    Evidence indicates acute sleep deprivation affects negative mood states. The present study experimentally tested the effects of acute sleep deprivation on self-reported symptoms of state anxiety and depression as well as general distress among 88 physically and psychologically healthy adults. As hypothesized, the effects of acute sleep deprivation increased state anxiety and depression, as well as general distress, relative to a normal night of sleep control condition. Based on the tripartite model of anxiety and depression, these findings replicate and extend prior research by suggesting sleep deprivation among individuals without current Axis I disorders increases both state symptoms of anxiety and depression specifically, and general distress more broadly. Extending this work to clinical samples and prospectively testing mechanisms underlying these effects are important future directions in this area of research.

  1. Subacute effects of ecstasy on mood: an exploration of associated risk factors.

    Scott, Rebecca M; Hides, Leanne; Allen, J Sabura; Lubman, Dan I

    2013-01-01

    Ecstasy use may result in lowered mood, anxiety or aggression in the days following use. Yet, few studies have investigated what factors increase the risk of experiencing such symptoms. Ecstasy users (at least once in the last 12 months) who subsequently took ecstasy (n=35) over the period of one week, were compared on measures of mood, sleep, stress and drug use, with those who abstained from ecstasy (n=21) that week. Measures were administered the week prior to ecstasy use and one and three days following use, or the equivalent day for abstainers. Mood symptoms were assessed using the Kessler-10 self-report psychological distress scale, a subjective mood rating (1-10), and using the depression, anxiety and hostility items from the clinician-rated Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale. Timeline Followback methods were used to collect information on drug use and life stress in the past month. Self-reported sleep quality was also assessed. Ecstasy use was not associated with subacute depressive, anxiety or aggressive symptoms. Rather, lowered mood and increased psychological distress were associated with self-reported hours and quality of sleep obtained during the three-day follow-up. These findings highlight the importance of considering sleep disruption in understanding the short-term mood effects of ecstasy use.

  2. Reproductive Hormones and Mood Disorders

    Sermin Kesebir

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available During the menstrual cycle, pregnancy and breast-feeding periods, as well as in menopausal and post-menopausal periods, the physiological and psychological processes that change according to the hormonal fluctuations influence every women similarly and each one differently. These physiological processes are controlled by neuroendocrine sequences, of which the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis and the hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal axis are the most important ones. The hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal axis affects mood, anxiety, cognition and pain. The interaction of these hormones with mood and behavior is bidirectional. The differences in phenomenology and epidemiology of mood disorders with regards to gender can be explained with the effects of hormones. All of the periods mentioned above are related with mood disorders at terms of risk factors, disease symptoms, progress of disease and response to treatment. Epidemiologic data supports the relationship between the mood disorders and reproductive processes. The prevalence of major depression increases in women with the menarche and ceases in post- menopausal period. Similarly, the initial symptoms of bipolar disorder begins around the menarche period in 50% of the cases. Despite proper treatment, some female patients with major depression experience recurrence during the premenstrual period of their menstrual cycles. The conformity and change in a woman’s brain during pregnancy is controlled dominantly by the neuroendocrine systems, while it is controlled by the external stimuli actively related to the baby during nursing period. The changes that occur are closely related to postpartum mood disorders. Again, all the changes and suspension of medication during this procedure are risk factors for early depressive and dysphoric situations. Variables of a wide range, from follicle stimulating hormone, melatonin, and sleep to body mass index interact with mood disorders in menopausal and post

  3. Abnormal retinoid and TrkB signaling in the prefrontal cortex in mood disorders

    Qi, Xin-Rui; Zhao, Juan; Liu, Ji; Fang, Hui; Swaab, Dick F; Zhou, Jiang-Ning

    2015-01-01

    The prefrontal cortex shows structural and functional alterations in mood disorders. Retinoid signaling, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), and its receptor TrkB are reported to be involved in depression. Here, we found that mRNA levels of key elements of retinoid signaling were significantly

  4. Pre-adolescent gender differences in associations between temperament, coping and mood

    G.M. de Boo; M. Spiering

    2010-01-01

    Relationships between temperament, coping, depressive and aggressive mood in 8-12-year-old boys (n = 185) and girls (n = 219) were investigated, with a focus on gender differences. Children completed two self-report questionnaires: the Early Adolescent Temperament Questionnaire-Revised and Children'

  5. Mood disorder with mixed, psychotic features due to vitamin b12 deficiency in an adolescent: case report

    Tufan Ali

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Vitamin B12 is one of the essential vitamins affecting various systems of the body. Reports of psychiatric disorders due to its deficiency mostly focus on middle aged and elderly patients. Here we report a case of vitamin B 12 deficiency in a 16-year old, male adolescent who presented with mixed mood disorder symptoms with psychotic features. Chief complaints were “irritability, regressive behavior, apathy, crying and truancy” which lasted for a year. Premorbid personality was unremarkable with no substance use/exposure or infections. No stressors were present. The patient was not vegetarian. Past medical history and family history was normal. Neurological examination revealed glossitis, ataxia, rigidity in both shoulders, cog-wheel rigidity in the left elbow, bilateral problems of coordination in cerebellar examination, reduced swinging of the arms and masked face. Romberg’s sign was present. Laboratory evaluations were normal. Endoscopy and biopsy revealed atrophy of the gastric mucosa with Helicobacter Pylori colonization. Schilling test was suggestive of malabsorbtion. He was diagnosed with Mood disorder with Mixed, Psychotic Features due to Vitamin B12 Deficiency and risperidone 0.5 mg/day and intramuscular vitamin B12 500 mcg/day were started along with referral for treatment of Helicobacter pylori. A visit on the second week revealed no psychotic features. Romberg’s sign was negative and cerebellar tests were normal. Extrapyramidal symptoms were reduced while Vitamin B12 levels were elevated. Risperidone was stopped and parenteral Vitamin B12 treatment was continued with monthly injections for 3 months. Follow-up endoscopy and biopsy at the first month demonstrated eradication of H. pylori. He was followed monthly for another 6 months and psychiatric symptoms did not recur at the time of last evaluation. Despite limitations, this case may underline the observation that mood disorders with psychotic features

  6. 2009年至2013年中国护士抑郁情绪检出情况的Meta分析%Meta-analysis of detection of depressed mood among Chinese nurses from 2009 to 2013

    刘凌云; 崔小松

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the depressed mood status of nurses from 2009 to 2013 in China,and to provide evidence for launching psychological health education.Methods PubMed,VIP database,the CNKI database were searched to find the published literatures about the detection of depressed mood among nurses from January 2009 to December 2013.According to exclusion criteria the studies were screened,and the qualities of included studies were evaluated and Meta-analysis software was used for Meta-analysis.Results Totally 633 literatures were included.After screening a total of 583 literatures were excluded,after further study on the full text of literature,eventually 30 literatures were included,a total of 12 626 people,6 946 cases were detected with depressed mood.The Meta-analysis results showed that the total depressed mood detection rate was 42.5%.There was no significant difference among genders,working years,and educational background; but ages may play a role in occurrence of depression.Conclusions Depressed mood of Chinese nurses was significantly higher than the general population,and older nurses were suffered from more serious depression.%目的 分析2009年至2013年我国护士抑郁情绪状况,为开展有针对性的护士心理健康咨询及介入干预提供科学依据.方法 检索PubMed、维普数据库(VIP)、中国学术文献总库(CNKI)、万方数据库等全文数据库公开发表的有关护士抑郁情绪检出率的文章,根据文献纳入和排除标准提取资料,并对纳入研究文献中护士的抑郁情绪检出率进行Meta分析.结果 共检索到相关文献633篇,其中万方数据库402篇,VIP 114篇,CNKI 86篇,PubMed 31篇;经过初筛共排除583篇,经过进一步阅读全文,排除不符合纳入标准的文献20篇,最终纳入30篇文献,共12 626人,抑郁情绪检出人数6 946例.Meta分析结果显示,我国护士合并抑郁情绪检出率为42.5%.不同性别、学历、护龄比较差异无统计学意义;不

  7. Group Interaction Sustains Positive Moods and Diminishes Negative Moods.

    Park, Ernest S; Hinsz, Verlin B

    2015-12-01

    The social interactions of task groups were investigated for their influences on member moods. Initially, participants' received an induction of positive, negative, or neutral moods via listening to music that continued throughout the experimental session. Moods were measured after the induction. Students then made decisions on four choice dilemmas alone or as members of a four-person group. Subsequently, positive and negative moods were again measured. Positive moods of participants who worked with other group members on the task were sustained, but diminished for those working alone. Negative moods of participants working in groups diminished over time, but were sustained for those working individually. These results were interpreted in the context of motivational systems theory of group involvement (Park & Hinsz, 2006). Additionally, although there was a tendency for member moods to homogenize over assessments, this did not reach significance. Results document the affective benefits that often accompany task group interaction suggesting that group interaction has features of positive mood induction. This report highlights the need to consider social influences on affect in task settings so that group dynamics, processes, and behaviors can be better understood.

  8. 芜湖市青少年亚健康状态下抑郁情绪分析%The depression mood analysis to teenagers under sub-health status in Wuhu

    2013-01-01

    Objective To know the status of teenagers’ depression mood under sub-health so as to provide the basis for teenagers depression intervention. Methods The survey was conducted by convenient cluster sampling on 5249 students from one university,four junior high schools and four high schools in Wuhu. Selected multi-dimensional Sub-health Questionnaire of Adolescents (MSQA) and Self-Rating Depression Scale(SDS) to evaluate the status of sub-health and depression mood. Results The detection rate of depression mood among the teenagers was 41.1% in Wuhu, boys’ (42.7% )were higher than girls’ ( 39.4%) (P<0.05 ). Under body sub-health state, there was statistically significant in depression detection between those only-child and non-only child in the family(P<0.05 ), under psychological sub-health state, there was statistically significant in depression detection between those who lives in urban and rural areas. Conclusions Status of sub-health and depression mood were ubiquity in teenagers. But under sub-health status, we should pay more attention to those one-child and who lives in rural area.%  [目的]了解青少年亚健康状态下抑郁情绪的现状,为青少年抑郁的干预提供依据。[方法]采用方便整群抽样的方法抽取芜湖市1所大学、4所高中、4所初中,获得样本5249人。采用青少年亚健康多维评定问卷(MSQA)和自评抑郁量表(SDS),分别对青少年亚健康和抑郁情绪进行测评。[结果]芜湖市青少年抑郁总检出率为41.1%,男生抑郁检出率(42.7%)高于女生(39.4%)(P<0.05)。在躯体亚健康状态下,青少年抑郁检出率在城乡之间是否为独生子女之间差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05),在心理亚健康状态下,青少年抑郁检出率在城乡之间差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。[结论]亚健康和抑郁问题在青少年当中普遍存在,但在亚健康状态下,独生子女及农村青少年的抑郁情况需要给予更多的关注。

  9. Stepped care for depression and anxiety: from primary care to specialized mental health care: a randomised controlled trial testing the effectiveness of a stepped care program among primary care patients with mood or anxiety disorders

    Seekles Wike

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mood and anxiety disorders are highly prevalent and have a large impact on the lives of the affected individuals. Therefore, optimal treatment of these disorders is highly important. In this study we will examine the effectiveness of a stepped care program for primary care patients with mood and anxiety disorders. A stepped care program is characterized by different treatment steps that are arranged in order of increasing intensity. Methods This study is a randomised controlled trial with two conditions: stepped care and care as usual, whereby the latter forms the control group. The stepped care program consists of four evidence based interventions: (1 Watchful waiting, (2 Guided self-help, (3 Problem Solving Treatment and (4 Medication and/or specialized mental health care. The study population consists of primary care attendees aged 18–65 years. Screeners are sent to all patients of the participating general practitioners. Individuals with a Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of mental disorders (DSM diagnosis of major depression, dysthymia, panic disorder (with or without agoraphobia, generalized anxiety disorder, or social phobia are included as well as individuals with minor depression and anxiety disorders. Primary focus is the reduction of depressive and anxiety symptoms. Both conditions are monitored at 8, 16 and 24 weeks. Discussion This study evaluates the effectiveness of a stepped care program for patients with depressive and anxiety disorder. If effective, a stepped care program can form a worthwhile alternative for care as usual. Strengths and limitations of this study are discussed. Trial Registration Current Controlled Trails: ISRCTN17831610.

  10. Depression

    ... overview URL of this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003213.htm Depression - overview To use the sharing features on this ... older adults Major depression Persistent depressive disorder Postpartum depression Premenstrual ... Review Date 1/4/2016 Updated by: Timothy Rogge, ...

  11. Antidepressant effects of a single dose of ayahuasca in patients with recurrent depression: a preliminary report

    Flávia de L. Osório

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Ayahuasca (AYA, a natural psychedelic brew prepared from Amazonian plants and rich in dimethyltryptamine (DMT and harmine, causes effects of subjective well-being and may therefore have antidepressant actions. This study sought to evaluate the effects of a single dose of AYA in six volunteers with a current depressive episode. Methods: Open-label trial conducted in an inpatient psychiatric unit. Results: Statistically significant reductions of up to 82% in depressive scores were observed between baseline and 1, 7, and 21 days after AYA administration, as measured on the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAM-D, the Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS, and the Anxious-Depression subscale of the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS. AYA administration resulted in nonsignificant changes in Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS scores and in the thinking disorder subscale of the BPRS, suggesting that AYA does not induce episodes of mania and/or hypomania in patients with mood disorders and that modifications in thought content, which could indicate psychedelic effects, are not essential for mood improvement. Conclusions: These results suggest that AYA has fast-acting anxiolytic and antidepressant effects in patients with a depressive disorder.

  12. Depressed Mood and Sleep Quality in College Students:Mediating Effect of Rumination%大学生孤独对抑郁和睡眠质量的影响:沉思的中介

    姜荣萍; 陈世民

    2014-01-01

    To explore the mediate effect of Rumination on loneliness and depressed mood and sleep quality in col-lege students. Method:The surveys,which contained the UCLA loneliness Scale,the Ruminative Response Scale (RRS),CES - D and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index were distributed to 700 college students. Result:Rumina-tion partially mediates the loneliness and depressed mood and sleep quality. Conclusion:Rumination is the impor-tant influence mechanism of loneliness and poor health quality.%本文探讨大学生沉思在孤独与抑郁情绪和睡眠质量之间的中介作用。采用 UCLA 孤独量表、沉思反应量表(RRS)、流调中心用抑郁量表(CES - D)和匹茨堡睡眠质量指数量表(PSQI)对700名大学生进行施测。根据测量结果,认为沉思在孤独与抑郁情绪和睡眠质量之间起到部分中介作用,沉思是孤独与消极健康状况的重要影响机制。

  13. A critical evaluation of the activity-regulated cytoskeleton-associated protein (Arc/Arg3.1)'s putative role in regulating dendritic plasticity, cognitive processes, and mood in animal models of depression.

    Li, Yan; Pehrson, Alan L; Waller, Jessica A; Dale, Elena; Sanchez, Connie; Gulinello, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is primarily conceptualized as a mood disorder but cognitive dysfunction is also prevalent, and may limit the daily function of MDD patients. Current theories on MDD highlight disturbances in dendritic plasticity in its pathophysiology, which could conceivably play a role in the production of both MDD-related mood and cognitive symptoms. This paper attempts to review the accumulated knowledge on the basic biology of the activity-regulated cytoskeleton-associated protein (Arc or Arg3.1), its effects on neural plasticity, and how these may be related to mood or cognitive dysfunction in animal models of MDD. On a cellular level, Arc plays an important role in modulating dendritic spine density and remodeling. Arc also has a close, bidirectional relationship with postsynaptic glutamate neurotransmission, since it is stimulated by multiple glutamatergic receptor mechanisms but also modulates α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptor internalization. The effects on AMPA receptor trafficking are likely related to Arc's ability to modulate phenomena such as long-term potentiation, long-term depression, and synaptic scaling, each of which are important for maintaining proper cognitive function. Chronic stress models of MDD in animals show suppressed Arc expression in the frontal cortex but elevation in the amygdala. Interestingly, cognitive tasks depending on the frontal cortex are generally impaired by chronic stress, while those depending on the amygdala are enhanced, and antidepressant treatments stimulate cortical Arc expression with a timeline that is reminiscent of the treatment efficacy lag observed in the clinic or in preclinical models. However, pharmacological treatments that stimulate regional Arc expression do not universally improve relevant cognitive functions, and this highlights a need to further refine our understanding of Arc on a subcellular and network level.

  14. A critical evaluation of the activity-regulated cytoskeleton-associated protein (Arc/Arg3.1 ’s putative role in regulating dendritic plasticity, cognitive processes, and mood in animal models of depression.

    Yan eLi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Major depressive disorder (MDD is primarily conceptualized as a mood disorder but cognitive dysfunction is also prevalent, and may limit the daily function of MDD patients. Current theories on MDD highlight disturbances in dendritic plasticity in its pathophysiology, which could conceivably play a role in the production of both MDD-related mood and cognitive symptoms. This paper attempts to review the accumulated knowledge on the basic biology of the activity-regulated cytoskeleton-associated protein (Arc or Arg3.1, its effects on neural plasticity, and how these may be related to mood or cognitive dysfunction in animal models of MDD. On a cellular level, Arc is found to play an important role in modulating dendritic spine density and remodeling. Arc is also found to have a close, bidirectional relationship with postsynaptic glutamate neurotransmission, since it is stimulated by multiple glutamatergic receptor mechanisms but also modulates α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA receptor internalization. The effects on AMPA receptor trafficking are likely related to Arc’s ability to modulate phenomena such as long-term potentiation, long-term depression, and synaptic scaling, each of which are important for maintaining proper cognitive function. Animal studies of chronic stress models of MDD show suppressed Arc expression in the frontal cortex but elevation in the amygdala. Interestingly, cognitive tasks depending on the frontal cortex are generally impaired by chronic stress, while those depending on the amygdala are enhanced, and antidepressant treatments stimulate cortical Arc expression with a timeline that is reminiscent of the treatment efficacy lag observed in the clinic or in preclinical models. However, pharmacological treatments that stimulate regional Arc expression do not universally improve relevant cognitive functions, and this highlights a need to further refine our understanding of Arc on a subcellular and

  15. Screening for Depression

    Depression and Bipolar Support Alliance Crisis Hotline Information Coping with a Crisis Suicide Prevention Information Psychiatric Hospitalization ... sign-up Education info, training, events Mood Disorders Depression Bipolar Disorder Anxiety Screening Center Co-occurring Illnesses/ ...

  16. Depression and Suicide Risk

    Depression and Suicide Risk (2014) Definition: A mood disorder that causes a persistent feeling of sadness and ... i Prevalence: 1. Ranges of lifetime risk for depression: from 6.7% overall to 40% in men, ...

  17. Effects of glucocorticoids on mood, memory, and the hippocampus. Treatment and preventive therapy.

    Brown, E Sherwood

    2009-10-01

    Corticosteroids, such as prednisone and dexamethasone, are commonly prescribed medications that suppress the immune system and decrease inflammation. Common side effects of long-term treatment with corticosteroids include weight gain, osteoporosis, and diabetes mellitus. This paper reviews the literature on psychiatric and cognitive changes during corticosteroid therapy and potential treatment options. Hypomania and mania are the most common mood changes during acute corticosteroid therapy, although depression has also been reported. However, depression is reported to be more common than mania during long-term treatment with corticosteroids. A decline in declarative and working memory is also reported during corticosteroid therapy. Corticosteroids are associated with changes in the temporal lobe, detected by structural, functional, and spectroscopic imaging. The mood and cognitive symptoms are dose dependent and frequently occur during the first few weeks of therapy. Other risk factors are not well characterized. Controlled trials suggest that lithium and phenytoin can prevent mood symptoms associated with corticosteroids. Lamotrigine and memantine also have been shown to reverse, at least partially, the declarative memory effects of corticosteroids. Uncontrolled trials suggest that antipsychotics, anti-seizure medications, and perhaps some antidepressants can also be useful for normalizing mood changes associated with corticosteroids. Thus, both the symptoms and treatment response are similar to those of bipolar disorder. Moreover, corticosteroid-induced mood and cognitive alterations have been shown to be reversible with dose reduction or discontinuation of treatment.

  18. Objective physical functioning in patients with depressive and/or anxiety disorders

    van Milligen, Bianca A.; Lamers, Femke; de Hoop, Guus T.; Smit, Johannes H.; Penninx, Brenda

    2011-01-01

    Background: Poorer physical function in patients with depressive or anxiety disorders has been reported, but is often measured by self-reports which may be biased by mood. This study examined the association between depression and anxiety and physical function using objective measures in a large coh

  19. Depression

    ... Health (NIMH)’s website ( www.nimh.nih.gov ). What causes depression? Scientists at NIMH and across the country are studying the causes of depression. Research suggests that a combination of genetic, biological, ...

  20. Method of treating depression

    Henn, Fritz

    2013-04-09

    Methods for treatment of depression-related mood disorders in mammals, particularly humans are disclosed. The methods of the invention include administration of compounds capable of enhancing glutamate transporter activity in the brain of mammals suffering from depression. ATP-sensitive K.sup.+ channel openers and .beta.-lactam antibiotics are used to enhance glutamate transport and to treat depression-related mood disorders and depressive symptoms.

  1. Method of treating depression

    Henn, Fritz [East Patchogue, NY

    2012-01-24

    Methods for treatment of depression-related mood disorders in mammals, particularly humans are disclosed. The methods of the invention include administration of compounds capable of enhancing glutamate transporter activity in the brain of mammals suffering from depression. ATP-sensitive K.sup.+ channel openers and .beta.-lactam antibiotics are used to enhance glutamate transport and to treat depression-related mood disorders and depressive symptoms.

  2. Clinical and psychopatological features of organic depressive disorder in the individual abusing alcohol (case report

    Spirina I.D.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The article describes a clinical case of organic depressive disorder in the personality who sustained a traumatic brain injury and who abused alcohol, with distinguishing number of clinical and psychopathological features. Depressed mood, slowed thinking process, sleep disturbances, low self-esteem, hypochondriacal tendencies allowed to diagnose depressive disorder. Clinical history on sustained brain concussion, as well as inertness of nervous and mental processes revealed in psychodiagnostic study testified to organic genesis of the disease. Alcohol abuse by the person having an adverse organic background contributed to appearance of psychotic symptoms in clinical picture. Hallucinatory and delusional inclusions relatively quickly stopped on a background of antipsychotic treatment; this testified that they are secondary to the affective (depressive symptoms.

  3. Clinical, physical and lifestyle indicators and relationship with cognition and mood in aging: a cross-sectional analysis of distinct educational groups

    Nadine Correia Santos

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available It is relevant to unravel the factors that may mediate the cognitive decline observed during aging. Previous reports indicate that education has a positive influence on cognitive performance, while age, female gender and, especially, depressed mood were associated with poorer performances across multiple cognitive dimensions (memory and general executive function. Herein, the present study aimed to characterize the cognitive performance of community-dwelling individuals within distinct educational groups categorized by the number of completed formal school years: less than 4, 4, completed primary education, and more than 4. Participants (n = 1051 were randomly selected from local health registries and representative of the Portuguese population for age and gender. Neurocognitive and clinical assessments were conducted in local health care centers. Structural equation modeling was used to derive a cognitive score, and hierarchical linear regressions were conducted for each educational group. Education, age and depressed mood were significant variables in directly explaining the obtained cognitive score, while gender was found to be an indirect variable. In all educational groups, mood was the most significant factor with effect on cognitive performance. Specifically, a depressed mood led to lower cognitive performance. The clinical disease indices cardiac and stroke associated with a more negative mood, while moderate increases in BMI, alcohol consumption and physical activity associated positively with improved mood and thus benefitted cognitive performance. Results warrant further research on the cause-effect (longitudinal relationship between clinical indices of disease and risk factors and mood and cognition throughout aging.

  4. Cognitive impairment and depressive symptoms coexisting in an elderly man.

    Masiran, Ruziana; Pang, Nicholas Tze Ping

    2017-02-08

    We report a case of a man aged 67 years presenting with recent depressive symptoms and paranoid ideations in addition to 1-year cognitive impairment. He has vascular risk factors and family history of memory loss. An episode of depression 2 decades ago resolved spontaneously but was followed by occupational decline. On mental state examination, he denied having depressed mood, hallucinations or delusions, but there were prominent word-finding difficulties and impaired attention and concentration.

  5. Anxiety and depression in polycystic ovary syndrome: a comprehensive investigation.

    Deeks, Amanda A; Gibson-Helm, Melanie E; Teede, Helena J

    2010-05-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is associated with high levels of depression, which impact quality of life and limit self-efficacy, yet less is known about prevalence of anxiety. This cross-sectional, observational study of community-based women with PCOS comprehensively examined mood and found that anxiety existed at higher levels than depression, anxiety was underdiagnosed, and more women with PCOS who reported infertility were depressed.

  6. Influence of social desirability on age differences in self-reports of mood and personality.

    Soubelet, Andrea; Salthouse, Timothy A

    2011-08-01

    ABSTRACT Increased age has been found to be associated with differences in affect and personality that have been interpreted in terms of better emotional regulation and increased maturity. However, these findings have largely been based on self-report data, and the primary goal of the current research was to investigate the hypothesis that age-related differences in affect and in certain desirable personality traits might, at least partially, reflect age differences in social desirability. As expected, increased age was associated with lower levels of negative affect and Neuroticism and higher levels of positive affect, life satisfaction, Agreeableness, and Conscientiousness, and scores on the social desirability scale were positively related to age and to desirable self-report characteristics but negatively related to undesirable self-report characteristics. Importantly, controlling for the variance in the social desirability measure resulted in less positive age trends in both types of self-report measures.

  7. Epidemiology and treatment of mood disorders in a day hospital setting from 1996 to 2007: an Italian study

    Luca M

    2013-02-01

    utilization of noradrenergic and specific serotonergic antidepressants, which remained basically low. There was no significant difference in prescribing of first-generation antipsychotic agents, although a reduction was found. There was a significant increase in utilization of second-generation antipsychotics and mood stabilizers.Conclusion: Our epidemiological findings are consistent with data reported in the literature regarding the high prevalence of major depression among the mood disorders, as well as the impact of familiality and comorbidity. Analysis of prescribing patterns for antidepressants, antipsychotics, and mood stabilizers in the treatment of mood disorders shows a shift from older to newer drugs, and wider use of mood stabilizers.Keywords: antidepressants, antipsychotics, mood stabilizers, prescribing patterns, mood disorders, treatment

  8. Depression

    Cizza, G; Ravn, Pernille; Chrousos, G P

    2001-01-01

    Existing studies of the relationship between depression and osteoporosis have been heterogeneous in their design and use of diagnostic instruments for depression, which might have contributed to the different results on the comorbidity of these two conditions. Nevertheless, these studies reveal...... a strong association between depression and osteoporosis. Endocrine factors such as depression-induced hypersecretion of corticotropin-releasing hormone and hypercortisolism, hypogonadism, growth hormone deficiency and increased concentration of circulating interleukin 6, might play a crucial role...... in the bone loss observed in subjects suffering from major depression....

  9. Music Shifts Frontal EEG in Depressed Adolescents.

    Field, Tiffany; Martinez, Alex; Nawrocki, Thomas; Pickens, Jeffrey; Fox, Nathan A.; Schanberg, Saul

    1998-01-01

    Fourteen chronically depressed female adolescents listened to rock music for a 23-minute session. EEG was recorded and saliva samples were collected to determine the effects of the music on stress hormone cortisol levels. No differences were reported for mood state; however, cortisol levels decreased and relative right-frontal activation was…

  10. Postnatal depression, oxytocin and maternal sensitivity

    Mah, Beth Lynette

    2015-01-01

    Intra nasal oxytocin administered to a population of mothers with a diagnosis of postnatal depression: -lowers their current mood -causes mothers to report that their infants are more difficult but their relationship with them is more positive -increases their protective response towards them in the

  11. Mood, music, and caffeine

    Jolij, Jacob; Lorist, Monicque

    2014-01-01

    What we see is affected by how we feel: in positive moods, we are more sensitive to positive stimuli, such as happy faces, but in negative moods we are more sensitive to negative stimuli, such as sad faces. Caffeine is known to affect mood - a cup of coffee results in a more positive mood, but also

  12. Hypomania spectrum disorder in adolescence : a 15-year follow-up of non-mood morbidity in adulthood

    2014-01-01

    Background: We investigated whether adolescents with hypomania spectrum episodes have an excess risk of mental and physical morbidity in adulthood, as compared with adolescents exclusively reporting major depressive disorder (MDD) and controls without a history of adolescent mood disorders. Methods: A community sample of adolescents (N = 2 300) in the town of Uppsala, Sweden, was screened for depressive symptoms. Both participants with positive screening and matched controls (in total 631) we...

  13. Fat food for a bad mood. Could we treat and prevent depression in Type 2 diabetes by means of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids?

    Pouwer, F; Nijpels, G; Beekman, Aartjan T F

    2005-01-01

    to remission of depression. The aim of the present paper was to review whether polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) of the omega-3 family could be used for the prevention and treatment of depression in Type 2 diabetes. METHODS: MEDLINE database and published reference lists were used to identify studies...... that examined the associations between omega-3 PUFA and depression. To examine potential side-effects, such as on glycaemic control, studies regarding the use of omega-3 supplements in Type 2 diabetes were also reviewed. RESULTS: Epidemiological and clinical studies suggest that a high intake of omega-3 PUFA......AIMS: Evidence strongly suggests that depression is a common complication of Type 2 diabetes mellitus. However, there is considerable room to improve the effectiveness of pharmacological antidepressant agents, as in only 50-60% of the depressed subjects with diabetes does pharmacotherapy lead...

  14. Physical capacity and psychological mood in association with self-reported work ability in vibration-exposed patients with hand symptoms

    Edlund Maria; Gerhardsson Lars; Hagberg Mats

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background The aim of this study was to investigate whether self-reports of work ability correlated to the results of quantitative tests measuring physical capacity and a questionnaire assessing psychological mood in vibration-exposed patients with hand symptoms. Methods The participants comprised 47 patients (36 men and eleven women) with exposure to hand vibration and vascular and/or neurological symptoms in the hands. They performed several quantitative tests (manual dexterity, ha...

  15. Self-Reported versus Informant-Reported Depressive Symptoms in Adults with Mild Intellectual Disability

    Mileviciute, I.; Hartley, S. L.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Virtually nothing is known about potential differences in the types of depression symptoms reported by adults with mild intellectual disability (ID) on self-reported questionnaires as compared with the types of symptoms reported by caregivers on informant questionnaires. Moreover, little is known about how the presentation of…

  16. Lithium safety and tolerability in mood disorders: a critical review

    Ivan Aprahamian

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background : Lithium is a first-line treatment for bipolar disorder in all phases, also indicated as add-on drug for unipolar depression and suicide prevention. This study encompasses a broad critical review on the safety and tolerability of lithium for mood disorders. Methods : A computerized search for English written human studies was made in MEDLINE, using the keywords “lithium” and “mood disorders”, starting from July 1993 through July 2013 (n = 416. This initial search aimed to select clinical trials, prospective data, and controlled design studies of lithium treatment for mood disorders reporting adverse effects (n = 36. The final selection yielded 91 studies. Results : The most common general side effects in patients on lithium treatment were thirst, frequent urination, dry mouth, weight gain, fatigue and cognitive complaints. Lithium users showed a high prevalence of hypothyroidism, hyperparathyroidism, and decrease in urinary concentration ability. Reduction of glomerular filtration rate in patients using lithium was also observed, but in a lesser extent. The evidence of teratogenicity associated with lithium use is not well established. Anti-inflammatory non-steroidal drugs, thiazide diuretics, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, and alprazolam may increase serum lithium and the consequent risk for intoxication. Discussion : Short-term lithium treatment is associated with mild side effects. Medium and long-term lithium treatment, however, might have effects on target organs which may be prevented by periodical monitoring. Overall, lithium is still a safe option for the treatment of mood disorders.

  17. The impact of a multidimensional exercise program on self-reported anxiety and depression in cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy: A phase II study

    Klausen, Julie Midtgaard; Rørth, Mikael Rahbek; Stelter, Reinhard

    2005-01-01

    Little is known about the role of exercise in improving cancer patients' mood while undergoing chemotherapy. In this phase II study changes in self-reported anxiety and depression and fitness (VO2max) are reported in relation to a 6-week, 9 h weekly, multidimensional exercise program. A total of 91.......91 for anxiety and [minus sign]0.44 ± 2.77 for depression. Improvements in fitness were correlated with improvements in depression, [chi]2(1) = 3.966, p = 0.046, but not with improvements in anxiety, [chi]2(1) = 0.540, p = 0.462. The research suggests that exercise intervention may have a beneficial impact...... patients receiving chemotherapy, between 18 and 65 years old, completed a Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale Questionnaire (HADS; response rate 91%, adherence rate 78%). Anxiety (p depression (p = 0.042) was significantly reduced. The mean ± SD of the change was [minus sign]1.14 ± 2...

  18. Attentionally modulated effects of cortisol and mood on memory for emotional faces in healthy young males.

    Van Honk, J; Kessels, R P C; Putman, P; Jager, G; Koppeschaar, H P F; Postma, A

    2003-10-01

    Heightened cortisol levels due to stress or acute administration seem to enhance memory for emotional material, independently of emotional valence. An arousal-driven neurobiological mechanism involving the amygdala has been proposed. The relation between pre-task salivary measures of cortisol (by convention named 'basal levels') and emotionally modulated memory has not been investigated yet. Given the association between higher basal levels of cortisol and indices of low mood, valence-specific effects on emotionally modulated memory could be expected (e.g. mood-congruent or stimulus-specific forms of processing). This study was designed to investigate the relationship between basal levels of salivary cortisol, self-reported mood and spatial memory for neutral, happy and angry facial expressions in healthy young volunteers (N=31). Memory performance was indexed using a modified version of a computerized object-relocation task, using emotional facial expressions as stimuli. Results showed a significant relation between cortisol and depressive mood. More importantly, both the levels of cortisol and depressive mood were inversely related to the memory performance for the happy facial expressions, while a similar relationship between cortisol and memory performance on angry faces neared significance. An explanation in terms of the down-regulation of social behavior by elevated basal cortisol levels is postulated.

  19. Neuroendocrinal study of depression in male epileptic patients.

    Afifi, Samah; Fadel, Wael; Morad, Heba; Eldod, Abdo; Gad, Elsayed; Arfken, Cynthia L; Samra, Abou; Boutros, Nash

    2011-01-01

    Endocrine changes are reported in both epilepsy and depression. The interrelationships between mood, epilepsy, and endocrine changes are not well characterized. The authors included 40 epileptic patients (20 depressed, 20 nondepressed) and 20 healthy subjects. All patients had an electroencephalogram, and were given the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression. All subjects were tested for serum levels of cortisol, prolactin, testosterone, and thyroid hormones. Patients were medication-free. Patients had elevated prolactin and cortisol and reduced serum testosterone relative to control subjects. Depressed patients had higher cortisol levels than nondepressed. Data suggest that the effects of epilepsy and depression on cortisol, but not other hormones, may be additive.

  20. Depression

    Johansen, Jon O. J.

    2013-01-01

    Nyhederne er fulde af historier om depression. Overskrifter som: ’Danskerne propper sig med lykkepiller’ eller ‘depression er stadigvæk tabu’ går tit igen i dagspressen. Men hvor er nuancerne, og hvorfor gider vi læse de samme historier igen og igen? Måske er det fordi, vores egne forestillinger er...

  1. Depression.

    Strock, Margaret

    Approximately ten percent of the population suffers from a depressive illness each year. Although the economic cost is high, the cost in human suffering is immeasurable. To help educate the population about this disorder, this paper presents a definition of depression and its common manifestations. The symptoms that people often experience are…

  2. Gender Differences in Self-Reported Symptoms of Depression among Patients with Acute Coronary Syndrome

    Lorraine Frazier

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the prevalence of self-reported depressive symptoms and the self reported somatic depressive symptoms as measured by the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II among patients hospitalized for acute coronary syndrome (ACS, and explored the impact of gender on both. A convenience sample of 789 adults (248 women and 541 men was recruited for the study during hospital admission for ACS and participants were screened for self-reported depressive symptoms. BDI-II scores of ≥14 indicate a moderate level of depressive symptoms and this cut-off score was used to categorize patients into depressed and non-depressed groups. Pearson chi-square tests for independence (categorical variables and t tests for independent samples (continuous variables were used for gender comparisons. Results showed that depressive symptoms during ACS episodes were different between women and men. Women reported greater overall depressive symptoms (BDI-II mean = 11.89, S.D. = 9.68 than men (BDI-II mean = 9.00, S.D. = 7.93 (P<0.000. Significantly more women (7.66% were identified positive for somatic depressive symptoms (sleep and appetite disturbances and fatigue than men (2.22% (P=0.0003. Findings support that there are gender differences in depressive symptoms experienced by patients hospitalized for ACS. Somatic symptoms of depression may be important indicators of depression especially among female ACS patients.

