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Sample records for reported current illicit

  1. Elevated urinary aluminium in current and past users of illicit heroin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exley, Christopher; Ahmed, Usman; Polwart, Anthony; Bloor, Roger N

    2007-06-01

    The use of illicit heroin is associated with aberrant neurology of unknown aetiology and various psychiatric illnesses. Aluminium, which is a proven neurotoxin, is present in significant amounts in illicit heroin and may also be volatilized and inhaled following the vaporization of heroin off aluminium foil ('Chasing the Dragon'). The purpose of this study was to establish if the use of illicit heroin was associated with an increase in the body burden of aluminium. We have used graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry to measure the aluminium and iron contents of the urine of current and past users of illicit heroin and used these data to estimate body burdens of aluminium. Urinary excretion of aluminium is the most effective non-invasive indicator of the body burden of aluminium and was found to be significantly (P aluminium from the use of illicit heroin may be of particular significance because the urinary excretion of iron, another major contaminant of illicit heroin, in users (mean +/- SD; 53 +/- 63 nmol/mmol creatinine) was not significantly different (P > 0.05) from the control population (mean +/- SD; 38 +/- 18 nmol/mmol creatinine). We have shown for the first time that the use of illicit heroin may be a significant contributor to the body burden of aluminium. Further research will be required to determine if adventitious aluminium has a role in heroin use-related neuropathology and neurology.

  2. Report on combating of illicit trafficking. The Illicit Trafficking Combat Project Group. January 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-01-01

    The objective of this study is to propose improvements of different means and methods for the prevention of illicit trafficking and the proliferation of nuclear weapons. An essential requirement imposed on authorities and operators through basic nuclear legislation is the establishment and implementation of: a) nuclear material accountancy and control; b) physical protection of nuclear material and facilities; and c) export/import control of nuclear material and, so called, dual-use items. The legislation would make it possible for the State nuclear authority to be informed continuously about the location and quantity of nuclear material in the country, and to monitor that it is under satisfactory protection and guard in accordance with the requirements. The introduction of requirements on licensing of practices and activities involving dual-use items, and other products used for nuclear weapons manufacturing, would also give the authority the possibility to prevent unauthorised transfers of such products. The nuclear legislation must clearly stipulate the distribution of responsibilities between nuclear authority, operator and employees. This would give a solid basis for attaining high safety culture, including positive motivation and active commitment among executives and other employees. It would also ensure that nuclear material would not be lost through negligence or internal criminal activities. A further step of improvements on the national level, would be the urgent and firm introduction of modern Quality Assurance and Internal Control Systems into all forms of nuclear activities. In modern, safety related quality control systems, the operator alone is responsible for all activities and operations, and he must establish an internal control that will ensure that the authority's rules and requirements are thoroughly implemented and adhered to. The operator's organisation, including competence and procedures, must be approved by the State authority

  3. Report on combating of illicit trafficking. The Illicit Trafficking Combat Project Group. January 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-01-01

    The objective of this study is to propose improvements of different means and methods for the prevention of illicit trafficking and the proliferation of nuclear weapons. An essential requirement imposed on authorities and operators through basic nuclear legislation is the establishment and implementation of: a) nuclear material accountancy and control; b) physical protection of nuclear material and facilities; and c) export/import control of nuclear material and, so called, dual-use items. The legislation would make it possible for the State nuclear authority to be informed continuously about the location and quantity of nuclear material in the country, and to monitor that it is under satisfactory protection and guard in accordance with the requirements. The introduction of requirements on licensing of practices and activities involving dual-use items, and other products used for nuclear weapons manufacturing, would also give the authority the possibility to prevent unauthorised transfers of such products. The nuclear legislation must clearly stipulate the distribution of responsibilities between nuclear authority, operator and employees. This would give a solid basis for attaining high safety culture, including positive motivation and active commitment among executives and other employees. It would also ensure that nuclear material would not be lost through negligence or internal criminal activities. A further step of improvements on the national level, would be the urgent and firm introduction of modern Quality Assurance and Internal Control Systems into all forms of nuclear activities. In modern, safety related quality control systems, the operator alone is responsible for all activities and operations, and he must establish an internal control that will ensure that the authority's rules and requirements are thoroughly implemented and adhered to. The operator's organisation, including competence and procedures, must be approved by the State authority

  4. Neighborhood-level LGBT hate crimes and current illicit drug use among sexual minority youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Dustin T; Hatzenbuehler, Mark L; Johnson, Renee M

    2014-02-01

    To investigate whether past-30 day illicit drug use among sexual minority youth was more common in neighborhoods with a greater prevalence of hate crimes targeting lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT, or sexual minority) individuals. We used a population-based survey of public school youth in Boston, Massachusetts, consisting of 1292 9th-12th grade students from the 2008 Boston Youth Survey Geospatial Dataset (sexual minority n=108). Data on LGBT hate crimes involving assaults or assaults and battery between 2005 and 2008 were obtained from the Boston Police Department and linked to youths' residential address. Youth reported past-30 day use of marijuana and other illicit drugs. Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney tests and corresponding p-values were computed to assess differences in substance use by neighborhood-level LGBT assault hate crime rate among sexual minority youth (n=103). The LGBT assault hate crime rate in the neighborhoods of sexual minority youth who reported current marijuana use was 23.7 per 100,000, compared to 12.9 per 100,000 for sexual minority youth who reported no marijuana use (p=0.04). No associations between LGBT assault hate crimes and marijuana use among heterosexual youth (p>0.05) or between sexual minority marijuana use and overall neighborhood-level violent and property crimes (p>0.05) were detected, providing evidence for result specificity. We found a significantly greater prevalence of marijuana use among sexual minority youth in neighborhoods with a higher prevalence of LGBT assault hate crimes. These results suggest that neighborhood context (i.e., LGBT hate crimes) may contribute to sexual orientation disparities in marijuana use. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Respiratory Disease following Illicit Injection of Silicone: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Charles Essenmacher

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Unregulated, pseudomedical procedures risk serious sequelae even when otherwise safe compounds are used. Silicone is commonly used legally in cosmetic procedures owing to its durability, resistance to heat and aging, and low immunogenicity. However, inappropriate or illegal silicone injection can pose severe local and systemic complications including serious pulmonary compromise. We describe the case of a 30-year-old female who presented with hemoptysis and progressive shortness of breath following illicit silicone injections to the gluteal fat and was found to have new, diffuse, bilateral, ground-glass opacities on contrast-enhanced pulmonary computed tomography. Transbronchial biopsy elucidated that this was a lipoid pneumonia-type injury secondary to silicone infiltration.

  6. Towards a greater understanding of the illicit tobacco trade in Europe: a review of the PMI funded 'Project Star' report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmore, Anna B; Rowell, Andy; Gallus, Silvano; Lugo, Alessandra; Joossens, Luk; Sims, Michelle

    2014-05-01

    Following a legal agreement with the European Union (EU), Philip Morris International (PMI) commissions a yearly report ('Project Star', PS) on the European illicit cigarette trade from KPMG, the global accountancy firm. Review of PS 2010 report. Comparison with data from independent sources including a 2010 pan-European survey (N=18,056). Within PS, data covering all 27 EU countries are entered into a model. While the model itself seems appropriate, concerns are identified with the methodologies underlying the data inputs and thus their quality: there is little transparency over methodologies; interview data underestimate legal non-domestic product partly by failing to account for legal cross-border sales; illicit cigarette estimates rely on tobacco industry empty pack surveys which may overestimate illicit; and there is an over-reliance on data supplied by PMI with inadequate external validation. Thus, PMI sales data are validated using PMI smoking prevalence estimates, yet PMI is unable to provide sales (shipment) data for the Greek islands and its prevalence estimates differ grossly from independent data. Consequently, comparisons with independent data suggest PS will tend to overestimate illicit cigarette levels particularly where cross-border shopping is frequent (Austria, Finland, France) and in Western compared with Eastern European countries. The model also provides data on the nature of the illicit cigarette market independent of seizure data suggesting that almost a quarter of the illicit cigarette market in 2010 comprised PMI's own brands compared with just 5% counterfeited PMI brands; a finding hidden in PMI's public representation of the data. PS overestimates illicit cigarette levels in some European countries and suggests PMI's supply chain control is inadequate. Its publication serves the interests of PMI over those of the EU and its member states. PS requires greater transparency, external scrutiny and use of independent data. Published by the BMJ

  7. Validity of Timeline Follow-Back for self-reported use of cannabis and other illicit substances - Systematic review and meta-analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorthøj, Carsten Rygaard; Hjorthøj, Anne Rygaard; Nordentoft, Merete

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Timeline Follow-Back (TLFB) is a widely used, calendar-based measure of self-reported use of (among other things) illicit substances. We examined agreement between TLFB and biological measures for illicit substances. METHODS: PubMed, PsycINFO, Cochrane CENTRAL, and EMBASE were searche...

  8. The Exposure Assessment in Current Time Study: Implementation, Feasibility, and Acceptability of Real-Time Data Collection in a Community Cohort of Illicit Drug Users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory D. Kirk

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. We describe the study design and evaluate the implementation, feasibility, and acceptability of an ecological momentary assessment (EMA study of illicit drug users. Design. Four sequential field trials targeting observation of 30 individuals followed for a four week period. Participants. Participants were recruited from an ongoing community-cohort of current or former injection drug users. Of 113 individuals enrolled, 109 completed study procedures during four trials conducted from November 2008 to May 2013. Methods. Hand-held electronic diaries used in the initial trials were transitioned to a smartphone platform for the final trial with identical data collection. Random-prompts delivered five times daily assessed participant location, activity, mood, and social context. Event-contingent data collection involved participant self-reports of illicit drug use and craving. Main Outcome Measures. Feasibility measures included participant retention, days of followup, random-prompt response rates, and device loss rate. Acceptability was evaluated from an end-of-trial questionnaire. Sociodemographic, behavioral, clinical, and trial characteristics were evaluated as correlates of weekly random-prompt response rates ≥80% using logistic regression with generalized estimating equations. Results. Study participants were a median of 48.5 years old, 90% African American, 52% male, and 59% HIV-infected with limited income and educational attainment. During a median followup of 28 days, 78% of 11,181 random-prompts delivered were answered (mean of 2.8 responses daily, while 2,798 participant-initiated events were reported (30% drug use events; 70% craving events. Self-reported acceptability to study procedures was uniformly favorable. Device loss was rare (only 1 lost device every 190 person-days of observation. Higher educational attainment was consistently associated with a higher response rate to random-prompts, while an association of HIV

  9. The exposure assessment in current time study: implementation, feasibility, and acceptability of real-time data collection in a community cohort of illicit drug users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirk, Gregory D; Linas, Beth S; Westergaard, Ryan P; Piggott, Damani; Bollinger, Robert C; Chang, Larry W; Genz, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    Objective. We describe the study design and evaluate the implementation, feasibility, and acceptability of an ecological momentary assessment (EMA) study of illicit drug users. Design. Four sequential field trials targeting observation of 30 individuals followed for a four week period. Participants. Participants were recruited from an ongoing community-cohort of current or former injection drug users. Of 113 individuals enrolled, 109 completed study procedures during four trials conducted from November 2008 to May 2013. Methods. Hand-held electronic diaries used in the initial trials were transitioned to a smartphone platform for the final trial with identical data collection. Random-prompts delivered five times daily assessed participant location, activity, mood, and social context. Event-contingent data collection involved participant self-reports of illicit drug use and craving. Main Outcome Measures. Feasibility measures included participant retention, days of followup, random-prompt response rates, and device loss rate. Acceptability was evaluated from an end-of-trial questionnaire. Sociodemographic, behavioral, clinical, and trial characteristics were evaluated as correlates of weekly random-prompt response rates ≥80% using logistic regression with generalized estimating equations. Results. Study participants were a median of 48.5 years old, 90% African American, 52% male, and 59% HIV-infected with limited income and educational attainment. During a median followup of 28 days, 78% of 11,181 random-prompts delivered were answered (mean of 2.8 responses daily), while 2,798 participant-initiated events were reported (30% drug use events; 70% craving events). Self-reported acceptability to study procedures was uniformly favorable. Device loss was rare (only 1 lost device every 190 person-days of observation). Higher educational attainment was consistently associated with a higher response rate to random-prompts, while an association of HIV infection with lower

  10. Towards a greater understanding of the illicit tobacco trade in Europe: a review of the PMI funded ‘Project Star’ report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmore, Anna B; Rowell, Andy; Gallus, Silvano; Lugo, Alessandra; Joossens, Luk; Sims, Michelle

    2014-01-01

    Background Following a legal agreement with the European Union (EU), Philip Morris International (PMI) commissions a yearly report (‘Project Star’, PS) on the European illicit cigarette trade from KPMG, the global accountancy firm. Methods Review of PS 2010 report. Comparison with data from independent sources including a 2010 pan-European survey (N=18 056). Findings Within PS, data covering all 27 EU countries are entered into a model. While the model itself seems appropriate, concerns are identified with the methodologies underlying the data inputs and thus their quality: there is little transparency over methodologies; interview data underestimate legal non-domestic product partly by failing to account for legal cross-border sales; illicit cigarette estimates rely on tobacco industry empty pack surveys which may overestimate illicit; and there is an over-reliance on data supplied by PMI with inadequate external validation. Thus, PMI sales data are validated using PMI smoking prevalence estimates, yet PMI is unable to provide sales (shipment) data for the Greek islands and its prevalence estimates differ grossly from independent data. Consequently, comparisons with independent data suggest PS will tend to overestimate illicit cigarette levels particularly where cross-border shopping is frequent (Austria, Finland, France) and in Western compared with Eastern European countries. The model also provides data on the nature of the illicit cigarette market independent of seizure data suggesting that almost a quarter of the illicit cigarette market in 2010 comprised PMI's own brands compared with just 5% counterfeited PMI brands; a finding hidden in PMI's public representation of the data. Conclusions PS overestimates illicit cigarette levels in some European countries and suggests PMI's supply chain control is inadequate. Its publication serves the interests of PMI over those of the EU and its member states. PS requires greater transparency, external scrutiny and

  11. Rural Adolescent Alcohol, Tobacco, and Illicit Drug Use: A Comparison of Students in Victoria, Australia, and Washington State, United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coomber, Kerri; Toumbourou, John W.; Miller, Peter; Staiger, Petra K.; Hemphill, Sheryl A.; Catalano, Richard F.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: There are inconsistent research findings regarding the impact of rurality on adolescent alcohol, tobacco, and illicit substance use. Therefore, the current study reports on the effect of rurality on alcohol, tobacco, and illicit drug use among adolescents in 2 state representative samples in 2 countries, Washington State (WA) in the…

  12. Increases in self-reported fentanyl use among a population entering drug treatment: The need for systematic surveillance of illicitly manufactured opioids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicero, Theodore J; Ellis, Matthew S; Kasper, Zachary A

    2017-08-01

    Recent reports indicate a sharp increase in fentanyl-related overdose deaths across the United States, much of which is likely related to the introduction of cheap, illicitly manufactured fentanyl derivatives. In this study, we sought to estimate the magnitude of illicit fentanyl use from 2012 to 2016 using a national opioid abuse surveillance system. The study program surveyed 10,900 individuals entering substance abuse treatment for opioid use disorder, with participants asked to endorse past month 'use to get high' of fentanyl drugs, stratified by identifiable (i.e., branded) fentanyl formulations or a 'type unknown' drug alleged to contain fentanyl. Total past-month fentanyl-use rose modestly from 2012 to 2016. While use of known fentanyl products remained relatively stable (mean=10.9%; P=0.25), endorsements of 'unknown' fentanyl products nearly doubled from 9% in 2013 to 15.1% by 2016 (P<0.001). Data show no discernable indication that this increase is diminishing or stabilizing. This first attempt to assess the prevalence of illicit fentanyl use shows that recent increases in fentanyl use seem to be due almost entirely to 'unknown' fentanyl presumed to be illicitly manufactured. Given that it is difficult to assess the extent to which fentanyl may have been substituted for another drug (i.e., oxycodone, alprazolam, etc.) or was used as a heroin admixture, our data likely represent an underestimation of the full magnitude of illicit fentanyl abuse. As such, this growing public health problem requires immediate attention and more systematic efforts to identify and track its abuse. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Illicit organogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schänzer, Wilhelm

    2008-01-01

    Doping and manipulation are undesirable companions of professional and amateur sport. Numerous adverse analytical findings as well as confessions of athletes have demonstrated the variety of doping agents and methods as well as the inventiveness of cheating sportsmen. Besides ‘conventional’ misuse of drugs such as erythropoietin and insulins, experts fear that therapeutics that are currently undergoing clinical trials might be part of current or future doping regimens, which aim for an increased functionality and performance or organs and tissues. Emerging drugs such as selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs), hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) complex stabilizers or modulators of muscle fiber calcium channels are considered relevant for current and future doping controls due to their high potential for misuse in sports. PMID:19337407

  14. Structural equation modeling of the effects of racism, LGBTQ discrimination, and internalized oppression on illicit drug use in LGBTQ people of color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drazdowski, Tess K; Perrin, Paul B; Trujillo, Michael; Sutter, Megan; Benotsch, Eric G; Snipes, Daniel J

    2016-02-01

    Experiences with lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, or queer (LGBTQ) discrimination and racism have both been associated with mental health problems and illicit drug use. However, the cumulative effects of both forms of discrimination--and resulting internalized oppression--on illicit drug use in LGBTQ people of color (POC) has not been examined in the research literature. Using online questionnaires, this study collected self-report data from 200 LGBTQ POC about their experiences with racism, LGBTQ discrimination, internalized racism, internalized LGBTQ discrimination, and illicit drug use. Two structural equation models yielded adequate fit indices in which experiences with racism and LGBTQ discrimination led to more internalized oppression, which then led to greater illicit drug use magnitude. LGBTQ discrimination was directly related to increased internalized oppression, which was positively associated with illicit drug use magnitude; the relationship between LGBTQ discrimination and illicit drug use magnitude was mediated by internalized oppression in both models. However, racism and the interaction between racism and LGBTQ discrimination did not show valid direct effects on internalized oppression or indirect effects on illicit drug use magnitude. LGBTQ POC can be the targets of both racism and LGBTQ discrimination, although the current study found that the most psychologically damaging effects may come from LGBTQ discrimination. Interventions meant to decrease or prevent illicit drug use in LGBTQ POC may benefit from helping participants examine the links among LGBTQ discrimination, internalized oppression, and illicit drug use as a coping strategy, focusing on substituting more adaptive coping. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Recent illicit drug use among psychiatric patients in Brazil: a national representative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam Almeida Nahas

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To estimate factors associated to illicit drug use among patients with mental illness in Brazil according to gender. METHODS A cross-sectional representative sample of psychiatric patients (2,475 individuals was randomly selected from 11 hospitals and 15 public mental health outpatient clinics. Data on self-reported illicit drug use and sociodemographic, clinical and behavioral characteristics were obtained from face-to-face interviews. Logistic regression was used to estimate associations with recent illicit drug use. RESULTS The prevalence of any recent illicit drug use was 11.4%. Men had higher prevalence than women for all substances (17.5% and 5.6%, respectively. Lower education, history of physical violence, and history of homelessness were associated with drug use among men only; not professing a religion was associated with drug use in women only. For both men and women, younger age, current hospitalization, alcohol and tobacco use, history of incarceration, younger age at sexual debut, and more than one sexual partner were statistically associated with illicit drug use. CONCLUSIONS Recent illicit drug use among psychiatric patients is higher than among the general Brazilian population and it is associated with multiple factors including markers of psychiatric severity. Our data indicate the need for the development of gender-based drug-use interventions among psychiatric patients in Brazil. Integration of substance use treatment strategies with mental health treatment should be a priority.

  16. Mechanisms of Association between Paternal Alcoholism and Abuse of Alcohol and Other Illicit Drugs among Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peleg-Oren, Neta; Hospital, Michelle; Morris, Staci Leon; Wagner, Eric F.

    2013-01-01

    The current study examines the effect of paternal alcohol problems on adolescent use of alcohol and other illicit drugs as a function of maternal communication, as well as adolescent social and coping skills (N = 145). Structural equation modeling (SEM) analyses indicated that adolescents with a paternal history of alcohol problems reported higher…

  17. To discuss illicit nuclear trafficking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balatsky, Galya I [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Severe, William R [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Wallace, Richard K [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01

    The Illicit nuclear trafficking panel was conducted at the 4th Annual INMM workshop on Reducing the Risk from Radioactive and Nuclear Materials on February 2-3, 2010 in Washington DC. While the workshop occurred prior to the Nuclear Security Summit, April 12-13 2010 in Washington DC, some of the summit issues were raised during the workshop. The Communique of the Washington Nuclear Security Summit stated that 'Nuclear terrorism is one of the most challenging threats to international security, and strong nuclear security measures are the most effective means to prevent terrorists, criminals, or other unauthorized actors from acquiring nuclear materials.' The Illicit Trafficking panel is one means to strengthen nuclear security and cooperation at bilateral, regional and multilateral levels. Such a panel promotes nuclear security culture through technology development, human resources development, education and training. It is a tool which stresses the importance of international cooperation and coordination of assistance to improve efforts to prevent and respond to incidents of illicit nuclear trafficking. Illicit trafficking panel included representatives from US government, an international organization (IAEA), private industry and a non-governmental organization to discuss illicit nuclear trafficking issues. The focus of discussions was on best practices and challenges for addressing illicit nuclear trafficking. Terrorism connection. Workshop discussions pointed out the identification of terrorist connections with several trafficking incidents. Several trafficking cases involved real buyers (as opposed to undercover law enforcement agents) and there have been reports identifying individuals associated with terrorist organizations as prospective plutonium buyers. Some specific groups have been identified that consistently search for materials to buy on the black market, but no criminal groups were identified that specialize in nuclear materials or isotope

  18. Uxoricide and dismemberment in a case of illicit anabolic steroid use: A case report and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allan Seppänen

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite abounding evidence for the harmful effects of synthetic anabolic-androgenic steroids, they are commonly misused for competitive and body-image reasons. Steroids are often used in the context of poly-drug misuse, which may mask their specific effects on behaviour, such as increasing aggression. We present our case report as a concrete example of current steroid-related substance-misuse trends. A 25-year old Finnish male with various psychiatric and drug-related symptomology, but almost no previous history of aggressive behaviour, battered his wife to death and mutilated her body after a five-week steroid regimen.

  19. Illicit cigarette consumption and government revenue loss in Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahsan, Abdillah; Wiyono, Nur Hadi; Setyonaluri, Diahhadi; Denniston, Ryan; So, Anthony D

    2014-11-19

    Illicit cigarettes comprise more than 11% of tobacco consumption and 17% of consumption in low- and middle-income countries. Illicit cigarettes, defined as those that evade taxes, lower consumer prices, threaten national tobacco control efforts, and reduce excise tax collection. This paper measures the magnitude of illicit cigarette consumption within Indonesia using two methods: the discrepancies between legal cigarette sales and domestic consumption estimated from surveys, and discrepancies between imports recorded by Indonesia and exports recorded by trade partners. Smuggling plays a minor role in the availability of illicit cigarettes because Indonesians predominantly consume kreteks, which are primarily manufactured in Indonesia. Looking at the period from 1995 to 2013, illicit cigarettes first emerged in 2004. When no respondent under-reporting is assumed, illicit consumption makes up 17% of the domestic market in 2004, 9% in 2007, 11% in 2011, and 8% in 2013. Discrepancies in the trade data indicate that Indonesia was a recipient of smuggled cigarettes for each year between 1995 and 2012. The value of this illicit trade ranges from less than $1 million to nearly $50 million annually. Singapore, China, and Vietnam together accounted for nearly two-thirds of trade discrepancies over the period. Tax losses due to illicit consumption amount to between Rp 4.1 and 9.3 trillion rupiah, 4% to 13% of tobacco excise revenue, in 2011 and 2013. Due to the predominance of kretek consumption in Indonesia and Indonesia's status as the predominant producer of kreteks, illicit domestic production is likely the most important source for illicit cigarettes, and initiatives targeted to combat this illicit production carry the promise of the greatest potential impact.

  20. A risk profile of elite Australian athletes who use illicit drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Matthew; Thomas, Johanna O

    2012-01-01

    Much of the literature investigating the relationship between sports participation and substance use has focused upon student populations, with little focus being given to athletes who participate at elite levels. Identifying why some athletes may be at a greater risk for substance use can help in the design and implementation of prevention initiatives. Data for the current study was from 1684 self-complete surveys with elite Australian athletes. Eight percent (n=134) of the sample reported the use of at least one of the six illicit drugs under investigation (ecstasy, cannabis, cocaine, meth/amphetamine, ketamine and GHB) in the past year. Having been offered or having had the opportunity to use illicit drugs in the past year, knowing other athletes who use drugs and identifying as a 'full-time athlete' were significant predictors of past-year illicit drug use, while having completed secondary education or a post-school qualification was associated with a lower likelihood of past-year illicit drug use. Athletes are part of a sportsnet that includes family, coaches, support staff and other athletes, and these relationships may encourage the use, supply and demand for drugs. The current findings suggest that relationships with some of those in the sportsnet may play an important role when understanding illicit drug use among elite athletes. As education appears to be associated with a lower likelihood of illicit drug use among this group, initiatives should encourage athletes to engage in off-field pursuits which may also help prepare them for life after sport.

  1. Self reported health status, and health service contact, of illicit drug users aged 50 and over: a qualitative interview study in Merseyside, United Kingdom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duffy Paul

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The populations of industrialised countries are ageing; as this occurs, those who continue to use alcohol and illicit drugs age also. While alcohol use among older people is well documented, use of illicit drugs continues to be perceived as behaviour of young people and is a neglected area of research. This is the first published qualitative research on the experiences of older drug users in the United Kingdom. Methods Semi-structured interviews were conducted in Merseyside, in 2008, with drug users aged 50 and over recruited through drug treatment services. Interviews were recorded and transcribed and analysed thematically. Only health status and health service contact are reported here. Results Nine men and one woman were interviewed (age range: 54 to 61 years; all but one had been using drugs continuously or intermittently for at least 30 years. Interviewees exhibited high levels of physical and mental morbidity; hepatitis C was particularly prevalent. Injecting-related damage to arm veins resulted in interviewees switching to riskier injecting practices. Poor mental health was evident and interviewees described their lives as depressing. The death of drug-using friends was a common theme and social isolation was apparent. Interviewees also described a deterioration of memory. Generic healthcare was not always perceived as optimal, while issues relating to drug specific services were similar to those arising among younger cohorts of drug users, for example, complaints about inadequate doses of prescribed medication. Conclusion The concurrent effects of drug use and ageing are not well understood but are thought to exacerbate, or accelerate the onset of, medical conditions which are more prevalent in older age. Here, interviewees had poor physical and mental health but low expectations of health services. Older drug users who are not in contact with services are likely to have greater unmet needs. The number of drug users

  2. Trends in reports of driving following illicit drug consumption among regular drug users in Australia, 2007-2013: Has random roadside drug testing had a deterrent effect?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horyniak, Danielle; Dietze, Paul; Lenton, Simon; Alati, Rosa; Bruno, Raimondo; Matthews, Allison; Breen, Courtney; Burns, Lucy

    2017-07-01

    Driving following illicit drug consumption ('drug-driving') is a potential road safety risk. Roadside drug testing (RDT) is conducted across Australia with the dual aims of prosecuting drivers with drugs in their system and deterring drug-driving. We examined trends over time in self-reported past six-month drug-driving among sentinel samples of regular drug users and assessed the impact of experiences of RDT on drug-driving among these participants. Data from 1913 people who inject drugs (PWID) and 3140 regular psychostimulant users (RPU) who were first-time participants in a series of repeat cross-sectional sentinel studies conducted in Australian capital cities from 2007 to 2013 and reported driving in the past six months were analysed. Trends over time were assessed using the χ(2) test for trend. Multivariable logistic regressions assessed the relationship between experiences of RDT and recent drug-driving, adjusting for survey year, jurisdiction of residence and socio-demographic and drug use characteristics. The percentage of participants reporting recent (past six months) drug-driving decreased significantly over time among both samples (PWID: 83% [2007] vs. 74% [2013], pdrug-driving remained prevalent. Lifetime experience of RDT increased significantly over time (PWID: 6% [2007] vs. 32% [2013], pdrug-driving among either PWID or RPU. Although there is some evidence that drug-driving among key risk groups of regular drug users is declining in Australia, possibly reflecting a general deterrent effect of RDT, experiencing RDT appears to have no specific deterrent effect on drug-driving. Further intervention, with a particular focus on changing attitudes towards drug-driving, may be needed to further reduce this practice among these groups. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Illicit Drug Use Among South Korean Offenders: Assessing the Generality of Social Learning Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Minwoo; Kim, Eunyoung

    2015-10-01

    Since the mid-1990s, illicit drug use has become a problem in Korean society. This trend is likely due to the rapid globalization and expansion that occurred with the Internet revolution, which led to greater numbers of people socially learning about drug culture. The current study attempts to uncover criminogenic causality of such social learning about drug use by studying adult felony drug offenders in South Korea. The data used for the study were obtained from self-reported surveys, originally collected by the Korean Institution of Criminology (KIC). The final sample comprised 1,452 felony offenders convicted of illicit drug use, and their responses were analyzed with a set of multiple logistic regression tests. The current study found supportive evidence for the generalizability of social learning theory from the sample of the South Korean adult drug offenders. We argue that the current study provides additional empirical evidence that supports the generalizability of social learning theory.

  4. Illicit tranquilliser use and dependence among female opiate users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilchrist, Gail; Atkinson, Jacqueline; Gruer, Laurence

    2006-09-01

    This study determined the predictors of 12-month dependence on illicit tranquillisers among female opiate users attending three services in Glasgow, Scotland, UK. Twelve-month drug dependence was measured using the Diagnostic Interview Schedule. The Revised Clinical Interview Schedule (CIS-R) measured current neurotic symptoms. 60% (159/266) had used illicit tranquillisers in the past 30 days, and 50% (132/266) met criteria for 12-month dependence on illicit tranquillisers. Polydrug use, injecting drug use, childhood and adulthood abuse, adverse life experiences and current and previous mental health problems were associated with 12-month dependence on illicit tranquillisers. Using multiple logistic regression, polydrug use in last 30 days (OR 3.2, 95% CI 1.5 - 7.0), history of deliberate self-harm (OR 2.5, 95% CI 1.4 - 4.4), history of injecting drug use (OR 2.5, 1.2 - 5.2) and likely to need treatment for current neurotic symptoms (CIS-R > or = 18) (OR 2.4, 95% CI 1.3 - 4.4) predicted 12-month dependence on illicit tranquillisers. Drug users in general and female drug users in particular who are using illicit tranquillisers are also particularly likely to have psychiatric symptoms requiring treatment. Mental health problems should be assessed and monitored among this client group and counselling and psychosocial support should be provided when indicated.

  5. Imaging of illicit drug use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venkatanarasimha, N., E-mail: nandashettykv@yahoo.co [Department of Radiology, Derriford Hospital, Plymouth (United Kingdom); Rock, B.; Riordan, R.D.; Roobottom, C.A.; Adams, W.M. [Department of Radiology, Derriford Hospital, Plymouth (United Kingdom)

    2010-12-15

    Illicit drug abuse is a continuing menace of epidemic proportions associated with serious medical and social problems. Drug abuse can have a wide variety of presentations some of which can be life-threatening. The clinical diagnosis can be challenging as the history is usually limited or absent. Radiologists need to be familiar with varied imaging presentations and the related complications of illicit drug abuse to ensure correct diagnosis and appropriate timely treatment. This review will illustrate the imaging spectrum of illicit drug abuse involving several organ systems and also discuss the pathophysiological consequences of drug abuse.

  6. Computational Models for Analysis of Illicit Activities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nizamani, Sarwat

    Numerous illicit activities happen in our society, which, from time to time affect the population by harming individuals directly or indirectly. Researchers from different disciplines have contributed to developing strategies to analyze such activities, in order to help law enforcement agents....... These models include a model for analyzing evolution of terrorist networks; a text classification model for detecting suspicious text and identification of suspected authors of anonymous emails; and a semantic analysis model for news reports, which may help analyze the illicit activities in certain area...... with location and temporal information. For the network evolution, the hierarchical agglomerative clustering approach has been applied to terrorist networks as case studies. The networks' evolutions show that how individual actors who are initially isolated from each other are converted in small groups, which...

  7. Illicit drug use among school-going adolescents in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusoff, Fadhli; Sahril, Norhafizah; Rasidi, Naim M; Zaki, Nor Azian M; Muhamad, Norazlina; Ahmad, NoorAni

    2014-09-01

    Illicit drug use among adolescents has become a public health issue in Malaysia. This study was from the Global School-Based Student Health Survey (GSHS) and aimed to determine the prevalence of and factors associated with illicit drug use among school-going adolescents in Malaysia. A 2-stage stratified cluster sampling method was used and data were collected via a self-administered questionnaire. A total of 25 507 students participated in the study. The prevalence of adolescents who ever used illicit drugs was 1.7%. Adolescents who ever used illicit drugs were associated with current smoking (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 6.99; 95% CI = 5.19, 9.40), current alcohol use (aOR = 4.63; 95% CI = 3.43, 6.26), ever having sex (aOR = 4.76; 95% CI = 3.54, 6.41), truancy (aOR = 1.43; 95% CI = 1.07, 1.90), lack of peer support (aOR = 1.47; 95% CI = 1.07, 2.03), and lack of parental monitoring (aOR = 1.71; 95% CI = 1.22, 2.39). Public health intervention should be addressed to prevent illicit drug used among adolescents.

  8. Illicit substance-related disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vedel, E.; Emmelkamp, P.M.G.; Sturmey, P.; Hersen, M.

    2012-01-01

    This chapter focuses on evidence-based treatment for illicit drug use disorders. The treatments addressed are motivational interviewing, treatments based on cognitive behavioral principals such as cue exposure, coping skills training and contingency management, and 12-step orientated treatment progr

  9. Illicit drugs policy through the lens of regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritter, Alison

    2010-07-01

    The application of regulatory theory to the problem of illicit drugs has generally been thought about only in terms of 'command and control'. The international treaties governing global illicit drug control and the use of law enforcement to dissuade and punish offenders have been primary strategies. In this paper I explore the application of other aspects of regulatory theory to illicit drugs-primarily self-regulation and market regulation. There has been an overreliance on strategies from the top of the regulatory pyramid. Two other regulatory strategies--self-regulation and market regulation--can be applied to illicit drugs. Self-regulation, driven by the proactive support of consumer groups may reduce drug-related harms. Market strategies such as pill-testing can change consumer preferences and encourage alternate seller behaviour. Regulatory theory is also concerned with partnerships between the state and third parties: strategies in these areas include partnerships between police and pharmacies regarding sale of potential precursor chemicals. Regulatory theory and practice is a rich and well-developed field in the social sciences. I argue that governments should consider the full array of regulatory strategies. Using regulatory theory provides a rationale and justification to strategies that are currently at the whim of politics, such as funding for user groups. The greater application of regulatory approaches may produce more flexible and structured illicit drug policies.

  10. Comparisons between the attitudes of student nurses and other health and social care students toward illicit drug use: An attitudinal survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harling, Martyn R

    2017-01-01

    In the context of a recent emphasis on compassion in the delivery of health care, the current study set out to measure the attitudes of different groups of health and social care students toward illicit drug users. Previous research has identified variations in the attitudes of different groups of health and social care professionals toward working with illicit drug users. Nurses, in particular, have been reported as holding moralistic or stereotypical views of illicit drug users. However, few studies have measured the attitudes of student nurses or compared their attitudes to other health and social care students. This article describes the use of a bespoke attitude scale to measure the attitudes of cohorts of student nurses, clinical psychology trainees, health and social care, social work and midwifery students at the start of their course (N=308). Results indicated that student nurses had the least tolerant attitudes, reinforcing the need for a specific educational focus on working with illicit drug users in nurse education. Variations between student groups indicate that Interprofessional Education can provide an opportunity to improve attitudes toward illicit drug users, particularly amongst student nurses. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Maternal periconceptional illicit drug use and the risk of congenital malformations.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gelder, M.M.H.J. van; Reefhuis, J.; Caton, A.R.; Werler, M.M.; Druschel, C.M.; Roeleveld, N.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In 2004, the Survey on Drug Use and Health showed that 5% of American women reported use of an illicit drug during pregnancy. The results of studies determining the association between periconceptional illicit drug use and birth defects have been inconsistent. METHODS: We analyzed data f

  12. Relationships between Illicit Drug Use and Body Mass Index among Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackstone, Sarah R.; Herrmann, Lynn K.

    2016-01-01

    Prior research has established associations between body mass index (BMI) and use of alcohol, tobacco, and marijuana. However, little research has been done investigating the relationship between other common illicit drugs and BMI trends. The present study investigated whether adolescents who reported using illicit drugs showed differences in BMI…

  13. Noscapine as an adulterant in illicit heroin samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klemenc, S

    2000-01-24

    In this short report the evidence is given (based on the analyses of 22 case samples) that noscapine can be used as an adulterant in illicit heroin samples. In this context, the appearance of illicit heroin samples characterised by a high noscapine content (up to 61%) and a high noscapine/whole morphine ratio (up to 3.5) is highlighted. All samples discussed in the paper (132) were seized in Slovenia, in the period from 1997 to 1999 and were analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

  14. Correlates of overdose risk perception among illicit opioid users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Christopher; Santos, Glenn-Milo; Behar, Emily; Coffin, Philip O

    2016-02-01

    Opioid-related mortality continues to increase in the United States. The current study assesses demographic and behavioral predictors of perceived overdose risk among individuals who use opioids illicitly. By examining these correlates in the context of established overdose risk factors, we aim to assess whether characteristics and behaviors that have been associated with actual overdose risk translate to higher perception of risk. We conducted a cross-sectional survey of 172 adult illicit opioid users in San Francisco, CA and used multivariable logistic regression to identify predictors of perception of high risk for opioid overdose. Age (aOR=0.96, 95%CI=0.93-1.00) and number of injection days per month (0.91, 0.86-0.97) were associated with a lower odds of perceived high overdose risk. There was no independent association between use of opioid analgesics, concurrent use of opioids and benzodiazepines or cocaine, or HIV status and overdose risk perception. Opioid users who injected more frequently and those who were older were less likely to perceive themselves as being at risk of overdose, notwithstanding that those who inject more are at higher risk of overdose and those who are older are at higher risk overdose mortality. In addition, despite being established overdose risk factors, there was no relationship between use of opioid analgesics, concurrent use of opioids and cocaine or benzodiazepines, or self-reported HIV status and overdose risk perception. These findings highlight key populations of opioid users and established risk factors that may merit focused attention as part of education-based overdose prevention and opioid management strategies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Hair drug testing results and self-reported drug use among primary care patients with moderate-risk illicit drug use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gryczynski, Jan; Schwartz, Robert P; Mitchell, Shannon Gwin; O'Grady, Kevin E; Ondersma, Steven J

    2014-08-01

    This study sought to examine the utility of hair testing as a research measure of drug use among individuals with moderate-risk drug use based on the internationally validated Alcohol, Smoking, and Substance Involvement Screening Test (ASSIST). This study is a secondary analysis using baseline data from a randomized trial of brief intervention for drug misuse, in which 360 adults with moderate-risk drug use were recruited from two community clinics in New Mexico, USA. The current study compared self-reported drug use on the ASSIST with laboratory analysis of hair samples using a standard commercially available 5-panel test with assay screening and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) confirmation. Both self-report and hair testing covered a 3-month period. Overall concordance between hair testing and self-report was 57.5% (marijuana), 86.5% (cocaine), 85.8% (amphetamines), and 74.3% (opioids). Specificity of hair testing at standard laboratory cut-offs exceeded 90% for all drugs, but sensitivity of hair testing relative to self-report was low, identifying only 52.3% (127/243) of self-disclosed marijuana users, 65.2% (30/46) of cocaine users, 24.2% (8/33) of amphetamine users, and 2.9% (2/68) of opioid users. Among participants who disclosed using marijuana or cocaine in the past 3 months, participants with a negative hair test tended to report lower-frequency use of those drugs (ptesting can be useful in studies with moderate-risk drug users, but the potential for under-identification of low-frequency use suggests that researchers should consider employing low detection cut-offs and using hair testing in conjunction with self-report. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Illicit Use of Prescription Opiates among Graduate Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varga, Matthew D; Parrish, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Through this study the authors assessed the prevalence rate, reasons for use, and poly-substance use of prescription opiates among graduate students. The authors employed a cross-sectional survey research design using an online, self-administered questionnaire to assess the prevalence rates of prescription opiate use among graduate students (N = 1,033), reasons for use, and their likelihood for poly-substance use. The survey was e-mailed to 5,000 graduate students. Graduate students (19.7%) reported illicit use of prescription opiates in their lifetime and 6.6% reported past-year illicit use. Those who indicated illicitly using prescription opiates did so for self-medication reasons; a few respondents indicated recreational use. Students using prescription opiates were 75% less likely to use marijuana; 79% less likely to use cocaine; and 75% less likely to use ecstasy. Graduate students are illicitly using prescription opiates, but primarily for self-medication, and, while doing so, are less likely to use other substances.

  17. Brief interventions for illicit drug use among peripartum women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farr, Sherry L; Hutchings, Yalonda L; Ondersma, Steven J; Creanga, Andreea A

    2014-10-01

    We review the evidence and identify limitations of the current literature on the effectiveness of brief interventions (≤5 intervention sessions) on illicit drug use, treatment enrollment/retention, and pregnancy outcomes among pregnant and postpartum women; and consider this evidence in the context of the broader brief intervention literature. Among 4 published studies identified via systematic review and meeting a priori quality criteria, we found limited, yet promising evidence of the benefit of brief interventions to reduce illicit drug use among postpartum women. Two of the 4 randomized controlled trials tested similar computer-delivered single-session interventions; both demonstrate effects on postpartum drug use. Neither of the 2 randomized controlled trials that assessed treatment use found differences between intervention and control groups. Studies examining brief interventions for smoking and alcohol use among pregnant women, and for illicit drug use in the general adult population, have shown small but statistically significant results of the effectiveness of such interventions. Larger studies, those that examine the effect of assessment alone on illicit drug use, and those that use technology-delivered brief interventions are needed to assess the effectiveness of brief interventions for drug use in the peripartum period.

  18. Nonnatural deaths among users of illicit drugs: pathological findings and illicit drug abuse stigmata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaveris, Gerd Jorunn Møller; Hoff-Olsen, Per; Rogde, Sidsel

    2015-03-01

    The aim of the study was to provide information on illicit drug abuse stigmata and general pathological findings among an adult narcotic drug-using population aged 20 to 59 years whose death was nonnatural. A total of 1603 medicolegal autopsy reports from 2000 to 2009 concerning cases positive for morphine, heroin, amphetamines, ecstasy, cannabis, LSD (lysergic acid diethylamide), PCP (phencyclidine), and high levels of GHB (γ-hydroxybutyric acid) in addition to methadone and buprenorphine were investigated. Reported findings of hepatitis, portal lymphadenopathy, recent injection marks, drug user's equipment, and numbers of significant pathological conditions were registered and analyzed according to cases positive for opiates, opioids (OPs), and central nervous system (CNS)-stimulating illicit drugs, respectively. Of the selected cases, 1305 were positive for one or more opiate or OP. Cases positive for OPs had significantly more findings of noninfectious pathological conditions. Hepatitis, portal lymphadenopathy, recent injections marks findings of drug user's equipment were all findings found more frequently among the opiate OP-positive individuals. Portal lymphadenopathy was significantly more often found in cases with hepatitis than in cases with other or no infection. In the population positive for CNS stimulants, hepatitis recent injection marks were more frequent findings than in the CNS stimulant-negative group, irrespective of whether they were opiate OP positive or negative.

  19. Aquantis Ocean Current Turbine Development Project Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fleming, Alex J.

    2014-08-23

    The Aquantis® Current Plane (“C-Plane”) technology developed by Dehlsen Associates, LLC (DA) and Aquantis, Inc. is an ocean current turbine designed to extract kinetic energy from ocean currents. The technology is capable of achieving competitively priced base-load, continuous, and reliable power generation from a source of renewable energy not before possible in this scale or form.

  20. Tobacco industry manipulation of data on and press coverage of the illicit tobacco trade in the UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowell, A; Evans-Reeves, K; Gilmore, A B

    2014-01-01

    Background In the UK, transnational tobacco companies (TTCs) have been arguing that levels of illicit trade are high and increasing and will rise further if standardised packaging is implemented. This paper examines trends in and accuracy of media reporting of, and industry data on, illicit tobacco in the UK. Methods Quantification of the volume, nature and quality of press articles citing industry data on illicit tobacco in UK newspapers from March 2008 to March 2013. Examination of published TTC data on illicit, including a comparison with independent data and of TTC reporting of Her Majesty's Revenue and Customs data on illicit. Results Media stories citing industry data on illicit tobacco began in June 2011, 2 months after the Tobacco Control Plan for England, which heralded standardised packaging, was published. The majority of data cited are based on industry Empty Pack Surveys for which no methodology is available. For almost all parts of the country where repeat data were cited in press stories, they indicated an increase, often substantial, in non-domestic/illicit cigarettes that is not supported by independent data. Similarly, national data from two published industry sources show a sudden large increase in non-domestic product between 2011 and 2012. Yet the methodology of one report changes over this period and the other provides no published methodology. In contrast, independent data show steady declines in non-domestic and illicit cigarette penetration from 2006 to 2012 and either a continued decline or small increase to 2013. Conclusions Industry claims that use of Non-UK Duty Paid/illicit cigarettes in the UK is sharply increasing are inconsistent with historical trends and recent independent data. TTCs are exaggerating the threat of illicit tobacco by commissioning surveys whose methodology and validity remain uncertain, planting misleading stories and misquoting government data. Industry data on levels of illicit should be treated with extreme

  1. A strategy to reduce illicit drug use is effective in elite Australian football.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harcourt, Peter R; Unglik, Harry; Cook, Jill L

    2012-10-01

    The World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) prescribes that drug testing is conducted in sports competitions to detect drug use in athletes. This testing includes performance-enhancing drugs as well as illicit substances such as marijuana, amphetamines and cocaine. Illicit drugs are tested for on match days but not on non-match days. Some athletes are known to use illicit substances for recreational purposes, away from competition times and this poses a serious health and welfare issue not addressed by the usual sport drug testing regimes. This paper reports the results of the first 7 years of an illicit drug-testing programme that included non-match day testing in the elite Australian Football competition, the Australian Football League (AFL). Players in the AFL were tested for illicit drugs both in-competition and out-of-competition. Players were selected for illicit substance tests either randomly or targeted based on previous test history or time since previous test. The number of tests conducted was increased each year from 2005 to 2011 and testing was focused on high-risk times during non-competition periods. There were no positive match day tests. There was a significant reduction in positive tests (19-6) for illicit drugs during non-competition periods over the 7 years (p<0.0001). The reduction in positive tests may be related to player education, the greater number of tests conducted and the harm minimisation approach of the illicit drug policy. An illicit drugs programme using a harm minimisation strategy can work effectively alongside a sport's WADA compliant Anti-Doping Code.

  2. The empirical analysis of cigarette tax avoidance and illicit trade in Vietnam, 1998-2010.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minh Thac Nguyen

    Full Text Available Illicit trade carries the potential to magnify existing tobacco-related health care costs through increased availability of untaxed and inexpensive cigarettes. What is known with respect to the magnitude of illicit trade for Vietnam is produced primarily by the industry, and methodologies are typically opaque. Independent assessment of the illicit cigarette trade in Vietnam is vital to tobacco control policy. This paper measures the magnitude of illicit cigarette trade for Vietnam between 1998 and 2010 using two methods, discrepancies between legitimate domestic cigarette sales and domestic tobacco consumption estimated from surveys, and trade discrepancies as recorded by Vietnam and trade partners. The results indicate that Vietnam likely experienced net smuggling in during the period studied. With the inclusion of adjustments for survey respondent under-reporting, inward illicit trade likely occurred in three of the four years for which surveys were available. Discrepancies in trade records indicate that the value of smuggled cigarettes into Vietnam ranges from $100 million to $300 million between 2000 and 2010 and that these cigarettes primarily originate in Singapore, Hong Kong, Macao, Malaysia, and Australia. Notable differences in trends over time exist between the two methods, but by comparison, the industry estimates consistently place the magnitude of illicit trade at the upper bounds of what this study shows. The unavailability of annual, survey-based estimates of consumption may obscure the true, annual trend over time. Second, as surveys changed over time, estimates relying on them may be inconsistent with one another. Finally, these two methods measure different components of illicit trade, specifically consumption of illicit cigarettes regardless of origin and smuggling of cigarettes into a particular market. However, absent a gold standard, comparisons of different approaches to illicit trade measurement serve efforts to refine

  3. The empirical analysis of cigarette tax avoidance and illicit trade in Vietnam, 1998-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Minh Thac; Denniston, Ryan; Nguyen, Hien Thi Thu; Hoang, Tuan Anh; Ross, Hana; So, Anthony D

    2014-01-01

    Illicit trade carries the potential to magnify existing tobacco-related health care costs through increased availability of untaxed and inexpensive cigarettes. What is known with respect to the magnitude of illicit trade for Vietnam is produced primarily by the industry, and methodologies are typically opaque. Independent assessment of the illicit cigarette trade in Vietnam is vital to tobacco control policy. This paper measures the magnitude of illicit cigarette trade for Vietnam between 1998 and 2010 using two methods, discrepancies between legitimate domestic cigarette sales and domestic tobacco consumption estimated from surveys, and trade discrepancies as recorded by Vietnam and trade partners. The results indicate that Vietnam likely experienced net smuggling in during the period studied. With the inclusion of adjustments for survey respondent under-reporting, inward illicit trade likely occurred in three of the four years for which surveys were available. Discrepancies in trade records indicate that the value of smuggled cigarettes into Vietnam ranges from $100 million to $300 million between 2000 and 2010 and that these cigarettes primarily originate in Singapore, Hong Kong, Macao, Malaysia, and Australia. Notable differences in trends over time exist between the two methods, but by comparison, the industry estimates consistently place the magnitude of illicit trade at the upper bounds of what this study shows. The unavailability of annual, survey-based estimates of consumption may obscure the true, annual trend over time. Second, as surveys changed over time, estimates relying on them may be inconsistent with one another. Finally, these two methods measure different components of illicit trade, specifically consumption of illicit cigarettes regardless of origin and smuggling of cigarettes into a particular market. However, absent a gold standard, comparisons of different approaches to illicit trade measurement serve efforts to refine and improve

  4. Universal method to determine acidic licit and illicit drugs and personal care products in water by liquid chromatography quadrupole time-of-flight

    OpenAIRE

    Andrés-Costa, María Jesús; Carmona, Eric; Picó, Yolanda

    2016-01-01

    Pharmaceuticals, illicit drugs and personal care products are emerging contaminants widely distributed in water. Currently, a number of solid-phase extraction (SPE) procedures followed by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC–MS/MS) have been reported. However, target analysis of selected compounds is commonly used whereas other related contaminants present in the sample remain invisible. Carmona et al. [1] described a method for determining 21 emerging contaminants by LC–MS/MS w...

  5. ADHD as risk factor for early onset and heightened adult problem severity of illicit substance use: An Accelerated Gateway Model

    OpenAIRE

    Dunne, Eugene M.; Hearn, Lauren E.; Rose, Jonathan; Latimer, William W.

    2014-01-01

    The primary aims of the present study were to assess ADHD history as a risk factor for earlier initiation and current use of licit and illicit substances among a sample of drug using adults. It was hypothesized that ADHD history would accelerate the Gateway Theory of drug use. Participants included 941 drug-using African American and Caucasian individuals in Baltimore, Maryland. The sample consisted of 124 (13.2%) participants who reported a history of ADHD and 817 (86.8%) who reported no his...

  6. 12-step programs to reduce illicit drug use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Filges, Trine; Nielsen, Sine Kirkegaard; Jørgensen, Anne-Marie Klint

    2014-01-01

    Many treatments are not rigorously evaluated as to their effectiveness, and it is uncertain which types of interventions are more effective than others in reducing illicit drug use. The aim of this paper is to provide a systematic mapping of the research literature of the effectiveness of 12-step...... programs in reducing illicit drug use. A systematic literature search was conducted based on 17 international and Nordic Bibliographic databases. A total of 15993 references were screened, and eleven unique studies were finally included in this mapping. The included studies demonstrated conflicting results...... regarding the effectiveness of the 12-step treatment and TSF in reducing individuals’ drug use. Two studies reported a positive effect of the TSF treatment compared to the comparison conditions in reducing drug use. Six studies reported no differences between 12-step program and the comparison condition...

  7. Acute brain injury following illicit drug abuse in adolescent and young adult patients: spectrum of neuroimaging findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrot, Shai; Poretti, Andrea; Tucker, Elizabeth W; Soares, Bruno P; Huisman, Thierry Agm

    2017-04-01

    The use of illicit drugs is currently a major medical problem among adolescents. Several illicit drugs have a high abuse potential and can be neurotoxic causing high morbidity and mortality. The clinical manifestation of adolescents with acute drug-induced neurotoxicity is often characterized by non-specific symptoms and findings. Early diagnosis is important to prevent death and permanent long-term neurological impairments. We report on clinical and neuroimaging findings in five adolescents with acute brain imaging following illicit drug intoxication to highlight the role of neuroimaging findings in the diagnostic work-up of pediatric acute drug-induced neurotoxicity. Our patients reveal two main neuroimaging patterns of brain injury: diffuse symmetric subcortical white matter injury with preferential cerebellar involvement (leukoencephalopathy pattern) or multiple foci of ischemic infarctions in a non-arterial territory distribution (ischemic pattern). Familiarity with these two neuroimaging patterns of findings in the evaluation of magnetic resonance imaging studies in adolescents with acutely altered mental status may suggest the correct diagnosis, narrow the differential diagnosis, and consequently allow early initiation of targeted laboratory investigations and treatment, potentially improving outcome.

  8. Suicide risk among Thai illicit drug users with and without mental/alcohol use disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kittirattanapaiboon P

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Phunnapa Kittirattanapaiboon,1 Sirijit Suttajit,2 Boonsiri Junsirimongkol,1 Surinporn Likhitsathian,2 Manit Srisurapanont2 1Department of Mental Health, Ministry of Public Health, Nonthaburi, Thailand; 2Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, Thailand Background: It is not yet known if the increased risk of suicide in substance abusers is caused by the causal and/or coexisting relationship between substance use and psychiatric disorders. This study was designed to estimate the suicide risk among individuals with illicit drug use alone, illicit drug users with mental disorders, and illicit drug users with alcohol use disorders. Methods: Subjects were participants of the 2008 Thai National Mental Health Survey. They were asked for their illicit drug use in the past year. The Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI, current suicidality (1 month prior to assessment, mood episodes, anxiety disorders, psychotic disorders, and alcohol use disorders were used for assessing mental/alcohol use disorders. A score of 1 or more for the MINI–Suicidality module was defined as the presence of suicide risk. Results: Of the total 17,140 respondents, 537 currently used illicit drugs, while 1,194 respondents had a suicide risk. Common illicit drugs were kratom (59% and (methamphetamine (24%. Compared with 16,603 Thais without illicit drug use, the illicit drug users with or without mental/alcohol use disorders (n=537 had an increased risk of suicide (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 95% confidence interval [CI] =2.09, 1.55–2.81. While those who used illicit drugs alone (no mental/alcohol use disorder (n=348 had no increased risk of suicide (adjusted OR, 95% CI =1.04, 0.66–1.65, the illicit drug users with mental or alcohol use disorders (n=27 and n=162, respectively had significantly increased risk of suicide (adjusted ORs, 95% CIs =14.06, 6.50–30.3 and 3.14, 1.98–4.99, respectively. Conclusion: A key

  9. Illicit Drug Use and Problem Gambling

    OpenAIRE

    Ferentzy, Peter; Wayne Skinner, W. J.; Matheson, Flora I.

    2013-01-01

    Problem gambling, substance use disorders, and their cooccurrence are serious public health concerns. We conducted a comprehensive review of the literature to understand the present state of the evidence on these coaddictions. Our main focus was illicit drug use rather than misuse of legal substances. The review covers issues related to gambling as a hidden problem in the illicit drug use community; prevalence, problem gambling, and substance use disorders as kindred afflictions; problem gamb...

  10. High prevalence of illicit drug use in men who have sex with men with HIV-1 infection in Japan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeshi Nishijima

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To examine the prevalence of illicit drug use among men who have sex with men (MSM with HIV-1 infection in Japan, where the life-time prevalence of illicit drug use in the general population is only 2.9%. DESIGN: A single-center cross-sectional study at a large HIV clinic in Tokyo, which treats approximately 15% of HIV-1 infected patients in Japan. METHODS: The prevalence of illicit drug use and the association of characteristics and social demographics of the patients with illicit drug use were examined. Patients who visited the clinic for the first time from 2005 to 2010 were enrolled. Relevant variables were collected using a structured interview and from the medical records. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were applied to estimate the odds of association of MSM over non-MSM HIV-infected patients with illicit drug use. RESULTS: 1,196 patients were enrolled. They were mostly Japanese men of relatively young age. Illicit drug use (including injection drugs was reported by 35% of the patients (by 40% of MSM, and 4% were IDU while 5% were on methamphetamine. 2% of the population was arrested due to illicit drugs. MSM was significantly associated with illicit drug use (adjusted OR = 4.60; 95% CI, 2.88-7.36; p40 showed that the odds of association of MSM with illicit drug use was the strongest in the youngest age group (≤ 30 years: adjusted OR = 7.56; 95% CI, 2.86-20.0; p40 years: adjusted OR = 6.15; 95% CI, 2.40-15.8; p<0.01, and the weakest in the group aged 31 to 40 (adjusted OR = 3.39; 95% CI, 1.73-6.63; p<0.01. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of illicit drug use is high among MSM patients with HIV-1 infection in Japan. Effective intervention for illicit drug use in this population is warranted.

  11. Occurrence of illicit drugs in surface waters in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kaiyang; Du, Peng; Xu, Zeqiong; Gao, Tingting; Li, Xiqing

    2016-06-01

    Illicit drugs have been recognized as a group of emerging contaminants. In this work, occurrence of common illicit drugs and their metabolites in Chinese surface waters was examined by collecting samples from 49 lakes and 4 major rivers across the country. Among the drugs examined, methamphetamine and ketamine were detected with highest frequencies and concentration levels, consistent with the fact that these are primary drugs of abuse in China. Detection frequencies and concentrations of other drugs were much lower than in European lakes and rivers reported in the literature. In most Chinese surface waters methamphetamine and ketamine were detected at concentrations of several ng L(-1) or less, but in some southern lakes and rivers, these two drugs were detected at much higher concentrations (up to several tens ng L(-1)). Greater occurrence of methamphetamine and ketamine in southern surface waters was attributed to greater abuse and more clandestine production of the two drugs in southern China.

  12. Illicit methylphenidate use: a review of prevalence, availability, pharmacology, and consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogle, Kristin E; Smith, Bradley H

    2009-05-01

    Methylphenidate hydrochloride (MPH) is one of the most widely available prescription stimulants. In response to an increase in stimulant treatment for Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, the prescription and production rates of MPH have increased dramatically in the past two decades. Given that college students and adolescents might be attracted to MPH for its attention-focusing, weight loss, or euphoric effects, there is concern that the rise in therapeutic use of MPH might also coincide with a rise in illicit (non-medical) use. After a dramatic increase in the 1990s, recent large-scale surveys of high-school students suggest that rates of illicit MPH use are either holding steady, or even decreasing in this population. Across studies, annual usage rates for secondary school students are below 5%, and lifetime usage rates remain below 7%. Among college students, self-reported rates range from 1.5% to 31% among the various surveys, with the most nationally representative study estimating annual illicit MPH usage at about 4%. Although more research is needed to corroborate findings, this review was able to begin developing a profile of individuals who might be more likely to illicitly use MPH. Among college students, available evidence suggests illicit MPH users were more likely to be white, male, affiliated with a formally organized fraternity, and more likely to use other illicit and illegal substances. The majority of college students reported that the primary reason for use was to improve academic performance. Future studies should provide more information on the motivations and subtypes of illicit MPH, especially repeated users and those diagnosed with ADHD. Research on prevention of illicit MPH or other stimulants used to treat ADHD would make major contributions to the literature.

  13. Illicit Trafficking of Natural Radionuclides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedrich, Steinhäusler; Lyudmila, Zaitseva

    2008-08-01

    Natural radionuclides have been subject to trafficking worldwide, involving natural uranium ore (U 238), processed uranium (yellow cake), low enriched uranium (20% U 235), radium (Ra 226), polonium (Po 210), and natural thorium ore (Th 232). An important prerequisite to successful illicit trafficking activities is access to a suitable logistical infrastructure enabling an undercover shipment of radioactive materials and, in case of trafficking natural uranium or thorium ore, capable of transporting large volumes of material. Covert en route diversion of an authorised uranium transport, together with covert diversion of uranium concentrate from an operating or closed uranium mines or mills, are subject of case studies. Such cases, involving Israel, Iran, Pakistan and Libya, have been analyzed in terms of international actors involved and methods deployed. Using international incident data contained in the Database on Nuclear Smuggling, Theft and Orphan Radiation Sources (DSTO) and international experience gained from the fight against drug trafficking, a generic Trafficking Pathway Model (TPM) is developed for trafficking of natural radionuclides. The TPM covers the complete trafficking cycle, ranging from material diversion, covert material transport, material concealment, and all associated operational procedures. The model subdivides the trafficking cycle into five phases: (1) Material diversion by insider(s) or initiation by outsider(s); (2) Covert transport; (3) Material brokerage; (4) Material sale; (5) Material delivery. An Action Plan is recommended, addressing the strengthening of the national infrastructure for material protection and accounting, development of higher standards of good governance, and needs for improving the control system deployed by customs, border guards and security forces.

  14. Current report from Russian Diabetic Retinopathy Register

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitriy Valentinovich Lipatov

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A pandemic expansion of diabetes mellitus (DM observed nowadays across the globe is increasingly acknowledged as a disaster by all peoples of the world. Statistical analysis indicates an annual increase in prevalence of DM in Russian Federation that had reached 3 779 423 registered patients by 01.01.2013. Besides the humanitarian aspects, DM poses severe economic challenges for this country – challenges that stem both from high mortality and growing disability rate due to limb loss, decrease in visual acuity and need for hemodialysis, plaguing many DM patients.Aim. To produce an epidemiological evaluation based on the dynamics of prevalence of diabetic retinopathy in the Russian Federation – nationwide and in individual regions – across the last 13 years.Materials and Methods. Current survey included patients from various regions of the Russian Federation that were examined during epidemiological missions conducted by the federal Endocrinology Research Centre (2000–2009, as well as National Programmes «Health» (2007 and «Diabetes – Learn In Advance» (2012–2013.Results. In the Russian Federation registered more than 630,000 patients with different stages of diabetic retinopathy. The prevalence of diabetic retinopathy among adults (18 years and older with type 1 diabetes is 35.25%, while in type 2 diabetes - 16.67%. On average, this means that almost one in five patients (17.63% with diabetes have certain eye problems.Conclusion. In summary, our data indicate a dramatic growth in the rate of diabetic ocular complications, with a particular increase in proliferative diabetic retinopathy, complicated cataract and neovascular glaucoma. These findings call for an even closer attention to early diagnostics, adequate management and, above everything else, timely prevention of ocular pathologies in patients with DM.

  15. 12-step programs to reduce illicit drug use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Filges, Trine; Nielsen, Sine Kirkegaard; Jørgensen, Anne-Marie Klint

    2014-01-01

    Many treatments are not rigorously evaluated as to their effectiveness, and it is uncertain which types of interventions are more effective than others in reducing illicit drug use. The aim of this paper is to provide a systematic mapping of the research literature of the effectiveness of 12-step...... regarding the effectiveness of the 12-step treatment and TSF in reducing individuals’ drug use. Two studies reported a positive effect of the TSF treatment compared to the comparison conditions in reducing drug use. Six studies reported no differences between 12-step program and the comparison condition...

  16. Underreporting of illicit drug use by patients at emergency departments as revealed by two-tiered urinalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei J; Fang, Cheng-Chung; Shyu, Ren-Shi; Lin, Kuo-Chien

    2006-12-01

    This study investigates the validity of questionnaire-based self-reports of illicit drug use by comparing with a two-tiered urinalysis among patients at emergency departments. Questions on the use of alcohol and drugs were administered to patients recruited on a continual basis for 2weeks at the emergency department of two hospitals in northern Taiwan. Positive tests of initial urinalysis using fluorescence polarization immunoassay were further confirmed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. In a total of 1502 patients interviewed, 632 (42%) also provided a urine sample. Among those with urine samples, the positive rate of urinalysis was 1.4% for amphetamine-type drugs and 1.6% for opiates. Among those with positive urinalysis, a false-negative rate ranged from 66.6% for amphetamines to 70.0% for opiates. Meanwhile, all the self-reported current uses of either amphetamines or opiates were confirmed by urinalysis. The results indicate that the false-negative rates of questionnaire-based, self-reported current use of illicit drug are around two thirds and the false-positive rates are negligible, which might be useful for the calibration of estimates from epidemiological surveys.

  17. Street-level classification of illicit heroin using inorganic elements coupled with pattern monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kar-Weng Chan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A total of 96 illicit heroin samples seized in 2013–2014 were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS to determine 16 inorganic elements at parts-per-billion (ppb level. Of eleven submissions, two or three samples with similar appearance were taken from the same seizure to form related samples. These samples were used to monitor the clustering outcome suggested by principal component analysis (PCA. They provided hints regarding the acceptance of within-seizure variability in-situ. The previously established data pretreatment method (N+4R did not function well with the present data probably due to the higher concentrations reported for the current samples. With the aid of the above-cited related samples for pattern monitoring, a better outcome was achieved when the pretreatment method was modified to employ solely standardization (S to optimize the necessary variability for sample classification.

  18. Sewer epidemiology mass balances for assessing the illicit use of methamphetamine, amphetamine and tetrahydrocannabinol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Usman; Nicell, Jim A

    2012-04-01

    In sewer epidemiology, mass balances are used to back-extrapolate measurements of wastewater influent concentrations of appropriate drug residues to assess the parent illicit drug's level of use in upstream populations. This study focussed on developing and refining mass balances for the use of illicit methamphetamine, amphetamine and tetrahydrocannabinol. As a first step, a multi-criteria evaluation was used to select unchanged methamphetamine, unchanged amphetamine and 11-nor-9-carboxy-tetrahydrocannabinol as the most appropriate drug residues to track a selected population's use of illicit methamphetamine, amphetamine and tetrahydrocannabinol, respectively. For each of these selected drug residues, mass balances were developed by utilizing all disposition data available for their release from all their respective sources, incorporating route-of-administration considerations where relevant, and accounting for variations in the metabolic capacity of users of the various relevant licit and illicit sources. Further, since the selected drug residues for the use of methamphetamine and amphetamine cannot only result from their use but numerous other licit and illicit sources, comprehensive general source models were developed for their enantiomeric-specific release to sewers. The relative importance of the sources identified in the general source model was evaluated by performing national substance flow analyses for a number of countries. Results suggested that licit sources of methamphetamine are expected to be only of significance in populations where its illicit use is minor. Similarly, in populations where the use of illicitly produced amphetamine is currently of relevance, licit contributions to the sewer loads of amphetamine are likely to be of negligible importance. Lastly, the study of tetrahydrocannabinol back-extrapolation mass balances suggested that further research is required to assess the importance of fecal elimination of 11-nor-9-carboxy

  19. Relationship between marijuana and other illicit drug use and depression/suicidal thoughts among late middle-aged and older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Namkee G; DiNitto, Diana M; Marti, C Nathan; Choi, Bryan Y

    2016-04-01

    Despite growing numbers of older-adult illicit drug users, research on this topic is rare. This study examined the relationship between marijuana and/or other illicit drug use and major depressive episode (MDE) and serious suicidal thoughts among those aged 50+ years in the USA. The public use files of the 2008 to 2012 US National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) provided data on 29,634 individuals aged 50+ years. Logistic regression analysis was used to test hypothesized associations between past-year marijuana and/or other illicit drug use and MDE and serious suicidal thoughts. Nearly 6% of the 50+ years age group reported past-year marijuana and/or other illicit drug use. Compared to non-users of any illicit drug, the odds of past-year MDE among those who used marijuana only, other illicit drugs only, and marijuana and other illicit drugs were 1.54 (95% CI = 1.17-2.03), 2.75 (95% CI = 1.75-4.33), and 2.12 (95% CI = 1.45-3.09), respectively. Those who used marijuana and other drugs also had higher odds (2.44, 95% CI = 1.58-3.77) of suicidal thoughts than non-users of any illicit drug. However, among users of any illicit drug, no difference was found among users of marijuana only, marijuana and other illicit drugs, and other illicit drugs only. Among marijuana users, marijuana use frequency was a significant correlate of suicidal thoughts only among those with MDE. Health and mental health (MH) service providers should pay close attention to the potential reciprocal effects of marijuana and other illicit drug use and MDE and suicidal thoughts among late middle-aged and older adults.

