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Sample records for reported current illicit

  1. Report on combating of illicit trafficking. The Illicit Trafficking Combat Project Group. January 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    on the basis of the Additional Protocol. This would allow the IAEA to allocate more resources for combating illicit trafficking. Concerning the basic requirements on combating illicit trafficking, it is observed that appropriate nuclear legislation has not been introduced in several countries. Some countries have the necessary legislation, but with a poor implementation and supervision of its adherence. With the purpose to effectively change this unsatisfactory situation, this study suggests, that a new international regime should be established by the Untied Nations and be assigned the task to: define the set of requirements and recommendations to be implemented in States for the effective combating of illicit trafficking, and to promote and pursue the implementation of and adherence to them; develop and establish a follow-up and audit system, with the purpose to review the implementation of those requirements and recommendations; carry out audits; when necessary, initiate the development of improved requirements, based on follow-up findings. Such a new Regime would not be intended to alter the current obligations of the IAEA as defined by its Statute and mandate. The role of the new organisation would be to supplement the obligations of the IAEA, as necessary, for the combating of illicit trafficking. It is important that the public and the media are getting full insight in the manner States are fulfilling their non-proliferation commitments. This study proposes that the principle of public access to information should apply regarding events related to illicit trafficking

  2. Neighborhood-level LGBT hate crimes and current illicit drug use among sexual minority youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Dustin T; Hatzenbuehler, Mark L; Johnson, Renee M

    2014-02-01

    To investigate whether past-30 day illicit drug use among sexual minority youth was more common in neighborhoods with a greater prevalence of hate crimes targeting lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT, or sexual minority) individuals. We used a population-based survey of public school youth in Boston, Massachusetts, consisting of 1292 9th-12th grade students from the 2008 Boston Youth Survey Geospatial Dataset (sexual minority n=108). Data on LGBT hate crimes involving assaults or assaults and battery between 2005 and 2008 were obtained from the Boston Police Department and linked to youths' residential address. Youth reported past-30 day use of marijuana and other illicit drugs. Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney tests and corresponding p-values were computed to assess differences in substance use by neighborhood-level LGBT assault hate crime rate among sexual minority youth (n=103). The LGBT assault hate crime rate in the neighborhoods of sexual minority youth who reported current marijuana use was 23.7 per 100,000, compared to 12.9 per 100,000 for sexual minority youth who reported no marijuana use (p=0.04). No associations between LGBT assault hate crimes and marijuana use among heterosexual youth (p>0.05) or between sexual minority marijuana use and overall neighborhood-level violent and property crimes (p>0.05) were detected, providing evidence for result specificity. We found a significantly greater prevalence of marijuana use among sexual minority youth in neighborhoods with a higher prevalence of LGBT assault hate crimes. These results suggest that neighborhood context (i.e., LGBT hate crimes) may contribute to sexual orientation disparities in marijuana use. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Report on combating of illicit trafficking. The Illicit Trafficking Combat Project Group. January 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-01-01

    The objective of this study is to propose improvements of different means and methods for the prevention of illicit trafficking and the proliferation of nuclear weapons. An essential requirement imposed on authorities and operators through basic nuclear legislation is the establishment and implementation of: a) nuclear material accountancy and control; b) physical protection of nuclear material and facilities; and c) export/import control of nuclear material and, so called, dual-use items. The legislation would make it possible for the State nuclear authority to be informed continuously about the location and quantity of nuclear material in the country, and to monitor that it is under satisfactory protection and guard in accordance with the requirements. The introduction of requirements on licensing of practices and activities involving dual-use items, and other products used for nuclear weapons manufacturing, would also give the authority the possibility to prevent unauthorised transfers of such products. The nuclear legislation must clearly stipulate the distribution of responsibilities between nuclear authority, operator and employees. This would give a solid basis for attaining high safety culture, including positive motivation and active commitment among executives and other employees. It would also ensure that nuclear material would not be lost through negligence or internal criminal activities. A further step of improvements on the national level, would be the urgent and firm introduction of modern Quality Assurance and Internal Control Systems into all forms of nuclear activities. In modern, safety related quality control systems, the operator alone is responsible for all activities and operations, and he must establish an internal control that will ensure that the authority's rules and requirements are thoroughly implemented and adhered to. The operator's organisation, including competence and procedures, must be approved by the State authority. By means