  3. Self-Referential Thinking, Suicide, and Function of the Cortical Midline Structures and Striatum in Mood Disorders: Possible Implications for Treatment Studies of Mindfulness-Based Interventions for Bipolar Depression

    William R. Marchand

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Bipolar depression is often refractory to treatment and is frequently associated with anxiety symptoms and elevated suicide risk. There is a great need for adjunctive psychotherapeutic interventions. Treatments with effectiveness for depressive and anxiety symptoms as well as suicide-related thoughts and behaviors would be particularly beneficial. Mindfulness-based interventions hold promise, and studies of these approaches for bipolar disorder are warranted. The aim of this paper is to provide a conceptual background for such studies by reviewing key findings from diverse lines of investigation. Results of that review indicate that cortical midline structures (CMS appear to link abnormal self-referential thinking to emotional dysregulation in mood disorders. Furthermore, CMS and striatal dysfunction may play a role in the neuropathology underlying suicide-related thoughts and behaviors. Thus, combining studies of mindfulness interventions targeting abnormal self-referential thinking with functional imaging of CMS and striatal function may help delineate the neurobiological mechanisms of action of these treatments.

  4. Electrophysiological evidence of the time course of attentional bias in nonpatients reporting symptoms of depression with and without co-occurring anxiety

    Sarah M. Sass

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Anxiety is characterized by attentional biases to threat, but findings are inconsistent for depression. To address this inconsistency, the present study systematically assessed the role of co-occurring anxiety in attentional bias in depression. In addition, the role of emotional valence, arousal, and gender was explored. Ninety-two nonpatients completed the Penn State Worry Questionnaire (PSWQ; Meyer et al., 1990; Molina & Borkovec, 1994 and portions of the Mood and Anxiety Symptom Questionnaire (MASQ; Watson, Clark, et al., 1995; Watson, Weber, et al., 1995. Individuals reporting high levels of depression and low levels of anxiety (depression only, high levels of depression and anxiety (combined, or low levels of both (control completed an emotion-word Stroop task during event-related brain potential (ERP recording. Pleasant and unpleasant words were matched on emotional arousal level. An attentional bias was not evident in the depression-only group. Women in the combined group had larger N200 amplitude for pleasant than unpleasant stimuli, and the combined group as a whole had larger right-lateralized P300 amplitude for pleasant than unpleasant stimuli, consistent with an early and later attentional bias that is specific to unpleasant valence in the combined group. Men in the control group had larger N200 amplitude for pleasant than unpleasant stimuli, consistent with an early attentional bias that is specific to pleasant valence. The present study indicates that the nature and time course of attention prompted by emotional valence and not arousal differentiates depression with and without anxiety, with some evidence of gender moderating early effects. Overall, results suggest that co-occurring anxiety is more important than previously acknowledged in demonstrating evidence of attentional biases in depression.

  5. 音乐治疗对脑卒中后抑郁患者情绪影响的研究%Effect of music therapy on mood in post-stroke depression patients

    潘田华

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of music therapy on depression and anxiety in patients with post-stroke depression (PSD).Methods 192 cases of PSD were randomly divided into music therapy group and control group.Patients in control group received routine physical and drug therapy,and patients in music therapy group received systematical music therapy on the basis of control group.Psychological status of all patients was evaluated with Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI) before and after treatment.Results After treatment,BDI score and BAI score in music therapy group decreased more significantly compared with control group.BDI score in music therapy group before treatment was (16.7±6.4),that after treatment was (14.3±4.6),with statistically significant difference (P<0.05).Conclusion Music therapy has a positive effect on mood in PSD patients,which can be applied in clinical work to improve PSD patients' mood.%目的 研究音乐治疗对卒中后抑郁患者焦虑抑郁情绪的作用.方法 192名卒中后抑郁患者随机分至音乐治疗及对照组.给予音乐治疗组患者常规物理、药物治疗,及计划性音乐治疗,仅给予对照组患者常规物理及药物治疗.两组患者入组前后均采用贝克抑郁量表(BDI)和贝克焦虑量表(BAI)进行情绪评估.结果 音乐治疗后音乐治疗组患者BDI和BAI评分较对照组下降更为明显,但仅有音乐治疗组患者治疗前后BDI显著下降,治疗前BDI均分(16.7±6.4),治疗后BDI均分(14.3±4.6)(P<0.05).结论 音乐治疗对于卒中后抑郁患者情绪有改善作用,可用于卒中后抑郁患者临床治疗.

  6. Depression

    ... caring for children and aging parents, abuse, and poverty may trigger depression in some people. Medical illness – ... federal government website managed by the Office on Women’s Health in the Office of the Assistant Secretary ...

  7. Genomic studies of mood disorders - the brain as a muscle?

    Niculescu, Alexander B.

    2005-01-01

    Recent genomic studies showing abnormalities in the fibroblast growth factor system in the postmortem brains of people with major depressive disorder support previous indications of a role for growth factors in mood disorders. Similar molecular pathways, volumetric changes, and the effects of exercise on mood suggest a superficial analogy, and perhaps a deeper relationship, between muscle and brain functioning.

  8. Depression and dysphoria effects on the interpersonal perception of negative and positive moods and caring relationships: effects of antidepressants, amphetamine, and methylphenidate.

    Janowsky, David S

    2003-12-01

    An inverse relationship exists between an individual's degree of negative affect and the interpersonal perception of friendliness, sympathy and empathy, acceptance, warmth, regard, and genuineness, and the converse relationship persists for the perception of sadness and anger. Thus, a "negative interpersonal bias" exists in those with diagnoses of depression or dysphoria. There is evidence that psychostimulants (ie, amphetamine or methylphenidate) and antidepressants can reverse or improve these negative interpersonal perceptions in a positive way, especially in individuals with dysphoria, depression, and anxiety. The theoretic and therapeutic implications of these relationships are discussed herewith.

  9. Stress and Mood

    ... Relaxation Emotions & Relationships HealthyYouTXT Tools Home » Stress & Mood Stress & Mood Many people who go back to smoking ... story: Time Out Times 10 >> share What Causes Stress? Read full story: What Causes Stress? >> share The ...

  10. Effect of two prednisone exposures on mood and declarative memory.

    Brown, E Sherwood; Beard, Laura; Frol, Alan B; Rush, A John

    2006-07-01

    Corticosteroids are essential for life and an integral part of the stress response. However, in excess, corticosteroids can be associated with a variety of effects on the brain including hippocampal atrophy and even neuronal death, mood changes, and declarative memory impairment. The magnitude of mood change in patients receiving prednisone is reportedly associated with previous lifetime corticosteroid exposure, consistent with a sensitization or kindling process whereby greater effects are observed with repeated exposure. To our knowledge, the effect of multiple corticosteroid exposures on mood and memory has not been previously examined prospectively in animals or humans. In this study, 30 human volunteers, with no history of systemic prescription corticosteroid therapy, were given (in random order using a crossover design) two 3-day exposures of prednisone (60 mg/day) and one of identical placebo, with 11-day washouts between each medication exposure. Before and after each 3-day prednisone/placebo exposure, declarative memory was assessed using different versions of the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT) to minimize practice or learning effects, while mood was assessed with the 21-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression, Young Mania Rating Scale and Internal State Scale. No significant mood changes were found. However, a significant decrease in aspects of RAVLT performance was observed after the first prednisone exposure consistent with a decline in declarative memory performance. The decline in RAVLT performance was significantly smaller after the second prednisone exposure as compared to the initial prednisone exposure. Thus, a second prednisone exposure was associated with an attenuated prednisone-effect on declarative memory. These data suggest tolerance or habituation, rather than sensitization, to prednisone effects on declarative memory during a second exposure. Implications and possible explanations for the findings are discussed.

  11. A Randomised Controlled Single-Blind Trial of the Efficacy of Reiki at Benefitting Mood and Well-Being

    Deborah Bowden

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This is a constructive replication of a previous trial conducted by Bowden et al. (2010, where students who had received Reiki demonstrated greater health and mood benefits than those who received no Reiki. The current study examined impact on anxiety/depression. 40 university students—half with high depression and/or anxiety and half with low depression and/or anxiety—were randomly assigned to receive Reiki or to a non-Reiki control group. Participants experienced six 30-minute sessions over a period of two to eight weeks, where they were blind to whether noncontact Reiki was administered as their attention was absorbed in a guided relaxation. The efficacy of the intervention was assessed pre-post intervention and at five-week follow-up by self-report measures of mood, illness symptoms, and sleep. The participants with high anxiety and/or depression who received Reiki showed a progressive improvement in overall mood, which was significantly better at five-week follow-up, while no change was seen in the controls. While the Reiki group did not demonstrate the comparatively greater reduction in symptoms of illness seen in our earlier study, the findings of both studies suggest that Reiki may benefit mood.

  12. A randomised controlled single-blind trial of the efficacy of reiki at benefitting mood and well-being.

    Bowden, Deborah; Goddard, Lorna; Gruzelier, John

    2011-01-01

    This is a constructive replication of a previous trial conducted by Bowden et al. (2010), where students who had received Reiki demonstrated greater health and mood benefits than those who received no Reiki. The current study examined impact on anxiety/depression. 40 university students-half with high depression and/or anxiety and half with low depression and/or anxiety-were randomly assigned to receive Reiki or to a non-Reiki control group. Participants experienced six 30-minute sessions over a period of two to eight weeks, where they were blind to whether noncontact Reiki was administered as their attention was absorbed in a guided relaxation. The efficacy of the intervention was assessed pre-post intervention and at five-week follow-up by self-report measures of mood, illness symptoms, and sleep. The participants with high anxiety and/or depression who received Reiki showed a progressive improvement in overall mood, which was significantly better at five-week follow-up, while no change was seen in the controls. While the Reiki group did not demonstrate the comparatively greater reduction in symptoms of illness seen in our earlier study, the findings of both studies suggest that Reiki may benefit mood.

  13. Facts and Fancy. Mood Alteration Through Exercise.

    Berger, Bonnie G.

    1982-01-01

    Recent research suggests that exercise not only reduces undesirable mood states such as anxiety, depression, anger, confusion, and fatigue, but also enhances positive characteristics such as vigor and self esteem. Current research studies are discussed, and the need for additional research is noted. (CJ)

  14. Depression and Bipolar Support Alliance

    Depression and Bipolar Support Alliance Crisis Hotline Information Coping with a Crisis Suicide Prevention Information Psychiatric Hospitalization ... sign-up Education info, training, events Mood Disorders Depression Bipolar Disorder Anxiety Screening Center Co-occurring Illnesses/ ...

  15. Regular group exercise is associated with improved mood but not quality of life following stroke.

    McDonnell, Michelle N; Mackintosh, Shylie F; Hillier, Susan L; Bryan, Janet

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. People with stroke living in the community have an increased prevalence of depression and lower quality of life than healthy older adults. This cross-sectional observational study investigated whether participation in regular exercise was associated with improved mood and quality of life. Methods. We recruited three groups of community dwelling participants: 13 healthy older adults, 17 adults post-stroke who regularly participated in group exercise at a community fitness facility and 10 adults post-stroke who did not regularly exercise. We measured mood using the Depression, Anxiety, Stress Scale (DASS) and quality of life using the Assessment of Quality of Life (AQoL) scale. Results. Levels of stress and depression were significantly greater in the people with stroke who did not undertake regular exercise (p = 0.004 and p = 0.004 respectively), although this group had more recent strokes (p < 0.001). Both stroke groups had lower quality of life scores (p = 0.04) than the healthy adults. Conclusions. This small, community-based study confirms that people following stroke report poorer quality of life than stroke-free individuals. However, those who exercise regularly have significantly lower stress and depression compared to stroke survivors who do not. Future research should focus on the precise type and amount of exercise capable of improving mood following stroke.

  16. Regular group exercise is associated with improved mood but not quality of life following stroke

    Michelle N. McDonnell

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. People with stroke living in the community have an increased prevalence of depression and lower quality of life than healthy older adults. This cross-sectional observational study investigated whether participation in regular exercise was associated with improved mood and quality of life.Methods. We recruited three groups of community dwelling participants: 13 healthy older adults, 17 adults post-stroke who regularly participated in group exercise at a community fitness facility and 10 adults post-stroke who did not regularly exercise. We measured mood using the Depression, Anxiety, Stress Scale (DASS and quality of life using the Assessment of Quality of Life (AQoL scale.Results. Levels of stress and depression were significantly greater in the people with stroke who did not undertake regular exercise (p = 0.004 and p = 0.004 respectively, although this group had more recent strokes (p < 0.001. Both stroke groups had lower quality of life scores (p = 0.04 than the healthy adults.Conclusions. This small, community-based study confirms that people following stroke report poorer quality of life than stroke-free individuals. However, those who exercise regularly have significantly lower stress and depression compared to stroke survivors who do not. Future research should focus on the precise type and amount of exercise capable of improving mood following stroke.

  17. Spreading of healthy mood in adolescent social networks.

    Hill, E M; Griffiths, F E; House, T

    2015-08-22

    Depression is a major public health concern worldwide. There is evidence that social support and befriending influence mental health, and an improved understanding of the social processes that drive depression has the potential to bring significant public health benefits. We investigate transmission of mood on a social network of adolescents, allowing flexibility in our model by making no prior assumption as to whether it is low mood or healthy mood that spreads. Here, we show that while depression does not spread, healthy mood among friends is associated with significantly reduced risk of developing and increased chance of recovering from depression. We found that this spreading of healthy mood can be captured using a non-linear complex contagion model. Having sufficient friends with healthy mood can halve the probability of developing, or double the probability of recovering from, depression over a 6-12-month period on an adolescent social network. Our results suggest that promotion of friendship between adolescents can reduce both incidence and prevalence of depression.

  18. 初中生抑郁情绪的因素研究%Study of Factors on Depressive Mood of Middle School Students

    陈秀梅; 李剑; 刘艳; 李金顺

    2012-01-01

    To analyze the relationships between life events,coping style,social support and depression,1,222 middle school students from 4 middle schools in Tang Shan were asked to complete the ASLEC,TCSQ,SSRS and CES-D.The results are as follows.Correlation analysis shows that depression is positively relevant to life events,negatively relevant to the coping style,and negatively relevant to social support.Life events perform influence in depression by mediators,social support and coping style.%采用分层整群随机取样对唐山市4所中学1 222名初中生抑郁情绪、社会支持、应对方式和生活事件进行了测量,采用描述性统计分析、方差分析和相关分析等统计方法,考察社会支持、应对方式、生活事件与抑郁的关系。结果表明,生活事件与抑郁显著正相关,社会支持与抑郁显著负相关,应对方式与抑郁显著负相关;社会支持、应对方式在生活事件与抑郁间具有显著的调节作用。

  19. Cognitive schemas as longitudinal predictors of self-reported adolescent depressive symptoms and resilience.

    Friedmann, Jordan S; Lumley, Margaret N; Lerman, Bethany

    2016-01-01

    Given that depression risk intensifies in adolescence, examining associates of depressive symptoms during the shift from childhood to adolescence is important for expanding knowledge about the etiology of depression symptoms and disorder. A longitudinal youth report was employed to examine the trajectory of both the content and structure of positive and negative schemas in adolescence and also whether these schemas could prospectively predict depressive symptoms and youth-reported resilience. One hundred and ninety-eight participants (aged 9 to 14) were recruited from four schools to complete measures of youth depressive symptoms, resilience, and schema content and structure. Those who consented to a follow-up study completed the same measures online (50 participants completed). Negative and positive schema content and structure were related over time. After controlling depressive symptoms/resilience at Time 1, negative schema content was the only significant predictor (trend level) of depressive symptoms and resilience at Time 2. Implications for cognitive theories and clinical practice are discussed.

  20. Interparental violence and maternal mood disorders as predictors of adolescent physical aggression within the family.

    Narayan, Angela J; Chen, Muzi; Martinez, Pedro P; Gold, Philip W; Klimes-Dougan, Bonnie

    2015-05-01

    Although a wealth of research has examined the effects of parental mood disorders on offspring maladjustment, studies have not identified whether elevated interparental violence (IPV) may be an exacerbating influence in this pathway. This study examined levels of physical IPV perpetration and victimization in mothers with unipolar depression or Bipolar Disorder (BD) and the processes by which maternal physical IPV moderated adolescents' physical aggression in families with maternal mood disorders. Mothers with lifetime mood disorders were predicted to have elevated IPV compared to well mothers, and maternal IPV was expected to moderate the association between lifetime mood disorders and adolescent aggression. Participants included 61 intact families with maternal depression (n = 24), BD (n = 13), or well mothers (n = 24) and two siblings (ages 10 to 18 years). Using the Conflict Tactics Scale, mothers reported on IPV perpetration and victimization, and adolescents reported on physical aggression. Mothers with BD reported significantly higher IPV perpetration, but not victimization, than depressed or well mothers. An interaction between maternal BD and IPV perpetration was a significant predictor of adolescent aggression. Main effects of maternal IPV victimization and interaction effects of maternal depression and either type of IPV on adolescent aggression were not significant. Adolescents of mothers who have BD and perpetrate IPV may be particularly vulnerable to being aggressive. Prevention and policy efforts to deter transmission of aggression in high-risk families should target families with maternal BD and intervene at the level of conflict resolution within the family. Aggr. Behav. 41:253-266, 2015. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Sensitivity and specificity of the Major Depression Inventory in outpatients

    Noteboom Annemieke

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Major Depression Inventory (MDI is a new, brief, self-report measure for depression based on the DSM-system, which allows clinicians to assess the presence of a depressive disorder according to the DSM-IV, but also to assess the severity of the depressive symptoms. Methods We examined the sensitivity, specificity, and psychometric qualities of the MDI in a consecutive sample of 258 psychiatric outpatients. Of these patients, 120 had a mood disorder (70 major depression, 49 dysthymia. A total of 139 subjects had a comorbid axis-I diagnosis, and 91 subjects had a comorbid personality disorder. Results Crohnbach's alpha of the MDI was a satisfactory 0.89, and the correlation between the MDI and the depression subscale of the SCL-90 was 0.79 (p Conclusion The MDI is an attractive, brief depression inventory, which seems to be a reliable tool for assessing depression in psychiatric outpatients.

  2. [Depression and inflammation in rheumatic diseases].

    Buras, Aleksandra; Waszkiewicz, Napoleon; Szulc, Agata

    2016-03-04

    It is known that the prevalence of depression in rheumatologic patients is higher than in the general population. Socioeconomic factors are not a sufficient explanation of mood disorder in these patients. Symptoms reported by patients with chronic inflammatory diseases resemble changes defined as "sickness behavior". Mood disorders among somatic patients could be explained by disturbances of the immune system according to the monoaminergic theory of depression. Inflammatory factors such as IL-1 (interleukin-1), IL-2 (interleukin-2), IL-6 (interleukin-6), TNF-α (tumor necrosis factor α), and IFN-γ (interferon-γ) act within the CNS (central nervous system). They get through from peripheral tissues as well as being synthesized de novo by neurons. This cytokine activity correlates positively with depression intensity as well as with genetic polymorphism of the serotonin (5-HT) transporter. The theory of glucocorticoid resistance-mediated depression (limbic-hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal [LHPA] axis) is also connected with gained proinflammatory cytokines activity. It might assume the form of a vicious circle. Depressed mood is probably linked with depression in immune-mediated diseases. An elevated level of proinflammatory cytokines is able to activate IDO (indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase)--an enzyme catabolizing tryptophan (5-HT precursor). Those reactions probably play the main role at the biochemical level. IDO metabolites extensively disturb neurotransmission. 3-Hydroxykynurenine (3OH-KYN), quinolinic acid (Quin) and kynurenic acid (KYNA) are neurotoxic by releasing oxidative stress mediators. Moreover, they activate MAO (monoamine oxidase), which degrades neurotransmitters responsible for stable mood. Bidirectional communication between the neuroendocrine and immune systems is significant for depression treatment, as well as CNS protection against incremental neurodegeneration among seemingly diverse diseases.

  3. Depression and inflammation in rheumatic diseases

    Aleksandra Buras

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available It is known that the prevalence of depression in rheumatologic patients is higher than in the general population. Socioeconomic factors are not a sufficient explanation of mood disorder in these patients. Symptoms reported by patients with chronic inflammatory diseases resemble changes defined as “sickness behavior”. Mood disorders among somatic patients could be explained by disturbances of the immune system according to the monoaminergic theory of depression. Inflammatory factors such as IL-1 (interleukin-1, IL-2 (interleukin-2, IL-6 (interleukin-6, TNF-α (tumor necrosis factor α, and IFN-γ (interferon-γ act within the CNS (central nervous system. They get through from peripheral tissues as well as being synthesized de novo by neurons. This cytokine activity correlates positively with depression intensity as well as with genetic polymorphism of the serotonin (5-HT transporter. The theory of glucocorticoid resistance-mediated depression (limbic-hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal [LHPA] axis is also connected with gained proinflammatory cytokines activity. It might assume the form of a vicious circle. Depressed mood is probably linked with depression in immune-mediated diseases. An elevated level of proinflammatory cytokines is able to activate IDO (indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase – an enzyme catabolizing tryptophan (5-HT precursor. Those reactions probably play the main role at the biochemical level. IDO metabolites extensively disturb neurotransmission. 3-Hydroxykynurenine (3OH-KYN, quinolinic acid (Quin and kynurenic acid (KYNA are neurotoxic by releasing oxidative stress mediators. Moreover, they activate MAO (monoamine oxidase, which degrades neurotransmitters responsible for stable mood. Bidirectional communication between the neuroendocrine and immune systems is significant for depression treatment, as well as CNS protection against incremental neurodegeneration among seemingly diverse diseases.

  4. Preliminary utility of Mood Disorder Questionnaire to screen bipolar disorder in depressive patients%心境障碍问卷在抑郁障碍中筛查双相障碍的初步应用

    王佩蓉; 冯斌; 刘兰英; 陈炯; 陈震; 沈悦娣; 陈炜

    2012-01-01

    目的 应用心境障碍问卷(MDQ)对诊断为抑郁障碍的精神专科住院患者进行双相障碍的筛查,评估MDQ的应用价值.方法 应用MDQ对48例抑郁障碍住院患者进行评定,以美国精神障碍诊断与统计手册第4版轴Ⅰ障碍定式检查-病人研究版( SCID- Ⅰ/P)为标准对患者进行重新诊断,并与MDQ筛查结果进行比较.结果 48例患者中,以MDQ得分≥7分判断为双相障碍者13例(27.1%);SCID- Ⅰ/P诊断为双相障碍者17例(35.4%),其中MDQ得分≥7分者11例.操作特征曲线分析显示,MDQ筛查双相障碍的敏感性为0.647,特异性为0.935.结论 住院诊断为抑郁障碍的患者中未被识别的双相障碍比例较高,采用MDQ有助于从抑郁障碍中筛查出双相障碍.%Objective To investigate the feasibility of using the Mood Disorder Questionnaire (MDQ) to screen bipolar disorder in hospitalized patients with depression.Methods Forty-eight hospitalized patients with depression were firstly assessed with MDQ and then reassessed with the SCID- Ⅰ/P (Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-Ⅳ Axis Ⅰ Disorders,Research Version for Patients).Comparison was made between the diagnostic results from two assessments.Results Of all the 48 patients,13 (27.1% ) were identified as bipolar disorder by MDQ with cutoff score of 7,and 17 ( 35.4% ) were diagnosed as bipolar disorder by SCID- Ⅰ/P in which 11 cases had MDQ score of no less than 7. ROC ( Receiver Operating Characteristic Curve) result showed that the sensitivity and specificity of MDQ were 0.647 and 0.935 respectively.Conclusion There is a relatively high proportion of unidentified bipolar disorder patients in hospitalized depressed patients.MDQ may be helpful for clinicians to screen the bipolar disorder in the patients with depression.

  5. State-dependent tardive dyskinesia in manic-depressive illness.

    de Potter, R W; Linkowski, P; Mendlewicz, J.

    1983-01-01

    We report the occurrence of a drug-resistant tardive dyskinesia coexistent with Parkinsonism-like symptoms in a manic-depressive patient. The tardive dyskinesia completely disappeared during the manic phases and recurred after remission over the course of different mood-cycles.

  6. Plain Talk about Depression. Plain Talk Series.

    Sargent, Marilyn

    Depression is defined as a "whole-body" illness, involving the body, mood, and thoughts. Three of the most prevalent types of depressive disorders are described: major depression, dysthymia, and bipolar disorders (formerly called manic-depressive illness). Eleven symptoms of depression and 10 symptoms of mania are listed. Causes of depression are…

  7. Seasonality and Sleep: A Clinical Study on Euthymic Mood Disorder Patients

    Chiara Brambilla

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Research on mood disorders has progressively focused on the study of seasons and on the mood in association with them during depressive or manic episodes yet few studies have focused on the seasonal fluctuation that characterizes the patient's clinical course both during an illness episode and during euthymic periods. Methods. 113 euthymic outpatients 46 affected by major recurrent depression and 67 affected by bipolar disorder were recruited. We evaluated the impact of clinical “rhythmical” factors: seasonality, sleep disturbance, and chronotype. Patients completed the SPAQ+ questionnaire, the MEQ questionnaire, and the medical outcomes study (MOS sleep scale. We used t-test analyses to compare differences of clinical “rhythmical” and sociodemographic variables and of differences in the assessment scales among the diagnostic groups. Results. Patients reporting a family history for mood disorders have higher fluctuations throughout seasons. Sleep disturbance is more problematic in unipolars when compared to bipolars. Conclusions. Sleep, light, and seasonality seem to be three interconnected features that lie at the basis of chronobiology that, when altered, have an important effect both on the psychopathology and on the treatment of mood disorders.

  8. Depression.

    McCarron, Robert M; Vanderlip, Erik R; Rado, Jeffrey

    2016-10-04

    This issue provides a clinical overview of depression, focusing on screening, diagnosis, treatment, and practice improvement. The content of In the Clinic is drawn from the clinical information and education resources of the American College of Physicians (ACP), including MKSAP (Medical Knowledge and Self-Assessment Program). Annals of Internal Medicine editors develop In the Clinic in collaboration with the ACP's Medical Education and Publishing divisions and with the assistance of additional science writers and physician writers.

  9. Psychometric properties of the Aberrant Behavior Checklist, the Anxiety, Depression and Mood Scale, the Assessment of Dual Diagnosis and the Social Performance Survey Schedule in adults with intellectual disabilities.

    Rojahn, Johannes; Rowe, Ellen W; Kasdan, Shana; Moore, Linda; van Ingen, Daniel J

    2011-01-01

    Progress in clinical research and in empirically supported interventions in the area of psychopathology in intellectual disabilities (ID) depends on high-quality assessment instruments. To this end, psychometric properties of four instruments were examined: the Aberrant Behavior Checklist (ABC), the Assessment of Dual Diagnosis (ADD), the Anxiety, Depression and Mood Scale (ADAMS), and the Social Performance Survey Schedule (SPSS). Data were collected in two community-based groups of adults with mild to profound ID (n = 263). Subscale reliability (internal consistency) ranged from fair to excellent for the ABC, the ADAMS, and the SPSS (mean coefficient α across ABC subscales was .87 (ranging from fair to excellent), the ADAMS subscales .83 (ranging from fair to good), and the SPSS subscales .91 (range from good to excellent). The ADD subscales had generally lower reliability scores with a mean of .59 (ranging from unacceptable to good). Convergent and discriminant validity was determined by bivariate Spearman ρ correlations between subscales of one instrument and the subscales of the other three instruments. For the most part, all four instruments showed solid convergent and discriminant validity. To examine the factorial validity, Confirmatory Factor Analyses (CFA) were attempted with the inter-item covariance matrix of each instrument. Generally, the data did not show good fits with the measurement models for the SPSS, ABC, or the ADAMS (CFA analyses with the ADD would not converge). However, most of the items on these three instruments had significant loadings on their respective factors.

  10. Mood disorders in Asians.

    Yeung, Albert; Chang, Doris

    2014-02-01

    Mood disorders are disorders that have a disturbance in mood as the predominant feature. They are common psychiatric disorders and are associated with significant distress and functional impairment. As the theory of mood disorders is based on the philosophy of mind/body dichotomy in the West, it contradicts the holistic tradition of medicine in the East. This may partially explain why many Asians with mood disorders emphasize their physical symptoms in discussions with their treatment providers. In the development of the DSM and ICD diagnostic systems, it is presumed that the diagnostic categories are applicable to all races and ethnicities. Similarly, many consider pharmacological and psychological treatment approaches to mood disorders universally applicable. To effectively treat Asians with mood disorders, clinicians need to customize biological and psychosocial interventions in consideration of patients' potential genetic and cultural differences.

  11. Mood disorders in childhood and adolescence

    Thiago Botter Maio Rocha

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The identification and treatment of mood disorders in children and adolescents has grown over the last decades. Major depression is one of the most common and debilitating disorders worldwide, imposing a massive burden to the youth population. Bipolar disorder is being increasingly recognized as having its roots early in life, and its presentation during childhood and adolescence has been submitted to extensive research. This review aims to highlight clinical aspects of the current knowledge on mood disorders in the pediatric population, presenting updated information on epidemiology, diagnostic procedures, and management strategies. Limitations of available evidence and future directions of research in the field are also discussed.

  12. Can Reporting Heterogeneity Explain Differences in Depressive Symptoms Across Europe?

    R. Kok (Renske); M. Avendano (Mauricio); T.M. Bago d'Uva (Teresa); J.P. Mackenbach (Johan)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractDepression is one of the leading causes of disability in the developed world. Previous studies have shown varying depression prevalence rates between European countries, and also within countries, between socioeconomic groups. However, it is unclear whether these differences reflect true

  13. Can Reporting Heterogeneity Explain Differences in Depressive Symptoms across Europe?

    Kok, Renske; Avendano, Mauricio; d'Uva, Teresa Bago; Mackenbach, Johan

    2012-01-01

    Depression is one of the leading causes of disability in the developed world. Previous studies have shown varying depression prevalence rates between European countries, and also within countries, between socioeconomic groups. However, it is unclear whether these differences reflect true variations in prevalence or whether they are attributable to…

  14. Signs of mood and anxiety disorders in chimpanzees.

    Hope R Ferdowsian

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In humans, traumatic experiences are sometimes followed by psychiatric disorders. In chimpanzees, studies have demonstrated an association between traumatic events and the emergence of behavioral disturbances resembling posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD and depression. We addressed the following central question: Do chimpanzees develop posttraumatic symptoms, in the form of abnormal behaviors, which cluster into syndromes similar to those described in human mood and anxiety disorders? METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In phase 1 of this study, we accessed case reports of chimpanzees who had been reportedly subjected to traumatic events, such as maternal separation, social isolation, experimentation, or similar experiences. We applied and tested DSM-IV criteria for PTSD and major depression to published case reports of 20 chimpanzees identified through PrimateLit. Additionally, using the DSM-IV criteria and ethograms as guides, we developed behaviorally anchored alternative criteria that were applied to the case reports. A small number of chimpanzees in the case studies met DSM-IV criteria for PTSD and depression. Measures of inter-rater reliability, including Fleiss' kappa and percentage agreement, were higher with use of the alternative criteria for PTSD and depression. In phase 2, the alternative criteria were applied to chimpanzees living in wild sites in Africa (n = 196 and chimpanzees living in sanctuaries with prior histories of experimentation, orphanage, illegal seizure, or violent human conflict (n = 168. In phase 2, 58% of chimpanzees living in sanctuaries met the set of alternative criteria for depression, compared with 3% of chimpanzees in the wild (p = 0.04, and 44% of chimpanzees in sanctuaries met the set of alternative criteria for PTSD, compared with 0.5% of chimpanzees in the wild (p = 0.04. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Chimpanzees display behavioral clusters similar to PTSD and depression in their key

  15. 有无自杀意念抑郁症患者抑郁情绪、认知应对策略及应激的比较研究%A comparison study on depressive mood, cognitive coping strategies and stress between depressive patients with and without suicide ideation

    李武; 李龙飞

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To study the difference on depressive mood,cognitive coping strategies and stress between depressive patients with and without suicide ideation. Method: A total of 143 depressive patients were assessed with a self-designed questionnaire, Beck depression inventory ( BDI) and the Chinese version of dognitive emotion regulation questionnaire ( CERQ-C). Results: Compared with depressive patients without suicide ideation, depressive patients with suicide ideation showed higher scores in total score of BDI, work stress, domestic stress, social life stress and maladaptive strageies (P < 0. 05 or P < 0. 01). The total score of BDI showed positive correlation to scores of work sress,domestic stress,social life stress and maladaptive strageies in depression patients with suicide ideation (r =0. 569,0. 470,0. 341,0. 303, P <0.05 orP<0.01) .while the total score of BDI only showed positive correlation to scores of domestic stress( r = 0. 361 ,P <0. 01). Conclusion: Depressive patients with suicide ideation suffered from severer negative life events and depressive mood,and take more maladaptive cognitive coping strageies.%目的:探讨有无自杀意念抑郁症患者抑郁情绪、认知应对策略及应激性生活事件的差异.方法:对143例抑郁症患者进行自编一般情况问卷、Beck抑郁自评量表(BDI)、认知情绪调节问卷中文版(CERQ-C)评定. 结果:有自杀意念抑郁症发作患者BDI总分、婚姻家庭应激及社会生活应激分及CERQ-C适应性策略与不适应性策略总分显著高于无自杀意念抑郁症患者(P<0.05或P<0.01).有自杀意念抑郁症患者抑郁总分与工作学习应激、婚姻家庭应激、社会生活应激及CERQ-C不适应性策略分呈显著正相关(r=0.569,0.470,0.341,0.303,P<0.05或P<0.01);无自杀意念抑郁症患者抑郁总分仅与婚姻家庭应激呈显著正相关(r=0.361,P<0.01). 结论:有自杀意念较无自杀意念抑郁症患者经历更多的负性生活事

  16. 70名中度抑郁老年人元认知团体干预疗效研究%Effects of meta-cognitive therapy on middle depressive mood in 70 aged people

    韩汶洋; 季晓飞; 孙月吉; 徐鹏; 宁树娥; 刘启贵; 张强; 郑亚; 李凤光; 董春波

    2010-01-01

    Objective To investigate effectiveness of meta-cognitive intervention on aged people with middle depression. Methods Geriatrist Depression Scale(GDS) and Hamilton's Depression Scale ( HAMD-17 ) were used to screen out 70 aged people with middle depression from 850 retired soldier cadres dwelling in cpla dalian sanitarium. They were randomly divided into study group( n = 35 ) and control group( n = 35 ). The experimental group received meta-cognitive intervening and general nursing care for 8 weeks, while the control group only received general nursing care for 8 weeks. HAMD-17, GDS, global assessment scale(GAS) and the Metacognitions Questionnaire(MCQ-30) were administered both at the start and the end of the 8th week. Results The total scores in HAMD and GDS were decreased significantly in study group ( HAMD: ( 1 1.54 ± 2.50 ) vs ( 13.06 ±2.82),t= -2.378, P=0. 020;GDS:(12.51 ±2.43) vs (16.06 ±2.48), t= -6. 031, P=0. 000;GAS:(77.71 ±3.03) vs (75.63 ± 3.24), t = 2. 785, P = 0. 007 ). At the end of 8th week, the MCQ total score was significantly decreased in study group (38.69 ± 4. 17,81.37 ± 5.98, t = 34. 652, P < 0. 01 ). Conclusion For aged people with middle depression,good effects are got by the meta-cognitive intervening technique and meta-cognitive intervening technique improve the meta-cognitive level of aged people with middle depressive mood.%目的 探讨元认知团体干预技术对老年中度抑郁情绪的疗效.方法 选取大连市疗养院住院离退休军人850名,利用老年抑郁自评量表(GDS)及汉密尔顿抑郁量表(HAMD-17)筛选出70名中度抑郁情绪者为实验对象,70名老人被分为实验组和对照组,每组35人.2组老人分别在治疗前、治疗后第8周,采用HAMD-17,GDS,大体临床评定量表(GAS)和元认知问卷(MCQ-30)测评.结果 与对照组比较,8周末实验组的抑郁评分显著降低[HAMD(11.54±2.50)分,(13.06±2.82)分,t=-2.378,P=0.020;GDS(12.51±2.43)分,(16.06±2.48)分,t=-6.031,P=0

  17. The relationship between self-report of depression and media usage

    Martin eBlock; Stern, Daniel B.; Kalyan eRaman; Sang eLee; Jim eCarey; Humphreys, Ashlee A.; Frank eMulhern; Bobby eCalder; Don eSchultz; Charles N Rudick; Blood, Anne J; Breiter, Hans C.

    2014-01-01

    Depression is a debilitating condition that adversely affects many aspects of a person's life and general health. Earlier work has supported the idea that there may be a relationship between the use of certain media and depression. In this study, we tested if self-report of depression (SRD), which is not a clinically based diagnosis, was associated with increased internet, television, and social media usage by using data collected in the Media Behavior and Influence Study (MBIS) database (N=1...