  20. Managing illicit drug use. A practical guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wodak, A

    1994-03-01

    Illicit drug use is spreading, especially in the developing world, but has begun to stabilise in most developed countries. The phenomenon of illicit drug use is still poorly understood, with responses in most countries influenced largely by cultural factors. A range of psychosocial and pharmacotherapeutic treatments is available; of these, methadone maintenance treatment for heroin dependence has the most evidence of benefit. A large body of literature--including some well designed studies--indicates that methadone reduces heroin use, mortality, criminal activity and risk of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Methadone is more likely to be effective if higher doses, longer durations of treatment and more realistic goals are set. However, research findings which would improve outcomes considerably are often not implemented. Methadone maintenance programmes, which attract and retain more illicit drug users than other treatment modalities, are now being made more available in many countries in recognition of their therapeutic effectiveness and utility in reducing the spread of HIV infection among people injecting heroin. HIV infection is now recognised in many countries to be the most serious complication of illicit drug use for both individual drug injectors and their communities. Levo-alpha-acetylmethadol (LAAM) has similar properties to methadone but a longer half-life. This suggests a number of clinical benefits which would also reduce the cost of treatment. However, LAAM has not been approved by regulatory authorities for routine use despite positive findings in some studies. Buprenorphine has shown some promise in the management of heroin dependence but is still undergoing evaluation. It is, however, unlikely to ever be used widely for the management of illicit drug users. Naltrexone may have some advantages for special populations. Pharmacotherapeutic treatment for cocaine and amphetamine users is still at a developmental stage.

  1. Illicit drug use and treatment in South Africa: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltzer, Karl; Ramlagan, Shandir; Johnson, Bruce D; Phaswana-Mafuya, Nancy

    2010-11-01

    This review synthesizes available epidemiological data on current drug use and substance user treatment admissions in South Africa since 1994, and how changes in the political, economic, and social structures within South Africa, both before and after Apartheid, has made the country more vulnerable to drug use. Based on national surveys, current use of cannabis ranged among adolescents from 2% to 9% and among adults it was 2%, cocaine/crack (0.3%), mandrax/sedatives (0.3%), club drugs/amphetamine-type stimulants (0.2%), opiates (0.1%), and hallucinogens (0.1%). The use of primary illicit substance at admission to South African drug user treatment centers was cannabis 16.9%, methamphetamine (tik) 12.8%, crack/cocaine 9.6%, cannabis and mandrax 3.4%, heroin/opiates 9.2%, and prescription and OTC drugs 2.6%. An increase in substance user treatment admissions has increased. While the prevalence of illicit drug use in South Africa is relatively low compared to the United States and Australia, prevention and intervention policies need to be designed to reduce these levels by targeting the more risky subpopulations identified from this review.

  2. Does availability of illicit drugs mediate the association between mental illness and substance use?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Wenbin; Lenton, Simon; Allsop, Steve; Chikritzhs, Tanya

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the association between presence of mental illness, detected by an increased level of Kessler Psychological Distress Scale score, and prevalence of exposure to opportunity to obtain illicit drugs among adolescents and young adults aged 12-24 years using data collected by the 2007 Australian National Drug Strategy Household Survey (N = 2,663). Adolescents and young adults with mental illness have increased prevalence of exposure to drug use opportunity. Higher exposure to opportunity to obtain illicit drugs among people with pre-existing mental illness may further contribute to the co-existence of drug dependence and other mental disorders that are frequently reported in the literature.

  3. Binge drinking and illicit drug use among adolescent students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raposo, Jakelline Cipriano Dos Santos; Costa, Ana Carolina de Queiroz; Valença, Paula Andréa de Melo; Zarzar, Patrícia Maria; Diniz, Alcides da Silva; Colares, Viviane; Franca, Carolina da

    2017-09-04

    To estimate the prevalence of illicit drug use and its association with binge drinking and sociodemographic factors among adolescent students. This is a cross-sectional study with probabilistic conglomerate sampling, involving 1,154 students, aged 13 to 19 years old, from the public school system, in the city of Olinda, State of Pernambuco, Brazil, carried out in 2014. We used the Youth Risk Behavior Survey questionnaire, validated for use with Brazilian adolescents. The Chi-square test (≤ 0.05) and Poisson regression analysis were used to estimate the prevalence ratios, with 95% confidence intervals. Use in life of illicit drugs was four times more prevalent among students who reported binge drinking (95%CI 3.19-5.45). Being in the age group of 16 to 19 years, being male, and having no religion were also significantly associated with illicit drug use. The prevalence of use in life of illicit drugs was higher in this study than in other studies carried out in Brazil and it was strongly associated with binge drinking. This factor was associated with gender, age, and religion. Estimar a prevalência do uso de drogas ilícitas e sua associação com binge drinking e fatores sociodemográficos entre estudantes adolescentes. Estudo transversal com amostra probabilística por conglomerado, envolvendo 1.154 estudantes, de 13 a 19 anos de idade, da rede pública de ensino, no município de Olinda, PE, 2014. Foi utilizado o questionário Youth Risk Behavior Survey, validado para uso com adolescentes brasileiros. Para análise dos dados foi utilizado o teste do Qui-quadrado (≤ 0,05) e análise de regressão de Poisson, para estimar razões de prevalência, com intervalos com 95% de confiança. O uso na vida de drogas ilícitas foi quatro vezes mais prevalente entre os estudantes que relataram o binge drinking (IC95% 3,19-5,45). Estar na faixa etária de 16 a 19 anos, ser do sexo masculino e não ter religião também foram significativamente associados ao uso de drogas

  4. Illicit drug profiling, reflection on statistical comparisons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esseiva, Pierre; Gaste, Laeticia; Alvarez, Daniel; Anglada, Frederic

    2011-04-15

    This paper presents reflexions about statistical considerations on illicit drug profiling and more specifically about the calculation of threshold for determining of the seizure are linked or not. The specific case of heroin and cocaine profiling is presented with the necessary details on the target profiling variables (major alkaloids) selected and the analytical method used. Statistical approach to compare illicit drug seizures is also presented with the introduction of different scenarios dealing with different data pre-treatment or transformation of variables. The main aim consists to demonstrate the influence of data pre-treatment on the statistical outputs. A thorough study of the evolution of the true positive rate (TP) and the false positive rate (FP) in heroin and cocaine comparison is then proposed to investigate this specific topic and to demonstrate that there is no universal approach available and that the calculations have to be revaluate for each new specific application.

  5. Tobacco industry manipulation of data on and press coverage of the illicit tobacco trade in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowell, A; Evans-Reeves, K; Gilmore, A B

    2014-05-01

    In the UK, transnational tobacco companies (TTCs) have been arguing that levels of illicit trade are high and increasing and will rise further if standardised packaging is implemented. This paper examines trends in and accuracy of media reporting of, and industry data on, illicit tobacco in the UK. Quantification of the volume, nature and quality of press articles citing industry data on illicit tobacco in UK newspapers from March 2008 to March 2013. Examination of published TTC data on illicit, including a comparison with independent data and of TTC reporting of Her Majesty's Revenue and Customs data on illicit. Media stories citing industry data on illicit tobacco began in June 2011, 2 months after the Tobacco Control Plan for England, which heralded standardised packaging, was published. The majority of data cited are based on industry Empty Pack Surveys for which no methodology is available. For almost all parts of the country where repeat data were cited in press stories, they indicated an increase, often substantial, in non-domestic/illicit cigarettes that is not supported by independent data. Similarly, national data from two published industry sources show a sudden large increase in non-domestic product between 2011 and 2012. Yet the methodology of one report changes over this period and the other provides no published methodology. In contrast, independent data show steady declines in non-domestic and illicit cigarette penetration from 2006 to 2012 and either a continued decline or small increase to 2013. Industry claims that use of Non-UK Duty Paid/illicit cigarettes in the UK is sharply increasing are inconsistent with historical trends and recent independent data. TTCs are exaggerating the threat of illicit tobacco by commissioning surveys whose methodology and validity remain uncertain, planting misleading stories and misquoting government data. Industry data on levels of illicit should be treated with extreme caution. Published by the BMJ Publishing

  6. Pharmacy Students Attitudes toward the Need for University Implemented Policies Regarding Alcohol and Illicit Drug Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szeinbach, Sheryl L.; Banahan, Benjamin F., III

    1990-01-01

    The study examined the extent of alcohol and illicit drug use by pharmacy students (N=1440) in eight schools of pharmacy in the southeastern United States. Reported drug use was low, but almost 70 percent of students perceived a need for substance abuse and awareness programs. (Author/MLW)

  7. Factors influencing alcohol and illicit drug use amongst first year medical students

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Popescu, Codruta Alina; Bob, Mihai Horatiu; Junjan, Veronica; Armean, Sebastian Mihai; Buzoianu, Anca Dana

    2014-01-01

    The aims of this study were a) to investigate patterns of alcohol, smoking and illicit drug use and b) evaluate the relationship between substance abuse and personality factors in a cohort of 267 first year medical students. 12.3 % (men) and 11.8% (female) medical students reported to be drinking

  8. Is the Physical Availability of Alcohol and Illicit Drugs Related to Neighborhood Rates of Child Maltreatment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freisthler, Bridget; Needell, Barbara; Gruenewald, Paul J.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: This study examines how the availability of alcohol and illicit drugs (as measured by alcohol outlet density and police incidents of drug sales and possessions) is related to neighborhood rates of child abuse and neglect, controlling for other neighborhood demographic characteristics. Method: Data from substantiated reports of child…

  9. Association between contraband tobacco and illicit drug use among high school students in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azagba, Sunday; Sharaf, Mesbah F; Hammond, David

    2015-04-01

    A particularly challenging issue to tobacco cessation efforts is the availability of contraband cigarettes. While studies have linked contraband tobacco to smoking initiation and poor cessation outcomes, little is known about its association with illicit drug use among adolescents. We examine the association between contraband tobacco and illicit drug use among adolescent students using a national representative sample of 2,136 current smoker students in grades 9-12 from the 2010-2011 Youth Smoking Survey. About 31 % of adolescent current smokers in grades 9-12 use contraband cigarettes. Prevalence in the use of illicit drugs ranged from 9 to 37 %, with MDMA being the most commonly used drug. Adjusted logistic regression revealed that smokers of contraband cigarettes, when compared with non-contraband cigarette smokers, were more likely to use cocaine (OR 2.14; CI 1.29-3.56), heroin (OR 7.92; CI 3.00-20.91), amphetamines (OR 4.25; CI 2.07-8.74), MDMA (OR 2.00; CI 1.25-3.19), hallucinogens (OR 2.18; CI 1.34-3.55), and ketamine (OR 3.48; CI 1.61-7.54). This paper adds to the existing evidence of the negative effects of contraband tobacco by showing that adolescent contraband smokers are more likely to use illicit drugs. Given the addictive nature of these drugs and the potential for such behavior to spill over into adulthood, more efforts should be invested in addressing this problem.

  10. Illicit Drugs and Insurgency in Afghanistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekaterina Stepanova

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available It is argued that the relationship between illicit drugs and the insurgency in Afghanistan cannot be captured by the simplistic concept of “narco-terrorism”. Rather, it has to be seen in terms of linkages of various types and degrees between two distinct phenomena. Drug trafficking may generate criminal violence in both peacetime and conflict settings. In the latter case, the illicit drug business becomes a “conflict resource”, while also serving shadow economic functions (such as serving as a social-economic coping strategy to peasants in some areas and generating organized criminal violence and street delinquency. Organized crime groups play the main role in the illicit drug business, especially at the higher, internationalized levels of the drug chain. Drug profits are in fact lowest in the drug producing areas themselves. In the case of Afghanistan, only 4.3 per cent (or US $ 2,9 billion of the US $ 60 billion average annual volume of the global market for Afghan opiates remain in the country. Of the proceeds that stay in Afghanistan, the author estimates that no more than between US $ 100-150 million probably went to the Taliban in 2011. The US/NATO war on the Taliban has not significantly reduced Afghanistan’s opium economy. The prospects for achieving significant results in counter-narcotics after the US/NATO withdrawal in 2014 are dim unless major armed conflict comes to an end – a goal likely to be achieved only if Afghanistan is decentralized and regionalized and the Taliban is given a regional role in Pashtu parts of the country whereby tougher counter-narcotics provisions should be a negotiable demand/condition for any configuration of talks with the insurgents on the political settlement.

  11. Human Trafficking: Fighting the Illicit Economy with the Legitimate Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise Shelley

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Since the beginning of research on human trafficking, there has been attention paid to the challenges surrounding the illicit economy. In creating new strategies and initiatives on combatting human trafficking, there needs to be more discussion surrounding the legitimate economy and how the business sector can make an impact in the fight against trafficking. Currently, there is a growing movement of businesses that are looking to address human trafficking through training, education, and leadership initiatives; codes of conduct; supply chain management; and financial analysis. This paper will examine the latest in these strategies and approaches by businesses in the global war against human trafficking, in addition to a discussion of a new initiative engaging the private sector co-led by Dr. Louise Shelley and Christina Bain through the World Economic Forum’s Global Agenda Council Network.

  12. Human Trafficking: Fighting the Illicit Economy with the Legitimate Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise Shelley

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Since the beginning of research on human trafficking, there has been attention paid to the challenges surrounding the illicit economy. In creating new strategies and initiatives on combatting human trafficking, there needs to be more discussion surrounding the legitimate economy and how the business sector can make an impact in the fight against trafficking. Currently, there is a growing movement of businesses that are looking to address human trafficking through training, education, and leadership initiatives; codes of conduct; supply chain management; and financial analysis. This paper will examine the latest in these strategies and approaches by businesses in the global war against human trafficking, in addition to a discussion of a new initiative engaging the private sector co-led by Dr. Louise Shelley and Christina Bain through the World Economic Forum’s Global Agenda Council Network.

  13. Integrated nuclear techniques to detect illicit materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeVolpi, A.

    1997-10-01

    This paper discusses the problem of detecting explosives in the context of an object being transported for illicit purposes. The author emphasizes that technologies developed for this particular application have payoffs in many related problem areas. The author discusses nuclear techniques which can be applied to this detection problem. These include: x-ray imaging; neutronic interrogation; inelastic neutron scattering; fieldable neutron generators. He discusses work which has been done on the applications of these technologies, including results for detection of narcotics. He also discusses efforts to integrate these techniques into complementary systems which offer improved performance.

  14. Stopping Illicit Procurement: Lessons from Global Finance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hund, Gretchen; Kurzrok, Andrew J.

    2014-06-19

    Government regulators and the financial sector cooperate to combat money laundering and terrorist financing. This information-sharing relationship is built upon a strong legislative foundation and effective operational procedures. As with money-laundering and terrorist financing, halting the illicit procurement of dual-use commodities requires close coordination between government and industry. However, many of the legal and operational features present in financial threat cooperation do not exist in the export control realm. This article analyzes the applicability of financial industry cooperative measures to nonproliferation.

  15. State Drug Control and Illicit Drug Participation

    OpenAIRE

    Henry Saffer; Frank Chaloupka

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to estimate the effect of state criminal justice expenditures and state public health expenditures on deterring illicit drug use. The empirical model is based on a demand and supply model of drug markets. The effect of a given expenditure on criminal justice or public health programs is dependent on the magnitude of the resulting shifts in the two functions and the demand price elasticity. A reduced form of the demand and supply model is also estimated. The data e...

  16. The association of psychedelic use and opioid use disorders among illicit users in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisano, Vincent D; Putnam, Nathaniel P; Kramer, Hannah M; Franciotti, Kevin J; Halpern, John H; Holden, Selma C

    2017-05-01

    Preliminary studies show psychedelic compounds administered with psychotherapy are potentially effective and durable substance misuse interventions. However, little is known about the association between psychedelic use and substance misuse in the general population. This study investigated the association between psychedelic use and past year opioid use disorders within illicit opioid users. While controlling for socio-demographic covariates and the use of other substances, the relationship between classic psychedelic use and past year opioid use disorders was analyzed within 44,000 illicit opioid users who completed the National Survey on Drug Use and Health from 2008 to 2013. Among respondents with a history of illicit opioid use, psychedelic drug use is associated with 27% reduced risk of past year opioid dependence (weighted risk ratio = 0.73 (0.60-0.89) p = 0.002) and 40% reduced risk of past year opioid abuse (weighted risk ratio = 0.60 (0.41-0.86) p = 0.006). Other than marijuana use, which was associated with 55% reduced risk of past year opioid abuse (weighted risk ratio = 0.45 (0.30-0.66) p psychedelic drugs is associated with decreased risk of opioid abuse and dependence. Conversely, other illicit drug use history is largely associated with increased risk of opioid abuse and dependence. These findings suggest that psychedelics are associated with positive psychological characteristics and are consistent with prior reports suggesting efficacy in treatment of substance use disorders.

  17. Racial discrimination, socioeconomic position, and illicit drug use among US Blacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carliner, Hannah; Delker, Erin; Fink, David S; Keyes, Katherine M; Hasin, Deborah S

    2016-04-01

    We assessed the relationship of self-reported racial discrimination with illicit drug use among US Blacks, and whether this differed by socioeconomic position (SEP). Among 6587 Black participants in Wave 2 of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (2004-2005), we used multiple logistic regression models to test the association between racial discrimination (measured on the 6-item Experiences of Discrimination scale) and past-year illicit drug use, and whether this differed by SEP. Racial discrimination was associated with past-year drug use [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 2.32; 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.70, 3.16] and with frequent drug use (aOR 1.91; 95 % CI 1.22, 2.99). For frequent illicit drug use, this relationship was stronger among higher SEP participants (aOR 3.55; 95 % CI 2.09, 6.02; p interaction racial discrimination and frequent illicit drug use among higher SEP Blacks suggests a complex interplay between disadvantaged and privileged statuses that merits further investigation. The finding of a significant difference by SEP highlights the importance of considering differences within heterogeneous race/ethnic groups when investigating health disparities.

  18. Smoking behaviour and associated factors of illicit cigarette consumption in a border province of southern Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ketchoo, Chittawet; Sangthong, Rassamee; Chongsuvivatwong, Virasakdi; Geater, Alan; McNeil, Edward

    2013-07-01

    Illicit cigarette consumption has increased worldwide. It is important to understand this problem thoroughly. To investigate behaviours and factors associated with illicit cigarette consumption in southern Thailand. A survey and qualitative study were conducted in a border province in southern Thailand next to Malaysia. A modified snowballing technique was used to recruit 300 illicit and 150 non-illicit cigarette smokers. A questionnaire was used to interview subjects. Illicit cigarette packs were obtained in order to identify their characteristics. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression was used for data analysis. Smoking of illicit cigarettes has become accepted in the communities. They were available in supermarkets and vendor shops. Friends and other illicit smokers known by illicit cigarette smokers were an important source of information for access to illicit cigarette products. The main factors associated with smoking illicit cigarettes, compared with smoking non-illicit cigarettes, were younger age, higher education and higher average monthly expenditure on cigarettes (most illicit smokers smoked illicit cigarettes (average price per packet = 33 THB (US$1.1), while most non-illicit smokers smoked hand-rolled cigarettes (average price per packet = 7 THB (US$0.2)) and knowledge of other illicit cigarette smokers. The low price of illicit cigarettes was the main reason for their use. Selling strategies included sale of singles, sale in shops and direct sale through social networking. Illicit cigarette consumption has become more acceptable especially among young adult smokers. Age and extent of social networks are important factors associated with smoking illicit cigarettes.

  19. What users think about the differences between caffeine and illicit/prescription stimulants for cognitive enhancement.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas G Franke

    Full Text Available Pharmacological cognitive enhancement (CE is a topic of increasing public awareness. In the scientific literature on student use of CE as a study aid for academic performance enhancement, there are high prevalence rates regarding the use of caffeinated substances (coffee, caffeinated drinks, caffeine tablets but remarkably lower prevalence rates regarding the use of illicit/prescription stimulants such as amphetamines or methylphenidate. While the literature considers the reasons and mechanisms for these different prevalence rates from a theoretical standpoint, it lacks empirical data to account for healthy students who use both, caffeine and illicit/prescription stimulants, exclusively for the purpose of CE. Therefore, we extensively interviewed a sample of 18 healthy university students reporting non-medical use of caffeine as well as illicit/prescription stimulants for the purpose of CE in a face-to-face setting about their opinions regarding differences in general and morally-relevant differences between caffeine and stimulant use for CE. 44% of all participants answered that there is a general difference between the use of caffeine and illicit/prescription stimulants for CE, 28% did not differentiate, 28% could not decide. Furthermore, 39% stated that there is a moral difference, 56% answered that there is no moral difference and one participant was not able to comment on moral aspects. Participants came to their judgements by applying three dimensions: medical, ethical and legal. Weighing the medical, ethical and legal aspects corresponded to the students' individual preferences of substances used for CE. However, their views only partly depicted evidence-based medical aspects and the ethical issues involved. This result shows the need for well-directed and differentiated information to prevent the potentially harmful use of illicit or prescription stimulants for CE.

  20. What users think about the differences between caffeine and illicit/prescription stimulants for cognitive enhancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franke, Andreas G; Lieb, Klaus; Hildt, Elisabeth

    2012-01-01

    Pharmacological cognitive enhancement (CE) is a topic of increasing public awareness. In the scientific literature on student use of CE as a study aid for academic performance enhancement, there are high prevalence rates regarding the use of caffeinated substances (coffee, caffeinated drinks, caffeine tablets) but remarkably lower prevalence rates regarding the use of illicit/prescription stimulants such as amphetamines or methylphenidate. While the literature considers the reasons and mechanisms for these different prevalence rates from a theoretical standpoint, it lacks empirical data to account for healthy students who use both, caffeine and illicit/prescription stimulants, exclusively for the purpose of CE. Therefore, we extensively interviewed a sample of 18 healthy university students reporting non-medical use of caffeine as well as illicit/prescription stimulants for the purpose of CE in a face-to-face setting about their opinions regarding differences in general and morally-relevant differences between caffeine and stimulant use for CE. 44% of all participants answered that there is a general difference between the use of caffeine and illicit/prescription stimulants for CE, 28% did not differentiate, 28% could not decide. Furthermore, 39% stated that there is a moral difference, 56% answered that there is no moral difference and one participant was not able to comment on moral aspects. Participants came to their judgements by applying three dimensions: medical, ethical and legal. Weighing the medical, ethical and legal aspects corresponded to the students' individual preferences of substances used for CE. However, their views only partly depicted evidence-based medical aspects and the ethical issues involved. This result shows the need for well-directed and differentiated information to prevent the potentially harmful use of illicit or prescription stimulants for CE.

  1. Drug use patterns among Thai illicit drug injectors amidst increased police presence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suwannawong Paisan

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Thailand has traditionally pursued an aggressive enforcement-based anti-illicit drug policy in an effort to make the country "drug-free." In light of this ongoing approach, we sought to assess impacts of enforcement on drug use behaviors among a cohort of injection drug users (IDU in Thailand. We examined drug use patterns among IDU participating in a cross-sectional study conducted in Bangkok (n = 252. Participants were asked to provide data regarding patterns of drug use in the previous six months, including types of drugs consumed, method of consumption, frequency of use, and weekly income spent on drugs. We also conducted bivariate analyses to identify a possible effect of a reported increase in police presence on measures of drug use and related risk behaviors among study participants. One hundred fifty-five (61.5% individuals reported injection heroin use and 132 (52.4% individuals reported injection midazolam use at least daily in the past six months. Additionally, 86 (34.1% individuals reported at least daily injection Yaba and Ice (i.e., methamphetamine use. Participants in our study reported high levels of illicit drug use, including the injection of both illicit and licit drugs. In bivariate analyses, no association between increased police presence and drug use behaviors was observed. These findings demonstrate high ongoing rates of drug injecting in Thailand despite reports of increased levels of strict enforcement and enforcement-related violence, and raise questions regarding the merits of this approach.

  2. Drug use patterns among Thai illicit drug injectors amidst increased police presence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werb, Dan; Hayashi, Kanna; Fairbairn, Nadia; Kaplan, Karyn; Suwannawong, Paisan; Lai, Calvin; Kerr, Thomas

    2009-07-21

    Thailand has traditionally pursued an aggressive enforcement-based anti-illicit drug policy in an effort to make the country "drug-free." In light of this ongoing approach, we sought to assess impacts of enforcement on drug use behaviors among a cohort of injection drug users (IDU) in Thailand. We examined drug use patterns among IDU participating in a cross-sectional study conducted in Bangkok (n = 252). Participants were asked to provide data regarding patterns of drug use in the previous six months, including types of drugs consumed, method of consumption, frequency of use, and weekly income spent on drugs. We also conducted bivariate analyses to identify a possible effect of a reported increase in police presence on measures of drug use and related risk behaviors among study participants. One hundred fifty-five (61.5%) individuals reported injection heroin use and 132 (52.4%) individuals reported injection midazolam use at least daily in the past six months. Additionally, 86 (34.1%) individuals reported at least daily injection Yaba and Ice (i.e., methamphetamine) use. Participants in our study reported high levels of illicit drug use, including the injection of both illicit and licit drugs. In bivariate analyses, no association between increased police presence and drug use behaviors was observed. These findings demonstrate high ongoing rates of drug injecting in Thailand despite reports of increased levels of strict enforcement and enforcement-related violence, and raise questions regarding the merits of this approach.

  3. Typography and layout of technical reports - Survey of current practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinelli, T. E.; Cordle, V. M.; Mccullough, R.

    1985-01-01

    As part of a review of the NASA Langley Research Center scientific and technical information program, 50 technical reports from industry, research institutions, and government agencies were systematically examined and analyzed to determine current usage and practice in regard to (1) typography, including composition method, type style, type size, and margin treatment; (2) graphic design, including layout and imposition of material on the page; and (3) physical media, including paper, ink, and binding methods. The results indicate that approximately 50 percent of the reports were typeset, 70 percent used Roman (serif) type, 80 percent used 10- or 11-point type for text, 60 percent used a ragged right-hand margin, slightly more than half used paragraph indentation, 75 percent used a single-column layout, 65 percent had one or more figures or tables placed perpendicular to (not aligned with) the text, and perfect binding was the most frequently used binding method.

  4. Computational Models for Analysis of Illicit Activities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nizamani, Sarwat

    Numerous illicit activities happen in our society, which, from time to time affect the population by harming individuals directly or indirectly. Researchers from different disciplines have contributed to developing strategies to analyze such activities, in order to help law enforcement agents...... traditional models for both of the tasks. Apart from these globally organized crimes and cybercrimes, there happen specific world issues which affect geographic locations and take the form of bursts of public violence. These kinds of issues have received little attention by the academicians. These issues have...... to describe the phenomenon of contagious public outrage, which eventually leads to the spread of violence following a disclosure of some unpopular political decisions and/or activity. The results shed a new light on terror activity and provide some hint on how to curb the spreading of violence within...

  5. Figures in clinical trial reports: current practice & scope for improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Travison Thomas G

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most clinical trial publications include figures, but there is little guidance on what results should be displayed as figures and how. Purpose To evaluate the current use of figures in Trial reports, and to make constructive suggestions for future practice. Methods We surveyed all 77 reports of randomised controlled trials in five general medical journals during November 2006 to January 2007. The numbers and types of figures were determined, and then each Figure was assessed for its style, content, clarity and suitability. As a consequence, guidelines are developed for presenting figures, both in general and for each specific common type of Figure. Results Most trial reports contained one to three figures, mean 2.3 per article. The four main types were flow diagram, Kaplan Meier plot, Forest plot (for subgroup analyses and repeated measures over time: these accounted for 92% of all figures published. For each type of figure there is a considerable diversity of practice in both style and content which we illustrate with selected examples of both good and bad practice. Some pointers on what to do, and what to avoid, are derived from our critical evaluation of these articles' use of figures. Conclusion There is considerable scope for authors to improve their use of figures in clinical trial reports, as regards which figures to choose, their style of presentation and labelling, and their specific content. Particular improvements are needed for the four main types of figures commonly used.

  6. Comparison of urine results concerning co-consumption of illicit heroin and other drugs in heroin and methadone maintenance programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musshoff, Frank; Trafkowski, Jens; Lichtermann, Dirk; Madea, Burkhard

    2010-09-01

    Urine samples of patients from a heroin maintenance program (HMP) and a methadone maintenance program (MMP) were chromatographically analyzed 1 month before and 6 and 12 months into treatment for the presence of classical markers of heroin use as well as for the presence of markers for illicit heroin abuse. Furthermore, the samples were immunochemically tested for cannabinoids, cocaine metabolites, amphetamine, methylendioxyamphetamines and benzodiazepines. A co-consumption of illicit heroin (HER) in the HMP was determined to be 50% but was significantly lower compared to the MMP with a co-use of 71%. The incidence was high because not only acetylcodeine (AC) as a very specific marker was considered but also other marker substances for illicit HER use. Amphetamines played only a minor part in both collectives, and the proportion of HER and methadone patients using cocaine was similar and decreased during treatment. Also, the benzodiazepine use decreased, and cannabis use was high in both collectives during treatment. Considering only the AC in the present study, a co-use of illicit HER in the HMP was similar to previous reports concerning HER-assisted treatment programs. If additional marker substances were examined, the suspicion of a co-use of illicit HER is markedly enhanced.

  7. 75 FR 37295 - Control of Immediate Precursor Used in the Illicit Manufacture of Fentanyl as a Schedule II...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-29

    ... 812(b). ANPP is the immediate chemical intermediary in the synthesis process currently used by... Enforcement Administration 21 CFR Part 1308 RIN 1117-AB16 Control of Immediate Precursor Used in the Illicit... the precursor chemical, 4-anilino-N-phenethyl-4-piperidine (ANPP) as an immediate precursor for the...

  8. Left-handedness is statistically linked to lifetime experimentation with illicit drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preti, Antonio; Usai, Ileana; Pintus, Elisa; Sardu, Cinzia; Petretto, Donatella Rita; Masala, Carmelo

    2012-01-01

    Handedness has been linked to an enhanced risk of alcohol abuse, while less is known about other drugs. A convenience sample of 1004 male and female Italian participants (females=58%) from the general community (18 to 65 years old: average age = 30; standard deviation = 10, median = 25) was asked about: handedness (preference in writing); lifetime use of alcohol, tobacco, and illicit drugs; levels of psychological distress, as measured by the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ); and levels of delusion proneness, as measured by the Peters et al. Delusions Inventory (PDI). Overall, 92 individuals (9.2%) were classified as left-handed, with no significant difference reported among genders. Lifetime use of illicit drugs, primarily cannabis, was reported by 20% of the sample. In a multiple logistic regression analysis, after taking into account sex, age, and caseness on GHQ and PDI, left-handed people in the sample were statistically more likely to report lifetime experimentation with heroin, ecstasy/amphetamine, and, marginally, hallucinogens, but not alcohol or tobacco. Different mechanisms might contribute to an explanation of greater lifetime experimentation with some illicit drugs among left-handed people as compared to right-handed people. However, replications with clinical samples are necessary before any definitive statements can be made.

  9. Reasons for Recent Marijuana Use in Relation to Use of Other Illicit Drugs among High School Seniors in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palamar, Joseph J.; Griffin-Tomas, Marybec; Kamboukos, Dimita

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Studies show that illicit cannabis (marijuana) use is related to use of other illicit drugs and that reasons for use are related to frequency of marijuana use. However, research is needed to examine whether specific reasons for marijuana use are associated with use of other illicit drugs. Methods Data from recent-marijuana-using high school seniors were examined from 12 cohorts of Monitoring the Future (Weighted N=6,481) to examine whether reasons for recent marijuana use are associated with use of eight other illicit drugs. Results Using “to experiment” decreased odds of reporting use of each drug and using to decrease effects of other drugs increased odds of reporting use of each drug. In multivariable models, using marijuana “to experiment” decreased the odds for reporting use of hallucinogens other than LSD and narcotics other than heroin. Using marijuana for “insight” increased the odds for use of hallucinogens other than LSD, and use due to “boredom” increased the odds for reporting use of powder cocaine and hallucinogens other than LSD. Using marijuana to increase effects of other drugs increased odds of reporting each of the eight drugs, and using it to decrease other drug effects increased odds of reporting use of crack, hallucinogens other than LSD, and amphetamine/stimulants. Conclusions This study helped identify illicit marijuana users who are more likely to report use of other illicit drugs. Prevention efforts need to focus on students who report certain reasons for marijuana use as they may be at risk for use of other illicit drugs. PMID:26115351

  10. Alcohol, smoking and illicit drug use in pediatric systemic lupus erythematosus patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlon van Weelden

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective To evaluate alcohol, smoking and/or illicit drug use, and history of bullying in adolescent childhood-onset systemic lupus erythematosus and healthy controls. Methods 174 adolescents with pediatric rheumatic diseases were selected. All of the 34 childhood-onset systemic lupus erythematosus patients and 35 healthy controls participated in this study. A cross-sectional study included demographic/anthropometric data and puberty markers assessments; structured questionnaire and CRAFFT screening interview. Results McNemar tests indicated an excellent test–retest reliability of the structured questionnaire (p = 1.0. The median current age was similar between childhood-onset systemic lupus erythematosus patients and controls [15 (12–18 vs. 15 (12–18 years, p = 0.563]. The median of menarche age was significantly higher in childhood-onset systemic lupus erythematosus patients compared to controls [12 (10–15 vs. 11.5 (9–15 years, p = 0.041], particularly in those that lupus had occurred before first menstruation [13 (12–15 vs. 11.5(9–15 years, p = 0.007]. The other puberty marker and sexual function parameters were similar in both groups (p > 0.05. Alcohol use was similar in both childhood-onset systemic lupus erythematosus patients and controls (38% vs. 46%, p = 0.628. A trend of lower frequency of CRAFFT score ≥2 (high risk for substance abuse/dependence was evidenced in childhood-onset systemic lupus erythematosus patients compared to controls (0% vs. 15%, p = 0.053. Bullying was reported similarly for the two groups (43% vs. 44%, p = 0.950. Further analysis in lupus patients regarding alcohol/smoking/illicit drug use showed no differences in demographic data, puberty markers, history of bullying, sexual function, contraceptive use, disease activity/damage scores, clinical/laboratorial features and treatments (p > 0.05. Conclusion This study showed high frequencies of early alcohol use in lupus adolescents and

  11. Vocabularies of motive for illicit steroid use among bodybuilders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monaghan, Lee F

    2002-09-01

    Illicit steroid use, for purposes of performance and physique enhancement, is widely deemed unnecessary, wrong and dangerous. Such activity would appear especially foolhardy when engaged in by non-professional athletes who otherwise adhere to 'healthy' exercise regimens. Here a gap exists between many illicit steroid users' actions and societal expectations. Using qualitative data generated in South Wales, this paper explores bodybuilders' vocabularies of motive for illicit steroid use. These accounts which justified, rather than excused, steroid use were predominant during question situations between the participant observer and the researched. In supporting the fundamental tenets of their drug subculture, and as part of the underlying negotiation of self-identity, respondents espoused three main justifications for their own and/or other bodybuilders' illicit steroid use; namely: self-fulfilment accounts, condemnation of condemners and a denial of injury. Here steroid use was rationalised as a legitimate means to an end, observers passing negative judgements were rejected and it was claimed steroids do not (seriously) harm the user's health or threaten society more generally. These vocabularies of motive, acquired and honoured within bodybuilding settings, comprise a complex of subjective meanings which seem to the actor to be an adequate ground for the conduct in question. Similar to other sociological studies, this paper states that it is imperative to explore the social meanings which illicit drug users attach to their 'risk' practices. Without these understandings, researchers and health promoters may struggle to appreciate fully why illicit drug users behave as they do.

  12. Impact of Illicit Drug Use on Health-Related Quality of Life in Opioid Dependent Patients Undergoing HIV Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aden, Brandon; Dunning, Allison; Nosyk, Bohdan; Wittenberg, Eve; Bray, Jeremy W.; Schackman, Bruce R.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To assess the impact of illicit drug use on health-related quality of life (health utility) among opioid-dependent, HIV-infected patients. Design Secondary analyses of data from the Buprenorphine-HIV Evaluation and Support (BHIVES) cohort of HIV-infected patients with opioid dependence in 9 U.S. HIV clinics between 2004 and 2009. Health status (Short Form-12 (SF-12)), combination antiretroviral treatment (ART) status, CD4 cell count, HCV antibody status, current drug use, and demographics were assessed at an initial visit and quarterly follow-up visits for up to one year. Short Form-6D health utility scores were derived from the SF-12. Multivariate mixed effects regression models were used to assess the impact of illicit drug use on health utility controlling for demographic, clinical and social characteristics. Results Health utility was assessed among 307 participants, 67% male, with median age 46 at 1089 quarterly assessments. In multivariate analyses, illicit opioid use, non-opioid illicit drug use, not being on ART and being on ART with poor adherence were associated with lower health utility. The observed decrement in health utility associated with illicit opioid use was larger for those on ART with good adherence (beta = −0.067; popioid drug use are negatively associated with health utility in patients with HIV, however the relative effect of illicit opioid use is smaller than that of not being on ART. Postponing ART until initiation of opioid substitution therapy or abstinence may have limited benefits from the perspective of maximizing health utility. PMID:26218410

  13. Unintended messages in online advertising to youth: illicit drug imagery in a Canadian sports marketing campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auger, Nathalie; Daniel, Mark; Knäuper, Bärbel; Dourian, Tara; Raynault, Marie-France

    2015-04-01

    We assessed the potential for harmful messages in online advertisements targeted to youth, using the example of the Canadian "Light It Up" marketing campaign from a large sports corporation. We undertook a cluster randomized controlled trial of 20 secondary school classes in Montreal, Canada. Classes were randomly allocated to view a "Light It Up" advertisement (n = 205) or a neutral comparison advertisement (n = 192). The main outcome measures were self-reports of illicit drug messages in the advertisements. Of the students, 22.9% reported that the "Light It Up" advertisement contained illicit drug messages compared with 1.0% for the comparison advertisement (relative risk, 22.0; 95% confidence interval, 6.5-74.9). Although meant to promote sports, youth in this study believed that the "Light It Up" advertisement was related to illicit drugs. The campaign illustrates how advertisements may inadvertently market unwanted behaviors to children. Copyright © 2015 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Breaking the Taboo: Illicit Drug Use among Adolescents with Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna M. Hogendorf

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The aim of the study was to explore the prevalence of illicit drug use in a group of Polish adolescents with type 1 diabetes (DM1 in comparison with a national cohort of their healthy peers. Methods. Two hundred and nine adolescents with DM1, aged 15–18 years, were studied in 2013 with an anonymous questionnaire prepared for the European School Survey Project on Alcohol and Other Drugs (ESPAD. The control group was a representative sample of 12114 students at the same age who took part in ESPAD in 2011. Metabolic control was regarded as good if self-reported HbA1c was <8% or poor if HbA1c was ≥8%. Results. Lifetime prevalence of illicit drug use was lower among adolescents with DM1 than in the control group [58 (28% versus 5524 (46%, p=10-5]. Cannabis preparations were the most frequently used substances [38 (18.3% versus 3976 (33.1%, p=10-5], followed by tranquilizers, sedatives, and amphetamine. Lifetime and last 12-month use of cannabis were associated with poorer glycemic control (HbA1c ≥ 8%, p<0.01 and 0.02, respectively. Conclusions. Adolescents with DM1 report using illicit drugs to a lesser extent than their healthy peers. The use of cannabis is associated with a poorer metabolic control in teens with DM1.

  15. Illicit material detector based on gas sensors and neural networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimaldi, Vincent; Politano, Jean-Luc

    1997-02-01

    In accordance with its missions, le Centre de Recherches et d'Etudes de la Logistique de la Police Nationale francaise (CREL) has been conducting research for the past few years targeted at detecting drugs and explosives. We have focused our approach of the underlying physical and chemical detection principles on solid state gas sensors, in the hope of developing a hand-held drugs and explosives detector. The CREL and Laboratory and Scientific Services Directorate are research partners for this project. Using generic hydrocarbon, industrially available, metal oxide sensors as illicit material detectors, requires usage precautions. Indeed, neither the product's concentrations, nor even the products themselves, belong to the intended usage specifications. Therefore, the CREL is currently investigating two major research topics: controlling the sensor's environment: with environmental control we improve the detection of small product concentration; determining detection thresholds: both drugs and explosives disseminate low gas concentration. We are attempting to quantify the minimal concentration which triggers detection. In the long run, we foresee a computer-based tool likely to detect a target gas in a noisy atmosphere. A neural network is the suitable tool for interpreting the response of heterogeneous sensor matrix. This information processing structure, alongside with proper sensor environment control, will lessen the repercussions of common MOS sensor sensitivity characteristic dispersion.

  16. Universal method to determine acidic licit and illicit drugs and personal care products in water by liquid chromatography quadrupole time-of-flight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrés-Costa, María Jesús; Carmona, Eric; Picó, Yolanda

    2016-01-01

    Pharmaceuticals, illicit drugs and personal care products are emerging contaminants widely distributed in water. Currently, a number of solid-phase extraction (SPE) procedures followed by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) have been reported. However, target analysis of selected compounds is commonly used whereas other related contaminants present in the sample remain invisible. Carmona et al. [1] described a method for determining 21 emerging contaminants by LC-MS/MS with improved mobile phases. We tested this protocol in combination with high resolution mass spectrometry using a quadrupole time-of-flight (QqTOF) instrument to get a wide non-target screening approach in order to have a broader scope and more practical method for detecting licit and illicit drugs and personal care products than traditional target methods. The essential points in the method are: •The screening capabilities of QqTOF (ABSciex Triple TOF™) are used for detecting and identifying non-target pharmaceuticals and a large number of other emerging contaminants in water.•The quantitative features of the instrument, the Achilles heel of the QqTOF mass spectrometers, are established for few selected compounds.•The method may be applied to identify a large number of emerging contaminants in water. However, pre-validation will be needed to quantify them.

  17. Illicit traffic and abuse of cannabis in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamler, R T; Fahlman, R C; Vigeant, H

    1985-01-01

    In 1984 cannabis derivatives, in particular marijuana, hashish and liquid hashish, continued to be the most readily available drugs of abuse in Canada. Marijuana originating in Colombia decreased on the illicit marijuana market in Canada from an estimated 45 per cent in 1983 to 30 per cent in 1984, but it remained the largest source of marijuana supply. Marijuana originating in Thailand remained at approximately the same level (20 per cent) in 1984 as in 1983, while marijuana of Jamaican origin increased its share in the illicit market from 10 per cent in 1983 to 20 per cent in 1984. Approximately 10 per cent of marijuana on the illicit market originated in Canada, 10 per cent in Mexico, and 10 per cent in the United States of America. In 1984 an estimated 85 per cent of hashish on the illicit market in Canada originated in Lebanon (55 per cent in 1983), 10 per cent in India or Pakistan (31 per cent in 1983) and 5 per cent in Jamaica (2 per cent in 1983). Illicit shipments in tonnes of hashish originating in Lebanon made this the dominant source of supply of the drug. Liquid hashish originating in Jamaica shared 88 per cent of the illicit market of this drug in Canada during 1984, while 10 per cent of the drug originated in Lebanon and 2 per cent in Canada. In 1984 an estimated 40 per cent of smuggled marijuana entered the illicit market in Canada by air and approximately the same amount by sea, while 20 per cent was smuggled over land. During the same year, hashish was smuggled into Canada primarily by sea, while air accounted for 5 per cent and land for 1 per cent only. Liquid hashish, in contrast, entered Canada primarily by air, and only 9 per cent by land and 1 per cent by sea.

  18. Use of illicit stimulant drugs in Finland: a wastewater study in ten major cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kankaanpää, Aino; Ariniemi, Kari; Heinonen, Mari; Kuoppasalmi, Kimmo; Gunnar, Teemu

    2014-07-15

    Estimations of drug use at the national level are generally based on various sources of information, such as drug seizures, socio-scientific studies, toxicological data and hospital records. Nevertheless, all of these approaches have limitations that cannot be overcome, even if conclusions are drawn from combined data retrieved from different sources. Drug epidemiology through wastewater analysis has the potential to provide unique perspectives, internationally comparable data, and up-to-date information on the use of both traditional illicit drugs and new psychoactive substances (NPSs). In Finland, no large-scale studies on regional illicit drug consumption, based on a wastewater approach, have been reported. In this study, 24-h influent composite samples were collected during two 1-week study periods from ten different wastewater treatment plants in May and November-December 2012. The cities included in the study represent the geographical areas throughout Finland and cover 40% of the Finnish population. The samples were analyzed with an in-house validated, ultra high-performance liquid-chromatography mass spectrometric (UHPLC-MS/MS) method for various common illicit drugs and some NPS type stimulant drugs. The results were also compared with available statistics, information on drug seizures and laboratory-confirmed toxicological data, as well as other studies available based on wastewater analysis. The data show that illicit stimulant drug use is more common in the larger cities of Southern Finland. Amphetamine was the most commonly used drug in all 10 cities during both collection periods (excluding the collection period in May in Lappeenranta). Cocaine consumption remains very low in Finland in comparison to other European countries; it was concentrated in the biggest cities in Southern Finland. This study shows interesting temporal and spatial differences in drug use in Finland, as well as the possibilities of using wastewater analytics to reveal local

  19. Governance in EU illicit drugs policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Carel; Galla, Maurice

    2014-09-01

    This commentary represents the authors' views on EU governance in illicit drug policy, a field in which they were active for more than 10 years between them. EU drug policy has a narrow legal basis in the European Treaties and is mostly non-binding. The main policy instruments are 8-year EU Drug Strategies, underpinned by 4-year Action Plans which set out specific objectives at national, EU or international level. The approach that guides EU drug policy is known as the 'balanced approach'. It is remarkably restrained and reflects the reality that very few Member States have either the socio-political culture or the resources to consistently apply the punitive sanctions foreseen by the UN conventions. An important feature of EU governance in the field of drugs is the proactive support that is provided to non-governmental organisations both within the EU as well as in accession, associated or third countries. At a global level, the EU is a major financial aid donor also in this field. This position is not however reflected in corresponding political clout for the EU within the UN system. EU governance on drugs has made it possible for many of its Member States to accommodate the problem rather than to "solve" what by all the evidence from the last 100 years may well be insoluble, at least by means of criminalisation and prohibition. The big question is where EU drug policy is headed in the next few years. The EU has been promoting measures and practices that target real problems. It has done so without indulging too much in unhelpful rhetoric. However, like all successful formulae this one also has a sell-by date. EU governance in the field of drugs cannot afford to stand still. It needs to find a second wind.

  20. The Impact of Illicit Use of Amphetamine on Male Sexual Functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Nan-Hua; Huang, Yung-Jui; Jiann, Bang-Ping

    2015-08-01

    Data concerning the impact of amphetamine on male sexual functions are limited, although amphetamine has been used as an aphrodisiac. This cross-sectional study was to assess the impact of illicit use of amphetamine on male sexual functions. Male illicit drug users in a Drug Abstention and Treatment Center were recruited to complete a self-administered questionnaire, and data were compared with age-matched controls. The International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF) and global assessment questions were used to assess sexual functions. Of 1,159 amphetamine mono-illicit drug users, the mean age was 31.9 ± 7.5 (18-57) years, and mean duration of drug use was 30.7 ± 52.2 (median 9, range 0.1-252) months. Half of them reported that drug use had no impact on their sexual functions. The other half reported drug impacts as reduced erectile rigidity and sexual life satisfaction, enhanced orgasmic intensity, and prolonged ejaculation latency time more often than the opposite effects, while they reported enhanced or reduced effect equally on sexual desire. Dosing frequency of amphetamine was associated with its impact on sexual functions, but duration of its use had little association with that. Compared with 211 age-matched controls, the amphetamine mono-illicit drug users had lower IIEF scores in the domains of erectile function, orgasmic function, and overall satisfaction, but there are no significant differences in intercourse satisfaction and sexual desire scores. The prevalence of erectile dysfunction (ED) was significantly higher in the drug users than in the controls (29.3% vs. 11.9%). The odds ratio of ED for amphetamine use was 2.1 (95% confidence interval 1.2-3.6) after adjustment for other risk factors. The impact of illicit use of amphetamine on male sexual functions varied among users, and their ED prevalence was higher than the controls. © 2015 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  1. Capturing illicit drug use where and when it happens: an ecological momentary assessment of the social, physical and activity environment of using versus craving illicit drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linas, Beth S; Latkin, Carl; Westergaard, Ryan P; Chang, Larry W; Bollinger, Robert C; Genz, Andrew; Kirk, Gregory D

    2015-02-01

    To understand the environmental and contextual influences of illicit cocaine and heroin use and craving using mobile health (mHealth) methods. Interactive mHealth methods of ecological momentary assessment (EMA) were utilized in the Exposure Assessment in Current Time (EXACT) study to assess drug use and craving among urban drug users in real time. Participants were provided with mobile devices and asked to self-report every time they either craved (without using) or used heroin or cocaine for 30 days from November 2008 through May 2013. Baltimore, MD, USA. A total of 109 participants from the AIDS Linked to the IntraVenous Experience (ALIVE) study. For each drug use or craving event, participants answered questions concerning their drug use, current mood and their social, physical and activity environments. Odds ratios (OR) of drug use versus craving were obtained from logistic regression models with generalized estimating equations of all reported events. Participants were a median of 48.5 years old, 90% African American, 52% male and 59% HIV-infected. Participants were significantly more likely to report use rather than craving drugs if they were with someone who was using drugs [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 1.45, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.13, 1.86), in an abandoned space (aOR = 6.65, 95% CI = 1.78, 24.84) or walking/wandering (aOR = 1.68, 95% CI = 1.11, 2.54). Craving drugs was associated with being with a child (aOR = 0.26, 95% CI = 0.12, 0.59), eating (aOR = 0.54, 95% CI = 0.34, 0.85) or being at the doctor's office (aOR = 0.31, 95% CI = 0.12, 0.80). There are distinct drug using and craving environments among urban drug users, which may provide a framework for developing real-time context-sensitive interventions. © 2014 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  2. Sampling of illicit drugs for quantitative analysis. Part I: heterogeneity study of illicit drugs in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dujourdy, L; Csesztregi, T; Bovens, M; Franc, A; Nagy, J

    2013-09-10

    Sampling of illicit drugs for qualitative and quantitative analysis would normally be considered as routine and comparable tasks in forensic drugs laboratories and previously similar statistical sampling approaches have been applied. However, we believe that two different sampling approaches, based on two different theoretical and statistical backgrounds are more appropriate. Furthermore the application of the qualitative sampling approach can be impractical for quantitative sampling as it could generate many analytical samples from a single seizure. In some countries the purity of the illicit drug in a seizure may affect the criminal sentence and therefore, reliable results for quantitative analysis are crucial. It was decided to investigate a new approach, which although incorporating some statistics also took account of our background knowledge about the composition of the drugs we were analysing. The ultimate goal was to produce recommendations for a practical sampling plan for quantitative analysis. It was found that the two key factors which had a significant effect on obtaining a representative analytical sample from a bulk seizure were the heterogeneity of the drug powder and the particle sizes of its components. This article concentrates on drug heterogeneity. Particle size effects will be addressed in part II of this study. A sampling plan was devised for a range of drug seizure types and asked ENFSI member laboratories to use it when analysing real drug seizures to provide heterogeneity data for the most common illicit drugs (heroin, cocaine, amphetamine, MDMA and cannabis (herbal and resin)). It was found that for routine quantitative drugs analysis, the sampling problems caused by heterogeneity can be solved by using an incremental sampling protocol. Furthermore, the number of increments that need to be taken for a particular drug is dependent on the relative standard deviation (RSD) required by an individual laboratory and the analytical method that

  3. Sport participation and alcohol and illicit drug use in adolescents and young adults: a systematic review of longitudinal studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwan, Matthew; Bobko, Sarah; Faulkner, Guy; Donnelly, Peter; Cairney, John

    2014-03-01

    Sport participation can play an important and positive role in the health and development of children and youth. One area that has recently been receiving greater attention is the role that sport participation might play in preventing drug and alcohol use among youth. The current study is a systematic review of 17 longitudinal studies examining the relationship between sport participation and alcohol and drug use among adolescents. Results indicated that sport participation is associated with alcohol use, with 82% of the included studies (14/17) showing a significant positive relationship. Sport participation, however, appears to be related to reduced illicit drug use, especially use of non-cannabis related drugs. Eighty percent of the studies found sport participation associated with decreased illicit drug use, while 50% of the studies found negative association between sport participation and marijuana use. Further investigation revealed that participation in sports reduced the risk of overall illicit drug use, but particularly during high school; suggesting that this may be a critical period to reduce or prevent the use of drugs through sport. Future research must better understand what conditions are necessary for sport participation to have beneficial outcomes in terms of preventing alcohol and/or illicit drug use. This has been absent in the extent literature and will be central to intervention efforts in this area.

  4. Digital danger: a review of the global public health, patient safety and cybersecurity threats posed by illicit online pharmacies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackey, Tim K; Nayyar, Gaurvika

    2016-06-01

    Amidst the rise of e-commerce, there has been a proliferation of illicit online pharmacies that threaten global patient safety by selling drugs without a prescription directly to the consumer. Despite this clear threat, little is known about the key risk characteristics, central challenges and current legal, regulatory and law enforcement responses. A review was conducted of the English literature with search terms 'online pharmacies', 'Internet pharmacies', 'cyber pharmacies', 'rogue pharmacies', and 'e-pharmacies' using PubMed, JSTOR, and Google Scholar from 1999-2005. Illicit online pharmacies are a rapidly growing public health threat and are characterized by a number of complex and interrelated risk factors. Solutions are varied and are of questionable utility in the face of evolving technology that enables this form of transnational cybercrime. Legal, regulatory and technology solutions must address the entire illicit online pharmacy ecosystem in order to be effective. There is a critical need to build international consensus, conduct additional research and develop technology to combat illicit online pharmacies. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Digital danger: a review of the global public health, patient safety and cybersecurity threats posed by illicit online pharmacies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackey, Tim K.; Nayyar, Gaurvika

    2016-01-01

    Background Amidst the rise of e-commerce, there has been a proliferation of illicit online pharmacies that threaten global patient safety by selling drugs without a prescription directly to the consumer. Despite this clear threat, little is known about the key risk characteristics, central challenges and current legal, regulatory and law enforcement responses. Sources of data A review was conducted of the English literature with search terms ‘online pharmacies’, ‘Internet pharmacies’, ‘cyber pharmacies’, ‘rogue pharmacies’, and ‘e-pharmacies’ using PubMed, JSTOR, and Google Scholar from 1999–2005. Areas of agreement Illicit online pharmacies are a rapidly growing public health threat and are characterized by a number of complex and interrelated risk factors. Areas of controversy Solutions are varied and are of questionable utility in the face of evolving technology that enables this form of transnational cybercrime. Growing points Legal, regulatory and technology solutions must address the entire illicit online pharmacy ecosystem in order to be effective. Areas timely for developing research There is a critical need to build international consensus, conduct additional research and develop technology to combat illicit online pharmacies. PMID:27151957

  6. Illicit Financial Flows and their Developmental Impacts: An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Herkenrath

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Illicit financial flows — cross-border capital movements for the purposes of concealing illegal activities and evading taxes — pose major challenges to developing countries. They deprive the country concerned of urgently needed resources for private and public investment, thereby hampering infrastructure building and economic growth. This research overview shows that illicit financial flows also favour political changes that go hand in hand with the weakening of state institutions and growing corruption and rent-seeking. As yet, there are no empirical quantitative findings as to the exact functioning and significance of these effects. What is clear, however, is that approaches to problem-solving must come not only from the countries where illicit financial flows originate but also from the recipient countries — offshore financial centres with a high level of financial secrecy.

  7. Modeling Illicit Drug Use Dynamics and Its Optimal Control Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steady Mushayabasa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The global burden of death and disability attributable to illicit drug use, remains a significant threat to public health for both developed and developing nations. This paper presents a new mathematical modeling framework to investigate the effects of illicit drug use in the community. In our model the transmission process is captured as a social “contact” process between the susceptible individuals and illicit drug users. We conduct both epidemic and endemic analysis, with a focus on the threshold dynamics characterized by the basic reproduction number. Using our model, we present illustrative numerical results with a case study in Cape Town, Gauteng, Mpumalanga and Durban communities of South Africa. In addition, the basic model is extended to incorporate time dependent intervention strategies.

  8. Current Reports: Educating Scientists and Engineers: The View from OTA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Robert P.

    1989-01-01

    Compares two engineering education reports which urge the following needs and emphases: attract and retain minorities, retain students already in engineering school, and allow students to enter the engineering program at various levels. Criticizes the Office of Technology Assessment's report and supplies prescriptions for the future. (MVL)

  9. Spatial distribution of illicit drugs in surface waters of the natural park of Pego-Oliva Marsh (Valencia, Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vazquez-Roig, Pablo; Andreu, Vicente; Blasco, Cristina; Morillas, Francisco; Picó, Yolanda

    2012-05-01

    The Pego-Oliva Marsh is the second most important wetland in the Valencian Community (Spain). It is included in the RAMSAR agreement and represents one key point for migratory birds. Emerging contaminants from the human pressure, such as pharmaceuticals, illicit drugs and personal care product, are not included in the list of priority contaminants of the Water Framework Directive yet, and are neither monitored nor controlled. However, pollution of emerging contaminants can threaten the environment and even human health. In order to understand the status of the emerging contamination and recommend future rationalization of countermeasures, the occurrence of illicit drugs was investigated. Samples were collected at 23 sites from the main irrigation channels and the marsh. Illicit drugs were extracted using solid phase extraction and determined by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. The method detection limits ranged from 0.01 to 1.54 ng l(-1) and the recoveries from 57% to 120%. 3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine, ketamine, morphine, benzoylecgonine, cocaine, methadone, 6-acetylmorphine and nor-9-carboxy-tetrahydrocannabinol were detected. The mean concentrations were 0.62, 21.33, 1.30, 1.92, 2.25, 0.32, 0.04 and 0.07 ng l(-1), respectively. The highest concentrations were in the north of Pego-Oliva Marsh. The pollution status by illicit drugs of the Pego-Oliva Marsh has been established. However, contamination levels in all the area of the natural park were low compared with those reported in other superficial waters.

  10. THE EFFECT OF ILLICIT TRADE IN NARCOTICS ON GLOBAL ECONOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALASMARI Khaled

    2013-07-01

    Illicit markets especially those dealing with narcotics constitute grievous issues to the world’s economies, putting to test global safety, economic progress as well as security and many other aspects. Seemingly, illicit narcotics trade in the last decade – that is 2000 to 2011 underwent a significant boom, resulting from a wide spectrum of illegal drugs such as cocaine as well as heroin among many other hard drugs. In today’s global society, several concerns are emerging on the rise of illicit narcotics trade accompanied with organized crime, chiefly as major hindrances to consistent global economic progress. Apparently, some of the effects of illicit narcotics trade are that; this trade gradually turns upside down business rules, opening way for new unruly market players besides reconfiguring influence in global economics as well as politics. Surprisingly, the revenue from illegal drugs in 2011 alone was roughly 10% of the global GDP. Hence, exaggerating local economies’ incomes and triggering ceaseless conflicts among market players, while at the same time reducing legal business activities likewise disintegrating socioeconomic conditions. An empirical research method was adopted for this study, analyzing illicit trade in narcotics on the global arena as from 2000 to 2011 and its resultant effects. The research findings indicate that, illegal drugs trade particularly on the world economy besides growing at a high rate, it endangers the overall welfare of humans likewise the business environment. This is ostensibly because this trade has high chances of engrossing regional economies into illegal drugs business activities, causing them to neglect sustainable ethical businesses. Now, to effectively address negative economic issues related to illegal drugs trade, there is apparent need for integrated efforts from local as well as international authorities. Such efforts are chiefly to control not only the harmful effects resulting from the use of illicit

  11. The leading digit distribution of the worldwide illicit financial flows

    CERN Document Server

    Mir, Tariq Ahmad

    2012-01-01

    Benford's law states that in many data sets the overall distribution of the significant digits tends to be logarithmic so that the occurrence of numbers beginning with smaller first significant digits is more often than those with larger ones. We investigate here recent data on illicit financial flows from developing countries and reveal that the data does submit to Benford's law. Further, the general improvement in the statistical accuracy which we observed supports the applicability of the normalization process used to limit the inclusion of the countries in the database for which the illicit financial flows are not substantial.

  12. Detection of Illicit Drugs by Trained Honeybees (Apis mellifera.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Schott

    Full Text Available Illegal drugs exacerbate global social challenges such as substance addiction, mental health issues and violent crime. Police and customs officials often rely on specially-trained sniffer dogs, which act as sensitive biological detectors to find concealed illegal drugs. However, the dog "alert" is no longer sufficient evidence to allow a search without a warrant or additional probable cause because cannabis has been legalized in two US states and is decriminalized in many others. Retraining dogs to recognize a narrower spectrum of drugs is difficult and training new dogs is time consuming, yet there are no analytical devices with the portability and sensitivity necessary to detect substance-specific chemical signatures. This means there is currently no substitute for sniffer dogs. Here we describe an insect screening procedure showing that the western honeybee (Apis mellifera can sense volatiles associated with pure samples of heroin and cocaine. We developed a portable electroantennographic device for the on-site measurement of volatile perception by these insects, and found a positive correlation between honeybee antennal responses and the concentration of specific drugs in test samples. Furthermore, we tested the ability of honeybees to learn the scent of heroin and trained them to show a reliable behavioral response in the presence of a highly-diluted scent of pure heroin. Trained honeybees could therefore be used to complement or replace the role of sniffer dogs as part of an automated drug detection system. Insects are highly sensitive to volatile compounds and provide an untapped resource for the development of biosensors. Automated conditioning as presented in this study could be developed as a platform for the practical detection of illicit drugs using insect-based sensors.

  13. Illicit stimulant use is associated with abnormal substantia nigra morphology in humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabrielle Todd

    Full Text Available Use of illicit stimulants such as methamphetamine, cocaine, and ecstasy is an increasing health problem. Chronic use can cause neurotoxicity in animals and humans but the long-term consequences are not well understood. The aim of the current study was to investigate the long-term effect of stimulant use on the morphology of the human substantia nigra. We hypothesised that history of illicit stimulant use is associated with an abnormally bright and enlarged substantia nigra (termed 'hyperechogenicity' when viewed with transcranial sonography. Substantia nigra morphology was assessed in abstinent stimulant users (n = 36; 31±9 yrs and in two groups of control subjects: non-drug users (n = 29; 24±5 yrs and cannabis users (n = 12; 25±7 yrs. Substantia nigra morphology was viewed with transcranial sonography and the area of echogenicity at the anatomical site of the substantia nigra was measured at its greatest extent. The area of substantia nigra echogenicity was significantly larger in the stimulant group (0.273±0.078 cm(2 than in the control (0.201±0.054 cm(2; P<0.001 and cannabis (0.202±0.045 cm(2; P<0.007 groups. 53% of stimulant users exhibited echogenicity that exceeded the 90(th percentile for the control group. The results of the current study suggest that individuals with a history of illicit stimulant use exhibit abnormal substantia nigra morphology. Substantia nigra hyperechogenicity is a strong risk factor for developing Parkinson's disease later in life and further research is required to determine if the observed abnormality in stimulant users is associated with a functional deficit of the nigro-striatal system.

  14. Social and structural barriers to housing among street-involved youth who use illicit drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krüsi, Andrea; Fast, Danya; Small, Will; Wood, Evan; Kerr, Thomas

    2010-05-01

    In Canada, approximately 150,000 youth live on the street. Street-involvement and homelessness have been associated with various health risks, including increased substance use, blood-borne infections and sexually transmitted diseases. We undertook a qualitative study to better understand the social and structural barriers street-involved youth who use illicit drugs encounter when seeking housing. We conducted 38 semi-structured interviews with street-involved youth in Vancouver, Canada from May to October 2008. Interviewees were recruited from the At-risk Youth Study (ARYS) cohort, which follows youth aged 14 to 26 who have experience with illicit drug use. All interviews were thematically analyzed, with particular emphasis on participants' perspectives regarding their housing situation and their experiences seeking housing. Many street-involved youth reported feeling unsupported in their efforts to find housing. For the majority of youth, existing abstinence-focused shelters did not constitute a viable option and, as a result, many felt excluded from these facilities. Many youth identified inflexible shelter rules and a lack of privacy as outweighing the benefits of sleeping indoors. Single-room occupancy hotels (SROs) were reported to be the only affordable housing options, as many landlords would not rent to youth on welfare. Many youth reported resisting moving to SROs as they viewed them as unsafe and as giving up hope for a return to mainstream society. The findings of the present study shed light on the social and structural barriers street-involved youth face in attaining housing and challenge the popular view of youth homelessness constituting a lifestyle choice. Our findings point to the need for housing strategies that include safe, low threshold, harm reduction focused housing options for youth who engage in illicit substance use.

  15. Utilizing buprenorphine–naloxone to treat illicit and prescription-opioid dependence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauger S

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Sofie Mauger,1 Ronald Fraser1,2 Kathryn Gill1,2 1Department of Psychiatry, McGill University, Montreal, QC, Canada; 2Addictions Unit, McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, QC, Canada Objectives: To review current evidence on buprenorphine–naloxone (bup/nx for the treatment of opioid-use disorders, with a focus on strategies for clinical management and office-based patient care. Quality of evidence: Medline and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews were searched. Consensus reports, guidelines published, and other authoritative sources were also included in this review. Apart from expert guidelines, data included in this review constitute level 1 evidence. Findings: Bup/nx is a partial µ-opioid agonist combined with the opioid antagonist naloxone in a 4:1 ratio. It has a lower abuse potential, carries less stigma, and allows for more flexibility than methadone. Bup/nx is indicated for both inpatient and ambulatory medically assisted withdrawal (acute detoxification and long-term substitution treatment (maintenance of patients who have a mild-to-moderate physical dependence. A stepwise long-term substitution treatment with regular monitoring and follow-up assessment is usually preferred, as it has better outcomes in reducing illicit opioid use, minimizing concomitant risks such as human immunodeficiency virus and hepatitis C transmission, retaining patients in treatment and improving global functioning. Conclusion: Bup/nx is safe and effective for opioid detoxification and substitution treatment. Its unique pharmaceutical properties make it particularly suitable for office-based maintenance treatment of opioid-use disorder. Keywords: Zubsolv, Suboxone, methadone, opiate detoxification, opiate substitution, clinical management

  16. [Alcohol and illicit drug use and its influence on the sexual behavior of teenagers from Minas Gerais State, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertoni, Neilane; Bastos, Francisco I; Mello, Maeve Brito de; Makuch, Maria Yolanda; Sousa, Maria Helena de; Osis, Maria José; Faúndes, Anibal

    2009-06-01

    This article summarizes the findings of a survey including 5,981 students from public schools in Minas Gerais State, Brazil. The analysis assessed the influence of drug use on sexual practices. Among the boys engaged in relationships with casual partners who stated having used illicit drugs, 55.7% reported consistent condom use, as compared to 65.4% among those not reporting such habits. Among boys engaged in relationships with stable partners who reported illicit drug use, consistent condom use was reported by 42.7%, versus 64.1% among those not reporting such habits. In the subgroup of boys engaged in stable relationships who did not report illicit drug use, consistent condom use was less frequent among those that used alcohol/cigarettes, compared to those who did not drink or smoke (60.7% vs. 71.1%). Girls were less likely than boys to use condoms consistently, regardless of the nature of their relationships, without a noticeable influence of drug use. Policies to prevent drug abuse, sexually transmitted diseases, and unplanned pregnancy should be fully integrated.

  17. IMPLICATIONS OF THE CURRENT EXPOSURE DRAFT ON AUDIT REPORTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Silviu CORDOȘ

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The regulatory changes come as a response to perceived deficiencies in the postfinancial crisis, and their goal is to improve users' perception of the usefulness and quality of the audit report. The article approaches the subject of these proposals to revise the standards and their implications for the audit report. The article is divided into five parts: the first part the authors present a brief introduction to the subject matter; the second part presents the research methodology; the third part the authors present a review of the literature research; the fourth section presents an analysis of the responses of EU respondents to the Exposure Draft issued by the IAASB in July 2013 and the last part the authors present research findings, limitations and perspectives.

  18. Report on results of current and future metal casting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unal, Cetin [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Carlson, Neil N. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-09-28

    New modeling capabilities needed to simulate the casting of metallic fuels are added to Truchas code. In this report we summarize improvements we made in FY2015 in three areas; (1) Analysis of new casting experiments conducted with BCS and EFL designs, (2) the simulation of INL’s U-Zr casting experiments with Flow3D computer program, (3) the implementation of surface tension model into Truchas for unstructured mesh required to run U-Zr casting.