  4. Report on combating of illicit trafficking. The Illicit Trafficking Combat Project Group. January 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-01-01

    The objective of this study is to propose improvements of different means and methods for the prevention of illicit trafficking and the proliferation of nuclear weapons. An essential requirement imposed on authorities and operators through basic nuclear legislation is the establishment and implementation of: a) nuclear material accountancy and control; b) physical protection of nuclear material and facilities; and c) export/import control of nuclear material and, so called, dual-use items. The legislation would make it possible for the State nuclear authority to be informed continuously about the location and quantity of nuclear material in the country, and to monitor that it is under satisfactory protection and guard in accordance with the requirements. The introduction of requirements on licensing of practices and activities involving dual-use items, and other products used for nuclear weapons manufacturing, would also give the authority the possibility to prevent unauthorised transfers of such products. The nuclear legislation must clearly stipulate the distribution of responsibilities between nuclear authority, operator and employees. This would give a solid basis for attaining high safety culture, including positive motivation and active commitment among executives and other employees. It would also ensure that nuclear material would not be lost through negligence or internal criminal activities. A further step of improvements on the national level, would be the urgent and firm introduction of modern Quality Assurance and Internal Control Systems into all forms of nuclear activities. In modern, safety related quality control systems, the operator alone is responsible for all activities and operations, and he must establish an internal control that will ensure that the authority's rules and requirements are thoroughly implemented and adhered to. The operator's organisation, including competence and procedures, must be approved by the State authority

  5. Corruption and illicit financial flows: The limits and possibilities of current approaches

    OpenAIRE

    Reed, Quentin; Fontana, Alessandra

    2011-01-01

    This paper attempts to clarify the links between illicit financial flows and corruption, and how corruption may be tackled by stemming such flows. For this purpose, it clarifies the terminology surrounding illicit flows, describes the impact of such flows, outlines the techniques used to launder them (with a particular focus on laundering of the proceeds of corruption), and critically analyses existing policies designed to tackle illicit flows. This paper contributes to the regulatory de...

  6. How do Australian news media depict illicit drug issues? An analysis of print media reporting across and between illicit drugs, 2003-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Caitlin Elizabeth; Lancaster, Kari; Spicer, Bridget

    2011-07-01

    Media reporting on illicit issues has been frequently criticised for being sensationalised, biased and narrow. Yet, there have been few broad and systematic analyses of the nature of reporting. Using a large sample and methods commonly adopted in media communications analysis this paper sought to identify the dominant media portrayals used to denote illicit drugs in Australian newspapers and to compare and contrast portrayals across drug types. A retrospective content analysis of Australian print media was carried out over the period 2003-2008 from a sample comprised of 11 newspapers. Articles that contained one or more mention of five different drugs (or derivatives) were identified: cannabis, amphetamines, ecstasy, cocaine and heroin. A sub-sample of 4397 articles was selected for media content analysis (with 2045 selected for full content analysis) and a large number of text elements coded for each. Key elements included topic, explicit or implicit messages about the consequences of drugs/use and three value dimensions: overall tone, whether drugs were portrayed as a crisis issue and moral evaluations of drugs/use. The dominant media portrayals depicted law enforcement or criminal justice action (55%), but most articles were reported in a neutral manner, in the absence of crisis framings. Portrayals differed between drugs, with some containing more narrow frames and more explicit moral evaluations than others. For example, heroin was disproportionately framed as a drug that will lead to legal problems. In contrast, ecstasy and cocaine were much more likely to emphasise health and social problems. Media reporting on illicit drugs is heavily distorted towards crime and deviance framings, but may be less overtly sensationalised, biased and narrowly framed than previously suggested. This is not to suggest there is no sensationalism or imbalance, but this appears more associated with particular drug types and episodes of heightened public concern. Copyright © 2011