  18. 康复期住院精神病罪犯抑郁情绪及影响因素分析%Analysis of the factors influencing depression mood and psychotic criminals during rehabilitation stage

    储井山; 赵山; 孙春明; 崔中俭

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the factors of mental health status and the influence of criminal mental disease inpatient re-habilitation period,and put forward the countermeasures. Methods In the rehabilitation of hospitalized psychiatric criminals in 85 ca-ses,using Self - rating Depression Scale(SDS)compared with domestic norm will score,and further analysis of the different culture, marital status,type of crime in criminal rehabilitation period of mood disorders depression difference. Results During the rehabilita-tion period of hospitalization of mentally ill offenders SDS score were(54. 59 + 11. 77),higher than the national norm(41. 88 +10. 57),and the difference was statistically significant(P < 0. 01),and there was significant different level of education,marital sta-tus differences(P < 0. 05). Conclusion Rehabilitation of hospitalized psychiatric criminals are more depressed,corresponding inter-vention measures should be taken to reduce the harm to the safety supervision.%目的:了解康复期住院精神病罪犯心理健康状况及影响因素,为改善康复期住院精神病罪犯心理卫生状况提供参考依据。方法选取处于康复期的住院精神病罪犯85例,采用抑郁自评量表(SDS)进行问卷调查,并与国内常模比较,分析不同受教育程度、婚姻状态、犯罪类型间的康复期住院精神病罪犯抑郁情绪的差别。结果康复期住院精神病罪犯 SDS 评分为(54.59±11.77)分,高于全国常模(41.88±10.57)分,差异有统计学意义(P <0.01),且不同受教育程度、婚姻状态间 SDS 评分差异有统计学意义(P <0.05)。结论康复期住院精神病罪犯存在较多的抑郁情绪,应采取相应干预措施,减少对监管安全的危害。

  19. A case report demonstrating the efficacy of a comprehensive cognitive-behavioral therapy approach for treating anxiety, depression, and problematic eating in polycystic ovarian syndrome.

    Correa, John B; Sperry, Steffanie L; Darkes, Jack

    2015-08-01

    Despite elevated prevalence of anxiety and depression among women with polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS), there is a dearth of evidence-based psychotherapies to treat mood-related symptoms among this population. This case report describes the efficacy of The PCOS Workbook in treating symptoms of anxiety, depression, and problematic eating in a 19-year-old female previously diagnosed with PCOS. Using the cognitive-behavioral framework presented in the workbook, the participant experienced a significant reduction in symptoms of anxiety, depression, problematic eating, and general psychosocial dysfunction while simultaneously losing a significant amount of weight during treatment. Six months after the termination of treatment, the participant maintained several improvements in psychological functioning, although she did report a resumption of problematic eating and experience weight regain. These findings provide initial empirical support for the efficacy of this manualized psychotherapy at improving psychosocial functioning in women with PCOS. Recommendations on ways to best utilize this resource and enhance its long-term efficacy, particularly when intervening for problematic eating, are also discussed.

  20. Winter Depression: Integrating mood, circadian rhythms, and the sleep/wake and light/dark cycles into a bio-psycho-social-environmental model.

    Lewy, Alfred J; Emens, Jonathan S; Songer, Jeannie B; Sims, Neelam; Laurie, Amber L; Fiala, Steven C; Buti, Allie L

    2009-06-01

    The phase shift hypothesis (PSH) states that most patients with SAD become depressed in the winter because of a delay in circadian rhythms with respect to the sleep/wake cycle: According to the PSH, these patients should preferentially respond to the antidepressant effects of bright light exposure when it is scheduled in the morning so as to provide a corrective phase advance and restore optimum alignment between the circadian rhythms tightly coupled to the endogenous circadian pacemaker and those rhythms that are related to the sleep/wake cycle. Recent support for the PSH has come from studies in which symptom severity was shown to correlate with the degree of circadian misalignment: it appears that a subgroup of patients are phase advanced, not phase delayed; however, the phase-delayed type is predominant in SAD and perhaps in other disorders as well, such as non-seasonal unipolar depression. It is expected that during the next few years the PSH will be tested in these and other conditions, particularly since healthy subjects appear to have more severe symptoms of sub-clinical dysphoria correlating with phase-delayed circadian misalignment; critically important will be the undertaking of treatment trials to investigate the therapeutic efficacy of morning bright light or afternoon/evening low-dose melatonin in these disorders in which symptoms are more severe as the dim light melatonin onset (DLMO) is delayed with respect to the sleep/wake cycle (non-restorative sleep should also be evaluated, as well as bipolar disorder). The possibility that some individuals (and disorders) will be of the phase-advanced type should be considered, taking into account that the correct timing of phase-resetting agents for them will be bright light scheduled in the evening and/or low-dose melatonin taken in the morning. While sleep researchers and clinicians are accustomed to phase-typing patients with circadian-rhythm sleep disorders according to the timing of sleep, phase typing

  1. ESTROGEN IN THE TREATMENT OF DEPRESSION: A CASE REPORT

    Putu Andrika Kusuma

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Depression led to the decline quality of life. With more incidence in women due tohormonal cycle caused women more susceptible to depression. Hormone that fluctuatesand holds a key role in brain and nerve cells is estrogen. Estrogen in premenopausalwomen already decreases. Treatment of depression in premenopausal women who gopast the various considerations needs to consider the provision of hormonal therapy. Inthe case of patients treated with psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy in the form of 2 x20 mg Fluoxetine by mouth and hormonal therapy in the form of 1 x 2 mg Estradiol.Feasibility study to evaluate the hormonal therapy contraindications such as breastcancer also needs to be done.

  2. Understanding differences in alcohol consumption and depressed mood between U.S.- and foreign-born Asian and Caucasian college students.

    Yeh, Jih-Cheng J; Hsu, Sharon H; Mittmann, Angela J; Litt, Dana; Geisner, Irene M

    2016-01-01

    The number and proportion of foreign-born individuals in the U.S. population has increased in recent decades. From 1970 to 2007, the foreign-born population more than tripled to approximately 37 million (U.S. Census Bureau, 1997 , 2008 ). Foreign-born students are a key subpopulation of college students. About 23% of U.S. undergraduate college students in 2007-2008 were either born outside of the United States (10%) or were children of at least one first-generation immigrant parent (13%; National Center for Education Statistics, U.S. Department of Education [NCES], 2012 ). Asian students constitute the majority (30%) of foreign-born undergraduates. Although foreign-born Asian students compose nearly one-quarter of the college population, limited research has examined how rates of alcohol use and depression differ between foreign-born and U.S.-born Asian college students (Gonzalez, Reynolds, & Skewes, 2011 ; Ralston & Palfai, 2012 ). The limited research is worrisome given their increasing rates of college enrollment (U.S. Census Bureau, 2011 ), alcohol consumption (Aud, Fox, & KewalRamani, 2010 ), alcohol abuse and dependence (Grant et al., 2004 ), and underutilization of mental health services (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2001 ). Collectively, these factors point to the need for further research tailored to Asian college drinkers.

  3. Prediction of symptoms of emotional distress by mood regulation expectancies and affective traits.

    Catanzaro, Salvatore J; Backenstrass, Matthias; Miller, Steven A; Mearns, Jack; Pfeiffer, Nils; Brendalen, Sherry

    2014-12-01

    Three studies examined negative mood regulation expectancies (NMRE) and affective traits as independent predictors of self-reported symptoms of emotional distress. NMRE represent individuals' beliefs that they can alleviate unpleasant emotional states. Stronger NMRE are associated with more adaptive coping, more positive cognition during negative moods, more effective responses under stress and less emotional distress. Affective traits represent long-term tendencies toward particular affective experiences; they confer risk for specific symptoms of emotional distress. In Study 1, NMRE, trait negative affect (TNA) and trait positive affect (TPA) were all independently associated with depression among students and staff of a German university. In Study 2, in prospective analyses among U.S. college students traits exhibited hypothesised relationships with anxiety and depressive symptoms, and NMRE uniquely predicted anhedonic depression. Study 3 revealed independent prediction of change in symptoms over time by NMRE among U.S. college students, whereas traits were not associated with change in distress, anxiety and depression symptoms. Results suggest independent roles for NMRE and traits in the development of depression and anxiety symptoms and highlight the importance of NMRE as a potential target of therapeutic intervention in the process of symptom change.

  4. Shugan Jieyu Yin for Treatment of Senile Depression--A Clinical Report of 84 Cases

    2006-01-01

    @@ TCM holds that depression is, in most cases,resulted from injuries of the seven emotions and/or from stagnation of qi. The principle of treatment should be mainly to relieve the depressed liver and to regulate the flow of qi, supplemented by nourishing the blood and the liver, eliminating heat and irritability, promoting blood circulation by removing blood stasis, tranquilizing the mind, and dredging the collaterals to stop pain. Since 1995, we have treated 84 cases of senile depression with the prescription of Shugan Jieyu Yin (舒肝解郁饮Decoction for Relieving the Depressed Liver), and obtained satisfactory therapeutic results. A report follows.

  5. Introducing Mood Swings

    Bialoskorski, Leticia S.S.; Westerink, Joyce H.D.M.; Broek, van den Egon L.; Markopoulos, P.; Hoonhout, J.; Soute, I.; Read, J.

    2008-01-01

    Mood Swings is introduced: an affective interactive art installation that interprets and visualizes affect expressed by a person. Founded on the integration of a color model and a framework for affective movements, Mood Swings recognizes affective movement characteristics, processes these, and displ

  6. Optimal management of perimenopausal depression

    Barbara L Parry

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Barbara L ParryDepartment of Psychiatry, University of California, San Diego, USAAbstract: Only recently has the perimenopause become recognized as a time when women are at risk for new onset and recurrence of major depression. Untreated depression at this time not only exacerbates the course of a depressive illness, but also puts women at increased risk for sleep disorders, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and osteoporosis. Although antidepressant medication is the mainstay of treatment, adjunctive therapy, especially with estrogen replacement, may be indicated in refractory cases, and may speed the onset of antidepressant action. Many, but not all, studies, report that progesterone antagonizes the beneficial effects of estrogen. Although some antidepressants improve vasomotor symptoms, in general they are not as effective as estrogen alone for relieving these symptoms. Estrogen alone, however, does not generally result in remission of major depression in most (but not all studies, but may provide benefit to some women with less severe symptoms if administered in therapeutic ranges. The selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs in addition to estrogen are usually more beneficial in improving mood than SSRIs or estrogen treatment alone for major depression, whereas the selective norepinephrine and serotonin reuptake inhibitors do not require the addition of estrogen to exert their antidepressant effects in menopausal depression. In addition to attention to general health, hormonal status, and antidepressant treatment, the optimal management of perimenopausal depression also requires attention to the individual woman’s psychosocial and spiritual well being.Keywords: menopause, depression, management

  7. Depression in multiple sclerosis: a review.

    Siegert, R J; Abernethy, D A

    2005-04-01

    Several studies have reported high rates of depression in multiple sclerosis (MS) with a lifetime prevalence of approximately 50% and an annual prevalence of 20% not uncommon. Concern about the potential of new drug treatments to exacerbate or precipitate depression in MS has led to increased interest in the relation between MS and depression. This review on MS and depression identifies the following key issues: How common is depression in people with MS? Is depression in MS associated with lesions in specific regions of the central nervous system? Is there an increased risk of suicide in MS? Is there a higher than expected incidence of anxiety disorders in MS? Are fatigue and depressed mood related in MS? Is there a relation between depression and cognitive impairment in MS? Which psychosocial variables affect the development of depression in MS? Does treatment with interferon increase the risk of depression? How effective are treatments for MS patients with depression? Each of these issues is briefly reviewed with critical commentary, and some priorities for future research are suggested.

  8. [Mood induction procedures: a critical review].

    Gilet, A-L

    2008-06-01

    mood induction procedures in the study of cognitive processes in depression [Clin Psychol Rev 25 (2005) 487-510], borderline personality disorder [J Behav Ther Exp Psychiatry 36 (2005) 226-239] or associated with brain imaging [Am J Psychiatry 161 (2004) 2245-2256]. Then the inherent problems to the use of experimental mood induction procedures are reconsidered. Doubts have effectively arisen about the effectiveness and validity of the mood induction procedures usually used in research. Some authors questioned whether a sufficient intensity of mood is produced or the possibility that the effects observed are due mainly to demand effects [Br J Psychol 85 (1994) 55-78, Clin Psychol Rev 10 (1990) 669-697, Eur J Soc Psychol 26 (1996) 557-580]. In fact, the various mood induction procedures are not equal with regard to the demand effects observed. The question of demand characteristics with respect to mood induction procedures is still under debate, even if demand effects are supposed to be most likely to occur with self-statement techniques (especially with the Velten mood induction procedure) or when subjects are explicitly instructed to try to enter a specific mood state [Eur J Soc Psychol 26 (1996) 557-580]. Another interrogation relates to the effectiveness of these various procedures of induction and the duration of induced moods. Generally, the various techniques used produce true changes of moods in the majority if not the whole of the subjects. However, certain procedures seem more effective in inducing a mood in particular [Br J Psychol 85 (1994) 55-78, Clin Psychol Rev 10 (1990) 669-697, Eur J Soc Psychol 26 (1996) 557-580]. As for the duration of induced moods this depends at the same time on the procedure used and the mood induced. Nevertheless, mood induction remains fundamental in the study of the effects of mood on the cognitive activities, insofar as it makes it possible to study the effects of negative as well as positive moods.

  9. Adult separation anxiety in patients with complicated grief versus healthy control subjects: relationships with lifetime depressive and hypomanic symptoms

    Dell'Osso Liliana

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Around 9% to 20% of bereaved individuals experience symptoms of complicated grief (CG that are associated with significant distress and impairment. A major issue is whether CG represents a distinctive nosographic entity, independent from other mental disorders, particularly major depression (MD, and the role of symptoms of adult separation anxiety. The purpose of this study was to compare the clinical features of patients with CG versus a sample of healthy control subjects, with particular focus on adult separation anxiety and lifetime mood spectrum symptoms. Methods A total of 53 patients with CG and 50 healthy control subjects were consecutively recruited and assessed by means of the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis-I disorders (SCID-I/P, Inventory of Complicated Grief (ICG, Adult Separation Anxiety Questionnaire (ASA-27, Work and Social Adjustment Scale (WSAS and Mood Spectrum-Self Report (MOODS-SR lifetime version. Results Patients with CG reported significantly higher scores on the MOODS-SR, ASA-27, and WSAS with respect to healthy control subjects. The scores on the ASA-27 were significantly associated with the MOODS-SR depressive and manic components amongst both patients and healthy control subjects, with a stronger association in the latter. Conclusions A major limitation of the present study is the small sample size that may reduce the generalizability of the results. Moreover, lifetime MOODS-SR does not provide information about the temporal sequence of the manic or depressive symptoms and the loss. The frequent comorbidity with MD and the association with both depressive and manic lifetime symptoms do not support the independence of CG from mood disorders. In our patients, CG is associated with high levels of separation anxiety in adulthood. However, the presence of lifetime mood instability, as measured by the frequent presence of depressive and hypomanic lifetime symptoms, suggests that cyclothymia

  10. 褪黑素改善抑郁症患者睡眠及抑郁情绪的研究%Melatonin synergizes with sertraline to improve quality of sleep and mood in patients with depressive disorder

    程娟; 窦光茜; 康明秀; 马静; 王勇

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effect of melatonin synergizing with sertraline in improving the quality of sleep and mood in patients with depressive disorder .Methods 82 subjects were enrolled in this study from the wards of Dept .Integrative Medicine in Anding hospital , form August 2012 to December 2013, who were also randomly divided into 2 gruops, namely the study group and the controlled one ( 41 for each group );sertraline alone was applied for patients in controlled group , while melatonin , along with sertraline , was for those in the study group;patients from both groups were assessed with HAMD and PQSI at start point , the end of 4 weeks of treatment and the endpoint ( 8 weeks ) .Results Patients form both groups were much better after 8 weeks of treatment;those in the study group were with lower HAMD and PQSI score than the controlled group . Conclusions Melatonin synergizes with sertraline can improve the quality of sleep and mood in patients with depressive disorder .%目的:探讨褪黑素对抑郁患者睡眠及抑郁情绪的改善情况。方法选择自2012年8月至2013年12月于天津安定医院中西医结合科住院患者中符合入组标准的患者82例,随机分为实验组及对照组各41例;对照组患者以舍曲林系统治疗,改善患者抑郁情绪;实验组在服用舍曲林基础上加用褪黑素;两组患者均连续治疗8周,在入组时及治疗后4周末、8周末对两组患者进行汉密顿抑郁量表( HAMD,24项版本)及匹兹堡睡眠质量问卷( PQSI)评估。结果两组患者经8周治疗后,抑郁情绪及睡眠情况均较入组时明显好转;实验组患者在抑郁情绪及睡眠质量的好转上,均优于对照组患者。结论褪黑素可以明显改善抑郁患者睡眠质量,增强舍曲林的临床疗效。

  11. Thyroid hormone, neural tissue and mood modulation.

    Bauer, M; Whybrow, P C

    2001-04-01

    The successful treatment of affective disorders with thyroid hormone exemplifies the suggested inter-relationship between endocrine and neuronal systems in these disorders. Thyroid hormones have a profound influence on behaviour and appear to be capable of modulating the phenotypic expression of major affective illness. Specifically, there is good evidence that triiodothyronine (T3) may accelerate the antidepressant response to tricylic antidepressants, and some studies suggest that T3 may augment the therapeutic response to antidepressants in refractory depressed patients. Open studies have also indicated that adjunctive supraphysiological doses of thyroxine (T4) can ameliorate depressive symptomatology and help stabilize the long-term course of illness in bipolar and unipolar patients, especially women refractory to standard medications. Despite acceptance of the essential role of thyroid hormone on brain maturation and differentiation, and the clinical and therapeutic observations in association with mood disorders, the molecular action that may underlie the mood-modulating properties of thyroid hormone in the adult brain has only recently become the focus of research. The identification of nuclear T3 receptors, the region-specific expression of deiodinase isoenzymes and the molecular analyses of thyroid-responsive genes in the adult brain have provided the biological bases for a better understanding of thyroid hormone action in mature neurons. Also the influence of thyroid hormones on the putative neurotransmitter systems that regulate mood and behaviour, serotonin and norepinephrine, may be helpful in explaining their mood-modulating effects.

  12. [Sulpiride and depression].

    Lestynek, J L

    1983-09-22

    For many years the antidepressive or uninhibiting effect of sulpiride has been a subject of controversy. Following recent reports underscoring an antidepressive action of sulpiride with mood inversion, we have studied 17 patients with depression in order to build a personal opinion. With a daily dosage of 150 mg, a satisfactory response was recorded in overall pathology in 76.5% of cases, and in depressive manifestations in 82% of cases. Therefore, we believe that sulpiride does have an antidepressive action, which begins approximately on the tenth day of treatment, while the uninhibiting effect becomes noticeable on the fifth day. It is to be pointed out that, among the 12 patients who had failed to respond to prior therapy with tricyclic antidepressants, 10 responded very satisfactorily to sulpiride.

  13. Effect of comprehensive intervention to improve the mood of anxiety and depression in patients with chronic prostatitis%综合干预改善慢性前列腺炎焦虑抑郁情绪的效果

    彭翠香; 王非凡; 韩敏

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of comprehensive intervention to improve the mood the anxiety and depression in patients with chronic prostatieis, in order to improve the chronic prostatitis patients with anxiety and depression mood, improve life quality. Methods Using Zung self-rating anxiety scale SAS and depression rating scale SDS, the SAS score≥47 points or SDS≥45 points in 174 cases of chronic prostatitis patients were randomly divided into intervention group 87 patients and control group 87 patients. For the intervention group patients, get through psychological counseling, cognitive behavioral education, seeking social support and nursing care management, comprehensive intervention, and then compared SAS, SDS values of selfevaluation on the patient admission, discharge with the national norm. Results Admission patients in the intervention group SAS(54±3.09) points, SDS (52±4.34) points, control group SAS ( 53±3.91) points,SDS ( 52±3.86) points, no statistics significant between the two groups(P>0.05), discharge patients in the intervention group SAS (37±3.72) points, SDS(35±2.82) points, control group SAS (48 ± 2.34) points,SDS (47±3.43) points, the two groups had significant difference ( P<0.05).Intervention group scores assessed at discharge are lower than the national norm SAS (42 ±11) points, SDS (37 ± 13) points while the control group scores at discharge decreased slightly, but not statistically significant. Conclusions Patients with chronic prostatitis are affected by many factors, anxiety and depression will affect their life quality and disease rehabilitative. We believe that in the treatment of chronic prostatitis, improve the patient' s anxiety and depression. To improve the life quality of the patients are equally important.%目的 探讨综合干预改善慢性前列腺炎患者的焦虑、抑郁情绪的效果,以提高其生活质量.方法 采用Zung自我评定焦虑量表SAS和抑郁评定量表SDS,将SAS评分≥47

  14. Postconcussive symptom report: the relative influence of head injury and depression.

    Suhr, Julie A; Gunstad, John

    2002-12-01

    The present study explored whether any subset of self-reported postconcussion (PCS) symptoms or specific PCS symptom is sensitive and/or specific to head injury in non-self-selected samples of individuals aged 18-21 with head injury and depression (n = 32), head injury without depression (n = 31), depression without head injury (n = 25), and controls (n = 50). All participants completed a self-report PCS symptom scale based on their current symptoms. Results showed that depression, not head-injury status, largely accounted for elevation in PCS symptom reports, including cognitive symptoms. Thus, report of cognitive PCS symptoms is not specific to head injury, raising concerns about using such items to screen for head injury in the general population.

  15. The implicit memory of individual depression in percept-driven process under the influence of sad mood induction%知觉驱动条件下悲伤性心境对抑郁情绪个体内隐记忆的影响

    刘庆英; 冯正直; 王凤; 李嘉雯

    2010-01-01

    目的 探讨知觉驱动条件下悲伤性心境对抑郁情绪个体内隐记忆的影响.方法 采用Paller改进的知觉驱动内隐范式,对26名抑郁情绪被试和25名正常被试进行学习一测验任务.记录被试对不同情绪效价面孔的性别判断正确率.结果 ①正常组和抑郁情绪组的视觉模拟评分中,评价时间(F=4.61,P<0.05)、心境状态(F=21.61,P<0.05)有显著主效应,二者存在交互作用(F=4.13,P<0.05).组别无主效应.②正常组和抑郁情绪组对不同呈现时间的情绪面孔性别判断正确率中,呈现时间(F=4.12,P<0.05)、实验类型(F=20.55,P<0.05)有显著主效应,并且存在交互效应(F=31.72,P<0.05).③进一步简单效应分析发现:实验类型在呈现时间为3600 ms的正性[(80±13)%,(92±10)%,F=65.06,P<0.05]、负性[(58±12)%,(91±10)%,F=10.00,P<0.05]、中性[(84±16)%,(88±9)%,F=12.49,P<0.05]面孔的性别判断正确率上的简单效应非常显著;实验类型在呈现时间为300ms的正性[(76±12)%,(85±10)%,F=54.72,P<0.05]、中性[(82±10)%,(80±10)%,F=54.57,P<0.05]面孔的性别判断正确率上的简单效应非常显著,同时,呈现时间为300ms的中性面孔的性别判断正确率的简单效应存在组间差异(F=54.72,P<0.05).结论 悲伤性心境使2组被试对正性和负性面孔的内隐记忆显著增强,抑郁情绪组较正常组在中性面孔的内隐性加工过程上存在显著差异.%Objective To investigate the effect of sad mood to implicit memory of depressed individuals under the condition of percept-driven process. Methods Using the percept-driven implicit paradigm improved by Paller,26 depression subjects and 25 normal subjects completed study-test task and reported the gender of different emotional faces. Results ①There were main effects of time(F = 4.61, P<0.05)and mood state(F= 21.61, P <0.05) ,significant interaction of time and emotion(F = 4. 13, P<0. 05) ,no significant difference of group on visual analogue scale

  16. The Association between Hair Cortisol and Self-Reported Symptoms of Depression in Pregnant Women

    Wikenius, Ellen; Moe, Vibeke; Kjellevold, Marian; Smith, Lars; Lyle, Robert; Waagbø, Rune; Page, Christian Magnus; Myhre, Anne Margrethe

    2016-01-01

    Depression has been linked to an imbalance in cortisol. Until recently, cortisol has been studied by measuring concentrations at single time points in blood or saliva samples. Cortisol concentrations vary with circadian rhythm and experiences, from time point to time point. The measurement of hair cortisol concentration (HCC) is a new method of accessing mean, long-term cortisol concentrations. Recent studies show positive associations between depression and HCC, and prenatal maternal cortisol is thought to influence the developing fetus. We therefore examined the association between HCC and self-reported symptoms of depression in second trimester pregnant women. Participants were 181 women, recruited between September 2011 and October 2013 to the Little-in-Norway (LiN)-study. These women answered the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Rating Scale (EPDS) on self-reported symptoms of depression, and one cm maternal scalp hair was collected and analyzed for cortisol concentrations. Multiple regression analyses did not show depressive symptoms as a predictor for HCC in our selection of pregnant women, while gestational age was significantly related. In conclusion, our study indicated that symptoms of depression during pregnancy did not predict HCC, but further studies of clinically depressed, pregnant women using gestational age as an adjustment variable are warranted. PMID:27584584

  17. Disturbed sleep: linking allergic rhinitis, mood and suicidal behavior.

    Fang, Beverly J; Tonelli, Leonardo H; Soriano, Joseph J; Postolache, Teodor T

    2010-01-01

    Allergic inflammation is associated with mood disorders, exacerbation of depression, and suicidal behavior. Mediators of inflammation modulate sleep , with Th1 cytokines promoting NREM sleep and increasing sleepiness and Th2 cytokines (produced during allergic inflammation) impairing sleep. As sleep impairment is a rapidly modifiable suicide risk factor strongly associated with mood disorders, we review the literature leading to the hypothesis that allergic rhinitis leads to mood and anxiety disorders and an increased risk of suicide via sleep impairment. Specifically, allergic rhinitis can impair sleep through mechanical (obstructive) and molecular (cytokine production) processes. The high prevalence of mood and anxiety disorders and allergy, the nonabating suicide incidence, the currently available treatment modalities to treat sleep impairment and the need for novel therapeutic targets for mood and anxiety disorders, justify multilevel efforts to explore disturbance of sleep as a pathophysiological link.

  18. Mood, media experiences and advertising

    Bronner, F.; van Velthoven, S.; Costa Pereira, F.; Veríssimo, J.; Neijens, P.C.

    2008-01-01

    Studying moods and the effects that a mood has is an important topic in research into advertising. But nearly all data on mood effects are gathered in a forced exposure and lab context. In a real-life study we relate in this contribution mood to moments of media consumption. So we analyze at the lev

  19. Mood Adjustment via Mass Communication.

    Knobloch, Silvia

    2003-01-01

    Proposes and experimentally tests mood adjustment approach, complementing mood management theory. Discusses how results regarding self-exposure across time show that patterns of popular music listening among a group of undergraduate students differ with initial mood and anticipation, lending support to mood adjustment hypotheses. Describes how…

  20. Depressive symptomatology in hospitalised children

    M. Rangaka

    1993-05-01

    Full Text Available This study was undertaken to determine the extent and nature of depressive symptoms exhibited by black South African children during hospitalisation for orthopaedic procedures. Social factors associated with the risk for depression, in response to hospitalisation, were also examined. Pre- and post-test assessments were conducted on a sample of 30 children aged between 6 and 12 years. The assessment entailed a structured interview, together with the following psychometric instruments: A Global Mood Scale, a Depressive Symptoms Checklist, a Hospital Fears Rating Scale and a Self Report Depression Rating Scale. A large proportion of the children were rated by ward sisters as showing high levels of depressive symptomatology two weeks after admission to hospital. As expected, discrepancies were found between adult and child self-ratings of depression. The results of this study indicate that hospitalisation for orthopaedic child patients is associated with the development of depressive symptomatology. It is suggested that emphasis be placed on the development of supportive programmes and procedures aimed at maximising children's coping responses to hospitalisation, particularly for children who find themselves Isolated from their communities and families, as a result of both centralised health services and poor socio-economic conditions.

  1. Emotional reactivity to daily events in major and minor depression.

    Bylsma, Lauren M; Taylor-Clift, April; Rottenberg, Jonathan

    2011-02-01

    Although emotional dysfunction is an important aspect of major depressive disorder (MDD), it has rarely been studied in daily life. Peeters, Nicolson, Berkhof, Delespaul, and deVries (2003) observed a surprising mood-brightening effect when individuals with MDD reported greater reactivity to positive events. To better understand this phenomenon, we conducted a multimethod assessment of emotional reactivity to daily life events, obtaining detailed reports of appraisals and event characteristics using the experience-sampling method and the Day Reconstruction Method (Kahneman, Krueger, Schkade, Schwarz, & Stone, 2004) in 35 individuals currently experiencing a major depressive episode, 26 in a minor depressive (mD) episode, and 38 never-depressed healthy controls. Relative to healthy controls, both mood-disordered groups reported greater daily negative affect and lower positive affect and reported events as less pleasant, more unpleasant, and more stressful. Importantly, MDD and mD individuals reported greater reductions in negative affect following positive events, an effect that converged across assessment methods and was not explained by differences in prevailing affect, event appraisals, or medications. Implications of this curious mood-brightening effect are discussed.

  2. The relationship between parents' poor emotional health status and childhood mood and anxiety disorder in Florida children, national survey of children's health, 2011-2012.

    Reid, Keshia M

    2015-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine how parents' emotional health relates to childhood mood and anxiety disorder among Florida children in the 2011-2012 National Survey of Children's Health. Analyses were restricted to 1,241 Florida children 6-17 years of age. Childhood mood and anxiety disorder was defined as a parent-reported diagnosis of current depression or anxiety. Parents' emotional health status was a composite measure of the lowest reported emotional health of any parent in the household. To assess the association between parents' emotional health and childhood mood and anxiety disorder, bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed. Nearly 5 % of Florida children had a mood or anxiety disorder in 2011-2012. Children living with a parent in poor emotional health were significantly more likely to have a mood or anxiety disorder compared to children living with a parent in good emotional health (OR 5.01; 95 % CI 1.89, 13.29). After adjusting for covariates, this association remained substantial and significant (aOR 4.33; 95 % CI 1.49, 12.57). Findings presented here are consistent with national findings and emphasize the strong link between parents' emotional health status and childhood mood and anxiety disorders. To address the mental health of children in the state of Florida, Florida public health initiatives should consider family processes and child level characteristics.

  3. Music feels like moods feel

    Kris eGoffin

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available While it is widely accepted that music evokes moods, there is disagreement over whether music-induced moods are relevant to the aesthetic appreciation of music as such. The arguments against the aesthetic relevance of music-induced moods are: (1 moods cannot be intentionally directed at the music and (2 music-induced moods are highly subjective experiences and are therefore a kind of mind-wandering. This paper presents a novel account of musical moods that avoids these objections. It is correct to say that a listener's entire mood is not relevant to the aesthetic appreciation of music. However, the experience of mood consists of having different feelings. Music induces feelings that are intentionally directed at the music and clusters of these feelings can be recognized as typical of a specific mood. Therefore, mood-feelings are relevant to the aesthetic appreciation of music.

  4. Discriminating Between Bipolar Disorder and Major Depressive Disorder.

    Vöhringer, Paul A; Perlis, Roy H

    2016-03-01

    Rates of misdiagnosis between major depressive disorder and bipolar disorder have been reported to be substantial, and the consequence of such misdiagnosis is likely to be a delay in achieving effective control of symptoms, in some cases spanning many years. Particularly in the midst of a depressive episode, or early in the illness course, it may be challenging to distinguish the 2 mood disorders purely on the basis of cross-sectional features. To date, no useful biological markers have been reliably shown to distinguish between bipolar disorder and major depressive disorder.

  5. The Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology - the self-report Romanian version

    Hackl, E.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Clinical depression is a debilitating disorder affecting a significant percentage of population. In this context, having reliable screening instruments for depression represents a major advantage. A widely used screening tool is the Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology – Self-Report version (QIDS-SR. The aim of this study was to investigate the psychometric proprieties of the Romanian version of QIDS-SR as a diagnostic measure for depression. The data were collected from Romanian adult participants (N = 148 who expressed interest in an online therapeutic program for depression. Our sample included both normal (N = 48 and clinically depressed (N = 100 participants. Diagnostic assessments were conducted using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV. The Romanian QIDS-SR demonstrated high convergent validity with Beck Depression Inventory - II (r=.83 and good internal consistency (α=.74. Receiver operating characteristics analysis demonstrated satisfactory diagnostic validity for the QIDS-SR. The optimal ratio between sensitivity and specificity was set at 15 for the QIDS-SR. It was concluded that QIDS-SR represents an adequate, useful and cost-effective screening instrument for clinical depression in Romania.

  6. Controversies about a common etiology for eating and mood disorders

    Clara eRossetti

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Obesity and depression represent a growing health concern worldwide. For many years, basic science and medicine have considered obesity as a metabolic illness, while depression was classified a psychiatric disorder. Despite accumulating evidence suggesting that obesity and depression may share commonalities though, the causal link between eating and mood disorders remains to be fully understood. This etiology is highly complex, consisting of multiple environmental and genetic risk factors that interact with each other. In this review, we sought to summarize the preclinical and clinical evidence supporting a common etiology for eating and mood disorders, with a particular emphasis on signaling pathways involved in the maintenance of energy balance and mood stability, among which orexigenic and anorexigenic neuropeptides, metabolic factors, stress responsive hormones, cytokines and neurotrophic factors.

  7. Physical aggression, diagnostic presentation, and executive functioning in inpatient adolescents diagnosed with mood disorders.

    Holler, Karen; Kavanaugh, Brian

    2013-08-01

    While a relationship has been identified between physical aggression and executive functioning within the adult population, this relationship has not yet been consistently examined in the adolescent population. This study examined the association between physical aggression towards others, self-reported depressive symptoms, and executive functioning within an adolescent inpatient sample diagnosed with a mood disorder. This study consisted of a retrospective chart review of 105 adolescent inpatients (ages 13-19) that received a diagnosis of a mood disorder (excluding Bipolar Disorder). Participants were grouped based on history of aggression towards others, resulting in a mood disorder with physically aggressive symptoms group (n = 49) and a mood disorder without physically aggressive symptoms group (n = 56). Ten scores on various measures of executive functioning were grouped into five executive functioning subdomains: Problem Solving/Planning, Cognitive Flexibility/Set Shifting, Response Inhibition/Interference Control, Fluency, and Working Memory/Simple Attention. Results from analyses of covariance indicated that there were no significant differences (p executive functioning subdomains. Correlation analyses (p executive dysfunction in adolescent psychiatric conditions, and the specific executive subdomains that are implicated.

  8. Early trauma and mood disorders in youngsters

    Caroline Elizabeth Konradt

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To verify early experiences of childhood abuse and neglect among young with bipolar disorder (BD, major depression (MDD, and controls. METHOD: Case-control study nested to a population-based cross-sectional study. The diagnosis was performed via the structured clinical interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders (SCID. Traumatic events were analyzed using the Portuguese version - Questionário sobre Traumas na Infância (CTQ - based on the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire. RESULTS: The sample comprised 231 adolescents with 95 individuals in the control group, 82 with MDD and 54 with BD (32 of type I and 22 type II. The prevalence of trauma or violence in childhood was 42.2%; among those, 54.7% had BD, 62.2% had MDD and 18.1% were in the control group. Young people with BD or MDD obtained higher means in total CTQ and among their components when compared with those in the control group. DISCUSSION: Reports on early traumatic experiences were more frequent among young people with mood disorders than in the general population, corroborating the literature on the subject. In this sense, the traumatic experiences during childhood seemed to contribute to the onset of the disorder.

  9. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor in mood disorders and antidepressant treatments.

    Castrén, Eero; Kojima, Masami

    2017-01-01

    Levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) are reduced in the brain and serum of depressed patients and at least the reduction in serum levels is reversible upon successful treatment. These data, together with a wealth of reports using different animal models with depression-like behavior or manipulation of expression of BDNF or its receptor TrkB have implicated BDNF in the pathophysiology of depression as well as in the mechanism of action of antidepressant treatments. Recent findings have shown that posttranslational processing of BDNF gene product can yield different molecular entities that differently influence signaling through BNDF receptor TrkB and the pan-neurotrophin receptor p75(NTR). We will here review these data and discuss new insights into the possible pathophysiological roles of those new BDNF subtypes as well as recent findings on the role of BDNF mediated neuronal plasticity in mood disorders and their treatments.