  19. National study of the role of recent illicit substance use on the relationship between depressive symptoms and sexual risk behavior among child welfare-involved adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traube, Dorian; Holloway, Ian; Zhang, Jinjin

    2013-07-01

    The present study examined the association between early-adolescent depressive symptoms and lifetime sexual risk behavior and whether that association was moderated by recent illicit substance use among adolescents reported for maltreatment. Data came from Waves 1 (baseline) and 4 (36-month follow-up) of the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being, a national probability study of youths undergoing investigation for abuse or neglect (n = 861). Multivariate logistic regression was used to explore main effects and moderation models among baseline depressive symptoms, lifetime sexual risk behavior, and recent illicit substance use. Baseline depressive symptoms and recent illicit drug use played little role in predicting ever having intercourse, age at first intercourse, or pregnancy. Recent use of illicit substances moderated the relationship between early-adolescent depressive symptoms and condom use behavior (odds ratio = 0.85, p sexual activity. Results suggest that among adolescents reported for maltreatment, use of illicit substances may moderate the relationship between elevated levels of depressive symptoms during early adolescence and condom use as children age thorough adolescence. Interventions for child welfare-engaged youths should focus on prevention and treatment of depression and substance use.

  20. Urinalysis and hair analysis for illicit drugs of driver applicants and drivers in the trucking industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mieczkowski, Tom

    2010-07-01

    The purpose of this article is to compare the differential rate of detection of illicit drugs when using two distinct sample types, hair and urine specimens. The specimens were collected from persons who applied for employment as a truck driver, or were collected from randomly selected currently employed truck drivers. The data is examined for job applicants and employees to determine if any differences in outcomes are associated with employment status or specimen type. The data is also assessed for specific patterns associated with particular drugs and their assay outcomes. Overall, it was determined that drug positive cases are relatively rare. Job applicants are more likely to test positive for an illicit drug than a currently employed driver. Applicants are more frequently positive for a drug by a factor of 3 for both urinalysis and hair analysis when compared to currently employed drivers. Approximately 2% of applicants were urine positive and 9% hair positive for an illegal drug. Considering employed truck drivers 0.6% were drug positive by urinalysis and 3% when using hair analysis. It is concluded that hair assays detect more drug use than urinalysis. It is also concluded that when urine and hair assay outcomes are non-concordant the typical case is a positive hair analysis with a negative urinalysis.

  1. Illicit online marketing of lorcaserin before DEA scheduling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Bryan A; Mackey, Tim K; Archer-Hayes, Ashley N; Shinn, Linda M

    2013-05-01

    Antiobesity drugs have been marketed illicitly by "no prescription" online pharmacies after approval and scheduling by the drug enforcement agency. We assess whether antiobesity drug Belviq® (lorcaserin HCl) was available from illicit online vendors before DEA-scheduling when sales are unauthorized. Online searches of "buy Belviq no prescription" examining first five result pages marketing the drug. Searches were performed from 11/5/2012-12/8/2012, prior to DEA scheduing. Belviq® is actively marketed by "no prescription" online vendors despite official unavailability and prescription requirements. Approaches included direct-to-consumer advertising using descriptive website URLs; linking to illicit marketers; and directing customers to other weight-loss websites for additional marketing. Finally, large quantities were marketed by business-to-business vendors. Illicit online "no prescription" pharmacies are marketing unauthorized, suspect antiobesity drugs before DEA scheduling and permitted marketing. Regulators must legally intercede to ensure patient safety, and providers must educate patients about online-sourcing risks. Copyright © 2013 The Obesity Society.

  2. Illicit vessel identification in inland waters using SAR image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fengli; Wu, Bingfang; Zhang, Lei; Huang, Huiping; Tian, Yichen

    2006-10-01

    Synthetic Aperture Radar remote sensing has been effectively used in water compliance and enforcement, especially in ship detection, but it is still very difficult to classify or identify vessels in inland water only using existing SAR image. Nevertheless some experience knowledge can help, for example waterway channel is of great significance for water traffic management and illegal activity monitoring. It can be used for judging a vessel complying with traffic rules or not, and also can be used to indicate illicit fishing vessels which are usually far away from navigable waterway channel. For illicit vessel identification speed and efficiency are very important, so it will be significant if we can extract waterway channel directly from SAR images and use it to identify illicit vessels. The paper first introduces the modified two-parameter CFAR algorithm used to detect ship targets in inland waters, and then uses principal curves and neural networks to extract waterway channel. Through comparing the detection results and the extracted waterway channel those vessels not complying with water traffic rules or potential illicit fishing vessels can be easily identified.

  3. Yield of illicit indoor cannabis cultivation in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toonen, M.A.J.; Ribot, S.A.; Thissen, J.T.N.M.

    2006-01-01

    To obtain a reliable estimation on the yield of illicit indoor cannabis cultivation in The Netherlands, cannabis plants confiscated by the police were used to determine the yield of dried female flower buds. The developmental stage of flower buds of the seized plants was described on a scale from 1

  4. Illicit Drugs, Policing and the Evidence-Based Policy Paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritter, Alison; Lancaster, Kari

    2013-01-01

    The mantra of evidence-based policy (EBP) suggests that endeavours to implement evidence-based policing will produce better outcomes. However there is dissonance between the rhetoric of EBP and the actuality of policing policy. This disjuncture is critically analysed using the case study of illicit drugs policing. The dissonance may be ameliorated…

  5. Economic-Social Analysis of Global Illicit Drug Trade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salahedin Ghaderi

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Political unstability, less respect to the role of law, low life standards and suitable conditions for poppy/coca cultivation, have all affected on growing illicit drug international trafficking. Colombia is the center for global cocaine industry. Colombians had to use ship in the Carribean but now they pass Mexico where the costs are half of using ship. Mexican traffickers permit that the domestic poppy plants turned into herion, Colombian cocaine transited to USA and methamephtamine manufactured and distributed. Golden triangle in southeast Asia is one of the major regions for opium poppy cultivation. This region has seen many guerrilla warfare for selling illicit drugs especially in Myanmar. Manufactured hroin is usually dealt in Thailand. Golden Crescent region in southwest Asia has a suitable climate for opium poppy cultivation which provides necessay money for purchasing needed weapons by rival groups in northwestern border provinces of Afghanistan and Pakistan. Nigeria is one of the main centers for transporting heroin from Golden Crescent and cocaine from Brazil. Dominics run cocaine trade in New York and New England and Afro-American criminal organizations conduct heroin trading in big cities such as New york, Detroit, Chicago, Phila Delphia and Washington. Street trading of illicit drugs is mainly done by cultural or commanding gangs. Illicit drug traffickers apply many methods to laundering their profits including money exchange, smurfs, electronic transferring, and faced firms (the firms that are only registered.

  6. Health spending, illicit financial flows and tax incentives in Malawi

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the tax revenues foregone by the government of Malawi by two main routes ... Alongside these problems there is evidence of a growing burden of ... experience challenges in human resource shortage, weak .... evasion, corruption and other criminal activities25. .... On the issue of illicit financial flows, the government and.

  7. Contested Cultural Spaces: Exploring Illicit Drug-Using through "Trainspotting"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemingway, Judy

    2006-01-01

    Contending that culture is one of the most potentially divisive signifiers of human activity, this paper probes some of the complexities that attend the (un)popular culture of illicit drug-using with which many young people in contemporary Britain are identified. Irvine Welsh's multi-media drugs narrative "Trainspotting" is drawn on to…

  8. Appendiceal mucocele: Case reports and review of current literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakaya, Kemal; Barut, Figen; Emre, Ali Ugur; Ucan, Hamdi Bulent; Cakmak, Guldeniz Karadeniz; Irkorucu, Oktay; Tascilar, Oge; Ustundag, Yucel; Comert, Mustafa

    2008-01-01

    The mucocele of the appendix is an uncommon disorder which is often asymptomatic but sometimes causes acute appendicitis-like symptoms. Sometimes, patients with mucocele can present with confusing symptoms. Preoperative suspicion and diagnosis of appendiceal mucocele are important. Ultrasonography and computed tomography are useful tools for the diagnosis of appendiceal mucocele. It may be also recognised by colonoscopy as a smooth submucosal lesion of the cecum. Optimal management of the mucocele could be achieved through accurate preoperative diagnosis. Preoperative diagnosis is a major component for minimizing intra-operative and post-operative complications. We herein report five cases and discuss the diagnostic methods and surgical treatment. PMID:18407611

  9. A Mixed-Methods Approach Examining Illicit Prescription Stimulant Use: Findings From a Northern California University.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bavarian, Niloofar; McMullen, Jaimie; Flay, Brian R; Kodama, Cathy; Martin, Melissa; Saltz, Robert F

    2017-02-27

    Preventing the illicit use of prescription stimulants, a particularly high-risk form of substance use, requires approaches that utilize theory-guided research. We examined this behavior within the context of a random sample of 554 undergraduate students attending a university in northern California. Approximately 17% of students self-reported engaging in this behavior during college; frequency of misuse per academic term ranged from less than once to 40 or more times. Although most misusers reported oral ingestion, a small proportion reported snorting and smoking the drug. The majority of misusers reported receiving the drug at no cost, and the primary source of the drug was friends. Misusers were motivated by both academic (e.g., to improve focus) and non-academic (e.g., to experiment) reasons. Our thematic analyses of an open-end question revealed that students abstaining from illicit use of prescription stimulants did so primarily for reasons related to health risks, ethics, and adherence regulations. Results from adjusted logistic regression analyses showed that correlates of the behavior were intrapersonal, interpersonal, and environmental in nature. We conclude that characteristics of misuse are a cause for concern, and correlates of the behavior are multifaceted. These findings, in addition to insights provided by students who choose not to engage in this behavior, suggest that a number of prevention approaches are plausible, such as a social norms campaign that simultaneously corrects exaggerated beliefs about prevalence while also illustrating why abstainers, in their own words, choose to abstain.

  10. Young Risk Takers: Alcohol, Illicit Drugs, and Sexual Practices among a Sample of Music Festival Attendees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Jenkinson

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Alcohol and other drug use and sexual risk behaviour are increasing among young Australians, with associated preventable health outcomes such as sexually transmissible infections (STIs on the rise. Methods. A cross-sectional study of young people’s health behaviours conducted at a music festival in Melbourne, Australia, in 2011. Results. 1365 young people aged 16–29 completed the survey; 62% were female with a mean age of 20 years. The majority (94%, n=1287 reported drinking alcohol during the previous 12 months; among those, 32% reported “binge” drinking (6+ drinks at least weekly. Half (52% reported ever using illicit drugs and 25% reported past month use. One-quarter (27% were identified as being at risk of STIs through unprotected sex with new or casual partners during the previous 12 months. Multivariable analyses found that risky sexual behaviour was associated with younger age (≤19 years, younger age of sexual debut (≤15 years, having discussed sexual health/contraception with a doctor, regular binge drinking, and recent illicit drug use. Conclusion. Substance use correlated strongly with risky sexual behaviour. Further research should explore young people’s knowledge of alcohol/drug-related impairment and associated risk-taking behaviours, and campaigns should encourage appropriate STI testing among music festival attendees.

  11. Young Risk Takers: Alcohol, Illicit Drugs, and Sexual Practices among a Sample of Music Festival Attendees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkinson, Rebecca; Bowring, Anna; Dietze, Paul; Hellard, Margaret; Lim, Megan S C

    2014-01-01

    Background. Alcohol and other drug use and sexual risk behaviour are increasing among young Australians, with associated preventable health outcomes such as sexually transmissible infections (STIs) on the rise. Methods. A cross-sectional study of young people's health behaviours conducted at a music festival in Melbourne, Australia, in 2011. Results. 1365 young people aged 16-29 completed the survey; 62% were female with a mean age of 20 years. The majority (94%, n = 1287) reported drinking alcohol during the previous 12 months; among those, 32% reported "binge" drinking (6+ drinks) at least weekly. Half (52%) reported ever using illicit drugs and 25% reported past month use. One-quarter (27%) were identified as being at risk of STIs through unprotected sex with new or casual partners during the previous 12 months. Multivariable analyses found that risky sexual behaviour was associated with younger age (≤19 years), younger age of sexual debut (≤15 years), having discussed sexual health/contraception with a doctor, regular binge drinking, and recent illicit drug use. Conclusion. Substance use correlated strongly with risky sexual behaviour. Further research should explore young people's knowledge of alcohol/drug-related impairment and associated risk-taking behaviours, and campaigns should encourage appropriate STI testing among music festival attendees.

  12. Patellofemoral pain: Challenging current practice - A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Benjamin E; Hendrick, Paul; Logan, Pip

    2016-04-01

    Patellofemoral pain (PFP) is a common problem in young people, with 1 in 6 suffering at any one time. It is unclear which management approach is the optimal method for treating PFP in the long term, with traditional physiotherapy examination focusing on assessing for specific structural dysfunction. A rationale for a different assessment and treatment approach, one that moves the focus away from a biomedical/tissue pathology model towards one directed at the neurophysiology of pain, has been suggested. The patient was a 21 year old male with a 6 year history of PFP with previous failed physiotherapeutic treatment. He reported previous multiple healthcare practitioners' advice to avoid activities that were painful as reasons for being unable to participate in sporting activities. No specific structural testing was performed, such as specific muscle strength, length, foot position, patella movement and position, or movement patterns. Descriptions of tissue based pathology models of pain, e.g. patella mal-tracking, were actively discouraged and challenged. The patient was taught to perform one uncomfortable/painful exercise as part of his rehabilitation programme twice a day. The patient achieved 80% improvement in his symptoms over 7 appointments and a return to physical activity following a 5 month rehabilitation programme purposively designed to elicit pain by means of gradually exercising and loading the tissues. This case report highlights the need for further research into exercise protocols for patients suffering with PFP based upon neurophysiology models of pain.

  13. Association between stillbirth and illicit drug use and smoking during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varner, Michael W; Silver, Robert M; Rowland Hogue, Carol J; Willinger, Marian; Parker, Corette B; Thorsten, Vanessa R; Goldenberg, Robert L; Saade, George R; Dudley, Donald J; Coustan, Donald; Stoll, Barbara; Bukowski, Radek; Koch, Matthew A; Conway, Deborah; Pinar, Halit; Reddy, Uma M

    2014-01-01

    To compare illicit drug and smoking use in pregnancies with and without stillbirth. The Stillbirth Collaborative Research Network conducted a case-control study from March 2006 to September 2008, covering more than 90% of deliveries to residents of five a priori-defined geographically diverse regions. The study attempted to include all stillbirths and representative liveborn controls. Umbilical cord samples from cases and controls were collected and frozen for subsequent batch analysis. Maternal serum was collected at delivery and batch analyzed for cotinine. For 663 stillbirth deliveries, 418 (63%) had cord homogenate and 579 (87%) had maternal cotinine assays performed. For 1,932 live birth deliveries, 1,050 (54%) had cord homogenate toxicology and 1,545 (80%) had maternal cotinine assays performed. A positive cord homogenate test for any illicit drug was associated with stillbirth (odds ratio [OR] 1.94, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.16-3.27). The most common individual drug was cannabis (OR 2.34 95% CI 1.13-4.81), although the effect was partially confounded by smoking. Both maternal self-reported smoking history and maternal serum cotinine levels were associated in a dose-response relationship with stillbirth. Positive serum cotinine less than 3 ng/mL and no reported history of smoking (proxy for passive smoke exposure) also were associated with stillbirth (OR 2.06, 95% CI 1.24-3.41). Cannabis use, smoking, illicit drug use, and apparent exposure to second-hand smoke, separately or in combination, during pregnancy were associated with an increased risk of stillbirth. Because cannabis use may be increasing with increased legalization, the relevance of these findings may increase as well. II.

  14. Suicidal behaviours in male and female users of illicit drugs recruited in drug treatment facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arribas-Ibar, Elisabet; Suelves, Josep Maria; Sanchez-Niubò, Albert; Domingo-Salvany, Antònia; T Brugal, M

    We assessed prevalence of suicidal ideation and plans among illicit drug users and their association with contextual factors, by gender. Cross-sectional study. In a sample of 511 illicit drug users recruited during spring 2012 in drug treatment and prevention facilities in Catalonia (Spain), the prevalence of suicidal ideation/plans in the last 12 months was assessed. Poisson regression was used to examine associations between suicidal ideation/plans and various factors (socio-demographic, psychological, illegal drug market activities and marginal income generation activities, which included any reported sex work, stealing, peddling, begging or borrowing on credit from a dealer). The average age was 37.9 years (standard deviation: 8.62); 76.3% were men. Suicidal ideation/plans were reported by 30.8% of men and 38.8% of women, with no significant differences by age or gender. Recent aggression (male prevalence ratio [PR]=2.2; female PR=1.4), psychological treatment (male PR=1.2; female PR=1.3) and illegal/marginal income generation activities (male PR=1.5; female PR=1.1) were associated with suicidal ideation/plans. Men who trafficked were more likely to have suicidal ideation/plans (PR=1.3), while prison history was positive for women (PR=1.8) and negative for men (PR=0.7). Prevalence of suicidal ideation/plans was high among illicit drug users recruited from healthcare facilities. Besides psychological variables, participation in illegal market activities and crime ought to be considered in drug users' suicidal prevention. Suicide risk needs to be evaluated in drug treatment facilities and psychological status and context contemplated. Copyright © 2017 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  15. Langerhans cell histiocytosis: Current concepts in dentistry and case report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos-Gutiérrez, Efraín; Alejo-González, Francisco; Ruiz-Rodríguez, Socorro; Garrocho-Rangel, José-Arturo

    2016-01-01

    Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH), which is a rare granulomatous pediatric disease of unknown etiology, is characterized by the idiopathic proliferation and accumulation of abnormal and clonal Langerhans cells or their marrow precursors, resulting in localized, solitary or multiple destructive lesions. These lesions are most commonly eosinophilic granuloma, which are found in craniofacial bone structures such as the skull and mandible, skin and other organs. In children, the disease has a variable initial presentation, and the clinical course, prognosis and survival are unpredictable. The aims of this report were to present an LCH case in a girl aged 2 years, 8 months and her clinicopathological features, to describe the bucodental management provided, and to discuss special dental considerations of this disease. Key words:Children, dental management, histiocytosis, Langerhans cells. PMID:26855698

  16. Lower hybrid current drive for edge current density modification in DIII-D: Final status report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fenstermacher, M.E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Porkolab, M. [Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States). Plasma Fusion Center

    1993-08-04

    Application of Lower Hybrid (LH) Current Drive (CD) in the DIII-D tokamak has been studied at LLNL, off and on, for several years. The latest effort began in February 1992 in response to a letter from ASDEX indicating that the 2.45 GHz, 3 MW system there was available to be used on another device. An initial assessment of the possible uses for such a system on DIII-D was made and documented in September 1992. Multiple meetings with GA personnel and members of the LH community nationwide have occurred since that time. The work continued through the submission of the 1995 Field Work Proposals in March 1993 and was then put on hold due to budget limitations. The purpose of this document is to record the status of the work in such a way that it could fairly easily be restarted at a future date. This document will take the form of a collection of Appendices giving both background and the latest results from the FY 1993 work, connected by brief descriptive text. Section 2 will describe the final workshop on LHCD in DIII-D held at GA in February 1993. This was an open meeting with attendees from GA, LLNL, MIT and PPPL. Summary documents from the meeting and subsequent papers describing the results will be included in Appendices. Section 3 will describe the status of work on the use of low frequency (2.45 GHZ) LH power and Parametric Decay Instabilities (PDI) for the special case of high dielectric in the edge regions of the DIII-D plasma. This was one of the critical issues identified at the workshop. Other potential issues for LHCD in the DIII-D scenarios are: (1) damping of the waves on fast ions from neutral beam injection, (2) runaway electrons in the low density edge plasma, (3) the validity of the WKB approximation used in the ray-tracing models in the steep edge density gradients.

  17. Searching for safety: addressing search engine, website, and provider accountability for illicit online drug sales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Bryan A; Mackey, Tim

    2009-01-01

    Online sales of pharmaceuticals are a rapidly growing phenomenon. Yet despite the dangers of purchasing drugs over the Internet, sales continue to escalate. These dangers include patient harm from fake or tainted drugs, lack of clinical oversight, and financial loss. Patients, and in particular vulnerable groups such as seniors and minorities, purchase drugs online either naïvely or because they lack the ability to access medications from other sources due to price considerations. Unfortunately, high risk online drug sources dominate the Internet, and virtually no accountability exists to ensure safety of purchased products. Importantly, search engines such as Google, Yahoo, and MSN, although purportedly requiring "verification" of Internet drug sellers using PharmacyChecker.com requirements, actually allow and profit from illicit drug sales from unverified websites. These search engines are not held accountable for facilitating clearly illegal activities. Both website drug seller anonymity and unethical physicians approving or writing prescriptions without seeing the patient contribute to rampant illegal online drug sales. Efforts in this country and around the world to stem the tide of these sales have had extremely limited effectiveness. Unfortunately, current congressional proposals are fractionated and do not address the key issues of demand by vulnerable patient populations, search engine accountability, and the ease with which financial transactions can be consummated to promote illegal online sales. To deal with the social scourge of illicit online drug sales, this article proposes a comprehensive statutory solution that creates a no-cost/low-cost national Drug Access Program to break the chain of demand from vulnerable patient populations and illicit online sellers, makes all Internet drug sales illegal unless the Internet pharmacy is licensed through a national Internet pharmacy licensing program, prohibits financial transactions for illegal online drug

  18. Current concepts in hypophosphatasia: case report and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollis, Amy; Arundel, Paul; High, Alec; Balmer, Richard

    2013-05-01

    BACKGROUND.  Hypophosphatasia (HP) is characterized by defective mineralization of bone and teeth because of deficient alkaline phosphatase activity. There are generally six recognized clinical forms, of which the most severe is often lethal prenatally or early in life. In milder forms, such as odontohypophosphatasia (OHP), premature exfoliation of primary teeth may be the only clinical manifestation. CASE REPORT.  A 20-month-old girl was referred to the Specialist Paediatric Salaried Dental Service within the Harrogate and District NHS Foundation Trust with mobility of tooth numbers 71 and 81. Clinical examination revealed grade III mobile 71 and 81, with minimal gingival inflammation and plaque deposits. There were no other dental findings and no significant medical history. Tooth numbers 71 and 81 exfoliated prematurely with no evidence of root resorption, shortly after presentation. Haematological and urinary investigations showed no abnormalities. Histological examination showed a complete absence of cementum. A diagnosis of OHP was made. After 10 months of dental follow-up, no further teeth have increased mobility. CONCLUSION.  Odontohypophosphatasia should be included as a differential diagnosis in children presenting with early loss of primary teeth. The dentist may be the first health care professional to whom the patient presents.

  19. Approaches for controlling illicit tobacco trade--nine countries and the European Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Hana; Husain, Muhammad Jami; Kostova, Deliana; Xu, Xin; Edwards, Sarah M; Chaloupka, Frank J; Ahluwalia, Indu B

    2015-05-29

    An estimated 11.6% of the world cigarette market is illicit, representing more than 650 billion cigarettes a year and $40.5 billion in lost revenue. Illicit tobacco trade refers to any practice related to distributing, selling, or buying tobacco products that is prohibited by law, including tax evasion (sale of tobacco products without payment of applicable taxes), counterfeiting, disguising the origin of products, and smuggling. Illicit trade undermines tobacco prevention and control initiatives by increasing the accessibility and affordability of tobacco products, and reduces government tax revenue streams. The World Health Organization (WHO) Protocol to Eliminate Illicit Trade in Tobacco Products, signed by 54 countries, provides tools for addressing illicit trade through a package of regulatory and governing principles. As of May 2015, only eight countries had ratified or acceded to the illicit trade protocol, with an additional 32 needed for it to become international law (i.e., legally binding). Data from multiple international sources were analyzed to evaluate the 10 most commonly used approaches for addressing illicit trade and to summarize differences in implementation across select countries and the European Union (EU). Although the WHO illicit trade protocol defines shared global standards for addressing illicit trade, countries are guided by their own legal and enforcement frameworks, leading to a diversity of approaches employed across countries. Continued adoption of the methods outlined in the WHO illicit trade protocol might improve the global capacity to reduce illicit trade in tobacco products.

  20. Prevalence and associated factors of illicit drug use among university students in the association of southeast Asian nations (ASEAN).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Siyan; Peltzer, Karl; Pengpid, Supa; Susilowati, Indri Hapsari

    2017-04-06

    Illicit drug use among university students has been recognized as a global public health issue in recent years. It may lead to poor academic performance that in turn leads to poor productivity in their later life. This study explores prevalence of and factors associated with illicit drug use among university students in the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN). This multi-country cross-sectional study was conducted in 2015 in Cambodia, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, the Philippines, Singapore, Thailand and Vietnam. A multi-stage cluster sampling was used to select undergraduate students from one or two universities in each country for self-administered questionnaire survey. Multivariate logistic regression analyses was performed to explore risk factors related to illicit drug use. Participants included 7,923 students with a mean age of 20.6 years (SD = 2.8), ranging from 18-30 years. The overall prevalence of frequent (≥10 times), infrequent (1-9 times) and ever (at least once) illicit drug use in the past 12 months was 2.2, 14.7, and 16.9%, respectively. After adjustment, male students were significantly less likely to be infrequent (1-9 times vs. never), but significantly more likely to be ever users compared to females. Compared to those living with parents/guardians, students living away from parents/guardians were significantly less likely to be frequent (≥10 times vs. never) and infrequent users. Students from lower-middle-income countries were significantly more likely to be frequent and infrequent users, but significantly less likely to be ever users compared to those from upper-middle or high-income countries. Students with poor subjective health status were significantly more likely to be frequent users compared to those who reported good subjective health status. Students who reported binge drinking in the past month were significantly more likely to be infrequent users, but significantly less likely to be ever users. Our

  1. [Critical perspective of the family and acquaintances on family and community risk factors in illicit drug use in São Jose, Costa Rica].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granados Hernández, Mabell; Brands, Bruna; Adlaf, Edward; Giesbrecht, Norman; Simich, Laura; Wright, Maria da Gloria Miotto

    2009-01-01

    This article presents the results of a quantitative study. The purpose was to describe the perspective of family members and acquaintances of illicit drug users about family and community risk factors that can contribute to addiction to illicit drugs. A questionnaire was used for data collection. The population consisted of 100 individuals, 18 years of age or older, who reported being affected by their relationship with an illicit drug user (relative or acquaintance). Most users (82%) were men, with an average age of 27.3 years. Family risk factors included: family rejection (99%), not feeling loved (98%), lack of communication (95%), family conflicts and violence (95%). Social or community factors included: 99% having friends who use drugs, 99% peer pressure, 93% living in an unsafe area, and 99% experienced a stressful event. The critical perspective proposes to use more prevention strategies to avoid risk factors in the family and community.

  2. Illicit survival of cancer cells during polyploidization and depolyploidization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitale, I; Galluzzi, L; Senovilla, L; Criollo, A; Jemaà, M; Castedo, M; Kroemer, G

    2011-09-01

    Tetraploidy and the depolyploidization of tetraploid cells may contribute to oncogenesis. Several mechanisms have evolved to avoid the generation, survival, proliferation and depolyploidization of tetraploids. Cells that illicitly survive these checkpoints are prone to chromosomal instability and aneuploidization. Along with their replication, tetraploids constantly undergo chromosomal rearrangements that eventually lead to pseudodiploidy by two non-exclusive mechanisms: (i) multipolar divisions and (ii) illicit bipolar divisions in the presence of improper microtubule-kinetochore attachments. Here, we describe the regulation and the molecular mechanisms that underlie such a 'polyploidization-depolyploidization' cascade, while focusing on the role of oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes in tetraploidy-driven tumorigenesis. We speculate that the identification of signaling/metabolic cascades that are required for the survival of tetraploid or aneuploid (but not diploid) cancer cells may pave the way for the development of novel broad-spectrum anticancer agents.

  3. Licit and illicit drug use in cluster headache.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govare, Amelie; Leroux, Elizabeth

    2014-05-01

    Cluster headache patients seem to use more licit and illicit substances than the general population. The epidemiologic data supporting this is growing. We included the licit drugs in this review because their use seems to be driven by the same addiction mechanisms leading to illicit drug abuse. Some drugs may be used in an attempt to treat cluster headache, especially cocaine and hallucinogens. Drug exposure may also play a role in CH pathophysiology, as suggested by interesting data on tobacco use and second-hand smoke exposure. A common factor may contribute both to CH and drug use predisposition. Genetic factors may be at play, and the dopaminergic and orexinergic pathways could be targeted for future studies.

  4. Illicit crops: A look from the national accounts system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Lucía Bazzani C.

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This article presents an analysis of the evolution of illicit crops in Colombia through the National Accounts System, which provides a basis for the study of transactions and the use of the product in an economy. Through the input-output methodology it is shown that, thanks to the drug policy action developed by the national government, its importance in generation of value added has been changing and decreasing over time.

  5. Water quality in coastal wetlands: illicit drugs in surface waters of L'Albufera Natural Park (Valencia, Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vazquez-Roig, P.; Blasco, C.; Andreu, V.; Pascual, J. A.; Rubio, J. L.; Picó, Y.

    2010-05-01

    A wide range of emerging pollutants have been identified in environment: antibiotics, hormones, personal care products, etc. But quite recently a new class of ecological threat has been reported: the presence in waters of abuse drugs coming from human consumption [1,2]. Treatment of wastewaters may remove a portion of these compounds, but sometimes, these treatments are insufficient or nonexistent, residues can reach into the aquatic environment. ĹAlbufera Natural Park (Valencia, Spain) is a marsh area of a great interest because it is the habitat of a large quantity of unique species of flora and fauna, and a zone of refuge, feeding and breeding for a large number of migratory birds. However, this area is threatened by urban, industrial and agricultural pressures. The aim of this work has been to develop a fast and sensitive multi-residue analytical method for to establish the occurrence and distribution of commonly consumed illicit drugs in surface waters of ĹAlbufera lake. A representative set of abuse drugs with different mode of action was chosen for this purpose, including: amphetaminics, opiates, cocainics and cannabinoids (THC and nor-9-carboxy-THC). In April 2008 and October 2008 a total of 16 samples of water were collected, corresponding to different sampling points previously designed, and covering the most important channels that flow in to the lake. Samples of 250 mL of water were concentrated by Solid Phase Extraction through an Oasis HLB cartridge and extracted subsequently with methanol as solvent. Quantification was carried out by LC-MS/MS with an ESI interface. Performance characteristics of the PLE-SPE followed by LC-MS/MS were established by validation procedure. Selectivity, linearity, precision, recoveries and limits of detection (LOD) and quantification (LOQ) were studied. Our search shows that current sewage treatment systems do not completely remove illicit drug residues from urban wastewater. Benzoylecgonine, the main metabolite from

  6. Identification and quantification of change in Australian illicit drug markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Degenhardt Louisa

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In early 2001 Australia experienced a sudden reduction in the availability of heroin which had widespread effects on illicit drug markets across the country. The consequences of this event, commonly referred to as the Australian 'heroin shortage', have been extensively studied and there has been considerable debate as to the causes of the shortage and its implications for drug policy. This paper aims to investigate the presence of these epidemic patterns, to quantify the scale over which they occur and to estimate the relative importance of the 'heroin shortage' and any epidemic patterns in the drug markets. Method Key indicator data series from the New South Wales illicit drug market were analysed using the statistical methods Principal Component Analysis and SiZer. Results The 'heroin shortage' represents the single most important source of variation in this illicit drug market. Furthermore the size of the effect of the heroin shortage is more than three times that evidenced by long-term 'epidemic' patterns. Conclusion The 'heroin shortage' was unlikely to have been a simple correction at the end of a long period of reduced heroin availability, and represents a separate non-random shock which strongly affected the markets.

  7. Misuse of prescription and illicit drugs among high-risk young adults in Los Angeles and New York

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen E. Lankenau

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Background. Prescription drug misuse among young adults is increasingly viewed as a public health concern, yet most research has focused on student populations and excluded high-risk groups. Furthermore, research on populations who report recent prescription drug misuse is limited. This study examined patterns of prescription drug misuse among high-risk young adults in Los Angeles (LA and New York (NY, which represent different local markets for illicit and prescription drugs. Design and Methods. Between 2009 and 2011, 596 young adults (16 to 25 years old who had misused prescription drugs within the past 90 days were interviewed in Los Angeles and New York. Sampling was stratified to enroll three groups of high-risk young adults: injection drug users (IDUs; homeless persons; and polydrug users. Results. In both sites, lifetime history of receiving a prescription for an opioid, tranquilizer, or stimulant was high and commonly preceded misuse. Moreover, initiation of opioids occurred before heroin and initiation of prescription stimulants happened prior to illicit stimulants. NY participants more frequently misused oxycodone, heroin, and cocaine, and LA participants more frequently misused codeine, marijuana, and methamphetamine. Combining prescription and illicit drugs during drug using events was commonly reported in both sites. Opioids and tranquilizers were used as substitutes for other drugs, e.g., heroin, when these drugs were not available. Conclusion. Patterns of drug use among high-risk young adults in Los Angeles and New York appear to be linked to differences in local markets in each city for illicit drugs and diverted prescription drugs.

  8. The occurrence of illicit and therapeutic pharmaceuticals in wastewater effluent and surface waters in Nebraska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartelt-Hunt, Shannon L. [Department of Civil Engineering, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, 203B Peter Kiewit Institute, Omaha, NE 68182-0178 (United States)], E-mail: sbartelt2@unl.edu; Snow, Daniel D.; Damon, Teyona [Water Sciences Laboratory, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, NE 68583-0844 (United States); Shockley, Johnette [Department of Civil Engineering, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, 203B Peter Kiewit Institute, Omaha, NE 68182-0178 (United States); Hoagland, Kyle [UNL Water Center, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, NE 68583-0995 (United States)

    2009-03-15

    The occurrence and estimated concentration of twenty illicit and therapeutic pharmaceuticals and metabolites in surface waters influenced by wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) discharge and in wastewater effluents in Nebraska were determined using Polar Organic Chemical Integrative Samplers (POCIS). Samplers were installed in rivers upstream and downstream of treated WWTP discharge at four sites and in a discharge canal at a fifth location. Based on differences in estimated concentrations determined from pharmaceuticals recovered from POCIS, WWTP effluent was found to be a significant source of pharmaceutical loading to the receiving waters. Effluents from WWTPs with trickling filters or trickling filters in parallel with activated sludge resulted in the highest observed in-stream pharmaceutical concentrations. Azithromycin, caffeine, 1,7-dimethylzanthine, carbamazepine, cotinine, DEET, diphenhydramine, and sulfamethazine were detected at all locations. Methamphetamine, an illicit pharmaceutical, was detected at all but one of the sampling locations, representing only the second report of methamphetamine detected in WWTP effluent and in streams impacted by WWTP effluent. - Passive samplers were used to develop semi-quantitative estimates of pharmaceutical concentrations in receiving waters influenced by wastewater effluent.

  9. Urine drug testing of chronic pain patients: licit and illicit drug patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cone, Edward J; Caplan, Yale H; Black, David L; Robert, Timothy; Moser, Frank

    2008-10-01

    Chronic pain patients are frequently maintained on one or more powerful opioid medications in combination with other psychoactive medications. Urine tests provide objective information regarding patient compliance status. Little information is available on testing this unique population. The goal of this study was to characterize drug disposition patterns in urine specimens collected from a large population of pain patients. Confirmation data for 10,922 positive specimens were collated into 11 drug Classes. The number of drug/metabolites tested (#) and number of confirmed positive specimens were as follows: amphetamines (7), 160; barbiturates (5), 308; benzodiazepines (6), 2397; cannabinoids (1), 967; carisoprodol (2), 611; cocaine (1), 310; fentanyl (1), 458; meperidine (2), 58; methadone (2), 1209; opiates (7), 8996; and propoxyphene (2), 385. Subdivision into 19 distinct drug Groups allowed characterization of drug use patterns. Of the 10,922 positive specimens, 15,859 results were reported as positive in various drug Classes, and 27,197 drug/metabolites were measured by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The frequency of illicit drug use (cannabis, cocaine, ecstasy) was 10.8%. Being the first study of this type, these data present a large array of information on licit and illicit drug use, drug detection frequencies, drug/metabolite patterns, and multi-drug use combinations in pain patients.

  10. Prescription Drug Diversion: Predictors of Illicit Acquisition and Redistribution in Three U.S. Metropolitan Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shana Harris

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Prescription drug diversion, the transfer of prescription drugs from lawful to unlawful channels for distribution or use, is a problem in the United States. Despite the pervasiveness of diversion, there are gaps in the literature regarding characteristics of individuals who participate in the illicit trade of prescription drugs. This study examines a range of predictors (e.g., demographics, prescription insurance coverage, perceived risk associated with prescription drug diversion of membership in three distinct diverter groups: individuals who illicitly acquire prescription drugs, those who redistribute them, and those who engage in both behaviors. Methods: Data were drawn from a cross-sectional Internet study (N = 846 of prescription drug use and diversion patterns in New York City, South Florida, and Washington, D.C.. Participants were classified into diversion categories based on their self-reported involvement in the trade of prescription drugs. Group differences in background characteristics of diverter groups were assessed by Chi-Square tests and followed up with multivariate logistic regressions. Results: While individuals in all diversion groups were more likely to be younger and have a licit prescription for any of the assessed drugs in the past year than those who did not divert, individuals who both acquire and redistribute are more likely to live in New York City, not have prescription insurance coverage, and perceive fewer legal risks of prescription drug diversion. Conclusion: Findings suggest that predictive characteristics vary according to diverter group.

  11. International cooperation in combating illicit trafficking of nuclear materials by technical means

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herbillon, J; Koch, L; Mason, G; Niemeyer, S; Nikiforov, N

    1999-04-01

    A consensus has been emerging during the past several years that illicit trafficking of nuclear materials is a problem that needs a more focused international response. One possible component of a program to combat illicit trafficking is nuclear forensics whereby intercepted nuclear materials are analyzed to provide clues for answering attribution questions. In this report we focus on international cooperation that is specifically addressing the development of nuclear forensics. First we will describe the role of the Nuclear Smuggling International Technical Working Group (ITWG) in developing nuclear forensics, and then we will present some specific examples of cooperative work by the Institute for Transuranium Elements of the European Commission with various European states. Recognizing the potential importance of a nuclear forensics capability, the P-8 countries in 1995 encouraged technical experts to evaluate the role of nuclear forensics in combating nuclear smuggling and possibly developing mechanisms for international cooperation. As a result, an International Conference on Nuclear Smuggling Forensic Analysis was held in November, 1995, at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory to investigate technical cooperation on nuclear forensics. The International Conference provided a unique mix of scientists, law enforcement, and intelligence experts from 14 countries and organizations. All participants were invited to make presentations, and the format of the Conference was designed to encourage open discussion and broad participation.

  12. Countering the demand for, and supply of, illicit tobacco: an assessment of the 'North of England Tackling Illicit Tobacco for Better Health' Programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeill, Ann; Iringe-Koko, Belinda; Bains, Manpreet; Bauld, Linda; Siggens, Geoffrey; Russell, Andrew

    2014-05-01

    Illicit tobacco (IT) undermines the effectiveness of tobacco control strategies. We assessed the implementation and impact of a new programme designed to reduce demand for, as well as supply of, IT, in the north of England, where IT was prevalent. 'Mixed methods' research was undertaken. Qualitative methods included stakeholder interviews (at outset and 1 year later) and ethnographic research. Indicators reflecting those supply and demand issues for which data were available were identified and monitored, including relevant items on two cross-sectional surveys carried out in 2009 and 2011 with over 4000 individuals from which a social marketing campaign was also developed. IT reports to two existing hotlines, promoted through the programme, were assessed. Initially, concerns abounded about the different philosophies and ways of working of local and national enforcement and health agencies, but these were much reduced at follow-up. A protocol was developed which greatly facilitated the flow of intelligence about IT supply. A social marketing campaign was developed highlighting two messages: IT makes it easier for children to start smoking and brings crime into the community, thereby avoiding misleading messages about relative harms of illicit and licit tobacco. Public and stakeholder awareness of IT increased as did calls to both hotlines. A partnership of agencies, with competing values, was established to tackle IT, a complex public health issue and, inter alia, implemented a social marketing campaign using novel messages. This improved the flow of intelligence about the supply of IT and increased awareness of IT. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  13. Countering the demand for, and supply of, illicit tobacco: an assessment of the ‘North of England Tackling Illicit Tobacco for Better Health’ Programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeill, Ann; Iringe-Koko, Belinda; Bains, Manpreet; Bauld, Linda; Siggens, Geoffrey; Russell, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Background Illicit tobacco (IT) undermines the effectiveness of tobacco control strategies. We assessed the implementation and impact of a new programme designed to reduce demand for, as well as supply of, IT, in the north of England, where IT was prevalent. Methods ‘Mixed methods’ research was undertaken. Qualitative methods included stakeholder interviews (at outset and 1 year later) and ethnographic research. Indicators reflecting those supply and demand issues for which data were available were identified and monitored, including relevant items on two cross-sectional surveys carried out in 2009 and 2011 with over 4000 individuals from which a social marketing campaign was also developed. IT reports to two existing hotlines, promoted through the programme, were assessed. Results Initially, concerns abounded about the different philosophies and ways of working of local and national enforcement and health agencies, but these were much reduced at follow-up. A protocol was developed which greatly facilitated the flow of intelligence about IT supply. A social marketing campaign was developed highlighting two messages: IT makes it easier for children to start smoking and brings crime into the community, thereby avoiding misleading messages about relative harms of illicit and licit tobacco. Public and stakeholder awareness of IT increased as did calls to both hotlines. Conclusions A partnership of agencies, with competing values, was established to tackle IT, a complex public health issue and, inter alia, implemented a social marketing campaign using novel messages. This improved the flow of intelligence about the supply of IT and increased awareness of IT. PMID:23958644

  14. Childhood abuse related to nicotine, illicit and prescription drug use by women: pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pederson, Cathy L; Vanhorn, Daniel R; Wilson, Josephine F; Martorano, Lisa M; Venema, Jana M; Kennedy, Sarah M

    2008-10-01

    A sample of 811 women ages 18 to 59 (M=26.0, SD=6.5) responded to an advertisement by telephone. Inquiries were made about childhood abuse status and adult use of alcohol, nicotine, and prescription and illicit drugs. Significant associations were noted for reported sexual, physical, and emotional childhood abuse with use of nicotine, marijuana, and antidepressants in adulthood. Reported childhood physical and emotional abuses were also significantly associated with use of cocaine and anxiolytics, and sexual abuse with antipsychotic use in adulthood. Only childhood emotional abuse was associated with the use of sleeping pills. Number of types of abuse was significantly related with use of nicotine, marijuana, cocaine, antidepressants, antipsychotics, and anxiolytics. Alcohol use was not related to any type of abuse. The long-term effects of childhood emotional abuse may be just as severe as physical or sexual abuse.

  15. Smoke, alcohol consumption and illicit drug use in an Italian population of pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Santis, Marco; De Luca, Carmen; Mappa, Ilenia; Quattrocchi, Tomasella; Angelo, Licameli; Cesari, Elena

    2011-11-01

    High-risk behaviours are associated with an increased risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes. Exposure to drugs, infection or radiation is a cause of concern for pregnant women, who contact Teratology Information Services (TIS) to have a counseling but with an accurate medical history is possible to detect additional behavioural risk factors that can significantly interfere with pregnancy outcome. The aim of this study is to describe risk behaviours in a population of Italian women calling our TIS and to identify related maternal factors. Between December 2008 and January 2010 we collected data from 503 pregnant women calling our TIS (Telefono Rosso, Rome). We investigated about smoke, alcohol and abuse substances addiction and we also collected demographic data. Of the 503 women consenting to participate 34% were found to have an additional risk marker during the current pregnancy. Within this group were 22.7% (n=119) who reported smoking, the 17.7% (n=89) admitted to drink and 2 women (0.4%) used illicit drugs. In 13.7% of cases (n=69) reason for calling represented an exposure to teratogenic agents. Unmarried status and previous induced abortion represent a risk factor for all high-risk behaviours. Lower education (p<0.001) and use of neurological drugs (p<0.001) are related with cigarette consumption. A lower parity was a risk factor for alcohol assumption (p=0.04). Women with high-risk behaviours tend to be exposed to more than a risk factor. Teratogen Information Services are an important system to identify women with pregnancy risk markers. These services should have the ability to provide risk reduction information to women who smoke cigarettes or with alcohol or drug use. In addition to the phone based information these women may benefit from referral back to their physician for assessment and management of substance use/abuse during pregnancy. Substance abuse risks are often underestimated by pregnant women. Single mothers or women with an history of

  16. Illicit psychotropic substance contents in the air of Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cecinato, Angelo; Balducci, Catia; Budetta, Valentina; Pasini, Antonello

    2010-06-01

    Two in-field campaigns were performed in 2009 to elucidate the contents of illicit psychotropic substances in airborne particulates of Italian cities. Twenty-eight localities of eight Italian regions were investigated in winter, and further eleven sites in June (14 regions in total), thanks to contribution of Regional Environmental Agencies. Cocaine was found almost everywhere, although some sites were rural or suburban. The maximum was recorded in Milan in winter (˜0.39 ng m -3), and "high" values (up to ˜0.16 ng m -3) in other Northern cities and in Rome. Besides cocaine, three cannabinoids will be monitored, namely Δ 9-tetrahydrocannabinol, cannabidiol and cannabinol. The three compounds often affected the air at lower extents than cocaine, and sometimes resulted absent. Cannabinol accounted for up to 90% of the total. The concentrations of illicit compounds were up to six times lower in June than in winter. This decrease was probably induced by the lowering of boundary layer height typical of winter, and by the oxidizing capacity of atmosphere, which is stronger in the warm season. Compared to n-alkanes, polynuclear aromatic compounds, nicotine, caffeine and airborne particulate, cocaine seemed to follow a peculiar behaviour; in fact, meaningful (≥0.80) Pearson (linear) regression coefficients were calculated from the corresponding concentrations only at local scale (e.g. Rome), and within just one season. Improvements of the method are needed to monitor illicit drug metabolites (e.g. benzoylecgonine, ecgonine methyl ester, 9-carboxy-11-nor-Δ 9-tetrahydrocannabinol), heroin and semi-volatile amphetamines.

  17. Mexicans’ Use of Illicit Drugs in an Era of Drug Reform: National Comparative Analysis by Migrant Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villatoro, Jorge Ameth; Kong, Yinfei; Gamiño, Marycarmen Bustos; Vega, William A.; Mora, Maria Elena Medina

    2014-01-01

    Although rates of illicit drug use are considerably lower in Mexico than in the United States, rates in Mexico have risen significantly. This increase has particular implications for Mexican women and U.S. migrants, who are considered at increased risk of drug use. Due to drug reforms enacted in Mexico in 2008, it is critical to evaluate patterns of drug use among migrants who reside in both regions. We analysed a sample of Mexicans (N = 16,249) surveyed during a national household survey in 2011, the Encuesta Nacional de Adicciones (National Survey of Addictions). Comparative analyses based on Mexicans’ migrant status—(1) never in the United States, (2) visited the United States, or (3) lived in the United States (transnationals)—featured analysis of variance and chi-square global tests. Two multilevel regressions were conducted to determine the relationships among migrant status, women, and illicit drug use. Comparative findings showed significant differences in type and number of drugs used among Mexicans by migrant status. The regression models showed that compared with Mexicans who had never visited the United States, Mexican transnationals were more likely to report having used drugs (OR = 2.453, 95% CI = 1.933, 3.113) and using more illicit drugs (IRR = 2.061, 95% CI = 1.626, 2.613). Women were less likely than men to report having used drugs (OR = 0.187, 95% CI = 0.146, 0.239) and using more illicit drugs (IRR = 0.153, 95% CI = 0.116, 0.202). Overall, the findings support further exploration of risk factors for illicit drug use among Mexican transnationals, who exhibit greater drug use behaviours than Mexicans never in the United States. Because drug reform mandates referrals to treatment for those with recurrent issues of drug use, it is critical for the Mexican government and civic society to develop the capacity to offer evidence-based substance abuse treatment for returning migrants with high-risk drug behaviours. PMID:24816376

  18. Analysis of illicit drugs by direct ablation of solid samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermúdez, Celina; Cabezas, Carlos; Mata, Santiago; Berdakin, Matias; Tejedor, Jesús M; Alonso, José L

    2015-01-01

    Analysis of illicit drugs arises as an important field of work given the high social impacts presented by drugs in the modern society. Direct laser ablation of solid compounds allows their analysis without sampling or preparation procedures. For that purpose, an experimental set-up that combines laser ablation with time-of- flight mass spectrometry has been constructed very recently to perform studies on the mass spectra of such drugs as 3,4-methylenedioxy-N-methylamphetamine, commonly known as MDMA or ecstasy. Analysis of the observed fragmentation pattern in mass spectra may elucidate the ablation-induced photofragmentation phenomena produced, which differ from those previously observed with conventional ionization methods.

  19. Individual and population level impacts of illicit drug use, sexual risk behaviours on sexually transmitted infections among young Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people: results from the GOANNA survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wand, Handan; Ward, James; Bryant, Joanne; Delaney-Thiele, Dea; Worth, Heather; Pitts, Marian; Kaldor, John M

    2016-07-19

    Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) have been increasing among Australian Indigenous young people for over two decades. Little is known about the association between alcohol and other drug use and sexual risk behaviours and diagnosis of STIs among this population. A cross-sectional, community based self-administered survey was conducted among young Aboriginal people aged 16-29 years of age. Questionnaires included socio-demographic characteristics, knowledge, sexual risk behaviours alcohol and other drug use and health service access including self-reported history of diagnosis with a STI. Logistic regression models and population attributable risks were used to assess individual and population level impacts of illicit drug use on high risk sexual behaviours and ever reported diagnosis of an STI. Of the 2877 participants, 2320 (81 %) identified as sexually active and were included in this study. More than 50 % of the study population reported that they had used at least one illicit drug in past year. Cannabis, ecstasy and methamphetamines were the three most commonly used illicit drugs in the past year. The prevalence of self-reported STI diagnosis was 25 %. Compared with people who did not report using illicit drugs, risky alcohol use and sexual behaviours including inconsistent condom use, multiple sexual partners in the past year and sex with casual partners were all significantly higher among illicit drug users. In adjusted analysis, participants who reported using illicit drugs were significantly more likely to engage in sexual risk behaviours and to ever have been diagnosed with an STI. Adjusted Odds Ratios ranged from 1.86 to 3.00 (males) and from 1.43 to 2.46 (females). At the population level, more than 70 % of the STI diagnoses were attributed to illicit drug-use and sexual risk behaviours for males and females. Illicit drug use in this population is relatively high compared to other similar aged populations in Australia. Illicit drug use was

  20. Transactional Sex among Noninjecting Illicit Drug Users: Implications for HIV Transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Alves Guimarães

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Noninjecting illicit drug users (NIDUs present high risk for HIV infection, due especially to transactional sex. This study aimed to estimate the prevalence and risk factors for transactional sex among NIDUs in the Southwest region of Goiás State, Central Brazil. The prevalence of self-reported transactional sex was 22.8%. Prevalence in women and men was 52.7% and 16.8%, respectively, a significant difference (p<0.001. Crack use and history of sexually transmitted infections (STI were risk factors for transactional sex in men. Homelessness, crack use, sex under the influence of drugs, and history of sexual violence were risk factors for transactional sex in women. A high prevalence of transactional sex was observed among NIDUs. This risk behavior may contribute to the high rates of HIV among this population and their social networks and in the general population.

  1. Illicit gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) and pharmaceutical sodium oxybate (Xyrem): differences in characteristics and misuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Lawrence P; Pardi, Daniel; Gorsline, Jane; Griffiths, Roland R

    2009-09-01

    There are distinct differences in the accessibility, purity, dosing, and misuse associated with illicit gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) compared to pharmaceutical sodium oxybate. Gamma-hydroxybutyrate sodium and sodium oxybate are the chemical and drug names, respectively, for the pharmaceutical product Xyrem (sodium oxybate) oral solution. However, the acronym GHB is also used to refer to illicit formulations that are used for non-medical purposes. This review highlights important differences between illicit GHB and sodium oxybate with regard to their relative abuse liability, which includes the likelihood and consequences of abuse. Data are summarized from the scientific literature; from national surveillance systems in the U.S., Europe, and Australia (for illicit GHB); and from clinical trials and post-marketing surveillance with sodium oxybate (Xyrem). In the U.S., the prevalence of illicit GHB use, abuse, intoxication, and overdose has declined from 2000, the year that GHB was scheduled, to the present and is lower than that of most other licit and illicit drugs. Abuse and misuse of the pharmaceutical product, sodium oxybate, has been rare over the 5 years since its introduction to the market, which is likely due in part to the risk management program associated with this product. Differences in the accessibility, purity, dosing, and misuse of illicit GHB and sodium oxybate suggest that risks associated with illicit GHB are greater than those associated with the pharmaceutical product sodium oxybate.

  2. Illicit Drug Use from Adolescence to Young Adulthood among Child Welfare-Involved Youths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casanueva, Cecilia; Stambaugh, Leyla; Urato, Matthew; Fraser, Jenifer Goldman; Williams, Jason

    2014-01-01

    This study examined illicit substance use among 1,004 adolescents, ages 11-21, involved with the Child Welfare System (CWS) and followed from 1999 to 2007. By the time they reached transition age, more than 60% of the sample had used an illicit substance in their lifetime. Predictors of regular use during adolescence were having a prior CWS…

  3. Illicit Drug Use from Adolescence to Young Adulthood among Child Welfare-Involved Youths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casanueva, Cecilia; Stambaugh, Leyla; Urato, Matthew; Fraser, Jenifer Goldman; Williams, Jason

    2014-01-01

    This study examined illicit substance use among 1,004 adolescents, ages 11-21, involved with the Child Welfare System (CWS) and followed from 1999 to 2007. By the time they reached transition age, more than 60% of the sample had used an illicit substance in their lifetime. Predictors of regular use during adolescence were having a prior CWS…

  4. Patterns and correlates of illicit drug selling among youth in the USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmedani B

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Michael G Vaughn1, Jeffrey J Shook2, Brian E Perron3, Arnelyn Abdon4, Brian Ahmedani51School of Social Work, School of Public Health and Department of Public Policy Studies, Saint Louis University, St Louis, MO USA; 2School of Social Work, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA USA; 3School of Social Work, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI USA; 4School of Economics, University of the Philippines, Quezon City, Philippines; 5Henry Ford Health System, Detroit MI, USAPurpose: Despite the high rates of drug selling among youth in juvenile justice and youth residing in disadvantage neighborhoods, relatively little is known about the patterns of illicit drug selling among youth in the general population.Methods: Using the public-use data file from the adolescent sample (N = 17 842 in the 2008 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH, this study employed multiple logistic regression to compare the behavioral, parental involvement, and prevention experiences of youth who sold and did not sell illicit drugs in the past year.Results: Findings from a series of logistic regression models indicated youth who sold drugs were far more likely to use a wide variety of drugs and engage in delinquent acts. Drug-selling youth were significantly less likely to report having a parent involved in their life and have someone to talk to about serious problems but were more likely to report exposure to drug prevention programming.Conclusion: Selling of drugs by youth appears to be a byproduct of substance abuse and deviance proneness, and the prevention programs these youth experience are likely a result of mandated exposure derived from contact with the criminal justice system. Assuming no major drug supply side reductions, policies, and practices associated with increasing drug abuse treatment, parental involvement and supervision, and school engagement are suggested.Keywords: drug distribution, prevention, adolescent risk, youth experiences, parental

  5. Prior illicit drug use and missed prenatal vitamins predict nonadherence to antiretroviral therapy in pregnancy: adherence analysis A5084.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohn, Susan E; Umbleja, Triin; Mrus, Joseph; Bardeguez, Arlene D; Andersen, Janet W; Chesney, Margaret A

    2008-01-01

    Adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) in pregnancy is crucial to optimize its efficacy and minimize mother-to-child transmission. Our objective was to examine adherence patterns to ART and health behaviors during and after pregnancy among HIV-positive women enrolled in A5084, a prospective, observational, multisite study. Between 2002-2005, HIV-infected women between 20 and 34 weeks'gestation completed at least 1 self-reported adherence questionnaire antepartum (AP), and were followed through 12 weeks' postpartum (PP). Questionnaires also addressed tobacco, alcohol, and illicit drugs use. Adherence was defined as reporting not having missed any doses for more than 3 months. Exact McNemar's tests were used for paired binary data and exact logistic regression was used for predictors of nonadherence. We report on 149 women (55% black, 26% Hispanic, 32% less than 25 years, 9% with AIDS, 100% on ART). PP, 31 (21%) women stopped ART and 18 (12%) withdrew from the study. AP, 57% reported adherence to ART and PP, 45% (p = 0.03, n = 87). AP, 11% reported ongoing alcohol use and 23% tobacco use compared to 37% and 30% PP (p vitamins had 4.84 times higher odds (p = 0.001) of ART nonadherence. Women reporting a history of illicit drug use and/or having missed prenatal vitamins should be targeted for programs to enhance adherence to ART during pregnancy.

  6. Illicit buprenorphine use, interest in and access to buprenorphine treatment among syringe exchange participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Aaron D; Chamberlain, Adam; Sohler, Nancy L; Frost, Taeko; Cunningham, Chinazo O

    2015-01-01

    Poor access to buprenorphine maintenance treatment (BMT) may contribute to illicit buprenorphine use. This study investigated illicit buprenorphine use and barriers to BMT among syringe exchange participants. Computer-based interviews conducted at a New York City harm reduction agency determined: prior buprenorphine use; barriers to BMT; and interest in BMT. Of 102 opioid users, 57 had used illicit buprenorphine and 32 had used prescribed buprenorphine. When illicit buprenorphine users were compared to non-users: barriers to BMT ("did not know where to get treatment") were more common (64 vs. 36%, pbuprenorphine users were interested in BMT but did not know where to go for treatment. Addressing barriers to BMT could reduce illicit buprenorphine use.

  7. Young adults' retrospective reports of parenting by mothers and fathers: associations with current relationship quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton, William T; Frick-Horbury, Donna; Kitzmann, Katherine M

    2006-01-01

    The authors examined retrospective reports of both mothers' and fathers' parenting and young adults' (N = 75) relationship quality. Multiple regression analyses showed that, as predicted, young adults' retrospective reports of the positive parenting they experienced as children were significantly related to the extent by which they currently viewed (a) others as accessible and responsive, (b) their relationships with others as meaningful and important, and (c) themselves as able to form healthy relationships. Although both mothers' and fathers' parenting related to the quality of current relationships with parents, only reports of fathers' parenting were related to the quality of current relationships with a romantic partner. Fathers' parenting was also related to views of the self as being able to form secure and close relationships. The authors address both methodological and substantive explanations for these results.

  8. Illicit tobacco trade between the United States and Mexico El comercio ilícito de tabaco entre los Estados Unidos y México

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To provide a brief history of the illicit tobacco trade between Mexico and the United States. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Research included a previously published study: "Cigarette taxes and smuggling: A statistical analysis and historical review", published by the Mackinac Center for Public Policy; US Customs and Border Protection data; various US court documents; General Accountability Office reporting; media reports; other historical material, and a personal interview. RESULTS: The r...

  9. Early evidence about the predicted unintended consequences of standardised packaging of tobacco products in Australia: a cross-sectional study of the place of purchase, regular brands and use of illicit tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scollo, Michelle; Zacher, Meghan; Durkin, Sarah; Wakefield, Melanie

    2014-07-18

    To test for early evidence whether, following the standardisation of tobacco packaging, smokers in Australia were--as predicted by the tobacco industry--less likely to purchase from small mixed business retailers, more likely to purchase cheap brands imported from Asia and more likely to use illicit tobacco. Serial cross-sectional population telephone surveys in November 2011 (a year prior to implementation), 2012 (during roll-out) and 2013 (a year after implementation). Smokers aged 18 years and over identified in an annual population survey in the Australian state of Victoria (2011: n=754; 2012: n=590; 2013: n=601). Changes between 2011 and 2013 in: proportions of current smokers who purchased their last cigarette from discount outlets such as supermarkets compared with small mixed business retail outlets; prevalence of regular use of low-cost brands imported from Asia and use of unbranded tobacco. The proportion of smokers purchasing from supermarkets did not increase between 2011 (65.4%) and 2013 (65.7%; p=0.98), and the percentage purchasing from small mixed business outlets did not decline (2011: 9.2%; 2012: 11.2%; p=0.32). The prevalence of low-cost Asian brands was low and did not increase between 2011 (1.1%) and 2013 (0.9%; p=0.98). The proportion reporting current use of unbranded illicit tobacco was 2.3% in 2011 and 1.9% in 2013 (p=0.46). In 2013, 2.6% of cigarette smokers reported having purchased one or more packets of cigarettes in non-compliant packaging in the past 3 months; 1.7% had purchased one or more packets from an informal seller in the past year. One year after implementation, this study found no evidence of the major unintended consequences concerning loss of smoker patrons from small retail outlets, flooding of the market by cheap Asian brands and use of illicit tobacco predicted by opponents of plain packaging in Australia. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence

  10. Risk behaviours of illicit drug users while travelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatja Kostnapfel Rihtar

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Despite various formal limitations, an increasing number of opioid users, especially those stabilised in substitution therapy, travel abroad, away from their permanent residence to neighbouring and remote countries on other continents. Drug users are particularly at risk to get infected with hepatitis A, B, C and HIV during travelling.The main objectives of the study were to identify and determine the frequency of potential travel-related risk behaviour, such as illicit drug use, sharing of injecting equipment, unprotected sex, involvement in criminal activities and the extent of risk in illicit drug users, included in the programmes of the Centers for Prevention and Treatment of Drug Addiction in Slovenia.Methods: The study was carried out in two phases. The first phase included semi-structured interviews conducted in a group of drug users willing to participate in the study. Based on the analysis of transcripts and additional data, the original questionnaire Risky behaviour of illicit drug users during travels was developed and filled in anonymously and on a voluntary basis at the network of Centres for Prevention and Treatment of Drug Addiction. Univariate analysis between independent and dependent factors was conducted based on chi-square test and t-test for independent factors. Multivariate analysis of the impact of independent factors on the dependent factor was conducted based on binary logistic regression.Results: The questionnaire was filled out anonymously and voluntarily by 776 individuals in 14 Slovene centres for prevention and treatment of drug addiction. The results confirmed the first hypothesis that drug users travelling away from their permanent residence are more likely to share their injecting equipment, and engage in unprotected sex and in drug-related crime, and the second hypothesis stating that illegal drug users included in the substitution treatment programmes, who regularly use drugs at home, more often

  11. Association between adolescent tobacco, alcohol and illicit drug use and individual and environmental resilience protective factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodder, Rebecca Kate; Freund, Megan; Bowman, Jenny; Gillham, Karen; Dray, Julia; Wiggers, John

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Research suggests that individual and environmental resilience protective factors may be associated with adolescent substance use; however, the associations between a broad range of such factors and use of various types of substances have not been examined. The study aimed to determine the association between a comprehensive range of adolescent individual and environmental resilience protective factors and measures of tobacco, alcohol and illicit substance use. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting 32 Australian secondary schools. Participants Grade 7–10 students (aged 11–17 years). Measures Data regarding 14 student individual and environmental resilience protective factors and seven substance use measures (tobacco, alcohol, marijuana, other illicit drug use) were obtained via an online self-report survey. Adjusted multivariate logistic regression analyses examined the association between all student resilience protective factors and seven substance use measures. Results Inverse univariate associations were found for 94 of 98 relationships examined (n=10 092). Multivariate analyses found: consistent inverse associations between 2 of 14 protective factors and all substance use measures (‘goals and aspirations’, ‘prosocial peers’); inverse associations between 4 protective factors with multiple substance use measures (‘home support’ (5 of 7), ‘school support’ (3 of 7), ‘self-awareness’ (2 of 7), ‘community meaningful participation’ (2 of 7)); positive associations between 2 resilience protective factors with multiple measures of substance use (‘community support’ (3 of 7), ‘peer caring relationships’ (5 of 7)) and 6 protective factors not to be associated with any substance use measure. Conclusions Despite individual relationships between the majority of resilience protective factors and substance use types, the protective benefit of such factors for adolescent substance use was limited to only a small number of

  12. Is there heterogeneity among syndromes of substance use disorder for illicit drugs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beseler, Cheryl; Jacobson, Kristen C.; Kremen, William S.; Lyons, Michael J.; Glatt, Stephen J.; Faraone, Stephen V.; Gillespie, Nathan A.; Tsuang, Ming T.

    2014-01-01

    The use of DSM criteria to evaluate liability to substance use disorders (SUDs) and to identify SUD phenotypes may not provide the sensitivity required to identify genes associated with vulnerability to SUDs. The purpose of this study is to evaluate a number of basic aspects of substance use that may be more proximal than full SUDs to risk genes, some of which may thus have greater potential utility as phenotypes in subsequent molecular genetic analyses. In this paper we present results from the first stage of our planned analyses, focusing on how individual symptoms of abuse and dependence may be used to create alternate phenotypes for SUDs. Specifically, we used factor analysis and biometrical modeling on each symptom of illicit substance abuse and dependence within different types of substances, and compared and contrasted factor patterns and heritabilities across the different substances. These analyses were carried out using a population-based sample of 3372 male–male twin pairs from the Vietnam Era Twin Registry who participated in the Harvard Twin Study of Substance Abuse. We obtained extensive data from these participants on substance use and SUDs via telephone interview in 1992, including data on the illicit substances: opiates, cocaine, cannabis, sedatives, stimulants, and psychedelics. The results indicate that: A) although a one-factor model assuming a single underlying liability for abuse and dependence symptoms and behaviors can be rejected for most substances, there is no uniform support for a two-factor model differentiating between abuse versus dependence; B) patterns of symptoms or behaviors reported by substance users vary across substances; C) not all symptoms or behaviors contribute equally to the presentation of an SUD; and D) the heritability of symptoms or behaviors of substance users varies both within and between substances. These results represent important first steps in facilitating the search for SUD-risk genes in subsequent high

  13. Live Reporting in a News / Current Affairs TV Show as a Factor of (Non Credibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tena Perišin

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Only a perfunctory glance at the content of current aff airs/news programs makes it clear that in just a few years time, live reporting on Croatian TV news shows has increased dramatically. Technologicaladvancements, the equipping of TV stations with mobile satellite vans, and the pressure of competition have all resulted in increased instances of live reporting. When investigating news values, pictureand sound, as well as the possibility of immediate, timely reporting represent the key characteristics of TV journalism. In this context, live reports, as part of a news segment, should add to the authenticity and credibility of the program. Currently, however, TV broadcasting houses attempt to best one another in the number of live broadcasts as a means to purport a higher quality of their program. The direct address to the camera turns a reporter from an anonymous bearer of information into the “main star”. The figures accumulated on the extent of this form used in a news show do not determine the professional level of the editorial policy. Live reporting cannot be regarded as news value if other news values are neglected in the process. Recent research shows that live reports, in most cases, have been stripped of the initial notion of reporting on important and recent events. As such, they are becoming less of a justifi ed element in the creation of news.

  14. ILLICIT DOPAMINE TRANSIENTS: RECONCILING ACTIONS OF ABUSED DRUGS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Covey, Dan P.; Roitman, Mitchell F.; Garris, Paul A.

    2014-01-01

    Phasic increases in brain dopamine are required for cue-directed reward seeking. While compelling within the framework of appetitive behavior, the view that illicit drugs hijack reward circuits by hyper-activating these dopamine transients is inconsistent with established psychostimulant pharmacology. However, recent work reclassifying amphetamine (AMPH), cocaine, and other addictive dopamine-transporter inhibitors (DAT-Is) supports transient hyper-activation as a unifying hypothesis of abused drugs. We argue here that reclassification also identifies generating burst firing by dopamine neurons as a keystone action. Unlike natural rewards, which are processed by sensory systems, drugs act directly on the brain. Consequently, to mimic natural reward and exploit reward circuits, dopamine transients must be elicited de novo. Of available drug targets, only burst firing achieves this essential outcome. PMID:24656971

  15. Analyse horizontale du marché des biens illicites.

    OpenAIRE

    2002-01-01

    Dans cet article, on endogénéise la structure horizontale du marché des drogues illicites. L'hypothèse principale du modèle est que la probabilité de détection d'une organisation criminelle dépend de sa part de marché. On met en évidence le fait qu'une politique répressive plus sévère encourage les entrepreneurs criminels en place à laisser pénétrer d'autres organisations sur le marché de la drogue. D'un côté, la répression diminue les quantités produites par chaque organisation criminelle, m...

  16. Illicit substance use among adolescents: a matrix of prospective predictors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petraitis, J; Flay, B R; Miller, T Q; Torpy, E J; Greiner, B

    1998-11-01

    This paper reviews findings from 58 prospective studies of illicit substance use (ISU) among adolescents. It arranges 384 findings according to three types of influence (viz., social, attitudinal, and intrapersonal) and four levels of influence (viz., ultimate, distal, proximal, and immediate). The bulk of evidence reconfirms the importance of several predictors of ISU (e.g., intentions and prior substance-related behavior, friendship patterns and peer behaviors, absence of supportive parents, psychological temperament), reveals that a few variables thought to be well-established predictors may not be (e.g., parental behaviors, parental permissiveness, depression, low self-esteem), and uncovers several variables where findings were either sparse or inconsistent (e.g., the role of public policies concerning ISU, mass media depictions of ISU, certain parenting styles, affective states, perceptions of parental disapproval for ISU, and substance-specific refusal skills). Directions for future research are discussed.