  7. Towards a greater understanding of the illicit tobacco trade in Europe: a review of the PMI funded 'Project Star' report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmore, Anna B; Rowell, Andy; Gallus, Silvano; Lugo, Alessandra; Joossens, Luk; Sims, Michelle

    2014-05-01

    Following a legal agreement with the European Union (EU), Philip Morris International (PMI) commissions a yearly report ('Project Star', PS) on the European illicit cigarette trade from KPMG, the global accountancy firm. Review of PS 2010 report. Comparison with data from independent sources including a 2010 pan-European survey (N=18,056). Within PS, data covering all 27 EU countries are entered into a model. While the model itself seems appropriate, concerns are identified with the methodologies underlying the data inputs and thus their quality: there is little transparency over methodologies; interview data underestimate legal non-domestic product partly by failing to account for legal cross-border sales; illicit cigarette estimates rely on tobacco industry empty pack surveys which may overestimate illicit; and there is an over-reliance on data supplied by PMI with inadequate external validation. Thus, PMI sales data are validated using PMI smoking prevalence estimates, yet PMI is unable to provide sales (shipment) data for the Greek islands and its prevalence estimates differ grossly from independent data. Consequently, comparisons with independent data suggest PS will tend to overestimate illicit cigarette levels particularly where cross-border shopping is frequent (Austria, Finland, France) and in Western compared with Eastern European countries. The model also provides data on the nature of the illicit cigarette market independent of seizure data suggesting that almost a quarter of the illicit cigarette market in 2010 comprised PMI's own brands compared with just 5% counterfeited PMI brands; a finding hidden in PMI's public representation of the data. PS overestimates illicit cigarette levels in some European countries and suggests PMI's supply chain control is inadequate. Its publication serves the interests of PMI over those of the EU and its member states. PS requires greater transparency, external scrutiny and use of independent data. Published by the BMJ

  8. Relationships between self-reported unfair treatment and prescription medication use, illicit drug use, and alcohol dependence among Filipino Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gee, Gilbert C; Delva, Jorge; Takeuchi, David T

    2007-05-01

    We examined associations between self-reported unfair treatment and prescription medication use, illicit drug use, and alcohol dependence. We used data from the Filipino American Community Epidemiological Survey, a cross-sectional investigation involving 2217 Filipino Americans interviewed in 1998-1999. Multinomial logistic and negative binomial regression analyses were used in assessing associations between unfair treatment and the substance use categories. Reports of unfair treatment were associated with prescription drug use, illicit drug use, and alcohol dependence after control for age, gender, location of residence, employment status, educational level, ethnic identity level, nativity, language spoken, marital status, and several health conditions. Unfair treatment may contribute to illness and subsequent use of prescription medications. Furthermore, some individuals may use illicit drugs and alcohol to cope with the stress associated with such treatment. Addressing the antecedents of unfair treatment may be a potential intervention route.

  9. Comparison between self-report and hair analysis of illicit drug use in a community sample of middle-age men

    OpenAIRE

    Ledgerwood, David M.; Goldberger, Bruce A.; Risk, Nathan K.; Lewis, Collins E.; Price, Rumi Kato

    2008-01-01

    Discrepancies between biological assays and self-report of illicit drug use could undermine epidemiological research findings. Two objectives of the present study are to examine the degree of agreement between self-reported illicit drug use and hair analysis in a community sample of middle-aged men, and to identify factors that may predict discrepancies between self-report and hair testing. Male participants followed since 1972 were interviewed about substance use, and hair samples were analy...