  10. Effects of qigong on depression: a systemic review.

    Oh, Byeongsang; Choi, Sun Mi; Inamori, Aya; Rosenthal, David; Yeung, Albert

    2013-01-01

    Physical exercises and relaxation have been found to be beneficial for depression. However, there is little evidence on the use of Qigong, a mind-body practice integrating gentle exercise and relaxation, in the management of depression. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the effects of Qigong on depression. The paper examined clinical trials measuring the effect of Qigong on depression within six large-scale medical research databases (PubMed, Medline, ProQuest, Science Direct, EMBASE, and PsycInfo) till October 2011. Key words "Qigong," "depression," and "mood" were used. Ten studies were identified as original randomized controlled trial (RCT) studies investigating the effect of Qigong on depression as primary (n = 2) or secondary outcome (n = 8). Four studies reported positive results of the Qigong treatment on depression; two reported that Qigong effect on depression was as effective as physical exercise. One study reported that Qigong was comparable to a conventional rehabilitation program, but the remaining three studies found no benefits of Qigong on depression. While the evidence suggests the potential effects of Qigong in the treatment of depression, the review of the literature shows inconclusive results. Further research using rigorous study designs is necessary to investigate the effectiveness of Qigong in depression.

  11. Botanicals for mood disorders with a focus on epilepsy.

    Ketcha Wanda, Germain Jean Magloire; Ngitedem, Steve Guemnang; Njamen, Dieudonné

    2015-11-01

    Mood disorders are among the major health problems that exist worldwide. They are highly prevalent in the general population and cause significant disturbance of life quality and social functioning of the affected persons. The two major classes of mood disorders are bipolar disorders and depression. The latter is assumed to be the most frequent psychiatric comorbidity in epilepsy. Studies published during the second half of the 20th century recognized that certain patients with epilepsy present a depressed mood. Synthesized pharmaceuticals have been in use for decades to treat both mood disorders and epilepsy, but despite their efficiency, their use is limited by numerous side effects. On the other hand, animal models have been developed to deeply study potential botanicals which have an effect on mood disorders. Studies to investigate the potential effects of medicinal plants acting on the nervous system and used to treat seizures and anxiety are increasingly growing. However, these studies discuss the two conditions separately without association. In this review, we present animal models of depression and investigative models (methods of assessing depression) of depression and anxiety in animals. Other classical test models for prediction of clinical antidepressant activity are presented. Finally, this review also highlights antidepressant activities of herbals focusing specially on depression-like behaviors associated with epilepsy. The pharmacological properties and active principles of cited medicinal plants are emphasized. This review, therefore, provides an overview of the work done on botanicals for mood disorders, potential mechanisms of action of botanicals, and the major compounds. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled "Botanicals for Epilepsy".

  12. Mindfulness-based stress reduction for comorbid anxiety and depression: case report and clinical considerations.

    Hazlett-Stevens, Holly

    2012-11-01

    Growing research literature has documented the effectiveness of mindfulness-based interventions for anxiety and depressive disorders. Mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) teaches a series of mindfulness meditation and yoga practices, delivered in a group format during eight weekly sessions plus one full-day session. This case report demonstrates how MBSR was associated with dramatic clinical improvement of an individual with symptoms of panic, generalized anxiety, and depression. Scores on clinical assessment measures suggested clinically severe levels of anxious arousal, generalized anxiety, worry, fear of negative evaluation, and depression at the beginning of the intervention. The scores on all these measures fell well within normal limits 7 weeks later at the end of the intervention, and no remaining symptoms were reported afterward. Increased life satisfaction and quality of life were documented as well. This case illustrates the potential benefit of MBSR as an alternative or adjunctive treatment for comorbid anxiety and depressive disorder symptoms.

  13. Mood and audience effects on video lottery terminal gambling.

    Mishra, Sandeep; Morgan, Michael; Lalumière, Martin L; Williams, Robert J

    2010-09-01

    Little is known about the situational factors associated with gambling behavior. We induced 180 male participants (mean age: 21.6) into a positive, negative, or neutral mood prior to gambling on a video lottery terminal (VLT). While gambling, participants were observed by either a male peer, female peer, or no one. Induced mood had no effect on gambling behavior. Participants induced into a negative mood prior to gambling, however, reported more positive moods after gambling, whereas those with positive and neutral moods reported more negative moods after gambling. Participants observed by either a male or female peer spent less time gambling on the VLT compared to those not observed. Participants observed by a female peer lost less money relative to the other observer conditions. Degree of problem gambling in the last year had little influence on these effects. Some practical implications of these findings are discussed.

  14. Complementary and alternative medicine therapies to promote healthy moods.

    Kemper, Kathi J; Shannon, Scott

    2007-12-01

    Pediatric mood disorders (unipolar depression and bipolar disorder) are serious, common, persistent, and recurrent medical conditions. Depression is the second leading cause of illness and disability among young people worldwide. A healthy lifestyle and healthy environment are the cornerstones for promoting positive moods. In addition, several complementary therapies, including nutritional supplements, herbs, mind-body therapies, massage, and acupuncture can be helpful. The focus of this article is the fundamental lifestyle approaches and complementary therapies that enhance mental health in young people. Various resources are available to clinicians to help patients and families promote mental health.

  15. Magnetic seizure therapy in an adolescent with refractory bipolar depression: a case report

    Noda Y

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Yoshihiro Noda,1,2 Zafiris J Daskalakis,1–3 Jonathan Downar,4 Paul E Croarkin,5 Paul B Fitzgerald,6 Daniel M Blumberger1–3 1Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto, 2Temerty Centre for Therapeutic Brain Intervention, 3Campbell Family Mental Health Research Institute, Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, 4MRI-Guided rTMS Clinic, University Health Network, Toronto, ON, Canada; 5Division of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Department of Psychiatry and Psychology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA; 6Monash Alfred Psychiatry Research Centre, The Alfred and Monash University Central Clinical School, Melbourne, Australia Abstract: Magnetic seizure therapy (MST has shown efficacy in adult patients with treatment-resistant depression with limited impairment in memory. To date, the use of MST in adolescent depression has not been reported. Here we describe the first successful use of MST in the treatment of an adolescent patient with refractory bipolar depression. This patient received MST in an ongoing open-label study for treatment-resistant major depression. Treatments employed a twin-coil MST apparatus, with the center of each coil placed over the frontal cortex (ie, each coil centered over F3 and F4. MST was applied at 100 Hz and 100% machine output at progressively increasing train durations. Depressive symptoms were assessed using the 24-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale and cognitive function was assessed with a comprehensive neuropsychological battery. This adolescent patient achieved full remission of clinical symptoms after an acute course of 18 MST treatments and had no apparent cognitive decline, other than some autobiographical memory impairment that may or may not be related to the MST treatment. This case report suggests that MST may be a safe and well tolerated intervention for adolescents with treatment-resistant bipolar depression. Pilot studies to further evaluate the effectiveness and safety of

  16. Salivary cortisol levels and mood vary by lifetime trauma exposure in a sample of healthy women.

    Ganzel, Barbara L; Eckenrode, John J; Kim, Pilyoung; Wethington, Elaine; Horowitz, Eric; Temple, Elise

    2007-10-01

    The authors examined the effects of lifetime trauma exposure on salivary cortisol and mood in a sample of women (N = 37) over 25 days before and after a stressful event. The sample excluded posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and major depression and was divided into three groups: (a) no trauma, (b) prior trauma with no peritraumatic symptoms of acute distress, and (c) prior trauma with peritraumatic symptoms. Because results indicated no significant differences between groups one and two, they were combined for analysis. Women reporting prior trauma with symptoms had lower afternoon cortisol levels across time, with sustained negative mood relative to the comparison group. These data suggest the presence of long-term psychophysiological effects of trauma exposure in healthy women.

  17. Brief Behavioral Therapy for Pediatric Anxiety and Depression: Piloting an Integrated Treatment Approach

    Weersing, V. Robin; Gonzalez, Araceli; Campo, John V.; Lucas, Amanda N.

    2008-01-01

    Mood and anxiety disorders in youth are disabling, distressing, and prevalent. Furthermore, depression and anxiety frequently co-exist, may share several etiological factors, and respond to similar interventions. In this paper, we report preliminary results from a treatment adaptation project designed to condense existing cognitive behavioral…

  18. Emotional intelligence and mood states associated with optimal performance

    Lane, A.; Thelwell, Richard; Devonport, T.

    2009-01-01

    This study utilized a within-subject design to investigate relationships between emotional intelligence and memories of mood states associated with optimal and dysfunctional performance in competitive sport and academic situations. Sport students (N = 436) completed a self-report Emotional Intelligence Scale (EIS), whilst retrospective accounts of mood states associated with optimal and dysfunctional sporting competition and academic examination performance were recorded using the Brunel Mood...

  19. Explicit and implicit information needs of people with depression: a qualitative investigation of problems reported on an online depression support forum

    Banfield Michelle A

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Health management is impeded when consumers do not possess adequate knowledge about their illness. At a public health level, consumer knowledge about depression is particularly important because depression is highly prevalent and causes substantial disability and burden. However, currently little is known about the information needs of people with depression. This study aimed to investigate the explicit and implicit information needs of users of an online depression support forum. Methods A sample of 2680 posts was systematically selected from three discussion forums on an online depression bulletin board (blueboard.anu.edu.au. Data were examined for evidence of requests for information (reflecting explicit needs and reports of past or current problems (implicit needs. Thematic analysis was conducted using a data-driven inductive approach with the assistance of NVivo 7, and instances of questions and people reporting particular types of problems were recorded. Results A total of 134 participants with personal experience of depression contributed to the data analysed. Six broad themes represented participant queries and reported problems: Understanding depression; disclosure and stigma; medication; treatment and services; coping with depression; and comorbid health problems. A variety of specific needs were evident within these broad thematic areas. Some people (n = 46 expressed their information needs by asking direct questions (47 queries but the majority of needs were expressed implicitly (351 problems by the 134 participants. The most evident need for information related to coping with depression and its consequences, followed by topics associated with medication, treatment and services. Conclusions People with depression have substantial unmet information needs and require strategies to deal with the difficulties they face. They require access to high quality and relevant online resources and professionals; thus, there is

  20. Investigation of the mood of anxiety and depression of advanced tumor patients and their caregivers%晚期肿瘤病人及其照顾者焦虑抑郁情绪的调查研究

    张宗城; 叶桦; 岑建宁; 张艳玲; 刘丽

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the incidence of the mood of anxiety and depression of advanced tumor patients and their caregivers,and to provide a theoretical basis for clinical psychological intervention measures.Methods 462 patients with advanced tumor and their primary caregivers in our hospital were selected.Self rating anxiety scale (SAS) and self rating depression scale (SDS) were applied to assessing anxiety and depression of advanced tumor patients and their caregivers.The positive rates of SAS and SDS in advanced tumor patients and their primary caregivers were analyzed,the positive rates of SAS and SDS in different kinship care of advanced tumor patients were observed,the results were compared with national norm standard.Results The positive rates of SDS in advanced tumor patients and their caregivers were 58.01% and 61.90%,48.05% and 53.03% for positive rates of SAS; the positive rates of SDS and SAS of spouses of patients were the highest,with the value of 83.94% and 70.80%,the positive rates of SDS and SAS of brothers and sisters of patients were the lowest,with the value of 35.71% and 25.89%; SDS score in advanced tumor patients was (53.06 ± 10.42),SAS score was (44.13 ± 9.17),which were significantly higher than national norm standard (P<0.05).Conclusions Anxiety and depression could be observed in advanced tumor patients and their caregivers.Clinical targeted interventions should be taken to improve the situation of anxiety and depression in advanced tumor patients and their caregivers.%目的 调查晚期肿瘤患者及其照顾者焦虑抑郁情绪的发生情况,为实施临床心理干预措施提供理论依据.方法 选取我院收治的晚期肿瘤患者及其主要照顾者各462例为调查对象.采用焦虑自评量表(SAS)和抑郁自评量表(SDS)对晚期肿瘤患者及其主要照顾者进行评估.分析晚期肿瘤患者及其主要照顾者的SAS量表和SDS量表阳性率,观察不同亲缘关系照顾者的SAS量

  1. The increasing burden of depression

    Lépine J-P

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Jean-Pierre Lépine1, Mike Briley21Hôpital Lariboisière Fernand Widal, Assistance Publique Hôpitaux de Paris Unité INSERM 705 CNRS UMR 8206, Université Paris Diderot, Paris, France; 2NeuroBiz Consulting and Communication, Castres, FranceAbstract: Recent epidemiological surveys conducted in general populations have found that the lifetime prevalence of depression is in the range of 10% to 15%. Mood disorders, as defined by the World Mental Health and the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition, have a 12-month prevalence which varies from 3% in Japan to over 9% in the US. A recent American survey found the prevalence of current depression to be 9% and the rate of current major depression to be 3.4%. All studies of depressive disorders have stressed the importance of the mortality and morbidity associated with depression. The mortality risk for suicide in depressed patients is more than 20-fold greater than in the general population. Recent studies have also shown the importance of depression as a risk factor for cardiovascular death. The risk of cardiac mortality after an initial myocardial infarction is greater in patients with depression and related to the severity of the depressive episode. Greater severity of depressive symptoms has been found to be associated with significantly higher risk of all-cause mortality including cardiovascular death and stroke. In addition to mortality, functional impairment and disability associated with depression have been consistently reported. Depression increases the risk of decreased workplace productivity and absenteeism resulting in lowered income or unemployment. Absenteeism and presenteeism (being physically present at work but functioning suboptimally have been estimated to result in a loss of $36.6 billion per year in the US. Worldwide projections by the World Health Organization for the year 2030 identify unipolar major depression as the leading cause of disease burden

  2. Improvement of depression after treatment of dural arteriovenous fistula: a case report and a review.

    Nakagawa, Minoru; Sugiu, Kenji; Tokunaga, Koji; Sakamoto, Chihoko; Fujiwara, Kenjiro

    2012-01-01

    Patients with dural arteriovenous fistulas (DAVFs) in the transverse-sigmoid sinus suffer from several symptoms: bruit, headache, visual impairment, and so on. But depression is rare in patients with DAVF. The authors reported a rare case presenting the improvement of depression after the treatment of a dural arteriovenous fistula in the left transverse-sigmoid sinus. A 46-year-old male had suffered from depression and was treated with antidepressants at a local hospital for four years. The patient was temporarily laid off due to his depression. Afterwards, he had Gerstmann's syndrome and came to our hospital. A DAVF in the left transverse-sigmoid sinus was demonstrated on the angiogram. The DAVF was successfully treated with endovascular surgery, coil embolization of the isolated diseased sinus through the mastoid emissary vein which was a draining vein from the fistula. After this treatment, his depression as well as Gerstmann's syndrome was improved and the quantity of the antidepressants decreased. The patient returned to work without any antidepressant two years after the treatment. DAVFs might be one of the causes of depression. It may be necessary to evaluate cerebral vessels in patients suffering from depression by using MRA or 3D-CTA even if there are not any abnormal findings on plain CT scans.

  3. Management of bipolar depression

    Jae Seung Chang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Patients with bipolar disorder spend more time in a depressed than manic state, even with individualized treatment. To date, bipolar depression is often misdiagnosed and ineffectively managed both for acute episodes and residual symptoms. This review attempts to summarize the current status of available treatment strategies in the treatment of bipolar depression. For acute and prophylactic treatment, a substantial body of evidence supports the antidepressive efficacy of lithium for bipolar disorders and its antisuicidal effects. Among numerous anticonvulsants with mood-stabilizing properties, valproate and lamotrigine could be first-line options for bipolar depression. Due to receptor profile, mood-stabilizing properties of second-generation antipsychotics have been explored, and up to date, quetiapine and olanzapine appear to be a reasonable option for bipolar depression. The usefulness of antidepressants in bipolar depression is still controversial. Current guidelines generally recommend the cautious antidepressant use in combination with mood stabilizers to reduce the risk of mood elevation or cycle acceleration. Results from clinical trials on psychosocial intervention are promising, especially when integrated with pharmacotherapy. Most patients with bipolar depression need individualized and combined treatment, although the published evidence on this type of treatment strategy is limited. Future studies on the utility of currently available agents and modalities including psychosocial intervention are required.

  4. Depression as the cause and consequence of cerebrovascular diseases

    Rabi-Žikić Tamara

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Inbtroduction: Recent epidemiological, clinical, neuroimaging and neuropathological studies have reported substantial evidence on the complex interactive relationships between depression and cerebrovascular diseases, especially in older populations, and plausible explanations of the etiopathogenetic mechanisms in both directions have been proposed. Poststroke depression Although there is no general consensus regarding its prevalence, it is widely accepted that major depression after stroke is common and that it should be recognized as a key factor in rehabilitation and outcome following stroke. Vascular depression The "vascular depression" hypothesis presupposes that late-onset depression may often result from vascular damage to frontal-subcortical circuits implicated in mood regulation. This concept has stimulated many researches and the obtained results support the proposed hypothesis. Depression as a stroke risk factor Recent large studies have emphasized the role of depression per se in the development of subsequent stroke. Mechanisms proposed to explain the increased risk of cerebrovascular diseases in depressed patients There are a number of plausible mechanisms that could explain why depression may increase the risk of subsequent cerebrovascular disease, the most important being sympathoadrenal hyperactivity, platelet activation, an increase in inflammatory cytokines and an increased risk of arrhythmias. Conclusion: Thorough clinical examinations determining the conventional stroke risk factors in the population with depression, as well as management of depression as part of the overall measures for the reduction of cerebrovascular risk factors are of utmost importance.

  5. Gut microbiota in autism and mood disorders.

    Mangiola, Francesca; Ianiro, Gianluca; Franceschi, Francesco; Fagiuoli, Stefano; Gasbarrini, Giovanni; Gasbarrini, Antonio

    2016-01-07

    The hypothesis of an important role of gut microbiota in the maintenance of physiological state into the gastrointestinal (GI) system is supported by several studies that have shown a qualitative and quantitative alteration of the intestinal flora in a number of gastrointestinal and extra-gastrointestinal diseases. In the last few years, the importance of gut microbiota impairment in the etiopathogenesis of pathology such as autism, dementia and mood disorder, has been raised. The evidence of the inflammatory state alteration, highlighted in disorders such as schizophrenia, major depressive disorder and bipolar disorder, strongly recalls the microbiota alteration, highly suggesting an important role of the alteration of GI system also in neuropsychiatric disorders. Up to now, available evidences display that the impairment of gut microbiota plays a key role in the development of autism and mood disorders. The application of therapeutic modulators of gut microbiota to autism and mood disorders has been experienced only in experimental settings to date, with few but promising results. A deeper assessment of the role of gut microbiota in the development of autism spectrum disorder (ASD), as well as the advancement of the therapeutic armamentarium for the modulation of gut microbiota is warranted for a better management of ASD and mood disorders.

  6. Investigation and analysis of influence of social support and coping style on depression mood of infertile patients%女性不孕患者社会支持水平及应对方式对其抑郁情绪影响的调查分析

    刘述珍; 乔海燕; 王笠环

    2014-01-01

    Objective This study aims to explore the social support,coping style on depressive mood of infertile patients.Methods 165 infertility patients were collected as the research object,and they were investigated with the self-rating depression scale,social support scale and coping style questionnaire.Results 34.55%,48.48% of the patients with education background of junior middle school,high school appeared depression.Subjective support and positive coping had significant positive correlation.The availability of support and positive coping had significant positive correlation.Positive coping and depression had significant negative correlation,negative coping and depression had significant positive correlation.Educational level and depression demonstrated inverted U shape relationship; coping style had direct effect and indirect effect on infertile female patients with depression.Conclusions Use of active coping without negative coping can reduce depressive mood,improve patients' social support in order to reduce mental stress level.%目的 探讨社会支持、应对方式对女性不孕患者抑郁情绪的影响.方法 收集165例女性不孕患者作为研究对象,以抑郁自评量表、社会支持量表和应对方式问卷对其进行调查,并对结果进行分析.结果 初中,高中的患者出现抑郁情绪的比例为34.55%,48.48%;主观支持与积极应对成正相关;对支持的利用度与积极应对成正相关;积极应对与抑郁情绪成负相关,消极应对与抑郁情绪成正相关.受教育程度与抑郁情绪呈现倒U型曲线关系;应对方式对不孕女性患者的抑郁情绪有直接效应和间接效应.结论 运用积极应对,减少消极应对既能降低抑郁情绪,又可提高女性不孕患者的社会支持程度,从而降低患者不良心理应激水平.

  7. Mood disorders and complementary and alternative medicine: a literature review

    Qureshi NA

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Naseem Akhtar Qureshi,1 Abdullah Mohammed Al-Bedah21General Administration for Research and Studies, Sulaimania Medical Complex, 2National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine, Ministry of Health, Riyadh, Saudi ArabiaAbstract: Mood disorders are a major public health problem and are associated with considerable burden of disease, suicides, physical comorbidities, high economic costs, and poor quality of life. Approximately 30%–40% of patients with major depression have only a partial response to available pharmacological and psychotherapeutic interventions. Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM has been used either alone or in combination with conventional therapies in patients with mood disorders. This review of the literature examines evidence-based data on the use of CAM in mood disorders. A search of the PubMed, Medline, Google Scholar, and Quertile databases using keywords was conducted, and relevant articles published in the English language in the peer-reviewed journals over the past two decades were retrieved. Evidence-based data suggest that light therapy, St John's wort, Rhodiola rosea, omega-3 fatty acids, yoga, acupuncture, mindfulness therapies, exercise, sleep deprivation, and S-adenosylmethionine are effective in the treatment of mood disorders. Clinical trials of vitamin B complex, vitamin D, and methylfolate found that, while these were useful in physical illness, results were equivocal in patients with mood disorders. Studies support the adjunctive role of omega-3 fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic acid, and docosahexaenoic acid in unipolar and bipolar depression, although manic symptoms are not affected and higher doses are required in patients with resistant bipolar depression and rapid cycling. Omega-3 fatty acids are useful in pregnant women with major depression, and have no adverse effects on the fetus. Choline, inositol, 5-hydroxy-L-tryptophan, and N-acetylcysteine are effective adjuncts in bipolar

  8. Effects of Catecholamine Depletion on Alertness and Mood in Rested and Sleep Deprived Normal Volunteers

    1993-01-01

    suggest- vw jon (AMIAPT/SD); 3) treatment with placebo plus sleep ing a link between the regulation of mood and arousal deprivation (P/SD); or 4) treatment...deprivation improves mood Drug Administration in depressed individuals remains unclear, but may in- volve catecholamines (Siegel and Rogawski 1988; Hart...neurotransmis- also be involved in the AMPT-indluced changes in mood. sion (Siegel and Rogawski 1988). For example, it has Although the relationship between

  9. Cyclic mood disorder heralding adult-onset autosomal dominant leucodystrophy: a clinical masquerader.

    Jain, Rajendra S; Prakash, Swayam; Raghavendra, B S; Nagpal, Kadam; Handa, Rahul

    2014-06-01

    Leucodystrophies are a heterogeneous group of progressive white matter diseases which may be inherited in dominant, recessive or X-linked fashion depending on the type. Adrenoleucodystrophy (ALD) and metachromatic leucodystrophy (MLD) are rather commoner forms of leucodystrophies whereas krabbes disease, alexander disease, cannavans disease etc. are of less common type. Adult-onset autosomal dominant leucodystrophy (ADLD) is a lately described rarer form of leucodystrophy with perhaps no case report from India. Various leucodystrophies may have different clinical presentations, ranging from subtle cognitive and psychiatric manifestations to gross motor disabilities, visual impairment and seizure. Psychiatric manifestations in the form of psychoses and frank schizophrenia are commonly described in MLD. Depression though uncommonly reported in MLD, cyclic mood disorders have been rarely described in any form of leucodystrophies. We are reporting an eye opener, a case of ADLD which masqueraded as a rapid cyclic mood disorder for initial four years, later to be followed by progressive neurological signs and symptoms. To the best of our knowledge, this is perhaps the first case report of ADLD presenting as rapid cyclic mood disorder in the world literature.

  10. Affect and eating behavior in obese adults with and without elevated depression symptoms

    Goldschmidt, Andrea B.; Crosby, Ross D.; Engel, Scott G.; Crow, Scott J.; Cao, Li; Peterson, Carol B.; Durkin, Nora

    2014-01-01

    Objective Although there is a modest relation between obesity and depression, mechanisms that contribute to this co-occurrence are unclear. This study examined mood and eating behavior among obese adults with and without elevated depression symptoms. Method Obese adults (N=50) were subtyped according to a Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) cutoff of 14, indicating “probable depression.” Participants with (BDI≥14; n=15) and without elevated depression symptoms (BDI<14; n=35) were compared on affect- and eating-related variables measured via questionnaire and ecological momentary assessment (EMA) using ANCOVA and mixed model regression. Results After adjusting for group differences in body mass index (BMI; p=.03), participants with elevated depression symptoms reported greater emotional eating via self-report questionnaire [F(1,50)=4.3; p=.04], as well as more frequent binge eating (Wald chi-square=13.8; p<.001) and higher daily negative affect (Wald chi-square=7.7; p=.005) on EMA recordings. Emotional eating mediated the relationship between depression status and BMI (indirect effect estimate=3.79; 95% CI=1.02–7.46). Discussion Emotional eating and binge eating were more commonly reported by obese adults with elevated depression symptoms compared to those without, and may occur against a general backdrop of overall low mood. Intervention and prevention programs for obesity and/or depression should address disordered eating to prevent or minimize adverse health consequences. PMID:24014067

  11. Building a new Rasch-based self-report inventory of depression

    Balsamo M

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Michela Balsamo,1 Giuseppe Giampaglia,2 Aristide Saggino11DiSPUTer, Department of Psychological Sciences, Humanities and Territory, “G d'Annunzio” University, Chieti-Pescara, Italy; 2Department of Economics and Statistics, “Federico-II” University, Naples, ItalyAbstract: This paper illustrates a sequential item development process to create a new self-report instrument of depression refined with Rasch analysis from a larger pool of potential diagnostic items elicited through a consensus approach by clinical experts according to the latest edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders criteria for major depression. A 51-item pool was administered to a sample of 529 subjects (300 healthy community-dwelling adults and 229 psychiatric outpatients. Item selection resulted in a 21-item set, named the Teate Depression Inventory, with an excellent Person Separation Index and no evidence of bias due to an item–trait interaction (χ2=147.71; df =168; P=0.48. Additional support for the unidimensionality, local independence, appropriateness of the response format, and discrimination ability between clinical and nonclinical subjects was provided. No substantial differential item functioning by sex was observed. The Teate Depression Inventory shows considerable promise as a unidimensional tool for the screening of depression. Finally, advantages and disadvantages of this methodology will be discussed in terms of subsequent possible mathematical analyses, statistical tests, and implications for clinical investigations.Keywords: depression, scale development, self-report scales, Rasch analysis

  12. Corticostriatal pathways contribute to the natural time course of positive mood.

    Admon, Roee; Pizzagalli, Diego A

    2015-12-07

    The natural time course of mood includes both acute responses to stimuli and spontaneous fluctuations. To date, neuroimaging studies have focused on either acute affective responses or spontaneous neural fluctuations at rest but no prior study has concurrently probed both components, or how mood disorders might modulate these processes. Here, using fMRI, we capture the acute affective and neural responses to naturalistic positive mood induction, as well as their spontaneous fluctuations during resting states. In both healthy controls and individuals with a history of depression, our manipulation acutely elevates positive mood and ventral striatum activation. Only controls, however, sustain positive mood over time, and this effect is accompanied by the emergence of a reciprocal relationship between the ventral striatum and medial prefrontal cortex during ensuing rest. Findings suggest that corticostriatal pathways contribute to the natural time course of positive mood fluctuations, while disturbances of those neural interactions may characterize mood disorder.

  13. Painful temporomandibular disorders, self reported tinnitus, and depression are highly associated

    Giovana Fernandes

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective The aim of this study was to investigate the association among painful temporomandibular disorders (TMD, self reported tinnitus, and levels of depression. Method The sample consisted of 224 individuals with ages ranges from 18 to 76 years. The Research Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders Axis I were used to classify TMD and Axis II were used for self reported tinnitus, and to score the levels of depression. The odds ratio (OR with 95% confidence interval (CI was applied. Results The presence of painful TMD without tinnitus was significantly associated with moderate/severe levels of depression (OR=9.3, 95%; CI: 3.44-25.11. The concomitant presence of painful TMD and tinnitus self-report increased the magnitude of the association with moderate/severe levels of depression (OR=16.3, 95%; CI, 6.58-40.51. Conclusion Painful temporomandibular disorders, high levels of depression, and self reported tinnitus are deeply associated. However, this association does not imply a causal relationship.

  14. Childhood attention deficit hyperactivity disorder features in adult mood disorders.

    Joo, Eun-Jeong; Lee, Kyu Young; Choi, Kyeong-Sook; Kim, Se Hyun; Song, Joo Youn; Bang, Yang Weon; Ahn, Yong Min; Kim, Yong Sik

    2012-04-01

    A significant overlap between childhood mood disorders and many aspects of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has been established. High rates of co-occurrence, familial aggregation, and more severe clinical manifestations of the illnesses when they are comorbid suggest that common genetic and environmental factors may contribute to the development of both disorders. Research on the co-occurrence of childhood ADHD and mood disorders in childhood has been conducted. We retrospectively investigated childhood ADHD features in adults with mood disorders. Childhood ADHD features were measured with the Korean version of the Wender Utah Rating Scale (WURS). The sample consisted of 1305 subjects: 108 subjects were diagnosed with bipolar disorder type I, 41 with bipolar disorder type II, 101 with major depressive disorder, and 1055 served as normal controls. We compared total WURS scores as well as scores on 3 factors (impulsivity, inattention, and mood instability and anxiety) among the 4 different diagnostic groups. The 4 groups differed significantly from one another on all scores. The group with bipolar disorder type II obtained the highest total scores on the WURS. The impulsivity and inattention associated with childhood ADHD were more significantly related to bipolar disorder type II than with bipolar disorder type I. The mood instability and anxiety associated with childhood ADHD seem to be significantly related to major depressive disorder in adulthood. In conclusion, multifactorial childhood ADHD features were associated with mood disorders of adulthood.

  15. Mood-Congruent Memory and Natural Mood: New Evidence.

    Mayer, John D.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Presents new evidence that everyday mood does bring about a hypothesized effect on memory, termed mood-congruent memory (MCM). Results of three studies provided evidence for MCM among normal individuals (n=614). Findings support prior studies and bolster notions that mood and memory constantly covary in everyday experience. (RJM)

  16. Mood disorders in everyday life : A systematic review of experience sampling and ecological momentary assessment studies

    Aan het Rot, M.; Hogenelst, Koen; Schoevers, R.A.

    2012-01-01

    In the past two decades, the study of mood disorder patients using experience sampling methods (ESM) and ecological momentary assessment (EMA) has yielded important findings. In patients with major depressive disorder (MDD), the dynamics of their everyday mood have been associated with various aspec

  17. The relationship between creativity and mood disorders.

    Andreasen, Nancy C

    2008-01-01

    Research designed to examine the relationship between creativity and mental illnesses must confront multiple challenges. What is the optimal sample to study? How should creativity be defined? What is the most appropriate comparison group? Only a limited number of studies have examined highly creative individuals using personal interviews and a noncreative comparison group. The majority of these have examined writers. The preponderance of the evidence suggests that in these creative individuals the rate of mood disorder is high, and that both bipolar disorder and unipolar depression are quite common. Clinicians who treat creative individuals with mood disorders must also confront a variety of challenges, including the fear that treatment may diminish creativity. In the case of bipolar disorder, however, it is likely that reducing severe manic episodes may actually enhance creativity in many individuals.

  18. Postpartum depression: Etiology, treatment and consequences for maternal care.

    Brummelte, Susanne; Galea, Liisa A M

    2016-01-01

    This article is part of a Special Issue "Parental Care". Pregnancy and postpartum are associated with dramatic alterations in steroid and peptide hormones which alter the mothers' hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA) and hypothalamic pituitary gonadal (HPG) axes. Dysregulations in these endocrine axes are related to mood disorders and as such it should not come as a major surprise that pregnancy and the postpartum period can have profound effects on maternal mood. Indeed, pregnancy and postpartum are associated with an increased risk for developing depressive symptoms in women. Postpartum depression affects approximately 10-15% of women and impairs mother-infant interactions that in turn are important for child development. Maternal attachment, sensitivity and parenting style are essential for a healthy maturation of an infant's social, cognitive and behavioral skills and depressed mothers often display less attachment, sensitivity and more harsh or disrupted parenting behaviors, which may contribute to reports of adverse child outcomes in children of depressed mothers. Here we review, in honor of the "father of motherhood", Jay Rosenblatt, the literature on postnatal depression in the mother and its effect on mother-infant interactions. We will cover clinical and pre-clinical findings highlighting putative neurobiological mechanisms underlying postpartum depression and how they relate to maternal behaviors and infant outcome. We also review animal models that investigate the neurobiology of maternal mood and disrupted maternal care. In particular, we discuss the implications of endogenous and exogenous manipulations of glucocorticoids on maternal care and mood. Lastly we discuss interventions during gestation and postpartum that may improve maternal symptoms and behavior and thus may alter developmental outcome of the offspring.

  19. Mood, food, and obesity

    Minati eSingh

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Food is a potent natural reward and food intake is a complex process. Reward and gratification associated with food consumption leads to dopamine (DA production, which in turn activates reward and pleasure centers in the brain. An individual will repeatedly eat a particular food to experience this positive feeling of gratification. This type of repetitive behavior of food intake leads to the activation of brain reward pathways that eventually overrides other signals of satiety and hunger. Thus, a gratification habit through a favorable food leads to overeating and morbid obesity. Overeating and obesity stems from many biological factors engaging both central and peripheral systems in a bi-directional manner involving mood and emotions. Emotional eating and altered mood can also lead to altered food choice and intake leading to overeating and obesity. Research findings from human and animal studies support a two-way link between three concepts, mood, food, and obesity. The focus of this article is to provide an overview of complex nature of food intake where various biological factors link mood, food intake, and brain signaling that engages both peripheral and central nervous system signaling pathways in a bi-directional manner in obesity.

  20. Vitamins, Minerals, and Mood

    Kaplan, Bonnie J.; Crawford, Susan G.; Field, Catherine J.; Simpson, J. Steven A.

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the authors explore the breadth and depth of published research linking dietary vitamins and minerals (micronutrients) to mood. Since the 1920s, there have been many studies on individual vitamins (especially B vitamins and Vitamins C, D, and E), minerals (calcium, chromium, iron, magnesium, zinc, and selenium), and vitamin-like…

  1. Changes in mood status and neurotic levels during a 20-day bed rest

    Ishizaki, Yuko; Ishizaki, Tatsuro; Fukuoka, Hideoki; Kim, Chang-Sun; Fujita, Masayo; Maegawa, Yuko; Fujioka, Hiroshi; Katsura, Taisaku; Suzuki, Yoji; Gunji, Atsuaki

    2002-04-01

    This study evaluated changes of mood status and depressive and neurotic levels in nine young male subjects during a 20-day 6° head-down tilting bed rest and examined whether exercise training modified these changes. Participants were asked to complete psychometrical inventories on before, during, and after the bed rest experiment. Depressive and neurotic levels were enhanced during bed rest period according to the Japanese version of Zung's Self-rating Depression Scale and the Japanese version of the General Health Questionnaire. Mood state "vigor" was impaired and "confusion" was increased during bed rest and recumbent control periods compared to pre-bed rest and ambulatory control periods according to the Japanese version of Profiles of Mood State, whereas the mood "tension-anxiety", "depression-dejection", "anger-hostility" and "fatigue" were relatively stable during experiment. Isometric exercise training did not modify these results. Microgravity, along with confinement to bed and isolation from familiar environments, induced impairment of mental status.

  2. Neural correlates of improved executive function following erythropoietin treatment in mood disorders

    Miskowiak, K W; Vinberg, M; Glerup, L

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cognitive dysfunction in depression and bipolar disorder (BD) is insufficiently targeted by available treatments. Erythropoietin (EPO) increases neuroplasticity and may improve cognition in mood disorders, but the neuronal mechanisms of these effects are unknown. This functional magne...