  17. Mirage: Mitigating Illicit Inventorying in a RFID Enabled Retail Environment

    CERN Document Server

    White, Jonathan

    2010-01-01

    Given its low dollar and maintenance cost, RFID is poised to become the enabling technology for inventory control and supply chain management. However, as an outcome of its low cost, RFID based inventory control is susceptible to pernicious security and privacy threats. A deleterious attack on such a system is corporate espionage, where attackers through illicit inventorying infer sales and restocking trends for products. In this paper, we first present plausible aftermaths of corporate espionage using real data from online sources. Second, to mitigate corporate espionage in a retail store environment, we present a simple lowcost system called Mirage. Mirage uses additional programmable low cost passive RFID tags called honeytokens to inject noise in retail store inven-torying. Using a simple history based algorithm that controls activation and de-activation of honeytokens, Mirage randomizes sales and restocking trends. We evaluate Mirage in a real warehouse environment using a commercial off-the-shelf Motoro...

  18. Alternative methods for skin irritation testing: the current status : ECVAM skin irritation task force report 1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Botham, P.A.; Earl, L.K.; Fentem, J.H.; Roguet, R.; Sandt, J.J.M.

    1998-01-01

    The ECVAM Skin Irritation Task Force was established in November 1996, primarily to prepare a report on the current status of the development and validation of alternative tests for skin irritation and corrosion and, in particular, to identify any appropriate non-animal tests for predicting human

  19. Alternative methods for skin irritation testing: the current status : ECVAM skin irritation task force report 1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Botham, P.A.; Earl, L.K.; Fentem, J.H.; Roguet, R.; Sandt, J.J.M.

    1998-01-01

    The ECVAM Skin Irritation Task Force was established in November 1996, primarily to prepare a report on the current status of the development and validation of alternative tests for skin irritation and corrosion and, in particular, to identify any appropriate non-animal tests for predicting human sk

  20. Contemporary art and its commercial markets: a report on current conditions and future scenarios

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lind, M.; Velthuis, O.

    2012-01-01

    Contemporary Art and Its Commercial Markets: A Report on Current Conditions and Future Scenarios maps and analyzes the complex and contested entanglements of contemporary art and its commercial markets. Contemporary art as an asset category and celebrity accessory, the rise of the art fair, and the

  1. Contemporary art and its commercial markets: a report on current conditions and future scenarios

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lind, M.; Velthuis, O.

    2012-01-01

    Contemporary Art and Its Commercial Markets: A Report on Current Conditions and Future Scenarios maps and analyzes the complex and contested entanglements of contemporary art and its commercial markets. Contemporary art as an asset category and celebrity accessory, the rise of the art fair, and the

  2. A case control study of premorbid and currently reported physical activity levels in chronic fatigue syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buchwald Dedra

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patients with chronic fatigue syndrome typically report high levels of physical activity before becoming ill. Few studies have examined premorbid and current activity levels in chronically fatigued patients. Methods In a case-control study, 33 patients with chronic, unexplained, disabling fatigue attending a university-based clinic specializing in fatigue were compared to 33 healthy, age- and sex-matched controls. Patients rated their activity levels before their illness and currently, using scales designed for this purpose. Controls reported their level of activity of 2 years previously and currently. Chi-square analyses, Student's t tests, and Wilcoxon signed rank tests were used in pair matched analyses. Results Compared to healthy controls, patients with chronic, unexplained fatigue rated themselves as more active before their illness (p ≤ 0.001 and less active currently (p ≤ 0.001. The patients also reported they currently stood or walked less than the controls (median [inter-quartile range] = 4 2345 versus 9 [7.5–12] hours, p ≤ 0.001, and spent more time reclining (median [inter-quartile range] = 12 10111213141516 versus 8 [8–9.5] hours, p ≤ 0.001. These differences remained significant for the subset of patients who met strict criteria for chronic fatigue syndrome or fibromyalgia. Conclusion Patients with chronic, unexplained, disabling fatigue reported being more active before becoming ill than healthy controls. This finding could be explained by greater premorbid activity levels that could predispose to illness, or by an overestimation of previous activity. Either possibility could influence patients' perceptions of their current activity levels and their judgments of recovery. Perceived activity should be addressed as part of management of the illness.

  3. Clinical compliance of viewing conditions in radiology reporting environments against current guidelines and standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, S.; Rainford, L.; Butler, M. L.

    2014-03-01

    Several studies have demonstrated the importance of environmental conditions in the radiology reporting environment, with many indicating that incorrect parameters could lead to error and misinterpretation. Literature is available with recommendations as to the levels that should be achieved in clinical practice, but evidence of adherence to these guidelines in radiology reporting environments is absent. This study audited the reporting environments of four teleradiologist and eight hospital based radiology reporting areas. This audit aimed to quantify adherence to guidelines and identify differences in the locations with respect to layout and design, monitor distance and angle as well as the ambient factors of the reporting environments. In line with international recommendations, an audit tool was designed to enquire in relation to the layout and design of reporting environments, monitor angle and distances used by radiologists when reporting, as well as the ambient factors such as noise, light and temperature. The review of conditions were carried out by the same independent auditor for consistency. The results obtained were compared against international standards and current research. Each radiology environment was given an overall compliance score to establish whether or not their environments were in line with recommended guidelines. Poor compliance to international recommendations and standards among radiology reporting environments was identified. Teleradiology reporting environments demonstrated greater compliance than hospital environments. The findings of this study identified a need for greater awareness of environmental and perceptual issues in the clinical setting. Further work involving a larger number of clinical centres is recommended.

  4. Dual-color bioluminescent bioreporter for forensic analysis: evidence of androgenic and anti-androgenic activity of illicit drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cevenini, Luca; Michelini, Elisa; D'Elia, Marcello; Guardigli, Massimo; Roda, Aldo

    2013-01-01

    Bioassays represent promising complementary techniques to conventional analytical approaches used in doping analysis to detect illicit drugs like anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS). The fact that all AAS share a common mechanism of action via the human androgen receptor (hAR) enables the use of bioassays, relying on the activation of hAR as antidoping screening tools. Previously, we developed a dual-color bioreporter based on yeast cells engineered to express hAR and androgen response elements driving the expression of the bioluminescent (BL) reporter protein Photinus pyralis luciferase. A second reporter protein, the red-emitting luciferase PpyRE8, was introduced in the bioreporter as internal viability control. Here, we report the first forensic application of a straightforward, accurate, and cost-effective bioassay, relying on spectral resolution of the two BL signals, in 96-microwell format. The bioreporter responds to dihydrotestosterone as reference androgen in a concentration-dependent manner from 0.08 to 1,000 nM with intra- and inter-assay variation coefficients of 11.4 % and 13.1 %, respectively. We also demonstrated the suitability of this dual-color bioreporter to assess (anti)-androgenic activity of pure AAS, mixtures of AAS, and other illicit drugs provided by the Scientific Police. Significant anti-androgenic activity was observed in samples labeled as marijuana and hashish, containing Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol as major constituent.

  5. Costing, Budgeting and Financial Reporting: A Report on Current Practice in the Further Education Sector. Research Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learning and Skills Development Agency, London (England).

    The approaches to costing, budgeting, and financial reporting being used in further education (FE) colleges in the United Kingdom as of autumn 2000 were examined through a questionnaire that was circulated to all finance directors in the FE college sector. Approximately one-third of the sector (144 FE colleges) responded. The responding FE…

  6. High-intensity cannabis use and adherence to antiretroviral therapy among people who use illicit drugs in a Canadian setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slawson, Gregory; Milloy, M-J; Balneaves, Lynda; Simo, Annick; Guillemi, Silvia; Hogg, Robert; Montaner, Julio; Wood, Evan; Kerr, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Cannabis is increasingly prescribed clinically and utilized by people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) to address symptoms of HIV disease and to manage side effects of antiretroviral therapy (ART). In light of concerns about the possibly deleterious effect of psychoactive drug use on adherence to ART, we sought to determine the relationship between high-intensity cannabis use and adherence to ART among a community-recruited cohort of HIV-positive illicit drug users. We used data from the ACCESS study, an ongoing prospective cohort study of HIV-seropositive illicit drug users linked to comprehensive ART dispensation records in a setting of universal no-cost HIV care. We estimated the relationship between at least daily cannabis use in the last 6 months, measured longitudinally, and the likelihood of optimal adherence to ART during the same period, using a multivariate linear mixed-effects model accounting for relevant socio-demographic, behavioral, clinical and structural factors. From May 2005 to May 2012, 523 HIV-positive illicit drug users were recruited and contributed 2,430 interviews. At baseline, 121 (23.1 %) participants reported at least daily cannabis use. In bivariate and multivariate analyses we did not observe an association between using cannabis at least daily and optimal adherence to prescribed HAART (Adjusted Odds Ratio = 1.12, 95 % Confidence Interval [95 % CI]: 0.76-1.64, p value = 0.555.) High-intensity cannabis use was not associated with adherence to ART. These findings suggest cannabis may be utilized by PLWHA for medicinal and recreational purposes without compromising effective adherence to ART.

  7. Tijeras Arroyo Groundwater Current Conceptual Model and Corrective Measures Evaluation Report - December 2016.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Copland, John R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-03-01

    This Tijeras Arroyo Groundwater Current Conceptual Model and Corrective Measures Evaluation Report (CCM/CME Report) has been prepared by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and Sandia Corporation (Sandia) to meet requirements under the Sandia National Laboratories-New Mexico (SNL/NM) Compliance Order on Consent (the Consent Order). The Consent Order, entered into by the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED), DOE, and Sandia, became effective on April 29, 2004. The Consent Order identified the Tijeras Arroyo Groundwater (TAG) Area of Concern (AOC) as an area of groundwater contamination requiring further characterization and corrective action. This report presents an updated Conceptual Site Model (CSM) of the TAG AOC that describes the contaminant release sites, the geological and hydrogeological setting, and the distribution and migration of contaminants in the subsurface. The dataset used for this report includes the analytical results from groundwater samples collected through December 2015.

  8. "The first shot": the context of first injection of illicit drugs, ongoing injecting practices, and hepatitis C infection in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliveira Maria de Lourdes Aguiar

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The context of first drug injection and its association with ongoing injecting practices and HCV (hepatitis C virus infection were investigated. Injection drug users (IDUs (N = 606 were recruited in "drug scenes" (public places, bars in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, interviewed, and tested for HCV. Sharing of needles/syringes was more prevalent at the first injection (51.3% than at the baseline interview (36.8%. Those who shared syringes/needles at first injection were more likely to be currently engaged in direct/indirect sharing practices. Among young injectors (< 30 years, those reporting sharing of needles/ syringes at the first injection were about four times more likely to have been infected by HCV. Hepatitis C virus prevalence among active IDUs (n = 272 was 11%. Prison history and longer duration of drug injection were identified as independent predictors of HCV infection. To effectively curb HCV transmission among IDUs and minimize harms associated with risk behaviors, preventive strategies should target individuals initiating drug injection beginning with their very first injection and discourage the transition from non-injecting use to the self-injection of illicit drugs.

  9. "The first shot": the context of first injection of illicit drugs, ongoing injecting practices, and hepatitis C infection in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria de Lourdes Aguiar Oliveira

    Full Text Available The context of first drug injection and its association with ongoing injecting practices and HCV (hepatitis C virus infection were investigated. Injection drug users (IDUs (N = 606 were recruited in "drug scenes" (public places, bars in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, interviewed, and tested for HCV. Sharing of needles/syringes was more prevalent at the first injection (51.3% than at the baseline interview (36.8%. Those who shared syringes/needles at first injection were more likely to be currently engaged in direct/indirect sharing practices. Among young injectors (< 30 years, those reporting sharing of needles/ syringes at the first injection were about four times more likely to have been infected by HCV. Hepatitis C virus prevalence among active IDUs (n = 272 was 11%. Prison history and longer duration of drug injection were identified as independent predictors of HCV infection. To effectively curb HCV transmission among IDUs and minimize harms associated with risk behaviors, preventive strategies should target individuals initiating drug injection beginning with their very first injection and discourage the transition from non-injecting use to the self-injection of illicit drugs.

  10. Incidence and risk factors for non-fatal overdose among a cohort of recently incarcerated illicit drug users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinner, Stuart A; Milloy, M-J; Wood, Evan; Qi, Jiezhi; Zhang, Ruth; Kerr, Thomas

    2012-06-01

    Release from prison is associated with a markedly increased risk of both fatal and non-fatal drug overdose, yet the risk factors for overdose in recently released prisoners are poorly understood. The aim of this study was to identify risk and protective factors for non-fatal overdose (NFOD) among a cohort of illicit drug users in Vancouver, Canada, according to recent incarceration. Prospective cohort of 2515 community-recruited illicit drug users in Vancouver, Canada, followed from 1996 to 2010. We examined factors associated with NFOD in the past six months separately among those who did and did not also report incarceration in the last six months. One third of participants (n=829, 33.0%) reported at least one recent NFOD. Among those recently incarcerated, risk factors independently and positively associated with NFOD included daily use of heroin, benzodiazepines, cocaine or methamphetamine, binge drug use, public injecting and previous NFOD. Older age, methadone maintenance treatment and HIV seropositivity were protective against NFOD. A similar set of risk factors was identified among those who had not been incarcerated recently. Among this cohort, and irrespective of recent incarceration, NFOD was associated with a range of modifiable risk factors including more frequent and riskier patterns of drug use. Not all ex-prisoners are at equal risk of overdose and there remains an urgent need to develop and implement evidence-based preventive interventions, targeting those with modifiable risk factors in this high risk group. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Illicit drugs in wastewater of the city of Zagreb (Croatia) - Estimation of drug abuse in a transition country

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terzic, Senka, E-mail: terzic@irb.h [Division for Marine and Environmental Research, Rudjer Boskovic Institute, Bijenicka 54, 10000 Zagreb (Croatia); Senta, Ivan; Ahel, Marijan [Division for Marine and Environmental Research, Rudjer Boskovic Institute, Bijenicka 54, 10000 Zagreb (Croatia)

    2010-08-15

    A comprehensive study of various psychoactive substances and their metabolites was performed in the wastewater treatment plant of the city of Zagreb (780 000 inhabitants) using liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS). The estimation of drug abuse for five different illicit drugs, including heroin, cocaine, marijuana, amphetamine and ecstasy, was made on the basis of their representative excretion rates, which were determined over a period of 8 months. Marijuana (1000 kg/year), heroin (75 kg/year) and cocaine (47 kg/year) were found to be the most frequently consumed illicit drugs, while the consumption of amphetamine-type drugs was much lower (1-3 kg/year). A comparison with other reports indicated that drug abuse profiles in transition countries might be different from those reported for Western Europe, in particular with respect to the comparatively increased consumption of heroin. Enhanced consumption of stimulating drugs (cocaine and ectasy) was systematically detected during weekends. - Wastewater analysis is a promising complementary tool to assess drug abuse patterns.

  12. DEVELOPMENT OF ACCELERATOR DATA REPORTING SYSTEM AND ITS APPLICATION TO TREND ANALYSIS OF BEAM CURRENT DATA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Padilla, M.J.; Blokland, W.

    2009-01-01

    Detailed ongoing information about the ion beam quality is crucial to the successful operation of the Spallation Neutron Source at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. In order to provide the highest possible neutron production time, ion beam quality is monitored to isolate possible problems or performance-related issues throughout the accelerator and accumulator ring. For example, beam current monitor (BCM) data is used to determine the quality of the beam transport through the accelerator. In this study, a reporting system infrastructure was implemented and used to generate a trend analysis report of the BCM data. The BCM data was analyzed to facilitate the identifi cation of monitor calibration issues, beam trends, beam abnormalities, beam deviations and overall beam quality. A comparison between transformed BCM report data and accelerator log entries shows promising results which represent correlations between the data and changes made within the accelerator. The BCM analysis report is one of many reports within a system that assist in providing overall beam quality information to facilitate successful beam operation. In future reports, additional data manipulation functions and analysis can be implemented and applied. Built-in and user-defi ned analytic functions are available throughout the reporting system and can be reused with new data.

  13. Risks of major depressive disorder and anxiety disorders among Thais with alcohol use disorders and illicit drug use: findings from the 2008 Thai National Mental Health survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suttajit, Sirijit; Kittirattanapaiboon, Phunnapa; Junsirimongkol, Boonsiri; Likhitsathian, Surinporn; Srisurapanont, Manit

    2012-12-01

    Little is known about the risks of mood and anxiety disorders among Asians with alcohol use disorders and the effect of illicit drug use in this population. All participants from the 2008 Thai National Mental Health survey (N=17,140) were assessed for current major depressive disorder, anxiety disorders, and alcohol use disorders by using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI) and were interviewed for illicit drug use within one year prior to their assessment. Logistic regression modeling was used to determine (a) whether alcohol use disorders were associated with major depressive disorder and anxiety disorders and (b) whether the use of illicit drugs increased these associations. Sex, age, marital status, region, and educational level were found to be significantly associated with major depressive disorder and anxiety disorders and were taken into account in the regression analysis. Compared with the general population, individuals with alcohol use disorders alone had significantly increased risks of major depressive disorder (OR 2.49, 95%CI 1.76-3.53 in men and OR 4.09, 95%CI 2.31-7.26 in women) and anxiety disorders (OR 2.21, 95%CI 1.46-3.36 in men and OR 4.34, 95%CI 2.35-8.03 in women). The risks became higher among individuals with both alcohol use disorders and illicit drug use (OR 3.62, 95% CI 1.64-8.01 in men and OR 11.53, 95%CI 1.32-100.65 in women for major depressive disorder, and OR 3.20, 95%CI 1.36-7.51 in men and OR 13.10, 95%CI 1.48-115.60 in women for anxiety disorders). In conclusion, alcohol use disorders were significantly associated with major depressive disorder and anxiety disorders. Illicit drug use was an important factor in increasing these associations, especially in women. Screening for depression, anxiety, and illicit drug use should be done in individuals with alcohol use disorders.

  14. Illicit Drugs: Contaminants in the Environment and Utility in Forensic Epidemiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    The published literature surrounding the origin, occurrence, fate, and effects of illicit drug ingredients (IDIs) in the environment is examined. Similarities exist with medical pharmaceuticals, particularly with regard to the basic processes by which these ingredients enter the ...

  15. Isolation, Identification, and Origin of Three Previously Unknown Congeners in Illicit Cocaine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ensing, Jacob; Hummelen, Jan C.

    1991-01-01

    Three previously unknown, overlooked, or perhaps wrongly identified impurities in illicit cocaine seized in the Netherlands Antilles are traced by various combinations of chromatographic and extraction methods. Once isolated using high-performance liquid chromatography, the compounds are identified

  16. Isolation, Identification, and Origin of Three Previously Unknown Congeners in Illicit Cocaine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ensing, Jacob; Hummelen, Jan C.

    1991-01-01

    Three previously unknown, overlooked, or perhaps wrongly identified impurities in illicit cocaine seized in the Netherlands Antilles are traced by various combinations of chromatographic and extraction methods. Once isolated using high-performance liquid chromatography, the compounds are identified

  17. Illicit Drugs: Contaminants in the Environment and Utility in Forensic Epidemiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    The published literature surrounding the origin, occurrence, fate, and effects of illicit drug ingredients (IDIs) in the environment is examined. Similarities exist with medical pharmaceuticals, particularly with regard to the basic processes by which these ingredients enter the ...

  18. Alcohol use, illicit drug use, and road rage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fierro, Inmaculada; Morales, Claudia; Alvarez, F Javier

    2011-03-01

    This article examines the relationship between the consumption of alcohol and illicit drugs and the experience of road-rage victimization and perpetration among drivers and nondrivers in the general population. A cross-sectional survey was designed with 2,500 subjects, ages 14-70 years, living in Castile and León, Spain, of which 1,276 (51 %) were males and 1,224 (49%) females. The Alcohol-Use And Drug-Use Survey of Castile and León, Spain 2008 focused on patterns of alcohol, tobacco, and illicit drug consumption. Potential risk factors for road-rage experience for the previous 12 months was assessed, including sociodemographics (7 variables), patterns of alcohol consumption (7 variables), and patterns of drug consumption (10 variables). Among drivers, driving under the influence of alcohol and/or cannabis during the previous year was associated with being a perpetrator of road rage (odds ratio [OR] = 3.72, 95% CI [1.71, 8.10] and 6.77 [1.55, 29.48], respectively), being both a victim and perpetrator of road rage (OR = 1.80 [1.05, 3.07] for alcohol, 5.34 [1.64, 17.41] for cannabis, and 4.81 [1.09, 21.16] for alcohol and cannabis), and with serious road-rage perpetration (OR = 4.97 [2.40, 10.30] for alcohol and 17.75 [5.88, 53.56] for cannabis). Problem drinking (CAGE scores ≥ 2) was associated with being both a victim and perpetrator of road rage (OR = 2.74 [1.67, 4.50]) and with low (OR = 1.77 [1.09, 2.85]) and serious (OR = 3.47 [1.65, 7.30]) road-rage perpetration. Driving under the influence of alcohol or cannabis and being a problem drinker are associated with the perpetration of serious road-rage behavior, as well as experiencing road-rage victimization and perpetration.

  19. Global Reach of Direct-to-Consumer Advertising Using Social Media for Illicit Online Drug Sales

    OpenAIRE

    Mackey, Tim Ken; Liang, Bryan A

    2013-01-01

    Background Illicit or rogue Internet pharmacies are a recognized global public health threat that have been identified as utilizing various forms of online marketing and promotion, including social media. Objective To assess the accessibility of creating illicit no prescription direct-to-consumer advertising (DTCA) online pharmacy social media marketing (eDTCA2.0) and evaluate its potential global reach. Methods We identified the top 4 social media platforms allowing eDTCA2.0. After determini...

  20. Critical report of current fisheries management measures implemented for the North Sea mixed demersal fisheries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, J. Rasmus; Ulrich, Clara; Hegland, Troels J.

    The present report is an EU-FP7-SOCIOEC Report giving an overview and critical evaluation of the current management measures implemented for the North Sea mixed demersal fisheries and the fish stocks involved in this. Also, this involves review and critical evaluation of the scientific advice sup...... to distinguish specific effects and impacts of each individual measures implemented. Accordingly, it is also very difficult to make scientific management evaluation and advice associated to the individual measures......The present report is an EU-FP7-SOCIOEC Report giving an overview and critical evaluation of the current management measures implemented for the North Sea mixed demersal fisheries and the fish stocks involved in this. Also, this involves review and critical evaluation of the scientific advice....... The prevailing management system and principle has been landing quotas (TAC, Total Allowable Catch) mainly based on the EU principle of relative stability in the international sharing of the TAC. Also, general effort limitations and technical measures are set for the EU and Norwegian fisheries on top of the TAC...

  1. Retrospective reports of child feeding practices, current eating behaviors, and BMI in college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galloway, Amy T; Farrow, Claire V; Martz, Denise M

    2010-07-01

    Research concerning child feeding practices has focused on children and adolescents, and little is known about how feeding practices used in childhood relate to eating behaviors and weight status in early adulthood. We assessed college students' and their parents' retrospective reports of child feeding practices used when the students were in middle childhood. We also assessed the college students' current reports of their eating behaviors using the Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire (DEBQ) and the Intuitive Eating Scale (IES), and measured their current BMI. Results showed that college students' and their parents' reports about previous parental use of child feeding practices were not correlated. Parent reports of their own use of child feeding practices were more related to students' eating behaviors and BMI than were students' recollections about feeding practices used by their parents. An analysis of gender effects showed that there were positive correlations between parental child feeding practices, BMI, and emotional eating for female students. These relationships did not exist for male students. The results suggest that child feeding practices recollected by parents are linked to the development of emotional eating and weight status of women in early adulthood.

  2. Current situation on the reporting quality of randomized controlled trials in 5 leading Chinese medical journals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Wei; Li Tiejun; Wu Cheng

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The Consolidated Standards for Reporting of Trials (CONSORT) statement has already proved to be an efficient standard for reporting quality of randomized controlled trials (RCTs). However, most of the Chinese medical journals have not endorsed the CONSORT statement. The current situation about the reporting quality of RCTs in Chinese medical journals is still unclear. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the reporting quality of RCTs on papers published in 5 leading Chinese medical journals. Methods: We evaluated 232 original RCT papers using a reporting quality scale based on CONSORT statement from 2001 to 2006 in 5 Chinese medical journals (Journal type 1) without adoption of CONSORT and Chinese Journal of Evidence-based Medicine (Journal type 2) which adopted CONSORT in 2004. We measured the inclusion of 26 items for the reporting quality scale and 6 core items of each RCT report, gave score to each item and calculated the total score obtained in each report and the proportion of reports including individual items. The reporting quality of RCT trials from 2001 to 2003 (pre-adoption period) was compared with that from 2004 to 2006 (post-adoption period). Results: The average reporting quality of RCTs was moderate (mean score, 15.18), and the mean score of the 6 core items was low (mean score, 1.09)in 5 leading journals. The difference in the total score and the score of the 6 core items between pre-adoption period (2001-2003) and post-adoption period (2004-2006) was statistically significant (P=0.003; P=0.000). Interaction between journal type and period was not significant (F=0.76; P=0.383). We concluded that the change tendency of reporting quality between Journal type 1 and 2 was not different. But as to the core items of sequence concealment and intention-to-treat analysis,the increases were greater for Journal type 2 when evaluated against Journal type 1 (P=0.038; P=0.016). Conclusion: The reporting quality of RCT trials in 5 leading Chinese

  3. Systematic review of surveillance by social media platforms for illicit drug use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazemi, Donna M; Borsari, Brian; Levine, Maureen J; Dooley, Beau

    2017-03-14

    The use of social media (SM) as a surveillance tool of global illicit drug use is limited. To address this limitation, a systematic review of literature focused on the ability of SM to better recognize illicit drug use trends was addressed. A search was conducted in databases: PubMed, CINAHL via Ebsco, PsychINFO via Ebsco, Medline via Ebsco, ERIC, Cochrane Library, Science Direct, ABI/INFORM Complete and Communication and Mass Media Complete. Included studies were original research published in peer-reviewed journals between January 2005 and June 2015 that primarily focused on collecting data from SM platforms to track trends in illicit drug use. Excluded were studies focused on purchasing prescription drugs from illicit online pharmacies. Selected studies used a range of SM tools/applications, including message boards, Twitter and blog/forums/platform discussions. Limitations included relevance, a lack of standardized surveillance systems and a lack of efficient algorithms to isolate relevant items. Illicit drug use is a worldwide problem, and the rise of global social networking sites has led to the evolution of a readily accessible surveillance tool. Systematic approaches need to be developed to efficiently extract and analyze illicit drug content from social networks to supplement effective prevention programs.

  4. A review of ecological effects and environmental fate of illicit drugs in aquatic ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosi-Marshall, E J; Snow, D; Bartelt-Hunt, S L; Paspalof, A; Tank, J L

    2015-01-23

    Although illicit drugs are detected in surface waters throughout the world, their environmental fate and ecological effects are not well understood. Many illicit drugs and their breakdown products have been detected in surface waters and temporal and spatial variability in use translates into "hot spots and hot moments" of occurrence. Illicit drug occurrence in regions of production and use and areas with insufficient wastewater treatment are not well studied and should be targeted for further study. Evidence suggests that illicit drugs may not be persistent, as their half-lives are relatively short, but may exhibit "pseudo-persistence" wherein continual use results in persistent occurrence. We reviewed the literature on the ecological effects of these compounds on aquatic organisms and although research is limited, a wide array of aquatic organisms, including bacteria, algae, invertebrates, and fishes, have receptors that make them potentially sensitive to these compounds. In summary, illicit drugs occur in surface waters and aquatic organisms may be affected by these compounds; research is needed that focuses on concentrations of illicit drugs in areas of production and high use, environmental fate of these compounds, and effects of these compounds on aquatic ecosystems at the concentrations that typically occur in the environment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. ANN expert system screening for illicit amphetamines using molecular descriptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosav, S.; Praisler, M.; Dorohoi, D. O.

    2007-05-01

    The goal of this study was to develop and an artificial neural network (ANN) based on computed descriptors, which would be able to classify the molecular structures of potential illicit amphetamines and to derive their biological activity according to the similarity of their molecular structure with amphetamines of known toxicity. The system is necessary for testing new molecular structures for epidemiological, clinical, and forensic purposes. It was built using a database formed by 146 compounds representing drugs of abuse (mainly central stimulants, hallucinogens, sympathomimetic amines, narcotics and other potent analgesics), precursors, or derivatized counterparts. Their molecular structures were characterized by computing three types of descriptors: 38 constitutional descriptors (CDs), 69 topological descriptors (TDs) and 160 3D-MoRSE descriptors (3DDs). An ANN system was built for each category of variables. All three networks (CD-NN, TD-NN and 3DD-NN) were trained to distinguish between stimulant amphetamines, hallucinogenic amphetamines, and nonamphetamines. A selection of variables was performed when necessary. The efficiency with which each network identifies the class identity of an unknown sample was evaluated by calculating several figures of merit. The results of the comparative analysis are presented.

  6. Contingent methadone delivery: effects on illicit-opiate use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, S T; Stitzer, M L; Bigelow, G E; Liebson, I A

    1986-07-01

    This study examined the effects of contingent vs. non-contingent delivery of a methadone dose supplement on relapse to illicit opiate use in the context of a methadone outpatient detoxification program. Following a 3-week methadone stabilization period on 30 mg, patients (N = 39) were randomly assigned to a contingent, a non-contingent, or a control treatment group. All patients received identical gradual reductions in their assigned methadone dose. During the dose reduction period (weeks 4-11), members of the contingent (N = 13) and non-contingent groups (N = 13) could obtain daily methadone-dose supplements up to 20 mg, but contingent group members could obtain supplements only if their most recent urinalysis results were opiate negative. Control subjects (N = 13) did not have dose increases available. The contingent group presented significantly lower opiate-positive urines during weeks 8-11 (14% positive) of the detox than the non-contingent (38% positive) or control (50% positive) groups. Additionally, the availability of extra methadone improved treatment retention and increased clinic attendance above levels observed in the control group. The potential for further use of methadone's reinforcing properties in the treatment of opiate dependence is discussed.

  7. Illicit use of LSD or psilocybin, but not MDMA or nonpsychedelic drugs, is associated with mystical experiences in a dose-dependent manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyvers, Michael; Meester, Molly

    2012-01-01

    Psychedelic drugs have long been known to be capable of inducing mystical or transcendental experiences. However, given the common "recreational" nature of much present-day psychedelic use, with typical doses tending to be lower than those commonly taken in the 1960s, the extent to which illicit use of psychedelics today is associated with mystical experiences is not known. Furthermore the mild psychedelic MDMA ("Ecstasy") is more popular today than "full" psychedelics such as LSD or psilocybin, and the contribution of illicit MDMA use to mystical experiences is not known. The present study recruited 337 adults from the website and newsletter of the Multidisciplinary Association for Psychedelic Studies (MAPS), most of whom reported use of a variety of drugs both licit and illicit including psychedelics. Although only a quarter of the sample reported "spiritual" motives for using psychedelics, use of LSD and psilocybin was significantly positively related to scores on two well-known indices of mystical experiences in a dose-related manner, whereas use of MDMA, cannabis, cocaine, opiates and alcohol was not. Results suggest that even in today's context of "recreational" drug use, psychedelics such as LSD and psilocybin, when taken at higher doses, continue to induce mystical experiences in many users.

  8. Family meal traditions. Comparing reported childhood food habits to current food habits among university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Backer, Charlotte J S

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate if reported childhood food habits predict the food habits of students at present. Questions addressed are: does the memory of childhood family meals promote commensality among students? Does the memory of (grand)parents' cooking influence students' cooking? And, is there still a gender difference in passing on everyday cooking skills? Using a cross-sectional survey, 104 students were asked about their current eating and cooking habits, and their eating habits and the cooking behavior of their (grand)parents during their childhood. Results show that frequencies in reported childhood family meals predict frequencies of students' commensality at present. The effects appear for breakfast and dinner, and stay within the same meal: recalled childhood family breakfasts predict current breakfast commensality, recalled childhood family dinners predict current dinner commensality. In terms of recalled cookery of (grand)parents and the use of family recipes a matrilineal dominance can be observed. Mothers are most influential, and maternal grandmothers outscore paternal grandmothers. Yet, fathers' childhood cooking did not pass unnoticed either. They seem to influence male students' cookery. Overall, in a life-stage of transgression students appear to maintain recalled childhood food rituals. Suggestions are discussed to further validate these results.

  9. Effect of illicit recreational drugs upon sleep: cocaine, ecstasy and marijuana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schierenbeck, Thomas; Riemann, Dieter; Berger, Mathias; Hornyak, Magdolna

    2008-10-01

    The illicit recreational drugs cocaine, ecstasy and marijuana have pronounced effects upon sleep. Administration of cocaine increases wakefulness and suppresses REM sleep. Acute cocaine withdrawal is often associated with sleep disturbances and unpleasant dreams. Studies have revealed that polysomnographically assessed sleep parameters deteriorate even further during sustained abstinence, although patients report that sleep quality remains unchanged or improves. This deterioration of objective sleep measures is associated with a worsening in sleep-related cognitive performance. Like cocaine, 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA; "ecstasy") is a substance with arousing properties. Heavy MDMA consumption is often associated with persistent sleep disturbances. Polysomnography (PSG) studies have demonstrated altered sleep architecture in abstinent heavy MDMA users. Smoked marijuana and oral Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) reduce REM sleep. Moreover, acute administration of cannabis appears to facilitate falling asleep and to increase Stage 4 sleep. Difficulty sleeping and strange dreams are among the most consistently reported symptoms of acute and subacute cannabis withdrawal. Longer sleep onset latency, reduced slow wave sleep and a REM rebound can be observed. Prospective studies are needed in order to verify whether sleep disturbances during cocaine and cannabis withdrawal predict treatment outcome.

  10. SIGNATURES OF ILLICIT NUCLEAR PROCUREMENT NETWORKS: AN OVERVIEW OF PRELIMINARY APPROACHES AND RESULTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Webster, Jennifer B.; Erikson, Luke E.; Gastelum, Zoe N.; Lewis, Valerie A.; Best, Daniel M.; Hogan, Emilie A.; Chikkagoudar, Satish

    2014-05-12

    The illicit trafficking of strategic nuclear commodities (defined here as the goods needed for a covert nuclear program excluding special nuclear materials) poses a significant challenge to the international nuclear nonproliferation community. Export control regulations, both domestically and internationally, seek to inhibit the spread of strategic nuclear commodities by restricting their sale to parties that may use them for nefarious purposes. However, export controls alone are not sufficient for preventing the illicit transfer of strategic nuclear goods. There are two major pitfalls to relying solely on export control regulations for the deterrence of proliferation of strategic goods. First, export control enforcement today relies heavily on the honesty and willingness of participants to adhere to the legal framework already in place. Secondly, current practices focus on the evaluation of single records which allow for the necessary goods to be purchased separately and hidden within the thousands of legitimate commerce transactions that occur each day, disregarding strategic information regarding several purchases. Our research presents two preliminary data-centric approaches for investigating procurement networks of strategic nuclear commodities. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has been putting significant effort into nonproliferation activities as an institution, both in terms of the classical nuclear material focused approach and in the examination of other strategic goods necessary to implement a nuclear program. In particular, the PNNL Signature Discovery Initiative (SDI) has codified several scientific methodologies for the detection, characterization, and prediction of signatures that are indicative of a phenomenon of interest. The methodologies and tools developed under SDI have already been applied successfully to problems in bio-forensics, cyber security and power grid balancing efforts and they have now made the nonproliferation of

  11. The profits of organized crime: the illicit drug trade in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamler, R T; Fahlman, R C

    1983-01-01

    Massive funds that are produced from street-level crime are laundered upwards into the criminal organizations for the benefit of their top-level members. The laundering systems used to distribute the proceeds of crime are designed to conceal the size of the organization as well as the identity of its members. Crime syndicates are attracted to criminal activity that produces the highest profits with the lowest risks. Although organized crime syndicates derive profits from a wide variety of criminal activity, their most sought after ventures principally involve the consensual type of crimes, such as drug trafficking, where no one individual can be readily identified as a legal victim for the purpose of recovering the proceeds of a criminal act. A recent survey indicated that illicit drug trafficking accounted for 87 per cent of the cash flow generated from organized crime. When the proceeds are disbursed, the criminals are free of the usual civil liability respecting the ownership of the proceeds. Canada currently has several laws which enhance the ability of law-enforcement authorities to trace the proceeds of crime and prosecute those who possess the assets. This legislation has some limitations with respect to seizure and forfeiture of certain types of proceeds. For example, forfeiture of the illegally acquired property is difficult when there is no original legal owner to initiate legal action, and even more difficult if the assets are located abroad.

  12. Deaths by unintentional illicit drug overdose in Italy, 1984-2000.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preti, A; Miotto, P; De Coppi, M

    2002-05-01

    To determine whether there has been an increase in deaths by overdose in Italy, as elsewhere in the Western world, over the past fifteen years. This study's conclusions are based on analysis of official data on overdose deaths attributed to illicit drug addiction and abuse (ICD-9 codes 304 and 305) from 1984 to 2000, drawn from two archives of drug abuse information: the Direzione Centrale per i Servizi Antidroga (DADE) of the Italian Ministry of the Interior (1984-2000), and the Health Statistics held at the Italian Central Statistics Institute (ISTAT) (1984-1997). Mortality rates have been calculated for both genders in the following age groups: 15-24, 25-34, and 35-44 years. Official data indicate that there has been a steady increase in the number of deaths by overdose in Italy over recent 15 years. This trend has affected both genders, but is more evident among males. Over the whole period females had consistently lower overdose rates than males. In both genders the age group 35-44 was subject to the highest mortality rate increase over the study period, however, the highest overdose rates for both males and females were observed in the 25-34 age group. Consistently higher rates were witnessed in the northern regions of Italy with an overall increase across all latitudes. However, the greatest increase over the study period occurred in the South. In 5190 cases evaluated by the Italian Forensic Toxicology Group, 95.9% of deaths were attributed to heroin, but in about half of these, mixtures of three or more substances (heroin, benzodiazepines, cannabinoids, cocaine, methadone) were found in the deceased at doses that were likely to have contributed to death. The increase observed in the rates of death by overdose is likely to be a reflection of increased use of illicit drugs in the general population. Reporting practice by forensic pathologists might explain the extent of attribution of cause of death to heroin. Drop-out from addiction treatment is a commonly

  13. Measuring changes in the illicit cigarette market using government revenue data: the example of South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Walbeek, Corné

    2014-05-01

    The tobacco industry claims that illicit trade in cigarettes has increased sharply since the 1990s and that government has lost substantial tax revenue. (1) To determine whether cigarette excise tax revenue has been below budget in recent years, compared with previous decades. (2) To determine trends in the size of the illicit market since 1995. For (1), mean percentage errors and root mean square percentage errors were calculated for budget revenue deviation for three products (cigarettes, beer and spirits), for various subperiods. For (2), predicted changes in total consumption, using actual cigarette price and GDP changes and previously published price and income elasticity estimates, were calculated and compared with changes in tax-paid consumption. Cigarette excise revenues were 0.7% below budget for 2000-2012 on average, compared with 3.0% below budget for beer and 4.7% below budget for spirits. There is no evidence that illicit trade in cigarettes in South Africa increased between 2002 and 2009. There is a substantial increase in illicit trade in 2010, probably peaking in 2011. In 2012 tax-paid consumption of cigarettes increased 2.6%, implying that the illicit market share decreased an estimated 0.6 percentage points. Other than in 2010, there is no evidence that illicit trade is significantly undermining government revenue. Claims that illicit trade has consistently increased over the past 15 years, and has continued its sharp increase since 2010, are not supported. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  14. Lifetime use of illicit drugs and associated factors among Brazilian schoolchildren, National Adolescent School-based Health Survey (PeNSE 2012

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    Rogério Lessa Horta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This study aimed at describing the prevalence of illicit drug use among 9th grade students in the morning period of public and private schools in Brazil, and assessing associated factors. METHOD: The Brazilian survey PeNSE (National Adolescent School-based Health Survey 2012 evaluated a representative sample of 9th grade students in the morning period, in Brazil and its five regions. The use of illicit drugs at least once in life was assessed for the most commonly used drugs, such as marijuana, cocaine, crack, solvent-based glue, general ether-based inhalants, ecstasy and oxy. Data were subjected to descriptive analysis, and Pearson's χ2 test and logistic regression was used in the multivariate analysis. RESULTS: The use of illicit drugs at least once in life was reported by 7.3% (95%CI 5.3 - 9.4 of the respondents. Logistic regression was used for multivariate analysis and the evidences suggest that illicit drug use is associated to social conditions of greater consumption power, the use of alcohol and tobacco, behaviors related to socialization, such as having friends or sexual activity, and also the perception of loneliness, loose contact between school and parents and experiences of abuse in the family environment. The outcome was inversely associated with close contact with parents and parental supervision. CONCLUSION: In addition to the association with the processes of socialization and consumption, the influence of family and school is expressed in a particularly protective manner in different records of direct supervision and care.

  15. Evaluation of a Low-Threshold/High-Tolerance Methadone Maintenance Treatment Clinic in Saint John, New Brunswick, Canada: One Year Retention Rate and Illicit Drug Use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy K. S. Christie

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To report the one-year retention rate and the prevalence of illicit opioid use and cocaine use in the Low-Threshold/High-Tolerance (LTHT methadone maintenance treatment (MMT clinic located in Saint John, New Brunswick, Canada. Methods. A description of the LTHT MMT clinic is provided. The one-year retention rate was determined by collecting data on patients who enrolled in the LTHT MMT clinic between August 04, 2009 and August 04, 2010. The prevalence of illicit drug use was determined using a randomly selected retrospective cohort of 84 participants. For each participant the results of six consecutive urine tests for the most recent three months were compared to the results of the first six consecutive urine tests after program entry. Results. The one-year retention rate was 95%, 67% of the cohort achieved abstinence from illicit opioids and an additional 13% abstained from cocaine use. Conclusion. The novel feature of the LTHT MMT clinic is that patients are not denied methadone because of lack of ancillary services. Traditional comprehensive MMT programs invest the majority of financial resources in ancillary services that support the biopsychosocial model, whereas the LTHT approach utilizes a medical model and directs resources at medical management.

  16. Evaluation of a low-threshold/high-tolerance methadone maintenance treatment clinic in saint john, new brunswick, Canada: one year retention rate and illicit drug use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christie, Timothy K S; Murugesan, Alli; Manzer, Dana; O'Shaughnessey, Michael V; Webster, Duncan

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To report the one-year retention rate and the prevalence of illicit opioid use and cocaine use in the Low-Threshold/High-Tolerance (LTHT) methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) clinic located in Saint John, New Brunswick, Canada. Methods. A description of the LTHT MMT clinic is provided. The one-year retention rate was determined by collecting data on patients who enrolled in the LTHT MMT clinic between August 04, 2009 and August 04, 2010. The prevalence of illicit drug use was determined using a randomly selected retrospective cohort of 84 participants. For each participant the results of six consecutive urine tests for the most recent three months were compared to the results of the first six consecutive urine tests after program entry. Results. The one-year retention rate was 95%, 67% of the cohort achieved abstinence from illicit opioids and an additional 13% abstained from cocaine use. Conclusion. The novel feature of the LTHT MMT clinic is that patients are not denied methadone because of lack of ancillary services. Traditional comprehensive MMT programs invest the majority of financial resources in ancillary services that support the biopsychosocial model, whereas the LTHT approach utilizes a medical model and directs resources at medical management.

  17. Opana ER abuse and thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP)-like illness: a rising risk factor in illicit drug users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapila, Aaysha; Chhabra, Lovely; Chaubey, Vinod K; Summers, Jeffery

    2014-03-03

    We report the case of a 22 year-old-woman who presented with upper extremity cellulitis secondary to an infiltration of illicit intravenous drug use. She confessed to the intravenous use of Opana ER (an extended release oral formulation of oxymorphone) which is an opioid drug approved only for oral use. She was found to have clinical evidence of profound thrombotic microangiopathy which resulted due to the intravenous use of Opana ER. She showed full clinical improvement after withholding drug and supportive clinical care. Recent report of Opana ER intravenous abuse was published from Tennessee county and has now been increasingly recognised as one of the causes of thrombocytopenia which mimicks clinically as thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura. Physicians should be aware of this association as the lack of familiarity to this can pose serious management dilemmas for our patients (especially the polysubstance abusers).

  18. Studying illicit drug trafficking on Darknet markets: Structure and organisation from a Canadian perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broséus, J; Rhumorbarbe, D; Mireault, C; Ouellette, V; Crispino, F; Décary-Hétu, D

    2016-07-01

    Cryptomarkets are online marketplaces that are part of the Dark Web and mainly devoted to the sale of illicit drugs. They combine tools to ensure anonymity of participants with the delivery of products by mail to enable the development of illicit drug trafficking. Using data collected on eight cryptomarkets, this study provides an overview of the Canadian illicit drug market. It seeks to inform about the most prevalent illicit drugs vendors offer for sale and preferred destination countries. Moreover, the research gives an insight into the structure and organisation of distribution networks existing online. In particular, we provide information about how vendors are diversifying and replicating across marketplaces. We inform on the number of listings each vendor manages, the number of cryptomarkets they are active on and the products they offer. This research demonstrates the importance of online marketplaces in the context of illicit drug trafficking. It shows how the analysis of data available online may elicit knowledge on criminal activities. Such knowledge is mandatory to design efficient policy for monitoring or repressive purposes against anonymous marketplaces. Nevertheless, trafficking on Dark Net markets is difficult to analyse based only on digital data. A more holistic approach for investigating this crime problem should be developed. This should rely on a combined use and interpretation of digital and physical data within a single collaborative intelligence model. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Increasing availability of illicit drugs among people who inject drugs in Bangkok, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Kanna; Nosyk, Bohdan; Ti, Lianping; Suwannawong, Paisan; Kaplan, Karyn; Wood, Evan; Kerr, Thomas

    2013-09-01

    In recent years, the Thai government has strengthened drug law enforcement as a strategy to address a continuing epidemic of illicit drug use. We sought to assess temporal trends in street-level availability of illicit drugs among injection drug users (IDUs) in Bangkok, Thailand. Using univariate statistics and multivariate logistic regression, we assessed changes in the availability of five substances (heroin, methamphetamine, crystal methamphetamine, midazolam, and illicit methadone) between 2009 and 2011 and examined social, structural and individual factors influencing availability among community-recruited samples of IDUs in Bangkok. Availability was measured in three levels: immediate (available in ≤10 min); moderate (available in 10-90 min); and delayed (available in >90 min; our reference category). The analyses included 718 IDUs, including 165 (23.0%) women. Controlling for changes in participant characteristics between assessments, and in a period of constant nominal illicit drug prices, moderate availability of all substances increased significantly between 2009 and 2011, with adjusted odds ratios ranging between 2.36 (illicit methadone) and 4.61 (crystal methamphetamine) (all plaw enforcement-based approaches and point to the need for greater investment in evidence-based drug policies. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Alcohol consumption, illicit substances, and intimate partner violence in a sample of batterers in psychological treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redondo Rodríguez, Natalia; Graña Gómez, José Luis

    2015-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to analyze the alcohol and illicit substance consumption characteristics in a sample of 572 batterers in treatment by court order. The results indicate that the prevalence of alcohol consumption in the past year was 89.3%, whereas within illicit substances, the prevalences were higher for cannabis (27.8%), followed by cocaine 20.3%). In order to analyze the possible effect of consumption on levels of perpetration and victimization of partner-aggression, the sample was divided into 4 groups: nonconsumers (16.3%), alcohol consumers (58.6%), illicit drug consumers (3.5%), and consumers of alcohol and illicit drugs (21.7%), finding that the groups of nonconsumers and alcohol consumers presented the lowest level of perpetration of psychological, physical, and sexual aggression and of victimization of psychological and physical aggression, whereas the group of consumers of alcohol and illicit drugs presented the highest levels. The results reveal the need to assess substance consumption when designing intervention protocols with batterers.

  1. Voting and Registration in the Election of November 1988. Current Population Reports: Population Characteristics, Series P-20, No. 440.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Current Population Reports, 1989

    1989-01-01

    The findings presented in this report are based on the results of the November 1988 supplement to the Current Population Survey (CPS) conducted by the Bureau of the Census. Some of the highlights of the report follow. (1) Overall voter turnout dropped to 57 percent in 1988, the first decline reported in CPS in a presidential election since 1972.…

  2. KAPEX RAFOS float data report 1997 - 1999. Pt. A. The Agulhas- and South Atlantic current components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boebel, O.; Anderson-Fontana, S.; Lazarevich, P.; Prater, M.; Rossby, T. [Rhode Island Univ., Narragansett, RI (United States). Graduate School of Oceanography; Schmid, C.; Zenk, W. [Institut fuer Meereskunde an der Univ. Kiel (Germany); Ansorge, I.; Lutjeharms, J. [Cape Town Univ. (South Africa). Dept. of Oceanography

    2000-10-01

    This data report presents trajectories and corresponding in-situ data for all acoustically tracked RAFOS floats that were deployed within the Agulhas and the South Atlantic Current components of KAPEX. KAPEX stands for Cape of Good Hope Experiment, Kaap die Goeie Hoop Eksperimente or Kap der Guten Hoffnung Experiment in the three languages of the participating authors. The objective of the program was to study the interocean exchange of subsurface waters south of Africa between the Atlantic and the Indian Oceans. A total of 92 floats were deployed during four cruises at depths between 100 - 1200 m during March 1997 and June 1998. It is the first time that eddy-resolving floats are used to measure ocean flow patterns at intermediate and thermocline levels off southern Africa. (orig.)

  3. PENERAPAN BEBAN PEMBUKTIAN TERBALIK DALAM PERAMPASAN ILLICIT ENRICHMENT KAITANNYA DENGAN HAK ASASI MANUSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A Mirah Endraswari

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The way to prevention of corruption is to use the reversal burden of proof system to the official public wealth that is not fair ( illicit enrichment , but in the implementation there is an indication against violation of human rights. This research will be discuss how rule about the reversal burden of proof in the penal law system of Indonesia ? and how to application the reversal burden of proof in deprivation the illicit enrichment which is related with the human rights ?. Method used in this research is normative law research. Data analysis is conducted on primary and secondary law materials and then comparing those both as well were processed and presented by descriptive analysis. Related norm about the reversal burden of proof system now is regulated in act No. 31 of 1999, act No 20 of 2001 and act No. 8 of 2010, but the character of reversal burden of proof system in Indonesia still limited because it can only be used during the trials. Then related illicit enrichment norm is not regulated in Indonesia act’s, while Indonesia has been ratified about illicit enrichment in Article 20 UNCAC. The pros and cons related to the implementation of reversal burden of proof to illicit enrichment it happens because it is considered to against of human rights, which is related to the principle of presumption of innocence and non – self incrimination. However, with regard to other legal principles and consider the interests of the wider, the regulation of the illicit enrichment should be regulated in the provisions of the law in Indonesia. Considering the purpose of the law it self is fighting corruption, money laundering and optimize return on assets of criminals who gained from the crime. Penanggulangan tindak pidana korupsi sebagai kejahatan yang sifatnya luar biasa (extraordinary crime membutuhkan penanganan yang sifatnya luar biasa pula. Adapun cara yang dapat ditempuh yaitu dengan menerapan sistem pembuktian terbalik  terhadap kekayaan

  4. Crime, Controversy and the Comments Section: Discussing archaeological looting, trafficking, and the illicit antiquities trade online

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meg Lambert

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In this article we will discuss the challenges involved in presenting the looting of archaeological sites and the illicit trade in cultural property to the interested public. We will contrast our experiences of building two popular illicit antiquities-focused blogs (Things You Can't Take Back and Anonymous Swiss Collector with the process of developing an informative academic website on the same topic (Trafficking Culture. We will discuss our motivations for starting these blogs, our struggles with the tone of the popular discourse on this topic, and our inability to escape our own emotions; why we have moved away from illicit antiquities blogging in the past year and why we are coming back. Finally, having learned from our mistakes, we will make recommendations to others wishing to engage with the public about sensitive issues via social media.

  5. Illicit drug use in seven Latin American countries: critical perspectives of families and familiars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Jaqueline da; Ventura, Carla Aparecida Arena; Vargens, Octavio Muniz da Costa; Loyola, Cristina Maria Douat; Albarracín, Daniel Gonzalo Eslava; Diaz, Jorge; Funes, Gladys Magdalena Rodríguez; Hernández, Mabell Granados; Torres, Ruth Magdalena Gallegos; Rodriguez, Ruth Jakeline Oviedo

    2009-01-01

    This cross-sectional multi-centre study explored how family members and friends of illicit drug users perceived protective and risk factors, treatment facilities and policies and laws regarding illicit drug use. Family members and friends of illicit drug users were recruited in 10 urban health care outpatient units in 7 Latin American countries (Brazil, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Guatemala, Honduras and Mexico) to complete a questionnaire. The majority of the respondents chose psycho-social factors over genetic or biological explanations as causes of drug problems. Respondents felt that families and governments were responsible for preventing drug problems. Church/religious institutions were most often mentioned in the context of accessible treatment. When asked about access to treatment facilities, the majority said that there were not enough. Shame about drug use, cost, and limited treatment options were most often cited as barriers to treatment.

  6. Self-reported interoceptive awareness in primary care patients with past or current low back pain

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    Mehling WE

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Wolf E Mehling,1,2 Jennifer Daubenmier,1,3 Cynthia J Price,5 Mike Acree,1 Elizabeth Bartmess,1 Anita L Stewart41Osher Center for Integrative Medicine, 2Department of Family and Community Medicine, 3Department of Medicine, 4School of Nursing, Institute for Health and Aging, University of California, San Francisco, CA, 5School of Nursing, Department of Biobehavioral Nursing and Health Systems, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USABackground: Mind–body interactions play a major role in the prognosis of chronic pain, and mind–body therapies such as meditation, yoga, Tai Chi, and Feldenkrais presumably provide benefits for pain patients. The Multidimensional Assessment of Interoceptive Awareness (MAIA scales, designed to measure key aspects of mind–body interaction, were developed and validated with individuals practicing mind–body therapies, but have never been used in pain patients.Methods: We administered the MAIA to primary care patients with past or current low back pain and explored differences in the performance of the MAIA scales between this and the original validation sample. We compared scale means, exploratory item cluster and confirmatory factor analyses, scale–scale correlations, and internal-consistency reliability between the two samples and explored correlations with validity measures.Results: Responses were analyzed from 435 patients, of whom 40% reported current pain. Cross-sectional comparison between the two groups showed marked differences in eight aspects of interoceptive awareness. Factor and cluster analyses generally confirmed the conceptual model with its eight dimensions in a pain population. Correlations with validity measures were in the expected direction. Internal-consistency reliability was good for six of eight MAIA scales. We provided specific suggestions for their further development.Conclusion: Self-reported aspects of interoceptive awareness differ between primary care patients with past or current

  7. Global reach of direct-to-consumer advertising using social media for illicit online drug sales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackey, Tim Ken; Liang, Bryan A

    2013-05-29

    Illicit or rogue Internet pharmacies are a recognized global public health threat that have been identified as utilizing various forms of online marketing and promotion, including social media. To assess the accessibility of creating illicit no prescription direct-to-consumer advertising (DTCA) online pharmacy social media marketing (eDTCA2.0) and evaluate its potential global reach. We identified the top 4 social media platforms allowing eDTCA2.0. After determining applicable platforms (ie, Facebook, Twitter, Google+, and MySpace), we created a fictitious advertisement advertising no prescription drugs online and posted it to the identified social media platforms. Each advertisement linked to a unique website URL that consisted of a site error page. Employing Web search analytics, we tracked the number of users visiting these sites and their location. We used commercially available Internet tools and services, including website hosting, domain registration, and website analytic services. Illicit online pharmacy social media content for Facebook, Twitter, and MySpace remained accessible despite highly questionable and potentially illegal content. Fictitious advertisements promoting illicit sale of drugs generated aggregate unique user traffic of 2795 visits over a 10-month period. Further, traffic to our websites originated from a number of countries, including high-income and middle-income countries, and emerging markets. Our results indicate there are few barriers to entry for social media-based illicit online drug marketing. Further, illicit eDTCA2.0 has globalized outside US borders to other countries through unregulated Internet marketing.

  8. Patient reported outcomes measures in neurogenic bladder and bowel: A systematic review of the current literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Darshan P; Elliott, Sean P; Stoffel, John T; Brant, William O; Hotaling, James M; Myers, Jeremy B

    2016-01-01

    To describe existing bladder and bowel specific quality of life (QoL) measurement tools, QoL in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS), spinal cord injury (SCI), Parkinson's Disease (PD), stroke, or spina bifida (SB) affected by bladder or bowel dysfunction, and the impact of specific bladder and bowel management on QoL. We performed a systematic review in PubMed/Medline databases in accordance with the PRISMA statement for English publications between January 1, 2000 and January 1, 2014. Articles were first screened based on their abstract and select full-text articles were then reviewed for eligibility. Articles with no QoL or PROM assessing urinary or bowel dysfunction were excluded. Risk of bias assessment included randomization, incomplete outcomes data, selective outcomes reporting, and other biases. All articles were graded using the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) system as per the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions. The most common QoL measurement tool for urinary and bowel dysfunction was the Medical Outcomes Study SF-36. Twelve (24%) studies used only non-validated QoL questionnaires. Only three urinary or bowel specific QoL measures were found: the Qualiveen questionnaire, the FICQoL, and the QoL-BM. Several studies identified instances were clinical and patient-reported outcomes were inconsistent particularly with indwelling urinary catheter usage and reconstructive surgery. Additionally, certain clinical outcomes surrogates commonly used as primary outcomes measures may not correlate with the patient reported outcomes (PRO). Current PRO measures (PROM) and QoL assessments are heterogeneous and several inconsistencies in clinical and PRO for various management options exist. Standardized PROM will help identify optimal bladder and bowel management for patients with neurologic conditions. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Interpersonal challenges as a constraint on care: the experience of nurses' care of patients who use illicit drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Rosemary

    2011-02-01

    Men and women who use illicit drugs have a heavy reliance on health care in emergency departments and acute care wards. Nurses' care however, is known to be constrained by inadequate drug education and policy and practice standards. This paper describes an additional constraint on care, namely, patients' behaviour. The findings are part of a broader mixed-methods study of nurses' therapeutic attitude to this patient group. The themes of violence, manipulation and irresponsibility emerged from the data analysis of written reports provided by a sub-sample (N = 311) of the main study sample. Recommendations are made for assisting nurses to reconceptualise their role with this patient group, and importantly, for an increase in violence management education and organisational role support, safety and security measures. Finally, further research in the field is recommended so that a comprehensive analysis of the difficulties faced by nurses and patients can be made.

  10. Alcohol, tobacco and illicit drug use amongst same-sex attracted women: results from the Western Australian Lesbian and Bisexual Women's Health and Well-Being Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McManus Alexandra

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevalence of alcohol, tobacco and illicit drug use has been reported to be higher amongst lesbian and bisexual women (LBW than their heterosexual counterparts. However, few studies have been conducted with this population in Australia and rates that have been reported vary considerably. Methods A self-completed questionnaire exploring a range of health issues was administered to 917 women aged 15-65 years (median 34 years living in Western Australia, who identified as lesbian or bisexual, or reported having sex with another woman. Participants were recruited from a range of settings, including Perth Pride Festival events (67.0%, n = 615, online (13.2%, n = 121, at gay bars and nightclubs (12.9%, n = 118, and through community groups (6.9%, n = 63. Results were compared against available state and national surveillance data. Results LBW reported consuming alcohol more frequently and in greater quantities than women in the general population. A quarter of LBW (25.7%, n = 236 exceeded national alcohol guidelines by consuming more than four standard drinks on a single occasion, once a week or more. However, only 6.8% (n = 62 described themselves as a heavy drinker, suggesting that exceeding national alcohol guidelines may be a normalised behaviour amongst LBW. Of the 876 women who provided data on tobacco use, 28.1% (n = 246 were smokers, nearly double the rate in the female population as a whole. One third of the sample (33.6%, n = 308 reported use of an illicit drug in the previous six months. The illicit drugs most commonly reported were cannabis (26.4%, n = 242, meth/amphetamine (18.6%, n = 171, and ecstasy (17.9%, n = 164. Injecting drug use was reported by 3.5% (n = 32 of participants. Conclusion LBW appear to use alcohol, tobacco and illicit drugs at higher rates than women generally, indicating that mainstream health promotion messages are not reaching this group or are not perceived as relevant. There is an urgent

  11. Efficient application of monolithic silica column to determination of illicit heroin street sample by HPLC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macchia, Marco; Bertini, Simone; Mori, Claudio; Orlando, Caterina; Papi, Chiara; Placanica, Giorgio

    2004-03-01

    In this paper, an HPLC method is proposed for a routine, rapid and simple analysis of heroin samples confiscated from the illicit market, based on a new type of packing for HPLC columns (monolithic silica). Acetonitrile and pH 3.5 phosphate buffer solution were used under both isocratic and gradient conditions. Under our analytical conditions, all the components of a typical mixture of an illicit heroin sample proved to be fully separated into well-resolved peaks in 7 min. Analytical linearity and accuracy of the method were also studied for all analytes using tetracaine hydrochloride as the internal standard.

  12. Use of illicit substances in a psychosis incidence cohort : a comparison among different ethnic groups in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veen, N; Selten, JP; Hoek, HW; Feller, W; van der Graaf, Y; Kahn, R

    2002-01-01

    Objective: Use of illicit substances has been suggested as an explanation for the increased incidence of psychosis among some immigrant groups. The aim of the present study is to compare the rates of illicit substance use among immigrants with a first psychosis with that among non-migrants. Method:

  13. Chemical profiling and classification of illicit heroin by principal component analysis, calculation of inter sample correlation and artificial neural networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esseiva, Pierre; Anglada, Frederic; Dujourdy, Laurence; Taroni, Franco; Margot, Pierre; Pasquier, Eric Du; Dawson, Michael; Roux, Claude; Doble, Philip

    2005-08-15

    Artificial neural networks (ANNs) were utilised to validate illicit drug classification in the profiling method used at "Institut de Police Scientifique" of the University of Lausanne (IPS). This method established links between samples using a combination of principal component analysis (PCA) and calculation of a correlation value between samples. Heroin seizures sent to the IPS laboratory were analysed using gas chromatography (GC) to separate the major alkaloids present in illicit heroin. Statistical analysis was then performed on 3371 samples. Initially, PCA was performed as a preliminary screen to identify samples of a similar chemical profile. A correlation value was then calculated for each sample previously identified with PCA. This correlation value was used to determine links between drug samples. These links were then recorded in an Ibase((R)) database. From this database the notion of "chemical class" arises, where samples with similar chemical profiles are grouped together. Currently, about 20 "chemical classes" have been identified. The normalised peak areas of six target compounds were then used to train an ANN to classify each sample into its appropriate class. Four hundred and sixty-eight samples were used as a training data set. Sixty samples were treated as blinds and 370 as non-linked samples. The results show that in 96% of cases the neural network attributed the seizure to the right "chemical class". The application of a neural network was found to be a useful tool to validate the classification of new drug seizures in existing chemical classes. This tool should be increasingly used in such situations involving profile comparisons and classifications.

  14. [Devic syndrome--case report, current principles of diagnosis and therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iljicsov, Anna; Barsi, Péter; Várallyay, György; Tátrai, Erika; Somfai, Gábor Márk; Bereczki, Dánieli; Rudas, Gábor; Simó, Magdolna

    2010-09-30

    Neuromyelitis optica (NMO, Devic-syndrome) is a rare, relapsing autoimmune disease of the central nervous system, which is distinguished from other demyelinating disorders by a recently identified, specific autoantibody. By demonstrating the anti-aquaporin-4 IgG in the serum, a heterogenous group of syndromes can be defined, called NMO-spectrum. In the future, optical coherence tomography may support this diagnosis besides the clinical features, imaging examinations and presence of serum antibody. Early recognition and treatment can improve clinical outcome even in serious condition. Long-term immunosuppressive therapy is advised to prevent further relapses and to stabilize or improve clinical status. Hereby, we report a case of a 51-year-old woman, under treatment for one and a half years. We summarize the current knowledge about the pathomechanism, diagnostic strategy and therapy of neuromyelitis optica. We review recent findings and the diagnostic value of a new, non-invasive ophtalmological examination, the optical coherence tomography. According to the first results, this method may be helpful in the early differential diagnosis of optic neuritis.

  15. Current Work in Energy Analysis (Energy Analysis Program -1996 Annual Report)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Energy Analysis Program

    1998-03-01

    This report describes the work that Environmental Energy Technologies Division of Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory has been doing most recently. One of our proudest accomplishments is the publication of Scenarios of U.S. Carbon Reductions, an analysis of the potential of energy technologies to reduce carbon emissions in the U.S. This analysis played a key role in shaping the U.S. position on climate change in the Kyoto Protocol negotiations. Our participation in the fundamental characterization of the climate change issue by the IPCC is described. We are also especially proud of our study of ''leaking electricity,'' which is stimulating an international campaign for a one-watt ceiling for standby electricity losses from appliances. This ceiling has the potential to save two-thirds of the 5% of U.S. residential electricity currently expended on standby losses. The 54 vignettes contained in the following pages summarize results of research. activities ranging in scale from calculating the efficacy of individual lamp ballasts to estimating the cost-effectiveness of the national ENERGY STAR{reg_sign} labeling program, and ranging in location from a scoping study of energy-efficiency market transformation in California to development of an energy-efficiency project in the auto parts industry in Shandong Province, China. These are the intellectual endeavors of a talented team of researchers dedicated to public service.

  16. AAPM/SNMMI Joint Task Force: report on the current state of nuclear medicine physics training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harkness, Beth A; Allison, Jerry D; Clements, Jessica B; Coffey, Charles W; Fahey, Frederic H; Gress, Dustin A; Kinahan, Paul E; Nickoloff, Edward L; Mawlawi, Osama R; MacDougall, Robert D; Pizzutiello, Robert J

    2015-09-08

    The American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM) and the Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging (SNMMI) recognized the need for a review of the current state of nuclear  medicine physics training and the need to explore pathways for improving nuclear medicine physics training opportunities. For these reasons, the two organizations formed a joint AAPM/SNMMI Ad Hoc Task Force on Nuclear Medicine Physics  Training. The mission of this task force was to assemble a representative group of stakeholders to:• Estimate the demand for board-certified nuclear medicine physicists in the next 5-10 years,• Identify the critical issues related to supplying an adequate number of physicists who have received the appropriate level of training in nuclear medicine physics, and• Identify approaches that may be considered to facilitate the training of nuclear medicine physicists.As a result, a task force was appointed and chaired by an active member of both organizations that included representation from the AAPM, SNMMI, the American Board of Radiology (ABR), the American Board of Science in Nuclear Medicine (ABSNM), and the Commission for the Accreditation of Medical Physics Educational Programs (CAMPEP). The Task Force first met at the AAPM Annual Meeting in Charlotte in July 2012 and has met regularly face-to-face, online, and by conference calls. This manuscript reports the findings of the Task Force, as well as recommendations to achieve the stated mission.