  10. IAEA Illicit Trafficking Database (ITDB)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    The IAEA Illicit Trafficking Database (ITDB) was established in 1995 as a unique network of points of contact connecting 100 states and several international organizations. Information collected from official sources supplemented by open-source reports. The 1994 - GC 38, resolution intensifies the activities through which the Agency is currently supporting Member States in this field. Member states were notified of completed database in 1995 and invited to participate. The purpose of the I TDB is to facilitate exchange of authoritative information among States on incidents of illicit trafficking and other related unauthorized activities involving nuclear and other radioactive materials; to collect, maintain and analyse information on such incidents with a view to identifying common threats, trends, and patterns; use this information for internal planning and prioritisation and provide this information to member states and to provide a reliable source of basic information on such incidents to the media, when appropriate

  11. Towards a greater understanding of the illicit tobacco trade in Europe: a review of the PMI funded ‘Project Star’ report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmore, Anna B; Rowell, Andy; Gallus, Silvano; Lugo, Alessandra; Joossens, Luk; Sims, Michelle

    2014-01-01

    Background Following a legal agreement with the European Union (EU), Philip Morris International (PMI) commissions a yearly report (‘Project Star’, PS) on the European illicit cigarette trade from KPMG, the global accountancy firm. Methods Review of PS 2010 report. Comparison with data from independent sources including a 2010 pan-European survey (N=18 056). Findings Within PS, data covering all 27 EU countries are entered into a model. While the model itself seems appropriate, concerns are identified with the methodologies underlying the data inputs and thus their quality: there is little transparency over methodologies; interview data underestimate legal non-domestic product partly by failing to account for legal cross-border sales; illicit cigarette estimates rely on tobacco industry empty pack surveys which may overestimate illicit; and there is an over-reliance on data supplied by PMI with inadequate external validation. Thus, PMI sales data are validated using PMI smoking prevalence estimates, yet PMI is unable to provide sales (shipment) data for the Greek islands and its prevalence estimates differ grossly from independent data. Consequently, comparisons with independent data suggest PS will tend to overestimate illicit cigarette levels particularly where cross-border shopping is frequent (Austria, Finland, France) and in Western compared with Eastern European countries. The model also provides data on the nature of the illicit cigarette market independent of seizure data suggesting that almost a quarter of the illicit cigarette market in 2010 comprised PMI's own brands compared with just 5% counterfeited PMI brands; a finding hidden in PMI's public representation of the data. Conclusions PS overestimates illicit cigarette levels in some European countries and suggests PMI's supply chain control is inadequate. Its publication serves the interests of PMI over those of the EU and its member states. PS requires greater transparency, external scrutiny and

  12. Rural Adolescent Alcohol, Tobacco, and Illicit Drug Use: A Comparison of Students in Victoria, Australia, and Washington State, United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coomber, Kerri; Toumbourou, John W.; Miller, Peter; Staiger, Petra K.; Hemphill, Sheryl A.; Catalano, Richard F.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: There are inconsistent research findings regarding the impact of rurality on adolescent alcohol, tobacco, and illicit substance use. Therefore, the current study reports on the effect of rurality on alcohol, tobacco, and illicit drug use among adolescents in 2 state representative samples in 2 countries, Washington State (WA) in the…

  13. Increases in self-reported fentanyl use among a population entering drug treatment: The need for systematic surveillance of illicitly manufactured opioids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicero, Theodore J; Ellis, Matthew S; Kasper, Zachary A