  3. A Study of Mood-congruent Memory in Depressed Patients with S0matizatiOn Symptoms%以躯体化症状为主的抑郁症患者心境一致性记忆研究

    刘斌; 郭苏皖; 傅强; 马辉; 金珠玛; 陈图农

    2011-01-01

    目的:探讨以躯体化症状为主的抑郁症患者的心境一致性记忆及与以情绪症状为主的抑郁症患者比较.方法:躯体化症状组、情绪症状组和正常组各30名被试.实验材料96个效价词.实验程序包括学习阶段、干扰实验、再认测验.结果:①躯体化症状组在健康词上,正常组在正性词上有意识提取成绩显著高于其他效价词.②躯体化症状组在健康词上.情绪症状组在负性词上无意识提取平均成绩高于其他效价词.③正常组总体外显记忆成绩显著高于躯体化症状组和情绪症状组.结论:①躯体化症状为主的抑郁症组在外显记忆上表现了对健康词的记忆效应;②躯体化症状为主的抑郁症组在内隐记忆上也可能存在对健康词的记忆效应;③抑郁个体存在外湿记忆缺损而不存在内隐记忆缺损.%Objective: To explore the Mood Congruency Memory in depressed patients with somatization symptoms and to compare them with depressed patients with mood symptoms. Methods: Subjects included 30 depressed patients with somatization symptoms, 30 depressed patients with mood symptoms and 30 normal persons. Test material consisted of 96 valence words. Procedures were learning phase, interference experiment, and recognition test. Results: ①Somatization symptoms group showed significant effect on healthy valence words and other valence words in explicit memory, normal group showed significant effect on positive valence words and other valence words in explicit memory. ②Somatization symptoms had more higher average extraction results in healthy valence words in implicit memory, mood symptoms group had more higher average extraction results group in negative valence words in implicit memory. ③Compared with somatization symptoms group and mood symptoms group the normal group showed significant effect on total extraction results in explicit memory and on difference in implicit memory. Conclusion:

  4. Congenital depressed skull fracture in the absence of trauma: case report and literature review

    Tovar-Spinoza ZS

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Zulma S Tovar-Spinoza, Peter D KimDepartment of Neurosurgery, SUNY Upstate Medical University, Syracuse NYAbstract: There are limited reports of neonatal depressed skull fractures in the absence of any known trauma or obvious risk factors. Here we describe a male neonate with a significant frontal nontraumatic depressed fracture, his course of treatment, and a literature review. A male neonate was attended for a significant congenital depressed skull fracture in the left frontal bone. He was born full term after an uncomplicated delivery to a multiparous mother who was a human immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV-positive immigrant from sub-Saharan Africa. The pregnancy was otherwise uncomplicated. There was no history of trauma to the mother during the pregnancy or delivery. Ultrasonography had been unremarkable. No other abnormalities were noted. The patient was brought to the operating room at the age of 13 days for elevation of his fracture due to its nonreducible nature. A small linear incision was made just posterior to the coronal suture. The dura mater was stripped and a combination of Penfield and periostial elevators was used to elevate the depressed fracture. Nontraumatic depressed skull fractures are uncommon in neonates. The cause of this entity has not been identified, and many theories about its origin have been proposed. Treatment can be either surgical or conservative.Keywords: neonatal, congenital, depressed fracture, spontaneous, nontraumatic

  5. Selegiline remarkably improved stage 5 treatment-resistant major depressive disorder: a case report

    Kitaichi Y

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Yuji Kitaichi,1 Takeshi Inoue,1 Nobuyuki Mitsui,1 Shin Nakagawa,1 Rie Kameyama,1 Yoshiyuki Hayashishita,1 Tohru Shiga,2 Ichiro Kusumi,1 Tsukasa Koyama1 1Department of Psychiatry, Graduate School of Medicine, Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Japan; 2Department of Nuclear Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine, Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Japan Abstract: We report a case in which selegiline, an irreversible monoamine oxidase B (MAO-B inhibitor, greatly improved depressive symptoms in an adult with stage 5 treatment-resistant major depressive disorder. Four antidepressants and four augmentation therapies had previously been ineffective or intolerable, and electroconvulsive therapy had only a temporary effect. After 20 weeks of treatment with selegiline (10 mg/day, the patient's score on the 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS had decreased from 19 to 4 points. [18F]-Fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET showed increased glucose metabolism in the bilateral basal ganglia after initiating selegiline treatment; blood dopamine levels were also increased after selegiline treatment. These results raise the possibility that selegiline enhances dopaminergic neural transmission in treatment-resistant depression, thus leading to an improvement in depressive symptoms. Keywords: treatment-resistant depression, FDG-PET, glucose metabolism, basal ganglia

  6. Yoga in Public School Improves Adolescent Mood and Affect

    Felver, Joshua C.; Butzer, Bethany; Olson, Katherine J.; Smith, Iona M.; Khalsa, Sat Bir S.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to directly compare the acute effects of participating in a single yoga class versus a single standard physical education (PE) class on student mood. Forty-seven high school students completed self-report questionnaires assessing mood and affect immediately before and after participating in a single yoga class…

  7. Three types of self-efficacy associated with medication adherence in patients with co-occurring HIV and substance use disorders, but only when mood disorders are present

    Reif S

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Susan Reif,1 Rae Jean Proeschold-Bell,1,2 Jia Yao,1 Sara LeGrand,1,2 Anna Uehara,2 Edgar Asiimwe,2 Evelyn Byrd Quinlivan31Duke Center for Health Policy and Inequalities Research, 2Duke Global Health Institute, Duke University, Durham, NC, 3Center for Infectious Diseases, University of North Carolina Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC, USABackground: Adherence with medication regimens for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV is a life-saving behavior for people with HIV infection, yet adherence is challenging for many individuals with co-occurring substance use and/or mood disorders. Medication-taking self-efficacy, which is the confidence that one can take one's medication as prescribed, is associated with better adherence with HIV medication. However, little is known about the influence that other kinds of self-efficacy have on adherence with HIV medication, especially among HIV-infected individuals with co-occurring substance use and/or mood disorders. We sought to examine the relationship between adherence with HIV medication among substance users and three specific kinds of self-efficacy, ie, one's confidence that one can communicate with medical providers, get support, and manage one's mood. We further sought to examine whether symptoms of depression and anxiety moderate these relationships.Methods: Patients were recruited from three HIV clinics in the southeastern United States as part of an integrated study of treatment for HIV and substance use.Results: We interviewed 154 patients with HIV and substance use who reported taking HIV medications. Based on symptoms of depression and anxiety using the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale-Anxiety, 63% had probable depression and/or anxiety. Higher levels of self-efficacy in provider communication (β = 3.86, P < 0.01, getting needed support (β = 2.82, P < 0.01, and mood management (β = 2.29, P < 0.05 were related to better self-reported adherence with HIV

  8. Impact of daily mood, work hours, and iso-strain variables on self-reported health behaviors.

    Jones, Fiona; O'Connor, Daryl B; Conner, Mark; McMillan, Brian; Ferguson, Eamonn

    2007-11-01

    Four hundred and twenty-two employees completed daily diaries measuring positive affect, negative affect, work hours, and health behaviors (snacking, smoking, exercise, alcohol, caffeine consumption) on work days over a 4-week period. In addition, measures of job demands, job control, and social support (iso-strain variables) were completed on 1 occasion. Multilevel random coefficient modeling was used to examine relationships between the job characteristics, daily work variables, and self-reported health behaviors. Results indicated a more important role for within-person daily fluctuations than for between-persons variations in predicting health behaviors. Whereas negative affect was negatively related to health behavior for both men and women, work hours had negative impacts for women only. Iso-strain variables showed few main effects and a modest number of interactions with daily variables (mainly for men). Findings point to the limited impact of stable features of work design compared to the effects of daily work stressors on health behaviors.

  9. The relationship between self-report of depression and media usage.

    Block, Martin; Stern, Daniel B; Raman, Kalyan; Lee, Sang; Carey, Jim; Humphreys, Ashlee A; Mulhern, Frank; Calder, Bobby; Schultz, Don; Rudick, Charles N; Blood, Anne J; Breiter, Hans C

    2014-01-01

    Depression is a debilitating condition that adversely affects many aspects of a person's life and general health. Earlier work has supported the idea that there may be a relationship between the use of certain media and depression. In this study, we tested if self-report of depression (SRD), which is not a clinically based diagnosis, was associated with increased internet, television, and social media usage by using data collected in the Media Behavior and Influence Study (MBIS) database (N = 19,776 subjects). We further assessed the relationship of demographic variables to this association. These analyses found that SRD rates were in the range of published rates of clinically diagnosed major depression. It found that those who tended to use more media also tended to be more depressed, and that segmentation of SRD subjects was weighted toward internet and television usage, which was not the case with non-SRD subjects, who were segmented along social media use. This study found that those who have suffered either economic or physical life setbacks are orders of magnitude more likely to be depressed, even without disproportionately high levels of media use. However, among those that have suffered major life setbacks, high media users-particularly television watchers-were even more likely to report experiencing depression, which suggests that these effects were not just due to individuals having more time for media consumption. These findings provide an example of how Big Data can be used for medical and mental health research, helping to elucidate issues not traditionally tested in the fields of psychiatry or experimental psychology.

  10. The relationship between self-report of depression and media usage

    Martin eBlock

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Depression is a debilitating condition that adversely affects many aspects of a person's life and general health. Earlier work has supported the idea that there may be a relationship between the use of certain media and depression. In this study, we tested if self-report of depression (SRD, which is not a clinically based diagnosis, was associated with increased internet, television, and social media usage by using data collected in the Media Behavior and Influence Study (MBIS database (N=19,776 subjects. We further assessed the relationship of demographic variables to this association. These analyses found that SRD rates were in the range of published rates of clinically diagnosed major depression. It found that those who tended to use more media also tended to be more depressed, and that segmentation of SRD subjects was weighted toward internet and television usage, which was not the case with non-SRD subjects, who were segmented along social media use. This study found that those who have suffered either economic or physical life setbacks are orders of magnitude more likely to be depressed, even without disproportionately high levels of media use. However, among those that have suffered major life setbacks, high media users – particularly television watchers – were even more likely to report experiencing depression, which suggests that these effects were not just due to individuals having more time for media consumption. These findings provide an example of how Big Data can be used for medical and mental health research, helping to elucidate issues not traditionally tested in the fields of psychiatry or experimental psychology.

  11. Interaction between Personality and Mood in Unipolar and Bipolar Patients.

    Alexander, Gene E.; And Others

    Much of the literature on affective disorders has been devoted to categorizing, assessing, and treating the mood and behavioral symptoms typically associated with depressive illness, and much research has studied how personality traits interact with these state symptoms. The personality scales of the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory (MCMI) are…

  12. Treatments for acute bipolar depression: meta-analyses of placebo-controlled, monotherapy trials of anticonvulsants, lithium and antipsychotics

    Selle, V.; Schalkwijk, S.J.; Vazquez, G.H.; Baldessarini, R.J.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Optimal treatments for bipolar depression, and the relative value of specific drugs for that purpose, remain uncertain, including agents other than antidepressants. METHODS: We searched for reports of placebo-controlled, monotherapy trials of mood-stabilizing anticonvulsants, second-gene

  13. Modelos de apego, homossexualidade masculina, e depressão: um relato de experiência Models of attachment, homosexuality and depression: an intervention report

    Dilcio Dantas Guedes

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Relatam-se casos clínicos de dois rapazes, que buscaram psicoterapia a partir de demandas afetivas e amorosas. Enfatizam-se a análise de seus modelos de apego e a queixa de depressão em relação a suas experiências homoafetivas. Partiu-se das suposições de que: (1 os modelos comportamentais de apego com os pais repetir-se-iam com os parceiros; e (2 o nível de segurança das relações amorosas mediaria inversamente o nível da depressão. Articularam-se dados da mensuração dos níveis de depressão pelo Inventário de Depressão Beck (BDI e da Attachment Security and Secondary Strategies Interview (ASSSI. Os resultados indicaram que os modelos de apego aos pais parecem ter influenciado as representações de apego e experiências amorosas, que pareceram mediar os níveis da depressão.Case studies of two young men are reported. Their reason for seeking psychotherapy lies in their affection and romantic love problems, what led us to an effort to understand their models of attachment and depression complaints in regard to their homo-affective experiences. Authors assumed that: (1 attachment models experienced with their parents would be repeated with love partners, and (2 the level of steadiness in the romantic relationship would inversely mediate the level of depression. Depression data obtained by means of Beck Depression Inventory (BDI were related to equivalent information generated by Attachment Security and Secondary Strategies Interview (ASSSI. Results showed that models of attachment to the parents seemed to have influenced the attachment representations' and love relationships, which seemed to have mediated the levels of depression.

  14. Mindfulness significantly reduces self-reported levels of anxiety and depression

    Würtzen, Hanne; Dalton, Susanne Oksbjerg; Elsass, Peter

    2013-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: As the incidence of and survival from breast cancer continue to raise, interventions to reduce anxiety and depression before, during and after treatment are needed. Previous studies have reported positive effects of a structured 8-week group mindfulness-based stress reduction program...

  15. Predictive value of self-reported and observer-rated defense style in depression treatment.

    Van, H.L.; Dekker, J.J.M.; Peen, J.; Abraham, R.E.; Schoevers, R.

    2009-01-01

    This study explored the predictive value of observer-rated and self-reported defensive functioning on the outcome of psychotherapy for the treatment of depression. Defense styles were measured according to the Developmental Profile (DP) and the Defense Style Questionnaire (DSQ) in 81 moderately seve

  16. ASSESSMENT AND CORRELATION ANALYSIS OF ANXIETY AND DEPRESSED MOOD AND SELF-CONCEPT OF METHAMPHETAMINE SMOKERS%冰毒吸食者焦虑抑郁情绪和自我概念的测评及相关分析

    李遵清; 李传平; 侯峰

    2011-01-01

    目的:了解冰毒吸食者焦虑抑郁情绪和自我概念状况,探讨二者之间的关系,为临床心理干预提供依据.方法:采用抑郁自评量表(SDS),焦虑自评量表(SAS)和田纳西自我概念量表(TSCS)对36例强制戒毒的冰毒吸食者(研究组)和36例健康人群(对照组)进行调查,将结果进行统计学处理分析.结果:(1)研究组SDS,SAS评分明显高于对照组,差别具有统计学意义(P<0.01);(2)TSCS评分比较,研究组除自我批评因子分高于对照组外,其余各因子分均低于对照组,差异具有统计学意义(P <0.01);(3)TSCS与SAS和SDS之间具有高度相关性(r=0.411-0.462,P<0.01).结论:冰毒吸食者焦虑抑郁情绪明显,表现为消极的自我概念;焦虑抑郁情绪影响自我概念.临床治疗中应关注戒毒者负性情绪和自我概念,采取有效措施帮助他们消除负性情绪,树立积极的自我概念,促进心理康复.%Objective :To understand the condition of anxiety and depressed mood and self-concept of methamphetamine smokers;explore their relation, and provide basis for clinical psychological intervention. Methods:Thirty -six methamphetamine smokers who were forced to do drug detoxification (study group) and 36 normal healthy individuals( control group) were measured by SDS, SAS and TSCS. The results were statistically analyzed. Results: (1) The scores of SDS and SAS in the study group were higher than those in the control group (P <0.01). (2) Compared with the control, the study group had lower scores in all factors of TSCS ( P < 0. 01) , except the scores of self - criticism factor. ( 3 ) SAS and SDS had high correlation with TSCS ( r = 0. 411 - 0. 462, P < 0. 01) . Conclusion: Methamphetamine smokers have obvious anxiety and depressed mood, showing negative self - concept which is affected by anxiety and depressed mood. In clinical therapy, attention should be paid to the patients ' anxiety and depressed mood and self - concept; effective measures

  17. Reported maternal postpartum depression and risk of childhood psychopathology.

    Walker, Meghan J; Davis, Caroline; Al-Sahab, Ban; Tamim, Hala

    2013-07-01

    Childhood emotional and behavioural disorders are prevalent, can cause significant maladaptation and often persist into adulthood. Previous literature investigating the potential influence of postpartum depression (PPD) is inconsistent. The present study examined the association between PPD and childhood behavioural/emotional outcomes, while considering a number of potentially important factors. Data were analyzed prospectively from the National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth at two follow-up periods (ages 2-3, N = 1,452 and ages 4-5, N = 1,357). PPD was measured using the diagnostic criteria of the DSM-IV-TR. Four behavioural/emotional outcomes were analyzed at each follow-up. For both age groups, logistic regression models were used to estimate the associations between PPD and each of the behavioural and emotional outcomes adjusting for child, obstetric, environmental and socio-demographic factors. PPD was associated with the Emotional Disorder-Anxiety among 2-3 year olds [OR = 2.38, 95 % CI 1.15, 4.91]. Among 2-3 year olds, hostile/ineffective parenting was associated with Hyperactivity-Inattention [OR = 1.88, 95 % CI 1.14, 3.11] and Physical Aggression-Opposition [OR = 2.95, 95 % CI 1.77, 4.92]. Among 4-5 year olds, hostile/ineffective parenting was associated with Hyperactivity-Inattention [OR = 2.34, 95 % CI 1.22, 4.47], Emotional Disorder-Anxiety [OR = 2.16, 95 % CI 1.00, 4.67], Physical Aggression-Conduct Disorder [OR = 1.96, 95 % CI 1.09, 3.53] and Indirect Aggression [OR = 1.87, 95 % CI 1.09, 3.21]. The findings of the present study do not suggest that PPD is independently associated with any enduring sequelae in the realm of child behavioural/emotional psychology, though the symptoms of PPD may be giving way to other important mediating factors such as parenting style.

  18. Regional cortical thinning of the orbitofrontal cortex in medication-naïve female patients with major depressive disorder is not associated with MAOA-uVNTR polymorphism

    Won, Eunsoo; Choi, Sunyoung; Kang, June; Lee, Min-Soo; Ham, Byung-Joo

    2016-01-01

    Background Orbitofrontal cortex alterations have been suggested to underlie the impaired mood regulation in depression. MAOA-uVNTR (monoamine oxidase A-upstream variable number of tandem repeats) polymorphism has been reported to be associated with major depressive disorder by various studies. The influence of MAOA-uVNTR genotype on function and structure of the orbitofrontal cortex has previously been reported. In this study, we investigated the difference in orbitofrontal cortex thickness b...

  19. 抑郁情绪个体过度概括化自传体记忆评定的试验范式研究%A study of the paradigm for assessing overgeneral autobiographical memory in Chinese depressive mood populations

    王凤; 冯正直; 胡光涛; 刘庆英; 廖成菊; 宋新涛; 李嘉雯; 王晓霞; 李家速

    2010-01-01

    Objective To discuss the sensitivity of the sentence completion for events from the past test (SCEPT)and autobiographical memory test(AMT)for assessing overgeneral autobiographical memory in depressive mood populations.Methods 63 students with depressive mood and 67 students with normal ones took part in the experiment of SCEPT and AMT without explicit instruction,and SCEPT-SI and standard AMT with explicit instruetiono Results ①For the mean proportion of overgeneral memory on SCEPT without explicit instructions,there was no significant difference between the students' with depressive mood and normal ones'(respoetively,(0.69±0.17),(0.70±0.15),P>0.05),and which was not associated to depression scores(r=0.96,P>0.05];whereas for the mean proportion of overgeneral memory on AMT without explicit instructions,the students'with depressive mood is markablely higher than normal ones'(respectively,(0.50±0.22),(0.65±0.22),P<0.01),and of which was markly associated to depression scores(r=0.40,P<0.01).②When the instruction was explicit,for the mean proportion of overgeneral memory on SCEPT-SI and the standard AMT,there were no significant difference between the students' with depressive mood and normal ones'(respectively,(0.47±0.25),(0.38±0.20),(0.42±0.22),(0.45±0.22),P>0.05),and both of which were not associated to depression scores(respectively,r=-0.04,r=0.09),P>0.05).Conclusion The sensitivity of AMT without explicit instruction is high,it may be more suitable for assessing overgeneral autobiographical memory in depressive mood populations.%目的 探讨用于检测抑郁情绪个体过度概括化自传体记忆水平的过去事件句子完成(SCEPT)任务和自传体记忆任务(AMT)的敏感性.方法 对67名正常个体和63名非临床抑郁个体,进行无外显指导语的SCEPT任务和AMT任务以及有外显指导语的SCEPT-SI任务和标准的AMT任务.结果 ①无外显指导语的SCEPT所检测的正常个体和抑郁情绪个体的

  20. MOOD AND MEMORIES OF PARENTAL REARING STYLES - A COMPARISON OF MOOD EFFECTS ON QUESTIONNAIRE-CUED AND FREE-RECALL OF AUTOBIOGRAPHICAL MEMORIES

    GERLSMA, C; MOSTERMAN, [No Value; BUWALDA, S; EMMELKAMP, PMG

    1992-01-01

    The relationship between memories of childhood experiences (e.g., adverse parenting) and adult depression often found raises questions of interpretation. On the one hand, both laboratory studies and clinicians' experiences suggest that subjects in a depressed mood frequently show a negative bias in

  1. The impact of education, country, race and ethnicity on the self-report of postpartum depression using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale

    Di Florio, A.; Putnam, K.; Altemus, M.; Apter, G.; Bergink, V.; Bilszta, J.; Brock, R.; Buist, A.; Deligiannidis, K. M.; Devouche, E.; Epperson, C. N.; Guille, C.; Kim, D.; Lichtenstein, P.; Magnusson, P. K. E.; Martinez, P.; Munk-Olsen, T.; Newport, J.; Payne, J.; Penninx, B. W.; O’Hara, M.; Robertson-Blackmore, E.; Roza, S. J.; Sharkey, K. M.; Stuart, S.; Tiemeier, H.; Viktorin, A.; Schmidt, P. J.; Sullivan, P. F.; Stowe, Z. N.; Wisner, K. L.; Jones, I.; Rubinow, D. R.; Meltzer-Brody, S.

    2017-01-01

    Background Universal screening for postpartum depression is recommended in many countries. Knowledge of whether the disclosure of depressive symptoms in the postpartum period differs across cultures could improve detection and provide new insights into the pathogenesis. Moreover, it is a necessary step to evaluate the universal use of screening instruments in research and clinical practice. In the current study we sought to assess whether the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS), the most widely used screening tool for postpartum depression, measures the same underlying construct across cultural groups in a large international dataset. Method Ordinal regression and measurement invariance were used to explore the association between culture, operationalized as education, ethnicity/race and continent, and endorsement of depressive symptoms using the EPDS on 8209 new mothers from Europe and the USA. Results Education, but not ethnicity/race, influenced the reporting of postpartum depression [difference between robust comparative fit indexes (Δ*CFI) 0.01), but not between European countries (Δ*CFI depression that women of different educational backgrounds may manifest. The increasing cultural heterogeneity of societies together with the tendency towards globalization requires a culturally sensitive approach to patients, research and policies, that takes into account, beyond rhetoric, the context of a person’s experiences and the context in which the research is conducted. PMID:27866476

  2. Reports of Perceived Adverse Events of Stimulant Medication on Cognition, Motivation, and Mood: Qualitative Investigation and the Generation of Items for the Medication and Cognition Rating Scale

    Kovshoff, H.; Banaschewski, T.; Buitelaar, J.K.; Carucci, S.; Coghill, D.; Danckaerts, M.; Dittmann, R.W.; Falissard, B.; Grimshaw, D.G.; Hollis, C.; Inglis, S.; Konrad, K.; Liddle, E.; McCarthy, S.; Nagy, P.; Thompson, M.; Wong, I.C.; Zuddas, A.; Sonuga-Barke, E.J.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: There is no questionnaire to specifically monitor perceived adverse events of methylphenidate (MPH) on cognition, motivation, and mood. The current study therefore had two goals. First, to harvest accounts of such putative events from transcripts of interviews in samples enriched for such

  3. Women, anxiety and mood: a review of nomenclature, comorbidity and epidemiology.

    Alexander, Jeanne Leventhal; Dennerstein, Lorraine; Kotz, Krista; Richardson, Gregg

    2007-11-01

    Women experience a high prevalence of mood and anxiety disorders, and comorbidity of mood and anxiety disorders is highly prevalent. Both mood and anxiety disorders disturb sleep, attention and, thereby, cognitive function. They result in a variety of somatic complaints. The mood disorder continuum includes minor depression, dysthymia, major depression and bipolar disorder. Chronobiological disorders, such as seasonal affective disorder as well as premenstrual dysphoric disorder, occur in some women, with comorbid seasonal affective disorder and premenstrual dysphoric disorder in just under half of these individuals [1] . Early life experience, heritability, gender, other psychiatric illness, stress and trauma all interact dynamically in the development of mood and anxiety disorders. The epidemiology, nomenclature and clinical diagnostic issues of these illnesses in midlife woman are reviewed.

  4. Mood congruity and episodic memory in young children.

    Christodoulou, Joan; Burke, Deborah M

    2016-02-01

    Although mood congruity effects on episodic memory have been reported extensively in adults, they have not been reported for children younger than 10 years. The current research investigated mood congruity effects in story recall using an embodied approach to mood induction involving a facial manipulation task with 3- and 4-year-old children. Participants held a chopstick or a popsicle stick in their mouths in a way to either produce or inhibit a smile while they listened to a story featuring happy events for a happy character and sad events for a sad character. Children's mood ratings before and after mood induction indicated that mood became more positive in the smile condition, with no change in the no smile condition. Children in the smile condition, but not in the no smile condition, remembered more about the happy character than the sad character in the story. These results extend mood congruity effects to 3- and 4-year olds, suggesting that at this age representations of emotion interact with basic memory processes. Moreover, the efficacy of reenactment of sensorimotor components of emotion in modifying mood is consistent with embodied representation of emotion during early childhood.

  5. Validation of the Mood and Anxiety Symptom Questionnaire in Korean Adolescents

    Lee, Seul-Ah; Kim, Keun-Hyang; Cho, Sun-Mi

    2014-01-01

    Objective The tripartite model categorizes symptoms of depression and anxiety into three groups: 1) non-specific general distress that is shared between depression and anxiety, 2) depression-specific symptoms that include low positive affect and loss of interest, and 3) anxiety-specific symptoms that include somatic arousal. The Mood and Anxiety Symptoms Questionnaire (MASQ) was developed to measure these three factors of depression and anxiety. The purpose of the present study was to test th...

  6. Network analysis of the Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology: Reanalysis of the STAR*D clinical trial.

    Madhoo, Manisha; Levine, Stephen Z

    2016-11-01

    Network analysis is yet to be used to examine patient-reported symptom severity and change during citalopram treatment for major depressive disorder. We aimed to identify: (I) network systems; (II) central symptoms; and (III) network differences, in patient-reported depression for baseline, endpoint and change scores. STAR*D data during citalopram treatment were reanalyzed to examine depression based on the Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology Self-Report (QIDS-SR). Network analyses were computed from the QIDS-SR item-level severity scores at baseline and endpoint, and from estimated change scores based on mixed models, adjusted for confounding by dose and baseline severity. Centrality indices for each symptom were computed. Networks were contrasted for connectivity with permutation tests. Network analyses grouped symptoms consistently as: Sleep disturbances, cognitive and physical avolition, Affect and Appetite. Symptom centrality was highest for Energy at baseline, Mood at endpoint, and Mood and Concentration on change scores. Generally, permutation tests showed that the networks all significantly (p<.05) differed. Results demonstrated: (I) a replicable network group of the symptoms of depression that modestly mapped onto well-known mechanisms for depression; (II) symptoms with high centrality that may be future treatment targets (e.g., mood); and (III) that the form of the networks differed across treatment time-points, thereby contributing centrality as a possible mechanism to the initial severity debate. These findings highlight the utility of focusing on symptoms rather than total scores to understand how treatment unfolds, and tentative mechanisms.

  7. Bipolar mood cycles and lunar tidal cycles.

    Wehr, T A

    2017-01-24

    In 17 patients with rapid cycling bipolar disorder, time-series analyses detected synchronies between mood cycles and three lunar cycles that modulate the amplitude of the moon's semi-diurnal gravimetric tides: the 14.8-day spring-neap cycle, the 13.7-day declination cycle and the 206-day cycle of perigee-syzygies ('supermoons'). The analyses also revealed shifts among 1:2, 1:3, 2:3 and other modes of coupling of mood cycles to the two bi-weekly lunar cycles. These shifts appear to be responses to the conflicting demands of the mood cycles' being entrained simultaneously to two different bi-weekly lunar cycles with slightly different periods. Measurements of circadian rhythms in body temperature suggest a biological mechanism through which transits of one of the moon's semi-diurnal gravimetric tides might have driven the patients' bipolar cycles, by periodically entraining the circadian pacemaker to its 24.84-h rhythm and altering the pacemaker's phase-relationship to sleep in a manner that is known to cause switches from depression to mania.Molecular Psychiatry advance online publication, 24 January 2017; doi:10.1038/mp.2016.263.

  8. Set-shifting abilities, mood and loss of control over eating in binge eating disorder: An experimental study.

    Dingemans, Alexandra E; Visser, Hiske; Paul, Linda; van Furth, Eric F

    2015-12-15

    Executive functions play an important role in problem-solving and self-control. Set-shifting is an aspect of executive functioning and represents cognitive flexibility. The inability to control eating in Binge Eating Disorder (BED) may imply deficits in set-shifting which could be exacerbated by negative mood and depressive symptoms. The aim of the study was to test whether there is a causal relationship between set-shifting ability, changes in mood and loss of control over eating in BED. Seventy-five participants diagnosed with BED were randomly assigned to a negative or neutral mood induction. Set-shifting abilities, depressive symptoms, current mood and loss of control over eating were assessed. Having depressive symptoms and poorer set-shifting abilities resulted in a more negative mood after a negative mood induction, whereas this was not observed in the neutral mood induction. Post-hoc analyses revealed that individuals with poorer set-shifting abilities and more changes in negative mood, experienced more feelings of loss of control over eating than individuals whose set-shifting abilities were better and whose mood did not change. The results suggest that both depressive symptoms and deficits in set-shifting abilities may decrease an individual's ability to handle negative affect and increase loss of control over eating in individuals with BED.

  9. Depressive Symptoms in Mothers and Daughters: Attachment Style Moderates Reporter Agreement.

    Milan, Stephanie; Wortel, Sanne; Ramirez, Jennifer; Oshin, Linda

    2017-01-01

    Parents and adolescents show only modest agreement when reporting on depressive symptoms. Drawing from attachment theory and previous research on informant discrepancies, we tested hypotheses about how adolescent attachment style may impact reporting agreement in a sample of 184 low-income mother-adolescent daughter dyads (adolescent mean age = 15.4 (SD = 1.05), maternal mean age = 41.4 (SD = 7.60); 58 % Latina, 26 % African-American/Black, 16 % as non-Hispanic, White). Mothers and adolescents reported on their own and each others' depressive symptoms and adolescents reported on attachment style. Using a moderated Actor Partner Interdependence Model (APIM) to calculate reporter bias and accuracy estimates, we tested whether attachment style moderated maternal and adolescent accuracy in theoretically consistent ways. Mothers and adolescents showed similar levels of accuracy and bias when reporting on each other. Consistent with hypotheses, we found that adolescents who reported high levels of preoccupation were less accurate when reporting on their mothers because they tended to observe symptoms that their mothers did not endorse. Conversely, mothers were the most accurate in these dyads, potentially because preoccupied adolescents tend to elevate displays of emotional distress. Reporting accuracy was not affected by a dismissive style. These results add to literature indicating that parent-child reporting discrepancies often reflect meaningful information about relationships, and highlight the need to consider different sources of reporting bias and accuracy in assessment and treatment.

  10. Can Depression Up Odds for Arthritis Linked to Psoriasis?

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_163780.html Can Depression Up Odds for Arthritis Linked to Psoriasis? Mood ... 24, 2017 FRIDAY, Feb. 24, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Depression in people with the chronic inflammatory skin disease ...

  11. Red blood cell folate levels in pregnant women with a history of mood disorders: a case series

    Yaremco, Elyse; Inglis, Angela; Innis, Sheila M.; Hippman, Catriona; Carrion, Prescilla; Lamers, Yvonne; Honer, William G.; Austin, Jehannine

    2014-01-01

    Objective Maternal folate supplementation reduces offspring risk for neural tube defects (NTDs) and other congenital abnormalities. Maternal red blood cell (RBC) folate concentrations of >906nmol/L have been associated with the lowest risk of having an NTD affected pregnancy. Mood disorders (e.g. depression, bipolar disorder) are common among women and can be associated with folate deficiency. Thus, pregnant women with histories of mood disorders may be prone to RBC folate levels insufficient to provide optimal protection against NTDs. While previous studies have assessed RBC folate concentrations in pregnant women from the general population, none have looked specifically at a group of pregnant women who have a history of a mood disorder. Methods We collected data about RBC folate concentrations and folic acid supplement intake during early pregnancy (906nmol/L, despite all participants reporting current daily use of folic acid supplements. Data regarding offspring were available for 22 women: birthweights ranged from 2296g to 4819g, and congenital abnormalities were identified in two (hypoplastic left heart, annular pancreas). Conclusion Data from this exploratory case series suggest a need for future larger scale controlled studies investigating RBC folate concentrations in early pregnancy and offspring outcomes among women with and without histories of mood disorders. PMID:23760977

  12. Predictive value of self-reported and observer-rated defense style in depression treatment.

    Van Henricus, L; Dekker, Jack; Peen, Jaap; Abraham, Robert E; Schoevers, Robert

    2009-01-01

    This study explored the predictive value of observer-rated and self-reported defensive functioning on the outcome of psychotherapy for the treatment of depression. Defense styles were measured according to the Developmental Profile (DP) and the Defense Style Questionnaire (DSQ) in 81 moderately severely depressed patients. All patients were treated with Short-term Psychodynamic Supportive Psychotherapy (SPSP). At baseline, women appeared to have a more mature level of overall defensive functioning. A lower level of defensive function was found in patients with recurrent depressions. We also found a rather modest relationship between self-reported and observer-rated defense. Remitted patients had a more mature overall defensive functioning on the DP and the DSQ. In particular, patients with a symbiotic defense style (giving up, apathetic withdrawal) were at risk for poor outcome. This exploratory study provides further evidence of the relevance of defense styles for depression. It suggests a differential predictive value of separate defense levels, which may help to tailor psychotherapeutic strategies.

  13. Migraine with aura, bipolar depression, ACM aneurysm. A case report.

    de Filippis, Sergio; Salvatori, Emiliano; Bozzao, Alessandro; Fantozzi, Luigi Maria; Martelletti, Paolo

    2005-04-01

    B.D. is a 48-year-old professional woman. She has been suffering for migraine since she was 28, but she did not have serious problems until last year, when headache episodes became more frequent and it was necessary an admission to emergency room. At the beginning, the events were about 6 per month, lasting from 2 to 4 days, beating and of high intensity together with nausea, vomit, photo and phonophobia and visual area. Looking at the anamnesis, we report a psychiatric treatment since about ten years, because of type II bipolar disorder. In spite of the psychopharmacological treatment, as the patient came in our Regional Headache Center, she talked about 7 events with aura (scintillating scotomas, emianopsia) per month, lasting 2-4 days with photo and phonophobia, nausea, crying crisis, anxiety. Although the neurological examination was normal, the sudden aggravation of pain symptomatology and the unresposiveness to usual painkillers, suggested a cerebral CT and CT-angiography. CT and CT-angiography discovered the presence of an aneurysm of the right middle cerebral artery (MCA) of 4 mm diameter, with parietal irregularities. The patient was operated to reduce the hemorrhagic risk, with a positive result. One year after the operation, the patient reports a decrease of headache events with a frequency of 2 per month, lasting only a few hours, which she can now solve with COXIB.

  14. Comparing the Age Related Mood Profile of Veteran Basketball Players

    Robabeh Rostami

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Basketball, as an exciting team sport, is very popular among athletes with disabilities. Among psychological skills, mood states as an important variable have been of special interest to researchers. Objectives: The purpose of the present study was to investigate and compare profile of mood states (BRUMS of disabled former soldiers who play basketball in different age groups. Methodology: After getting permit to conduct the research, 28 disabled basketball players completed the demographic survey and the Brunel Mood Scale (BRUMS questionnaire. BRUMS consisted of 24 items in subscales of stress, anger, depression, fatigue, confusion and vigor. The one-way analysis of variance test was used for the data analysis. The significance level was set at P≤0.05. SPSS Statistics 22.0 was used for the analysis of data. Results: The results showed that mood states become less negative with age. However, scores showed a rising trend in the 35-39 age groups (mood of anger with P=0/02 fatigue with P=0/03 and confusion with P=0/04. Conclusion: It seems that examining the psychological variables in relation to age can help develop more effective strategies in physical and mental training programs for disabled players. Keywords: Mood States, Basketball Players, veteran with disabilities, Age

  15. Mood changes by self-administered acupressure in Japanese college students: a randomized controlled trial.

    Horiuchi, Satoshi; Tsuda, Akira; Honda, Yasuhiro; Kobayashi, Hisanori; Naruse, Mayu; Tsuchiyagaito, Aki

    2014-12-17

    The aim of this 2-week study was to examine the effects of self-administered acupressure intervention onlevels of mood of 54 students (34 males and 20 females) majoring in acupuncture and moxibustion medicineat a college located in Fukuoka, Japan. Eligibility criteria were the ability to complete the intervention accurately and no history of psychiatric diseases. The students were randomly assigned to one of the two groups: an intervention group (IG, n = 28) and a control group (CG, n = 26). The IG participants completed fiveacupressure sessions three times a day (morning, noon, and night), involving the application of pressure to six acupuncture points (GB12, SI17, and LI18 according to 2008 World Health OrganizationRegional Office in the Western Pacific standard), three on the left and three on the right side of the neck for 5 s each. The CG participants were requested to spend their time as usual. Self-reported levels of tension-anxiety, depression-dejection, anger-hostility, vigor, fatigue, and confusion over the past week were measured before and after the study as the main outcomes. Side effects were not predicted and not assessed. The retention rate of this trial was 100%. Improvements in mood, defined as a change from baseline to 2 weeks later, were significantly greater in IG. Our results showed that self-administered intervention had the ability to alter mood levels in college students.