  17. Future Performance Trend Indicators: A Current Value Approach to Human Resources Accounting. Report V: The Value Attribution Process. Technical Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapointe, Jean B.; And Others

    The development of future performance trend indicators is based on the current value approach to human resource accounting. The value attribution portion of the current value approach is used to estimate the dollar value of observed changes in the state of the human organization. The procedure for value attribution includes: prediction of changes…

  18. A RAPID GAS-CHROMATOGRAPHIC METHOD FOR THE FINGERPRINTING OF ILLICIT COCAINE SAMPLES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ENSING, JG; RACAMY, C; DEZEEUW, RA

    A gas chromatographic (GC) fingerprint method, based on the presence or absence of six congeners, was developed for illicit cocaine samples. The fingerprint utilizes the relative abundances of these congeners towards each other, disregarding cocaine as the main constituent, and can be expressed

  19. Comparing illicit drug use in 19 European cities through sewage analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K.V. Thomas; L. Bijlsma; S. Castiglioni; A. Covaci; E. Emke; R. Grabic; F. Hernández; S. Karolak; B. Kasprzyk-Hordern; R.H. Lindberg; A. Meierjohann; C. Ort; Y. Pico; J. Quintana; M. Reid; J. Rieckermann; S. Terzic; A.L.N. van Nuijs; P. de Voogt

    2012-01-01

    The analysis of sewage for urinary biomarkers of illicit drugs is a promising and complementary approach for estimating the use of these substances in the general population. For the first time, this approach was simultaneously applied in 19 European cities, making it possible to directly compare il

  20. Spatial differences and temporal changes in illicit drug use in Europe quantified by wastewater analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Ort; A.L.N. van Nuijs; J.-D. Berset; L. Bijlsma; S. Castiglioni; A. Covaci; P. de Voogt; E. Emke; D. Fatta-Kassinos; P Griffiths; F. Hernández; I. González-Mariño; R. Grabic; B. Kasprzyk-Hordern; N Mastroianni; A. Meierjohann; T. Nefau; M. Östman; Y. Pico; I Racamonde; M. Reid; J. Slobodnik; S. Terzic; N Thomaidis; K.V. Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Aims To perform wastewater analyses to assess spatial differences and temporal changes of illicit drug use in a large European population. Design Analyses of raw wastewater over a 1-week period in 2012 and 2013. Setting and Participants Catchment areas of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) across E

  1. Coffee Shops and Compromise : Separated Illicit Drug Markets in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J-P.C. Grund (Jean-Paul); J. Breeksema (Joost)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractBuilding on a long history and culture of tolerance, the Dutch responded to illicit drugs with decades of pragmatic measures free of judgment. A central element of modern Dutch drug policy was a crucial decision to establish a legal and practical separation of cannabis— judged to pose

  2. Spatial differences and temporal changes in illicit drug use in Europe quantified by wastewater analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ort, C.; van Nuijs, A.L.N.; Berset, J.-D.; Bijlsma, L.; Castiglioni, S.; Covaci, A.; de Voogt, P.; Emke, E.; Fatta-Kassinos, D.; Griffiths, P; Hernández, F.; González-Mariño, I.; Grabic, R.; Kasprzyk-Hordern, B.; Mastroianni, N; Meierjohann, A.; Nefau, T.; Östman, M.; Pico, Y.; Racamonde, I; Reid, M.; Slobodnik, J.; Terzic, S.; Thomaidis, N; Thomas, K.V.

    2014-01-01

    Aims To perform wastewater analyses to assess spatial differences and temporal changes of illicit drug use in a large European population. Design Analyses of raw wastewater over a 1-week period in 2012 and 2013. Setting and Participants Catchment areas of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) across

  3. Test Sample for the Spatially Resolved Quantification of Illicit Drugs on Fingerprints Using Imaging Mass Spectrometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muramoto, S.; Forbes, T.P.; van Asten, A.C.; Gillen, G.

    2015-01-01

    A novel test sample for the spatially resolved quantification of illicit drugs on the surface of a fingerprint using time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) and desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (DESI-MS) was demonstrated. Calibration curves relating the signal

  4. Illicit drugs in Canadian municipal wastewater and estimates of community drug use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metcalfe, Chris, E-mail: cmetcalfe@trentu.c [Worsfold Water Quality Centre, Trent University, 1600 West Bank Drive Peterborough, ON, K9J 7B8 (Canada); Tindale, Kathryn [Worsfold Water Quality Centre, Trent University, 1600 West Bank Drive Peterborough, ON, K9J 7B8 (Canada); Li, Hongxia, E-mail: lihongxia@trentu.c [Worsfold Water Quality Centre, Trent University, 1600 West Bank Drive Peterborough, ON, K9J 7B8 (Canada); Rodayan, Angela [Department of Chemical Engineering, McGill University, 3610 University St., Montreal, QC, H3A 2B2 (Canada); Yargeau, Viviane, E-mail: viviane.yargeau@mcgill.c [Department of Chemical Engineering, McGill University, 3610 University St., Montreal, QC, H3A 2B2 (Canada)

    2010-10-15

    In this study of wastewater treatment plants in three Canadian cities, selected illicit drugs, including cocaine and its major metabolite, benzoylecgonine (BE), amphetamine, methamphetamine and ecstasy (i.e. MDMA) were detected in untreated wastewater. Cocaine was the most widely used illicit drug at a median level for the 3 cities of 15.7 doses per day per 1000 people. For the other drugs, the median doses per day per 1000 people were 1.8 for amphetamine, 4.5 for methamphetamine and 0.4 for ecstasy. Methamphetamine use was highest in the largest city and cocaine use was lowest in the smallest city. Removal of the illicit drugs by wastewater treatment was generally >50%, except in a WWTP that uses primary treatment. The community consumption estimate for ecstasy in the present study is far below published estimates of the prevalence of ecstasy use among the Canadian population, which may be due to only occasional use of ecstasy. - Cocaine and amphetamines were detected in untreated and treated sewage in the wastewater treatment plants of three Canadian cities, and community consumption patterns estimated from the concentrations of the drugs in untreated wastewater were consistent with estimates of the use of illicit drugs in Canada.

  5. Comparing illicit drug use in 19 European cities through sewage analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thomas, K.V.; Bijlsma, L.; Castiglioni, S.; Covaci, A.; Emke, E.; Grabic, R.; Hernández, F.; Karolak, S.; Kasprzyk-Hordern, B.; Lindberg, R.H.; Meierjohann, A.; Ort, C.; Pico, Y.; Quintana, J.; Reid, M.; Rieckermann, J.; Terzic, S.; van Nuijs, A.L.N.; de Voogt, P.

    2012-01-01

    The analysis of sewage for urinary biomarkers of illicit drugs is a promising and complementary approach for estimating the use of these substances in the general population. For the first time, this approach was simultaneously applied in 19 European cities, making it possible to directly compare

  6. Test Sample for the Spatially Resolved Quantification of Illicit Drugs on Fingerprints Using Imaging Mass Spectrometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muramoto, S.; Forbes, T.P.; van Asten, A.C.; Gillen, G.

    2015-01-01

    A novel test sample for the spatially resolved quantification of illicit drugs on the surface of a fingerprint using time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) and desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (DESI-MS) was demonstrated. Calibration curves relating the signal i

  7. Evaluation of a procedure to assess the adverse effects of illicit drugs.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amsterdam, J G C van; Best, W; Opperhuizen, A; Wolff, F A de

    2004-01-01

    The assessment procedure of new synthetic illicit drugs that are not documented in the UN treaty on psychotropic drugs was evaluated using a modified Electre model. Drugs were evaluated by an expert panel via the open Delphi approach, where the written score was discussed on 16 items, covering

  8. 76 FR 58466 - Models To Advance Voluntary Corporate Notification to Consumers Regarding the Illicit Use of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-21

    ... and communications made with the computer. Criminals can exploit this information for identity theft... awareness? What are the roadblocks to sharing this data? (7) Upon discovering that a consumer's computer or... Illicit Use of Computer Equipment by Botnets and Related Malware AGENCIES: U.S. Department of Commerce...

  9. Suicidal behaviours in male and female users of illicit drugs recruited in drug treatment facilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabet Arribas-Ibar

    2017-07-01

    Conclusions: Prevalence of suicidal ideation/plans was high among illicit drug users recruited from healthcare facilities. Besides psychological variables, participation in illegal market activities and crime ought to be considered in drug users’ suicidal prevention. Suicide risk needs to be evaluated in drug treatment facilities and psychological status and context contemplated.

  10. Coffee Shops and Compromise : Separated Illicit Drug Markets in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J-P.C. Grund (Jean-Paul); J. Breeksema (Joost)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractBuilding on a long history and culture of tolerance, the Dutch responded to illicit drugs with decades of pragmatic measures free of judgment. A central element of modern Dutch drug policy was a crucial decision to establish a legal and practical separation of cannabis— judged to pose “a

  11. Development of a fluorescent sensor for an illicit date rape drug--GBL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Duanting; Agrawalla, Bikram Keshari; Eng, Pei Sze Fronia; Lee, Sung-Chan; Xu, Wang; Chang, Young-Tae

    2013-07-14

    The first fluorescent sensor for an illicit date rape drug, GBL, was developed and named Green Date. It shows high fluorescence enhancement to GBL and allows its detection in different drinks. The mechanism between GBL and Green Date was explored. This discovery may help to prevent the drug-facilitated sexual assault problems.

  12. XBRL Standard for Financial Reporting in Croatia: Current State and Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gostimir Dejan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Harmonization and standardization is becoming important among regulators and business community. XBRL has entered the global stage as a financial reporting standard. Its mission was to standardize the financial reporting, lower the reporting costs and make the reporting as transparent as possible.

  13. The integrated reporting: A presentation of the current state of art and aspects of integrated reporting that need further development

    OpenAIRE

    Jordi Morros

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to synthesise what is the emerging field of integrated reporting, with particular emphasis in the International Integrated Reporting Council, and outline a list of items for future research in this area. Design/methodology/approach: The approach is to outline a presentation of integrated reporting (IR), and make a review of the implications for the research agenda of the most important items. Findings: The need for quality researchers to address a number ...

  14. Non-medical prescribing by physiotherapists: issues reported in the current evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Joanne H; Grimmer, Karen

    2014-02-01

    Physiotherapists should be proactive in preparing themselves to participate in innovative models of health care, which are emerging from the healthcare workforce reforms in Australia. One challenging outcome of workforce change is physiotherapy (non-medical) prescribing (NMP), which is part of the extension of scope of physiotherapy practice. This paper summarises the current evidence base for Australian physiotherapists seeking to obtain prescribing rights. A targeted literature review was undertaken through EBSCO Host, Cochrane, Medline, SportsDiscus, Cinahl, Healthsource and Google.com using broad search terms to identify peer-reviewed and grey literature pertaining to NMP by physiotherapists, nationally and internationally. No critical appraisal was undertaken however literature was structured into the NHMRC hierarchy of evidence. Themes raised in the included literature were reported descriptively. There were six relevant peer-reviewed articles, of hierarchy levels III_3 and IV. There was however, comprehensive and recent grey literature to inform Australian physiotherapy NMP initiatives. Themes included the need for standard National action in relation to legislative and regulatory/registration issues, appropriate education, credentialing and supervisory requirements for physiotherapy prescribing. Many lessons can be learnt from the literature, including the importance of planned, uniform National action (rather than piecemeal state-by-state initiatives). Essential elements include appropriate training and skills-based recognition within the discipline and the broader health team, and the need to overtly demonstrate effectiveness and safety. Regularly-evaluated service-delivery models which support NMP by physiotherapists are further required, to demonstrate efficiency, timeliness, patient centredness and equity. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Assessment of the European Union's illicit trade agreements with the four major Transnational Tobacco Companies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joossens, Luk; Gilmore, Anna B; Stoklosa, Michal; Ross, Hana

    2016-05-01

    To address the illicit cigarette trade, the European Union (EU) has signed agreements with the four major Transnational Tobacco Companies (TTCs) that involve establishing extensive systems of cooperation. All agreements foresee two types of payments: annual payments (totalling US$ 1.9 billion over 20 years) and supplementary seizure payments, equivalent to 100% of the evaded taxes in the event of seizures of their products. While limited by the fundamental lack of transparency in this area, our analysis suggests that these agreements have served largely to secure the TTCs' interests and are threatening progress in tobacco control. The seizure payments are paltry and a wholly inadequate deterrent to TTC involvement in illicit trade. Despite the agreements, growing evidence indicates the TTCs remain involved in the illicit trade or are at best failing to secure their supply chains as required by the agreements. The intention of the seizure-based payments to deter the tobacco industry from further involvement in the illicit cigarette trade has failed because the agreements contain too many loopholes that provide TTCs with both the incentive and opportunity to classify seized cigarettes as counterfeit. In addition, the shifting nature of cigarette smuggling from larger to smaller consignments often results in seizures that are too small to qualify for the payments. Consequently, the seizure payments represent a tiny fraction of the revenue lost from cigarette smuggling, between 2004 and 2012, 0.08% of the estimated losses due to illicit cigarette trade in the EU. Our evidence suggests the EU should end these agreements. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  16. Crystallographic investigations of select cathinones: emerging illicit street drugs known as `bath salts'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Matthew R; Lalancette, Roger A; Bernal, Ivan

    2015-01-01

    The name `bath salts', for an emerging class of synthetic cathinones, is derived from an attempt to evade prosecution and law enforcement. These are truly illicit drugs that have psychoactive CNS (central nervous system) stimulant effects and they have seen a rise in abuse as recreational drugs in the last few years since first having been seen in Japan in 2006. The ease of synthesis and modification of specific functional groups of the parent cathinone make these drugs particularly difficult to regulate. MDPV (3,4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone) is commonly encountered as its hydrochloride salt (C16H21NO3·HCl), in either the hydrated or the anhydrous forms. This `bath salt' has various names in the US, e.g. `Super Coke', `Cloud Nine', and `Ivory Wave', to name just a few. We report here the structures of two forms of the HCl salt, one as a mixed bromide/chloride salt, C16H22NO3(+)·0.343Br(-)·0.657Cl(-) [systematic name: 1-(benzo[d][1,3]dioxol-5-yl)-2-(pyrrolidin-1-ium-1-yl)pentan-1-one bromide/chloride (0.343/0.657)], and the other with the H7O3(+) cation, as well as the HCl counter-ion [systematic name: hydroxonium 1-(benzo[d][1,3]dioxol-5-yl)-2-(pyrrolidin-1-ium-1-yl)pentan-1-one dichloride, H7O3(+)·C16H22NO3(+)·2Cl(-)]. This is one of a very few structures (11 to be exact) in which we have a new example of a precisely determined hydroxonium cation. During the course of researching the clandestine manufacture of MDPV, we were surprised by the fact that a common precursor of this illicit stimulant is known to be the fragrant species piperonal, which is present in the fragrances of orchids, most particularly in the case of the vanilla orchid. We found that MDPV can be made by a Grignard reaction of this heliotropin. This may also explain the unexpected appearance of the bromide counter-ion in some of the salts we encountered (C16H21NO3·HBr), one of which is presented here [systematic name: 1-(benzo[d][1,3]dioxol-5-yl)-2-(pyrrolidin-1-ium-1-yl)pentan-1-one

  17. The integrated reporting: A presentation of the current state of art and aspects of integrated reporting that need further development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordi Morros

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to synthesise what is the emerging field of integrated reporting, with particular emphasis in the International Integrated Reporting Council, and outline a list of items for future research in this area. Design/methodology/approach: The approach is to outline a presentation of integrated reporting (IR, and make a review of the implications for the research agenda of the most important items. Findings: The need for quality researchers to address a number of pressing challenges posed by the rapid development of IR policies and practices. Research limitations/implications: The paper provide insights into issues and aspects of integrated reporting that need further development and need robust evidence to help inform improvements in policy and practice. Practical implications: Highlight how companies may benefit from integrated reporting in response to stakeholders’ calls for enhanced disclosure of environmental, social, governance and other non financial information. Social implications: The main social implication is to promote the wider public interest of improving the relevance of information for decision-making, for all stakeholders, and allow greater efficiency in the allocation of financial and other resources and in adding public value Originality/value: This paper offers a general view on a subject that is a challenge for entities oriented to the implementation of sustainability in their values and also in their reporting.

  18. Dedifferentiated chondrosarcoma arising in fibrous dysplasia: A case report and review of the current literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole MD Riddle

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Nicole MD Riddle1, Hideko Yamauchi2, Jamie T Caracciolo4, David Johnson2, G Douglas Letson2, Ardeshir Hakam1,3, Prudence V Smith1,2,3, Marilyn M Bui1,2,31Department of Pathology and Cell Biology, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL, USA; 2Department of Sarcoma, 3Department of Anatomic Pathology, 4Department of Radiology, Moffitt Cancer Center, Tampa, FL, USABackground: Fibrous dysplasia is an uncommon bone disease that has rare but clear potential for malignant transformation. The frequency is increased in polyostotic forms, McCune–Albright syndrome, Mazabraud’s syndrome, and previously irradiated sites. Rapidly progressing pain unrelated to trauma is the most concerning symptom. The early radiological features of sarcomatous transformation are moth-eaten or cystic areas of osteolysis, cortical destruction, and gradual formation of a soft tissue mass. The prognosis is unfavorable as most of the cases are in an advanced stage at the time of diagnosis.Methods: This case was diagnosed at a large cancer center in Florida. Pertinent clinical findings were obtained from chart review and inter-departmental consultation.Results: Histopathological examination revealed dysplastic lamellar bone with no osteoblastic rimming and “Chinese letter” shapes, areas composed of lobulated hyaline cartilage with mild to severe nuclear atypia, and areas of poorly differentiated cells with a spindled appearance, consistent with chondrosarcoma arising within fibrous dysplasia.Conclusions: Sarcomatous transformation of fibrous dysplasia is an uncommon occurrence, yet has significant importance for those with the disease. There may be difficulty with diagnosis given the symptoms and radiologic findings of benign fibrous dysplasia. We report a case of chondrosarcoma rising in fibrous dysplasia and review the current literature. This case is of interest due to the fact that the diagnosis of monostotic fibrous dysplasia was first made at the age of 59 and

  19. Psychosocial interventions for pregnant women in outpatient illicit drug treatment programs compared to other interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terplan, Mishka; Ramanadhan, Shaalini; Locke, Abigail; Longinaker, Nyaradzo; Lui, Steve

    2016-01-01

    Background Illicit drug use in pregnancy is a complex social and public health problem. The consequences of drug use in pregnancy are high for both the woman and her child. Therefore, it is important to develop and evaluate effective treatments. There is evidence for the effectiveness of psychosocial interventions in drug treatment but it is unclear whether they are effective in pregnant women. This is an update of a Cochrane review originally published in 2007. Objectives To evaluate the effectiveness of psychosocial interventions in pregnant women enrolled in illicit drug treatment programmes on birth and neonatal outcomes, on attendance and retention in treatment, as well as on maternal and neonatal drug abstinence. In short, do psychosocial interventions translate into less illicit drug use, greater abstinence, better birth outcomes, or greater clinic attendance? Search methods We conducted the original literature search in May 2006 and performed the search update up to January 2015. For both review stages (original and update), we searched the Cochrane Drugs and Alcohol Group Trial's register (May 2006 and January 2015); the Cochrane Central Register of Trials (CENTRAL; the Cochrane Library 2015, Issue 1); PubMed (1996 to January 2015); EMBASE (1996 to January 2015); and CINAHL (1982 to January 2015). Selection criteria We included randomized controlled trials comparing any psychosocial intervention vs. a control intervention that could include pharmacological treatment, such as methadone maintenance, a different psychosocial intervention, counselling, prenatal care, STD counselling and testing, transportation, or childcare. Data collection and analysis We used standard methodological procedures expected by the Cochrane Collaboration. We performed analyses based on three comparisons: any psychosocial intervention vs. control, contingency management (CM) interventions vs. control, and motivational interviewing based (MIB) interventions vs. control. Main results

  20. The origin of the warped heliospheric current sheet. Scientific technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilcox, J.M.; Scherrer, P.H.; Hoeksema, J.T.

    1980-03-01

    The warped heliospheric current sheet in early 1976 is calculated from the observed photospheric magnetic field using a potential field method. Comparisons with measurements of the interplanetary magnetic field polarity in early 1976 obtained at several locations in the heliosphere at Helios I, Helios II, Pioneer XI and Earth show a rather detailed agreement between the computed current sheet and the observations. It appears that the large-scale structure of the warped heliospheric current sheet is determined by the structure of the photospheric magnetic field, and that 'ballerina skirt' effects may add small-scale ripples.

  1. "I'm not afraid of those ones just 'cause they've been prescribed": perceptions of risk among illicit users of pharmaceutical opioids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniulaityte, Raminta; Falck, Russel; Carlson, Robert G

    2012-09-01

    There has been a rise in the illicit use of pharmaceutical opioids ("pain pills") in the United States. Conducted with young adult non-medical users of pharmaceutical opioids, this study uses qualitative methods and cultural consensus analysis to describe risk perceptions associated with pharmaceutical opioids and to determine patterns of cultural sharing and intra-cultural variation of these views. The qualitative sub-sample (n=47) was selected from a larger sample of 396 young adults (18-23 years old), who were participating in a natural history study of illicit pharmaceutical opioid use. Qualitative life history interviews, drug ranking task, and cultural consensus analysis were used to elicit participant views about risks and harms associated with pain pills and other drugs, as well as alcohol and tobacco. Cultural consensus analysis revealed that the participants shared a single cultural model of drug risks, but the level of agreement decreased with the increasing range of drugs ever used. Further, those with more extensive drug use histories differed from less "experienced" users in their views about OxyContin and some other drugs. Overall, pain pills were viewed as addicting and potentially deadly substances, but these properties were linked to the patterns and methods of use, as well as characteristics of an individual user. Further, risks associated with pharmaceutical opioids were further curtailed because they "came from the doctor," and thus had a legitimate aspect to their use. This study highlights potential problems with universal approaches to substance use prevention and intervention among young people since such approaches ignore the fact that substance use education messages may be experienced differently depending on an individual's drug use history and his/her perceptions of drug risks. Findings reported here may be useful in the development of prevention and intervention programs aimed at reducing the harm associated with illicit use of pain

  2. Reducing risk for illicit drug use and prescription drug misuse: High school gay-straight alliances and lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heck, Nicholas C; Livingston, Nicholas A; Flentje, Annesa; Oost, Kathryn; Stewart, Brandon T; Cochran, Bryan N

    2014-04-01

    Previous research suggests that lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) youth are at elevated risk for using illicit drugs and misusing prescription drugs relative to heterosexual youth. Previous research also indicates that LGBT youth who attend high schools with a gay-straight alliance (GSA) report having fewer alcohol problems and lower levels of cigarette smoking. The present study investigates whether the absence of a GSA is associated with risk for illicit drug use and prescription drug misuse in a sample of 475 LGBT high school students (M age=16.79) who completed an online survey. After controlling for demographic variables and risk factors associated with illicit drug use, the results of 12 logistic regression analyses revealed that LGBT youth attending a high school without a GSA evidenced increased risk for using cocaine (adjusted odds ratio [adjOR]=3.11; 95% confidence interval [95% CI]=1.23-7.86), hallucinogens (adjOR=2.59; 95% CI=1.18-5.70), and marijuana (adjOR=2.22; 95% CI=1.37-3.59) relative to peers attending a high school with a GSA. Youth without a GSA also evidenced increased risk for the misuse of ADHD medication (adjOR=2.00; 95% CI=1.02-3.92) and prescription pain medication (adjOR=2.00; 95% CI=1.10-3.65). These findings extend the research base related to GSAs and further demonstrate the importance of providing LGBT youth with opportunities for socialization and support within the school setting. Important limitations of the present study are reviewed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. A prospective examination of the path from child abuse and neglect to illicit drug use in middle adulthood: the potential mediating role of four risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Helen W; Widom, Cathy Spatz

    2009-03-01

    This study examines prostitution, homelessness, delinquency and crime, and school problems as potential mediators of the relationship between childhood abuse and neglect (CAN) and illicit drug use in middle adulthood. Children with documented cases of physical and sexual abuse and neglect (ages 0-11) during 1967-1971 were matched with non-maltreated children and followed into middle adulthood (approximate age 39). Mediators were assessed in young adulthood (approximate age 29) through in-person interviews between 1989 and 1995 and official arrest records through 1994 (N = 1,196). Drug use was assessed via self-reports of past year use of marijuana, psychedelics, cocaine, and/or heroin during 2000-2002 (N = 896). Latent variable structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to test: (1) a four-factor model with separate pathways from CAN to illicit drug use through each of the mediating risk factors and (2) a second-order model with a single mediating risk factor comprised of prostitution, homelessness, delinquency and crime, and poor school performance. Analyses were performed separately for women and men, controlling for race/ethnicity and early drug use. In the four-factor model for both men and women, CAN was significantly related to each of the mediators, but no paths from the mediators to drug use were significant. For women, the second-order risk factor mediated the relationship between CAN and illicit drug use in middle adulthood. For men, neither child abuse and neglect nor the second-order risk factor predicted drug use in middle adulthood. These results suggest that for women, the path from CAN to middle adulthood drug use is part of a general "problem behavior syndrome" evident earlier in life.

  4. Reporting Multiple Individual Injuries in Studies of Team Ball Sports : A Systematic Review of Current Practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fortington, Lauren V; van der Worp, Henk; van den Akker-Scheek, Inge; Finch, Caroline F

    Background To identify and prioritise targets for injury prevention efforts, injury incidence studies are widely reported. The accuracy and consistency in calculation and reporting of injury incidence is crucial. Many individuals experience more than one injury but multiple injuries are not

  5. Reporting Multiple Individual Injuries in Studies of Team Ball Sports : A Systematic Review of Current Practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fortington, Lauren V; van der Worp, Henk; van den Akker-Scheek, Inge; Finch, Caroline F

    2017-01-01

    Background To identify and prioritise targets for injury prevention efforts, injury incidence studies are widely reported. The accuracy and consistency in calculation and reporting of injury incidence is crucial. Many individuals experience more than one injury but multiple injuries are not consiste

  6. Reporting unit size and measurement uncertainty: current Australian practice in clinical chemistry and haematology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Robert C; Badrick, Tony

    2015-08-01

    In this study we aimed to compare the reporting unit size used by Australian laboratories for routine chemistry and haematology tests to the unit size used by learned authorities and in standard laboratory textbooks and to the justified unit size based on measurement uncertainty (MU) estimates from quality assurance program data. MU was determined from Royal College of Pathologists of Australasia (RCPA) - Australasian Association of Clinical Biochemists (AACB) and RCPA Haematology Quality Assurance Program survey reports. The reporting unit size implicitly suggested in authoritative textbooks, the RCPA Manual, and the General Serum Chemistry program itself was noted. We also used published data on Australian laboratory practices.The best performing laboratories could justify their chemistry unit size for 55% of analytes while comparable figures for the 50% and 90% laboratories were 14% and 8%, respectively. Reporting unit size was justifiable for all laboratories for red cell count, >50% for haemoglobin but only the top 10% for haematocrit. Few, if any, could justify their mean cell volume (MCV) and mean cell haemoglobin concentration (MCHC) reporting unit sizes.The reporting unit size used by many laboratories is not justified by present analytical performance. Using MU estimates to determine the reporting interval for quantitative laboratory results ensures reporting practices match local analytical performance and recognises the inherent error of the measurement process.

  7. Future World of Illicit Nuclear Trade: Mitigating the Threat

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-29

    or Otherwise Sensitive Information 5. Future Marketplace : Suppliers of the Future 56 Figure 11: List of Currently and Potentially...industrialized countries will be more independent, but the fact that the global marketplace is increasingly interconnected means that countries often...variety of approaches to obtain goods, varying from legal to illegal methods and from straightforward to highly deceptive schemes. The simplest

  8. Are the physical activity parenting practices reported by U.S. and Canadian parents captured in currently published instruments?

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of this study was to compare the physical activity parenting practices (PAPPs) parents report using with the PAPPs incorporated in the published literature. PAPPs in the literature were identified by reviewing the content of 74 published PAPPs measures obtained from current systematic re...

  9. Transformation and sorption of illicit drug biomarkers in sewer systems: understanding the role of suspended solids in raw wastewater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramin, Pedram; Brock, Andreas Libonati; Polesel, Fabio

    2016-01-01

    substrates (primary metabolic processes) and transformation of illicit drug biomarkers (secondary metabolic processes) by suspended biomass. Sixteen drug biomarkers were targeted, including mephedrone, methadone, cocaine, heroin, codeine and tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and their major human metabolites. Batch...

  10. Externalizing behaviors and cigarette smoking as predictors for use of illicit drugs: a longitudinal study among Finnish adolescent twins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korhonen, T.; Levälahti, E.; Dick, D.M.; Pulkkinen, L.; Rose, R.J.; Kaprio, J.; Huizink, A.C.

    2010-01-01

    We examined whether externalizing problem behaviors (hyperactivity-impulsivity, aggressiveness, and inattention) predict illicit drug use independently, or whether their associations with drug use are mediated through cigarette smoking. We used a prospective longitudinal design within the

  11. Externalizing Behaviors and Cigarette Smoking as Predictors for Use of Illicit Drugs: A Longitudinal Study Among Finnish Adolescent Twins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korhonen, T.; Levälahti, E.; Dick, D.M.; Pulkkinen, L.; Rose, R.J.; Kaprio, J.; Huizink, A.C.

    2010-01-01

    We examined whether externalizing problem behaviors (hyperactivity-impulsivity, aggressiveness, and inattention) predict illicit drug use independently, or whether their associations with drug use are mediated through cigarette smoking. We used a prospective longitudinal design within the

  12. Contamination Profiles and Mass Loadings of Macrolide Antibiotics and Illicit Drugs from a Small Urban Wastewater Treatment Plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Information is limited regarding sources, distribution, environmental behavior, and fate of prescribed and illicit drugs. Wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents can be one of the sources of pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCP) into streams, rivers and lakes. The ...

  13. Contamination Profiles and Mass Loadings of Macrolide Antibiotics and Illicit Drugs from a Small Urban Wastewater Treatment Plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Information is limited regarding sources, distribution, environmental behavior, and fate of prescribed and illicit drugs. Wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents can be one of the sources of pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCP) into streams, rivers and lakes. The ...

  14. Polydrug use of illicit drugs among adolescents in Hogar Crea of Barba de Heredia and Cartago

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ligia Murillo Castro

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this research is to analyze polydrug use of illicit drugs in teenagers of both genders intwo nongovernmental organizations of Costa Rica. It depicts the problems with polydrug use with the qualitativeresearch using two focal groups of teenagers. They relate, with the technique of collage, their own experienceswith the way they use illicit drugs. The research showed that the most commonly used drugs are marihuana andcocaine mixed with tobacco, also the time they consume it goes from 2 months to 4 years. Furthermore, they facetheir recovery in a special center, assuming the experience with consuming brings negative consequences likedeath, crime and jail in some cases. However, they hope to defeat the addiction and look for a better future bygoing through with the program established in the organization and also with the support of their families.

  15. Combating counterfeit medicines and illicit trade in tobacco products: minefields in global health governance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liberman, Jonathan

    2012-01-01

    This article examines two spheres of global governance in which the World Health Organization (WHO) has sought to exercise international leadership - combating "counterfeit" medicines and illicit trade in tobacco products. Medicines and tobacco products lie at polar opposite ends of the health spectrum, and are regulated for vastly different reasons and through different tools and approaches. Nevertheless, attempts to govern counterfeit trade in each of these products raise a host of somewhat similar challenges, involving normative and operational conflicts that cut across the crowded intersection of health protection and promotion, intellectual property protection, and activity to combat transnational organized crime. As negotiations of an illicit trade protocol to the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control enter their final stages, lessons learned from counterfeit medicines governance need to be applied to ensure that the most appropriate governance arrangements are adopted. © 2012 American Society of Law, Medicine & Ethics, Inc.

  16. The use of triangle diagram in the detection of explosive and illicit drugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudac, Davorin; Baricevic, Martina; Obhodas, Jasmina; Franulovic, Andrej; Valkovic, Vladivoj

    2010-04-01

    A tagged neutron inspection system has been used for the detection of explosive and illicite drugs. Simulant of the RDX explosive was measured in different environments and its gamma ray spectra were compared with the gamma ray spectra of benign materials like paper, sugar and rise. "Fingerprint" of the RDX simulant was found by detecting the nitrogen as well as by making the triangle plot which coordinates show the carbon and oxygen content and density. Density was obtained by measuring the intensity of the transmited tagged neutrons. Hence, the presence of the simulant can be confirmed by using two different methods. The possibility of using the triangle plot for detection of illicit drugs like heroin, cocain and marihuana is also discused.

  17. Detection of illicit drugs in impaired driver saliva by a field-usable SERS analyzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shende, Chetan; Huang, Hermes; Farquharson, Stuart

    2014-05-01

    One of the greatest dangers of drug use is in combination with driving. According to the most recent National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) studies, more than 11% of drivers tested positive for illicit drugs, while 18% of drivers killed in accidents tested positive for illicit, prescription or over-the-counter drugs. Consequently, there is a need for a rapid, noninvasive, roadside drug testing device, similar to the breathalyzers used by law enforcement officials to estimate blood alcohol levels of impaired drivers. In an effort to satisfy this need we have been developing a sampling kit that allows extraction of drugs from 1 mL of saliva and detection by surfaceenhanced Raman spectroscopy using a portable Raman analyzer. Here we describe the development of the sampling kit and present measurements of diazepam at sub μg/mL concentrations measured in ~15 minutes.

  18. Statistical properties of an algorithm used for illicit substance detection by fast-neutron transmission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, D.L.; Sagalovsky, L.; Micklich, B.J.; Harper, M.K.; Novick, A.H.

    1994-06-01

    A least-squares algorithm developed for analysis of fast-neutron transmission data resulting from non-destructive interrogation of sealed luggage and containers is subjected to a probabilistic interpretation. The approach is to convert knowledge of uncertainties in the derived areal elemental densities, as provided by this algorithm, into probability information that can be used to judge whether an interrogated object is either benign or potentially contains an illicit substance that should be investigated further. Two approaches are considered in this paper. One involves integration of a normalized probability density function associated with the least-squares solution. The other tests this solution against a hypothesis that the interrogated object indeed contains illicit material. This is accomplished by an application of the F-distribution from statistics. These two methods of data interpretation are applied to specific sets of neutron transmission results produced by Monte Carlo simulation.

  19. Nuclear data needs and sensitivities for illicit substance detection using fast-neutron transmission spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Micklich, B.J.; Harper, M.K.; Sagalovsky, L.; Smith, D.L.

    1994-05-01

    Results from analysis of fast-neutron transmission spectra in the interrogation of luggage for illicit substances are quite sensitive to the neutron total cross section data employed. Monte Carlo and analytical techniques are used to explore the uses for such data and to demonstrate the sensitivity of these results to various total cross sections employed in the analysis. The status of total cross section information required for materials commonly found in containers having both illicit and benign substances, with particular attention to the matter of data uncertainties, is considered in the context of the available nuclear data. Deficiencies in the contemporary nuclear data base for this application are indicated and suggestions are offered for new measurements or evaluations.

  20. Can price get the monkey off our back? A meta-analysis of illicit drug demand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallet, Craig A

    2014-01-01

    Because of the increased availability of price data over the past 15 years, several studies have estimated the demand for illicit drugs, providing 462 estimates of the price elasticity. Results from estimating several meta-regressions reveal that these price elasticity estimates are influenced by a number of study characteristics. For instance, the price elasticity differs across drugs, with its absolute value being smallest for marijuana, compared with cocaine and heroin. Furthermore, price elasticity estimates are sensitive to whether demand is modeled in the short-run or the long-run, measures of quantity and price, whether or not alcohol and other illicit drugs are included in the specification of demand, and the location of demand. However, a number of other factors, including the functional form of demand, several specification issues, the type of data and method used to estimate demand, and the quality of the publication outlet, have less influence on the price elasticity.

  1. Compulsive buying: Earlier illicit drug use, impulse buying, depression, and adult ADHD symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brook, Judith S; Zhang, Chenshu; Brook, David W; Leukefeld, Carl G

    2015-08-30

    This longitudinal study examined the association between psychosocial antecedents, including illicit drug use, and adult compulsive buying (CB) across a 29-year time period from mean age 14 to mean age 43. Participants originally came from a community-based random sample of residents in two upstate New York counties. Multivariate linear regression analysis was used to study the relationship between the participant's earlier psychosocial antecedents and adult CB in the fifth decade of life. The results of the multivariate linear regression analyses showed that gender (female), earlier adult impulse buying (IB), depressive mood, illicit drug use, and concurrent ADHD symptoms were all significantly associated with adult CB at mean age 43. It is important that clinicians treating CB in adults should consider the role of drug use, symptoms of ADHD, IB, depression, and family factors in CB. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Establishing a Link Between Prescription Drug Abuse and Illicit Online Pharmacies: Analysis of Twitter Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsuki, Takeo; Mackey, Tim Ken; Cuomo, Raphael

    2015-12-16

    Youth and adolescent non-medical use of prescription medications (NUPM) has become a national epidemic. However, little is known about the association between promotion of NUPM behavior and access via the popular social media microblogging site, Twitter, which is currently used by a third of all teens. In order to better assess NUPM behavior online, this study conducts surveillance and analysis of Twitter data to characterize the frequency of NUPM-related tweets and also identifies illegal access to drugs of abuse via online pharmacies. Tweets were collected over a 2-week period from April 1-14, 2015, by applying NUPM keyword filters for both generic/chemical and street names associated with drugs of abuse using the Twitter public streaming application programming interface. Tweets were then analyzed for relevance to NUPM and whether they promoted illegal online access to prescription drugs using a protocol of content coding and supervised machine learning. A total of 2,417,662 tweets were collected and analyzed for this study. Tweets filtered for generic drugs names comprised 232,108 tweets, including 22,174 unique associated uniform resource locators (URLs), and 2,185,554 tweets (376,304 unique URLs) filtered for street names. Applying an iterative process of manual content coding and supervised machine learning, 81.72% of the generic and 12.28% of the street NUPM datasets were predicted as having content relevant to NUPM respectively. By examining hyperlinks associated with NUPM relevant content for the generic Twitter dataset, we discovered that 75.72% of the tweets with URLs included a hyperlink to an online marketing affiliate that directly linked to an illicit online pharmacy advertising the sale of Valium without a prescription. This study examined the association between Twitter content, NUPM behavior promotion, and online access to drugs using a broad set of prescription drug keywords. Initial results are concerning, as our study found over 45,000 tweets

  3. Report: EPA’s Distribution of Superfund Human Resources Does Not Support Current Regional Workload

    Science.gov (United States)

    Report #17-P-0397, September 19, 2017. Due to insufficient human resources to cover all Superfund site work, some regions have had to slow down or discontinue their efforts to protect human health and the environment.

  4. Autopsy report for a caffeine intoxication case and review of the current literature

    OpenAIRE

    Yamamoto, Takuma; Yoshizawa, Katsuhiko; Kubo, Shin-ichi; EMOTO, Yuko; Hara, Kenji; Waters, Brian; Umehara, Takahiro; Murase, Takehiko; Ikematsu, Kazuya

    2014-01-01

    Caffeine (1,3,7-trimethylxanthine) is a popular mild central nervous system stimulant found in the leaves, seeds and fruits of various plants and in foodstuffs such as coffee, tea, and chocolate, among others. Caffeine is widely used and is not associated with severe side effects when consumed at relatively low doses. Although rarely observed, overdoses can occur. However, only a few fatal caffeine intoxication cases have been reported in the literature. Herein, we report the pathological exa...

  5. Women in Management: Analysis of Selected Data from the Current Population Survey. Report to Congressional Requesters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Robert E.

    The key characteristics, representation, and salaries of women in management versus those of their male counterparts were examined through an analysis of Current Population Survey data collected in March 1995 and 2000. The study focused on the following 10 industries: communications; public administration; business and repair services;…

  6. Electron cyclotron heating and current drive in toroidal geometry. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kritz, A.H.

    1991-11-01

    The Principal Investigator has continued to work on problems associated both with the deposition and with the emission of electron cyclotron power in toroidal plasmas. We have investigated the use of electron cyclotron resonance heating for bringing compact tokamaks (BPX) to ignition-like parameters. This requires that we continue to refine the modeling capability of the TORCH code linked with the BALDUR 1 {1/2} D transport code. Using this computational tool, we have examined the dependence of ignition on heating and transport employing both theoretical (multi-mode) and empirically based transport models. The work on current drive focused on the suppression of tearing modes near the q = 2 surface and sawteeth near the q = 1 surface. Electron cyclotron current drive in CIT near the q =2 surface was evaluated for a launch scenario where electron cyclotron power was launched near the equatorial plane. The work on suppression of sawteeth has been oriented toward understanding the suppression that has been observed in a number of tokamaks, in particular, in the WT-3 tokamak in Kyoto. To evaluate the changes in current profile (shear) near the q =1 surface, simulations have been carried out using the linked BALDUR-TORCH code. We consider effects on shear resulting both from wave-induced current as well as from changes in conductivity associated with changes in local temperature. Abstracts and a paper relating to this work is included in Appendix A.

  7. Income in the United States: 2002. Current Population Reports. Consumer Income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeNavas-Walt, Carmen; Cleveland, Robert W.; Webster, Bruce H., Jr.

    Using data from the 2003 Current Population Survey Annual Social and Economic Supplement, this study found that real median household money income declined by 1.1 percent between 2001-2002 to $42,409. Real median household income was unchanged between 2001-2002 for three of four alternative income definitions. The fourth, real median household…

  8. Current Issues in the Teaching of English: Report on a Questionnaire Study; English Curricula in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Australian Council for Educational Research, Hawthorn.

    The first two papers in this volume discusses the results of questionnaires intended for primary and secondary teachers to elicit information on current issues in the teaching of English in Australia. It was learned that secondary teachers reached consensus only on the very broadest levels. They all agreed that literature, communication, and…

  9. Forecasting Performance in Organizations: An Application of Current-Value Human Resources Accounting. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pecorella, Patricia A.; And Others

    A methodology to describe current-value human resources accounting (HRA) was developed to aid management in decision making and provide information about the effects of organizational policies and practices on the value of the organizations' human resources. A two-phase activity was designed to investigate the nature of the relationship between…

  10. European Science Notes Information Bulletin. Report on Current European and Middle Eastern Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-10-01

    between 40 Hz steady state MEG signals currents, from Alzheimer patients and normal patients of the However, by using a synthetic aperture ap- same...drawn from discussions held at this the second, the SQUID detected the presence of workshop and those given at the two conferences slots cut in aluminum

  11. European Science Notes Information Bulletin. Reports on Current European and Middle Eastern Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    Hydrolytic Routes 0 Modification and Hydrolysis of Metal Alkoxides Laboratoire de Chimie Organique et * Nanomaterials Prepared by Sol-Gel Process...gel research in France is heavily dominat- Laboratoire de Chimie Organique et Organoie- ed by chemists. Consequently, research emphasis tallique - J...section provides the titles of current projects at academic institutions in France. Overview of Research Laboratories Laboratoire de Chimie

  12. Frequency Of Illicit Drug Consumption In The First Trimester Of Pregnancy (Tehran - 2001

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramezanzadeh f

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Illicit drug abuse is a major area of interest for clinicians, as well as for public health and social authorities, but one of the major concerns is the illicit drug abuse during the periconceptional period and throughout pregnancy, because of its potential effects on the embryo and fetus. In this study we investigated the prevalence of illicit drug abuse in the first trimester of pregnancy in women who referred to Iran, Tehran and Shahid Beheshti universities of medical sciences, for prenatal care."nMaterials and Methods: In this descriptive cross sectional study, a non-randomized sample of 2000 pregnant women that were in their second and third trimester of their pregnancy, were interviewed about drug abuse in their first trimester. Collected data were analyzed by SPSS software."nResults: The prevalence of illicit drug abuse in the first trimester was 2.5% which the majority of these drugs were in group B. The prevalence of drug abuse was 0.9% and alcohol usage and alcohol abuse was 0.2%, cigarette smoking was the most common drug abusing phenomena. Variables such as husband education, infertility and satisfaction with pregnancy have significant relation with drug abuse."nConclusion: The results of this study support the need for continued education and this education must end in by itself to make dramatic changes in behavior. So results of this study showed that, improving education and knowledge of mothers and consultation with them in regard to risks and complications of drug abuse during pregnancy, would make dramatic changes in their behavior."n"n"n"n"n"n"n"n 

  13. Iranian Illicit Drug Market A Glance at Tehran’s Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fariborz Raeeis Dana

    2003-11-01

    To examine Iranian drug market, we have reviewed opium prices in Afghanistan and drug transition routes into the I. R. of Iran where some part of transited drugs are exported to Europe and United States of America. Owing to the fact that transited drugs are entering Iran via two border provinces namely Sistan and Baluchistan and Khorassan, and these two provinces have different conditions for drug traffickers, the price and type of transited drugs are varied in each region. In this study, changes in illicit drug prices in entering points (affected by internal situation of Afghanistan, price fluctuations inside the country and main factors of such changes are studied. Meanwhile, factors which influence over prices and their added value are explored on this basis, there is a regression which estimates the number of those who are active in illicit drug supply inside the country by using the rate of arrestees. The performance of anti-drug agencies is also appraised and there would be an estimation of total funds allocated by these agencies to illicit drug campaign, prevention and treatment. As a consequence, it is determined that the average cost spent for per kg of seized drugs is equal to opium average price. Another matter is drug distribution pattern in Tehran that is estimated through a comparative collation between illicit drug prices and some household consuming goods. It shows the rate of consumed drugs by an addict in comparison to consumed goods.Finally, the performance of rehabilitation centers and addicts’conditions icluding gender, education, income, occupation, marital statute and housing in ational as well as Tehran levels are studied.

  14. Forces of Habit: Global SOF's Role in Countering Illicit Drug Trafficking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Rexton Kan

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Illicit drug trafficking is a prominent national security issue in a globalizing world. Drug trafficking intersects with major security issues such as rogue and narco-states, weak and failing states, insurgencies and terrorism, transnational organized crime and protracted intrastate conflicts. These are the same issues that sets the operational environment for the deployment of SOF. Rather than treating drug trafficking as a singular and separate security issue, global SOF counternarcotics operations must adapt previous approaches to new realities.

  15. Pharmaceutical digital marketing and governance: illicit actors and challenges to global patient safety and public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackey, Tim K; Liang, Bryan A

    2013-10-16

    Digital forms of direct-to-consumer pharmaceutical marketing (eDTCA) have globalized in an era of free and open information exchange. Yet, the unregulated expansion of eDTCA has resulted in unaddressed global public health threats. Specifically, illicit online pharmacies are engaged in the sale of purportedly safe, legitimate product that may in fact be counterfeit or substandard. These cybercriminal actors exploit available eDTCA mediums over the Internet to market their suspect products globally. Despite these risks, a detailed assessment of the public health, patient safety, and cybersecurity threats and governance mechanisms to address them has not been conducted. Illicit online pharmacies represent a significant global public health and patient safety risk. Existing governance mechanisms are insufficient and include lack of adequate adoption in national regulation, ineffective voluntary governance mechanisms, and uneven global law enforcement efforts that have allowed proliferation of these cybercriminals on the web. In order to effectively address this multistakeholder threat, inclusive global governance strategies that engage the information technology, law enforcement and public health sectors should be established. Effective global "eHealth Governance" focused on cybercrime is needed in order to effectively combat illicit online pharmacies. This includes building upon existing Internet governance structures and coordinating partnership between the UN Office of Drugs and Crime that leads the global fight against transnational organized crime and the Internet Governance Forum that is shaping the future of Internet governance. Through a UNODC-IGF governance mechanism, investigation, detection and coordination of activities against illicit online pharmacies and their misuse of eDTCA can commence.

  16. Mobile phone messaging for illicit drug and alcohol dependence: A systematic review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tofighi, Babak; Nicholson, Joseph M; McNeely, Jennifer; Muench, Frederick; Lee, Joshua D

    2017-07-01

    Mobile phone use has increased dramatically and concurrent with rapid developments in mobile phone-based health interventions. The integration of text messaging interventions promises to optimise the delivery of care for persons with substance dependence with minimal disruption to clinical workflows. We conducted a systematic review to assess the acceptability, feasibility and clinical impact of text messaging interventions for persons with illicit drug and alcohol dependence. Studies were required to evaluate the use of text messaging as an intervention for persons who met Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition criterion for a diagnosis of illicit drug and/or alcohol dependence. Authors searched for articles published to date in MEDLINE (pubmed.gov), the Cochrane Library, EMBASE, CINAHL, Google Scholar and PsychINFO. Eleven articles met the search criteria for this review and support the acceptability and feasibility of text messaging interventions for addressing illicit drug and alcohol dependence. Most studies demonstrated improved clinical outcomes, medication adherence and engagement with peer support groups. Text messaging interventions also intervened on multiple therapeutic targets such as appointment attendance, motivation, self-efficacy, relapse prevention and social support. Suggestions for future research are described, including intervention design features, clinician contact, privacy measures and integration of behaviour change theories. Text messaging interventions offer a feasible platform to address a range of substances (i.e. alcohol, methamphetamine, heroin and alcohol), and there is increasing evidence supporting further larger-scale studies. [Tofighi B, Nicholson JM, McNeely J, Muench F, Lee JD. Mobile phone messaging for illicit drug and alcohol dependence: A systematic review of the literature. Drug Alcohol Rev 2017;36:477-491]. © 2017 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  17. Informal and Illicit Entrepreneurs: Fighting for a Place in the Neoliberal Economic Order.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galemba, Rebecca B

    2008-01-01

    A panel at the 2007 meetings of the American Anthropological Association examined the working lives of illicit and informal entrepreneurs living in "the gaps" or "shadows" of neoliberal globalization. Panelists challenged dichotomies such as informal/formal and legal/illegal by examining the everyday practices of workers in diverse settings. Emphasis was placed on entrepreneurs' efforts to legitimate their activities and identities to themselves and others.

  18. Gender Differences in Emergency Department Visits and Detox Referrals for Illicit and Nonmedical Use of Opioids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyeon-Ju Ryoo

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Visits to the emergency department (ED for use of illicit drugs and opioids have increased in the past decade. In the ED, little is known about how gender may play a role in drug-related visits and referrals to treatment. This study performs gender-based comparison analyses of drug-related ED visits nationwide. Methods: We performed a cross-sectional analysis with data collected from 2004 to 2011 by the Drug Abuse Warning Network (DAWN. All data were coded to capture major drug categories and opioids. We used logistic regression models to find associations between gender and odds of referral to treatment programs. A second set of models were controlled for patient “seeking detox,” or patient explicitly requesting for detox referral. Results: Of the 27.9 million ED visits related to drug use in the DAWN database, visits by men were 2.69 times more likely to involve illicit drugs than visits by women (95% CI [2.56, 2.80]. Men were more likely than women to be referred to detox programs for any illicit drugs (OR 1.12, 95% CI [1.02-1.22], for each of the major illicit drugs (e.g., cocaine: OR 1.27, 95% CI [1.15-1.40], and for prescription opioids (OR 1.30, 95% CI [1.17-1.43]. This significant association prevailed after controlling for “seeking detox.” Conclusion: Women are less likely to receive referrals to detox programs than men when presenting to the ED regardless of whether they are “seeking detox.” Future research may help determine the cause for this gender-based difference and its significance for healthcare costs and health outcomes.

  19. Pharmaceutical digital marketing and governance: illicit actors and challenges to global patient safety and public health

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Digital forms of direct-to-consumer pharmaceutical marketing (eDTCA) have globalized in an era of free and open information exchange. Yet, the unregulated expansion of eDTCA has resulted in unaddressed global public health threats. Specifically, illicit online pharmacies are engaged in the sale of purportedly safe, legitimate product that may in fact be counterfeit or substandard. These cybercriminal actors exploit available eDTCA mediums over the Internet to market their suspect products globally. Despite these risks, a detailed assessment of the public health, patient safety, and cybersecurity threats and governance mechanisms to address them has not been conducted. Discussion Illicit online pharmacies represent a significant global public health and patient safety risk. Existing governance mechanisms are insufficient and include lack of adequate adoption in national regulation, ineffective voluntary governance mechanisms, and uneven global law enforcement efforts that have allowed proliferation of these cybercriminals on the web. In order to effectively address this multistakeholder threat, inclusive global governance strategies that engage the information technology, law enforcement and public health sectors should be established. Summary Effective global “eHealth Governance” focused on cybercrime is needed in order to effectively combat illicit online pharmacies. This includes building upon existing Internet governance structures and coordinating partnership between the UN Office of Drugs and Crime that leads the global fight against transnational organized crime and the Internet Governance Forum that is shaping the future of Internet governance. Through a UNODC-IGF governance mechanism, investigation, detection and coordination of activities against illicit online pharmacies and their misuse of eDTCA can commence. PMID:24131576

  20. The neurocircuitry of illicit psychostimulant addiction: acute and chronic effects in humans

    OpenAIRE

    Taylor SB; Lewis CR; Olive MF

    2013-01-01

    Sara B Taylor,1 Candace R Lewis,1 M Foster Olive1,21Program in Behavioral Neuroscience, 2Interdisciplinary Graduate Program in Neuroscience, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ, USAAbstract: Illicit psychostimulant addiction remains a significant problem worldwide, despite decades of research into the neural underpinnings and various treatment approaches. The purpose of this review is to provide a succinct overview of the neurocircuitry involved in drug addiction, as well as the acute and chr...

  1. Isolation and identification of unique marker compounds from the Tasmanian poppy Papaver somniferum N. Implications for the identification of illicit heroin of Tasmanian origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odell, Luke R; Skopec, Jana; McCluskey, Adam

    2008-03-05

    Tasmanian opium accounts for 25% of the world's legal supply of opium straw, and in 1998-99 sufficient numbers of flower pods (66,013) to manufacture ca 500 kg of heroin were stolen. Whilst the heroin signature program has been developed to determine the origin of heroin from other key producers, no such signature currently exists for Tasmanian derived heroin. Tasmanian poppies contain a unique alkaloid, oripavine, which is the source of 'marker' impurities in illicit heroin produced from Tasmanian poppy straw. Treatment of oripavine (500mg) under Thiboumery and Mohr heroin processing conditions, followed by simple evaporative workup afforded 613 mg of a dark orange residue, which upon extensive chromatographic purification yielded oripavine 3-acetate (2) 22 mg; 3-acetyl-N-acetyldesthebaine (3) 35 mg; 3-acetyl-6-methoxy-4,5-epoxyphenanthrene (4) 5.8 mg; 3,4-diacetyl-6-methoxyphenanthrene (5) 27 mg; and 3,4,6-methoxy-5-[2(N-methylacetamido)]ethylphenanthrene (6) 52 mg. Compounds (2-6) are derived from oripavine and are unique to heroin derived from the Tasmanian poppy Papaver somniferum N. Analysis of illicit heroin samples seized from Turkey, Pakistan, Columbia and Myanmar did not reveal any of the aforementioned marker compounds. We have, however, identified four of these marker compounds (3-6) in seized heroin samples from Australia suggesting that they are of Tasmanian origin. Complete details of the isolation and identification of these compounds are provided.

  2. Maternal-fetal attachment in pregnant women who use illicit drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shieh, Carol; Kravitz, Melva

    2002-01-01

    To explore cognitive, affective, and altruistic dimensions of maternal-fetal attachment in pregnant women who use illicit drugs. Content analysis with deductive and inductive coding methods was used to uncover common themes in each dimension of attachment. A prenatal clinic of a tertiary medical center in the northeastern United States. Forty pregnant women. Inclusion criteria were the following: used illicit drugs after the last menstrual period, had felt fetal movement, and could read and speak English. Women in methadone treatment programs were excluded. Knowing the baby's characteristics and health through fetal movement, acknowledging the fetus as an individual with physical and emotional functions, and knowing the baby by relating the fetus to self and family members are the three major themes in cognitive attachment. Themes in affective attachment include mixing strong affection with guilt and viewing fetal movement as visual and tactile enjoyment but also discomfort. Common themes with conflicting feelings were salient in altruistic attachment, including feeling uncomfortable versus feeling worthwhile, viewing being pregnant as an incentive for lifestyle changes, battling with substance use and concern for fetal health, and alternating between uncertainty and hope in preparing for the baby's arrival. Maternal-fetal attachment is not a phenomenon that is present or absent, but a struggle manifested by guilt, concern, and uncertainty. Without proper treatment and counseling, many women struggle between illicit drug use and development of maternal-fetal attachment.

  3. Simultaneous Determination of 11 Illicit Phenethylamines in Hair by LC-MS-MS: In Vivo Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieddu, Maria; Burrai, Lucia; Demontis, Maria Piera; Varoni, Maria Vittoria; Baralla, Elena; Trignano, Claudia; Boatto, Gianpiero

    2015-09-01

    Existing phenethylamines are a class of synthetic compounds that differ from each other only in small changes to a largely conserved chemical structure. The recreational and illicit use of phenethylamines is a widespread problem. A simple procedure for the simultaneous quantitative determination in hair of 11 phenethylamines that are officially recognized as illicit by Italian legislation (p-methoxyamphetamine; p-methoxymethamphetamine; 3,4,5-trimethoxyamphetamine; 2,5-dimethoxyamphetamine; 2,5-dimethoxy-4-methylamphetamine; 2,5-dimethoxy-4-ethylamphetamine; 2,5-dimethoxy-4-bromoamphetamine; 2,5-dimethoxy-4-bromophenethylamine; 2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodophenethylamine; 2,5-dimethoxy-4-ethylthiophenethylamine and 2,5-dimethoxy-4-n-propylthiophenethylamine) has been developed and validated. Extraction from the matrix was performed after incubation in methanolic HCl and filtered reconstituted extracts were injected into a liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry system (LC-MS-MS) without any further purification steps. This validated LC-MS-MS method has been used to determine the in vivo accumulation/retention of the above target analytes in hair after repeat oral administration to rats. This experiment further permitted investigation of the effect of pigmentation on the uptake of these phenethylamines by hair and the effect of hair pigmentation. The developed method could potentially be used for forensic and toxicological purposes, in the detection and quantitation of these illicit substances in human hair in workplace drug testing; drug-facilitated crime investigation; driver re-licensing; determining drug abuse history and postmortem toxicology.

  4. Prescription of the High Risk Narcotics and Trading or Illicit Purchasing of High Risk Narcotics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoleta-Elena Buzatu

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The present essay will analyze the offence of prescribing high risk narcotics and trading or illicit purchasing of high risk narcotics, as it was regulated - together with other offences - by Law no 143 of July 26, 2000 on preventing and fighting against the traffic and illicit consumption of narcotics. The same law defines the meaning of such a phrase “substances which are under national control” by mentioning the fact that they are the narcotics and their precursors listed in Annexes I-IV of the law. The analysis of the offence of prescribing the high risk narcotics and trading or illicit purchasing of high risk narcotics is following the already known structure mentioned in the doctrine and which consists of: object and subjects of the offence, its constituent content: the objective side with its material element, the immediate consequence and causality connections; the subjective side of the offence, as well as forms and modalities of these offences, and the applicable sanctions, of course.

  5. Is cannabis an illicit drug or a medicine? A quantitative framing analysis of Israeli newspaper coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sznitman, Sharon R; Lewis, Nehama

    2015-05-01

    Various countries and states, including Israel, have recently legalized cannabis for therapeutic purposes (CTP). These changes have received mass media coverage and prompted national and international dialogue about the status of cannabis and whether or not it can be defined as a (legitimate) medicine, illicit and harmful drug, or both. News media framing may influence, and be influenced by, public opinion regarding CTP and support for CTP license provisions for patients. This study examines the framing of CTP in Israeli media coverage and the association between media coverage and trends in the provision of CTP licenses in Israel over time. All published news articles relevant to CTP and the framing of cannabis (N=214) from the three highest circulation newspapers in Israel were content analyzed. Articles were published between January 2007 and June 2013, a period in which CTP licenses granted by the Ministry of Health increased substantially. In the majority of CTP news articles (69%), cannabis was framed as a medicine, although in almost one third of articles (31%) cannabis was framed as an illicit drug. The relative proportion of news items in which cannabis was framed as an illicit drug fluctuated during the study period, but was unrelated to linear or curvilinear trends in CTP licensing. The relatively large proportion of news items framing cannabis as a medicine is consistent with growing support for the expansion of the Israel's CTP program. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. EXPERIMENTATION AND REGULAR USE OF ILLICIT DRUGS BY STUDENTS IN THE CITY OF BRAGANÇA, NORTHEASTERN PARÁ.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clemenes Prata Araújo

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This study determined the prevalence and factors associated with illicit drug useamongstudents inhighschools in the municipality of Bragança, Pará, northern Brazil. School-based cross-sectional study, a total of five public schools and 1632 students in the municipality ofBragança. The self-administered questionnaire was adapted from other epidemiological studies tothe appropriate population group, with rigorous procedure, guaranteeing anonymity andconfidentiality. The prevalence of illicit drug use among students was 4.37%. Several risk factors tothe use of licit and illicit drugs were detected, of which include: the lack of parental involvement inschool life of students, family income above 3 minimum wages, parents, friends and family whouse illicit drugs and lack of incentive to not use illegal drugs. In summary, this study found thatregular use of illicit drugs is associated with social and economic factors, which should beconsidered in the development of measures to control and prevent the use of illicit drugs in the cityof Bragança.

  7. Young adult smokers' perceptions of illicit tobacco and the possible impact of plain packaging on purchase behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moodie, Crawford; Hastings, Gerard; Joossens, Luk

    2012-04-01

    Plain (unbranded) packaging for cigarettes is at the top of the tobacco control agenda in both Australia and Europe. The evidence suggests that it will benefit public health by decreasing the appeal of tobacco products and increasing the power of the health warning. The tobacco industry instead argues that plain packaging would make it easier to counterfeit cigarettes, which would both confuse consumers and reduce price; thereby increasing consumption. Using focus group research we examined young adult smokers (N = 54) perceptions of, and ability to recognize, illicit tobacco and the possible impact of plain packaging on illicit tobacco purchasing behaviour. We found that the pack has no impact on the decision to buy illicit tobacco. Smokers were easily able to identify counterfeit cigarettes, not least by the pack, and buy it knowingly and in the full expectation that it will be inferior in quality. Illicit tobacco purchase, including that for counterfeit tobacco, was instead driven by availability and price. Given the extremely low manufacturing cost, per pack, of certain types of illicit cigarettes, it is difficult to envisage how plain packaging would alter the price of illicit tobacco in any meaningful way. The findings therefore suggest that a move to plain packaging would have no impact on young adult smokers' purchase behaviour.

  8. Thermodynamic Optimisation of 70 kA Binary Current Lead (Final Report)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wesche, R

    2002-02-01

    The thermal behaviour of binary 70 kA HTS current leads has been simulated numerically. The optimum temperature of the helium and the conductor at the cold end of the heat exchanger have been found to depend on the assumed refrigerator efficiency, the engineering critical current density of the AgAu/Bi-2223 tapes at the envisaged temperature at the warm end of the superconductor and the cross-section of the stainless steel support. Reduced engineering critical current densities as well as enlarged stainless steel cross-sections lead to a larger heat load at 4.5 K. As a consequence, the optimum temperature at the warm end of the HTS is shifted in both cases to lower values. When the efficiency of the intermediate temperature cooling cycle providing helium gas of the temperature T{sub i}n is enhanced with respect to the efficiency of the 4.5 K cooling cycle the optimum temperature at the warm end of the HTS is shifted to lower values. Considering ideal cooling cycles the optimum intermediate conductor temperature (warm end of HTS, cold end of heat exchanger) is between 75 and 80 K for a stainless steel cross-section of 40 cm{sup 2} and a total length of 1360 mm (HTS and heat exchanger without connections). The optimum difference of the conductor and the helium temperature at the cold end of the heat exchanger is approximately 20 K. However, even for a conductor temperature of 65 K and a helium inlet temperature of 45 K the required refrigerator input power needed to cool the current lead is only slightly enhanced. In the case of real cooling cycles the optimum intermediate conductor temperature is between 70 and 80 K for a stainless steel cross-section of 40 cm{sup 2} and a total length of 1360 mm. The . optimum difference of the conductor and helium temperature at the cold end of the heat exchanger is approximately 15 K. The safety requirements in the case of loss of flow favour a design with small values of j{sub op}/j{sub e}, a low temperature and an enhanced

  9. Feasibility of Tidal and Ocean Current Energy in False Pass, Aleutian Islands, Alaska final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, Bruce Albert [Aleutian Pribilof Islands Association, Inc., Anchorage, AK (United States)

    2014-05-07

    The Aleutian Pribilof Islands Association was awarded a U.S. Department of Energy Tribal Energy Program grant (DE-EE0005624) for the Feasibility of Tidal and Ocean Current Energy in False Pass, Aleutian Islands, Alaska (Project). The goal of the Project was to perform a feasibility study to determine if a tidal energy project would be a viable means to generate electricity and heat to meet long-term fossil fuel use reduction goals, specifically to produce at least 30% of the electrical and heating needs of the tribally-owned buildings in False Pass. The Project Team included the Aleut Region organizations comprised of the Aleutian Pribilof Island Association (APIA), and Aleutian Pribilof Island Community Development Association (APICDA); the University of Alaska Anchorage, ORPC Alaska a wholly-owned subsidiary of Ocean Renewable Power Company (ORPC), City of False Pass, Benthic GeoScience, and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). The following Project objectives were completed: collected existing bathymetric, tidal, and ocean current data to develop a basic model of current circulation at False Pass, measured current velocities at two sites for a full lunar cycle to establish the viability of the current resource, collected data on transmission infrastructure, electrical loads, and electrical generation at False Pass, performed economic analysis based on current costs of energy and amount of energy anticipated from and costs associated with the tidal energy project conceptual design and scoped environmental issues. Utilizing circulation modeling, the Project Team identified two target sites with strong potential for robust tidal energy resources in Isanotski Strait and another nearer the City of False Pass. In addition, the Project Team completed a survey of the electrical infrastructure, which identified likely sites of interconnection and clarified required transmission distances from the tidal energy resources. Based on resource and electrical data

  10. To use or not to use: an update on licit and illicit ketamine use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuet-wah Cheung

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Jih-Heng Li1, Balasingam Vicknasingam2, Yuet-wah Cheung3, Wang Zhou4, Adhi Wibowo Nurhidayat5, Don C Des Jarlais6, Richard Schottenfeld71College of Pharmacy, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan; 2National Centre for Drug Research, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Malaysia; 3Department of Sociology, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China; 4Wuhan Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Wuhan, China; 5Drug Dependence Hospital RSKO, Jakarta, Indonesia; 6Beth Israel Medical Center, New York, NY; 7School of Psychiatry, Yale University, CT, USAAbstract: Ketamine, a derivative of phencyclidine that was developed in the 1960s, is an anesthetic and analgesic with hallucinogenic effects. In this paper, the pharmacological and toxicological effects of ketamine are briefly reviewed. Ketamine possesses a wide safety margin but such a therapeutic benefit is somewhat offset by its emergence phenomenon (mind-body dissociation and delirium and hallucinogenic effects. The increasing abuse of ketamine, initially predominantly in recreational scenes to experience a “k-hole” and other hallucinatory effects but more recently also as a drug abused during the workday or at home, has further pushed governments to confine its usage in many countries. Recently, urinary tract dysfunction has been associated with long-term ketamine use. In some long-term ketamine users, such damage can be irreversible and could result in renal failure and dialysis. Although ketamine has not yet been scheduled in the United Nations Conventions, previous studies using different assessment parameters to score the overall harms of drugs indicated that ketamine may cause more harm than some of the United Nations scheduled drugs. Some countries in Southeast and East Asia have reported an escalating situation of ketamine abuse. Dependence, lower urinary tract dysfunction, and sexual impulse or violence were the most notable among the ketamine-associated symptoms in these

  11. THE CURRENT STATE OF APPLICATION OF INTERNATIONAL FINANCIAL REPORTING STANDARDS IN UKRAINE.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Zasadnyi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzed the process of reforming the system of accounting and reporting in Ukraine in accordance with International Financial Reporting Standards. The main results of the tasks of the Strategy of application IFRS in Ukraine approved by the Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine in 2007 are identified. The results of analysis showed that only 1% of the total number of enterprises form the financial statements in accordance with IFRS, the others apply national standards of accounting. The proportion of small enterprises is 95% that do not have the financial capacity, qualified staff and the necessary motivation for the formation of financial statements in accordance with IFRS. As a result, one of the main objectives of the reform of the accounting and reporting is to improve the legislation on accounting for small enterprises and develop national accounting standards of the simplified procedure for accounting of assets, liabilities, equity and financial results of the calculation for small enterprises.

  12. Self-reported attitude scales: current practice in adequate assessment of reliability, validity, and dimensionality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendrick, T.A.M.; Fischer, A.R.H.; Tobi, H.; Frewer, L.J.

    2013-01-01

    The development of methods to create self-reported attitude scales has lost momentum, in part because of increased research focused on implicit measures. This paper reviews 162 papers on methodological approaches applied to the validation and assessment of attitude scales. Assessment of

  13. 78 FR 32226 - Poultry Market News Reports; Request for Extension and Revision of the Currently Approved...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-29

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service Poultry Market News Reports; Request for Extension... Livestock, Poultry, Meat, Grain, and Their Related Products Used as Market News Information AGENCY... collection. AMS recently merged its Livestock and Grain Market News Division with the Poultry Market...

  14. Assessing Adolescent and Adult Attachment: A Review of Current Self-Report Measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyddon, William J.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Notes that interest in attachment theory among counselors and researchers has led to development of measures of attachment-related constructs. Presents overview of theoretical foundations of attachment theory as conceptualized by Ainsworth (1989) and Bowlby (1988). Reviews four self-report measures of adolescent and adult attachment. Discusses…

  15. National inventory of selected biological monitoring programs. Summary report of current or recently completed projects, 1976

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kemp, H. T.

    1976-10-01

    The Inventory has resulted in establishment of a series of data bases containing biological monitoring information of varying types, namely, directory of investigators, record of projects received from mail questionnaire, detailed description of selected biomonitoring projects, and bibliographic citations supporting the projects received. This report contains detailed descriptions of selected biomonitoring projects organized on a state-by-state basis and with appropriate indices.