    2017-08-01

    Recent reports indicate a sharp increase in fentanyl-related overdose deaths across the United States, much of which is likely related to the introduction of cheap, illicitly manufactured fentanyl derivatives. In this study, we sought to estimate the magnitude of illicit fentanyl use from 2012 to 2016 using a national opioid abuse surveillance system. The study program surveyed 10,900 individuals entering substance abuse treatment for opioid use disorder, with participants asked to endorse past month 'use to get high' of fentanyl drugs, stratified by identifiable (i.e., branded) fentanyl formulations or a 'type unknown' drug alleged to contain fentanyl. Total past-month fentanyl-use rose modestly from 2012 to 2016. While use of known fentanyl products remained relatively stable (mean=10.9%; P=0.25), endorsements of 'unknown' fentanyl products nearly doubled from 9% in 2013 to 15.1% by 2016 (Pfentanyl use shows that recent increases in fentanyl use seem to be due almost entirely to 'unknown' fentanyl presumed to be illicitly manufactured. Given that it is difficult to assess the extent to which fentanyl may have been substituted for another drug (i.e., oxycodone, alprazolam, etc.) or was used as a heroin admixture, our data likely represent an underestimation of the full magnitude of illicit fentanyl abuse. As such, this growing public health problem requires immediate attention and more systematic efforts to identify and track its abuse. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Perceived neighborhood illicit drug selling, peer illicit drug disapproval and illicit drug use among U.S. high school seniors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background This study examined associations between perceived neighborhood illicit drug selling, peer illicit drug disapproval and illicit drug use among a large nationally representative sample of U.S. high school seniors. Methods Data come from Monitoring the Future (2007–2011), an annual cross-sectional survey of U.S. high school seniors. Students reported neighborhood illicit drug selling, friend drug disapproval towards marijuana and cocaine use, and past 12-month and past 30-day illicit drug use (N = 10,050). Multinomial logistic regression models were fit to explain use of 1) just marijuana, 2) one illicit drug other than marijuana, and 3) more than one illicit drug other than marijuana, compared to “no use”. Results Report of neighborhood illicit drug selling was associated with lower friend disapproval of marijuana and cocaine; e.g., those who reported seeing neighborhood sales “almost every day” were less likely to report their friends strongly disapproved of marijuana (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 0.38, 95% CI: 0.29, 0.49) compared to those who reported never seeing neighborhood drug selling and reported no disapproval. Perception of neighborhood illicit drug selling was also associated with past-year drug use and past-month drug use; e.g., those who reported seeing neighborhood sales “almost every day” were more likely to report 30-day use of more than one illicit drug (AOR = 11.11, 95% CI: 7.47, 16.52) compared to those who reported never seeing neighborhood drug selling and reported no 30-day use of illicit drugs. Conclusions Perceived neighborhood drug selling was associated with lower peer disapproval and more illicit drug use among a population-based nationally representative sample of U.S. high school seniors. Policy interventions to reduce “open” (visible) neighborhood drug selling (e.g., problem-oriented policing and modifications to the physical environment such as installing and monitoring surveillance cameras) may

  15. Youth Violence and Illicit Drug Use. The NSDUH Report. Issue 5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, 2006

    2006-01-01

    The National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) asks youths aged 12 to 17 to report on their involvement in violent behaviors during the 12 months before the survey. This report presents the estimated number and percentage of youths aged 12 to 17 who engaged in violent behavior in the past year. It further compares rates of violent behavior for…

  16. Self-reported cannabis products and other illicit drugs consumption in older school-age children in Northern Lithuania: a comparison between 2006 and 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miniauskienė, Dalia; Jurgaitienė, Dalia; Strukčinskienė, Birutė

    2014-01-01

    Cannabis use is widespread among young people in Europe. The aim of this study was to analyze and to compare the associations between the self-reported consumption of cannabis products and other illicit drugs among older schoolchildren in 2006 and in 2012. Two cross-sectional surveys were conducted in 2006 and 2012 in Northern Lithuania. In total 3447 young people aged 17-19 years were investigated (1585 male and 1862 female). For this survey, the ESPAD questionnaire was used. In Northern Lithuania, the schoolchildren aged 17-19 years self-reported that 16.7% in 2006 and 23.9% in 2012 of them tried cannabis products. The consumption of cannabis products in the age group of 17 years increased from 14.9% in 2006 to 21.5% in 2012. The consumption of cannabis together with alcohol increased from 7.6% to 14.3%. Cannabis consumers more often tried amphetamines, heroin, LSD, cocaine, crack, ecstasy, hallucinogenic mushrooms, and injective drugs. In 2012, cannabis consumers girls less than boys used only crack and injective drugs; all other illicit drugs they used the same often as boys. The cannabis products consumption in schoolchildren has increased by 7%. Nearly twofold increase was observed in the consumption of cannabis together with alcohol. Young people who used cannabis products more often tried other illicit drugs. There were no differences by gender in the consumption of illicit drugs among cannabis consumers. Copyright © 2014 Lithuanian University of Health Sciences. Production and hosting by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  17. Are the tobacco industry's claims about the size of the illicit cigarette market credible? The case of South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Walbeek, Corné; Shai, Lerato