  16. Influence of the modern light environment on mood.

    Bedrosian, T A; Nelson, R J

    2013-07-01

    Humans and other organisms have adapted to a consistent and predictable 24-h solar cycle, but over the past ~130 years the widespread adoption of electric light has transformed our environment. Instead of aligning behavioral and physiological processes to the natural solar cycle, individuals respond to artificial light cycles created by social and work schedules. Urban light pollution, night shift work, transmeridian travel, televisions and computers have dramatically altered the timing of light used to entrain biological rhythms. In humans and other mammals, light is detected by the retina and intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells project this information both to the circadian system and limbic brain regions. Therefore, it is possible that exposure to light at night, which has become pervasive, may disrupt both circadian timing and mood. Notably, the rate of major depression has increased in recent decades, in parallel with increasing exposure to light at night. Strong evidence already links circadian disruption to major depression and other mood disorders. Emerging evidence from the past few years suggests that exposure to light at night also negatively influences mood. In this review, we discuss evidence from recent human and rodent studies supporting the novel hypothesis that nighttime exposure to light disrupts circadian organization and contributes to depressed mood.

  17. Patterns of self-reported depressive symptoms in relation to morningness-eveningness in inpatients with a depressive disorder.

    Müller, Matthias Johannes; Olschinski, Christiane; Kundermann, Bernd; Cabanel, Nicole

    2016-05-30

    The stable and persisting preference for activities in the late evening (i.e. eveningness) is associated with a higher risk for depression, suicidality, and non-remission in major depression. The present study investigated symptom patterns in hospitalized patients with depressive syndromes in relation to morningness-eveningness (chronotypes). Depressive symptoms (Beck Depression Inventory [BDI-II]) and chronotype (German version of the Morningness-Eveningness Questionnaire [D-MEQ]) were assessed after admission and before discharge in inpatients with mainly major depression. Group differences of BDI-II single items and three BDI-II factors (cognitive, affective, somatic) between patients divided at the D-MEQ sample median into "morning preference" (MP) and "evening preference" (EP) were calculated. Data from 64 consecutively admitted patients (31MP/33EP) were analyzed. Both groups (MP/EP) were comparable regarding age, sex, diagnosis, length of stay, and subjective sleep quality, BDI-II scores were significantly higher in EP than in MP at admission. At admission and discharge, cognitive symptoms were significantly more pronounced in EP vs. MP; non-significant differences between EP and MP were found for affective and somatic symptoms. The results underline the importance of the trait-like chronotype for severity and symptomatology in patients with depressive disorders. The patients' chronotype should be taken into account in diagnostics and treatment of depressive disorders.

  18. Hippocampal subfield volumes in mood disorders.

    Cao, B; Passos, I C; Mwangi, B; Amaral-Silva, H; Tannous, J; Wu, M-J; Zunta-Soares, G B; Soares, J C

    2017-01-24

    Volume reduction and shape abnormality of the hippocampus have been associated with mood disorders. However, the hippocampus is not a uniform structure and consists of several subfields, such as the cornu ammonis (CA) subfields CA1-4, the dentate gyrus (DG) including a granule cell layer (GCL) and a molecular layer (ML) that continuously crosses adjacent subiculum (Sub) and CA fields. It is known that cellular and molecular mechanisms associated with mood disorders may be localized to specific hippocampal subfields. Thus, it is necessary to investigate the link between the in vivo hippocampal subfield volumes and specific mood disorders, such as bipolar disorder (BD) and major depressive disorder (MDD). In the present study, we used a state-of-the-art hippocampal segmentation approach, and we found that patients with BD had reduced volumes of hippocampal subfields, specifically in the left CA4, GCL, ML and both sides of the hippocampal tail, compared with healthy subjects and patients with MDD. The volume reduction was especially severe in patients with bipolar I disorder (BD-I). We also demonstrated that hippocampal subfield volume reduction was associated with the progression of the illness. For patients with BD-I, the volumes of the right CA1, ML and Sub decreased as the illness duration increased, and the volumes of both sides of the CA2/3, CA4 and hippocampal tail had negative correlations with the number of manic episodes. These results indicated that among the mood disorders the hippocampal subfields were more affected in BD-I compared with BD-II and MDD, and manic episodes had focused progressive effect on the CA2/3 and CA4 and hippocampal tail.Molecular Psychiatry advance online publication, 24 January 2017; doi:10.1038/mp.2016.262.

  19. Creativity, depression, and circannual variation.

    Sitton, S C; Hughes, R B

    1995-12-01

    Verbal creativity has been linked to personal and family histories of bipolar depression. The present studies investigated the relationship between creativity and atypical symptoms of bipolar depression such as seasonal mood variations. Although more creative individuals, as measured by scores on the Remote Associates Test and a writing sample, perceived seasonal fluctuations in their creativity, no significant differences in performance were found.

  20. Short-term duloxetine administration affects neural correlates of mood-congruent memory.

    Tendolkar, Indira; van Wingen, Guido; Urner, Maren; Verkes, Robbert Jan; Fernández, Guillén

    2011-10-01

    It is unknown how antidepressants reverse mood-congruent memory bias, a cognitive core factor causing and maintaining depression. Using a double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over design, we investigated the effect of a short-term treatment (14 days) with the dual reuptake inhibitor duloxetine on neural correlates of mood-congruent and mood-incongruent memory formation and retrieval in healthy volunteers who underwent a sad mood induction procedure. Duloxetine did not affect acute mood state or memory performance, but interacted with brain processes mediating mood-congruent memory. It decreased activity related to successful memory formation for mood-congruent and -incongruent items in a set of brain regions comprising the putamen and the middle frontal gyrus, as well as the middle and the anterior cingulate cortex. Duloxetine specifically increased amygdala activity related to successful memory retrieval for mood-incongruent items. Here we show that short-term administration of duloxetine affects the neural correlates of emotional memory formation and retrieval in a set of brain regions whose processing is related to affective state and its regulation. While duloxetine suppressed the neural correlates of emotional memory formation in general, it specifically enhanced amygdala processes associated with mood-incongruent memory retrieval. This pattern of results shows how an antidepressant may reduce emotional memory formation and reverse mood-congruent processing biases at retrieval.

  1. Multivitamin and Protein Supplement Use Is Associated With Positive Mood States and Health Behaviors in US Military and Coast Guard Personnel

    Austin, Krista G.; McGraw, Susan M.; Lieberman, Harris R.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Approximately 60% of Armed Forces personnel regularly consume dietary supplements (DSs). We investigated the association of mood and health behaviors with multiple classes of DSs in military and Coast Guard personnel (N = 5536). Participants completed a survey of DS use and the Quick Mood Scale to assess mood domains of wakeful-drowsiness, relaxed-anxious, cheerful-depressed, friendly-aggression, clearheaded-confused, and well coordinated–clumsy. Supplements were categorized as multivitamin/minerals (MVM), individual vitamin/minerals, protein/amino acid supplements (PS), combination products (C), herbals (H), purported steroid analogs, (S) and other (O). One-way analyses of covariance assessed associations of DSs and perceived health behavior with mood controlling for age. Logistic regression determined associations between DS use and health behavior. Users of MVM and PS reported feeling significantly (P < 0.05) more awake, relaxed, cheerful, clearheaded, and coordinated. Participants using PS and S reported feeling less friendly (more aggressive, P < 0.02). Users of MVM and PS were more likely to report their general health, eating habits, and fitness level as excellent/good (P < 0.05). Participants reporting health behaviors as excellent/good were more (P < 0.01) awake, relaxed, cheerful, friendly, clearheaded, and coordinated. As no known biological mechanisms can explain such diverse effects of MVM and PS use on multiple mood states, health, eating habits, and fitness, we hypothesize these associations are not causal, and DS intake does not alter these parameters per se. Preexisting differences in mood and other health-related behaviors and outcomes between users versus nonusers of DSs could be a confounding factor in studies of DSs. PMID:25122181

  2. Social disability of Brazilian mood disorder patients

    Tucci A.M.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Mood disorders cause many social problems, often involving family relationships. Few studies are available in the literature comparing patients with bipolar, unipolar, dysthymic, and double depressive disorders concerning these aspects. In the present study, demographic and disease data were collected using a specifically prepared questionnaire. Social adjustment was assessed using the Disability Adjustment Scale and family relationships were evaluated using the Global Assessment of Relational Functioning Scale. One hundred patients under treatment for at least 6 months were evaluated at the Psychiatric Outpatient Clinic of the Botucatu School of Medicine, UNESP. Most patients were women (82% more than 50 (49% years old with at least two years of follow-up, with little schooling (62% had less than 4 years, and of low socioeconomic level. Logistic regression analysis showed that a diagnosis of unipolar disorder (P = 0.003, OR = 0.075, CI = 0.014-0.403 and dysthymia (P = 0.001, OR = 0.040, CI = 0.006-0.275 as well as family relationships (P = 0.002, OR = 0.953, CI = 0914-0.992 played a significant role in social adjustment. Unipolar and dysthymic patients presented better social adjustment than bipolar and double depressive patients (P < 0.001, results that were not due to social class. These patients, treated at a teaching hospital, may represent the severest mood disorder cases. Evaluations were made knowing the diagnosis of the patients, which might also have influenced some of the results. Social disabilities among mood disorder patients are very frequent and intensive.

  3. Cognitive behavioral approaches to the patients suffering from depression due to maladjustment in the work place: two case reports

    Tomotake, Masahito; Okura, Masao; Okabe, Hiromichi

    1999-01-01

    The authors report two cases of depression in which Beck's cognitive therapy was effective. Case 1was a 32-year-old man who had been troubled with the recurrent depression for about eight years in spite of regular medication. Case 2was a 30-year-old man who had been chronically depressed for one year. Maladjustment in the work place was involved in the development of their depressive symptoms. Through the psycho-therapeutic sessions, they were encouraged to identify their cognitive distortion...

  4. [Recited depression].

    Barucci, M; Cossio, M

    1984-01-01

    Several subjects who tell their depression and play a part of it in front of the doctor without being really depressed are reported. Some of them try to hide the symptoms (irritability or erethism, ceremonials of obsessive neurosis, shunning of phobia) which, in their opinion, might be detrimental to their reputation. Others neglect to describe some of the symptoms of their polymorphous clinical picture only underlining the depressive signs. Some others play a part of depression because they have believed to recognize themselves in persons presented by mass media, because it seems to them a duty to show an adequate depression in case of mournful event, or because they "convert" their problem into a depression. Some others use depression as a blackmail, or to obtain an advantage from doctor's conviction about their illness. The reason for the high frequency of similar cases in the present time are examined: the scientific divulgation and the acceptance of depression by the modern society are among the most important ones. The peculiar semantic vicissitudes of the word depression are also reviewed. A widening of the boundaries of depression has contributed to an increase in the number of the cases. Finally, in addition to patients who are depressed without being aware of it, the authors focus the inverse possibility: patients who believed or try to make their doctor believe (playing the part of depression in front of them) that they are depressed.

  5. About Mood Disorders

    ... people of all ages, races, ethnic groups and social classes. Although it can occur at any age, the ... is found among all races, ethnic groups and social classes. Like depression and other serious illnesses, bipolar disorder ...

  6. The multiple dimensions of the social anxiety spectrum in mood disorders.

    Fournier, Jay C; Cyranowski, Jill M; Rucci, Paola; Cassano, Giovanni B; Frank, Ellen

    2012-09-01

    Major depressive disorder and bipolar spectrum disorders are debilitating conditions associated with severe impairment. The presence of co-occurring social phobia can make the clinical course of these disorders even more challenging. To better understand the nature of social anxiety in the context of ongoing mood disorders, we report the results of exploratory factor analyses of the Social Phobia Spectrum Self-Report Instrument (SHY), a 162-item measure designed to capture the full spectrum of manifestations and features associated with social anxiety experienced across the lifespan. We examined data from 359 adult outpatients diagnosed with major depressive disorder and 403 outpatients diagnosed with a bipolar spectrum disorder. The measure was divided into its two components: the SHY-General (SHY-G), reflecting general social anxiety features, and the SHY-Specific (SHY-S), reflecting anxiety in specific situations. Exploratory factor analyses were conducted for each using tetrachoric correlation matrices and an unweighted least squares estimator. Item invariance was evaluated for important patient subgroups. Five factors were identified for the SHY-G, representing general features of social anxiety: Fear of Social Disapproval, Childhood Social Anxiety, Somatic Social Anxiety, Excessive Agreeableness, and Behavioral Submission. Seven specific-situation factors were identified from the SHY-S: Writing in Public, Dating, Public Speaking, Eating in Public, Shopping Fears, Using Public Restrooms, and Unstructured Social Interactions. The identified dimensions provide clinically valuable information about the nature of the social fears experienced by individuals diagnosed with mood disorders and could help guide the development of tailored treatment strategies for individuals with co-occurring mood disorders and social anxiety.

  7. Experimental evidence for the involvement of PDLIM5 in mood disorders in hetero knockout mice.

    Yasue Horiuchi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Reports indicate that PDLIM5 is involved in mood disorders. The PDLIM5 (PDZ and LIM domain 5 gene has been genetically associated with mood disorders; it's expression is upregulated in the postmortem brains of patients with bipolar disorder and downregulated in the peripheral lymphocytes of patients with major depression. Acute and chronic methamphetamine (METH administration may model mania and the evolution of mania into psychotic mania or schizophrenia-like behavioral changes, respectively. METHODS: To address whether the downregulation of PDLIM5 protects against manic symptoms and cause susceptibility to depressive symptoms, we evaluated the effects of reduced Pdlim5 levels on acute and chronic METH-induced locomotor hyperactivity, prepulse inhibition, and forced swimming by using Pdlim5 hetero knockout (KO mice. RESULTS: The homozygous KO of Pdlim5 is embryonic lethal. The effects of METH administration on locomotor hyperactivity and the impairment of prepulse inhibition were lower in Pdlim5 hetero KO mice than in wild-type mice. The transient inhibition of PDLIM5 (achieved by blocking the translocation of protein kinase C epsilon before the METH challenge had a similar effect on behavior. Pdlim5 hetero KO mice showed increased immobility time in the forced swimming test, which was diminished after the chronic administration of imipramine. Chronic METH treatment increased, whereas chronic haloperidol treatment decreased, Pdlim5 mRNA levels in the prefrontal cortex. Imipramine increased Pdlim5 mRNA levels in the hippocampus. CONCLUSION: These findings are partially compatible with reported observations in humans, indicating that PDLIM5 is involved in psychiatric disorders, including mood disorders.

  8. The Effect of Repeated Ketamine Infusion Over Facial Emotion Recognition in Treatment-Resistant Depression: A Preliminary Report.

    Shiroma, Paulo R; Albott, C Sophia; Johns, Brian; Thuras, Paul; Wels, Joseph; Lim, Kelvin O

    2015-01-01

    In contrast to improvement in emotion recognition bias by traditional antidepressants, the authors report preliminary findings that changes in facial emotion recognition are not associated with response of depressive symptoms after repeated ketamine infusions or relapse during follow-up in treatment-resistant depression.

  9. Does negative mood drive the urge to eat? The contribution of negative mood, exposure to food cues and eating style.

    Loxton, Natalie J; Dawe, Sharon; Cahill, Allison

    2011-04-01

    The current study investigated whether negative mood alone, or in conjunction with exposure to food cues, influences the urge to eat. Female participants (N=160) were allocated to either a negative or neutral mood induction procedure followed by exposure to either a preferred food cue or a non-food cue. Participants reported their urge to eat at baseline, following the mood induction procedure, and following the cue exposure, as well as completing measures of restrained and disinhibited eating. Contrary to prediction, urge to eat decreased following the mood induction procedure for those in the negative mood condition. This was not influenced by eating style (i.e., restrained or disinhibited eaters). Urge to eat subsequently increased following exposure to the food, but not the non-food, cue. This effect was moderated by negative mood and eating style with disinhibited eating being positively associated with urge to eat for those women in the negative mood condition. These findings suggest that negative mood plays a role in the tendency to overeat, but only in the context of personally desirable food cues and for a subgroup of women with a history of disinhibited eating.

  10. CNS depression in an infant after the ingestion of tobacco: a case report.

    Borys, D J; Setzer, S C; Ling, L J

    1988-02-01

    An 8-month-old female infant was brought in after ingesting cigarette butts. Upon presentation to the ED approximately 2.5 hr post-ingestion, the child was very lethargic and respirations were depressed. She was intubated and a NG tube was placed. Gastric lavage was performed, after which activated charcoal and sorbitol were given. Atropine was administered to treat excessive secretions. The patient became progressively more obtunded throughout the emergency department stay. Upon admission to the PICU she was minimally responsive. The urine tox screen was positive only for nicotine. The patient gradually improved with supportive care and was sent home on the third hospital day. Although the effects of Nicotine are well documented, few cases have been reported of severe toxicity in pediatric patients. We believe this to be the only reported case of severe CNS depression secondary to the ingestion of cigarette butts in a pediatric patient.

  11. Identifying Personality Pathology Associated With Major Depressive Episodes: Incremental Validity of Informant Reports

    2013-01-01

    Major limitations are associated with the use of a single source of information to assess personality pathology. The construct validity of standardized interviews and informant reports on personality pathology has been established relative to other measures of personality pathology, but it is also important to consider these measures in relation to other constructs that should be related to personality pathology. One example is major depression. In this study, we evaluated whether less common...

  12. The impact of individual depressive symptoms on impairment of psychosocial functioning.

    Eiko I Fried

    Full Text Available Previous studies have established that scores on Major Depressive Disorder scales are correlated with measures of impairment of psychosocial functioning. It remains unclear, however, whether individual depressive symptoms vary in their effect on impairment, and if so, what the magnitude of these differences might be. We analyzed data from 3,703 depressed outpatients in the first treatment stage of the Sequenced Treatment Alternatives to Relieve Depression (STAR*D study. Participants reported on the severity of 14 depressive symptoms, and stated to what degree their depression impaired psychosocial functioning (in general, and in the five domains work, home management, social activities, private activities, and close relationships. We tested whether symptoms differed in their associations with impairment, estimated unique shared variances of each symptom with impairment to assess the degree of difference, and examined whether symptoms had variable impacts across impairment domains. Our results show that symptoms varied substantially in their associations with impairment, and contributed to the total explained variance in a range from 0.7% (hypersomnia to 20.9% (sad mood. Furthermore, symptoms had significantly different impacts on the five impairment domains. Overall, sad mood and concentration problems had the highest unique associations with impairment and were among the most debilitating symptoms in all five domains. Our findings are in line with a growing chorus of voices suggesting that symptom sum-scores obfuscate relevant differences between depressed patients and that substantial rewards will come from close attention to individual depression symptoms.

  13. Mood-Dependent Cognitive Change in a Man with Bipolar Disorder Who Cycles Every 24 Hours

    Lam, Dominic; Mansell, Warren

    2008-01-01

    A case study of a bipolar patient whose mood changes every 24 hours is described to illustrate the changes in cognitive processing and content during different phases of bipolar disorder. The participant completed a battery of questionnaires and tasks on 4 separate occasions: twice when depressed and twice when manic. Depression tended to be…

  14. Screening for depressed mood in an adolescent psychiatric context by brief self-assessment scales -- testing psychometric validity of WHO-5 and BDI-6 indices by latent trait analyses

    Blom, Eva Henje; Bech, Per; Högberg, Göran

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Major depressive disorder is prevalent in the adolescent psychiatric clinical setting and often comorbid with other primary psychiatric diagnoses such as ADHD or social anxiety disorder. Systematic manual-based diagnostic procedures are recommended to identify such comorbidity...... of two such scales, which may be used in a two-step screening procedure, the WHO-Five Well-being Index (WHO-5) and the six-item version of Beck's Depression Inventory (BDI-6). METHOD: 66 adolescent psychiatric patients with a clinical diagnosis of major depressive disorder (MDD), 60 girls and 6 boys...... but they are time-consuming and often not fully implemented in clinical practice. Screening for depressive symptoms in the child psychiatric context using brief, user-friendly and easily managed self-assessment scales may be of clinical value and utility. The aim of the study is to test the psychometric validity...

  15. [Diabetes mellitus and depressive disorder, an undesirable association].

    Nicolau, Joana; Masmiquel, Lluís

    2013-12-01

    Type 2 diabetes and depressive disorder are 2 chronic diseases highly prevalent in developed countries and with a negative impact on quality of life and life expectancy. In recent years, both conditions have been shown to be strongly associated. Thus, diabetics have an increased risk of suffering depressive disorder, as well as impaired glucose homeostasis, if they experience depression. In diabetic patients, concurrent depression is associated to greater difficulties in disease management and metabolic control, increased risk of developing chronic complications, decreased quality of life, and higher healthcare expenses. As a result, the interest of diabetic scientific societies in this association has increased, and they recommend regular mood assessment in diabetic patients. However, the limited clinical experience available and the conflicting results reported to date make it difficult to draw conclusions.

  16. Inhibition of 5-HT neuron activity and induction of depressive-like behavior by high-frequency stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus

    Temel, Yasin; Boothman, Laura J.; Blokland, Arjan; Magill, Peter J; Steinbusch, Harry W. M.; Visser-Vandewalle, Veerle; Sharp, Trevor

    2007-01-01

    Bilateral, high-frequency stimulation (HFS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) is the surgical therapy of choice for movement disability in advanced Parkinson's disease (PD), but this procedure evokes debilitating psychiatric effects, including depressed mood, of unknown neural origin. Here, we report the unexpected finding that HFS of the STN inhibits midbrain 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) neurons to evoke depression-related behavioral changes. We found that bilateral HFS of the STN consistently ...

  17. The effects of the gender-culture interaction on self-reports of depressive symptoms: cross-cultural study among Egyptians and Canadians

    Vivian Huang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose Research in depression has revealed differences in the way depressed individuals across cultures report their symptoms. This literature also points to possible differences in symptom reporting patterns between men and women. Using data from a larger dataset (Beshai et al. 2016, the current study examined whether non-depressed and depressed Egyptian and Canadian men and women differed in their self-report of the various domains of the Beck Depression Inventory –II (BDI-II. Method We recruited a total of 131 depressed and non-depressed participants from both Egypt (n = 29 depressed; n = 29 non-depressed and Canada (n = 35 depressed; n = 38 non-depressed. Depression status was ascertained using a structured interview. All participants were asked to complete the BDI-II along with other self-report measures of depression. BDI-II items were divided into two subscales in accordance with Dozois, Dobson & Ahnberg (1998 factor analysis: cognitive-affective and somatic-vegetative subscales. Results We found a significant three-way interaction effect on the cognitive-affective (F(1,121 = 9.51, p = .003 and main effect of depression status on somatic-vegetative subscales (F(1,121 = 42.80, p < .001. Post hoc analyses revealed that depressed Egyptian men reported lower scores on the cognitive-affective subscale of the BDI-II compared to their depressed Canadian male counterparts. Conclusions These results suggest that males across cultures may differentially report cognitive symptoms of depression. These results also suggest that clinicians and clinical scientists need to further examine the interaction effect of culture and gender when investigating self-reported symptoms of depression.

  18. Happy mood decreases self-focused attention.

    Green, Jeffrey D; Sedikides, Constantine; Saltzberg, Judith A; Wood, Joanne V; Forzano, Lori-Ann B

    2003-03-01

    Research addressing the influence of happy mood on self-focused attention has yielded inconsistent results. Some studies found that happy mood decreased self-focus relative to sad mood. Other studies did not detect a significant difference between happy and neutral mood, and still other studies found that happy mood, relative to neutral mood, increased self-focus. These investigations have potential shortcomings, such as an insufficiently powerful happy mood induction and a confound between visualization mood inductions and self-focus itself. The present experiment addressed these shortcomings by inducing mood via musical selections, equalizing the approximate potency between happy and sad moods, and using a within-participants design. Relative to neutral mood, happy mood decreased self-focused attention.

  19. Optimizing the treatment of mood disorders in the perinatal period

    Meltzer-Brody, Samantha; Jones, Ian

    2015-01-01

    The perinatal period is a time of high risk for women with unipolar and bipolar mood disorders. We discuss treatment considerations for perinatal mood disorders, including unipolar and bipolar depression as well as postpartum psychosis. We further explore the unique issues faced by women and their families across the full trajectory of the perinatal period from preconception planning through pregnancy and following childbirth. Treatment of perinatal mood disorders requires a collaborative care approach between obstetrics practitioners and mental health providers, to ensure that a thoughtful risk : benefit analysis is conducted. It is vital to consider the risks of the underlying illness versus risks of medication exposure during pregnancy or lactation. When considering medication treatment, attention must be paid to prior medication trials that were most efficacious and best tolerated. Lastly, it is important to assess the impact of individual psychosocial stressors and lifestyle factors on treatment response. PMID:26246794

  20. Pediatric Bipolar Disorder and Mood Dysregulation: Diagnostic Controversies.

    Shain, Benjamin N

    2014-08-01

    Pediatric bipolar disorder, once thought rare, has gone through stages of conceptualization. DSM criteria were reinterpreted such that children and adolescents, particularly those with ADHD, were commonly diagnosed with bipolar disorder and thought to be atypical by adult standards. Research criteria separated pediatric bipolar patients into 3 phenotypes, including a research diagnosis of "severe mood dysregulation." DSM-5 largely maintained previous criteria for bipolar disorder at all ages and created a new diagnosis called "disruptive mood dysregulation disorder," categorized as a depressive disorder, for persistently angry or irritable patients with symptoms of childhood onset. However, the controversy regarding the diagnosis of pediatric bipolar disorder continues. Progress has been made in the classification of children and adolescents with mood symptoms who are predominantly irritable or angry, but lack of clarity remains regarding classification of children and adolescents with "symptoms characteristic of bipolar disorder" who do not meet criteria for bipolar I disorder, bipolar II disorder, or cyclothymia.

  1. Cross Cultural Relationships of Depression, Attachment Styles, and Quality of Romantic Relationships: Cultural Difference between Taiwanese

    Burleson, Yi-An Lo

    2013-01-01

    Relationship quality has been determined to be a positive factor in the treatment of depression (Brown, 2000; Fagan, 2009). Although the importance of marriage has been broadly studied, little research has investigated correlations among relationship quality, depressive moods, and attachment styles. Although the prevalence of depressive moods has…

  2. PERSONALITY DOES NOT INFLUENCE EXERCISE-INDUCED MOOD ENHANCEMENT AMONG FEMALE EXERCISERS

    Andrew M. Lane

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigated the influence of personality on exercise-induced mood changes. It was hypothesised that (a exercise would be associated with significant mood enhancement across all personality types, (b extroversion would be associated with positive mood and neuroticism with negative mood both pre- and post-exercise, and (c personality measures would interact with exercise-induced mood changes. Participants were 90 female exercisers (M = 25.8 yr, SD = 9.0 yr who completed the Eysenck Personality Inventory (EPI once and the Brunel Mood Scale (BRUMS before and after a 60-minute exercise session. Median splits were used to group participants into four personality types: stable introverts (n = 25, stable extroverts (n = 20, neurotic introverts (n = 26, and neurotic extroverts (n = 19. Repeated measures MANOVA showed significant mood enhancement following exercise across all personality types. Neuroticism was associated with negative mood scores pre- and post-exercise but the effect of extroversion on reported mood was relatively weak. There was no significant interaction effect between exercise-induced mood enhancement and personality. In conclusion, findings lend support to the notion that exercise is associated with improved mood. However, findings show that personality did not influence this effect, although neuroticism was associated with negative mood

  3. Ketamine-induced affective switch in a patient with treatment-resistant depression

    Girish Banwari

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available There is growing evidence to support the rapid, albeit short-lived antidepressant effect of subanesthetic dose of ketamine, a noncompetitive glutamate N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist in treatment-resistant unipolar and bipolar depression. Ketamine is known to cause transient mood elevation or euphoria, psychotomimetic effects, and dissociative symptoms, but its use in unipolar or bipolar depression has not been reported to induce an affective switch amounting to persistent or prolonged hypomania/mania or manic-like syndrome. We report the case of a 52-year-old male with first episode, continuous, nonpsychotic, treatment-resistant, unipolar major depression of 10 years duration, who manifested a switch from depression to mania while being treated with subanesthetic dose of ketamine, given intramuscularly. This case suggests that polarity switch should be considered as a potential side effect while using ketamine for treatment-resistant depression.

  4. Is Chronic Inflammation a Possible Cause of Obesity-Related Depression?

    Magdalena Olszanecka-Glinianowicz; Barbara Zahorska-Markiewicz; Piotr Kocełak; Joanna Janowska; Elżbieta Semik-Grabarczyk; Tomasz Wikarek; Wojciech Gruszka; Piotr Dąbrowski

    2009-01-01

    Adult obesity has been associated with depression, especially in women. Whether depression leads to obesity or obesity causes depression is unclear. Chronic inflammation is observed in obesity and depression. In 63 obese women without additional diseases depression level was assessed with the Beck's questionnaire. After evaluation of depression level study group was divided into groups according to the mood status (A—without depression, B—mild depression, and C—severe depression), and serum c...

  5. Tratamento homeopático da depressão: relato de série de casos Homeopathic treatment of depression: series of case report

    Ubiratan Cardinalli Adler

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXTO: Não há estudos metodologicamente adequados sobre a eficácia da homeopatia na depressão. Relatos de casos clínicos são os primeiros degraus da evidência clínica, a caminho de estudos controlados. OBJETIOS: Relatar resultados preliminares do tratamento homeopático de pacientes com depressão no SUS de Jundiaí. MÉTODOS: Revisão dos prontuários dos casos novos, atendidos entre março e dezembro de 2006. O diagnóstico foi confirmado por entrevista estruturada. Os pacientes receberam homeopatia individualizada e a evolução foi avaliada pela escala de Montgomery & Åsberg (MADRS. RESULTADOS: Foram tratados 15 casos e observou-se resposta terapêutica (redução maior que 50% dos escores de depressão em 14 pacientes (93%, após uma média de sete semanas de tratamento; um paciente apresentou piora clínica e foi encaminhado ao tratamento convencional. O escore média (± dp na Escala de Avaliação de Depressão de Montgomery-Åsberg diminuiu de 24,9 (± 5,8 a 9,7 (± 8,2, p BACKGROUND: Evidence for the efficacy of homeopathy for depression is limited due to lack of clinical trials of high quality. Case reports are the first steps of clinical evidence, towards controlled trials. OBJECTIVES: To report preliminary results of homeopathic treatment of depression in Jundiai's public health system, Sao Paulo. METHODS: Review of the medical records of new patients, treated between March and December 2006. Their diagnosis was confirmed by a semi-structured interview. Patients received individualized homeopathy and their response was measured by the Montgomery & Åsberg depression scale (MADRS. RESULTS: Fifteen patients were treated and response (more than 50% decrease of MADRS scores was observed in 14 patients (93%, after an average of seven weeks of treatment; one patient had clinical worsening and was refered to conventional antidepressant therapy. The MADRS mean scores (± dp decreased from 24.9 (± 5.8 to 9.7 (± 8.2, p < .0001

  6. Self-reported depression and anxiety symptoms and usage of computers and mobile phones among working-age Finns.

    Korpinen, Leena; Pääkkönen, Rauno

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the work is to study self-reported depression and anxiety symptoms among working-age Finns using logistical regression models. The study was carried out as a cross-sectional study by posting a questionnaire to 15,000 working-age persons. The responses (6121) revealed that 101 (1.7%) Finnish working-age persons suffered depression very often and 77 (1.3%) suffered anxiety very often during the last 12 months. Symptoms uncovered in the comparative analysis of respondents who had quite often or more often depression to respondents who had less depression showed differentiation. The same result was obtained in the analysis of self-reported anxiety symptoms. With the logistical regression models (from depression and anxiety), we found associations between physical symptoms (in shoulder) and depression and between different mental symptoms and anxiety or depression. In the future, it is important to take into accout that persons with physical symptoms can also have mental symptoms (depression or anxiety).

  7. Coma blisters after poisoning caused by central nervous system depressants: case report including histopathological findings.

    Branco, Maira Migliari; Capitani, Eduardo Mello De; Cintra, Maria Letícia; Hyslop, Stephen; Carvalho, Adriana Camargo; Bucaretchi, Fabio

    2012-01-01

    Blister formation and eccrine sweat gland necrosis is a cutaneous manifestation associated with states of impaired consciousness, most frequently reported after overdoses of central nervous system depressants, particularly phenobarbital. The case of a 45-year-old woman who developed "coma blisters" at six distinct anatomic sites after confirmed (laboratory) phenobarbital poisoning, associated with other central nervous system depressants (clonazepam, promethazine, oxcarbazepine and quetiapine), is presented. A biopsy from the left thumb blister taken on day 4 revealed focal necrosis of the epidermis and necrosis of sweat gland epithelial cells; direct immunofluorescence was strongly positive for IgG in superficial blood vessel walls but negative for IgM, IgA, C3 and C1q. The patient was discharged on day 21 with no sequelae.

  8. The impact of education, country, race and ethnicity on the self-report of postpartum depression using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale

    Di Florio, A; Putnam, K; Altemus, M;

    2016-01-01

    cultural groups in a large international dataset. METHOD: Ordinal regression and measurement invariance were used to explore the association between culture, operationalized as education, ethnicity/race and continent, and endorsement of depressive symptoms using the EPDS on 8209 new mothers from Europe...... and the USA. RESULTS: Education, but not ethnicity/race, influenced the reporting of postpartum depression [difference between robust comparative fit indexes (∆*CFI) 0.01), but not between European countries (∆*CFI ... in expression of phenotype of postpartum depression that women of different educational backgrounds may manifest. The increasing cultural heterogeneity of societies together with the tendency towards globalization requires a culturally sensitive approach to patients, research and policies, that takes...

  9. Reporting of drug induced depression and fatal and non-fatal suicidal behaviour in the UK from 1998 to 2011

    Thomas, Kyla H.; Richard M. Martin; Potokar, John; Pirmohamed, Munir; Gunnell, David

    2014-01-01

    Background Psychiatric adverse drug reactions (ADRs) are distressing for patients and have important public health implications. We identified the drugs with the most frequent spontaneous reports of depression, and fatal and non-fatal suicidal behaviour to the UK’s Yellow Card Scheme from 1998 to 2011. Methods We obtained Yellow Card data from the Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency for the drugs with the most frequent spontaneous reports of depression and suicidal behaviour f...

  10. Mood Dependent Music Generator

    Scirea, Marco

    2013-01-01

    Music is one of the most expressive media to show and manipulate emotions, but there have been few studies on how to generate music connected to emotions. Such studies have always been shunned upon by musicians affirming that a machine cannot create expressive music, as it's the composer......'s and player's experiences and emotions that get poured into the piece. At the same time another problem is that music is highly complicated (and subjective) and finding out which elements transmit certain emotions is not an easy task. This demo wants to show how the manipulation of a set of features can...... actually change the mood the music transmits, hopefully awakening an interest in this area of research....

  11. Cyclic AMP response element binding protein and brain-derived neurotrophic factor: Molecules that modulate our mood?

    A Nair; V A Vaidya

    2006-09-01

    Depression is the major psychiatric ailment of our times, afflicting ∼20% of the population. Despite its prevalence, the pathophysiology of this complex disorder is not well understood. In addition, although antidepressants have been in existence for the past several decades, the mechanisms that underlie their therapeutic effects remain elusive. Building evidence implicates a role for the plasticity of specific neuro-circuitry in both the pathophysiology and treatment of depression. Damage to limbic regions is thought to contribute to the etiology of depression and antidepressants have been reported to reverse such damage and promote adaptive plasticity. The molecular pathways that contribute to the damage associated with depression and antidepressant-mediated plasticity are a major focus of scientific enquiry. The transcription factor cyclic AMP response element binding protein (CREB) and the neurotrophin brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) are targets of diverse classes of antidepressants and are known to be regulated in animal models and in patients suffering from depression. Given their role in neuronal plasticity, CREB and BDNF have emerged as molecules that may play an important role in modulating mood. The purpose of this review is to discuss the role of CREB and BDNF in depression and as targets/mediators of antidepressant action.