  16. Mental Retardation and the Law: A Report on Status of Current Court Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Paul; Beck, Ronna Lee

    Included in the report are summaries of four new cases and updated information on 38 cases regarding legal issues in mental retardation. Featured is a review of cases dealing with liability of judges and lawyers in violating the rights of mentally retarded persons. Other issues addressed (with sample court case in parentheses) include commitment…

  17. Self-reported attitude scales: current practice in adequate assessment of reliability, validity, and dimensionality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendrick, T.A.M.; Fischer, A.R.H.; Tobi, H.; Frewer, L.J.

    2013-01-01

    The development of methods to create self-reported attitude scales has lost momentum, in part because of increased research focused on implicit measures. This paper reviews 162 papers on methodological approaches applied to the validation and assessment of attitude scales. Assessment of methodologic

  18. Dynamics of Economic Well-Being: Poverty 1996-1999. Current Population Reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iceland, John

    This report examines patterns of poverty using seven different measures: average monthly poverty, episodic poverty, chronic poverty, annual poverty, poverty spells, poverty entry rates, and poverty exit rates. Data come from the 1996 panel of the Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP) and reflect the dynamics of poverty from 1996-1999.…

  19. Past and current body size affect validity of reported energy intake among middle-aged Danish men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Birgit M; Nielsen, Marie M; Toubro, Søren; Pedersen, Oluf; Astrup, Arne; Sørensen, Thorkild I A; Jess, Tine; Heitmann, Berit L

    2009-12-01

    Our objectives were to estimate the degree of misreporting energy intake (EI) and analyze associations with previous BMI, current BMI, or both. The study was part of the Adiposity and Genetics Study follow-up study including 309 Danish men (age 40-65 y) originally sampled from the obligatory draft board examination. Height and weight were measured at the mean ages of 20 (draft board), 33, 44, and 49 y (current age). Obesity was categorized as BMI >or= 31 kg/m(2). Dietary intake for 7 d and physical activity (PA) level (PAL) were self-reported. Resting metabolic rate (RMR) was measured in a ventilated hood system. By comparing EI with energy expenditure and assuming energy balance, reporting accuracy (RA) was estimated as EI/(RMR.PAL). A plausibility interval was calculated to encompass specific variation components of EI, RMR, and PAL; the specific 95% plausibility interval was 1.00 +/- 0.35. Participants were categorized as underreporters (RA 1.35) of EI. The relation between RA and BMI was studied through linear regression analysis. Overall, the RA was (mean +/- SE) 0.76 +/- 0.01. Of 309 participants, 35% underreported and 7% overreported. Whether stratified for current BMI or draft board BMI, the obese men were more likely to underreport than those who were not obese. Among those currently not obese, underreporting was more prevalent among those who were obese at the draft board examination (44%) than among those who were not (21%). Regression analysis showed that both previous and current BMI and their combination were significantly associated with RA. Thus, underreporting of dietary intake seems to be associated with not only current BMI but also with current BMI in combination with previous BMI.

  20. Analytical detection of explosives and illicit, prescribed and designer drugs using proton transfer reaction time-of-flight mass spectrometry (PTR-TOF-MS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agarwal, Bishu; Petersson, Fredrik; Juerschik, Simone [Institut fuer Ionenphysik und Angewandte Physik, Universitaet Innsbruck, Technikerstr. 25, 6020 Innsbruck (Austria); Sulzer, Philipp; Jordan, Alfons [IONICON Analytik GmbH, Eduard-Bodem-Gasse 3, 6020 Innsbruck (Austria); Maerk, Tilmann D. [Institut fuer Ionenphysik und Angewandte Physik, Universitaet Innsbruck, Technikerstr. 25, 6020 Innsbruck (Austria); IONICON Analytik GmbH, Eduard-Bodem-Gasse 3, 6020 Innsbruck (Austria); Watts, Peter; Mayhew, Chris A. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 4TT (United Kingdom)

    2011-07-01

    This work demonstrates the extremely favorable features of Proton Transfer Reaction Time-of-flight Mass Spectrometry (PTR-TOF-MS) for the detection and identification of solid explosives, chemical warfare agent simulants and illicit, prescribed and designer drugs in real time. Here, we report the use of PTR-TOF, for the detection of explosives (e.g., trinitrotoluene, trinitrobenzene) and illicit, prescribed and designer drugs (e.g., ecstasy, morphine, heroin, ethcathinone, 2C-D). For all substances, the protonated parent ion (as we used H{sub 3}O{sup +} as a reagent ion) could be detected, providing a high level of confidence in their identification since the high mass resolution allows compounds having the same nominal mass to be separated. We varied the E/N from 90 to 220 T{sub d} (1 T{sub d}=10{sup -17} Vcm{sup -1}). This allowed us to study fragmentation pathways as a function of E/N (reduced electric field). For a few compounds rather unusual E/N dependencies were also discovered.

  1. European Science Notes Information Bulletin Reports on Current European/ Middle Eastern Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    work is being pursued as part of Kauffmann’s ces of propagation effects inherent in far-field target thesis for the Faculty of Mathematics and...vectorizable (they use the Siemans may be assigned as a thesis for a student working for the VP-100 computer in the Center), and is highly parallel as Diplom...local firm called ming. Called DOOM, the machine currently consists of QDOS that buys standard gate array blanks; e.g., from TI, 100 nodes. Each node

  2. Leber hereditary optic neuropathy - historical report in comparison with the current knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piotrowska, Agnieszka; Korwin, Magdalena; Bartnik, Ewa; Tońska, Katarzyna

    2015-01-15

    Leber hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) is a genetic, maternally inherited disease caused by point mutations in the mitochondrial genome. LHON patients present with sudden, painless and usually bilateral loss of vision caused by optic nerve atrophy. The first clinical description of the disease was made by Theodor Leber, a German ophthalmologist, in 1871. Here we present his thorough notes about members of four families and their pedigrees. We also provide insights into the current knowledge about LHON pathology, genetics and treatment in comparison with Leber's findings.

  3. Current techniques in the performance, interpretation, and reporting of CT colonography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poullos, Peter D; Beaulieu, Christopher F

    2010-04-01

    The technical objective of computed tomographic colonography (CTC) is to acquire high-quality computed tomography images of the cleansed, well-distended colon for polyp detection. In this article the authors provide an overview of the technical components of CTC, from preparation of the patient to acquisition of the imaging data and basic methods of interpretation. In each section, the best evidence for current practices and recommendations is reviewed. Each of the technical components must be optimized to achieve high sensitivity in polyp detection.

  4. USXR Based MHD, Transport, Equilibria and Current Profile Diagnostics for NSTX. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finkenthal, Michael

    2009-06-01

    The present report resumes the research activities of the Plasma Spectroscopy/Diagnostics Group at Johns Hopkins University performed on the NSTX tokamak at PPPL during the period 1999-2009. During this period we have designed and implemented XUV based diagnostics for a large number of tasks: study of impurity content and particle transport, MHD activity, time-resolved electron temperature measeurements, ELM research, etc. Both line emission and continuum were used in the XUV range. New technics and novel methods have been devised within the framework of the present research. Graduate and post-graduate students have been involved at all times in addition to the senior research personnel. Several tens of papers have been published and lectures have been given based on the obtained results at conferences and various research institutions (lists of these activities were attached both in each proposal and in the annual reports submitted to our supervisors at OFES).

  5. Illicit drug exposure in patients evaluated for alleged child abuse and neglect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oral, Resmiye; Bayman, Levent; Assad, Abraham; Wibbenmeyer, Lucy; Buhrow, Jakob; Austin, Andrea; Bayman, Emine O

    2011-06-01

    Substantiation of drug exposure in cases with alleged maltreatment is important to provide proper treatment and services to these children and their families. A study performed at University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics showed that 30% of pediatric patients with burn injuries, which were due to child maltreatment, were also exposed to illicit drugs. The children presenting to the University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics with alleged maltreatment have been tested for illicit substances since 2004. The objective of this study was to analyze the presence of illicit drug exposure in the pediatric subpopulation admitted to pediatric inpatient and outpatient units for an evaluation for abuse/neglect. The study design is a retrospective chart review. Using hospital databases, every pediatric chart with a child abuse/neglect allegation was retrieved. The association between risk factors and clinical presentation and illicit drug test result was assessed. Excel and SAS were used for statistical analysis. Institutional review board approval was obtained to conduct this study. Six hundred sixty-five charts met study inclusion criteria for child abuse/neglect allegation. Of those, 232 cases were tested for illicit drugs between 2004 and 2008 per the testing protocol. Thirty-four cases (14.7%) tested positive on a drug test. Positive test rates based on clinical presentation were 28.6% (18/63) in neglect cases, 16.1% (5/31) in cases with soft tissue injuries, 14.3% (4/28) in burn injuries, 10.0% (2/20) in cases with sexual abuse, 7.1% (2/28) in cases with fractures, and 4.8% (3/62) in abusive head trauma cases. There were long-term abuse findings in 129 children (55.6%). Logistic regression analysis revealed that positive drug testing was most significantly associated with clinical symptoms suggesting physical abuse or neglect versus sexual abuse (odds ratio [OR] = 6.70; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.26-35.49; P = 0.026), no or public health insurance versus those with

  6. Progress Toward HIV Eradication: Case Reports, Current Efforts, and the Challenges Associated with Cure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Alyssa R; Siliciano, Robert F

    2016-01-01

    An estimated 35 million people worldwide are infected with HIV, yet a widely applicable cure strategy remains elusive. Recent case reports have suggested that curing HIV infection is possible, renewing excitement about research efforts. We describe those cases and discuss their relevance to the global HIV epidemic. We also review ongoing cure strategies that are transitioning from the lab to the clinic, and the assays and clinical assessments that can be used to evaluate cure interventions.

  7. European Science Notes Information Bulletin Reports on Current European/Middle Eastern Science,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-02-01

    All the general lectures served as cents," Centro de Psicologia Social , valuable introductions to scientific Report No. 2 (July 1987). fields in which...out by Professor Felix Monteiro Neto, director of the Portugal’s University of Oporto Center of Social Psychology. Neto’s work is concerned with the...have social research is concerned with the resulted in some very positive outcomes problem of unemployment (e.g., see ESN for the society. They created

  8. European Science Notes Information Bulletin. Reports on Current European/Middle Eastern Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-09-01

    and Chairman of the aspect ratio of the triangles is maintained (Paolini Mathematics Department at Universita’ Cattolica dcl and Verdi, 1988). Sacro ...equations, seems to be at the fore- body solution to sufficient accuracy to capture the details front of the art . of the flow, or sacrifices the near...Different Character. Universita’ Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Re- for Planar Domains. L.A.N.-C.N.R. Report, 1988. port #Quaderno n.2/89, 1989. M

  9. Chyle leak following right axillary lymph node dissection: A case report and review of current literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.D. Daggett

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This report discusses the case of a chyle leak following a right axillary lymph node dissection for breast cancer. This presented as a sudden change in drainage character from a right axillary surgical drain from serous to milky white shortly after restarting a diet. The diagnosis of chyle leak was confirmed by laboratory testing of the fluid and managed with closed suction drainage. Chyle leak is a rare, but increasingly recognized complication following axillary clearance for breast cancer and melanoma.

  10. European Science Notes Information Bulletin Reports on current European/ Middle Eastern Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    thin layer of the surface containing oxide. du’/dt which is an intrinsic feature of tur- m/s to give a chord Reynolds number of Further, as uranium has...their final report that en- the Materials Technology Laboratory by velocity components and the Reynolds ergy dispersive x-ray diffraction, Pofessor...shares ir, a certification, human factors engineering, Netherlands is the largest low-speed wind joint research program called Jessi (Joint and flight

  11. European Science Notes Information Bulletin Reports on Current European/ Middle Eastern Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-03-01

    Progrjunme Environnement . .. .. . .. . .. . . ... Maria Casa 71 Reports on European Science and Technology from other Commands. .. .. . .. . . ...... 74 The...one study, polystyrene (PS) on glass was overcoated with This technique is very sensitive to the presence of bromopolystyrene. This polymer pair is...weight of 10,000, PS was modified by adding a there are exciting challenges and opportunities in surface small amount of polystyrene end functionalized

  12. Acute lead poisoning in two users of illicit methamphetamine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allcott, J.V. III; Barnhart, R.A.; Mooney, L.A.

    1987-07-31

    Acute lead poisoning can present a difficult diagnostic dilemma, with symptoms that mimic those of hepatitis, nephritis, and encephalopathy. The authors report two cases in intravenous methamphetamine users who presented with abnormal liver function values, low hematocrit values, basophilic stippling of red blood cells, and elevated blood lead levels. Both patients excreted large amounts of lead in their urine after treatment with edetic acid, followed by resolution of their symptoms. Lead contamination was proved in one drug sample. Basophilic stippling of the red blood cells was the one key laboratory result that led to the definitive diagnosis in both cases.

  13. Detection and mapping of illicit drugs and their metabolites in fingermarks by MALDI MS and compatibility with forensic techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groeneveld, G.; de Puit, M.; Bleay, S.; Bradshaw, R.; Francese, S.

    2015-06-01

    Despite the proven capabilities of Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption Ionisation Mass Spectrometry (MALDI MS) in laboratory settings, research is still needed to integrate this technique into current forensic fingerprinting practice. Optimised protocols enabling the compatible application of MALDI to developed fingermarks will allow additional intelligence to be gathered around a suspect’s lifestyle and activities prior to the deposition of their fingermarks while committing a crime. The detection and mapping of illicit drugs and metabolites in latent fingermarks would provide intelligence that is beneficial for both police investigations and court cases. This study investigated MALDI MS detection and mapping capabilities for a large range of drugs of abuse and their metabolites in fingermarks; the detection and mapping of a mixture of these drugs in marks, with and without prior development with cyanoacrylate fuming or Vacuum Metal Deposition, was also examined. Our findings indicate the versatility of MALDI technology and its ability to retrieve chemical intelligence either by detecting the compounds investigated or by using their ion signals to reconstruct 2D maps of fingermark ridge details.

  14. Current good manufacturing practices, quality control procedures, quality factors, notification requirements, and records and reports, for infant formula. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-10

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA or we) is issuing a final rule that adopts, with some modifications, the interim final rule (IFR) entitled "Current Good Manufacturing Practices, Quality Control Procedures, Quality Factors, Notification Requirements, and Records and Reports, for Infant Formula'' (February 10, 2014). This final rule affirms the IFR's changes to FDA's regulations and provides additional modifications and clarifications. The final rule also responds to certain comments submitted in response to the request for comments in the IFR.

  15. Report of the second joint meeting of ESOT and AST: current pipelines in biotech and pharma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Gelder, Teun; Baan, Carla; Vincenti, Flavio; Mannon, Roslyn B

    2013-09-01

    Following the first joint meeting organized by the European (ESOT) and American (AST) Societies of Transplantation in 2010, a second joint meeting was held in Nice, France, on October 12-14, 2012 at the Palais de la Mediterannee. Co-chairs of the scientific advisory committee were Dr. Flavio Vincenti (AST) and Dr. Teun Van Gelder (ESOT). The goal was to discuss the key unmet needs in solid organ transplantation with the opportunity to interrelate current basic research efforts with clinical translation. Thus, the topic of this second meeting "Transformational therapies and diagnostics in transplantation" was devised and a summary of this meeting follows. © 2013 Steunstichting ESOT. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Analysis of environmental constraints on expanding reserves in current and future reservoirs in wetlands. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harder, B.J.

    1995-03-01

    Louisiana wetlands require careful management to allow exploitation of non-renewable resources without destroying renewable resources. Current regulatory requirements have been moderately successful in meeting this goal by restricting development in wetland habitats. Continuing public emphasis on reducing environmental impacts of resource development is causing regulators to reassess their regulations and operators to rethink their compliance strategies. We examined the regulatory system and found that reducing the number of applications required by going to a single application process and having a coherent map of the steps required for operations in wetland areas would reduce regulatory burdens. Incremental changes can be made to regulations to allow one agency to be the lead for wetland permitting at minimal cost to operators. Operators need cost effective means of access that will reduce environmental impacts, decrease permitting time, and limit future liability. Regulators and industry must partner to develop incentive based regulations that can provide significant environmental impact reduction for minimal economic cost. In addition regulators need forecasts of future E&P trends to estimate the impact of future regulations. To determine future activity we attempted to survey potential operators when this approach was unsuccessful we created two econometric models of north and south Louisiana relating drilling activity, success ratio, and price to predict future wetland activity. Results of the econometric models indicate that environmental regulations have a small but statistically significant effect on drilling operations in wetland areas of Louisiana. We examined current wetland practices and evaluated those practices comparing environmental versus economic costs and created a method for ranking the practices.

  17. An investigative report on current long-term digital preservation situation among major Chinese libraries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG; Mei; LI; Lin; ZHANG; Xiaolin; LIU; Xiwen

    2008-01-01

    The paper reports a survey on the attitudes,arrangements,and operational model of more than 40 major Chinese libraries(CL)on long-term digital preservation.It reveals that digital preservation becomes an urgent concern for these libraries in our survey.Most of these libraries take a pro-active approach to the issue and most of them are in favor of participation in a certain collaborative preservation system,though a few still remain in a wait-and-see posture.

  18. Necrotizing Fasciitis of the lower extremity: a case report and current concept of diagnosis and management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malik SA

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Necrotizing fasciitis is a severe soft tissue infection characterized by rapidly progressing necrosis, involving subcutaneous tissues. This rare condition carries high mortality rate and require prompt diagnosis and urgent treatment with radical debridement and antibiotics. We describe a case of 21-year old man who presented with the history of trivial injury to the knee. Initially he was admitted and treated for septic arthritis but later was diagnosed as necrotizing fasciitis which was successfully treated with no ill effects what so ever from this devastating condition. This rare condition has been reported in literature but still early diagnosis, which is a key for successful treatment, remains a challenge.

  19. Necrotizing fasciitis of the lower extremity: a case report and current concept of diagnosis and management.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Naqvi, G A

    2012-02-01

    Necrotizing fasciitis is a severe soft tissue infection characterized by rapidly progressing necrosis, involving subcutaneous tissues. This rare condition carries high mortality rate and require prompt diagnosis and urgent treatment with radical debridement and antibiotics. We describe a case of 21-year old man who presented with the history of trivial injury to the knee. Initially he was admitted and treated for septic arthritis but later was diagnosed as necrotizing fasciitis which was successfully treated with no ill effects what so ever from this devastating condition. This rare condition has been reported in literature but still early diagnosis, which is a key for successful treatment, remains a challenge.

  20. Surgical management of gingival overgrowth associated with Cowden sydrome: a case report and current understanding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feitosa, Daniela da Silva; Santamaria, Mauro Pedrine; Casati, Márcio Zaffalon; Sallum, Enilson Antonio; Nociti Júnior, Francisco Humberto; de Toledo, Sérgio

    2011-05-01

    Cowden syndrome, also known as multiple hamartoma syndrome, is a rare autosomal dominant disorder characterized by multiple hamartomas and a high risk of development of malignancy. Oral findings, such as papillomatous lesions and fibromas, are common features; however, a periodontal phenotype has not been reported previously. Therefore, this report presents a case of gingival overgrowth associated with Cowden syndrome, its successful surgical management, and the 12-month follow-up results. Additionally, we discuss the implications for clinicians. A 23-year-old woman was referred to the Department of Periodontics, Piracicaba Dental School, presenting with generalized gingival overgrowth. A detailed dental and medical history and clinical examination confirmed the systemic diagnosis of Cowden syndrome. Histology, radiographs, and clinical data document the entire clinical approach and follow-up. Clinically, there were minor signs of recurrence of gingival overgrowth in a 12-month period after gingivectomy; however, papular lesions reappeared in keratinized gingiva immediately after healing. No signs of bone loss related to the systemic condition were observed radiographically. Histologically, a dense connective tissue with a moderate chronic inflammatory infiltrate and epithelial acanthosis, which is characteristic of gingival hyperplasia, were demonstrated. Gingival overgrowth may occur as an oral phenotype related to Cowden syndrome and can be successfully treated by means of external bevel gingivectomy, followed by regular maintenance therapy, contributing to the patient's well-being, both functionally and esthetically.

  1. Acromegaly in a patient with a pulmonary neuroendocrine tumor: case report and review of current literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krug, Sebastian; Boch, Michael; Rexin, Peter; Pfestroff, Andreas; Gress, Thomas; Michl, Patrick; Rinke, Anja

    2016-06-27

    Pulmonary neuroendocrine tumors (NET) form a heterogeneous group of rare diseases. In these tumors, paraneoplastic syndromes have been described to drive the course of the disease, among them acromegaly induced by paraneoplastic secretion of growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH). We report the case of a 43 years old patient initially diagnosed with acromegaly accompanied by weight gain and acral enlargement. Subsequently, further diagnostic work-up identified a solitary pulmonary neuroendocrine tumor (NET). Laboratory tests revealed markedly increased growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) without GHRH elevation in the absence of pituitary pathologies confirming the paraneoplastic origin of clinical presentation with acromegaly. Curative surgery was performed leading to normalization of the elevated hormone levels and improvement of the clinical symptoms. Immunohistochemically, a typical carcinoid (TC) was seen with low proliferation index and abundant IGF-1 expression. The association of acromegaly and pulmonary NET has only rarely been reported. We present an individual case of paraneoplastic GH- and IGF-1 secretion in a patient with pulmonary NET. Based on their rarity, the knowledge of paraneoplastic syndromes occurring in patients with pulmonary NET such as acromegaly due to paraneoplastic GH- and IGF-1 secretion is mandatory to adequately diagnose and treat these patients.

  2. Waldenström Macroglobulinemia in Hepatitis C: Case Report and Review of the Current Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan Nipp

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Recent literature has associated hepatitis C virus with the development of non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Hepatitis C virus infection appears to promote lymphoproliferation, providing a plausible mechanism for a causative association; however, despite prior reports of patients with comorbid hepatitis C infection and Waldenström macroglobulinemia, the literature is in disagreement regarding whether there exists an association between these two conditions. Case Presentation. This case report describes a 57-year-old African-American male with chronic hepatitis C infection and cryoglobulinemia who presented with several episodes of transient confusion and paralysis and was found to have symptomatic hyperviscosity. The recognition of his condition was facilitated by characteristic findings on ophthalmologic examination. He was subsequently diagnosed with Waldenström macroglobulinemia on bone marrow biopsy. Conclusions. An up to date, comprehensive review of the literature suggests an association between hepatitis C and Waldenström macroglobulinemia. Data on optimal treatment of patients with comorbid hepatitis C infection and Waldenström macroglobulinemia is limited. We have provided a comprehensive review of previously explored treatment options to guide management of other similar patients. Our patient has since been treated with repeated plasmapheresis with a plan to pursue antiviral therapy.

  3. Summary Report for the Evaluation of Current QA Processes Within the FRMAC FAL and EPA MERL.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shanks, Sonoya T.; Ted Redding; Lynn Jaussi; Allen, Mark B.; Fournier, Sean Donovan; Leonard, Elliott J.

    2017-04-01

    The Federal Radiological Monitoring and Assessment Center (FRMAC) relies on accurate and defensible analytical laboratory data to support its mission. Therefore, FRMAC must ensure that the environmental analytical laboratories providing analytical services maintain an ongoing capability to provide accurate analytical results to DOE. It is undeniable that the more Quality Assurance (QA) and Quality Control (QC) measures required of the laboratory, the less resources that are available for analysis of response samples. Being that QA and QC measures in general are understood to comprise a major effort related to a laboratory’s operations, requirements should only be considered if they are deemed “value-added” for the FRMAC mission. This report provides observations of areas for improvement and potential interoperability opportunities in the areas of Batch Quality Control Requirements, Written Communications, Data Review Processes, Data Reporting Processes, along with the lessons learned as they apply to items in the early phase of a response that will be critical for developing a more efficient, integrated response for future interactions between the FRMAC and EPA assets.

  4. Cocaine and other illicit drugs in airborne particulates in urban environments: A reflection of social conduct and population size

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viana, M., E-mail: mar.viana@idaea.csic.es [Institute for Environmental Assessment and Water Research (IDAEA-CSIC), C/Jordi Girona 18, 08034 Barcelona (Spain); Postigo, C., E-mail: cprqam@cid.csic.es [Institute for Environmental Assessment and Water Research (IDAEA-CSIC), C/Jordi Girona 18, 08034 Barcelona (Spain); Querol, X., E-mail: xavier.querol@idaea.csic.es [Institute for Environmental Assessment and Water Research (IDAEA-CSIC), C/Jordi Girona 18, 08034 Barcelona (Spain); Alastuey, A., E-mail: andres.alastuey@idaea.csic.es [Institute for Environmental Assessment and Water Research (IDAEA-CSIC), C/Jordi Girona 18, 08034 Barcelona (Spain); Lopez de Alda, M.J., E-mail: mlaqam@cid.csic.es [Institute for Environmental Assessment and Water Research (IDAEA-CSIC), C/Jordi Girona 18, 08034 Barcelona (Spain); Barcelo, D., E-mail: dbcqam@cid.csic.es [Institute for Environmental Assessment and Water Research (IDAEA-CSIC), C/Jordi Girona 18, 08034 Barcelona (Spain); King Saud University, Box 2454, Riyadh 11451 (Saudi Arabia); Artinano, B., E-mail: b.artinano@ciemat.es [Centre for Energy, Environment and Technology Research (CIEMAT), Av. Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Lopez-Mahia, P., E-mail: purmahia@udc.es [Department of Analytical Chemistry, University of A Coruna, Campus A Zapateira, 15071 A Coruna (Spain); Garcia Gacio, D., E-mail: dgarcia@udc.es [Department of Analytical Chemistry, University of A Coruna, Campus A Zapateira, 15071 A Coruna (Spain); Cots, N., E-mail: nuria.cots@gencat.ca [Department of the Environment, Catalonia Regional Government, Av. Diagonal 525, 08193 Barcelona (Spain)

    2011-05-15

    Levels of cocaine and other psychoactive substances in atmospheric particulate matter (PM) were determined in urban environments representing distinct social behaviours with regard to drug abuse: night-life, university and residential areas. Three cities (with population >1 million and <0.3 million inhabitants) were selected. Mean daily levels of drugs in PM were 11-336 pg/m{sup 3} for cocaine, 23-34 pg/m{sup 3} for cannabinoids, and 5-90 pg/m{sup 3} for heroin. The highest levels were recorded on weekends, with factors with respect to weekdays of 1-3 for cocaine, 1-2 for cannabinoids and 1.1-1.7 for heroin. Higher levels were detected in the night-life areas, pointing towards consumption and trafficking as major emission sources, and possibly ruling out drug manufacture. The similarities in temporal trends at all sites suggested a city-scale transport of psychoactive substances. Correlations were detected between cocaine and amphetamine consumption (r{sup 2} = 0.98), and between heroin and cannabinoids (r{sup 2}>0.82). - Highlights: > Cocaine, heroin, cannabis and related illicit drugs are found in detectable amounts in urban air. > Illicit drug consumption and small-scale trafficking are the major emission sources. > Illicit drugs remain in atmospheric particles and are transported across cities during at least 5 days. > Levels of illicit drugs increase from residential to night-life areas, and maximise on weekends. > Correlations between illicit drugs were detected, suggesting differences in consumer groups. - The presence of illicit drugs in atmospheric particles can be used to track illicit drug abuse.

  5. Sampling of illicit drugs for quantitative analysis--part II. Study of particle size and its influence on mass reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovens, M; Csesztregi, T; Franc, A; Nagy, J; Dujourdy, L

    2014-01-01

    The basic goal in sampling for the quantitative analysis of illicit drugs is to maintain the average concentration of the drug in the material from its original seized state (the primary sample) all the way through to the analytical sample, where the effect of particle size is most critical. The size of the largest particles of different authentic illicit drug materials, in their original state and after homogenisation, using manual or mechanical procedures, was measured using a microscope with a camera attachment. The comminution methods employed included pestle and mortar (manual) and various ball and knife mills (mechanical). The drugs investigated were amphetamine, heroin, cocaine and herbal cannabis. It was shown that comminution of illicit drug materials using these techniques reduces the nominal particle size from approximately 600 μm down to between 200 and 300 μm. It was demonstrated that the choice of 1 g increments for the primary samples of powdered drugs and cannabis resin, which were used in the heterogeneity part of our study (Part I) was correct for the routine quantitative analysis of illicit seized drugs. For herbal cannabis we found that the appropriate increment size was larger. Based on the results of this study we can generally state that: An analytical sample weight of between 20 and 35 mg of an illicit powdered drug, with an assumed purity of 5% or higher, would be considered appropriate and would generate an RSDsampling in the same region as the RSDanalysis for a typical quantitative method of analysis for the most common, powdered, illicit drugs. For herbal cannabis, with an assumed purity of 1% THC (tetrahydrocannabinol) or higher, an analytical sample weight of approximately 200 mg would be appropriate. In Part III we will pull together our homogeneity studies and particle size investigations and use them to devise sampling plans and sample preparations suitable for the quantitative instrumental analysis of the most common illicit

  6. Neonatal extracorporeal membrane oxygenation: A case report and current state in Mainland China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianguo Zhou

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the first successful treatment of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO in a neonate with Group B streptococcus (GBS sepsis and cardiorespiratory failure, and further conduct a literature review in the experience of neonatal ECMO utility in Mainland China. A term neonate with cardiorespiratory failure secondary to GBS sepsis was put on venous-arterial ECMO at 23 h of age. After 273 h of ECMO running, the patient was saved and without major complications. The comprehensive literature review demonstrated that there were 22 neonates received ECMO previously in Mainland China, 14 of 22 of the patients are cases with congenital heart defects. The overall survival rate was 41% (9/22. Neonatal ECMO was underdeveloped in Mainland, China. Moreover, it does provide a chance of survival for neonates who have a grave prognosis by conventional treatment.

  7. Electrocardiographic practices: the current report of monitoring and education in Veterans Affairs facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaremba, Jennifer L; Carroll, Karen; Manley, Kathleen

    2014-01-01

    In 2004, practice standards for electrocardiographic (ECG) monitoring were published to address the need for an expanded use of ECG monitoring beyond heart rate and basic rhythm determination. This article reports the data collected from a survey distributed throughout the Veterans Healthcare Administration hospitals to determine the extent to which practice standards have been adopted. Survey data were used to identify the differences between actual practice and evidence-based standards. The results were divided into ECG electrode application, lead selection, alarm limits, monitoring capabilities, monitoring during patient transport, and education and competencies. The results confirm the need for improvement, including a thorough evaluation of facility practices and education. The data demonstrate the differences among actual practice and evidence-based recommendations.

  8. [Lessons from abroad. Current and previous crisis in other countries. SESPAS report 2014].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivadeneyra-Sicilia, Ana; Minué Lorenzo, Sergio; Artundo Purroy, Carlos; Márquez Calderón, Soledad

    2014-06-01

    The evidence available on the impact of previous crises on health reveals different patterns attributable to study designs, the characteristics of each crisis, and other factors related to the socioeconomic and political context. There is greater consensus on the mediating role of government policy responses to financial crises. These responses may magnify or mitigate the adverse effects of crises on population health. Some studies have shown a significant deterioration in some health indicators in the context of the current crisis, mainly in relation to mental health and communicable diseases. Alcohol and tobacco use have also declined in some European countries. In addition, this crisis is being used by some governments to push reforms aimed at privatizing health services, thereby restricting the right to health and healthcare. Specifically, action is being taken on the three axes that determine health system financing: the population covered, the scope of services, and the share of the costs covered. These measures are often arbitrarily implemented based on ideological decisions rather than on the available evidence and therefore adverse consequences are to be expected in terms of financial protection, efficiency, and equity. Copyright © 2013 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  9. Facial seborrheic dermatitis: a report on current status and therapeutic horizons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bikowski, Joseph

    2009-02-01

    Seborrheic dermatitis, characterized by erythema and/or flaking or scaling in areas of high sebaceous activity, affects up to 5% of the US population and often appears in conjunction with other common skin disorders, such as rosacea and acne. Despite ongoing research, its etiology is puzzling. Increased sebaceous and hormonal (androgenic) activity is thought to play a part. Recent evidence suggests an important role for individual susceptibility to irritant metabolites of the skin commensal Malassezia, most probably M globosa. Current approaches thus include agents with antifungal as well as antikeratinizing, and anti-inflammatory activity. Azelaic acid, which has all 3 properties, may be a useful addition to first-line management, which now comprises of topical steroids, the immunosuppressant agents tacrolimus and pimecrolimus, azoles and other antifungals, and keratolytic agents. A recent exploratory study supports the efficacy and safety of azelaic acid 15% gel in seborrheic dermatitis. Azelaic acid may be especially valuable in this application because of its efficacy in treating concomitant rosacea and acne.

  10. Physiotherapy management of patients with coronary artery disease: a report on current practice in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Coronary artery disease (CAD) is a worldwide health problem with  an  increased  prevalence  in  sub-Saharan  Africa.  Physiotherapists  inter-nationally  are  involved  in  the  care  of  these  patients  from  the  acute  stage following  a  cardiac  event  until  phase  III  cardiac  rehabilitation  is  completed.  The  purpose  of  this  study  was  to  determine  the  current  physiotherapy management  of  patients  with  CAD  in  South  Africa.  An  observational  cross-sectional  study...

  11. He said, she said: The gender wage gap according to self and proxy reports in the Current Population Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Jeremy; Wenger, Jeffrey B

    2012-03-01

    Roughly half the labor force data in the Current Population Survey (CPS) are provided by proxy respondents, and since 1979, men's reliance on proxies has dropped dramatically while women's reliance on proxies has increased. Few authors, however, have examined how combining these first-hand and second-hand reports may influence our understanding of long-term economic trends. We exploit the outgoing rotation group structure of the CPS by matching individual records one year apart, and we find that self-reported wages are higher than proxy-reported wages even after controlling for all time invariant characteristics. Furthermore, we find that changes in the use of proxy respondents by men and women since 1979 have made current estimates of the gender wage gap larger than they would have been without changes in reporting status. This suggests that the gender wage gap has closed more than previously estimated. We recommend that researchers combine self and proxy responses with great care, especially when analyzing time trends or making gender comparisons.

  12. Selective improvement of anosognosia for hemiplegia during transcranial direct current stimulation: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandola, Martina; Sedda, Anna; Manera, Marina; Pingue, Valeria; Salvato, Gerardo; Spitoni, Grazia F; Pistarini, Caterina; Giorgi, Ines; Pizzamiglio, Luigi; Bottini, Gabriella

    2014-12-01

    Right brain damage patients may not complain of a left sided paralysis up to the point of denying it or even claiming of having just moved an otherwise paralyzed limb. This condition is known as anosognosia for hemiplegia (AHP). Recent behavioural experiments suggest that some residual intentionality might be preserved in patients with anosognosia and that the false belief of having moved originates from a failure to notice discrepancies between movement expectancies and the actual state of the motor system. This failure may be caused by a lack of afferent sensory information concerning the movement or alternatively by a direct dysfunction of the brain regions involved in actions' motor monitoring (i.e., the comparator system). Here we examined the effect of anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) of the right premotor cortex in a patient with a bilateral lesion, involving predominantly the right hemisphere, and a dense unawareness for his left hemiplegia. During sham or anodal tDCS the patient was requested to judge his ability to perform simple motor actions (i) without actually executing the movement itself ("offline" condition) and after having performed a series of verbally cued finger opposition movements ("online" condition) with (i) eyes-closed or (ii) eyes-open. We found that anodal tDCS induces a significant remission of the false experience of movement only when the patient is requested to actually perform the movement with eyes open. Conversely, the patient's awareness does not improve in both the "offline" condition (in which the patient does not attempt to perform the movement) and in the "online" condition, when vision is precluded ("online" condition, eyes-closed). We conclude that the stimulation of the premotor cortex by tDCS activates brain regions involved in motor monitoring, temporary restoring the ability of the motor comparator system to correctly appreciate afferent information and build up a veridical motor awareness.

  13. Physiotherapy management of patients with coronary artery disease: a report on current practice in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Roos

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Coronary artery disease (CAD is a worldwide health problem with  an  increased  prevalence  in  sub-Saharan  Africa.  Physiotherapists  inter-nationally  are  involved  in  the  care  of  these  patients  from  the  acute  stage following  a  cardiac  event  until  phase  III  cardiac  rehabilitation  is  completed.  The  purpose  of  this  study  was  to  determine  the  current  physiotherapy management  of  patients  with  CAD  in  South  Africa.  An  observational  cross-sectional  study  was  conducted  over  two  months  with  a  questionnaire  that  was  sent  to  the  government  and  private  health  care  sectors.  Results  showed  that  more  cardiopulmonary  physiotherapists  provided  care  (62%  than  those who  didn’t  (38%.  Care  was  mostly  provided  in  a  hospital  setting  (81%  and  out- patient phase III cardiac rehabilitation was lacking (11%. In-hospital physiotherapy treatment was mostly provided once daily. Deep breathing exercises (99%, circulatory exercises (95% and manual chest clearance techniques (88% were mostly used during physiotherapy. Evidence based practice was consistent regarding early mobilization but was inconsistent with regards to the use of manual chest clearance techniques.

  14. [Current trends of breast reconstruction after mastectomy for breast cancer patients in China: a survey report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ying; Chen, Jiajian; Chen, Jiaying; Yang, Benlong; Li, Lin; Huang, Xiaoyan; Shao, Zhimin; Shen, Zhenzhou; Yu, Peirong; Wu, Jiong

    2014-11-01

    To explore the current trends of breast reconstruction (BR) for breast cancer patients in China. A questionnaire was designed for this study, and it included questions on surgeon demographics, number of mastectomy and BR, type and timing of BR, reconstructive choices in the setting of preoperative or postoperative radiotherapy or chemotherapy, etc. All data were collected until December 2012. Questionnaires were sent to 52 members of the Committee of Breast Cancer Society by e-mail or mail. By July 2013, 41 questionnaires had been returned. Among all, 5 were excluded for not performing BR. These 36 hospitals covered 22 provinces and municipalities in China. A total of 538 surgeons working in the general surgery or oncological surgery department, but only 123 (22.9%) were qualified to perform BR. In 2012, except for 4 missing data, 24, 763 mastectomies were performed in 32 hospitals; among them, 1120 (4.5%) received BR. According to these 36 respondents, 32 (88.9%) performed prosthetic (1, 843 cases in all) while 4 (11.1%) performed prosthetic BR with acellular dermal matrix (17 cases in all) from the time of their first BR operation to the end of 2012. During the same period, 965 latissimus dorsi myocutaneous flaps with implant were performed in 23 (63.9%) hospitals while 738 latissimus dorsi myocutaneous flaps without implant were performed in 32 (88.9%) hospitals. At the same time, 366 pedicled transverse rectus abdominis myocutaneous flap BRs were performed in 28 (77.8%) hospitals, while 155 abdominal free flap BRs were carried out in 9 (25.0%) hospitals. The overall complication rate was 18.2%. Postoperative radiotherapy had some effect on influencing the esthetic outcomes of BR, so the autologous BR was recommended, but the timing remained controversial. Regarding chemotherapy, most respondents concluded that it had no effect or only a mild effect. The overall cosmetic outcomes of the reconstructed breasts satisfied the majority of physicians and patients

  15. Colonic metastasis of Klatskin tumor: Case report and discussion of the current literature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M Schmeding; U Neumann; P Neuhaus

    2006-01-01

    We report the case of a 65-year old male patient who initially presented with recurrent episodes of upper abdominal pain, lack of appetite and weight loss.Abdominal ultrasound indicated enlarged intrahepatic bile ducts, abdominal CT scan and ERC were performed and bile duct carcinoma (Klatskin Type Ⅲ b) was diagnosed. The tumor was located in the segments 2,3,4 and 1 with possible invasion of the left intrahepatic portal vein. Both the segments 2 and 3 of the liver were atrophic and displayed a cholestatic bile duct system. Preoperatively an intraductal stent was placed in the left bile duct using ERC to drain the left hepatic lobe. A specimen of the ascites present preoperatively displayed no malignant cells. After evaluation of the preoperatively obtained data left hepatic resection was planned. Following laparotomy we found local peritoneal carcinosis in the ligamentum hepatoduodenale with lymphatic nodules that tested positive for cholangiocellular carcinoma in online pathological examination. In the course of further exploration of the abdomen a solid tumor was detected in the sigmoid colon. Regarding the advanced stage of the neoplasm it was decided to cancel hemihepatectomy and perform sigmoid resection only in order to guarantee uncomplicated intestinal passage. The sigmoid colon was removed by a typical resection technique with endto-end anastomosis. Histological examination of the resected sigmoid revealed transmural manifestation of a malignant neoplastic process with both a tubular and a solid growth pattern in conformity with metastasis of a Klatskin tumor. The mucosal layer showed no neoplastic alteration. Peritoneal carcinosis is a common phenomenon in the dissemination pattern of advancedstage Klatskin tumors, yet to our knowledge this is the first case of intramural colonic growth following peritoneal metastasis.

  16. Colonic metastasis of Klatskin tumor: case report and discussion of the current literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmeding, M; Neumann, U; Neuhaus, P

    2006-09-07

    We report the case of a 65-year old male patient who initially presented with recurrent episodes of upper abdominal pain, lack of appetite and weight loss. Abdominal ultrasound indicated enlarged intrahepatic bile ducts, abdominal CT scan and ERC were performed and bile duct carcinoma (Klatskin Type III b) was diagnosed. The tumor was located in the segments 2, 3, 4 and 1 with possible invasion of the left intrahepatic portal vein. Both the segments 2 and 3 of the liver were atrophic and displayed a cholestatic bile duct system. Preoperatively an intraductal stent was placed in the left bile duct using ERC to drain the left hepatic lobe. A specimen of the ascites present preoperatively displayed no malignant cells. After evaluation of the preoperatively obtained data left hepatic resection was planned. Following laparotomy we found local peritoneal carcinosis in the ligamentum hepatoduodenale with lymphatic nodules that tested positive for cholangiocellular carcinoma in online pathological examination. In the course of further exploration of the abdomen a solid tumor was detected in the sigmoid colon. Regarding the advanced stage of the neoplasm it was decided to cancel hemihepatectomy and perform sigmoid resection only in order to guarantee uncomplicated intestinal passage. The sigmoid colon was removed by a typical resection technique with end-to-end anastomosis. Histological examination of the resected sigmoid revealed transmural manifestation of a malignant neoplastic process with both a tubular and a solid growth pattern in conformity with metastasis of a Klatskin tumor. The mucosal layer showed no neoplastic alteration. Peritoneal carcinosis is a common phenomenon in the dissemination pattern of advanced-stage Klatskin tumors, yet to our knowledge this is the first case of intramural colonic growth following peritoneal metastasis.

  17. Current twin studies in Germany: report on CoSMoS, SOEP, and ChronoS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Elisabeth; Gottschling, Juliana; Spinath, Frank M

    2013-02-01

    This article summarizes the status of three recent German twin studies: CoSMoS, SOEP, and ChronoS. The German twin study on Cognitive Ability, Self-Reported Motivation, and School Achievement (CoSMoS) is a three-wave longitudinal study of monozygotic and dizygotic twins reared together, and aims to investigate predictors of and influences on school performance. In the first wave of the data collection in 2005, 408 pairs of twins aged between 7 and 11 as well as their parents participated in CoSMoS. The SOEP twin study is an extended twin study, which has combined data from monozygotic and dizygotic twins reared together with additional data from full sibling pairs, mother-child, and grandparent-child dyads who participated in the German Socio-Economic Panel (GSOEP) study. The SOEP twin project comprises about 350 twin and 950 non-twin pairs aged between 17 and 70. Data were collected between 2009 and 2010, with a focus on personality traits, wellbeing, education, employment, income, living situation, life-satisfaction, and several attitudes. The aim of the Chronotype twin study (ChronoS) was to examine genetic and environmental influences on chronotype (morningness and eveningness), coping strategies, and several aspects of the previous SOEP twin project in a sample of 301 twin pairs aged between 19 and 76 years, recruited in 2010 and 2011. Part of the ChronoS twin sample also participated in the earlier SOEP twin study, representing a second wave of assessments. We briefly describe the design and contents of these three studies as well as selected recent findings.

  18. Inflammatory reactions in onchocerciasis: a report on current knowledge and recommendations for further study*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henson, P. M.; Mackenzie, C. D.; Spector, W. G.

    1979-01-01

    This report concerns the host's reactions to the presence of the parasite both in the course of the natural disease and during drug treatment. The various stages of Onchocerca volvulus are discussed in terms of the type of tissue reaction seen. The discussion then turns to basic hypotheses concerning the etiology of these reactions, emphasis being placed on the fact that while pathological changes are considerable in some locations there is a remarkable lack of reaction in others. Some of the mechanisms possibly involved in this apparent absence of host response are discussed, including anti-complement factors, poor antigenicity, acquisition of host antigen, immune tolerance, and blocking antibodies. In any study of the inflammatory response it is recommended that critical evaluations be made of histological material, haematological studies, the definition of the antigenic nature of O. volvulus, characterization of immunological reactivity of patients, and the definition of the migratory pathways of the parasite. The marked host reactions seen following chemotherapy, especially those related to the interaction of the drug diethylcarbamazine with microfilariae, are discussed at some length. The etiology of these reactions is considered and recommendations are made for the experimental elucidation of the mechanisms involved. Emphasis is placed on the necessity for detailed sequential histopathological and immunopathological studies in the definition of the tissue lesions found in onchocerciasis. Characterization of these lesions will assist greatly the approach to control of the adverse reactions seen during treatment. The use of anti-inflammatory agents in clinical trials is discussed and comments are made concerning the most suitable clinical situations for testing drugs and the types of drug that should be tested. PMID:396050

  19. Inflammatory reactions in onchocerciasis: a report on current knowledge and recommendations for further study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henson, P M; Mackenzie, C D; Spector, W G

    1979-01-01

    This report concerns the host's reactions to the presence of the parasite both in the course of the natural disease and during drug treatment. The various stages of Onchocerca volvulus are discussed in terms of the type of tissue reaction seen. The discussion then turns to basic hypotheses concerning the etiology of these reactions, emphasis being placed on the fact that while pathological changes are considerable in some locations there is a remarkable lack of reaction in others. Some of the mechanisms possibly involved in this apparent absence of host response are discussed, including anti-complement factors, poor antigenicity, acquisition of host antigen, immune tolerance, and blocking antibodies. In any study of the inflammatory response it is recommended that critical evaluations be made of histological material, haematological studies, the definition of the antigenic nature of O. volvulus, characterization of immunological reactivity of patients, and the definition of the migratory pathways of the parasite.The marked host reactions seen following chemotherapy, especially those related to the interaction of the drug diethylcarbamazine with microfilariae, are discussed at some length. The etiology of these reactions is considered and recommendations are made for the experimental elucidation of the mechanisms involved. Emphasis is placed on the necessity for detailed sequential histopathological and immunopathological studies in the definition of the tissue lesions found in onchocerciasis. Characterization of these lesions will assist greatly the approach to control of the adverse reactions seen during treatment.The use of anti-inflammatory agents in clinical trials is discussed and comments are made concerning the most suitable clinical situations for testing drugs and the types of drug that should be tested.

  20. A Screening Method Using LC-MS MS for Illicit Drugs in Postmortem Blood an Application to 62 Postmortem Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serap Annette Akgür

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Screening of biological specimens in the presence of illicit drugs is of great importance, particularly in criminal cases. The most relevant matrices to be analyzed for this purpose are plasma or blood, due to providing a good correlation between their concentration and pharmacological effects. For majority of laboratories, a common method for screening illicit drugs has been immunoassay methods and Gas Chromatography-coupled with Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS that is widely employed for confirmation purposes. However, the widespread use of liquid chromatography coupled single-stage or tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS, LC-MS/MS is becoming increasingly significant for both qualitative and quantitative analysis of target analyse which could be polar and thermally labile. This assay method, consisted of morphine, (±-amphetamine, (±-methamphetami-ne, cocaine, benzoylecgonine, cocaethylene and (--ll-nor-9-car-boxy-c9-THC was based on the detection of LC-ESI-MS. In this study, LC-MS/MS method for illicit drugs in postmortem blood was developed. These data provided a documentation to use LC-MS/MS technique without any precipitation for postmortem blood to detect low concentrations of some illicit drugs and applied to 62 postmortem forensic cases. Key words: Illicit drug, screening, LC-MS/MS, postmortem blood

  1. Dazzled by unity? Order and chaos in public discourse on illicit drug use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, Suzanne; Moore, David

    2008-02-01

    One of the ways in which researchers, policy makers and practitioners routinely characterise illicit drug use is through a taxonomy of two paired conditions, the negative state of 'chaos' and the positive state of 'order' in the form of 'stability.' In this article, we explore some of the ways in which this taxonomy operates in public discourse on illicit drug use. Google searches were conducted in order to gather a corpus of Australian, United Kingdom and United States materials making use of notions of chaos and stability in discussing illicit drug use. The chaos/stability pairing was identified in a large number of materials, including government policy documents, internet web sites for drug related services, newspaper articles and research papers. Drawing on the work of Michel Foucault and Michel Serres, we argue that references to chaos and stability within public discourse produce at least three different ontological registers in which drug users are positioned: (1) the drug user as chaotic, (2) the drug using way of life as chaotic and (3) drug use activities as chaotic. These registers produce different semantic effects in that each locates the 'problem' of chaos differently and invokes it for different political and regulatory ends. Further, we argue that the taxonomy serves mainly to affirm the illegitimacy of injecting drug use by establishing and policing boundaries between the ostensibly unproductive, disorderly lives of drug users and the 'normal,' orderly and productive lives of non-injecting drug users. In concluding, we question the adequacy of chaos, as conventionally defined, in accounting for the circumstances and actions of drug users, and canvass alternative ways of viewing chaos that might offer useful critical tools for drugs research, policy and practice.

  2. Stuck in limbo: illicit drug users’ experiences with opioid maintenance treatment and the relation to recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trond Erik Grønnestad

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The objective of this article is to gain insight into how individuals who frequent open illicit drug scenes experience opioid maintenance treatment (OMT and investigate how this appears to affect their recovery processes. Method: By means of the ethnographic method, one of the researchers spent time in an open illicit drug scene over a 1-year span, and gathered data on individuals who frequent the scene on a regular basis, and their experiences with OMT. The data are based on field notes and audiotaped interviews. Findings: Four themes emerged as relevant for the participants’ experiences with OMT: 1 the loss of hope, 2 trapped in OMT, 3 substitution treatment is not enough, and 4 stigmatization of identity. Conclusion: The participants found the OMT to be overruling and degrading. Several of the individuals from the illicit drug scene are part of the OMT programme, but as the treatment does not remove painful emotions, they supplement OMT with illegal substances, violate the OMT regulations, and run the risk of being excluded from the programme. In fear of losing the replacement opioid, they conceal parts of the addiction they seek treatment for and end up lying and cheating instead of exploring strategies for reducing and managing the addiction. The patients’ relation to the OMT personnel is negatively affected by the need to hide a large portion of their issues. The result is a feeling of hopelessness, increased stigmatization, lack of control and being trapped between two worlds—in limbo, an intermediate state which interferes with the recovery process.

  3. Variation in the THC content of illicitly imported Cannabis products--1984-1989.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitts, J E; O'Neil, P J; Leggo, K P

    1990-12-01

    The tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) content of more than 180 samples of fresh illicit Cannabis products, seized by H.M. Customs and Excise on entry into Great Britain and Northern Ireland over the period 1984-1989, has been determined by gas chromatography. The average THC content of herbal cannabis remained high due to good quality cannabis from Jamaica and the USA, but that of cannabis resin was slightly lower. Resin from Morocco has changed significantly in its physical appearance. There was no fresh seizure of cannabis oil in this period.

  4. [Use and abuse of illicit drugs, also in the light of the new Italian legislation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Ettore, A

    2006-01-01

    After presenting the new Italian legislation on the subject, the author describes the operative procedures, employed by the "Centro Ricerche di Laboratorio e di Tossicologia Forense" of the Italian State Police, for detection of illicit drugs' use by personnel on duty. The results obtained from 1998 to 2003 (on over 15,000 subjects/year) are presented. On this sample, sporadic positive (for cannabinoids) cases were found. The number of positive individuals would probably be higher, whether randomised controls were made without notice, and whether non-conventional matrices (e.g. keratinised tissues) were utilized to identify previous abuse.

  5. Nephrotoxicity of over-the-counter analgesics, natural medicines, and illicit drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blowey, Douglas L

    2005-02-01

    Toxic nephropathy is a disorder whose primary feature is impairment of the normal functions of the kidney. The clinical manifestations of toxic nephropathy vary from a mild reduction in renal function to hematuria, proteinuria, and urolithiasis to a severe progressive toxicity culminating in end-stage renal disease. Although it is commonplace for adolescents to use supplemental treatments such as natural medicines and over-the-counter (OTC) analgesics, they do not often reveal the use of such treatments to physicians, nor do they fully understand their potential adverse effects. This article reviews the nephrotoxic effects of OTC analgesics, natural medicines, and illicit drugs.

  6. Alcohol, tobacco, and illicit drug use among Native American college students: an exploratory quantitative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Brian W; Ridolfo, Heather

    2011-01-01

    We examine alcohol, tobacco, and illicit drug use among US Native American college students by using 4 years of College Alcohol Study data (1993, 1997, 1999, and 2001; n = 267). To the authors' knowledge, this is the first study to quantitatively examine this population using advanced statistical analyses and a nationally representative sample of US college students. Descriptive and logistic regression analyses show that Native American college students have unique rates and patterns of substance use that must be addressed accordingly. It is suggested that specialized future research and policy are needed to properly address alcohol and drug use among this population. Limitations of the study are noted.

  7. Benefit-cost analysis of DOE's Current Federal Program to increase hydrothermal resource utilization. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-12-10

    The impact of DOE's Current Federal Program on the commercialization of hydrothermal resources between 1980 and 2000 is analyzed. The hydrothermal resources of the United States and the types of DOE activities used to stimulate the development of these resources for both electric power and direct heat use are described briefly. The No Federal Program and the Current Federal Program are then described in terms of funding levels and the resultant market penetration estimates through 2000. These market penetration estimates are also compared to other geothermal utilization forecasts. The direct benefits of the Current Federal Program are next presented for electric power and direct heat use applications. An analysis of the external impacts associated with the additional hydrothermal resource development resulting from the Current Federal Program is also provided. Included are environmental effects, national security/balance-of-payments improvements, socioeconomic impacts and materials requirements. A summary of the analysis integrating the direct benefits, external impacts and DOE program costs concludes the report.

  8. Neuropsychological effects of self-reported deployment-related mild TBI and current PTSD in OIF/OEF veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shandera-Ochsner, Anne L; Berry, David T R; Harp, Jordan P; Edmundson, Maryanne; Graue, Lili O; Roach, Abbey; High, Walter M

    2013-01-01

    Current combat veterans are exposed to many incidents that may result in mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) and/or posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). While there is literature on the neuropsychological consequences of PTSD only (PTSD-o) and mTBI alone (mTBI-o), less has been done to explore their combined (mTBI+PTSD) effect. The goal of this study was to determine whether Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF) and Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF) veterans with mTBI+PTSD have poorer cognitive and psychological outcomes than veterans with PTSD-o, mTBI-o, or combat exposure-only. The final sample included 20 OIF/OEF veterans with histories of self-reported deployment mTBI (mTBI-o), 19 with current PTSD (PTSD-o), 21 with PTSD and self-reported mTBI (mTBI+PTSD), and 21 combat controls (CC) (no PTSD and no reported mTBI). Groups were formed using structured interviews for mTBI and PTSD. All participants underwent comprehensive neuropsychological testing, including neurocognitive and psychiatric feigning tests. Results of cognitive tests revealed significant differences in performance in the mTBI+PTSD and PTSD-o groups relative to mTBI-o and CC. Consistent with previous PTSD literature, significant differences were found on executive (switching) tasks, verbal fluency, and verbal memory. Effect sizes tended to be large in both groups with PTSD. Thus, PTSD seems to be an important variable affecting neuropsychological profiles in the post-deployment time period. Consistent with literature on civilian mTBI, the current study did not find evidence that combat-related mTBI in and of itself contributes to objective cognitive impairment in the late stage of injury.

  9. Physician experience and rates of plasma HIV-1 RNA suppression among illicit drug users: an observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangsari Sassan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the availability of antiretroviral therapy (ART, suboptimal treatment outcomes have been observed among HIV-seropositive illicit drug users. As there is an urgent need to improve responses to antiretroviral therapy among this population, we undertook this study to evaluate the role of physician experience on rates of plasma HIV-1 RNA suppression following initiation of ART. Methods Using data from a community-recruited cohort of HIV-positive illicit drug users, we used Cox proportional hazards regression to model the time to plasma viral HIV RNA Results Between May 1996 and December 2008, 267 individuals initiated ART among whom 227 (85% achieved a plasma HIV RNA Conclusions In this setting of universal HIV/AIDS care, illicit drug users with more experienced physicians exhibited faster rates of plasma viral load suppression. These findings argue for specialized services to help optimize HIV treatment outcomes among this population.

  10. Positive family relationships and religious affiliation as mediators between negative environment and illicit drug symptoms in American Indian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Mansoo; Stiffman, Arlene R

    2010-07-01

    The present study tests how positive family relationships and religious affiliation mediate between negative familial and social environments, and adolescent illicit drug abuse/dependence symptoms. The theoretical framework is based on an integration of two theories: the ecological model of human development (Bronfenbrenner, 1979) and the social development model (Hawkins & Weis, 1985). We used a stratified random sample of 401 American Indian adolescents. A path analysis tested the integrative theoretical model. Findings showed that positive family relationships mediated the negative impact of addicted family members, violence victimization, and negative school environment on illicit drug abuse/dependence symptoms. Religious affiliation mediated the negative effect of deviant peers on positive family relationships. Intervention and prevention efforts may benefit from promoting positive family relationships and religious affiliation to reduce the impact of complex familial and social problems on illicit drug symptoms.

  11. Community, family, and peer influences on alcohol, marijuana, and illicit drug use among a sample of Native American youth: an analysis of predictive factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heavyrunner-Rioux, Aislinn R; Hollist, Dusten R

    2010-01-01

    Using a cross-sectional sample of 8th, 10th, and 12th grade Native American public school children, this study examines hypotheses pertaining to the ability and influence of measures drawn from social bonding, social learning, and social disorganization theories to account for variations in self-reported lifetime and 30 day use of alcohol, marijuana, and illicit drugs. Results derived from ordinary least squares regression equations show significant associations, most notably with variables from the social learning tradition. In addition, comparisons across equations show significant differences in the impact of the theoretical indicators on substance use between respondents in the sub-samples of those residing on and off reservations. The findings suggest that existing theories offer a promising framework for understanding the process of Native American substance use, and that the role of these in some cases differ for adolescents who reside on and off reservations. Contributions to the literature along with suggestions for future research are discussed.

  12. Illicit drugs, testing, prevention and work in France: ethical and legal issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fantoni-Quinton, Sophie; Bossu, Bernard; Morgenroth, Thomas; Frimat, Paul

    2010-09-01

    The use of illicit drugs in the workplace raises issues pertaining to prevention and safety and the responsibility of the various members of staff. It also brings into question the interface between work and private life. If employees are in theory responsible for their own safety and risk heavy penalties in the event of the consumption of illicit drugs in the workplace, such behaviour has to be proved. In reality, the worker can only be partially and marginally held liable, given the fact that the employer is prohibited from infringing on their rights and liberties (restrictions on the searching of their personal belongings and lockers as well as on the carrying out of breath testing and saliva testing under restrictive conditions). Employers have for their part a broader range of responsibilities and, above all, an absolute obligation to achieve specific goals in terms of health and safety resulting in the need to take action. In accordance with the International Labour Organization recommendations, European and national legislation, the employer has to implement a suitable preventive policy. However, where is the balance between prevention and repression? Very few studies have raised these issues and our aim is to precisely situate the place of drug testing in the employer's repressive arsenal in France and to try to answer the legal and ethical issues raised. Thus, for example, repression can only be acceptable when it deals with moderate and non-addicted users, or it could be tantamount to discrimination.

  13. Perceptions of parental bonding in freebase cocaine users versus non-illicit drug users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia Pettenon

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Evidence has suggested that parenting styles have peculiar characteristics in families with drug-related issues. This study was undertaken to investigate the perception of crack (smoke cocaine users and non-users about parental bonding quality regarding care and control in Brazil. Methods: A total of 198 hospitalized crack users and 104 users of any non-illicit drug were assessed using the Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI, the sixth version of the Addiction Severity Index (ASI and Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI. Results: Adjusted logistic regression analysis showed that crack users were more likely (OR adj = 9.68; 95% CI: 2.82, 33.20 to perceive neglectful mothers, as well as more likely (OR adj = 4.71, 95% CI: 2.17, 10.22 to perceive controlling and affectionless fathers in comparison with non-illicit drug users who were more likely to perceive optimal parenting. Interpretation & conclusions: Our findings indicate that the perception of neglectful mothers and affectionless controlling fathers may be associated with the tendency of the children to be less resilient when facing stressful events, leading them to a greater risk to use crack.

  14. Paradigms of public policies for licit and illicit drugs in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gigliotti, Analice; Ribeiro, Marcelo; Tapia Aguilera, Amarílis; Rezende, Elton; Ogata Perrenoud, Luciane

    2014-01-01

    Brazil is a country of continental dimensions that, over the last 3 decades, has been making increased efforts to develop effective public policies for controlling the use of both licit and illicit psychoactive substances. In the case of licit drugs, Brazil was a pioneer in following the guidance of the World Health Organization for tobacco control and has witnessed surprising results relating to reduction of smoking prevalence and correlated morbidity and mortality. Today, Brazil has a national structure for organizing, applying, and monitoring laws relating to tobacco. However, in the field of illicit drugs, with crack consumption as a paradigm, the situation is the opposite: its use has been increasing year by year and is being consumed at increasingly young ages and by all social classes. Thus, it is becoming an enormous challenge for public policies relating to prevention and treatment. In this context, the aim of this article is to present a review of the epidemiological data relating to tobacco and crack use in Brazil, with an analysis on the impact of public policies for controlling consumption over recent years. Despite the efforts made over the last 3 decades, Brazil still has a long way to go in order to construct a consistent and effective national drugs policy.

  15. A snapshot of illicit drug use in Sweden acquired through sewage water analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostman, Marcus; Fick, Jerker; Näsström, Elin; Lindberg, Richard H

    2014-02-15

    Analytical measurements of sewage water have been used many times to estimate the consumption of specific drugs in an area. This study measured a large number of illicit drugs and metabolites (>30) at a large number of sewage treatment plants (STPs) distributed across Sweden. Twenty-four illicit and prescription drugs, classified as narcotic substances in Sweden, and seven selected metabolites were included in the study. A 24 hour composite sample of incoming sewage water was collected from 33 different municipalities at various geographic locations across Sweden. Species were analyzed using an on-line solid-phase extraction-liquid chromatography electrospray tandem mass spectrometry method. The method proved to be rapid with minimum need for sample work up and was able to detect 13 compounds above their respective limits of quantification. The results for all compounds were presented as per capita loads. Multivariate data analysis was used to relate drug consumption to geographical location and/or population of cities. The results showed that geographical differences in drug consumption were apparent across the country. For the narcotic pharmaceuticals, the geographical differences suggested by the multivariate model were supported by prescription statistics.

  16. Test Sample for the Spatially Resolved Quantification of Illicit Drugs on Fingerprints Using Imaging Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muramoto, Shin; Forbes, Thomas P; van Asten, Arian C; Gillen, Greg

    2015-01-01

    A novel test sample for the spatially resolved quantification of illicit drugs on the surface of a fingerprint using time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) and desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (DESI-MS) was demonstrated. Calibration curves relating the signal intensity to the amount of drug deposited on the surface were generated from inkjet-printed arrays of cocaine, methamphetamine, and heroin with a deposited-mass ranging nominally from 10 pg to 50 ng per spot. These curves were used to construct concentration maps that visualized the spatial distribution of the drugs on top of a fingerprint, as well as being able to quantify the amount of drugs in a given area within the map. For the drugs on the fingerprint on silicon, ToF-SIMS showed great success, as it was able to generate concentration maps of all three drugs. On the fingerprint on paper, only the concentration map of cocaine could be constructed using ToF-SIMS and DESI-MS, as the signals of methamphetamine and heroin were completely suppressed by matrix and substrate effects. Spatially resolved quantification of illicit drugs using imaging mass spectrometry is possible, but the choice of substrates could significantly affect the results.

  17. Museum Education and Archaeological Ethics: An Approach to the Illicit Trade of Antiquities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasilike Argyropoulos

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Many museum educational programs and exhibitions worldwide, designed to communicate to the public the importance of archaeology, adopt a treasure hunt approach often inspired by emblematic mass culture figures, such as Indiana Jones or Lara Croft. Alternatively they organize exhibitions on the identification of fakes in the spirit of TV series such as 'X-files' or 'CSI'.    These programs usually avoid dealing with a fundamental issue in archaeological practice, which pertains to the paramount importance of context and the scientific consequences of its destruction through, among others, the illicit trade of antiquities. The hesitation in promoting this sensitive topic may be due to the fact that many objects in major museum collections are often unprovenanced. Although the 'ICOM Code of Ethics for Museums' (2006, section 4.5 advises against displaying material of questionable origin, most museums do host such antiquities.     The paper explores how museums can begin to discuss the issue of context using the materials produced by the European Culture project 'Witness the Past' (WTP: film documentaries or educational kits and related activities aimed at children on the topic of the importance of context and the destructive effects of the illicit trade of antiquities. The WTP project was implemented in three European museums as well as in Egypt and Jordan.

  18. Graduated Sovereignty and Global Governance Gaps: Special Economic Zones and the Illicit Trade In Tobacco Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holden, Chris

    2017-07-01

    Illicit trade in tobacco products has been a significant problem globally for many years. It allows cigarettes to be sold far below their legal price and thus contributes to higher consumption, morbidity and mortality, and deprives state treasuries of a substantial amount of revenue. This article identifies special economic zones (SEZs), particularly free trade zones, as a key conduit for this illicit trade. The development of SEZs as weak points in the global governance architecture is explained with reference to the concept of 'graduated sovereignty', whereby the uniform management of territory by modern states has given way to a more spatially selective form of territorial governance, in which some slices of territory are more fully integrated into the world economy than others via various forms of differential regulation. Attempts to comprehensively (re)regulate SEZs, in the face of growing evidence of the dysfunctionalities that they can engender, have so far been unsuccessful. It is concluded that the neo-liberal global economy has facilitated a regulatory 'race to the bottom', a problem that can only ultimately be overcome by international negotiation and agreement.

  19. The Illicit Use of Prescription Stimulants on College Campuses: A Theory-Guided Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bavarian, Niloofar; Flay, Brian R; Ketcham, Patricia L; Smit, Ellen

    2015-12-01

    The illicit use of prescription stimulants (IUPS) is a substance use behavior that remains prevalent on college campuses. As theory can guide research and practice, we provide a systematic review of the college-based IUPS epidemiological literature guided by one ecological framework, the theory of triadic influence (TTI). We aim to assess prevalence, elucidate the behavior's multietiological nature, and discuss prevention implications. Peer-reviewed studies were located through key phrase searches (prescription stimulant misuse and college, "prescription stimulant misuse" and "college," illicit use of prescription stimulants in college, and nonmedical prescription stimulant use in college students) in electronic databases (PubMed, PubMed Central, and EBSCO Host) for the period 2000 to 2013. Studies meeting inclusion criteria had their references reviewed for additional eligible literature. Statistically significant correlates of IUPS in the 62 retrieved studies were organized using the three streams of influence and four levels of causation specified in the TTI. Results show that the prevalence of IUPS varies across campuses. Additionally, findings suggest the behavior is multifaceted, as correlates were observed within each stream of influence and level of causation specified by the TTI. We conclude that IUPS is prevalent in, but varies across, colleges and is influenced by intrapersonal and broader social and societal factors. We discuss implications for prevention and directions for future research. © 2015 Society for Public Health Education.

  20. Associations between University Students' Reported Reasons for Abstinence from Illicit Substances and Type of Drug

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, Harold; Bonar, Erin E.; Pavlick, Michelle; Jones, Lance D.; Hoffmann, Erica; Murray, Shanna; Faigin, Carol Ann; Cabral, Kyle; Baylen, Chelsea

    2012-01-01

    We recruited 211 undergraduates to rate the degree to which each of 34 listed reasons for not taking drugs had influenced their abstinence from MDMA/ecstasy, cocaine, marijuana, and hallucinogens. Participants rated reasons such as personal and family medical histories, religion, and physiological consequences of drug use as having little or no…

  1. Assessment of Lifespan Functioning Attainment (ALFA) scale: A quantitative interview for self-reported current and functional decline in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Jamie; Kremen, William S; Glatt, Stephen J; Franz, Carol E; Chandler, Sharon D; Liu, Xiaohua; Johnson, Barbara K; Tsuang, Ming T; Twamley, Elizabeth W

    2015-06-01

    Schizophrenia has been characterized as a disorder with poor outcomes across various functional domains, especially social and occupational functioning. Although these outcomes have been investigated based on patients' current functioning, few studies have considered the assessment of functional outcomes across the lifespan in schizophrenia. We developed a novel and brief scale of adulthood lifespan functioning, the Assessment of Lifespan Functioning Attainment (ALFA). We assessed current functioning and percentage of pre- and post-psychosis onset engagement for five functional domains including paid employment, living independently, romantic partnerships, close friendships, and recreational engagement with others. Pre-to post-psychosis functional decline was observed for all domains, with paid employment having the greatest decline (d = 2.68) and living independently having the least decline (d = .59). Our exploratory factor analysis suggests that a single factor accounted for the most variance in Pre-Psychosis Functioning in ALFA domains. Two factors explain the majority of variance in Post-Psychosis Functioning and Pre-to-Post Psychosis Decline: a sociability factor (close friendships and recreational engagement with others) and an independence factor (paid employment, living independently, romantic relationships). To our knowledge, this is the first study to report on a self-reported quantitative assessment of adult lifespan functioning in schizophrenia. The ALFA scale may be a useful tool for future research on functional outcomes in schizophrenia.

  2. Illicit drugs use in Georgian students; pilot study rigorously following criteria of European School Project on Alcohol and Other Drug.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamkrelidze, A; Baramidze, L; Sturua, L; Galdava, G

    2010-03-01

    The main purpose of the European School Survey Project on Alcohol and Other Drugs (ESPAD) is to collect comparable data on substance use among 15-16 year-old European students in order to monitor trends within as well as between countries. This summary presents key results from the Alcohol Use in Georgian Students, pilot study rigorously following Criteria of European School Project on Alcohol and Other Drug (ESPAD). The survey was conducted according to a standardized methodology and with a standardized questionnaire. Data were collected during February 2009 and the target population was Tbilisi students in the 10-th grade (93% born in 1992), with a mean age of 16.1 years at the time of data collection. Data were collected by group-administered questionnaires. The students answered the questionnaires anonymously in the classroom with researchers. 22% of the surveyed students perceive cannabis to be easily available, and boys consider cannabis slightly more accessible than girls do, the gender difference is rather big (31% vs.13%). Amphetamines and ecstasy are not perceived to be as easily available as cannabis. On average, 33% of the boys and 8% of the girls have tried illicit drugs at least once during their lifetime (20% for all students). After cannabis, ecstasy is in second position, being mentioned by 7.5% of the students and the figure for amphetamines is about 2%. Lifetime use of crack was reported by fewer students (1.1%) and the rate for heroin was even lower (1%). Lifetime cocaine and heroine experiences were reported by 0.6% of the students on average. Just as few reported experience of GHB and anabolic steroids or drug use by intravenous administration. Since cannabis is the most frequently used illicit drug, it could be worthwhile to have a closer look at this substance. Use of cannabis in the past 12 months was reported by 17% of the boys and 3% of the girls (10% for all students) while use in the past 30 days was stated by 6.5% of the boys and 0

  3. Illicit Drug Use, Cigarette Smoking and Alcohol Drinking Behaviour among a Sample of High School Adolescents in the Pietersburg Area of the Northern Province, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madu, Sylvester Ntomchukwu; Matla, Ma-Queen Patience

    2003-01-01

    Investigates the prevalence of illicit drug use, cigarette smoking and alcohol drinking behavior among a sample of high-school adolescents in the Pietersburg area of South Africa. Findings indicate the prevalence rate of 19.8% for illicit drug use, 10.6% for cigarette smoking and 39.1% for alcohol consumption among the participants. Implications…

  4. Current Status of Renal Replacement Therapy in Turkey: A Summary of Turkish Society of Nephrology 2009 Annual Registry Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gültekin SÜLEYMANLAR

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Turkish Society of Nephrology registry collects data on hemodialysis, peritoneal dialysis and transplantation on annual basis. Registry reports are printed every year as a booklet and this is the 20th year of registry reports. The registry is in close collaboration with international registries. In this paper data from the 2009 registry report are summarized, additionally yearly trends in the management of end stage renal disease are also provided The number of patients on renal replacement therapy is rapidly increasing, at the end of 2009, 59443 patients were on renal replacement therapy. The prevalence and incidence of end stage renal disease was 819 and 197 per million population respectively. Diabetes was the most important cause of end stage renal disease. Hemodialysis (78.5% was the most common type of treatment modality, followed by transplantation (12.4% and peritoneal dialysis (9.1% End stage renal disease is a very important and growing health problem for our country. Renal registry is a leading tool for providing current and sound data on this public health problem.

  5. Forensic intelligence framework--Part I: Induction of a transversal model by comparing illicit drugs and false identity documents monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morelato, Marie; Baechler, Simon; Ribaux, Olivier; Beavis, Alison; Tahtouh, Mark; Kirkbride, Paul; Roux, Claude; Margot, Pierre

    2014-03-01

    Forensic intelligence is a distinct dimension of forensic science. Forensic intelligence processes have mostly been developed to address either a specific type of trace or a specific problem. Even though these empirical developments have led to successes, they are trace-specific in nature and contribute to the generation of silos which hamper the establishment of a more general and transversal model. Forensic intelligence has shown some important perspectives but more general developments are required to address persistent challenges. This will ensure the progress of the discipline as well as its widespread implementation in the future. This paper demonstrates that the description of forensic intelligence processes, their architectures, and the methods for building them can, at a certain level, be abstracted from the type of traces considered. A comparative analysis is made between two forensic intelligence approaches developed independently in Australia and in Europe regarding the monitoring of apparently very different kind of problems: illicit drugs and false identity documents. An inductive effort is pursued to identify similarities and to outline a general model. Besides breaking barriers between apparently separate fields of study in forensic science and intelligence, this transversal model would assist in defining forensic intelligence, its role and place in policing, and in identifying its contributions and limitations. The model will facilitate the paradigm shift from the current case-by-case reactive attitude towards a proactive approach by serving as a guideline for the use of forensic case data in an intelligence-led perspective. A follow-up article will specifically address issues related to comparison processes, decision points and organisational issues regarding forensic intelligence (part II).

  6. Partitioning and transmutation. Current developments - 2007. A report from the Swedish reference group on P-T-research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahlstroem, Per-Eric (ed.) [Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (Sweden); Blomgren, Jan [Uppsala Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Neutron Research; Ekberg, Christian; Englund, Sofie; Fermvik, Anna; Liljenzin, Jan-Olov; Retegan, Teodora; Skarnemark, Gunnar [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden); Eriksson, Marcus; Seltborg, Per; Wallenius, Jan; Westlen, Daniel [Royal Inst. of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2007-06-15

    This report is written on behalf of the Swedish reference group for research on partitioning and transmutation. The reference group has been assembled by SKB and its members represent the teams that are active in this field at Swedish universities. The present report summarises the progress in the field through the years 2004-2006. A prerequisite for transmutation by irradiation with neutrons is that the nuclides to be transmuted are separated (partitioned) from the other nuclides in the spent fuel. In particular the remaining uranium must be taken away unless you want to produce more plutonium and other transuranium elements. Separation of the various elements can at least in principle be achieved by mechanical and chemical processes. Currently there exist some large scale facilities for separation of uranium and plutonium from the spent fuel-reprocessing plants. These can, however, not separate the minor actinides - neptunium, americium and curium - from the high level waste that goes to a repository. Plutonium constitutes about 90% of the transuranium elements in fuel from light water reactors. The objective of current research on partitioning is to find and develop processes suitable for separation of the heavier actinides (and possibly some long-lived fission products) on an industrial scale. The objective of current research on transmutation is to define, investigate and develop facilities that may be suitable for transmutation of the aforementioned long-lived radionuclides. The research on partitioning has made important progress in recent years. In some cases one has succeeded to separate americium and curium. Many challenges remain however. Within hydrochemistry one has achieved sufficiently good distribution and separation factors. The focus turns now towards development of an operating process. The search for ligands that give sufficiently good extraction and separation will continue but with less intensity. The emphasis will rather be on improving

  7. Infant birth outcomes among substance using women: why quitting smoking during pregnancy is just as important as quitting illicit drug use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Beth A; McCook, Judy G; Hodge, Alexis; McGrady, Lana

    2012-02-01

    Poor birth outcomes are associated with illicit drug use during pregnancy. While prenatal cigarette exposure has similar effects, cessation of illicit drug use during pregnancy is often prioritized over cessation of smoking. The study goal was to examine the impact of pregnancy tobacco use, relative to use of illicit drugs, on birth outcomes. Women were recruited at entry to prenatal care, with background and substance use information collected during pregnancy. Urine drug screens were performed during pregnancy, and the final sample (n = 265) was restricted to infants who also had biologic drug testing at delivery. Participants were classified by pregnancy drug use: no drugs/no cigarettes, no drugs/cigarette use, illicit drugs/no cigarettes, and illicit drugs/cigarette use. Groups differed significantly on infant birthweight, but not gestational age at delivery after control for confounders including background and medical factors. Among women who smoked, the adjusted mean birthweight gain was 163 g for those not using hard illicit drugs, while marijuana use had no effect on birth weight beyond the effect of smoking cigarettes. Women who used hard illicit drugs and did not smoke had an adjusted mean birthweight gain of 317 g over smokers. Finally, women who refrained from hard illicit drugs and smoking had a birthweight gain of 352 g. Among substance using pregnant women, smoking cessation may have a greater impact on birthweight than eliminating illicit drug use. Intervention efforts should stress that smoking cessation is at least as important to improving pregnancy outcomes as abstaining from illicit drug use.

  8. Induction of visual dream reports after transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCs) during Stage 2 sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakobson, Antonia J; Fitzgerald, Paul B; Conduit, Russell

    2012-08-01

    REM sleep is a unique brain state characterized by frontal deactivation alongside activation of the posterior association and limbic cortices. Human brain lesion studies have found that the loss of dreaming is characterized by damage to the frontal and posterior parieto-temporo-occipital association cortex. Therefore, it is reasonable to assume that the function of these brain regions might encapsulate the neural processes of dreaming. The aim of the following two experiments was to investigate the effect of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCs), applied simultaneously to the frontal and right posterior parietal cortex during Stage 2 sleep, on dreaming. In Experiment 1, 17 healthy participants received tDCs (cathodal-frontal, anodal-parietal) and low-intensity tDCs as well as no tDCs (blank control) during Stage 2 sleep in a counterbalanced order across the night. Dream reports were collected upon awakening after each of the three conditions. In Experiment 2, 10 participants received tDCs (cathodal-frontal, anodal-parietal), no tDCs (blank control) and two additional control conditions (reversed polarity and other-cephalic tDCs). In both experiments a significantly greater number of imagery reports were found on awakening after tDCs (cathodal-frontal, anodal-parietal), compared to the blank control conditions. However, in Experiment 2 the frequency of imagery reports from the tDCs (cathodal-frontal, anodal-parietal) was not significantly different from the other two tDC conditions, suggesting a non-specific effect of tDCs. Overall, it was concluded that tDCs (cathodal-frontal, anodal-parietal) increased the frequency of dream reports with visual imagery, possibly via a general arousing effect and/or recreating specific cortical neural activity involved in dreaming. © 2012 European Sleep Research Society.

  9. Transcranial direct current stimulation on the autonomic modulation and exercise time in individuals with spinal cord injury. A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Fabiana Tenório Gomes; Rêgo, Jeferson Tafarel Pereira; Raulino, Francisco Rômulo; Silva, Marília Rodrigues; Reynaud, Franceline; Egito, Eryvaldo Sócrates Tabosa; Dantas, Paulo Moreira Silva

    2015-12-01

    To report the effect of the transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) applied over the primary motor cortex (M1) of an individual, a sedentary male subject with complete chronic spinal cord injury at the T11-T12 levels. The individual underwent three experimental sessions: control, sham and anodal tDCS. Before, during and after exercise sessions, the following variables were recorded: heart rate variability, Rating of Perceived Exertion (RPE), power and glucose (this one only before and after the exercise). The anodal tDCS provided greater exercise time and power, lower perceived exertion, greater reduction in glucose, and an increase in time to reach the threshold of heart rate variability. tDCS caused an improvement in the exercise tolerance, probably due to the modulation of the autonomic nervous system and the pain, characterized by reduced RPE. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Engineering change management report 2012: Survey results on causes and effects, current practice, problems, and strategies in Brazil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chucholowski, Nepomuk; Langer, Stefan; Ferreira, Marcelo Gitirana Gomes

    management of engineering changes is a crucial precondition for Brazilian companies to successfully compete not only on the fast growing Brazilian market, but also on the world market which becomes more interesting due to the rising industrial power of Brazil. To achieve improvements in engineering change...... management practice, industry and universities need to work together. In this report the main findings of our study on Engineering Change Management (ECM) in Brazilian companies are presented, which indicate possible solution strategies and further research needs. Our survey aimed on the investigation...... of current practice, the biggest challenges and potential strategies of engineering change management. A total of 55 Brazilian companies from a broad range of industry sectors and company sizes participated from December 2011 until January 2012 in the survey which was elaborated and conducted by members...

  11. Excitation of earth-ionosphere waveguide in the ELF and lower VLF bands by modulated ionospheric current. Technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Field, E.C.; Bloom, R.M.

    1993-05-21

    In this report the authors use the principal of reciprocity in conjunction with a full-wave propagation code to calculate ground-level fields excited by ionospheric currents modulated at frequencies between 50 and 100 Hz with HF heaters. Their results show the dependence on source orientation, altitude, and dimension and therefore pertain to experiments using the HIPAS or HAARP ionospheric heaters. In the end-fire mode, the waveguide excitation efficiency of an ELF HED in the ionosphere is up to 20 dB greater than for a ground-based antenna, provided its altitude does not exceed 80-to-90 km. The highest efficiency occurs for a source altitude of around 70 km; if that altitude is raised to 100 km, the efficiency drops by about 20 dB in the day and 10 dB at night. That efficiency does not account for the greater conductivity modulation that might be achieved at altitudes greater than 70 km, however. The trade-off between the altitude dependencies of the excitation efficiency and maximum achievable modulation depends on the ERP of the HF heater, the optimum altitude increasing with increasing ERP. For HIPAS the best modulation altitude is around 70 km, whereas for HAARP there might be marginal value in modulating at attitudes as high as 100 Km. Ionospheric modification, Ionospheric currents, Ionospheric heating.

  12. Assessing geographical differences in illicit drug consumption--A comparison of results from epidemiological and wastewater data in Germany and Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Been, Frederic; Bijlsma, Lubertus; Benaglia, Lisa; Berset, Jean-Daniel; Botero-Coy, Ana M; Castiglioni, Sara; Kraus, Ludwig; Zobel, Frank; Schaub, Michael P; Bücheli, Alexander; Hernández, Félix; Delémont, Olivier; Esseiva, Pierre; Ort, Christoph

    2016-04-01

    Wastewater analysis is an innovative approach that allows monitoring illicit drug use at the community level. This study focused on investigating geographical differences in drug consumption by comparing epidemiological, crime and wastewater data. Wastewater samples were collected in 19 cities across Germany and Switzerland during one week, covering a population of approximately 8.1 million people. Self-report data and consumption offences for the investigated areas were used for comparison and to investigate differences between the indicators. Good agreement between data sources was observed for cannabis and amphetamine-type stimulants, whereas substantial discrepancies were observed for cocaine. In Germany, an important distinction could be made between Berlin, Dortmund and Munich, where cocaine and particularly amphetamine were more prevalent, and Dresden, where methamphetamine consumption was clearly predominant. Cocaine consumption was relatively homogenous in the larger urban areas of Switzerland, although prevalence and offences data suggested a more heterogeneous picture. Conversely, marked regional differences in amphetamine and methamphetamine consumption could be highlighted. Combining the available data allowed for a better understanding of the geographical differences regarding prevalence, typology and amounts of substances consumed. For cannabis and amphetamine-type stimulants, the complementarity of survey, police and wastewater data could be highlighted, although notable differences could be identified when considering more stigmatised drugs (i.e. cocaine and heroin). Understanding illicit drug consumption at the national scale remains a difficult task, yet this research illustrates the added value of combining complementary data sources to obtain a more comprehensive and accurate picture of the situation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Are work stressors related to employee substance use? The importance of temporal context assessments of alcohol and illicit drug use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frone, Michael R

    2008-01-01

    In this study, the author explored the relations of 2 work stressors (work overload and job insecurity) to employee alcohol use and illicit drug use. The primary goal was to explore the importance of temporal context (before work, during the workday, and after work) in the assessment of substance use compared with context-free (overall) assessments. Data were collected from a national sample of U.S. workers (N = 2,790) who took part in a broad cross-sectional survey on workplace health and safety. Consistent with past research, the results fail to support a relation between work stressors and overall measures of alcohol and illicit drug use. However, the results support the relation of work stressors to alcohol and illicit drug use before work, during the workday, and after work. These results provide support for both the stress-induced substance use and stress response dampening propositions of the tension-reduction hypothesis. When exploring the work environment as a potential cause of employee substance use, these results underscore the importance of measures that assess alcohol and illicit drug use in terms of their temporal relation to the workday. 2008 APA

  14. The role of general parenting and cannabis-specific parenting practices in adolescent cannabis and other illicit drug use

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, E.; Verdurmen, J.E.E.; Engels, R.C.M.E.; Vollebergh, W.A.M.

    2015-01-01

    Aims: To investigate general and cannabis-specific parenting practices in relation to adolescent cannabis and other illicit drug use. Methods: Data were derived from the Dutch National School Survey on Substance Use among students (N = 3209; aged 12-16 years) and one of their parents in 2011. Result

  15. The role of general parenting and cannabis-specific parenting practices in adolescent cannabis and other illicit drug use

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, E.; Verdurmen, J.E.E.; Engels, R.C.M.E.; Vollebergh, W.A.M.

    2015-01-01

    Aims: To investigate general and cannabis-specific parenting practices in relation to adolescent cannabis and other illicit drug use. Methods: Data were derived from the Dutch National School Survey on Substance Use among students (N = 3209; aged 12-16 years) and one of their parents in 2011. Result

  16. The role of general parenting and cannabis-specific parenting practices in adolescent cannabis and other illicit drug use

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, E.; Verdurmen, J.E.E.; Engels, R.C.M.E.; Vollebergh, W.A.M.

    2015-01-01

    Aims: To investigate general and cannabis-specific parenting practices in relation to adolescent cannabis and other illicit drug use. Methods: Data were derived from the Dutch National School Survey on Substance Use among students (N = 3209; aged 12-16 years) and one of their parents in

  17. DETECTION, ISOLATION, AND IDENTIFICATION OF TRUXILLINES IN ILLICIT COCAINE BY MEANS OF THIN-LAYER CHROMATOGRAPHY AND MASS-SPECTROMETRY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ENSING, JG; DEZEEUW, RA

    By means of thin-layer chromatography, an unidentified alkaloidal fraction was observed in illicit cocaine. Because of its persisting presence, efforts were undertaken to isolate and identify this fraction. Various analytical techniques showed complex results, finally pointing to the possibility of

  18. Estimating the coverage of a targeted mobile tuberculosis screening programme among illicit drug users and homeless persons with truncated models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N.A.H. van Hest; G. de Vries (Gerard); F. Smit (Filip); A.D. Grant; J.H. Richardus (Jan Hendrik)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractTruncated models are indirect methods to estimate the size of a hidden population which, in contrast to the capture–recapture method, can be used on a single information source. We estimated the coverage of a tuberculosis screening programme among illicit drug users and homeless persons

  19. Externalizing Behaviors and Cigarette Smoking as Predictors for Use of Illicit Drugs: A Longitudinal Study Among Finnish Adolescent Twins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korhonen, T.; Levälahti, E.; Dick, D.M.; Pulkkinen, L.; Rose, R.J.; Kaprio, J.; Huizink, A.C.

    2010-01-01

    We examined whether externalizing problem behaviors (hyperactivity-impulsivity, aggressiveness, and inattention) predict illicit drug use independently, or whether their associations with drug use are mediated through cigarette smoking. We used a prospective longitudinal design within the FinnTwin12

  20. Illicit injections in bodybuilders: a clinicopathological study of 11 cases in 9 patients with a spectrum of histological reaction patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AbdullGaffar, Badr

    2014-12-01

    The practice of self-injection of anabolic steroids (AS) in bodybuilders is common. AS are not the only materials used by bodybuilders for muscle augmentation or image enhancement. Other materials, for example, plant oils, silicon, Vaseline, and paraffin are also injected either in a pure form or mixed with AS. Muscle bulking is the main aim. However, bodybuilders undergo illicit injections for cosmetic, therapeutic, and sexual purposes. Even though the practice of unsupervised injection is probably common in the sports community, site-specific complications are underreported in the medical literature and mostly limited to case reports. Complications can be clinically and pathologically challenging because some can be confused with nonneoplastic and, more important, with neoplastic lesions. Bodybuilders are reluctant to disclose information because of stigma and legal issues. This study attempts to correlate the clinical manifestations and histomorphological features of different injected materials used for different purposes by bodybuilders in our region. A series of 11 cases out of 9 male bodybuilders was studied. A variety of clinical presentations and histological tissue reactions was identified, with some overlapping features between some cases. We identified 5 basic tissue reaction patterns depending on the injected materials, site, and duration of injection. Certain histological features provide useful hints in the absence of prior knowledge of injection history. However, in other cases, a retrospective enquiry by clinicians is warranted to avoid pitfalls. The medical and sports community should be aware of these injection-site complications. Bodybuilders should be discouraged from this practice by implementing appropriate educational and legislative measures.

  1. Risk Factors for Illicit Anabolic-Androgenic Steroid Use in Male Weightlifters: A Cross-Sectional Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, Harrison G.; Kanayama, Gen; Hudson, James I.

    2011-01-01

    Background Illicit anabolic-androgenic steroid (AAS) abuse, though an important public health problem, remains inadequately studied. Almost all AAS abusers are male and lift weights, but the risk factors for AAS use among male weightlifters remain poorly understood. Methods We recruited 233 experienced male weightlifters, of whom 102 (44%) reported lifetime AAS use, and assessed their childhood and adolescent attributes retrospectively using structured clinical interviews and computerized questionnaires. This “cross-sectional cohort” approach—a design that we have formally presented in the recent methodological literature—utilizes a study cohort, not selected for outcomes of interest, and assesses exposures and outcomes retrospectively. We hypothesized that conduct disorder and body-image concerns would be major risk factors for subsequent AAS use among male weightlifters. Results Within our study population, many attributes showed little association with AAS use, but conduct disorder and body-image concerns showed strong associations. For individuals with prior conduct disorder vs. those without, the hazard ratio [95% confidence interval] for subsequent AAS use was 2.2 [1.5, 3.4]. For individuals in the middle vs. lowest tertile of scores on a retrospective adolescent “muscle-dysmorphia” scale, the hazard ratio was 1.5 [0.84, 2.6]; for the highest vs. lowest tertile, the hazard ratio was 3.3 [2.0, 5.3]; and for the linear trend of hazard ratios, P weightlifters. Thus, assessment of these attributes may help to identify individuals most likely to require interventions to discourage this form of substance abuse. PMID:21839424

  2. Specific effects of ecstasy and other illicit drugs on cognition in poly-substance users

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T. Schilt; M.M.L. de Win; G. Jager; M.W. Koeter; N.F. Ramsey; B. Schmand; W. van den Brink

    2008-01-01

    Background. A large number of studies, reviews and meta-analyses have reported cognitive deficits in ecstasy users. However most ecstasy users are polydrug users, and therefore it cannot be excluded that these deficits are (partly) the result of drugs other than ecstasy. The current study, part of t

  3. Process Design Report for Wood Feedstock: Lignocellulosic Biomass to Ethanol Process Desing and Economics Utilizing Co-Current Dilute Acid Prehydrolysis and Enzymatic Hydrolysis Current and Futuristic Scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wooley, Robert [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Ruth, Mark [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Sheehan, John [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Ibsen, Kelly [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Majdeski, Henry [Delta-T Corporation, Lexington, KY (United States); Galves, Adrian [Delta-T Corporation, Lexington, KY (United States)

    1999-07-01

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has undertaken a complete review and update of the process design and economic model for the biomass-to-ethanol process based on co-current dilute acid prehydrolysis, along with simultaneous saccharification (enzymatic) and co-fermentation. The process design includes the core technologies being researched by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE): prehydrolysis, simultaneous saccharification and co-fermentation, and cellulase enzyme production.

  4. Taxation and Illicit Trade Protocol, “Lethal weapons” against Tobacco Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Lequet

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Tobacco taxation is the most effective way to reduce smoking prevalence. Without tax increase tobacco policy, the other measures of tobacco control are weakened. While the EU Directive of 2011 on tobacco taxation is being evaluated, it is important to recall issues of this tobacco control tool. Furthermore, it is urgent to dismantle some against-truths dealt out by tobacco industry, like the supposedly postponing consumption on an illegal market which would then expanding, negating the reduction of tobacco consumption. On this important topic, the WHO Illicit Trade Protocol introduces comprehensive set of measures ranging from control supply chain, strengthening penalties and technical and legal cooperation. The EU ratification is essential.

  5. Secondary electrospray ionization ion mobility spectrometry/mass spectrometry of illicit drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, C; Siems, W F; Hill, H H

    2000-01-15

    A secondary electrospray ionization (SESI) method was developed as a nonradioactive ionization source for ion mobility spectrometry (IMS). This SESI method relied on the gas-phase interaction between charged particles created by electrospray ionization (ESI) and neutral gaseous sample molecules. Mass spectrometry (MS) was used as the detection method after ion mobility separation for ion identification. Preliminary investigations focussed on understanding the ionization process of SESI. The performance of ESI-IMS and SESI-IMS for illicit drug detection was evaluated by determining the analytical figures of merit. In general, SESI had a higher ionization efficiency for small volatile molecules compared with the electrospray method. The potential of developing a universal interface for both GC- and LC-MS with an addition stage of mobility separation was demonstrated.

  6. Modelling Illicit Drug Fate in Sewers for Wastewater-Based Epidemiology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramin, Pedram

    . After transport in sewers, these chemicals enter wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). Monitoring campaigns are normally performed at WWTP influent to collect representative samples. Following quantitative chemical analysis, measured drug loads are used to estimate population-normalized parent drug......, are subject to physical, chemical or biological processes in sewers (fate processes). The occurrence of these processes may lead to significant change of drug loads at WWTP influent compared to source release points. Therefore, not accounting for these variations may negatively affect drug use estimates....... Sewer systems can be considered as biological reactors, in which the concentration of organic chemicals present in wastewater can be impacted by in-sewer processes during hydraulic residence time. Illicit drug biomarkers, as trace organic chemicals in the range of nanograms to micrograms per liter...

  7. Quantitative analysis of terahertz spectra for illicit drugs using adaptive-range micro-genetic algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi; Ma, Yong; Lu, Zheng; Peng, Bei; Chen, Qin

    2011-08-01

    In the field of anti-illicit drug applications, many suspicious mixture samples might consist of various drug components—for example, a mixture of methamphetamine, heroin, and amoxicillin—which makes spectral identification very difficult. A terahertz spectroscopic quantitative analysis method using an adaptive range micro-genetic algorithm with a variable internal population (ARVIPɛμGA) has been proposed. Five mixture cases are discussed using ARVIPɛμGA driven quantitative terahertz spectroscopic analysis in this paper. The devised simulation results show agreement with the previous experimental results, which suggested that the proposed technique has potential applications for terahertz spectral identifications of drug mixture components. The results show agreement with the results obtained using other experimental and numerical techniques.

  8. Choosing between GC FTIR and GC MS spectra for an efficient intelligent identification of illicit amphetamines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosav, S.; Dinica, R.; Praisler, M.

    2008-09-01

    In this paper we are presenting a comparative analysis between several expert systems built for the identification of illicit amphetamines based on their GC-FTIR and GC-MS spectra. The systems were built using Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs), and are dedicated to the recognition of amphetamines. Structure-activity relationships are incorporated into the knowledge base, allowing the systems to identify the amphetamines according to their toxicological activity (stimulant or hallucinogenic). The results show that GC-FTIR data are much more relevant for the efficiency of the expert systems, probably due to the fact that these spectra constitute a "fingerprint" of the molecular structures. We are also presenting a spectroscopic analysis in order to evaluate the relevance of each type of input variable (absorption and abundance) on which the recognition of an unknown sample is based.

  9. Variation in the THC content in illicitly imported Cannabis products--Part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, P B; Gough, T A; Johncock, S I; Taylor, B J; Wyles, L T

    1982-01-01

    The tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) contents of 220 samples of fresh illicit Cannabis products seized on entry into the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland over the period 1979-1981 have been determined by gas chromatography. During that period there was a general increase in the quality of both cannabis and cannabis resin, but with wide variations in THC contents both within and between countries. Some very high quality samples of cannabis, cannabis resin and cannabis oil from the Indian sub-continent have been analysed. There have been considerable changes in the number of fresh samples from several countries, compared with the previous survey. Fresh cannabis oil samples were very rare during the period covered by this survey.

  10. Classification of illicit heroin by UPLC-Q-TOF analysis of acidic and neutral manufacturing impurities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Cuimei; Hua, Zhendong; Bai, Yanping

    2015-12-01

    The illicit manufacture of heroin results in the formation of trace levels of acidic and neutral manufacturing impurities that provide valuable information about the manufacturing process used. In this work, a new ultra performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole-time of flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q-TOF) method; that features high resolution, mass accuracy and sensitivity for profiling neutral and acidic heroin manufacturing impurities was developed. After the UPLC-Q-TOF analysis, the retention times and m/z data pairs of acidic and neutral manufacturing impurities were detected, and 19 peaks were found to be evidently different between heroin samples from "Golden Triangle" and "Golden Crescent". Based on the data set of these 19 impurities in 150 authentic heroin samples, classification of heroin geographic origins was successfully achieved utilizing partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA). By analyzing another data set of 267 authentic heroin samples, the developed discrimiant model was validated and proved to be accurate and reliable.

  11. A methodology for illicit heroin seizures comparison in a drug intelligence perspective using large databases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esseiva, P; Dujourdy, L; Anglada, F; Taroni, F; Margot, P

    2003-03-27

    To characterise links between different illicit drugs chemical profiles, various distance or correlation measurements are available.Different comparison methods have been tested and a method based on a correlation coefficient using a square cosine function was chosen to compare heroin chemical profiles. Its functioning and graphical representation are described. An assessment of the number of false positives is calculated and lead to a negligible number.Moreover, it emerges from the studies that possible variations in impurity peak areas subject to possible degradations do not influence the C correlation value nor question the already established links. This solid, reliable and simple method appears therefore suitable for heroin samples comparison, links profiling and routine use.

  12. Fenton-like reaction: a possible way to efficiently remove illicit drugs and pharmaceuticals from wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackuľak, Tomáš; Mosný, Michal; Grabic, Roman; Golovko, Oksana; Koba, Olga; Birošová, Lucia

    2015-03-01

    We analyzed 13 psychoactive pharmaceuticals, illicit drugs and their metabolites in wastewater treatment plant influent and effluent and the possibility of their degradation by biological and chemical processes. Tramadol (413-853 ng/L) and methamphetamine (460-682 ng/L) were the most concentrated compounds in the wastewater in winter and summer, respectively. A significant decrease in the concentration of tramadol in wastewater was measured during the summer. The lowest efficiency was observed for tramadol, venlafaxine, citalopram and oxazepam (∼ 10%) and the highest efficiency was observed for amphetamine and THC-COOH (∼ 80%). The efficiency of compound degradation via the Fenton reaction, a modified Fenton reaction and different degradation (by algae, wood-rotting fungi and enzymes at influent versus effluent) was determined. The Fenton reaction and its modification were efficient at eliminating these substances in comparison with the tested biological processes.

  13. The Maillard reaction--illicite (bio)chemistry in tissues and food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert, L; Robert, A-M; Labat-Robert, J

    2011-12-01

    We present a review of our early work on the Maillard reaction, at the interface of food chemistry and tissue biochemistry, as well as the reinterpretation of our early findings in the light of recent advances in the chemistry of the involved reactions. These concern specifically the role of lower aldehydes, produced during the glycolytic pathways and especially acetaldehyde. We also review some of our recent findings on the cytotoxic and genotoxic aspect of these "illicit" organic reactions, taking place in tissues (and also in food products) besides the genetically "programmed" metabolic pathways. Some recent results in organic-pharmaceutical chemistry confirm the potential importance of the reviewed reactions both in food chemistry and in tissues as well as the pathological importance of reactions taking place in tissues.

  14. Annual Report to the Bonneville Power Administration, Reporting Period: April 2008 - February 2009 [re: "Survival and Growth in the Columbia River Plume and north California Current"].

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Northwest Fisheries Science Center, NOAA Fisheries; Cooperative Institute for Marine Resources Studies, Oregon State University; OGI School of Science & Engineering, Oregon Health Sciences University.

    2009-07-17

    We have made substantial progress toward our objectives outlined in our BPA supported proposal entitled 'Columbia River Basin Juvenile Salmonids: Survival and Growth in the Columbia River Plume and northern California Current' which we report on herein. During 2008, we were able to successfully conduct 3 mesoscale cruises. We also were able to conduct 7 biweekly predator cruises, along with substantial shore-based visual observations of seabirds. Detailed results of the mesoscale cruises are available in the Cruise Reports and summarized in the next section. We have taken a proactive approach to getting the results of our research to fisheries managers and the general public. We have begun to make annual predictions based on ocean conditions of the relative survival of juvenile coho and Chinook salmon well before they return as adults. This is based on both biological and physical indicators that we measure during our surveys or collect from outside data sources. Examples of our predictions for 2009 and 2010 are available on the following web site: http://www.nwfsc.noaa.gov/research/divisions/fed/oeip/a-ecinhome.cfm.

  15. Epidemiological aspects of illicit psychoactive substance dependents the interned in psychiatric institution of Criciúma-SC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zunei Votri

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The research is about a descriptive study of quantitative boarding, developed in October of 2008 in the Psychiatric Hospital of the city of Criciúma-SC, with the objective to identify to the aspects epidemiologists of the illicit psychoactive substance dependents. The specific objectives of the study had been: to identify illicit psychoactive substance dependents interned through handbooks of the institution; to inquire the number of psychiatric readmissions in the studied population; to identify the types of more common illicit psychoactive substances, To identify to aspects epidemiologists of the psychoactive substance dependents from dependent 0 variable: sex, age, age group, level of instruction, race, civil state, number of children, religion, profession and origin; e changeable independent: type of used substance, time of use, number of internments and clinical patology associates. The interest for the research subject appeared from the comment in field of work for presenting great number of patients interned for abuse or dependence of psychoactive substances and its social repercussion. 193 handbooks had been inquired, being that 13 had been identified with illicit psychoactive substance diagnosis in the period of the collection of data, having the prevalence in the masculine sex (9, of the white race (11, the majority single (7, with a young age group, on average 35 years. The majority interned involuntarily (8 and the number of readmissions was equivalent 50% of patients and others 50% having its first internment. How much to the types of used illicit psychoactive substances more, the most cited they had been marijuana (20%, crack (17% and cocaine (17%. The half of the sample almost possess clinical illnesses associates, as cardiopathy, diabetes, hepatitis C, arterial hypertension and HIV (Virus of the Immunodeficiency Human being. From these results one sees it importance of clarification and organization of preventive programs in

  16. Occurrence of illicit drugs and selected pharmaceuticals in Slovak municipal wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodík, Igor; Mackuľak, Tomáš; Fáberová, Milota; Ivanová, Lucia

    2016-10-01

    We analyzed illicit drugs and their metabolites and pharmaceuticals in wastewater from 15 selected wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in Slovakia. Our results indicate that methamphetamine is one of the most commonly used illegal drugs in all the regions of Slovakia monitored in this study. Compared with the international results, the Slovak cities of Dunajská Streda (479 mg/day/1000inh) and Trnava (354 mg/day/1000inh) are among the cities with the largest numbers of methamphetamine users in Europe. These results indicate an increase in the incidence of drugs in big cities and in the satellite cities (Trnava and Dunajská Streda) near Bratislava. These results also confirm the police statistics about production and use of illicit drugs in Slovakia. The highest specific loads of cocaine were found in Bratislava (112 mg/day/1000inh), followed by Petržalka (74 mg/day/1000inh). Compared with other European cities, Bratislava and the other Slovak cities in this study have a relatively low number of COC consumers. The ecstasy load in wastewater from larger cities also significantly increased over the weekend and during music festivals. The highest 2-year mean concentrations of THC-COOH, a cannabis biomarker, were observed in the sewage from BA-Petržalka and BA-Central (191 and 171 ng/L, respectively). A first complex monitoring of pharmaceuticals in all therapeutic groups was also realized in selected Slovak WWTPs. Occurrence of wide spectrum of pharmaceuticals with very high concentrations as well as consumptions were observed mainly in small Slovak cities. Considering all 120 monitored pharmaceuticals, Valsartan had the highest concentrations: 6000 ng/L, on average.

  17. Mapping of Health Communication and Education Strategies Addressing the Public Health Dangers of Illicit Online Pharmacies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Allison C; Mackey, Tim K; Attaran, Amir; Liang, Bryan A

    2016-01-01

    Illicit online pharmacies are a growing global public health concern. Stakeholders have started to engage in health promotion activities to educate the public, yet their scope and impact has not been examined. We wished to identify health promotion activities focused on consumer awareness regarding the risks of illicit online pharmacies. Organizations engaged on the issue were first identified using a set of engagement criteria. We then reviewed these organizations for health promotion programs, educational components, public service announcements, and social media engagement. Our review identified 13 organizations across a wide spectrum of stakeholders. Of these organizations, 69.2% (n = 9) had at least one type of health promotion activity targeting consumers. Although the vast majority of these organizations were active on Facebook or Twitter, many did not have dedicated content regarding online pharmacies (Facebook: 45.5%, Twitter: 58.3%). An online survey administered to 6 respondents employed by organizations identified in this study found that all organizations had dedicated programs on the issue, but only half had media planning strategies in place to measure the effectiveness of their programs. Overall, our results indicate that though some organizations are actively engaged on the issue, communication and education initiatives have had questionable effectiveness in reaching the public. We note that only a few organizations offered comprehensive and dedicated content to raise awareness on the issue and were effective in social media communications. In response, more robust collaborative efforts between stakeholders are needed to educate and protect the consumer about this public health and patient safety danger.

  18. The persistence of illicit drug smoke residues and their recovery from common household surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitter, Julie L

    2017-04-01

    Third-hand smoke is the residue remaining on surfaces during smoking events. It is composed of particles and vapours that form upon heating. The phrase 'third-hand smoke' is primarily used to describe nicotine and other chemicals from cigarettes, but any residues formed from the smoking of various substances could be classified similarly. There has been an increasing body of research on third-hand smoke from cigarettes in the last decade, but little has been done in regards to understanding the persistence of particles and vapours from illicit drugs. In this work, small samples of cocaine and methamphetamine were volatilized to produce an illicit drug smoke that was collected onto various surface materials and left exposed to ambient conditions over 672 h (four weeks). Chemical analyses by electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry of residues on silicon, plastic, laminate, and artificial leather surfaces indicated a rapid decrease in recovery of the parent molecule, with varied formation of decomposition products over the first 168 h of exposure. Measurable amounts of the parent molecule were still present after 672 h, exhibiting a strong persistence of these drugs on various household materials. This is important in a forensic science context, as third-hand smoke residues could provide a viable source of trace evidence previously not utilized. Published 2016. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA. Published 2016. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  19. An EIAV field isolate reveals much higher levels of subtype variability than currently reported for the equine lentivirus family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Baoshan

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV, a lentivirus that infects horses, has been utilized as an animal model for the study of HIV. Furthermore, the disease associated with the equine lentivirus poses a significant challenge to veterinary medicine around the world. As with all lentiviruses, EIAV has been shown to have a high propensity for genomic sequence and antigenic variation, especially in its envelope (Env proteins. Recent studies have demonstrated Env variation to be a major determinant of vaccine efficacy, emphasizing the importance of defining natural variation among field isolates of EIAV. To date, however, published EIAV sequences have been reported only for cell-adapted strains of virus, predominantly derived from a single primary virus isolate, EIAVWyoming (EIAVWY. Results We present here the first characterization of the Env protein of a natural primary isolate from Pennsylvania (EIAVPA since the widely utilized and referenced EIAVWY strain. The data demonstrated that the level of EIAVPA Env amino acid sequence variation, approximately 40% as compared to EIAVWY, is much greater than current perceptions or published reports of natural EIAV variation between field isolates. This variation did not appear to give rise to changes in the predicted secondary structure of the proteins. While the EIAVPA Env was serologically cross reactive with the Env proteins of the cell-adapted reference strain, EIAVPV (derivative of EIAVWY, the two variant Envs were shown to lack any cross neutralization by immune serum from horses infected with the respective virus strains. Conclusion Taking into account the significance of serum neutralization to universal vaccine efficacy, these findings are crucial considerations towards successful EIAV vaccine development and the potential inclusion of field isolate Envs in vaccine candidates.

  20. Canine rangeliosis due to Rangelia vitalii: from first report in Brazil in 1910 to current day - a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    França, Raqueli T; Da Silva, Aleksandro S; Loretti, Alexandre P; Mazzanti, Cinthia M; Lopes, Sonia T A

    2014-09-01

    Canine rangeliosis (popular names: "nambi-uvú", i.e. ``bleeding ears''; "peste de sangue", i.e. ``bleeding plague''; and "febre amarela dos cães", i.e. ``yellow fever of dogs'') is a tick-borne haemolytic and haemorrhagic disease caused by the protozoan parasite Rangelia vitalii which infects erythrocytes, leukocytes, and endothelial cells of blood capillaries. Rangelia vitalii was first reported as a novel piroplasm of dogs in 1910 in Brazil, a discovery that was met with skepticism at that time. Canine rangeliosis has been diagnosed in domestic dogs not only in Brazil but also in other South American countries (Argentina and Uruguay). Rangelia vitalii infection has also been found incidentally in Brazil in wild dogs (Cerdocyon thous, the crab-eating fox). Despite the fact that researchers in the early 1900s suggested that R. vitalii was a hitherto unidentified piroplasm that would be transmitted by the tick Amblyomma aureolatum, it was not until 2012 that these hypotheses were actually confirmed by PCR and transmission studies. Molecular studies have shown that R. vitalii is related to the Babesia sensu strictu clade, but genetically different from other morphologically similar species of Babesia that infect dogs. Another difference between Babesia spp. and R. vitalii is the ability of R. vitalii to invade endothelial cells, erythrocytes, and leukocytes. Experimental infection in dogs has successfully reproduced the clinical picture and pathology of the natural disease. In this article, epidemiology, clinical signs, laboratory findings, pathogenetic mechanisms including oxidative stress and immune response, necropsy findings, microscopic lesions, diagnosis, and treatment of canine rangeliosis are reviewed. What is currently known about this protozoal disease since its first report over a century ago is presented herein.

  1. [The current view of the diagnosis and management of amebiasis in the light of the authors own case reports].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voldřich, M; Novotný, P; Tyll, T; Rudiš, J; Belšan, T; Hedlová, D; Stefanová, M

    2014-09-01

    This comprehensive review is focused on a serious protozoan disease, amebiasis. This disease is caused by the human parasite Entamoeba histolytica (E. histolytica), the second leading cause of mortality due to protozoan disease worldwide (the leading cause is malaria). The incidence of amebiasis in the Czech Republic is very low, but it may be underreported as the disease often escapes diagnosis. Intestinal colonisation by E. histolytica may be asymptomatic. The clinical picture ranges from diarrhea to colitis or fulminant colitis when the parasite progresses to the trophozoite stage. Secondary dissemination in the blood or lymph system may induce systemic signs of the disease. Liver abscess is the most common extraintestinal form of amebiasis. The diagnosis of intestinal amebiasis is based on the clinical picture and parasitological examination of the stool. To diagnose extraintestinal amebiasis, serology tests are used to detect antibodies in the blood. Recently, molecular methods have been increasingly used for the detection of the nucleic acids of the pathogen in biological specimens. The first line therapy for amebiasis are 5-nitroimidazole drugs, currently available in the Czech Republic. However, surgical intervention should also be considered in patients with a severe course of the disease. Included in the review are the case reports of patients with severe concomitant intestinal and extraintestinal amebiasis.

  2. Prefronto-Cerebellar Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation Improves Sleep Quality in Euthymic Bipolar Patients: A Brief Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amedeo Minichino

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Sleep problems are common in bipolar disorder (BD and may persist during the euthymic phase of the disease. The aim of the study was to improve sleep quality of euthymic BD patients through the administration of prefronto-cerebellar transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS. Methods. 25 euthymic outpatients with a diagnosis of BD Type I or II have been enrolled in the study. tDCS montage was as follows: cathode on the right cerebellar cortex and anode over the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC; the intensity of stimulation was set at 2 mA and delivered for 20 min/die for 3 consecutive weeks. The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI was used to assess sleep quality at baseline and after the tDCS treatment. Results. PSQI total score and all PSQI subdomains, with the exception of “sleep medication,” significantly improved after treatment. Discussion. This is the first study where a positive effect of tDCS on the quality of sleep in euthymic BD patients has been reported. As both prefrontal cortex and cerebellum may play a role in regulating sleep processes, concomitant cathodal (inhibitory stimulation of cerebellum and anodal (excitatory stimulation of DLPFC may have the potential to modulate prefrontal-thalamic-cerebellar circuits leading to improvements of sleep quality.

  3. Harm reduction services as a point-of-entry to and source of end-of-life care and support for homeless and marginally housed persons who use alcohol and/or illicit drugs: a qualitative analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McNeil Ryan

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Homeless and marginally housed persons who use alcohol and/or illicit drugs often have end-of-life care needs that go unmet due to barriers that they face to accessing end-of-life care services. Many homeless and marginally housed persons who use these substances must therefore rely upon alternate sources of end-of-life care and support. This article explores the role of harm reduction services in end-of-life care services delivery to homeless and marginally housed persons who use alcohol and/or illicit drugs. Methods A qualitative case study design was used to explore end-of-life care services delivery to homeless and marginally housed persons in six Canadian cities. A key objective was to explore the role of harm reduction services. 54 health and social services professionals participated in semi-structured qualitative interviews. All participants reported that they provided care and support to this population at end-of-life. Results Harm reduction services (e.g., syringe exchange programs, managed alcohol programs, etc. were identified as a critical point-of-entry to and source of end-of-life care and support for homeless and marginally housed persons who use alcohol and/or illicit drugs. Where possible, harm reduction services facilitated referrals to end-of-life care services for this population. Harm reduction services also provided end-of-life care and support when members of this population were unable or unwilling to access end-of-life care services, thereby improving quality-of-life and increasing self-determination regarding place-of-death. Conclusions While partnerships between harm reduction programs and end-of-life care services are identified as one way to improve access, it is noted that more comprehensive harm reduction services might be needed in end-of-life care settings if they are to engage this underserved population.

  4. 浅论我国现行财务报告的改进%Improvement of the Current Financial Reports in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曲莉

    2015-01-01

    财务报告作为会计信息的一部分,与经济发展有着密切的联系。本文通过分析我国现行的财务报告,对现行财务报告提出了改进建议。%As the part of the accounting information, financial reports are closely related to the economic development. This paper analyzes the current financial reports in China and puts forward the improvement suggestion for the current financial reports.

  5. Financing and current capacity for REDD+ readiness and monitoring, measurement, reporting and verification in the Congo Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maniatis, Danae; Gaugris, Jérôme; Mollicone, Danilo; Scriven, Joel; Corblin, Alexis; Ndikumagenge, Cleto; Aquino, André; Crete, Philippe; Sanz-Sanchez, Maria-José

    2013-01-01

    This paper provides the first critical analysis of the financing and current capacity for REDD+ readiness in the Congo Basin, with a particular focus on the REDD+ component of national forest monitoring and measurement, reporting and verification (M&MRV). We focus on three areas of analysis: (i) general financing for REDD+ readiness especially M&MRV; (ii) capacity and information for REDD+ implementation and M&MRV; (iii) prospects and challenges for REDD+ and M&MRV readiness in terms of financing and capacity. For the first area of analysis, a REDD+ and M&MRV readiness financing database was created based on the information from the REDD+ voluntary database and Internet searches. For the second area of analysis, a qualitative approach to data collection was adopted (semi-structured interviews with key stakeholders, surveys and observations). All 10 countries were visited between 2010 and 2012. We find that: (i) a significant amount of REDD+ financing flows into the Congo Basin (±US$550 million or almost half of the REDD+ financing for the African continent); (ii) across countries, there is an important disequilibrium in terms of REDD+ and M&MRV readiness financing, political engagement, comprehension and capacity, which also appears to be a key barrier to countries receiving equal resources; (iii) most financing appears to go to smaller scale (subnational) REDD+ projects; (iv) four distinct country groups in terms of REDD+ readiness and M&MRV status are identified; and (v) the Congo Basin has a distinct opportunity to have a specific REDD+ financing window for large-scale and more targeted national REDD+ programmes through a specific fund for the region. PMID:23878337

  6. Financing and current capacity for REDD+ readiness and monitoring, measurement, reporting and verification in the Congo Basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maniatis, Danae; Gaugris, Jérôme; Mollicone, Danilo; Scriven, Joel; Corblin, Alexis; Ndikumagenge, Cleto; Aquino, André; Crete, Philippe; Sanz-Sanchez, Maria-José

    2013-01-01

    This paper provides the first critical analysis of the financing and current capacity for REDD+ readiness in the Congo Basin, with a particular focus on the REDD+ component of national forest monitoring and measurement, reporting and verification (M&MRV). We focus on three areas of analysis: (i) general financing for REDD+ readiness especially M&MRV; (ii) capacity and information for REDD+ implementation and M&MRV; (iii) prospects and challenges for REDD+ and M&MRV readiness in terms of financing and capacity. For the first area of analysis, a REDD+ and M&MRV readiness financing database was created based on the information from the REDD+ voluntary database and Internet searches. For the second area of analysis, a qualitative approach to data collection was adopted (semi-structured interviews with key stakeholders, surveys and observations). All 10 countries were visited between 2010 and 2012. We find that: (i) a significant amount of REDD+ financing flows into the Congo Basin (±US$550 million or almost half of the REDD+ financing for the African continent); (ii) across countries, there is an important disequilibrium in terms of REDD+ and M&MRV readiness financing, political engagement, comprehension and capacity, which also appears to be a key barrier to countries receiving equal resources; (iii) most financing appears to go to smaller scale (subnational) REDD+ projects; (iv) four distinct country groups in terms of REDD+ readiness and M&MRV status are identified; and (v) the Congo Basin has a distinct opportunity to have a specific REDD+ financing window for large-scale and more targeted national REDD+ programmes through a specific fund for the region.

  7. Yulu Shequ - a unique rehabilitation program for illicit drug users in Kaiyuan in southwest China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gericke Christian A

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction In China, illicit drug use and addiction have been rapidly increasing over the last two decades. Traditional compulsory rehabilitation models in China are widely considered ineffective. Recently, a new model of drug user rehabilitation called the 'Yulu Shequ Program' has gained a national reputation for successful rehabilitation in the city of Kaiyuan in southwest China. The aim of this study was to describe this program to the international public and to assess the program's effectiveness in terms of relapse rates and costs to participants and public payers. Case description The Yulu Shequ program provides up to one hundred participants at any point in time with the opportunity to live and work in a purpose-built, drug-free community after completing compulsory rehabilitation. The length of stay is not limited. Community members receive medical and psychological treatment and have the option to participate in social activities and highly valued job skills training. The program has very strict policies to prevent illicit drugs entering the community. Evaluation The evaluation was carried out through 1 a review of literature, official documents and websites in Chinese language describing the program and 2 an on-site visit and conduct of semi-structured interviews with key staff members of the Yulu Shequ program. The relapse rate in 2007 was 60% compared to 96% in the compulsory program. Annual costs to public payers of CNY4800 (US$700 were largely offset by income earned through on-site labour by participants totalling CNY4600 (US$670. Conclusions The Yulu Shequ program is an interesting model for drug rehabilitation that could lead the way for a new Chinese national policy away from compulsory rehabilitation towards a more collaborative and effective approach. Caution is needed when interpreting relapse rates as Yulu Shequ participants need to have completed compulsory rehabilitation before entering the program. A more

  8. [Student's use of illicit drugs: a survey in a preventive health service].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morvan, Y; Rouvier, J; Olié, J-P; Lôo, H; Krebs, M-O

    2009-12-01

    The use of illicit drugs by students and the possible psychological repercussions in this population of young adults is an important public health issue. While some data in the literature suggest a relationship between cannabis and the occurrence of mental health disorders, and in particular psychotic illnesses, epidemiologic surveys have shown that cannabis is the most consumed illicit drug in France. To carry out a quantitative and qualitative epidemiological investigation of substance use within a student population seen during their mandatory preventive health visit at the University medical facility. Students were asked to take part in an investigation of their substance consumption and their individual experiences with cannabis in particular. Personality autoquestionnaires were performed and the psychotomimetic effects of cannabis were investigated with substance use within a student population seen during their mandatory preventive health visit at the University medical facility. A total of 3,807 students took part in the survey with a response rate of approximately 50%. Preliminary results relating to a subsample of this study are presented here (n = 880, mean age 20 years, 65% women). 44% of the students consumed cannabis at least once in their life. The prevalence of regular consumption in students (at least once a week) was of 18%, 11% had periods of daily or close to daily consumptions, and 13% used cannabis in the last month. For each of the drugs cocaine, ecstasy (MDMA), and mushrooms (psilocybin) the prevalence of experimentation (at least once) was 5% for cocaine, 4% for ecstasy and mushrooms, and for LSD the rate was 1,5%. Other evaluated substances had a prevalence of consumption lower than 1%. For the first cannabis consumptions, a majority of students state to felt "pleasant" effects: relaxation (71%) and euphoria (53%). 13% state to have felt effects of anxiety or sadness. 25% admit having had difficulties of expression, 24% memory deficits, 35

  9. Prevalence of HCV infection and associated factors among illicit drug users in Breves, State of Pará, northern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzy Danielly Barbosa Pacheco

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Illicit drug users (DUs are vulnerable to hepatitis C virus (HCV infection. The shared use of illicit drugs is the main method of HCV transmission. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in Breves, in northern Brazil. We surveyed 187 DUs to determine the prevalence of and factors associated with HCV infection. Results: The prevalence of anti-HCV antibodies was 36.9%, and the prevalence of hepatitis C virus-ribonucleic acid (HCV-RNA was 31%. Hepatitis C virus infection was associated with tattoos, intravenous drug use, shared use of equipment for drug use, drug use for longer than 3 years, and daily drug use. Conclusions: Strategies for preventing and controlling HCV transmission should be implemented among DUs.

  10. Neural network application for illicit substances identification; Aplicacao de redes neurais para a identificacao de substancias ilicitas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nunes, Wallace V.; Silva, Ademir X. da; Crispim, Verginia R.; Schirru, Roberto [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia. Programa de Engenharia Nuclear

    2000-07-01

    Thermal neutron activation analysis is based on neutron capture prompt gamma-ray analysis and has been used in wide variety of fields, for examples, for inspection of checked airline baggage and for detection of buried land mines. In all of these applications, the detected {gamma}-ray intensities from the elements present are used to estimate their concentrations. A study about application using a trained neutral network is presented to determine the presence of illicit substances, such as explosives and drugs, carried out in the luggages. The illicit substances emit characteristic detected {gamma}-ray which are the fingerprint of each isotope. The fingerprint data-base of the gamma-ray spectrum of substances is obtained via Monte Carlo N-Particle Transport code, MCNP, version 4B. It was possible to train the neural network to determine the presence of explosives and narcotics even hidden by several materials. (author)

  11. Eating on the Edge. A study focusing on dietary habits and nutritional status among illicit drug addicts in Oslo, Norway

    OpenAIRE

    Sæland, Mone Eli

    2014-01-01

    The use of illicit drugs is initially about entering an elevated state of joy, relief and power that not is accessible in other ways. Unfortunately, drug abuse also has various unintended and undesirable consequences, including withdrawal symptoms, hyperactivity, impulsivity, compulsion and loss of control with consequential relapse. Furthermore, it often leads to degrading activities such as prostitution and criminal conduct, increased susceptibility to acute and chronic infections, drug ove...

  12. Control of a chemical precursor used in the illicit manufacture of fentanyl as a List I chemical. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-07-25

    The Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) is finalizing the Interim Rule with Request for Comment published in the Federal Register on April 23, 2007. The Interim Rule controlled the chemical N-phenethyl-4- piperidone (NPP) as a List I chemical under the Controlled Substances Act. Clandestine laboratories are using this chemical to illicitly manufacture the schedule II controlled substance fentanyl. No comments to the Interim Rule were received. This Final Rule finalizes the regulations without change.

  13. Illicit and prescription drug problems among urban Aboriginal adults in Canada: the role of traditional culture in protection and resilience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currie, Cheryl L; Wild, T Cameron; Schopflocher, Donald P; Laing, Lory; Veugelers, Paul

    2013-07-01

    Illicit and prescription drug use disorders are two to four times more prevalent among Aboriginal peoples in North America than the general population. Research suggests Aboriginal cultural participation may be protective against substance use problems in rural and remote Aboriginal communities. As Aboriginal peoples continue to urbanize rapidly around the globe, the role traditional Aboriginal beliefs and practices may play in reducing or even preventing substance use problems in cities is becoming increasingly relevant, and is the focus of the present study. Mainstream acculturation was also examined. Data were collected via in-person surveys with a community-based sample of Aboriginal adults living in a mid-sized city in western Canada (N = 381) in 2010. Associations were analysed using two sets of bootstrapped linear regression models adjusted for confounders with continuous illicit and prescription drug problem scores as outcomes. Psychological mechanisms that may explain why traditional culture is protective for Aboriginal peoples were examined using the cross-products of coefficients mediation method. The extent to which culture served as a resilience factor was examined via interaction testing. Results indicate Aboriginal enculturation was a protective factor associated with reduced 12-month illicit drug problems and 12-month prescription drug problems among Aboriginal adults in an urban setting. Increased self-esteem partially explained why cultural participation was protective. Cultural participation also promoted resilience by reducing the effects of high school incompletion on drug problems. In contrast, mainstream acculturation was not associated with illicit drug problems and served as a risk factor for prescription drug problems in this urban sample. Findings encourage the growth of programs and services that support Aboriginal peoples who strive to maintain their cultural traditions within cities, and further studies that examine how Aboriginal

  14. Landscape dynamics in northwestern Amazonia: an assessment of pastures, fire and illicit crops as drivers of tropical deforestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armenteras, Dolors; Rodríguez, Nelly; Retana, Javier

    2013-01-01

    Many studies have identified drivers of deforestation throughout the tropics and, in most cases, have recognised differences in the level of threat. However, only a few have also looked at the temporal and spatial dynamics by which those drivers act, which is critical for assessing the conservation of biodiversity as well as for landscape planning. In this study, we analyse land cover change between 2000 and 2009 in north-western Colombian Amazonia to identify the interactions between the use of fire, cultivation of illicit crops and establishment of pastures, and their impacts on the loss of forest in the region. Yearly analyses were undertaken at randomly selected sample areas to quantify the average areas of transition of land cover types under different landscape compositions: forest-dominated mosaics, pasture mosaics, fire mosaics, and illicit crop mosaics. Our results indicate that despite the fact that forest areas were well-preserved, deforestation occurred at a low annual rate (0.06%). Conversion to pasture was the main factor responsible for forest loss (the area of pastures tripled within forest mosaics over 8 years), and this process was independent of the landscape matrix in which the forests were located. In fire mosaics, burning is a common tool for forest clearing and conversion to pasture. Thus, forests in fire mosaics were highly disturbed and frequently transformed from primary to secondary forests. The use of fire for illicit cropping was not detected, partly due to the small size of common illicit crops. Forest regeneration from pastures and secondary vegetation was observed in areas with large amounts of natural forest. Overall, assuming the continuation of the observed pasture conversion trend and the use of forest fire, we suggest that our results should be incorporated into a spatially explicit and integrated decision support tool to target and focus land-planning activities and policies.

  15. Temporal variability of pharmaceuticals and illicit drugs in wastewater and the effects of a major sporting event.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerrity, Daniel; Trenholm, Rebecca A; Snyder, Shane A

    2011-11-01

    Diurnal variations in wastewater flows are common phenomena related to peak water use periods. However, few studies have examined high-resolution temporal variability in trace organic contaminant (TOrC) concentrations and loadings. Even fewer have assessed the impacts of a special event or holiday. This study characterizes the temporal variability associated with a major sporting event using flow data and corresponding mass loadings of a suite of prescription pharmaceuticals, potential endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs), and illicit drugs. Wastewater influent and finished effluent samples were collected during the National Football League's Super Bowl, which is a significant weekend for tourism in the study area. Data from a baseline weekend is also provided to illustrate flows and TOrC loadings during "normal" operational conditions. Some compounds exhibited interesting temporal variations (e.g., atenolol), and several compounds demonstrated different loading profiles during the Super Bowl and baseline weekends (e.g., the primary cocaine metabolite benzoylecgonine). Interestingly, the influent mass loadings of prescription pharmaceuticals were generally similar in magnitude to those of the illicit drugs and their metabolites. However, conventional wastewater treatment was more effective in removing the illicit drugs and their metabolites. Total influent and effluent mass loadings are also provided to summarize treatment efficacy and environmental discharges. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Effect of a brief intervention for alcohol and illicit drug use on trauma recidivism in a cohort of trauma patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordovilla-Guardia, Sergio; Fernández-Mondéjar, Enrique; Vilar-López, Raquel; Navas, Juan F; Portillo-Santamaría, Mónica; Rico-Martín, Sergio; Lardelli-Claret, Pablo

    2017-01-01

    Estimate the effectiveness of brief interventions in reducing trauma recidivism in hospitalized trauma patients who screened positive for alcohol and/or illicit drug use. Dynamic cohort study based on registry data from 1818 patients included in a screening and brief intervention program for alcohol and illicit drug use for hospitalized trauma patients. Three subcohorts emerged from the data analysis: patients who screened negative, those who screened positive and were offered brief intervention, and those who screened positive and were not offered brief intervention. Follow-up lasted from 10 to 52 months. Trauma-free survival, adjusted hazard rate ratios (aHRR) and adjusted incidence rate ratios (aIRR) were calculated, and complier average causal effect (CACE) analysis was used. We found a higher cumulative risk of trauma recidivism in the subcohort who screened positive. In this subcohort, an aHRR of 0.63 (95% CI: 0.41-0.95) was obtained for the group offered brief intervention compared to the group not offered intervention. CACE analysis yielded an estimated 52% reduction in trauma recidivism associated with the brief intervention. The brief intervention offered during hospitalization in trauma patients positive for alcohol and/or illicit drug use can halve the incidence of trauma recidivism.

  17. Effect of a brief intervention for alcohol and illicit drug use on trauma recidivism in a cohort of trauma patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Mondéjar, Enrique; Vilar-López, Raquel; Navas, Juan F.; Portillo-Santamaría, Mónica; Rico-Martín, Sergio; Lardelli-Claret, Pablo

    2017-01-01

    Objective Estimate the effectiveness of brief interventions in reducing trauma recidivism in hospitalized trauma patients who screened positive for alcohol and/or illicit drug use. Methods Dynamic cohort study based on registry data from 1818 patients included in a screening and brief intervention program for alcohol and illicit drug use for hospitalized trauma patients. Three subcohorts emerged from the data analysis: patients who screened negative, those who screened positive and were offered brief intervention, and those who screened positive and were not offered brief intervention. Follow-up lasted from 10 to 52 months. Trauma-free survival, adjusted hazard rate ratios (aHRR) and adjusted incidence rate ratios (aIRR) were calculated, and complier average causal effect (CACE) analysis was used. Results We found a higher cumulative risk of trauma recidivism in the subcohort who screened positive. In this subcohort, an aHRR of 0.63 (95% CI: 0.41–0.95) was obtained for the group offered brief intervention compared to the group not offered intervention. CACE analysis yielded an estimated 52% reduction in trauma recidivism associated with the brief intervention. Conclusion The brief intervention offered during hospitalization in trauma patients positive for alcohol and/or illicit drug use can halve the incidence of trauma recidivism. PMID:28813444

  18. Dental erosion due to abuse of illicit drugs and acidic carbonated beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassiouny, Mohamed A

    2013-01-01

    Consumption of illicit drugs and the abusive intake of acidic carbonated beverages (particularly soda) often are associated with similar types of damage to the human dentition, the most common of which is dental erosion. The dentitions of individuals who are addicted to methamphetamines or crack cocaine can be misdiagnosed as dental caries rather than generalized dental erosion, a condition that also is associated with chronic excessive consumption of soda. Failing to identify the causative etiology could lead to a wrongful diagnosis that could in turn adversely affect treatment planning and misdirect a specified prevention protocol. This article seeks to identify the unique clinical features of each one of these conditions, highlight the resemblances between them, and recognize the unambiguous differences in their fundamental characteristics. Three representative cases-involving a methamphetamine user, a crack cocaine addict, and an avid consumer of diet soda-are presented. In each case, the patient has admitted to the cause of their poor oral health. The dental, oral, and paraoral manifestations of each case are documented and differentiated from one another, and the factors that contributed to the associated disease process are discussed.

  19. The context of illicit drug overdose deaths in British Columbia, 2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buxton, Jane A; Skutezky, Trevor; Tu, Andrew W; Waheed, Bilal; Wallace, Alex; Mak, Sunny

    2009-05-29

    Illicit drug overdose deaths (IDD) relate to individual drug dose and context of use, including use with other drugs and alcohol. IDD peaked in British Columbia (BC) in 1998 with 417 deaths, and continues to be a public health problem. The objective of this study was to examine IDD in 2006 in BC by place of residence, injury and death, decedents' age and sex and substances identified. IDD data was obtained through the BC Coroners Office and entered into SPSS (version 14). Fisher's exact and Pearson's chi2 were used for categorical data; Mann-Whitney U-test for continuous variables. Rates were calculated using 2006 population estimates. We identified 223 IDD in BC; 54 (24%) occurred in Vancouver. Vancouver decedents (compared to those occurring outside Vancouver) were older (mean age 43.9 vs. 39.2 years; p Cocaine was identified in 80.3%, opiates 59.6%, methadone 13.9%, methamphetamine/amphetamine 6.3%, and alcohol in 22.9% of deaths. Poly-substance use was common, 2 substances were identified in 43.8% and 3 or more in 34.5% of deaths. Opiates were more frequently identified in Vancouver compared to outside Vancouver (74.1% vs. 55.0%) p = 0.015. Collaboration with the Coroner's office allowed us to analyze IDD in detail including place of death; cocaine, opiates and poly-substance use were commonly identified. Poly-substance use should be explored further to inform public health interventions.

  20. Evaluation and analysis of non-intrusive techniques for detecting illicit substances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Micklich, B.J.; Roche, C.T.; Fink, C.L.; Yule, T.J.; Demirgian, J.C. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Kunz, T.D.; Ulvick, S.J.; Cui, J. [Houston Advanced Research Center, The Woodlands, TX (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) and the Houston Advanced Research Center (HARC) have been tasked by the Counterdrug Technology Assessment Center of the Office of National Drug Control Policy to conduct evaluations and analyses of technologies for the non-intrusive inspection of containers for illicit substances. These technologies span the range of nuclear, X-ray, and chemical techniques used in nondestructive sample analysis. ANL has performed assessments of nuclear and X-ray inspection concepts and undertaken site visits with developers to understand the capabilities and the range of applicability of candidate systems. ANL and HARC have provided support to law enforcement agencies (LEAs), including participation in numerous field studies. Both labs have provided staff to assist in the Narcotics Detection Technology Assessment (NDTA) program for evaluating drug detection systems. Also, the two labs are performing studies of drug contamination of currency. HARC has directed technical evaluations of automated ballistics imaging and identification systems under consideration by law enforcement agencies. ANL and HARC have sponsored workshops and a symposium, and are participating in a Non-Intrusive Inspection Study being led by Dynamics Technology, Incorporated.

  1. [Consumption of licit and illicit substances by police officers in the city of Rio de Janeiro].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Edinilsa Ramos; Schenker, Miriam; Constantino, Patrícia; Correia, Bruna Soares Chaves

    2013-03-01

    The consumption of psychoactive substances by civil and military police of the city of Rio de Janeiro was investigated. Data was gathered from two cross-sectional studies on a questionnaire on work and health conditions given to a sample from the two corporations. The results show higher frequencies of regular consumption of tobacco (23.3% by civil police and 19.1% by military police), daily use of alcohol (12% by civil police and 11% by military police) and tranquilizers in the past year (13.3% by civil police and 10.1% by military police). The consumption of marijuana among officers was 0.1% by civil police and 1.1% by military police, and cocaine use among the military police was 1.1%. Alcohol consumption proved to be intense and causes problems at work and in the social and family relationships of these officers. The need for preventive policies for addiction and the possible underestimation of information on illicit substances is emphasized.