  12. Couples and breast cancer: women's mood and partners' marital satisfaction predicting support perception.

    Boeding, Sara E; Pukay-Martin, Nicole D; Baucom, Donald H; Porter, Laura S; Kirby, Jennifer S; Gremore, Tina M; Keefe, Francis J

    2014-10-01

    Women who are diagnosed with breast cancer can experience an array of psychosocial difficulties; however, social support, particularly from a spouse, has been shown to have a protective function during this time. This study examined the ways in which a woman's daily mood, pain, and fatigue, and her spouse's marital satisfaction predict the woman's report of partner support in the context of breast cancer. Pretest data from a larger intervention study and multilevel modeling were used to examine the effects of women's daily mood, pain, and fatigue and average levels of mood, pain, and fatigue on women's report of social support received from her partner, as well as how the effects of mood interacted with partners' marital satisfaction. Results show that on days in which women reported higher levels of negative or positive mood, as well as on days they reported more pain and fatigue, they reported receiving more support. Women who, on average, reported higher levels of positive mood tended to report receiving more support than those who, on average, reported lower positive mood. However, average levels of negative mood were not associated with support. Higher average levels of fatigue but not pain were associated with higher support. Finally, women whose husbands reported higher levels of marital satisfaction reported receiving more partner support, but husbands' marital satisfaction did not moderate the effect of women's mood on support. Implications of these findings are discussed relative to assisting couples during this difficult time in their lives.

  13. A Research on the Intervention of Depression Mood of the Elderly Disabled Veterans in Nursing Home--Take Shanghai Military Honor Nursing Home as An Example%养老机构中老年残疾人抑郁情绪干预研究*--以上海荣誉军人疗养院为例

    杜立婕; 郁艳璟

    2014-01-01

    This essay selected the elderly disabled veterans who have lived in Shanghai Military Honor Nursing Home for a long time as the research objects and study cases. It utilized the professional group social work method and nostalgic method in psychological therapy to intervene their depression mood. The evaluation results showed that the methods above have played a very good role and effect in relieving depressions of the elderly disabled veterans. It could be applied in therapy of similar groups.%长期居住在养老机构中的老年残疾人容易产生抑郁情绪,不利于他们的健康与生活,应当予以积极干预。本项目以上海荣军院的伤残军人作为研究和工作对象,运用专业化的社会工作手段尤其是小组方法以及心理治疗中的怀旧方法对他们的抑郁情绪进行了干预。通过成效评估得知,以上方法取得了良好的功能和作用,有效缓解了他们的抑郁情绪,可以在在类似群体中加以推广。

  14. Music-induced mood biases decision strategies during the ultimatum game

    Hwanjun eChung

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Recently, an increasing attempt has been made to understand the influence of mood on socioeconomic decision-making. We tested in this study whether an unpleasant mood would lead to unfavorable decisions more frequently than a pleasant mood, and whether decisions under different moods can be explained in different ways. Healthy volunteers were assigned to either a pleasant or unpleasant mood group and listened to musical excerpts to induce pleasant or unpleasant mood. Both groups completed the ultimatum game as a responder with an unacquainted partner who was actually a confederate. The proposer’s offers were made in six different ratios of split (1:9, 2:8, 3:7, 4:6, 5:5, 6:4 in a preprogramed manner unbeknownst to the participants. After the completion of the task as a responder, the participant rated subjectively perceived fairness and emotional feelings about each split of offer. The statistical results showed that the unpleasant mood group rejected unfair offers more often compared to the pleasant mood group. Self-reported ratings of perceived fairness and emotional feelings did not statistically differ between the two groups. Interestingly, however, only in the unpleasant mood group, rejection rates of unfair offers were negatively correlated with perceived fairness. Both the pleasant and unpleasant mood groups showed a negative correlation between rejection rates of unfair offers and self-reported happiness. These results suggest a possibility that different decision strategies operate under different mood during a socioeconomic exchange.

  15. Major depression

    Depression - major; Depression - clinical; Clinical depression; Unipolar depression; Major depressive disorder ... providers do not know the exact causes of depression. It is believed that chemical changes in the ...

  16. Food-derived serotonergic modulators: effects on mood and cognition.

    Hulsken, Sjoerd; Märtin, Antje; Mohajeri, M Hasan; Homberg, Judith Regina

    2013-12-01

    The most frequently described drugs in the treatment of mood disorders are selective serotonin reuptake and monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitors, enhancing serotonin levels in the brain. However, side-effects have been reported for these drugs. Because serotonin levels in the brain are dependent on the availability of the food-derived precursor tryptophan, foods such as chicken, soyabeans, cereals, tuna, nuts and bananas may serve as an alternative to improve mood and cognition. Here we discuss the effects of high- or low-tryptophan-containing food, as well as plant extracts with a modest monoamine reuptake and MAO-A inhibition functional profile, on mood and cognition in healthy and vulnerable human subjects and rodents. Together the studies suggest that there is an inverted U-shaped curve for plasma tryptophan levels, with low and too high tryptophan levels impairing cognition, and moderate to high tryptophan levels improving cognition. This relationship is found for both healthy and vulnerable subjects. Whereas this relationship may also exist for mood, the inverted U-shaped curve for plasma tryptophan levels and mood may be based on different tryptophan concentrations in healthy v. vulnerable individuals. Animal studies are emerging and allow further understanding of effects and the mode of action of food-derived serotonergic components on mood, cognition and mechanisms. Ultimately, insight into the concentrations of tryptophan and other serotonergic components in food having beneficial effects on mood and cognition in healthy, but particularly vulnerable, subjects may support well-being in our highly demanding society.

  17. [Stressful life events and mood disorders: a community sample].

    Jansen, Karen; Cardoso, Taiane de Azevedo; Mondin, Thaíse Campos; Matos, Mariana Bonati de; Souza, Luciano Dias de Mattos; Pinheiro, Ricardo Tavares; Magalhães, Pedro Vieira da Silva; Silva, Ricardo Azevedo da

    2014-09-01

    Mood disorders are a consequence of the interaction between environmental and biological factors. The objective of this study was to identify associations between stressful life events (LEs) and mood disorders in a community sample of young people in southern Brazil. It is a cross-sectional population-based study on young people between 18 and 24 years of age. The selection of the sample was conducted via conglomerates. Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interviews were used to evaluate mood disorders, and the Social Readjustment Rating Scale to assess stressful life events. The sample included 1172 young people. Of the total sample, the proportion of stressful life events in the last year in each category was: 53.8% work, 42.4% loss of social support, 63.8% family, 50.9% environmental changes, 61.1% personal difficulties, and 38.7% finances. A significant relationship was found between categories of stressful life events and mood disorder episodes. A higher incidence of stressful life events was found among young people in a mixed episode compared to young people in a depressive, (hypo)maniac episode with controls. This finding suggests a psychosocial interaction between stressful life events and the occurrence of mood disorders.

  18. Subjective Memory Complaints are Involved in the Relationship between Mood and Mild Cognitive Impairment.

    Yates, Jennifer A; Clare, Linda; Woods, Robert T; Matthews, Fiona E

    2015-09-24

    Subjective memory complaints (SMC) are a criterion in many definitions of mild cognitive impairment (MCI). However, there is controversy over whether this is useful and appropriate, as previous research has suggested that SMC may be a function of mood problems such as anxiety and depression. This paper aimed to establish the relationship between MCI and mood in older people and to investigate the role that SMC play in the relationship. Structured interviews were conducted with community dwelling older people in Wales to collect information regarding cognitive functioning, mood, and well-being. A widely-used algorithm was used to categorize 3,173 participants into three groups: not cognitively impaired, MCI including SMC (MCI), and MCI without SMC (MCIW). The odds of experiencing anxiety or depression were calculated for each cognitive group. Participants with MCI had increased odds of experiencing symptoms of both anxiety and depression, but the odds were not changed for participants in the not cognitively impaired or MCIW categories. A mediation analysis was performed on the whole sample using cognition as a dichotomous variable, grouped using an age-, education-, and gender-adjusted median cut off point. This showed that SMC partially mediated the relationship between anxiety and cognition, and depression and cognition. Mood problems may be related to SMC rather than objective cognitive impairment, as only participants with MCI that included SMC showed increased odds of experiencing anxiety and depression. SMC are likely to play a mediating role in the relationship between mood and cognitive functioning.

  19. Web-based interventions for prevention and treatment of perinatal mood disorders: a systematic review

    2016-01-01

    Background Perinatal depression is strikingly common with a prevalence of 10–15 %. The adverse effects of perinatal depression on maternal and child health are profound with considerable costs. Despite this, few women seek medical attention. E-health, providing healthcare via the Internet is an accessible and effective solution for the treatment of depression in the general population. We aimed to conduct a systematic review of web-based interventions for the prevention and treatment of mood ...

  20. Self-reported and Observed Quality of ADL Task Performance in Adults with Depression

    Nielsen, Kristina Tomra; Wæhrens, Eva

    2014-01-01

    reported (figure 1 and 2) and demonstrated increased effort and/or fatigue, increased use of time, need for assistance and safety problems. 85% had AMPS ADL motor ability measures below cut-off indicating clumsiness, fatigue, increased effort, safety risk and/or need of assistance during ADL task...... on self-report and observation to some extent provide similar information related to quality of ADL task performance in adults with depression. Thus, at group level problems in terms of increased physical effort and/or fatigue, inefficient use of time, some safety risk and/or need for assistance were both......Introduction Limited relationship between measures of self-reported and observed quality of ADL task performance has been revealed in a rheumatologic population, stressing the need to apply both self-report and observation in that population when evaluating ADL task performance. As occupational...

  1. Planning Genomic Study in an Animal Model of Depression: a Preliminary Report

    Sara Farhang

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Interaction of several genes is responsible for psychiatric diseases such as depression. Despite the numerous microarray studies in this field, findings are controversial and hard to conclude. Methods: Male Wistar rats were randomly selected to receive Chronic Mild Stress model for 4 weeks. Different aspects of depression were measured by forced swimming test, open field trial and sucrose preference tests in the experience group and controls. Results: Sucrose was preferred by 40% of CMS group and 80% of controls (p=0.025. Twenty percent of CMS group and 80% of controls were “active” (p=0.001. Last escape was at minute 238 for CMS group and minute 245 for controls and controls had more escape efforts. Conclusion: This paper is a preliminary report of a genomic study on animal model of depression which tries to achieve reliable results by a joint of clinical view with recent techniques. Predicted challenges in this procedure and the solutions as well as the limitations may be helpful for future researches.

  2. Loving-Kindness Meditation to Target Affect in Mood Disorders: A Proof-of-Concept Study

    Stefan G. Hofmann

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Conventional treatments for mood disorders primarily focus on reducing negative affect, but little on enhancing positive affect. Loving-kindness meditation (LKM is a traditional meditation practice directly oriented toward enhancing unconditional and positive emotional states of kindness towards oneself and others. We report here two independent and uncontrolled studies carried out at different centers, one in Boston, USA (n = 10, and one in Frankfurt, Germany (n = 8, to examine the potential therapeutic utility of a brief LKM group intervention for symptoms of dysthymia and depression. Results at both centers suggest that LKM was associated with large-sized effects on self-reported symptoms of depression (d = 3.33 and 1.90, negative affect (d = 1.98 and 0.92, and positive affect (d = 1.63 and 0.94. Large effects were also found for clinician-reported changes in depression, rumination and specific positive emotions, and moderate effects for changes in adaptive emotion regulation strategies. The qualitative data analyses provide additional support for the potential clinical utility of the intervention. This proof-of-concept evaluation of LKM as a clinical strategy warrants further investigation.

  3. Depressed mood and poor quality of life in male patients with chronic renal failure undergoing hemodialysis Comportamento depressivo e má qualidade de vida em homens com insuficiência renal crônica submetidos à hemodiálise

    Thales Weber Garcia

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess mood and quality of life in male hemodialysis patients, and to correlate mood swings with the different domains of the quality of life questionnaire. METHOD: Forty-seven male patients undergoing regular hemodialysis for more than six months were included in the study. The Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression and the Kidney Disease Quality of Life Questionnaire, in a version translated into and adapted to Portuguese, were used. RESULTS: The patients' age was 39.4 ± 8.9 years (median ± SD. Depression was observed in 32 (68.1% patients according to the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression. A significant negative correlation was found between the results from the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression and the following parameters of the specific dimensions of the Kidney Disease Quality of Life Questionnaire: list of symptoms and problems (rs = -0.399; p = 0.005, quality of social interaction (rs = -0.433; p = 0.002, and quality of sleep (rs = -0.585; p OBJETIVO: Avaliar o estado de humor e a qualidade de vida de homens em tratamento hemodialítico, correlacionar as alterações observadas no humor com os diferentes domínios do questionário de qualidade de vida. MÉTODO: Foram incluídos 47 homens em tratamento hemodialítico estável há mais de seis meses. Foram aplicadas a Escala de Hamilton de depressão e o Kidney Disease Quality of Life Questionnaire, questionário de qualidade de vida relacionado à saúde, em sua forma traduzida e adaptada para a língua portuguesa. RESULTADOS: A média da idade dos pacientes era 39,4 ± 8,9 anos. Na avaliação pela Escala de Hamilton, observou-se em 32 (68,1% pacientes a presença de depressão. Encontramos correlação negativa significativa entre os resultados obtidos na escala de Hamilton e os seguintes parâmetros das dimensões específicas do Kidney Disease Quality of Life Questionnaire: lista de sintomas e problemas (rs = -0,399; p = 0,005, qualidade da interação social (rs

  4. Self-compassion as an emotion regulation strategy in major depressive disorder.

    Diedrich, Alice; Grant, Michaela; Hofmann, Stefan G; Hiller, Wolfgang; Berking, Matthias

    2014-07-01

    Cognitive reappraisal and acceptance are two presumably adaptive emotion regulation strategies in depression. More recently, self-compassion has been discussed as another potentially effective strategy for coping with depression. In the present study, we compared the effectiveness of self-compassion with a waiting condition, reappraisal, and acceptance in a clinically depressed sample, and tested the hypothesis that the intensity of depressed mood would moderate the differential efficacy of these strategies. In an experimental design, we induced depressed mood at four points in time in 48 participants meeting criteria for major depressive disorder. After each mood induction, participants were instructed to wait, reappraise the situation, accept their negative emotions, or employ self-compassion to regulate their depressed mood. Self-ratings of depressed mood were assessed before and after each mood induction and regulation phase. Results showed that the reduction of depressed mood was significantly greater in the self-compassion condition than in the waiting condition. No significant differences were observed between the self-compassion and the reappraisal condition, and between the self-compassion and the acceptance condition in patients' mood ratings. However, the intensity of self-rated depressed mood at baseline was found to moderate the comparative effectiveness of self-compassion and reappraisal with a trend of self-compassion being more effective than reappraisal in high depressed mood at baseline. These findings support the use of self-compassion as another adaptive emotion regulation strategy for patients with major depressive disorder, especially for those suffering from high levels of depressed mood.

  5. Relationship between cognitive appraisals of symptoms and negative mood for subtypes of irritable bowel syndrome

    Nomura Shinobu

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The onset and course of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS are strongly influenced by psychological factors, and treatment often includes cognitive-behavioral therapy. We conducted a study of the relationships between cognitive appraisal of IBS symptoms and negative mood for the subtypes of IBS. Method The participants were 1087 college students who completed a set of questionnaires that included the Rome II Modular Questionnaire, Self-reported IBS Questionnaire, Cognitive Appraisal Rating Scale, and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Results The participants included 206 individuals with IBS; 61 had diarrhea-predominant IBS (IBSD and 45 had constipation-predominant IBS (IBSC. The overall IBS group scored higher on anxiety and depression than the control group. The IBSD and IBSC groups each had significantly higher scores for anxiety but did not significantly differ from the control group in scores for depression. There were no significant differences between the IBSD and IBSC groups in their cognitive appraisal of IBS symptoms. For the IBSD group, anxiety was significantly, positively correlated with commitment, effect, and threat, and depression was significantly, negatively correlated with controllability. In contrast, there were no significant correlations between mood and cognitive appraisal for the IBSC group. Multiple regression analyses with abdominal symptoms as dependent variables and cognitive appraisals as independent variables showed that for the IBSD group, abdominal pain was significantly, positively correlated with commitment, and abdominal discomfort was significantly, positively correlated with appraisal of effect and threat. For the IBSC group, abdominal pain and hard stool were significantly, positively correlated with commitment, and abdominal discomfort was significantly, positively correlated with appraisal of effect and threat. Conclusion IBS patients as a general group report high levels of anxiety

  6. Effects of Music Therapy on Mood in Stroke Patients

    Kim, Dong Soo; Park, Yoon Ghil; Choi, Jung Hwa; Im, Sang-Hee; Jung, Kang Jae; Cha, Young A; Jung, Chul Oh; Yoon, Yeo Hoon

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the effects of music therapy on depressive mood and anxiety in post-stroke patients and evaluate satisfaction levels of patients and caregivers. Materials and Methods Eighteen post-stroke patients, within six months of onset and mini mental status examination score of over 20, participated in this study. Patients were divided into music and control groups. The experimental group participated in the music therapy program for four weeks. Psychological status was evaluated...

  7. Applications of time-series analysis to mood fluctuations in bipolar disorder to promote treatment innovation: a case series.

    Holmes, E A; Bonsall, M B; Hales, S A; Mitchell, H; Renner, F; Blackwell, S E; Watson, P; Goodwin, G M; Di Simplicio, M

    2016-01-26

    Treatment innovation for bipolar disorder has been hampered by a lack of techniques to capture a hallmark symptom: ongoing mood instability. Mood swings persist during remission from acute mood episodes and impair daily functioning. The last significant treatment advance remains Lithium (in the 1970s), which aids only the minority of patients. There is no accepted way to establish proof of concept for a new mood-stabilizing treatment. We suggest that combining insights from mood measurement with applied mathematics may provide a step change: repeated daily mood measurement (depression) over a short time frame (1 month) can create individual bipolar mood instability profiles. A time-series approach allows comparison of mood instability pre- and post-treatment. We test a new imagery-focused cognitive therapy treatment approach (MAPP; Mood Action Psychology Programme) targeting a driver of mood instability, and apply these measurement methods in a non-concurrent multiple baseline design case series of 14 patients with bipolar disorder. Weekly mood monitoring and treatment target data improved for the whole sample combined. Time-series analyses of daily mood data, sampled remotely (mobile phone/Internet) for 28 days pre- and post-treatment, demonstrated improvements in individuals' mood stability for 11 of 14 patients. Thus the findings offer preliminary support for a new imagery-focused treatment approach. They also indicate a step in treatment innovation without the requirement for trials in illness episodes or relapse prevention. Importantly, daily measurement offers a description of mood instability at the individual patient level in a clinically meaningful time frame. This costly, chronic and disabling mental illness demands innovation in both treatment approaches (whether pharmacological or psychological) and measurement tool: this work indicates that daily measurements can be used to detect improvement in individual mood stability for treatment innovation (MAPP).

  8. Hope, social support, and depression among Hong Kong youth: personal and relational self-esteem as mediators.

    Du, Hongfei; King, Ronnel B; Chu, Samuel K W

    2016-12-01

    Previous studies have shown that depression is negatively associated with hope and social support. However, little research has been undertaken to investigate the theoretical mechanisms underlying the connections among hope, social support, and depression. This study examined how two types of self-esteem (personal and relational) would mediate the relationship of hope and social support to depression among 384 Hong Kong adolescents (age: 12-18 years; M = 14, SD = 1.19). Participants reported their levels of hope, social support, personal self-esteem, relational self-esteem, and depressive mood. Results of the path analysis showed that both personal and relational self-esteem mediated the associations of hope and social support with depression. Hope and social support were associated with higher levels of personal and relational self-esteem, which were in turn related to decreased levels of depression. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.

  9. Mood disorders and parity – A clue to the aetiology of the postpartum trigger

    di Florio, Arianna; Jones, Lisa; Forty, Liz; Gordon-Smith, Katherine; Robertson Blackmore, Emma; Heron, Jess; Craddock, Nick; Jones, Ian

    2014-01-01

    Background Episodes of postpartum psychosis have been associated with first pregnancies in women with bipolar I disorder. It is unclear, however, if the effect extends to episodes at other times in relation to childbirth and to women with other mood disorders such as major depression and bipolar II disorder. This primiparity effect, which is also seen in other pregnancy related conditions such as pre-eclampsia, is a potentially important clue to the aetiology of childbirth related mood episod...

  10. Exploring the Physiological Link between Psoriasis and Mood Disorders

    Cody J. Connor

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Psoriasis is a chronic, immune-mediated skin condition with a high rate of psychiatric comorbidity, which often goes unrecognized. Beyond the negative consequences of mood disorders like depression and anxiety on patient quality of life, evidence suggests that these conditions can worsen the severity of psoriatic disease. The mechanisms behind this relationship are not entirely understood, but inflammation seems to be a key feature linking psoriasis with mood disorders, and physiologic modulators of this inflammation, including the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and sympathetic nervous system, demonstrate changes with psychopathology that may be contributory. Cyclical disruptions in the secretion of the sleep hormone, melatonin, are also observed in both depression and psoriasis, and with well-recognized anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activity, this aberration may represent a shared contributor to both conditions as well as common comorbidities like diabetes and cardiovascular disease. While understanding the complexities of the biological mechanisms at play will be key in optimizing the management of patients with comorbid psoriasis and depression/anxiety, one thing is certain: recognition of psychiatric comorbidity is an imperative first step in effectively treating these patients as a whole. Evidence that improvement in mood decreases psoriasis severity underscores how psychological awareness can be critical to clinicians in their practice.

  11. Exploring the Physiological Link between Psoriasis and Mood Disorders.

    Connor, Cody J; Liu, Vincent; Fiedorowicz, Jess G

    2015-01-01

    Psoriasis is a chronic, immune-mediated skin condition with a high rate of psychiatric comorbidity, which often goes unrecognized. Beyond the negative consequences of mood disorders like depression and anxiety on patient quality of life, evidence suggests that these conditions can worsen the severity of psoriatic disease. The mechanisms behind this relationship are not entirely understood, but inflammation seems to be a key feature linking psoriasis with mood disorders, and physiologic modulators of this inflammation, including the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and sympathetic nervous system, demonstrate changes with psychopathology that may be contributory. Cyclical disruptions in the secretion of the sleep hormone, melatonin, are also observed in both depression and psoriasis, and with well-recognized anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activity, this aberration may represent a shared contributor to both conditions as well as common comorbidities like diabetes and cardiovascular disease. While understanding the complexities of the biological mechanisms at play will be key in optimizing the management of patients with comorbid psoriasis and depression/anxiety, one thing is certain: recognition of psychiatric comorbidity is an imperative first step in effectively treating these patients as a whole. Evidence that improvement in mood decreases psoriasis severity underscores how psychological awareness can be critical to clinicians in their practice.

  12. Predictable chronic mild stress improves mood, hippocampal neurogenesis and memory.

    Parihar, V K; Hattiangady, B; Kuruba, R; Shuai, B; Shetty, A K

    2011-02-01

    Maintenance of neurogenesis in adult hippocampus is important for functions such as mood and memory. As exposure to unpredictable chronic stress (UCS) results in decreased hippocampal neurogenesis, enhanced depressive- and anxiety-like behaviors, and memory dysfunction, it is believed that declined hippocampal neurogenesis mainly underlies the behavioral and cognitive abnormalities after UCS. However, the effects of predictable chronic mild stress (PCMS) such as the routine stress experienced in day-to-day life on functions such as mood, memory and hippocampal neurogenesis are unknown. Using FST and EPM tests on a prototype of adult rats, we demonstrate that PCMS (comprising 5 min of daily restraint stress for 28 days) decreases depressive- and anxiety-like behaviors for prolonged periods. Moreover, we illustrate that decreased depression and anxiety scores after PCMS are associated with ~1.8-fold increase in the production and growth of new neurons in the hippocampus. Additionally, we found that PCMS leads to enhanced memory function in WMT as well as NORT. Collectively, these findings reveal that PCMS is beneficial to adult brain function, which is exemplified by increased hippocampal neurogenesis and improved mood and cognitive function.

  13. Sex hormone manipulation slows reaction time and increases labile mood in healthy women

    Stenbæk, D. S.; Fisher, P. M.; Budtz-Jørgensen, E.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Women show increased risk of depressive symptoms in life phases where ovarian steroid hormone levels fluctuate or decline rapidly. The risk mechanisms may include changes in mental state and affective cognition possibly mediated by serotonergic neurotransmission. METHODS......: In a randomized controlled double-blinded trial, 61 healthy women (mean age 24.3±4.9 years) were tested with measures of affective verbal memory, reaction time, mental distress, and serotonin transporter binding at baseline and at follow-up after receiving gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist (GnRHa) or placebo...... intervention. Women also reported daily mood profiles during intervention. We tested direct effects of intervention and indirect effects through changes in serotonin transporter binding on verbal affective memory, simple reaction time and self-reported measures of mental distress, and further effects of Gn...

  14. Mood, stress and longevity: convergence on ANK3.

    Rangaraju, S; Levey, D F; Nho, K; Jain, N; Andrews, K D; Le-Niculescu, H; Salomon, D R; Saykin, A J; Petrascheck, M; Niculescu, A B

    2016-08-01

    effects in older worms. Thus, ANK3/unc-44 may represent an example of antagonistic pleiotropy, in which low-expression level in young animals are beneficial, but the age-associated increase becomes detrimental. Inactivating mutations in ANK3/unc-44 reverse this effect and cause detrimental effects in young animals (sensitivity to oxidative stress) and beneficial effect in old animals (increased survival). In humans, we studied if the most significant single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) for depressive symptoms in ANK3 from our GWAS has a relationship to lifespan, and show a trend towards longer lifespan in individuals with the risk allele for depressive symptoms in men (odds ratio (OR) 1.41, P=0.031) but not in women (OR 1.08, P=0.33). We also examined whether ANK3, by itself or in a panel with other top CFG-prioritized genes, acts as a blood gene-expression biomarker for biological age, in two independent cohorts, one of live psychiatric patients (n=737), and one of suicide completers from the coroner's office (n=45). We show significantly lower levels of ANK3 expression in chronologically younger individuals than in middle age individuals, with a diminution of that effect in suicide completers, who presumably have been exposed to more severe and acute negative mood and stress. Of note, ANK3 was previously reported to be overexpressed in fibroblasts from patients with Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome, a form of accelerated aging. Taken together, these studies uncover ANK3 and other genes in our dataset as biological links between mood, stress and longevity/aging, that may be biomarkers as well as targets for preventive or therapeutic interventions. Drug repurposing bioinformatics analyses identified the relatively innocuous omega-3 fatty acid DHA (docosahexaenoic acid), piracetam, quercetin, vitamin D and resveratrol as potential longevity promoting compounds, along with a series of existing drugs, such as estrogen-like compounds, antidiabetics and sirolimus

  15. Management of adverse effects of mood stabilizers.

    Murru, Andrea; Popovic, Dina; Pacchiarotti, Isabella; Hidalgo, Diego; León-Caballero, Jordi; Vieta, Eduard

    2015-08-01

    Mood stabilizers such as lithium and anticonvulsants are still standard-of-care for the acute and long-term treatment of bipolar disorder (BD). This systematic review aimed to assess the prevalence of their adverse effects (AEs) and to provide recommendations on their clinical management. We performed a systematic research for studies reporting the prevalence of AEs with lithium, valproate, lamotrigine, and carbamazepine/oxcarbazepine. Management recommendations were then developed. Mood stabilizers have different tolerability profiles and are eventually associated to cognitive, dermatological, endocrine, gastrointestinal, immunological, metabolic, nephrogenic, neurologic, sexual, and teratogenic AEs. Most of those can be transient or dose-related and can be managed by optimizing drug doses to the lowest effective dose. Some rare AEs can be serious and potentially lethal, and require abrupt discontinuation of medication. Integrated medical attention is warranted for complex somatic AEs. Functional remediation and psychoeducation may help to promote awareness on BD and better medication management.

  16. Managing Data in Help4Mood

    Maria K. Wolters

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Help4Mood is a system that supports the treatment of people with depression in the community. It collects rich cognitive, psychomotor, and motor data through a Personal Monitoring System and a Virtual Agent, which is then analysed by a Decision Support System; analysis results are fed back to patients and their treating clinicians. In this paper, we describe how the complex data is managed and discuss ethical issues. Data is stored in functional units that correspond to treatment relevant entities. Custom XML DTDs are defined for each unit, which are used to exchange information between system components. As far as possible, observations and findings are coded using SNOMED CT to ensure interoperability with other applications such as Electronic Health Records.

  17. Measuring consistency of autobiographical memory recall in depression.

    Semkovska, Maria

    2012-05-15

    Autobiographical amnesia assessments in depression need to account for normal changes in consistency over time, contribution of mood and type of memories measured. We report herein validation studies of the Columbia Autobiographical Memory Interview - Short Form (CAMI-SF), exclusively used in depressed patients receiving electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) but without previous published report of normative data. The CAMI-SF was administered twice with a 6-month interval to 44 healthy volunteers to obtain normative data for retrieval consistency of its Semantic, Episodic-Extended and Episodic-Specific components and assess their reliability and validity. Healthy volunteers showed significant large decreases in retrieval consistency on all components. The Semantic and Episodic-Specific components demonstrated substantial construct validity. We then assessed CAMI-SF retrieval consistencies over a 2-month interval in 30 severely depressed patients never treated with ECT compared with healthy controls (n=19). On initial assessment, depressed patients produced less episodic-specific memories than controls. Both groups showed equivalent amounts of consistency loss over a 2-month interval on all components. At reassessment, only patients with persisting depressive symptoms were distinguishable from controls on episodic-specific memories retrieved. Research quantifying retrograde amnesia following ECT for depression needs to control for normal loss in consistency over time and contribution of persisting depressive symptoms.

  18. Sintomas obsessivo-compulsivos na depressão pós-parto: relatos de casos Obsessive-compulsive symptoms in postpartum depression: case reports

    Carla Fonseca Zambaldi

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available A depressão pós-parto é o transtorno afetivo mais prevalente no puerpério. O seu quadro clínico apresenta algumas peculiaridades sintomatológicas, podendo uma delas ser a presença mais freqüente de obsessões e compulsões. Relatamos seis casos identificados pela análise de prontuários de puérperas atendidas no Programa de Saúde Mental da Mulher do Hospital das Clínicas da Universidade Federal de Pernambuco. Todas elas tinham diagnóstico de depressão através do Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders (SCID-I e apresentavam concomitantemente sintomas obsessivo-compulsivos. Nos relatos, abordamos o período de aparecimento desses sintomas nas mulheres deprimidas, assim como o seu conteúdo, duração e resposta ao tratamento. Em duas mulheres, os sintomas obsessivo-compulsivos precederam os depressivos, e em outras duas, deu-se o inverso. Houve exacerbação de obsessões e compulsões preexistentes em duas puérperas. O conteúdo mais freqüente foi de pensamentos agressivos contra o bebê. Os sintomas tenderam a diminuir juntamente com a melhora da depressão.Postpartum depression is the most common affective disorder in the puerperium. There are some particular symptoms in its clinical presentation, and one might be the higher frequency of obsessions and compulsions. We report six cases identified from the analysis of medical charts of puerperal women receiving care at the Women's Mental Health Program, Hospital das Clínicas, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Brazil. All the women were diagnosed with postpartum depression using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders (SCID-I and had associated obsessive-compulsive symptoms. We report time of onset, topics, course and treatment response of these symptoms. Obsessive-compulsive symptoms preceded depressive symptoms in two women, and were succeeded in two other women. There was exacerbation of preexisting obsessions and compulsions in two

  19. [Multiaxial evaluation of the pathophysiology of mood disorder and therapeutic mechanisms of clinical drugs by neuronal plasticity and neuronal load].

    Omata, Naoto; Mizuno, Tomoyuki; Mitsuya, Hironori; Wada, Yuji

    2013-11-01

    Impairment of neuronal plasticity is important in the pathophysiology of mood disorder. Both zinc deficiency and social isolation impair neuronal plasticity. Both cause a depressive state. However, in experiments using animals, their combined loading induced manic-like behavior. Therefore, it was inferred that moderate impairment of neuronal plasticity induces a depressive state, and that further impairment of neuronal plasticity induces a manic state. However, some kind of load toward neuronal function through neural transmission can influence mood disorder symptoms without direct effects on neuronal plasticity. Our hypothesis is that mania is an aggravation of depression from the perspective of neuronal plasticity, and that multiaxial evaluation by neuronal plasticity and neuronal load through neural transmission is useful for understanding the pathophysiology of mood disorder. There are many clinical aspects that have been difficult to interpret in mood disorder: Why is a mood stabilizer or electric convulsive therapy useful for both mania and depression? What is the pathophysiology of the mixed state? Why does manic switching by an antidepressant occur or not? Our hypothesis is useful to understand these aspects, and using this hypothesis, it is expected that the pathophysiology of mood disorder and clinical mechanism of mood stabilizers and antidepressants can now be understood as an integrated story.

  20. Depression (Major Depressive Disorder)

    ... generally miserable or unhappy without really knowing why. Depression symptoms in children and teens Common signs and ... interest. However, major depression can occur with ADHD. Depression symptoms in older adults Depression is not a ...

  1. Dysphoric mood states are related to sensitivity to temporal changes in contingency

    Rachel M. eMsetfi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available A controversial finding in the field of causal learning is that mood contributes to the accuracy of perceptions of uncorrelated relationships. When asked to report the degree of control between an action and its outcome, people with dysphoria or depression are claimed to be more realistic in reporting non-contingency (e.g., Alloy & Abramson, 1979. The strongest evidence for this depressive realism (DR effect is derived from data collected with experimental procedures in which the dependent variables are verbal or written ratings of contingency or cause, and, perhaps more importantly, the independent variable in these procedures may be ambiguous and difficult to define. In order to address these possible confounds, we used a two-response free-operant causal learning task in which the dependent measures were performance based. Participants were required to respond to maximise the occurrence of a temporally contiguous outcome that was programmed with different probabilities, which also varied temporally across two responses. Dysphoric participants were more sensitive to the changing outcome contingencies than controls even though they responded at a similar rate. During probe trials, in which the outcome was masked, their performance recovered more quickly than that of the control group. These data provide unexpected support for the depressive realism hypothesis suggesting that dysphoria is associated with heightened sensitivity to temporal shifts in contingency.

  2. Depression, anxiety, and history of substance abuse among Norwegian inmates in preventive detention: Reasons to worry?

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Inmates on preventive detention are a small and select group sentenced to an indefinite term of imprisonment. Mood disorders and substance abuse are risk factors for inmate violence and recidivism, so the prevalence of depression, anxiety, and substance abuse was examined in this cohort using psychometric tests. Methods Completion of self-report questionnaires was followed by face-to-face clinical interviews with 26 of the 56 male inmates on preventive detention in Norway'...

  3. The opposite effects of fluvoxamine and sertraline in the treatment of psychotic major depression: a case report

    Kitagaki Tetsuno

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Psychotic major depression is a clinical subtype of major depressive disorder. A number of clinical studies have demonstrated the efficacy of the combination of an antidepressant (for example, a tricyclic antidepressant or selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI and an atypical antipsychotic or electroconvulsive therapy (ECT in treating psychotic major depression. In several studies, monotherapy of SSRIs such as fluvoxamine has been shown to be effective in the treatment of psychotic major depression. Methods We report on a 36-year-old Japanese woman in whom fluvoxamine (a SSRI with sigma-1 receptor agonist and sertraline (a SSRI with sigma-1 receptor antagonist showed the opposite effects on psychotic symptoms in the treatment of psychotic major depression. Results Symptoms of depression and psychosis in the patient who was non-respondent to antipsychotic drugs improved after fluvoxamine monotherapy. At 3 years later, a switch to sertraline from fluvoxamine dramatically worsened the psychotic symptoms in the patient. Then, a switch back to fluvoxamine from sertraline improved these symptoms 1 week after fluvoxamine treatment. Conclusion Doctors should consider the monotherapy of sigma-1 receptor agonist fluvoxamine as an alternative approach to treating psychotic major depression.

  4. Seasonal Variations in Mood and Behavior in Romanian Postgraduate Students

    Joseph J. Soriano

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available To our knowledge, this paper is the first to estimate seasonality of mood in a predominantly Caucasian sample, living in areas with hot summers and a relative unavailability of air conditioning. As a summer pattern of seasonal depression was previously associated with a vulnerability to heat exposure, we hypothesized that those with access to air conditioners would have a lower rate of summer seasonal affective disorder (SAD compared to those without air conditioning. A convenience sample of 476 Romanian postgraduate students completed the Seasonal Pattern Assessment Questionnaire (SPAQ, which was used to calculate a global seasonality score (GSS and to estimate the rates of winter- and summer-type SAD. The ratio of summer- vs. winter-type SAD was compared using multinomial probability distribution tests. We also compared the ratio of summer SAD in individuals with vs. without air conditioners. Winter SAD and winter subsyndromal SAD (S-SAD were significantly more prevalent than summer SAD and summer S-SAD. Those with access to air conditioners had a higher, rather than a lower, rate of summer SAD. Our results are consistent with prior studies that reported a lower prevalence of summer than winter SAD in Caucasian populations. Finding an increased rate of summer SAD in the minority of those with access to air conditioners was surprising and deserves replication.

  5. [Clinico-nosographic considerations on the relation of depression and alcoholism in a population of 450 hospitalized alcoholics].