  2. The analysis of cations and anions in illicit heroin using capillary electrophoresis with indirect UV detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lurie, I S

    1996-01-01

    Methodology is presented for the analysis of cations and anions in illicit heroin using CE with indirect UV detection. The cations investigated include ammonium, calcium, potassium, magnesium, and sodium; the anions included acetate, chloride, citrate, phosphate, sulfate, and tartrate. For cations, the Ion Phor run buffer (Dionex Corp., Sunnyvale, CA, U.S.A.) consisting of 4 mM copper sulfate, 4 mM formic acid, and 3 mM 18-crown-6 (pH 3.0) was used. For anions, proprietary reagents were used, including the Anitron run buffer (PE Applied Biosystems, Foster City, CA, U.S.A.) and Micro-Coat capillary charge-reversal agent (PE Applied Biosystems), which was utilized to flush the capillary prior to each analysis. Lithium nitrate was used as an internal standard; excellent long- and short-term precision in relative retention times were obtained for both cations and anions. The short-term precision in peak areas was satisfactory. For the various ions examined, a linearity range of a little less than two orders of magnitude was observed. The methodology is capable of analyzing ions down to the 10(-3)% level relative to heroin.

  3. Profiling of illicit cocaine seized in China by ICP-MS analysis of inorganic elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Cuimei; Hua, Zhendong; Meng, Xin

    2017-07-01

    For the first time in China, the inorganic element profiling of cocaine specimens was performed at the National Narcotics Laboratory. An inductive coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) method was developed and validated for simultaneous analysis of 26 inorganic elements, including sodium (Na), magnesium (Mg), aluminuim (Al), potassium (K), calcium (Ca), vanadium (V), chromium (Cr), manganese (Mn), iron (Fe), cobalt (Co), nickel (Ni), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), arsenic (As), selenium (Se), molybdenum (Mo), silver (Ag), cadmium (Cd), antimony (Sb), barium (Ba), lanthanum (La), cerium (Ce), thallium (Tl), lead (Pb), thorium (Th), and uranium (U) in illicit cocaine samples. Ultrasonic assisted dissolution was applied for sample preparation. Minimum sample preparation and analysis time were required, which was suitable for routine analysis. After the analysis of 183 cocaine samples seized from 2011 to 2015, the element concentration ranges of cocaine sample were obtained. Based on the quantitative data set of 26 inorganic elements in 131 linked/un-linked cocaine samples, fifty combinations of pre-treatment methods and distance/correlation measurements were tested for their potential discrimination power for cocaine profiling, and normalization+standardization+logarithm (N+S+L)/Cosine correlation exhibited the best result. After hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) analysis of 183 cocaine samples, 21 groups of linked samples were found within and between provinces, which provide intelligence for case connection and revealing of the distribution networks. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Illicit tobacco trade between the United States and Mexico El comercio ilícito de tabaco entre los Estados Unidos y México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John W Colledge III

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To provide a brief history of the illicit tobacco trade between Mexico and the United States. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Research included a previously published study: "Cigarette taxes and smuggling: A statistical analysis and historical review", published by the Mackinac Center for Public Policy; US Customs and Border Protection data; various US court documents; General Accountability Office reporting; media reports; other historical material, and a personal interview. RESULTS: The research revealed that there is no credible evidence of organized criminal activity related to the illicit trade in tobacco products from Mexico into the United States. However, there is clear and convincing evidence of organized criminal activity in smuggling tobacco products from the United States into Mexico for at least 167 years. CONCLUSION: Historical records from 1845 into the 21st century clearly demonstrate that the United States was usually the source country for tobacco products moving illegally between the two countries.OBJETIVO: Describir brevemente la historia del comercio ilícito de tabaco entre Estados Unidos y México. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: La investigación incluye publicaciones previas, como "Impuestos sobre los cigarrillos y el contrabando: Un análisis histórico y estadístico"; datos de la Agencia de Aduanas y Protección Fronteriza; varios documentos de la Corte; los informes de la Oficina General de Rendición de Cuentas de EU; notas de prensa; materiales históricos, y una entrevista personal. RESULTADOS: La investigación reveló que no hay pruebas creíbles de actividad delictiva organizada relacionada con el comercio ilícito de productos de tabaco de México a EU. Sin embargo, hay pruebas claras y convincentes de que esta actividad se ha realizado de EU a México por lo menos durante 167 años. CONCLUSIÓN: Los registros históricos desde el año 1845 claramente demuestran que EU solía ser el país de origen del tabaco ilegal

  5. The study of fungal contamination in three current packed spices in the markets of Tehran: brief report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Mansouri

    2015-06-01

    Conclusion: The obtained results of this cross-sectional study and the available proofs in community indicate that, there are the high levels of fungal contaminations in current used spices. Therefore, it is necessary to control the production units.

  6. US Adult Illicit Cannabis Use, Cannabis Use Disorder, and Medical Marijuana Laws: 1991-1992 to 2012-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasin, Deborah S; Sarvet, Aaron L; Cerdá, Magdalena; Keyes, Katherine M; Stohl, Malka; Galea, Sandro; Wall, Melanie M

    2017-06-01

    Over the last 25 years, illicit cannabis use and cannabis use disorders have increased among US adults, and 28 states have passed medical marijuana laws (MML). Little is known about MML and adult illicit cannabis use or cannabis use disorders considered over time. To present national data on state MML and degree of change in the prevalence of cannabis use and disorders. Differences in the degree of change between those living in MML states and other states were examined using 3 cross-sectional US adult surveys: the National Longitudinal Alcohol Epidemiologic Survey (NLAES; 1991-1992), the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC; 2001-2002), and the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions-III (NESARC-III; 2012-2013). Early-MML states passed MML between NLAES and NESARC ("earlier period"). Late-MML states passed MML between NESARC and NESARC-III ("later period"). Past-year illicit cannabis use and DSM-IV cannabis use disorder. Overall, from 1991-1992 to 2012-2013, illicit cannabis use increased significantly more in states that passed MML than in other states (1.4-percentage point more; SE, 0.5; P = .004), as did cannabis use disorders (0.7-percentage point more; SE, 0.3; P = .03). In the earlier period, illicit cannabis use and disorders decreased similarly in non-MML states and in California (where prevalence was much higher to start with). In contrast, in remaining early-MML states, the prevalence of use and disorders increased. Remaining early-MML and non-MML states differed significantly for use (by 2.5 percentage points; SE, 0.9; P = .004) and disorder (1.1 percentage points; SE, 0.5; P = .02). In the later period, illicit use increased by the following percentage points: never-MML states, 3.5 (SE, 0.5); California, 5.3 (SE, 1.0); Colorado, 7.0 (SE, 1.6); other early-MML states, 2.6 (SE, 0.9); and late-MML states, 5.1 (SE, 0.8). Compared with never-MML states, increases in use were

  7. The effect of illicit financial flows on time to reach the fourth Millennium Development Goal in Sub-Saharan Africa: a quantitative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Hare, Bernadette; Makuta, Innocent; Bar-Zeev, Naor; Chiwaula, Levison; Cobham, Alex

    2014-04-01

    This paper sets out to estimate the cost of illicit financial flows (IFF) in terms of the amount of time it could take to reach the fourth Millennium Development Goal (MDG) in 34 African countries. We have calculated the percentage increase in gross domestic product (GDP) if IFFs were curtailed using IFF/GDP ratios. We applied the income (GDP) elasticity of child mortality to the increase in GDP to estimate the reduction in time to reach the fourth MDG in 34 African countries. children aged under five years. 34 countries in SSA. Reduction in time to reach the first indicator of the fourth MDG, under-five mortality rate in the absence of IFF. We found that in the 34 SSA countries, six countries will achieve their fourth MDG target at the current rates of decline. In the absence of IFF, 16 countries would reach their fourth MDG target by 2015 and there would be large reductions for all other countries. This drain on development is facilitated by financial secrecy in other jurisdictions. Rich and poor countries alike must stem the haemorrhage of IFF by taking decisive steps towards improving financial transparency.

  8. Current trends in gamma radiation detection for radiological emergency response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhopadhyay, Sanjoy; Guss, Paul; Maurer, Richard

    2011-09-01

    Passive and active detection of gamma rays from shielded radioactive materials, including special nuclear materials, is an important task for any radiological emergency response organization. This article reports on the current trends and status of gamma radiation detection objectives and measurement techniques as applied to nonproliferation and radiological emergencies. In recent years, since the establishment of the Domestic Nuclear Detection Office by the Department of Homeland Security, a tremendous amount of progress has been made in detection materials (scintillators, semiconductors), imaging techniques (Compton imaging, use of active masking and hybrid imaging), data acquisition systems with digital signal processing, field programmable gate arrays and embedded isotopic analysis software (viz. gamma detector response and analysis software [GADRAS]1), fast template matching, and data fusion (merging radiological data with geo-referenced maps, digital imagery to provide better situational awareness). In this stride to progress, a significant amount of inter-disciplinary research and development has taken place-techniques and spin-offs from medical science (such as x-ray radiography and tomography), materials engineering (systematic planned studies on scintillators to optimize several qualities of a good scintillator, nanoparticle applications, quantum dots, and photonic crystals, just to name a few). No trend analysis of radiation detection systems would be complete without mentioning the unprecedented strategic position taken by the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) to deter, detect, and interdict illicit trafficking in nuclear and other radioactive materials across international borders and through the global maritime transportation-the so-called second line of defense.

  9. Corrosion protection of Arctic offshore structures: Final report. [Effects of temperature and salinity on required cathodic protection current

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sackinger, W.M.; Rogers, J.C.; Feyk, C.; Theuveny, B.

    1985-10-01

    Results are presented for a research program on corrosion prevention for Arctic offshore structures which are in contact with sea ice for a significant portion of the year. The electrical method most adaptable for structure protection involves the injection of impressed current from several remote anodes buried just beneath the sea floor. The electrical resistivity of annual sea ice as a function of temperature and salinity is presented. Details of the interface layers formed between sea ice and steel in the presence of current injection are shown. A computer program was developed to enable the calculation of protective current density into the structure, in the presence of ice rubble and ridges around the structure. The program and the results of an example calculation are given for a caisson- retained island structure. 81 refs., 103 figs., 3 tabs.

  10. Dynamics of Economic Well-Being: Movements in the U.S. Income Distribution, 1996-1999. Household Economics Studies. Current Population Reports. P70-95

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hisnanick, John J.; Walker, Katherine G.

    2004-01-01

    As measured by the most recent income data available from the Current Population Survey (CPS), between 1996 and 2002 median household income increased 4.7 percent more than inflation. That statistic compares a "snapshot" of households in 1996 with another "snapshot" in 2002. This report uses the most recent longitudinal data available from the…

  11. Current State of Research on Mathematical Beliefs V. Proceedings of the MAVI-5 Workshop (August 22-25, 1997). Research Report 184.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannula, Markku, Ed.

    This report includes all of the presentations from the fifth annual workshop on the Current State of Research on Mathematical Beliefs held in Helsinki, Finland, on August 22-25, 1997. The papers, all of which were presented in English, are as follows: "Between Formalism and Creativity: Teachers' Conceptions of a Good Computer Science…

  12. The context of illicit drug overdose deaths in British Columbia, 2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waheed Bilal

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Illicit drug overdose deaths (IDD relate to individual drug dose and context of use, including use with other drugs and alcohol. IDD peaked in British Columbia (BC in 1998 with 417 deaths, and continues to be a public health problem. The objective of this study was to examine IDD in 2006 in BC by place of residence, injury and death, decedents' age and sex and substances identified. Methods IDD data was obtained through the BC Coroners Office and entered into SPSS (version 14. Fisher's exact and Pearson's χ2 were used for categorical data; Mann-Whitney U-test for continuous variables. Rates were calculated using 2006 population estimates. Results We identified 223 IDD in BC; 54 (24% occurred in Vancouver. Vancouver decedents (compared to those occurring outside Vancouver were older (mean age 43.9 vs. 39.2 years; p Cocaine was identified in 80.3%, opiates 59.6%, methadone 13.9%, methamphetamine/amphetamine 6.3%, and alcohol in 22.9% of deaths. Poly-substance use was common, 2 substances were identified in 43.8% and 3 or more in 34.5% of deaths. Opiates were more frequently identified in Vancouver compared to outside Vancouver (74.1% vs. 55.0% p = 0.015. Conclusion Collaboration with the Coroner's office allowed us to analyze IDD in detail including place of death; cocaine, opiates and poly-substance use were commonly identified. Poly-substance use should be explored further to inform public health interventions.

  13. Association of pulmonary histopathological findings with toxicological findings in forensic autopsies of illicit drug users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todorović Miloš S.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Drug abuse remains a significant social problem in many countries. The aim of the study was to estimate association between pulmonary histopathological changes and results of toxicological analyses in forensic autopsies of illicit drug users. Methods. This investigation was performed in the Institute of Forensic Medicine, Belgrade, and in the Clinical Center, Department of Forensic Medicine, Kragujevac, from 2000 to 2004, and included 63 medicolegal autopsies of heroin or other drug consumers who suddenly died. Autopsies, postmortem toxicological examination of drugs and serological analyses of anti- HIV/HBV/HCV antibodies were performed. Results. The deceased persons were mostly male, 46/63 (73.01%, ranged in age from 19 to 49 years (mean 31 years and all were whites. Postmortem toxicological examination was performed on all of the deceased persons and drugs in the fatal range were identified in only eight of them (12.7%, in the toxic range in ten (15.87%, and in minimal concentrations in 35 (55.56% of the deceased persons. Drugs identified in the fatal, toxic or minimal range included heroin-morphine (38/53, cocaine (4/53, tramadol (3/53, and lorazepam (1/53. In the 7 remaining subjects, ethanol in combination with heroin was found in 4 cases, and diazepam in combination with heroin in 3 cases. Dominant pathomorphological changes were findings in the lung tissue. Most common histological changes observed in drug users were pulmonary edema - 55/63 (87.3%, acute alveolar hemorrhages - 49/63 (77.78%, hemosiderin-laden macrophages (siderophages - 52/63 (82,54%, and emphysematous changes - 51/63 (80,95%. Conclusion. Pulmonary edema is the frequent non-specific autopsy finding which is associated with virtually all routes of drug administration. The histopatological study is necessary to determinate a cause of death when a deceased person has the history of dependence or abouse of psychoactive drugs with negative toxicological

  14. Spirometry findings among drug users in the Indonesian National Narcotics and illicit drug Bureau Rehabilitation Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samoedro, Erlang; Yunus, Faisal; Antariksa, Budhi; Nurwidya, Fariz

    2017-01-01

    Background: The increasing prevalence of drug user in Indonesia is affecting the health sectors. The lungs health were affected by the use of the illicit drug. However, lung function among drug users is still unclear. Methods: This descriptive-analytic study involves 144 drug users who met the inclusion criteria. Chest X-ray was performed to identify the subject with pulmonary tuberculosis to exclude from the study. Subjects were then undergone spirometry test and interviewed using questionnaires. Results: One hundred and forty-four subjects were included in this study. One hundred and twenty-one (84.03%) were male and 128 subjects showed normal lung function. Proportion of abnormal spirometry was 10.4% (n = 15). The restriction was found in ten subjects, and obstruction was found in four subjects. There was significant correlation between the ratio of forced expiratory volume in 1 s to forced vital capacity (FEV1/FVC) and age (P = 0.000; r = −0.454, moderate correlation), time of using cannabis (P = 0.01; r = −0.345, weak correlation), time of using methamphetamine inhalation (P = 0.004; r = −0.25, weak correlation), duration of using heroin injection (P = 0.025; r = −0.337, weak correlation), time of using cigarette (P = 0.000; r = −0.365, weak correlation), and the amount of cigarette consumption/day (P = 0.04; r = −0.238, weak correlation). Conclusion: This study found that there was a weak correlation between declined FEV1/FVC with a time of smoking, the amount of cigarette consume per day, time of cannabis inhalation, time of methamphetamine inhalation, and time of heroin injection. PMID:28250678

  15. The reporting of adverse events in oncology phase III trials: a comparison of the current status versus the expectations of the EORTC members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maillet, D; Blay, J Y; You, B; Rachdi, A; Gan, H K; Péron, J

    2016-01-01

    Determination of drug safety and tolerability is usually based on the frequency of certain key adverse events (AEs) rather than the frequency of all-grade toxicities. We assessed the reporting of key AEs in oncology randomized, controlled trials (RCTs) and compared that with the expectations of the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) membership. RCTs reports published between 2007 and 2011 were reviewed regarding the reporting of key AEs, namely: grade 3/4 AEs, grade 5 AEs, and AEs resulting in study withdrawal or in dose reduction. Study characteristics associated with better reporting of key AEs were investigated. Finally, a survey was conducted among the EORTC membership to determine their expectations on key AEs reporting. Although the frequency of grade 3/4 was reported in most reports (96%), only 17% of them described the reporting threshold above which grade 3/4 AEs were included for reporting, raising the possibility that important but less frequent grade 3/4 AEs might be underreported. Frequency and nature of grade 5 AEs were adequately reported in 161 (50%) of manuscripts; AEs leading to study withdrawal in 61 manuscripts (19%); and AEs leading to dose reduction in 43 manuscripts (13%). In contrast, most EORTC members expected a comprehensive reporting of grade 5 AEs (96% of EORTC member's responses), AEs leading to study withdrawal (86%) and AEs leading to dose reduction (70%). In multivariate analysis, frequencies of grade 5 AEs were less frequently reported in European trials (P = 0.004). Frequencies of AEs leading to withdrawals were more frequently reported in trials funded by industry (P = 0.005) and in trials including patients with breast or urological cancers (P = 0.006). These findings suggest that current practice of key AEs reporting remains highly variable and sometimes inadequate in oncology RCTs reports. Current standards for safety reporting in RCTs should be revised to emphasize the importance of key AEs

  16. Disseminated tuberculosis and tuberculous meningitis in Australian-born children; case reports and review of current epidemiology and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Benjamin B; Hazelton, Briony J; Heywood, Anita E; Snelling, Thomas L; Peacock, Kenneth M; Macartney, Kristine K

    2013-03-01

    We present two cases of tuberculous meningitis in Australian-born children. We review the current literature surrounding management of paediatric tuberculosis and disseminated disease, emphasising the importance of prompt diagnosis and intervention. We discuss the epidemiology of tuberculosis in the Australian paediatric population and highlight the sentinel role of childhood infection in public health surveillance.

  17. Homeworking: Home Office or Home Sweatshop? Report on Current Conditions of Homeworkers in Toronto's Garment Industry. NALL Working Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Roxana; Wong, Renita Yuk-Lin; Choi, Angela

    The current conditions of home workers in the garment industry in Toronto, Canada, were examined through in-depth telephone interviews with 30 Chinese-speaking immigrant women who were employed as home workers in 1999. The paper dicusses the formal training and informal learning experiences of immigrant woman who are garment workers. A comparison…

  18. Baseline and verification tests of the electric vehicle associates' current fare station wagon. Final test report, March 27, 1980-November 6, 1981

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dowgiallo, E.J. Jr.; Chapman, R.D.

    1983-01-01

    The EVA Current Fare Wagon was manufactured by Electric Vehicle Associates, Incorporated (EVA) of Cleveland, Ohio. It is now available from Lectra Motors Corp. of Las Vegas, Nevada. The vehicle was tested under the direction of MERADCOM from 27 March 1980 to 6 November 1981. The tests are part of a Department of Energy project to assess advances in electric vehicle design. This report presents the performance test results on the EVA Current Fare Wagon. The EVA Current Fare Wagon is a 1980 Ford Fairmont station wagon which has been converted to an electric vehicle. The propulsion system is made up of a Cableform controller, a series-wound 30-hp Reliance Electric Motor, and 22 6-V lead-acid batteries. The Current Fare Wagon is also equipped with regenerative braking. Further details of the vehicle are given in the Vehicle Summary Data Sheet, Appendix A. The results of this testing are given in Table 1.

  19. The relationship between perceived discrimination and high-risk social ties among illicit drug users in New York City, 2006-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Natalie D; Ford, Chandra; Galea, Sandro; Latkin, Carl; Jones, Kandice C; Fuller, Crystal M

    2013-01-01

    Discrimination can influence risk of disease by promoting unhealthy behaviors (e.g., smoking, alcohol use). Whether it influences the formation of high-risk social ties that facilitate HIV transmission is unclear. Using cross-sectional data from a cohort of illicit drug users, this study examined the association between discrimination based on race, drug use and prior incarceration and risky sex and drug ties. Negative binomial regression models were performed. Participants who reported discrimination based on race and drug use had significantly more sex and drug-using ties. But, after accounting for both racial and drug use discrimination, only racial discrimination was associated with increased sex, drug-using, and injecting ties. Drug users who experience discrimination and subsequently develop more sex and drug-using ties, increase their risk of contracting HIV. Future longitudinal studies illuminating the pathways linking discrimination and social network development may guide intervention development and identify drug-using subpopulations at high risk for disease transmission.

  20. Future Performance Trend Indicators: A Current Value Approach to Human Resources Accounting. Report I. Internal Consistencies and Relationships to Performance By Site. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pecorella, Patricia A.; Bowers, David G.

    Analyses preparatory to construction of a suitable file for generating a system of future performance trend indicators are described. Such a system falls into the category of a current value approach to human resources accounting. It requires that there be a substantial body of data which: (1) uses the work group or unit, not the individual, as…

  1. Behavioral Responses Of Fish To A Current-Based Hydrokinetic Turbine Under Mutlipe Operational Conditions: Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grippo, Mark A. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Shen, Haixue [Univ. of Maine, Orono, ME (United States); Zydlewski, Gayle [Univ. of Maine, Orono, ME (United States); Rao, Shivanesh [Univ. of Maine, Orono, ME (United States); Goodwin, Andy [United States Army Engineer R & D Center, Vicksburg, MI (United States)

    2017-02-01

    There is significant interest in the interaction of aquatic organisms with current-based marine and hydrokinetic (MHK) technologies. Determining the potential impacts of MHK devices on fish behavior is critical to addressing the environmental concerns that could act as barriers to the permitting and deployment of MHK devices. To address these concerns, we use field monitoring and fish behavior models to characterize the behavioral responses of fish to MHK turbines and infer potential stimuli that may have elicited the observed behavioral changes.

  2. Society for Maternal-Fetal Medicine (SMFM) Special Report: Current approaches to measuring quality of care in obstetrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailit, Jennifer L; Gregory, Kimberly D; Srinivas, Sindhu; Westover, Thomas; Grobman, William A; Saade, George R

    2016-09-01

    Heath care measurement and evaluation is an integral piece of the health care system. The creation and assessment of care performance metrics are important and relevant for the obstetric community including both clinicians and patients. Careful deliberation is required to create a measurement system that results in optimal care for women and families. This article reviews the current approaches to measuring quality in obstetrics. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Erosion Control of Scour during Construction; Report 3. Experimental Measurements of Refraction, Diffraction, and Current Patterns Near Jetties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-09-01

    predict the probable magnitude of (Continued) DD vi’Ra 03 1wom or INov OM @ISDETR Unclassified S.CUm TY CLAS-.lCATIO OF THIS PAS.. (..m 0. Yw...transport of the bottom material at the particular site. The purpose of this study was to obtain detailed and precise experimental data regarding wave...currents. This removal of material from around structures is often not compensated by an influx of additional material ; the result is scour, or

  4. A summary report on the search for current technologies and developers to develop depth profiling/physical parameter end effectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, Q.H.

    1994-09-12

    This report documents the search strategies and results for available technologies and developers to develop tank waste depth profiling/physical parameter sensors. Sources searched include worldwide research reports, technical papers, journals, private industries, and work at Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) at Richland site. Tank waste physical parameters of interest are: abrasiveness, compressive strength, corrosiveness, density, pH, particle size/shape, porosity, radiation, settling velocity, shear strength, shear wave velocity, tensile strength, temperature, viscosity, and viscoelasticity. A list of related articles or sources for each physical parameters is provided.

  5. Longitudinal associations of cannabis and illicit drug use with depression, suicidal ideation and suicidal attempts among Nova Scotia high school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasic, Daniel; Weerasinghe, Swarna; Asbridge, Mark; Langille, Donald B

    2013-04-01

    To examine associations of cannabis and other illicit drug use with depression, suicidal ideation and suicidal attempts over a two year period during adolescence. Nine hundred and seventy-six school students in four high schools in northern Nova Scotia, Canada, were surveyed in grade 10 and followed up in grade 12. Assessments of past 30 day cannabis and illicit drug use as well as mental health variables (risk of depression, suicidal ideation and suicide attempts) were obtained at baseline (2000 and 2001) and follow-up two years later (2002 and 2003). Generalized estimating equations modelled depression, suicidal ideation and attempts among illicit drug users and non-users. Illicit drug use with or without cannabis use was significantly associated with higher odds of depression, suicidal ideation and suicide attempt. Heavy cannabis use alone predicted depression but not suicidal ideation or attempt. Illicit drug use, with and without accompanying cannabis use, among high school students increases the risk of depression, suicidal ideation and suicidal attempts. Heavy cannabis use alone predicts depression but not suicidal ideation or attempts. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Assessing community pharmacist engagement in a policing partnership strategy to reduce the illicit diversion of pseudoephedrine products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Julianne L

    2013-01-01

    The incidence of illicit diversion of pharmaceutical products is a worldwide problem associated with negative health consequences and with other crimes. The illicit diversion of pharmaceuticals containing the active ingredient pseudoephedrine is of concern, primarily due to the role this substance plays in the manufacture of synthetic illicit drugs such as methylamphetamine. There are a range of strategies employed to curb the problem of precursor diversion. Not least is the development of strategies involving front-line health professionals such as community pharmacists to play an important role in reducing the incidence of diversion. This study aimed to examine levels of pharmacist engagement in an intervention expected to decrease diversion of pseudoephedrine products from community pharmacies. The primary objective was to explore levels of community pharmacist engagement with the intervention and to explore their perceptions of intervention effectiveness. A survey instrument was developed to examine six main areas relating to the implementation, operation and outcomes of the intervention, in addition to the roles performed by community pharmacists in two Australian State jurisdictions. The respondent pharmacists were recruited through a combination of email and facsimile communications from the Pharmacy Guild of Australia and through an electronic pharmacy newsletter. Thirty percent of eligible community pharmacies in the study jurisdictions responded to the survey. The results of the survey highlight that in the absence of an alternative strategy to assist community pharmacists to reduce pseudoephedrine diversion, the majority of respondents were satisfied with the effectiveness of the police-pharmacy intervention. It was found that a pharmacist's positive perception of the role police played in the intervention strongly influenced their engagement in the strategy. Identifying the factors that significantly influence pharmacist engagement in this strategy has

  7. Wastewater-based assessment of regional and temporal consumption patterns of illicit drugs and therapeutic opioids in Croatia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krizman, Ivona; Senta, Ivan; Ahel, Marijan; Terzic, Senka

    2016-10-01

    A comprehensive study of spatial and temporal consumption patterns of the selected illicit drugs (heroin, cocaine, amphetamine, MDMA, methamphetamine, cannabis) and therapeutic opioids (codeine, methadone) has been performed in six Croatian cities by applying wastewater-based epidemiology. The investigated cities (Bjelovar, Vinkovci, Varazdin, Karlovac, Zadar and Zagreb) varied widely in the population size (27,000-688,000 inhabitants) as well as in the number of registered drug consumers included in compulsory and voluntary medical treatment and rehabilitation programs (30-513 persons/100,000 inhabitants of age 15-64). The most consumed illicit drugs were cannabis (10-70doses/day/1000 inhabitants), heroin (consumption of amphetamine-type drugs was much lower (consumption of illegal drugs was generally associated with larger urban centers (Zagreb and Zadar) however comparatively high consumption rate of cocaine, MDMA and methadone was determined in some smaller cities as well. The overall average dose number of 3 major illegal stimulants (cocaine, MDMA, amphetamine) was rather similar to the number of corresponding heroin doses, which is in disagreement with a comparatively much higher proportion of heroin users in the total number of registered drug users in Croatia. Furthermore, the illicit drug consumption pattern in the large continental city (Zagreb) was characterized by a significant enhancement of the consumption of all stimulants during the weekend, which could not be confirmed neither for the coastal city of Zadar nor for the remaining small continental cities. On the other hand, the city of Zadar exhibited a significant increase of stimulant drug usage during summer vacation period, as a result of pronounced seasonal changes of the population composition and lifestyle in coastal tourist centers. The obtained results represent a valuable complementary data source for the optimisation and implementation of strategies to combat drug abuse in Croatia.

  8. Perinatal outcome of illicit substance use in pregnancy--comparative and contemporary socio-clinical profile in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goel, Nitin; Beasley, Dana; Rajkumar, Veena; Banerjee, Sujoy

    2011-02-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the contemporary socio-clinical profile and perinatal outcome of illicit substance use in pregnancy in a large UK city and compare with published literature. Cases were identified retrospectively from the 'cause for concern' referrals over 5 years (2003-2007). Data was collected on mother-infant pair from medical notes and laboratory records. Chi-square and Mann-Whitney U tests were used where appropriate for statistical analysis. One hundred sixty-eight women were identified as using illicit substance in pregnancy. Smoking (97.4%), unemployment (85.4%) and single status (42.3%) were frequent. Besides controlled use of methadone, heroin, cannabis and benzodiazepines were the most commonly used drugs. Hepatitis C prevalence was high (29.9%) despite low antenatal screening rates (57.7%). Neonatal morbidity was related to prematurity (22.9%), small for dates (28.6%) and neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS; 58.9%). By day 5 of life, 95.1% of the babies developing NAS and 96.1% of those requiring pharmacological treatment were symptomatic. Of the infants developing NAS, 31.7% required pharmacological treatment. A total of 82.5% babies went home with their mother, and 21.2% were placed on the Child Protection Register. Only 14.3% were breast feeding at discharge. Illicit substance use in pregnancy continues to be associated with significant maternal and neonatal morbidity, and the socio-clinical profile in this decade appears unchanged in the UK. Hepatitis C prevalence is high, and detection should be improved through targeted antenatal screening. Where facility in the community is unavailable, 5 days of hospital stay is sufficient to safely identify babies at risk of developing NAS. Most babies were discharged home with their mother.

  9. The deterrent effects of Australian street-level drug law enforcement on illicit drug offending at outdoor music festivals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Caitlin Elizabeth; Moxham-Hall, Vivienne; Ritter, Alison; Weatherburn, Don; MacCoun, Robert

    2017-03-01

    Australian and international street-level drug law enforcement deploy many strategies in efforts to prevent or deter illicit drug offending. Limited evidence of deterrence exists. This study assessed the likely impacts of four Australian policing strategies on the incidence and nature of drug use and supply at a common policing target: outdoor music festivals. A purpose-built national online survey (the Drug Policing Survey) was constructed using five hypothetical experimental vignettes that took into account four policing strategies (High Visibility Policing, Riot Policing, Collaborative Policing, and policing with Drug Detection Dogs) and a counter-factual (no police presence). The survey was administered in late 2015 to 2115 people who regularly attend festivals. Participants were block-randomised to receive two vignettes and asked under each whether they would use, possess, purchase, give or sell illicit drugs. Compared to 'no police presence', any police presence led to a 4.6% point reduction in engagement in overall illicit drug offending: reducing in particular willingness to possess or carry drugs into a festival. However, it had minimal or counterproductive impacts on purchasing and supply. For example, given police presence, purchasing of drugs increased significantly within festival grounds. Offending impacts varied between the four policing strategies: Drug Detection Dogs most reduced drug possession but High Visibility Policing most reduced overall drug offending including supply. Multivariate logistic regression showed police presence was not the most significant predictor of offending decisions at festivals. The findings suggest that street-level policing may deter some forms of drug offending at music festivals, but that most impacts will be small. Moreover, it may encourage some perverse impacts such as drug consumers opting to buy drugs within festival grounds rather than carry in their own. We use our findings to highlight trade-offs between the

  10. Quality Assurance of Current Combat Ration Pack Components: 12 Months Progress Report on 2010/11 Ration Packing Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    Sweet Corn, Carrots, Savoury Soup, Tomato Soup and Chocolate Candy. The report makes recommendations to improve initial acceptability and to reduce the...17 3.7.1 Chocolate Candy...three stages as follows:  Determine initial compliance and nutritional composition  Conduct shelf life (SL) monitoring and review at 12 months

  11. External validity of sentiment mining reports: Can current methods identify demographic biases, event biases, and manipulation of reviews?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijnhoven, Fons; Bloemen, Oscar

    2014-01-01

    Many publications in sentiment mining provide new techniques for improved accuracy in extracting features and corresponding sentiments in texts. For the external validity of these sentiment reports, i.e., the applicability of the results to target audiences, it is important to well analyze data of t

  12. The Prices of Secrecy: The Social, Intellectual, and Psychological Costs of Current Assessment Practice. A Report to the Ford Foundation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Judah L., Ed.; Viator, Katherine A., Ed.

    Problems in accountability assessment are examined from a unique perspective by considering the prices paid as a result of the use of secret tests (tests comprised of items drawn from non-publicly available item banks). This report is a compilation of the following articles: (1) "The Social, Intellectual, and Psychological Prices of…

  13. 78 FR 52130 - Tobacco Report: Notice of Request for an Extension and Revision of a Currently Approved...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-22

    ... Quarterly Report of Manufacture and Sales of Snuff, Smoking and Chewing Tobacco is voluntary. Prior to 1965, information on the manufacture and sale of snuff, smoking and chewing tobacco products was available from... all major manufacturers agreed to furnish information. Federal taxes were re-imposed in 1985 for...

  14. Health Economics Studies Information Exchange; Reports of Current Research in Health Economics, and Medical Care Administration. Publication No. 1719.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Public Health Service (DHEW), Arlington, VA. Home Economics Branch.

    The first volume of a continuing series reporting research in progress in health economics and medical care organization and administration was compiled by contacting (1) graduate schools offering degrees in the health professions, sociology, economics, public administration, and public health, (2) charitable foundations indicating an interest in…

  15. Improving the prediction of in-sewer transformation of illicit drug biomarkers by identifying a new modelling framework

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramin, Pedram; Brock, Andreas Libonati; Polesel, Fabio

    -3-β-D-glucuronide; codeine and its metabolite norcodeine; methadone and its metabolite 2-ethylidene-1,5-dimethyl-3,3-diphenylpyrrolidine (EDDP); mephedrone; and tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and its metabolites 11-hydroxy-Δ9-THC (THCOH), and 11-nor-9-carboxy-Δ9-THC (THCCOOH). All the transformation....... Furthermore, abiotic transformation was found to be the main transformation mechanism for THC (aerobic conditions); mephedrone, methadone, cocaine, ecgonine methyl ester, cocaethylene, THCOH and THCCOOH (anaerobic conditions). By use of the proposed model the uncertainty of predicting illicit drug...

  16. Estimation of illicit drug use in the main cities of Colombia by means of urban wastewater analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bijlsma, Lubertus; Botero-Coy, Ana M. [Research Institute for Pesticides and Water (IUPA), University Jaume I, Castellón (Spain); Rincón, Rolando J. [Chemistry Department, Faculty of Sciences, University Antonio Nariño (Colombia); Peñuela, Gustavo A. [Grupo GDCON, Facultad de Ingeniería, Universidad de Antioquia, 70 # 52-21, Medellin (Colombia); Hernández, Félix, E-mail: felix.hernandez@uji.es [Research Institute for Pesticides and Water (IUPA), University Jaume I, Castellón (Spain)

    2016-09-15

    Wastewater-based epidemiology (WBE) relies on the principle that traces of compounds, which a population is exposed to or consume, are excreted unchanged or as metabolites in urine and/or feces, and ultimately end up in the sewer network. Measuring target metabolic residues i.e. biomarkers in raw urban wastewater allows identifying the exposure or use of substances of interest in a community. Up to date, the most popular application of WBE is the estimation of illicit drug use and studies have been made mainly across Europe, which has allowed estimating and comparing drug use in many European cities. However, until now a comprehensive study applying WBE on the most frequently consumed illicit drugs has not been performed in South American countries. In this work, we applied this approach to samples from Colombia, selecting two of the most populated cities: Bogotá and Medellin. Several biomarkers were selected to estimate drug use of cocaine, cannabis, amphetamine, methamphetamine, MDMA (ecstasy), heroin and ketamine. Composite samples (24-h) were collected at the corresponding municipal wastewater treatment plants. Sample treatment was performed at location by applying solid-phase extraction (SPE). Before SPE, the samples were spiked with appropriate isotope labeled internal standards. In parallel, samples (spiked with the analytes under study at two concentration levels) were also processed for quality control. Analysis of influent wastewater was made by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, with triple quadrupole analyzer. Data shown in this paper reveal a high use of cocaine by the population of the selected Colombian cities, particularly from Medellin, while the use of other illicit drugs were low. The relevance of using quality control samples, particularly in collaborative studies, as those presented in this work, where research groups from different countries participate and where the samples had to be shipped overseas, is highlighted in this

  17. T4 report. An expert consortium review of the EC-commissioned report "Alternative (non-animal) methods for cosmetics testing: Current status and future prospects - 2010"

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartung, T.; Blaauboer, B.J.; Bosgra, S.; Carney, E.; Coenen, J.; Conolly, R.B.; Corsini, E.; Green, S.; Faustman, E.M.; Gaspari, A.; Hayashi, M.; Hayes, A.W.; Hengstler, J.G.; Knudsen, L.E.; Knudsen, T.B.; McKim, J.M.; Pfaller, W.; Roggen, E.L.

    2011-01-01

    The European cosmetics legislation foresees a review in 2011 and possible postponement of the 2013 marketing ban to enforce the testing ban for systemic and repeated-dose animal tests. For this purpose, a 119-page report commissioned by the European Commission was published recently. Here, a group

  18. Future Performance Trend Indicators: A Current Value Approach to Human Resources Accounting. Report II: Internal Consistencies and Relationships to Performance in Organization VI. Technical Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pecorella, Patricia A.; Bowers, David G.

    Conventional accounting systems provide no indication as to what conditions and events lead to reported outcomes, since they traditionally do not include measurements of the human organization and its relationship to events at the outcome stage. Human resources accounting is used to measure these additional types of data. This research is…

  19. T4 report. An expert consortium review of the EC-commissioned report "Alternative (non-animal) methods for cosmetics testing: Current status and future prospects - 2010"

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartung, T.; Blaauboer, B.J.; Bosgra, S.; Carney, E.; Coenen, J.; Conolly, R.B.; Corsini, E.; Green, S.; Faustman, E.M.; Gaspari, A.; Hayashi, M.; Hayes, A.W.; Hengstler, J.G.; Knudsen, L.E.; Knudsen, T.B.; McKim, J.M.; Pfaller, W.; Roggen, E.L.

    2011-01-01

    The European cosmetics legislation foresees a review in 2011 and possible postponement of the 2013 marketing ban to enforce the testing ban for systemic and repeated-dose animal tests. For this purpose, a 119-page report commissioned by the European Commission was published recently. Here, a group o

  20. Self-reported adherence supports patient preference for the single tablet regimen (STR in the current cART era

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sterrantino G

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Gaetana Sterrantino,1 Lucia Santoro,1 Dario Bartolozzi1,1 Michele Trotta,1 Mauro Zaccarelli21SOD Malattie Infettive, Azienda Ospedaliera Universitaria Careggi, Firenze, 2Istituto Nazionale per le Malattie Infettive "Lazzaro Spallanzani," Roma, ItalyObjective: To analyze self-reported adherence to antiretroviral regimens containing ritonavir-boosted protease inhibitors, nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTI, raltegravir, and maraviroc.Methods: Overall, 372 consecutive subjects attending a reference center for HIV treatment in Florence, Italy, were enrolled in the study, from December 2010 to January 2012 (mean age 48 years. A self-report questionnaire was filled in. Patients were defined as "nonadherent" if reporting one of the following criteria: <90% of pills taken in the last month, ≥1 missed dose in the last week, spontaneous treatment interruptions reported, or refill problems in the last 3 months. Gender, age, CD4, HIV-RNA, years of therapy, and type of antiretroviral regimen were analyzed with respect to adherence.Results: At the time of the questionnaire, 89.8% of patients had <50 copies/mL HIV-RNA and 14.2% were on their first combined antiretroviral therapy. 57% of patients were prescribed a regimen containing ritonavir boosted protease inhibitors (boosted PI, 41.7% NNRTI, 17.2% raltegravir, and 4.8% maraviroc; 49.5% of the subjects were on bis-in-die regimens, while 50.5% were on OD regimens, with 23.1% of these on the single tablet regimen (STR: tenofovir/emtricitabine/efavirenz. The nonadherence proportion was lower in NNRTI than in boosted-PI treatments (19.4% vs 30.2%, and even lower in STR patients (17.4%. In multivariable logistic regression, patients with the NNRTI regimen (OR: 0.56, 95% CI: 0.34–0.94 and the STR (OR: 0.45, 95% CI: 0.22–0.92 reported lower nonadherence. Efavirenz regimens were also associated with lower nonadherence (OR: 0.42, 95% CI: 0.21–0.83, while atazanavir/ritonavir regimens were

  1. Summary report of PQRI Workshop on Nanomaterial in Drug Products: current experience and management of potential risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, Jeremy A; Brewster, Marcus; Brown, Paul; Cabral-Lilly, Donna; Cruz, Celia N; David, Raymond; Eickhoff, W Mark; Haubenreisser, Sabine; Jacobs, Abigail; Malinoski, Frank; Morefield, Elaine; Nalubola, Ritu; Prud'homme, Robert K; Sadrieh, Nakissa; Sayes, Christie M; Shahbazian, Hripsime; Subbarao, Nanda; Tamarkin, Lawrence; Tyner, Katherine; Uppoor, Rajendra; Whittaker-Caulk, Margaret; Zamboni, William

    2015-01-01

    At the Product Quality Research Institute (PQRI) Workshop held last January 14-15, 2014, participants from academia, industry, and governmental agencies involved in the development and regulation of nanomedicines discussed the current state of characterization, formulation development, manufacturing, and nonclinical safety evaluation of nanomaterial-containing drug products for human use. The workshop discussions identified areas where additional understanding of material attributes, absorption, biodistribution, cellular and tissue uptake, and disposition of nanosized particles would continue to inform their safe use in drug products. Analytical techniques and methods used for in vitro characterization and stability testing of formulations containing nanomaterials were discussed, along with their advantages and limitations. Areas where additional regulatory guidance and material characterization standards would help in the development and approval of nanomedicines were explored. Representatives from the US Food and Drug Administration (USFDA), Health Canada, and European Medicines Agency (EMA) presented information about the diversity of nanomaterials in approved and newly developed drug products. USFDA, Health Canada, and EMA regulators discussed the applicability of current regulatory policies in presentations and open discussion. Information contained in several of the recent EMA reflection papers was discussed in detail, along with their scope and intent to enhance scientific understanding about disposition, efficacy, and safety of nanomaterials introduced in vivo and regulatory requirements for testing and market authorization. Opportunities for interaction with regulatory agencies during the lifecycle of nanomedicines were also addressed at the meeting. This is a summary of the workshop presentations and discussions, including considerations for future regulatory guidance on drug products containing nanomaterials.

  2. Evaluation of potential surface rupture and review of current seismic hazards program at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-12-09

    This report summarizes the authors review and evaluation of the existing seismic hazards program at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The report recommends that the original program be augmented with a probabilistic analysis of seismic hazards involving assignment of weighted probabilities of occurrence to all potential sources. This approach yields a more realistic evaluation of the likelihood of large earthquake occurrence particularly in regions where seismic sources may have recurrent intervals of several thousand years or more. The report reviews the locations and geomorphic expressions of identified fault lines along with the known displacements of these faults and last know occurrence of seismic activity. Faults are mapped and categorized into by their potential for actual movement. Based on geologic site characterization, recommendations are made for increased seismic monitoring; age-dating studies of faults and geomorphic features; increased use of remote sensing and aerial photography for surface mapping of faults; the development of a landslide susceptibility map; and to develop seismic design standards for all existing and proposed facilities at LANL.

  3. Sorption of structurally different ionized pharmaceutical and illicit drugs to a mixed-mode coated microsampler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltenburg, Hester; Timmer, Niels; Bosman, Ingrid J; Hermens, Joop L M; Droge, Steven T J

    2016-05-20

    The mixed-mode (C18/strong cation exchange-SCX) solid-phase microextraction (SPME) fiber has recently been shown to have increased sensitivity for ionic compounds compared to more conventional sampler coatings such as polyacrylate and polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS). However, data for structurally diverse compounds to this (prototype) sampler coating are too limited to define its structural limitations. We determined C18/SCX fiber partitioning coefficients of nineteen cationic structures without hydrogen bonding capacity besides the charged group, stretching over a wide hydrophobicity range (including amphetamine, amitriptyline, promazine, chlorpromazine, triflupromazine, difenzoquat), and eight basic pharmaceutical and illicit drugs (pKa>8.86) with additional hydrogen bonding moieties (MDMA, atenolol, alprenolol, metoprolol, morphine, nicotine, tramadol, verapamil). In addition, sorption data for three neutral benzodiazepines (diazepam, temazepam, and oxazepam) and the anionic NSAID diclofenac were collected to determine the efficiency to sample non-basic drugs. All tested compounds showed nonlinear isotherms above 1mmol/L coating, and linear isotherms below 1mmol/L. The affinity for C18/SCX-SPME for tested organic cations without Hbond capacities increased with longer alkyl chains, ranging from logarithmic fiber-water distribution coefficients (log Dfw) of 1.8 (benzylamine) to 5.8 (triflupromazine). Amines smaller than benzylamine may thus have limited detection levels, while cationic surfactants with alkyl chain lengths >12 carbon atoms may sorb too strong to the C18/SCX sampler which hampers calibration of the fiber-water relationship in the linear range. The log Dfw for these simple cation structures closely correlates with the octanol-water partition coefficient of the neutral form (Kow,N), and decreases with increased branching and presence of multiple aromatic rings. Oxygen moieties in organic cations decreased the affinity for C18/SCX-SPME. Log Dfw values of

  4. Effect of alcohol and illicit substance use on verbal memory among individuals with bipolar disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Karen; Suchting, Robert; Zunta-Soares, Giovana; Quevedo, João; Glahn, David C.; Soares, Jair C.

    2016-01-01

    Background Cognitive impairment is a well-established feature of bipolar disorder (BD). Comorbid BD and substance use leads to poor psychosocial and clinical outcomes. However, knowledge on the neurocognitive functioning of individuals with dual diagnosis is limited. The aim of this study is to assess the cognitive performance of subjects with BD, BD with comorbid alcohol use disorder (AUD), and BD with comorbid illicit substance use disorders (SUD) as compared to healthy individuals. Methods We included 270 inpatients and outpatients with BD and 211 healthy controls. The diagnostic of BD and substance use disorder was assessed using the Structured Clinical Interview for the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders Axis I. Demographic and clinical information were also collected. The cognitive assessment included the Wechsler Test of Adult Reading (WTAR), and a revised version of the California Verbal Learning Test (CVLT) as part of the South Texas Assessment of Neurocognition (STAN). Results The STAN was administered to 134 BD patients (100 female, M±SD: 37.37±12.74 years), 72 BD patients with AUD (40 female, M±SD: 38.42±11.82), 64 BD patients with SUD (39 female, M±SD: 34.50±10.57), and 211 healthy controls with no lifetime history of mental illness and substance use (127 female, M±SD: 34.80±12.57 years). In terms of clinical characteristics, BD+SUD showed a marginally earlier onset of illness compared to BD. Compared to HC, BD performed poorly in the immediate recall and short-delay free tests of the CVLT, while BD patients with AUD and SUD showed significant memory deficits in both the immediate recall and recognition components of the CVLT. There were no differences in memory performance between BD and BD with either AUD or SUD. Conclusions A history of substance use disorders is associated with an earlier onset of BD. BD has marked effects on processes underlying the encoding of new information, while comorbid substance use in BD impairs

  5. Illicit Internet availability of drugs subject to recall and patient safety consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackey, Tim K; Aung, Phyo; Liang, Bryan A

    2015-12-01

    Permanently recalled drugs are a public health concern if they remain accessible in violation of applicable regulation. Illicit online pharmacies act as an alternative form of access and have been associated with the sale to patients of counterfeit/falsified/fraudulent/substandard drugs. We wished to determine if permanently recalled and significantly restricted drugs were illegally marketed for sale online. The study was conducted in two phases with two objectives. The first phase attempted to identify drugs subject to permanent recall in certain major pharmaceutical markets as well as those listed as recalled or significantly restricted by the United Nations. We also examined the market authorization status of identified drugs in China and India. The second phase used structured searches on the Internet to determine if identified drugs were marketed for sale online. The World Wide Web. After identification of permanently recalled and restricted drugs we conducted Internet searches for illegal "no prescription" marketing events. We assessed the form of marketing, whether a site offered direct-to-patient sale, use of social media marketing, and the site's compliance status with external monitoring bodies. Number of recalled drugs marketed as available for purchase on the Internet. We identified 16 class I equivalent permanently recalled or restricted drugs, 56.3 % (n = 9) of which maintained market authorization in either China or India. Half (n = 8) were marketed for sale online without a prescription direct-to-patient. Use of social media marketing was mixed, with only 18.8 % (n = 3) of recalled drugs having a presence on Facebook, though 50.0 % (n = 8) had content on Twitter. We also found the majority (68.8 %, n = 11) were available and marketed for sale by vendors on the wholesale/business-to-business website alibaba.com primarily as active pharmaceutical ingredient. Despite efforts in several countries to restrict access to these drugs or permanently remove

  6. The fate of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs), endocrine disrupting contaminants (EDCs), metabolites and illicit drugs in a WWTW and environmental waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer, Edward; Petrie, Bruce; Kasprzyk-Hordern, Barbara; Wolfaardt, Gideon M

    2017-05-01

    A large number of emerging contaminants (ECs) are known to persist in surface waters, and create pressure on wastewater treatment works (WWTW) for their effective removal. Although a large database for the levels of these pollutants in water systems exist globally, there is still a lack in the correlation of the levels of these pollutants with possible long-term adverse health effects in wildlife and humans, such as endocrine disruption. The current study detected a total of 55 ECs in WWTW influent surface water, 41 ECs in effluent, and 40 ECs in environmental waters located upstream and downstream of the plant. A list of ECs persisted through the WWTW process, with 28% of all detected ECs removed by less than 50%, and 18% of all ECs were removed by less than 25%. Negative mass balances of some pharmaceuticals and metabolites were observed within the WWTW, suggesting possible back-transformation of ECs during wastewater treatment. Three parental illicit drug compounds were detected within the influent of the WWTW, with concentrations ranging between 27.6 and 147.0 ng L(-1) for cocaine, 35.6-120.6 ng L(-1) for mephedrone, and 270.9-450.2 ng L(-1) for methamphetamine. The related environmental risks are also discussed for some ECs, with particular reference to their ability to disrupt endocrine systems. The current study propose the potential of the pharmaceuticals carbamazepine, naproxen, diclofenac and ibuprofen to be regarded as priority ECs for environmental monitoring due to their regular detection and persistence in environmental waters and their possible contribution towards adverse health effects in humans and wildlife. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  7. Self-reported adherence supports patient preference for the single tablet regimen (STR in the current cART era

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Sterrantino

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To analyze self-reported adherence to antiretroviral regimens containing ritonavir-boosted protease inhibitors, non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTI, raltegravir, and maraviroc. Methods: Overall, 372 consecutive subjects attending a reference center for HIV treatment in Florence, Italy, were enrolled in the study, from December 2010 to January 2012 (mean age 48 years. A self-report questionnaire was filled in. Patients were defined as “non-adherent” if reporting one of the following criteria:<90% of pills taken in the last month, ≥1 missed dose in the last week, spontaneous treatment interruptions reported, or refill problems in the last 3 months. Gender, age, CD4, HIV-RNA, years of therapy, and type of antiretroviral regimen were analyzed with respect to adherence. Results: At the time of the questionnaire, 89.8% of patients had <50 copies/mL HIV-RNA and 14.2% were on their first combined antiretroviral therapy. 57% of patients were prescribed a regimen containing ritonavir boosted protease inhibitors (boosted PI, 41.7% NNRTI, 17.2% raltegravir, and 4.8% maraviroc; 49.5% of the subjects were on bis-in-die regimens, while 50.5% were on once-daily regimens, with 23.1% of these on the single tablet regimen (STR: tenofovir/emtricitabine/efavirenz. The non-adherence proportion was lower in NNRTI than in boosted-PI treatments (19.4% vs 30.2%, and even lower in STR patients (17.4%. In multivariable logistic regression, patients with the NNRTI regimen (OR: 0.56, 95% CI: 0.34–0.94 and the STR (OR: 0.45, 95% CI: 0.22–0.92 reported lower non-adherence. Efavirenz regimens were also associated with lower non-adherence (OR: 0.42, 95% CI: 0.21–0.83, while atazanavir/ritonavir regimens were associated with higher non-adherence. No other relation to specific antiretroviral drugs was found. A higher CD4 count, lower HIV-RNA, and older age were also found to be associated with lower non-adherence, while a longer time on

  8. Current distribution of the invasive earthworm Pontoscolex corethrurus (Müller, 1857 after a century of its first report from Kerala state, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasanth Narayanan, S.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Pontoscolex corethrurus (Müller, 1857 is an important peregrine earthworm species in the humid tropics and is found in land disturbed by human activities. Its presence in Kerala state was first reported by Michaelsen in 1910. So far the occurrence of 14 exotic earthworm species has been reported from Kerala state. However present distribution status of any of these exotic species is not yet thoroughly studied. Now P. corethrurus is naturalized in forests, degraded areas, and agroecosystems from the higher altitude areas to the coastal zones. Here, the current distribution pattern of P. corethrurus in the state after a period of 100 years is highlighted.

  9. "Not just eliminating the mosquito but draining the swamp": A critical geopolitics of Turkish Monitoring Center for Drugs and Drug Addiction and Turkey's approach to illicit drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evered, Kyle T; Evered, Emine Ö

    2016-07-01

    In the 1970s, Turkey ceased to be a significant producer state of illicit drugs, but it continued to serve as a key route for the trade of drugs between East and West. Over the past decade, however, authorities identified two concerns beyond its continued transit state status. These reported problems entail both new modes of production and a rising incidence of drug abuse within the nation-state - particularly among its youth. Amid these developments, new law enforcement institutions emerged and acquired European sponsorship, leading to the establishment of TUBİM (the Turkish Monitoring Center for Drugs and Drug Addiction). Coordinating with and reporting to the European Union agency EMCDDA (the European Monitoring Center for Drugs and Drug Addiction), TUBİM's primary assigned duties entail the collection and analysis of data on drug abuse, trafficking, and prevention, the geographic identification of sites of concern (e.g. consumption, drug-related crimes, and peoples undergoing treatment), and the production of annual national reports. In this article, we examine the geopolitical origins of TUBİM as Turkey's central apparatus for confronting drug problems and its role as a vehicle for policy development, interpretation, and enforcement. In doing so, we emphasize the political and spatial dimensions inherent to the country's institutional and policy-driven approaches to contend with drug-related problems, and we assess how this line of attack reveals particular ambiguities in mission when evaluated from scales at world regional, national, and local levels. In sum, we assess how Turkey's new institutional and legislative landscapes condition the state's engagements with drug use, matters of user's health, and policy implementation at local scales and amid ongoing political developments. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Comparison of pharmaceutical, illicit drug, alcohol, nicotine and caffeine levels in wastewater with sale, seizure and consumption data for 8 European cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baz-Lomba, Jose Antonio; Salvatore, Stefania; Gracia-Lor, Emma

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Monitoring the scale of pharmaceuticals, illicit and licit drugs consumption is important to assess the needs of law enforcement and public health, and provides more information about the different trends within different countries. Community drug use patterns are usually described...... by national surveys, sales and seizure data. Wastewater-based epidemiology (WBE) has been shown to be a reliable approach complementing such surveys. METHOD: This study aims to compare and correlate the consumption estimates of pharmaceuticals, illicit drugs, alcohol, nicotine and caffeine from wastewater...... analysis and other sources of information. Wastewater samples were collected in 2015 from 8 different European cities over a one week period, representing a population of approximately 5 million people. Published pharmaceutical sale, illicit drug seizure and alcohol, tobacco and caffeine use data were used...

  11. [Current issues in pulmonary pathology. Report of the working group on pulmonary pathology of the German Society of Pathology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnabel, Ph A; Petersen, I; Junker, K

    2012-11-01

    The working group on pulmonary pathology of the German Society of Pathology (Deutsche Gesellschaft für Pathologie, DGP) developed very actively in the last year. Apart from the autumn meeting in Heidelberg in 2011 and the sessions at the annual DGP meeting in Berlin it was possible to realize a first publication with support and coauthorship of several members of the working group dealing with the classification of lung adenocarcinoma. In this report the key aspects of the activity related to the following issues are summarized including non-small cell lung carcinoma, neuroendocrine tumors of the lungs, interstitial pulmonary diseases, cell blocks in cytology and banking in thoracic pathology.

  12. Buying drugs on a Darknet market: A better deal? Studying the online illicit drug market through the analysis of digital, physical and chemical data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhumorbarbe, Damien; Staehli, Ludovic; Broséus, Julian; Rossy, Quentin; Esseiva, Pierre

    2016-10-01

    Darknet markets, also known as cryptomarkets, are websites located on the Darknet and designed to allow the trafficking of illicit products, mainly drugs. This study aims at presenting the added value of combining digital, chemical and physical information to reconstruct sellers' activities. In particular, this research focuses on Evolution, one of the most popular cryptomarkets active from January 2014 to March 2015. Evolution source code files were analysed using Python scripts based on regular expressions to extract information about listings (i.e., sales proposals) and sellers. The results revealed more than 48,000 listings and around 2700 vendors claiming to send illicit drug products from 70 countries. The most frequent categories of illicit drugs offered by vendors were cannabis-related products (around 25%) followed by ecstasy (MDA, MDMA) and stimulants (cocaine, speed). The cryptomarket was then especially studied from a Swiss point of view. Illicit drugs were purchased from three sellers located in Switzerland. The purchases were carried out to confront digital information (e.g., the type of drug, the purity, the shipping country and the concealment methods mentioned on listings) with the physical analysis of the shipment packaging and the chemical analysis of the received product (purity, cutting agents, chemical profile based on minor and major alkaloids, chemical class). The results show that digital information, such as concealment methods and shipping country, seems accurate. But the illicit drugs purity is found to be different from the information indicated on their respective listings. Moreover, chemical profiling highlighted links between cocaine sold online and specimens seized in Western Switzerland. This study highlights that (1) the forensic analysis of the received products allows the evaluation of the accuracy of digital data collected on the website, and (2) the information from digital and physical/chemical traces are complementary to

  13. Presence of dual diagnosis between users and non-users of licit and illicit drugs in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Bandeira Formiga

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective Investigate the occurrence of dual diagnosis in users of legal and illegal drugs. Methods It is an analytical, cross-sectional study with a quantitative approach, non-probabilistic intentional sampling, carried out in two centers for drug addiction treatment, by means of individual interviews. A sociodemographic questionnaire, the Alcohol, Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test (ASSIST and the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI were used. Results One hundred and ten volunteers divided into abstinent users (group 1, alcoholics (group 2 and users of alcohol and illicit drugs (group 3. The substances were alcohol, tobacco, crack and marijuana. A higher presence of dual diagnosis in group 3 (71.8% was observed, which decreased in group 2 (60% and 37.1% of drug abstinent users had psychiatric disorder. Dual diagnosis was associated with the risk of suicide, suicide attempts and the practice of infractions. The crack consumption was associated with the occurrence of major depressive episode and antisocial personality disorder. Conclusion It was concluded that the illicit drug users had a higher presence of dual diagnosis showing the severity of this clinical condition. It is considered essential that this clinical reality is included in intervention strategies in order to decrease the negative effects of consumption of these substances and provide better quality of life for these people.

  14. Assess Current and Potential Salmonid Production in Rattlesnake Creek Associated with Restoration Efforts; US Geological Survey Reports, 2001-2002 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Connolly, Patrick J. (US Geological Survey, Western Fisheries Research Center, Columbia River Research Laboratory, Cook, WA)

    2003-01-01

    This project was designed to document existing habitat conditions and fish populations within the Rattlesnake Creek watershed (White Salmon River subbasin, Washington) before major habitat restoration activities are implemented and prior to the reintroduction of salmon and steelhead above Condit Dam. Returning adult salmon Oncorhynchus spp. and steelhead O. mykiss have not had access to Rattlesnake Creek since 1914. An assessment of resident trout populations should serve as a good surrogate for evaluation of factors that would limit salmon and steelhead production in the watershed. Personnel from United States Geological Survey's Columbia River Research Laboratory (USGS-CRRL) attend to three main objectives of the Rattlesnake Creek project. The first is to characterize stream and riparian habitat conditions. This effort includes measures of water quality, water quantity, stream habitat, and riparian conditions. The second objective is to determine the status of fish populations in the Rattlesnake Creek drainage. To accomplish this, we derived estimates of salmonid population abundance, determined fish species composition, assessed distribution and life history attributes, obtained tissue samples for future genetic analysis, and assessed fish diseases in the watershed. The third objective is to use the collected habitat and fisheries information to help identify and prioritize areas in need of restoration. As this report covers the first year of a three-year study, this report is restricted to describing our work on the first two objectives only.

  15. Engineering change management report 2012: Survey results on causes and effects, current practice, problems, and strategies in Brazil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chucholowski, Nepomuk; Langer, Stefan; Ferreira, Marcelo Gitirana Gomes

    Engineering changes (ECs) are well known for generating additional costs and decreasing de-velopment efficiency. Yet, they are a fundamental part of product and service development and they are necessary to keep up with, for example, competitors, market trends or new technolo-gies. The effective...... management of engineering changes is a crucial precondition for Brazilian companies to successfully compete not only on the fast growing Brazilian market, but also on the world market which becomes more interesting due to the rising industrial power of Brazil. To achieve improvements in engineering change...... management practice, industry and universities need to work together. In this report the main findings of our study on Engineering Change Management (ECM) in Brazilian companies are presented, which indicate possible solution strategies and further research needs. Our survey aimed on the investigation...

  16. APA guidelines: their importance and a plan to keep them current: 2013 annual report of the Policy and Planning Board.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    When guidelines are approved by APA, they become association policy, and it is imperative that they remain current. The revision of guidelines poses several challenges to the association. These challenges range from the availability and allocation of resources to support the complicated processes involved in developing and updating these policies to the lack of a clearly defined process that includes identification of tasks, assignments of responsibilities, and so forth. For this reason, the APA Board of Directors asked the Policy and Planning Board (P&P) to work with the boards of the four directorates (i.e., the Education Directorate, the Practice Directorate, the Public Interest Directorate, and the Science Directorate) to create a proposal that would (a) make recommendations with regard to how the review and revision of guidelines documents might best be accomplished in accordance with the APA Strategic Plan and existing policies and procedures and (b) make suggestions regarding the association resources that might be required. The Board of Directors approved the proposed review process in December 2013. 2014 APA, all rights reserved

  17. An expert consortium review of the EC-commissioned report "alternative (Non-Animal) methods for cosmetics testing: current status and future prospects - 2010"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartung, Thomas; Blaauboer, Bas J; Bosgra, Sieto

    2011-01-01

    The European cosmetics legislation foresees a review in 2011 and possible postponement of the 2013 marketing ban to enforce the testing ban for systemic and repeated-dose animal tests. For this purpose, a 119-page report commissioned by the European Commission was published recently. Here, a group...... of 17 independent experts from the US, Europe, and Japan was brought together to evaluate the report. The expert panel strongly endorsed the report and its conclusions. A number of important options not considered were identified; these do not, however, affect the overall conclusions regarding...... the current lack of availability of a full replacement, especially for the areas of repeated dose toxicity, carcinogenicity testing, and reproductive toxicity, though a roadmap for change is emerging. However, some of these options may provide adequate data for replacement of some animal studies in the near...

  18. An expert consortium review of the EC-commissioned report "alternative (Non-Animal) methods for cosmetics testing: current status and future prospects - 2010"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartung, Thomas; Blaauboer, Bas J; Bosgra, Sieto

    2011-01-01

    The European cosmetics legislation foresees a review in 2011 and possible postponement of the 2013 marketing ban to enforce the testing ban for systemic and repeated-dose animal tests. For this purpose, a 119-page report commissioned by the European Commission was published recently. Here, a group...... of 17 independent experts from the US, Europe, and Japan was brought together to evaluate the report. The expert panel strongly endorsed the report and its conclusions. A number of important options not considered were identified; these do not, however, affect the overall conclusions regarding...... the current lack of availability of a full replacement, especially for the areas of repeated dose toxicity, carcinogenicity testing, and reproductive toxicity, though a roadmap for change is emerging. However, some of these options may provide adequate data for replacement of some animal studies in the near...

  19. Partitioning and transmutation. Current developments - 2010. A report from the Swedish reference group for PT-research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blomgren, Jan (ed.) (Swedish Centre for Nuclear Technology, SKC, Stockholm (Sweden)); Karlsson, Fred (Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (Sweden)); Pomp, Stephan (Uppsala Univ., Uppsala, Dept. of Physics and Astronomy, Div. of Applied Nuclear Physics (Sweden)); Aneheim, Emma; Ekberg, Christian; Fermvik, Anna; Skarnemark, Gunnar (Nuclear Chemistry, Dept. of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden)); Wallenius, Janne; Zakova, Jitka (Reactor Physics Div., Physics Dept., Royal Inst. of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden)); Grenthe, Ingemar; Szabo, Zoltan (School of Chemical Science and Engineering, Royal Inst. of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden))

    2010-01-15

    The research and development on methods for partitioning and transmutation (P and T) of long-lived radionuclides in spent nuclear fuel has attracted considerable interest during the last decade. The main objective of P and T is to eliminate or at least substantially reduce the amount of such long-lived radionuclides that has to go to a deep geological repository for final disposal. The objective of current research on partitioning is to find and develop processes suitable for separation of the heavier actinides (and possibly some long-lived fission products) on an industrial scale. The objective of current research on transmutation is to define, investigate and develop facilities that may be suitable for transmutation of the long-lived radionuclides. The research on partitioning has made important progress in recent years. In some cases one has succeeded to separate americium and curium. Many challenges remain however. Within hydrochemistry one has achieved sufficiently good distribution and separation factors. The focus turns now towards development of an operating process. The search for ligands that give sufficiently good extraction and separation will continue but with less intensity. The emphasis will rather be on improving stability against hydrolysis and radiolysis. This may be achieved either by additives to the solvent or by selection of a proper solvent. The development of processes and equipment must be intensified. Pyrochemical research is looking into methods for recovery of uranium and for separating fission products with large neutron cross sections. The objective is to avoid separation of plutonium from other transuranium elements and thus simplify the proliferation issue. The future work is focused on improved selectivity and on technical development. Design of processes and equipment is difficult due to the aggressive properties of the melts and the relatively high temperatures required. The fabrication of fuel for transmutation and the

  20. Current status of acute stroke management in Korea: a report on a multicenter, comprehensive acute stroke registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Beom Joon; Han, Moon-Ku; Park, Tai Hwan; Park, Sang-Soon; Lee, Kyung Bok; Lee, Byung-Chul; Yu, Kyung-Ho; Cha, Jae Kwan; Kim, Dae-Hyun; Lee, Jun; Lee, Soo Joo; Ko, Youngchai; Park, Jong-Moo; Kang, Kyusik; Cho, Yong-Jin; Hong, Keun-Sik; Cho, Ki-Hyun; Kim, Joon-Tae; Kim, Dong-Eog; Lee, Juneyoung; Lee, Ji Sung; Jang, Myung Suk; Broderick, Joseph P; Yoon, Byung-Woo; Bae, Hee-Joon

    2014-06-01

    There are limited data on the utilization of diagnostics and the variation of treatments at the national level in acute stroke care. Clinical Research Center for Stroke--5th division stroke registry aimed to describe stroke statistics and quality of care in Korea and to implement quality indicators. Clinical Research Center for Stroke--5th division registry was established in April 2008 and covers pretreatment demographics, medical and stroke severity measures, diagnostic evaluation, hyperacute revascularization, in-hospital management, discharge disposition, quality indicators, and long-term functional outcomes. Consecutive stroke cases from 12 participating centers are registered to a web-based database. Meticulous data management and auditing policy were applied. A total of 14,792 ischemic stroke cases were enrolled from April 2008 to January 2012. The median National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score was 4 at admission, with median delay of onset to arrival of 14 h. Rate of risk factor management before stroke exceeds more than 80% for hypertension and diabetes. Revascularization procedures were performed in 1736 subjects (12%), and 34% were endovascular (n = 598). Substantial variability was noted in the preferred modality of hyperacute revascularization (range of endovascular recanalization = 6-60%), use of computed tomography (30-93%), and perfusion imaging (2-96%). The Clinical Research Center for Stroke--5th division registry documented that the current practice of acute stroke care in South Korea largely met the standard of guidelines, but variability of practice still remains. The registry would provide an opportunity to evaluate the quality of stroke care across South Korea and compare it with that of other countries. © 2013 The Authors. International Journal of Stroke © 2013 World Stroke Organization.