    Angelini, G; Bogetto, F; Borio, R; Meluzzi, A; Mucci, P; Patria, D; Ricciardi, G; Torta, R

    1990-01-01

    The presence of depressive symptomatology in alcoholics has frequently been encountered in clinical practice, but the relationship running between the two pathologies remains a subject for discussion. The methodological difficulty of this evaluation is seen in a major discordance of reported data. Against this background, a group of subjects hospitalized in a neuropsychiatric environment has been assessed for incidence of alcoholic and depressive pathologies and their possible correlations. Of 428 hospitalizations for alcoholism, 350 (82%) presented a depressive pathology. These patients were distinguished by DSM III into three groups [a) adaptation disturbance with depressed mood; b) dysthymic disturbance; c) atypical depression]. Within these groups, the incidence of prior stress-inducing psychosocial events was assessed according to the criterion of growing seriousness of DSM III. The results after statistical processing are discussed and compared with reported data.

  6. The effect of music video clips on adolescent boys' body image, mood, and schema activation.

    Mulgrew, Kate E; Volcevski-Kostas, Diana; Rendell, Peter G

    2014-01-01

    There is limited research that has examined experimentally the effects of muscular images on adolescent boys' body image, with no research specifically examining the effects of music television. The aim of the current study was to examine the effects of viewing muscular and attractive singers in music video clips on early, mid, and late adolescent boys' body image, mood, and schema activation. Participants were 180 boys in grade 7 (mean age = 12.73 years), grade 9 (mean age = 14.40 years) or grade 11 (mean age = 16.15 years) who completed pre- and post-test measures of mood and body satisfaction after viewing music videos containing male singers of muscular or average appearance. They also completed measures of schema activation and social comparison after viewing the clips. The results showed that the boys who viewed the muscular clips reported poorer upper body satisfaction, lower appearance satisfaction, lower happiness, and more depressive feelings compared to boys who viewed the clips depicting singers of average appearance. There was no evidence of increased appearance schema activation but the boys who viewed the muscular clips did report higher levels of social comparison to the singers. The results suggest that music video clips are a powerful form of media in conveying information about the male ideal body shape and that negative effects are found in boys as young as 12 years.

  7. Effects of frontal transcranial direct current stimulation on emotional processing and mood in healthy humans

    Michael A. Nitsche

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The prefrontal cortex is involved in mood and emotional processing. In patients suffering from depression, the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex is hypoactive, while activity of the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex is enhanced. Counterbalancing these pathological excitability alterations by repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS or transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS improves mood in these patients. In healthy subjects, however, rTMS of the same areas has no major effect, and the effects of tDCS are mixed. We aimed to evaluate the effects of prefrontal tDCS on mood and mood-related cognitive processing in healthy humans. In a first study, we administered excitability-enhancing anodal, excitability-diminishing cathodal and placebo tDCS to the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, combined with antagonistic stimulation of the right frontopolar cortex, and tested acute mood changes by an adjective checklist. Subjective mood was not influenced by tDCS. Emotional face identification, however, which was explored in a second experiment, was subtly improved by a tDCS-driven excitability modulation of the prefrontal cortex, markedly by anodal tDCS of the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex for positive emotional content. We conclude that tDCS of the prefrontal cortex improves mood processing in healthy subjects, but does not influence subjective mood state.

  8. Managing mood disorders in patients attending pulmonary rehabilitation clinics

    Selvarajah S

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Colleen Doyle,1–3 David Dunt,2 David Ames,1 Suganya Selvarajah11National Ageing Research Institute, Royal Melbourne Hospital Royal Park Campus, Parkville, Victoria, Australia; 2Centre for Health Policy, Programs and Economics, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria, Australia; 3Australian Catholic University, Fitzroy, Victoria, AustraliaBackground: There is good evidence for the positive benefits of pulmonary rehabilitation (PR in the prevention of hospital admissions, lower mortality, and improved health-related quality of life. There is also increasing evidence about the impact of PR on mental health and, in particular, mood disorders. We aimed to identify how depression in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD patients in Victoria, Australia, is being managed in PR, to identify the prevalence of depressive symptoms among COPD patients who attend PR, and to determine whether patients with depressive symptoms or anxiety symptoms dropped out of PR early.Method: Of 61 PR clinics, 44 were invited and 22 agreed to participate. Telephone interviews were conducted to see how depression and anxiety in COPD patients were being recognized and managed in these clinics. A total of 294 questionnaires were distributed to patients by clinic coordinators to determine the prevalence of anxiety/depression, as measured by the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Coordinators were contacted to provide information on whether respondents dropped out of rehabilitation early or continued with their treatment at 2–4 months post program.Results: Seven clinics were not aware of local guidelines on assessment/treatment/management of mood. Four clinics did not use any screening tools or other aids in the recognition and management of depression and/or anxiety. Overall, eight clinics participating in this study requested advice on suitable screening tools. The patient survey indicated that the mean depression score on the Hospital Anxiety and Depression

  9. Depression and major depressive disorder in patients with Parkinson's disease.

    Inoue, Takeshi; Kitagawa, Mayumi; Tanaka, Teruaki; Nakagawa, Shin; Koyama, Tsukasa

    2010-01-15

    The prevalence of depression in Parkinson's disease (PD) varies greatly. In this study, we investigated major depressive disorder (MDD) and depressive symptoms without MDD in patients with PD. The psychopathological characteristics of depressive symptoms were assessed by a psychiatric interview. A total of 105 Japanese patients with PD without dementia were included. The Japanese version of the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II) with a cutoff score of 13/14 was used to screen for depression. Using a structured interview, a comprehensive psychiatric evaluation of patients with BDI-II scores >13 (high BDI patients) was completed using the criteria of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM)-IV-TR. Forty patients (38%) had a BDI-II >13, but 29 did not show any depressed mood. Five cases met the criteria for MDD (three current, two past) and one patient was diagnosed with minor depressive disorder. A slight depressed mood that was associated with worrying about PD was seen in 6 of 34 patients without any depressive disorder and fluctuated with aggravation of PD symptoms in two of these patients. For the diagnosis of MDD, the number of positive items from the DSM-IV-TR definition of MDD is most important and useful for differentiating MDD and non-MDD. The low-prevalence rate of MDD in our patient population suggests that PD may be a psychological stressor for MDD, but does not necessarily induce MDD.

  10. Postoperative depression analysis and nursing in breast cancer%乳腺癌术后患者抑郁心理分析及护理

    段艳萍; 冯莉娟; 丁小蓉; 杜燕

    2002-01-01

    @@ Background: The common mood reaction in breast cancer was depression and mental test by Zung's self evaluated depression scale showed that different degrees of depression existed in 100% patients, so, mental nursing was necessary.

  11. The effect of insulin sensitivity of anxiety depression mood disorders in type 2 diabetes patients%焦虑抑郁情绪障碍对2型糖尿病患者胰岛素敏感性的影响

    2013-01-01

      目的观察焦虑抑郁情绪对2型糖尿病(T2DM)患者的胰岛素敏感性。方法对本院2010年5月-2011年7月98例糖尿病患者行汉密尔顿焦虑抑郁量表评分,并其分为焦虑抑郁合并T2DM组(试验组)和T2DM组(对照组),分别检测其空腹血糖、空腹胰岛素,计算胰岛素抵抗指数(HOMA-IR)、胰岛素敏感指数(HOMA-IS)和胰岛分泌指数(HOMA-β)。结果试验组HOMA-IR、HOMA-β高于对照组,HOMA-IS低于对照组,差异均有统计学意义(P <0.01)。结论焦虑抑郁情绪障碍可导致T2DM患者的胰岛素敏感性下降。%Objective To observe the emotional anxiety depression in patients with type 2 diabetes insulin sensitivity. Methods Our analysis in May 2010-July 2011 98 cases of patients with diabetes, and on the anxiety Hamilton depression rating scale, which is divided into two groups: the anxiety depression combination and type 2 diabetes group(experimental group) and type 2 diabetes group(control group) were detected the fasting blood glucose and fasting insulin, the calculation of insulin resistance index(HOMA-IR), insulin sensitivity index(HOMA-IS) and islet secretion index(HOMA-beta). Results The experimental group of HOMA-IR, HOMA-β, than the control group, the difference was statistically significant; experimental group of HOMA-IS below control group, the difference was statistically significant(P <0.01). Conclusion Anxiety depression mood disorders can result in patients with type 2 diabetes insulin sensitivity decline.

  12. A dysphoric's TALE: The relationship between the self-reported functions of autobiographical memory and symptoms of depression.

    Grace, Lydia; Dewhurst, Stephen A; Anderson, Rachel J

    2016-10-01

    Autobiographical memory (AM) is believed to serve self, social and directive functions; however, little is known regarding how this triad of functions operates in depression. Using the Thinking About Life Experiences questionnaire [Bluck, S., & Alea, N. (2011). Crafting the TALE: Construction of a measure to assess the functions of autobiographical remembering. Memory, 19, 470-486.; Bluck, S., Alea, N., Habermas, T., & Rubin, D. C. (2005). A TALE of three functions: The self-reported uses of autobiographical memory. Social Cognition, 23, 91-117.], two studies explored the relationship between depressive symptomology and the self-reported frequency and usefulness of AMs for self, social and directive purposes. Study 1 revealed that thinking more frequently but talking less frequently about past life events was significantly associated with higher depression scores. Recalling past events more frequently to maintain self-continuity was also significantly associated with higher depressive symptomology. However, results from Study 2 indicated that higher levels of depression were also significantly associated with less-frequent useful recollections of past life events for self-continuity purposes. Taken together, the findings suggest atypical utilisations of AM to serve self-continuity functions in depression and can be interpreted within the wider context of ruminative thought processes.

  13. Organic depression and Terson′s syndrome in adult polycystic kidney disease: Case report and review of literature

    Ranganath R Kulkarni

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Depressive symptoms are common in neurological diseases, at times posing dilemma in organic or functional origin. Cerebrovascular disease may predispose, precipitate, or perpetuate some geriatric depressive syndromes that resemble primary depressions both clinically and therapeutically in about half of the patients following acute stroke. Terson′s syndrome is the direct occurrence of vitreous hemorrhage following subarachnoid/subdural hemorrhage, often overlooked in the acute setting. Autosomal dominant (adult polycystic kidney disease may be associated with berry aneurysms and hypertension, and may lead to intracranial bleeds. We report an unusual case of organic depression and Terson′s syndrome in a 50-year-old female with polycystic kidney disease and hypertension, following anterior communicating artery aneurysmal subarachnoid bleed with bilateral subdural extension. Management included anti-hypertensives, antiepileptics, neodymium: YAG laser photocoagulation, and aneurysmal clipping.

  14. The noradrenaline metabolite MHPG is a candidate biomarker between the depressive, remission, and manic states in bipolar disorder I: two long-term naturalistic case reports

    Kurita M

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Masatake Kurita,1–3 Satoshi Nishino,1,2 Yukio Numata,1 Yoshiro Okubo,3 Tadahiro Sato11Sato Hospital, Koutokukai, Nanyo, Yamagata, Japan; 2Department of Cellular Signaling, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Tohoku University, Sendai, Miyagi, Japan; 3Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Science, Graduate School of Medicine, Nippon Medical School, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, JapanBackground: Treatment of the depressive and manic states in bipolar disorder I (BDI is a challenge for psychiatrists. Despite the recognized importance of the switch phenomenon, the precise mechanisms underlying this process are yet to be shown. We conducted a naturalistic study in two BDI patients to determine whether biological markers (monoamine metabolites and brain-derived neurotrophic factor [BDNF] are associated with the switch between depressive and manic states.Case presentation and methods: Blood sampling and mood assessments were performed at 2-week intervals over a period of 2 (Case 1, n=72 and 6 (Case 2, n=183 years. Plasma concentrations of 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol (MHPG and homovanillic acid (HVA were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection. Plasma BDNF was assayed by sandwich ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.Results: MHPG had the highest standardized coefficient (β in the multiple regression analysis. We found a significant positive correlation between Young Mania Rating Scale scores and plasma MHPG levels (Case 1: р=0.429; Case 2: р=0.488, and a significant negative correlation between Montgomery–Asberg Depression Rating Scale scores and MHPG levels (Case 1: р=-0.542; Case 2: р=-0.465. Conversely, no significant correlation was found between the level of BDNF and the presence of a manic or depressive state, and although HVA had a slightly stronger correlation than MHPG, the levels of neither of these were found to significantly correlate with the symptoms.Conclusion: These data suggest

  15. The UPBEAT nurse-delivered personalized care intervention for people with coronary heart disease who report current chest pain and depression: a randomised controlled pilot study.

    Elizabeth A Barley

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Depression is common in people with coronary heart disease (CHD and associated with worse outcome. This study explored the acceptability and feasibility of procedures for a trial and for an intervention, including its potential costs, to inform a definitive randomized controlled trial (RCT of a nurse-led personalised care intervention for primary care CHD patients with current chest pain and probable depression. METHODS: Multi-centre, outcome assessor-blinded, randomized parallel group study. CHD patients reporting chest pain and scoring 8 or more on the HADS were randomized to personalized care (PC or treatment as usual (TAU for 6 months and followed for 1 year. Primary outcome was acceptability and feasibility of procedures; secondary outcomes included mood, chest pain, functional status, well being and psychological process variables. RESULT: 1001 people from 17 General Practice CHD registers in South London consented to be contacted; out of 126 who were potentially eligible, 81 (35% female, mean age = 65 SD11 years were randomized. PC participants (n = 41 identified wide ranging problems to work on with nurse-case managers. Good acceptability and feasibility was indicated by low attrition (9%, high engagement and minimal nurse time used (mean/SD = 78/19 mins assessment, 125/91 mins telephone follow up. Both groups improved on all outcomes. The largest between group difference was in the proportion no longer reporting chest pain (PC 37% vs TAU 18%; mixed effects model OR 2.21 95% CI 0.69, 7.03. Some evidence was seen that self efficacy (mean scale increase of 2.5 vs 0.9 and illness perceptions (mean scale increase of 7.8 vs 2.5 had improved in PC vs TAU participants at 1 year. PC appeared to be more cost effective up to a QALY threshold of approximately £3,000. CONCLUSIONS: Trial and intervention procedures appeared to be feasible and acceptable. PC allowed patients to work on unaddressed problems and appears cheaper than TAU

  16. Tinnitus severity, depression, and the big five personality traits.

    Langguth, B; Kleinjung, T; Fischer, B; Hajak, G; Eichhammer, P; Sand, P G

    2007-01-01

    A growing number of self-report measures for the evaluation of tinnitus severity has become available to research and clinical practice. This has led to an increased awareness of depression and personality as predictors of tinnitus severity in addition to loudness and other psychoacoustic measures. However, the net impact of personality dimensions on tinnitus ratings has not been investigated when the effect of depressed mood is controlled. In the present study, we demonstrate the role of the big five personality traits, 'Neuroticism', 'Extraversion', 'Openness', 'Agreeableness', and 'Conscientiousness', in affecting scores on two standard instruments for grading tinnitus-related complaints, the tinnitus handicap inventory (THI), and the tinnitus questionnaire (TQ). When 72 individuals with chronic tinnitus were examined, 'Agreeableness' negatively correlated with THI scores (p=.003), whereas the anxiety trait 'Neuroticism' correlated both with depressive symptomatology (pdepression, low 'Agreeableness' was thus identified as a novel predictor of tinnitus severity on the THI.

  17. Tranylcypromine vs. lamotrigine in the treatment of refractory bipolar depression : a failed but clinically useful study

    Nolen, W. A.; Kupka, R. W.; Hellemann, G.; Frye, M. A.; Altshuler, L. L.; Leverich, G. S.; Suppes, T.; Keck, P. E.; McElroy, S.; Grunze, H.; Mintz, J.; Post, R. M.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To compare the efficacy and tolerability of tranylcypromine vs. lamotrigine in bipolar depression not responding to conventional antidepressants. Method: Bipolar depressed patients received open randomized treatment with tranylcypromine or lamotrigine as add-on to a mood stabilizer during

  18. Contribution of attachment insecurity to health-related quality of life in depressed patients

    Ponizovsky, Alexander M.; Drannikov, Angela

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To examine the individual contributions of insecure attachment styles and depression symptom severity to health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in patients diagnosed with adjustment disorder (AJD) with depressed mood.

  19. Assessing Latina/o Undergraduates' Depressive Symptomatology: Comparisons of the Beck Depression Inventory-II, the Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression Scale, and the Self-Report Depression Scale

    Gloria, Alberta M.; Castellanos, Jeanett; Kanagui-Munoz, Marlen; Rico, Melissa A.

    2012-01-01

    The use of depression scales as screening tools at university and college centers is increasing and thus, the question of whether scales are culturally valid for different student groups is increasingly more relevant with increased severity of depression for students and changing student demographics. As such, this study examined the reliability…

  20. Electronic self-monitoring of mood using IT platforms in adult patients with bipolar disorder: A systematic review of the validity and evidence

    Faurholt-Jepsen, Maria; Munkholm, Klaus; Frost, Mads

    2016-01-01

    in the majority of studies. Conclusions: Electronic self-monitoring of mood in depression appears to be a valid measure of mood in contrast to self-monitoring of mood in mania. There are yet few studies on the effect of electronic self-monitoring of mood in bipolar disorder. The evidence of electronic self......Background: Various paper-based mood charting instruments are used in the monitoring of symptoms in bipolar disorder. During recent years an increasing number of electronic self-monitoring tools have been developed. The objectives of this systematic review were 1) to evaluate the validity...... of electronic self-monitoring tools as a method of evaluating mood compared to clinical rating scales for depression and mania and 2) to investigate the effect of electronic self-monitoring tools on clinically relevant outcomes in bipolar disorder. Methods: A systematic review of the scientific literature...

  1. Acute effects of beta blockade and exercise on mood and anxiety.

    Head, A; Kendall, M J; Ferner, R; Eagles, C

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To measure the previously reported beta blocker induced adverse changes in mood state and anxiety measures, and to determine if prolonged aerobic exercise attenuates such mood modifications. METHODS: After 4 days of drug treatment with comparable doses of propranolol (40 and 80 mg), metoprolol (50 and 100 mg), or placebo, mood (POMS) and anxiety states (STAI) were assessed in healthy volunteers, before and after 1 h of treadmill walking exercise at 50% maximum oxygen uptake. RESULT...

  2. Adding metoclopramide to paroxetine induced extrapyramidal symptoms and hyperprolactinemia in a depressed woman: a case report

    Igata R

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Ryohei Igata, Hikaru Hori, Kiyokazu Atake, Asuka Katsuki, Jun Nakamura Department of Psychiatry, University of Occupational and Environmental Health, Kitakyushu, Japan Abstract: A 54-year-old Japanese woman was diagnosed with major depressive disorder and prescribed paroxetine 20 mg/day. In around May 2013, the patient experienced gastric discomfort, so metoclopramide was prescribed. Beginning on June 4, 2013, the patient was given metoclopramide, 10 mg intravenously, twice per week. On the seventh day after beginning metoclopramide, facial hot flushes, increased sweating, muscle rigidity, and galactorrhea were noted. Extrapyramidal symptoms (EPS rapidly subsided in response to an intramuscular injection of biperiden. Blood biochemical tests revealed an elevated serum prolactin level of 44 ng/mL. After stopping metoclopramide, EPS disappeared. Serum prolactin level decreased to 15 ng/mL after 4 weeks. In our case, although no adverse reactions had previously occurred following the administration of metoclopramide, the patient developed EPS and hyperprolactinemia following the administration of this antiemetic in combination with paroxetine. Paroxetine and metoclopramide are mainly metabolized by CYP2D6, and they are inhibitors for CYP2D6. We report a case with EPS and hyperprolactinemia whose plasma paroxetine and metoclopramide level rapidly increased after the addition of metoclopramide. Our experience warrants the issuing of a precaution that adverse reactions may arise following the coadministration of metoclopramide and paroxetine even at their respective standard dose levels. Keywords: metoclopramide, paroxetine, extrapyramidal symptoms, SSRI, hyperprolactinemia, depression

  3. Does treatment of subsyndromal depression improve depression and diabetes related outcomes: protocol for a randomised controlled comparison of psycho-education, physical exercise and treatment as usual

    Lovrenčić Marijana

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevalence of mood difficulties in persons with diabetes is approximately twice that in the general population, affecting the health outcomes and patients' quality of life in an undesirable way. Although subsyndromal depression is an important predictor of a more serious clinical depression, it is often overlooked. This study aims to compare the effects of two non-pharmacological interventions for subsyndromal depression, psychoeducation and physical exercise, with diabetes treatment as usual on mood- and diabetes-related outcomes. Methods and Design Type 2 diabetic patients aged 18-65 yrs. who report mood difficulties and the related need for help in a mail survey will be potential participants. After giving informed consent, they will be randomly assigned to one of the three groups (psychoeducation, physical activity, treatment as usual. Depressive symptoms, diabetes distress, health-related quality of life and diabetes self-care activities will be assessed at baseline, at 6 weeks, 6 months and 12 months. A structured clinical interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders (SCID-I will be performed at baseline and at one-year follow-up in order to determine the clinical significance of the patients' depressive symptoms. Disease-related data will be collected from patients' files and from additional physical examinations and laboratory tests. The two interventions will be comparable in terms of format (small group work, duration (six sessions and approach (interactive learning; supporting the participants' active roles. The group treated as usual will be informed about their screening results and about the importance of treating depression. They will be provided with brief re-education on diabetes and written self-help instructions to cope with mood difficulties. Primary outcomes will be depressive symptoms. Secondary outcomes will be glycaemic control, diabetes-related distress, self-management of diabetes and health

  4. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and mood disorders

    Astorg Pierre

    2007-05-01

    greater risk of mood disorder, as well as a therapeutic potential of n-3 PUFA in depressed or bipolar patients. Other works are necessary in order to establish a causal relation between n-3 PUFA deficiency and depression, and to further explore their preventive or therapeutic use.

  5. An IRT Analysis of the Symptoms of Major Depressive Disorder.

    Emmert-Aronson, Benjamin O; Brown, Timothy A

    2015-06-01

    This study examines the psychometric properties of a major depressive episode using a large sample (N = 2,907) of outpatients with mood and anxiety disorders. A two-parameter logistic model yielded item threshold and discrimination parameters. A two-group confirmatory factor analysis was used to evaluate gender bias. Item thresholds fell along a continuum with the core features of depressed mood and anhedonia, along with fatigue, endorsed at lower levels of depression, and change in appetite and suicidal ideation endorsed at more severe levels. Item discriminations were highest for depressed mood and anhedonia, and lowest for change in appetite and suicidal ideation. The data indicate that the symptoms of depression assess a range of severity, with varying precision in discriminating depression. No gender differences were observed. Three exploratory symptom sets were compared with the full symptom set for depression, offering quantitative evidence that can be used to modify the psychiatric classification system.

  6. Psychiatric problems in fibromyalgia: clinical and neurobiological links between mood disorders and fibromyalgia

    F. Atzeni

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To review the literature addressing the relationship between mood disorders and fibromyalgia/chronic pain and our current understanding of overlapping pathophysiological processes and pain and depression circuitry. Methods. We selectively reviewed articles on the co-occurrence of mood disorders and fibromyalgia/chronic pain published between 1990 and July 2012 in PubMed. Bibliographies and cross references were considered and included when appropriate. Results. Forty-nine out of 138 publications were retained for review. The vast majority of the studies found an association between depression and fibromyalgia. There is evidence that depression is often accompanied by symptoms of opposite polarity characterised by heights of mood, thinking and behaviour that have a considerable impact on pharmacological treatment. Recent developments support the view that the high rates of fibromyalgia and mood disorder comorbidity is generated by largely overlapping pathophysiological processes in the brain, that provide a neurobiological basis for the bidirectional, mutually exacerbating and disabling relationship between pain and depression. Conclusions. The finding of comparable pathophysiological characteristics of pain and depression provides a framework for understanding the relationship between the two conditions and sheds some light on neurobiological and therapeutic aspects.

  7. Dreams by persons with mood disorders.

    Zanasi, Marco; Pecorella, Martina; Chiaramonte, Carlo; Niolu, Cinzia; Siracusano, Alberto

    2008-10-01

    This work evaluated the structure of dreams in depressed patients. The verbal reports of dreams of 100 depressed patients were compared with 251 dreams of a control group. In accordance with the Jungian thought, which views dreams as texts, dream reports were assessed using textual analysis processing techniques. Significant differences were found in parameter values, as well as in the role of the dreamer as an external observer. Considering the length of the dreams' texts, depressed patients used fewer words than the control group. With regard to sensory field, there were fewer lemmas referring to sight for depressed patients than for healthy participants. This work seems to confirm the value of textual analysis in the study of oneiric material

  8. Depressive Disorders: Treatments Bring New Hope.

    Sargent, Marilyn

    This booklet describes the symptoms, forms, causes, and treatment of depression, with particular focus on depression in children, adolescents, and older adults. Symptoms include: persistent sad or "empty" mood; feelings of hopelessness, guilt, or helplessness; loss of interest in ordinary activities; sleep disturbances; eating disturbances;…

  9. Spouse-aided therapy with depressed patients

    EmanuelsZuurveen, L; Emmelkamp, PMG

    1997-01-01

    Twenty-three non-maritally distressed depressed patients who were married or cohabitating were randomly assigned to either individual behavioral-cognitive therapy or spouse-aided treatment. Both treatment conditions focused on depressed mood, behavioral activity, and dysfunctional cognitions, the di

  10. [Depression in epileptic patients with and without history of suicidal attempts: preliminary report].

    Motta, E; Miller, K; Rościszewska, D; Kłosińska, E

    1998-01-01

    Depression is a significant problem in epilepsy. Suicides occur in epileptic patients five times more often than in general population. Material included 34 epileptics with 76 suicidal attempts and 24 patients with no history of suicide. Psychical state was studied with Beck Depression Inventory and Hamilton Depression Rating Scale. In the group with suicidal attempts 65% of patients had depression (54.5% of them had major depression) and in group without suicide attempts depression was noted in 54% (23% with major depression). Patients with depression were divided into two groups: group I with suicidal attempts and group II without history of suicide. In group I more patients were alcohol abusers (50% vs 31%), more were treated because of epilepsy longer than 10 years (59% vs 46%) and more had tonic-clonic seizures (82% vs 46%). In group I, 54% of patients were on polytherapy (more than half of them with fenobarbital). In group II, 31% of epileptics were on polytherapy (no one with fenobarbital). Major depression was significantly more frequent in epileptics with suicidal attempts. The severity of depression may influence the risk of suicide. Major depression may be associated with late age of onset of epilepsy, longer treatment duration, tonic-clonic seizures, polytherapy (mainly with fenobarbital) and alcohol abuse.

  11. Alagille Syndrome: A Case Report Highlighting Dysmorphic Facies, Chronic Illness, and Depression

    Winthrop, Zachary A.; Salman, Rabia; Majeed, Salman

    2016-01-01

    Alagille syndrome is a rare multisystem disorder affecting the liver, heart, vertebrae, eyes, and face. Alagille syndrome shares multiple phenotypic variants of other congenital or chronic childhood illnesses such as DiGeorge syndrome, Down syndrome, spina bifida, type 1 diabetes mellitus, and cystic fibrosis. All of these chronic illnesses have well-established links to psychiatric conditions. There are few community resources for Alagille patients, as it is an extremely rare condition. Despite the overlap with other chronic childhood illnesses, the psychiatric manifestations of Alagille syndrome have not been previously discussed in literature. The current study is a case report of a twelve-year-old female hospitalized in our pediatric psychiatric hospital for suicidal ideation with intent and plan. The patient had major depressive disorder, anxiety, other specified feeding and eating disorder, and attention-deficit/hyperactive disorder. PMID:28018696

  12. Alagille Syndrome: A Case Report Highlighting Dysmorphic Facies, Chronic Illness, and Depression

    James J. Bresnahan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Alagille syndrome is a rare multisystem disorder affecting the liver, heart, vertebrae, eyes, and face. Alagille syndrome shares multiple phenotypic variants of other congenital or chronic childhood illnesses such as DiGeorge syndrome, Down syndrome, spina bifida, type 1 diabetes mellitus, and cystic fibrosis. All of these chronic illnesses have well-established links to psychiatric conditions. There are few community resources for Alagille patients, as it is an extremely rare condition. Despite the overlap with other chronic childhood illnesses, the psychiatric manifestations of Alagille syndrome have not been previously discussed in literature. The current study is a case report of a twelve-year-old female hospitalized in our pediatric psychiatric hospital for suicidal ideation with intent and plan. The patient had major depressive disorder, anxiety, other specified feeding and eating disorder, and attention-deficit/hyperactive disorder.

  13. A report on the prevalence of depression and anxiety in patients with frozen shoulder and their relations to disease status.

    Ding, Huairong; Tang, Yanming; Xue, Yuan; Yang, Zhong; Li, Zhiyang; He, Dong; Zhao, Ying; Zong, Yaqi

    2014-01-01

    Musculoskeletal diseases often have concomitant psychological disorders, such as depression and anxiety. Frozen shoulder (FS) is a musculoskeletal disease, and causes pain and stiffness in the shoulder. The relationship between FS and psychological disorders has rarely been investigated. This cross-sectional study was to evaluate the risk of depression and anxiety in patients with primary FS, and to explore the relationship between psychological disorders and disease status. In this study, anxiety and depression were evaluated in 124 patients (78 women and 46 men) with primary FS, compared with 130 (72 women and 58 men) age-, sex- and education matched healthy controls between March 2009 and June 2012. Simple shoulder test (SST); shoulder pain and disability index (SPADI); the range of motion (ROM); visual analog scales (VAS) for pain and sleep disturbances; hospital anxiety and depression scale for depression (HADS-D) and for anxiety (HADS-A); and health assessment questionnaire (HAQ) were used to assess clinical and psychological status. In FS patients, the prevalence of depression and anxiety was 28.2 and 24.2%, respectively. Compared with the healthy controls, higher HADS-D (6.41 ± 3.69, 5. 23 ± 2.87 p = 0.006) and HADS-A (6.16 ± 3.62, 4.90 ± 3.05 p = 0.003) were detected. The FS patients with depression or anxiety had significantly lower SST and HAQ scores, significantly higher VAS and SPADI scores and significantly higher prevalence of sleep disturbances compared with the FS patients with normal psychological status. The correlations of SST, SPADI, VAS and sleep disturbances but not ROM with HADS-A and HADS-D were significant ( p anxiety and depression may coexist with FS; patients with psychological disorders have more severe self-reported shoulder pain and functional restriction.

  14. Depression after myocardial infarction.

    Ziegelstein, R C

    2001-01-01

    Depression is an independent risk factor for increased postmyocardial infarction morbidity and mortality, even after controlling for the extent of coronary artery disease, infarct size, and the severity of left ventricular dysfunction. This risk factor takes on added significance when one considers that almost half of patients recovering from a myocardial infarction have major or minor depression and that major depression alone occurs in about one in five of these individuals. Despite the well-documented risk of depression, questions remain about the mechanism of the relationship between mood disturbance and adverse outcome. The link may be explained by an association with lower levels of social support, poor adherence to recommended medical therapy and lifestyle changes intended to reduce the risk of subsequent cardiac events, disturbances in autonomic tone, enhanced platelet activation and aggregation, and systemic immune activation. Unfortunately, questions about the pathophysiologic mechanism of depression in this setting are paralleled by uncertainties about the optimal treatment of depression for patients recovering from a myocardial infarction and by a lack of knowledge about whether treating depression lowers the associated increased mortality risk. Ongoing research studies will help to determine the benefits of psychosocial interventions and of antidepressant therapy for patients soon after myocardial infarction. Although the identification of depression as a risk factor may by itself be a reason to incorporate a comprehensive psychological evaluation into the routine care of patients with myocardial infarction, this practice should certainly become standard if studies show that treating depression reduces the increased mortality risk of these patients.

  15. Sad mood increases pain sensitivity upon thermal grill illusion stimulation: implications for central pain processing.

    Boettger, Michael Karl; Schwier, Christiane; Bär, Karl-Jürgen

    2011-01-01

    In different fields of neuroscience research, illusions have successfully been used to unravel underlying mechanisms of stimulus processing. One such illusion existing for the field of pain research is the so-called thermal grill illusion. Here, painful sensations are elicited by interlacing warm and cold bars, with stimulus intensities (temperatures) of these bars being below the respective heat pain or cold pain thresholds. To date, the underlying mechanisms of this phenomenon are not completely understood. There is some agreement, however, that the sensation evoked by this stimulation is generated by central nervous interactions. Therefore, we followed two approaches in this study: firstly, we aimed at developing and validating a water-driven device which might be used in fMRI scanners in future studies - subject to minor adaptations. Secondly, we aimed to interfere with this illusion by induction of a sad mood state, a procedure which is suggested to influence central nervous structures that are also involved in pain processing. The newly developed device induced thermal grill sensations similar to those reported in the literature. Induction of sad, but not neutral mood states, resulted in higher pain and unpleasantness ratings of the painful illusion. These findings might be of importance for the understanding of pain processing in healthy volunteers, but putatively even more so in patients with major depressive disorder. Moreover, our results might indicate that central nervous structures involved in the affective domain or cognitive domain of pain processing might be involved in the perception of the illusion.

  16. Depression in Coronary Artery Disease

    Nasser Safaie

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Depression is one of the Common psychological disorders. From the cognitive point of view, the unhealthy attitudes increase the severity of the depression. The aim of this study was to investigate depression and unhealthy attitudes in coronary patients hospitalized at Tabriz Shahid Madani Heart Center. Methods: One hundred twenty eight hospitalized patients having myocardial Infarctions were studied regarding unhealthy attitudes, severity of depression and demographic data. Results: The study showed a significant relation between unhealthy attitudes, BDI (Beck Depression Inventory and severe depression. Moreover, a significant relation existed between gender and depression (P=0.0001. In addition, the level of education increased the intensity of unhealthy attitudes (P=0.0001. Several researches in both outside and inside Iran support the idea. Conclusion: Based on present study and more other investigations, it can be suggested to provide the necessary elements and parameters such as antidepressant medication, psychologists, complementary treatment for coping with negative mood and its unwanted consequences.

  17. Why extraverts are happier than introverts: the role of mood regulation.

    Lischetzke, Tanja; Eid, Michael

    2006-08-01

    Three studies tested the hypotheses that extraverts demonstrate better mood maintenance abilities than introverts and that these mood regulation abilities can account for the higher habitual happiness of extraverts. Using self- and peer-rated trait measures, Study 1 provided multimethod evidence that mood maintenance, but not mood repair, accounted for the link between extraversion and pleasant-unpleasant trait mood. Study 2 replicated this finding in a different sample of self-reports. Using a within-subjects design, Study 3 demonstrated that when confronted with an affectively ambivalent situation, extraverts maintained a more positive affect balance than introverts. Habitual mood maintenance mediated the effect of extraversion on pleasant-unpleasant affect change. Taken together, the findings support a self-regulation explanation of the extraversion-pleasant affect link.

  18. The Relationship among Self-Report and Measured Report of Psychological Abuse, and Depression for a Sample of Women Involved in Intimate Relationships with Male Partners

    Kelly, Virginia; Warner, Kelly; Trahan, Courtenay; Miscavage, Karen

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between level of depression and level of psychological abuse in women. In addition, the relationship between the use of self-report and measured report of psychological abuse within an intimate relationship was assessed. One hundred women were surveyed using the Psychological Maltreatment of Women Inventory…

  19. [Neurobiology of depression: new data].

    Lanfumey, Laurence; Hamon, Michel

    2005-01-01

    Monoaminergic systems, and in particular serotoninergic neurons of the raphe system, have been involved in the physiopathology and treatment of major depression in a great number of studies. One of the most reproducible effects of antidepressant treatment is the increase of central 5-HT (serotonin) tone. However, the identification of novel potential therapeutic targets (neurohormones, neuropeptides) for treating depression has led to elaborating novel cellular and molecular concepts accounting for stress-related mood disorders. In particular, recent studies have demonstrated that chronic administration of all classes of antidepressants up-regulates neurogenesis in adult rodent hippocampus. The possibility that structural remodelling may contribute to the physiopathology of mood disorders provides new avenues of research toward understanding the cellular basis of mood disorders.

  20. Lifetime socio-economic position and depression

    Osler, Merete; Bruunsgaard, Helle; Mortensen, Erik Lykke

    2015-01-01

    Background: Little is known about the influence of lifetime socio-economic position (SEP) on adult depression. We examined the association of SEP during the life course with depressive mood in late midlife and explored whether cognitive function at age 20, health-related behaviour and inflammatory...... biomarkers explained any associations. Methods: A cohort of 2482 Danish men born in 1953 with information from birth, and conscript board examinations was followed-up with assessment of depressive mood and blood sampling in 2010. Simple and multiple linear regression were used to investigate associations...... among variables. Results: Social circumstances during the life course were associated with depressive mood. Further, low lifetime SEP was associated with lower cognitive score, smoking, alcohol use, high body mass index (BMI) and increased level of high sensitive ProReactive Protein and Interleukin-6...