    2015-06-01

    The tobacco industry claims that illicit cigarette trade in South Africa is high and rising. This is often used as an argument not to increase the tobacco excise tax or to regulate tobacco products. To determine how the tobacco industry's estimates of the size of the illicit cigarette market have changed over time. Published media articles were obtained from South African Press Cuttings; published articles and press releases were sourced from the internet. The period of interest is 1990-2012. Between 1990 and 2012 we found 90 newspaper articles and press statements that emphasised the tobacco industry's view on illicit trade. Articles that reported on action taken against illicit trade were excluded. Between 2006 and early 2011 the Tobacco Institute of Southern Africa, a body representing the interests of large cigarette companies, reported that South Africa's illicit cigarette market share was 20%. This share increased to 25% in late 2011 and 30% in 2012. In a 2012 presentation by Tobacco Institute of Southern Africa to National Treasury the illicit market share in 2008 was indicated as 7.9%, compared with claims in that year that the illicit market share was 20%. Industry findings that the illicit market decreased in 2007 and 2008 were not reported in the press. The tobacco industry has adjusted previous estimates of the illicit trade share downwards to create the impression that illicit trade is high and rising. If previous estimates by the tobacco industry were incorrect the credibility of current estimates should be questioned. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  18. Illicit cigarettes and hand-rolled tobacco in 18 European countries: a cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joossens, Luk; Lugo, Alessandra; La Vecchia, Carlo; Gilmore, Anna B; Clancy, Luke; Gallus, Silvano

    2014-05-01

    Little evidence, other than that commissioned by the tobacco industry, exists on the size of the illicit tobacco trade. This study addresses this gap by examining the level and nature of illicit cigarettes and hand-rolled tobacco in 18 European countries. Face-to-face cross-sectional survey on smoking. 18 European countries. For each country, around 1000 subjects representative of the population aged 15 and over were enrolled. Current cigarette smokers were asked to show their latest purchased pack of cigarettes or hand-rolled tobacco. A comprehensive measure called an Identification of an Illicit Pack (IIP) was used to study the extent of illicit trade, defining a pack as illicit if it had at least one of the following tax evasion indicators: (1) it was bought from illicit sources, as reported by smokers, (2) it had an inappropriate tax stamp, (3) it had an inappropriate health warning or (4) its price was substantially below the known price in their market. Overall, the proportion of illicit packs was 6.5%. The highest prevalence of IIP was observed in Latvia (37.8%). Illicit packs were more frequent among less educated smokers and among those living in a country which shared a land or sea border with Ukraine, Russia, Moldova or Belarus. No significant association was found with price of cigarettes. This study indicates that IIP is less than 7% in Europe and suggests that the supply of illicit tobacco, rather than its price, is a key factor contributing to tax evasion. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  19. Solution to Detect, Classify, and Report Illicit Online Marketing and Sales of Controlled Substances via Twitter: Using Machine Learning and Web Forensics to Combat Digital Opioid Access

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klugman, Josh; Kuzmenko, Ella; Gupta, Rashmi

    2018-01-01

    controlled substances and illicit drugs. Conclusions The results of this study are in line with prior studies that have identified social media platforms, including Twitter, as a potential conduit for supply and sale of illicit opioids. To translate these results into action, authors also developed a prototype wireframe for the purposes of detecting, classifying, and reporting illicit online pharmacy tweets selling controlled substances illegally to the US Food and Drug Administration and the US Drug Enforcement Agency. Further development of solutions based on these methods has the potential to proactively alert regulators and law enforcement agencies of illegal opioid sales, while also making the online environment safer for the public. PMID:29613851

  20. Structural equation modeling of the effects of racism, LGBTQ discrimination, and internalized oppression on illicit drug use in LGBTQ people of color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drazdowski, Tess K; Perrin, Paul B; Trujillo, Michael; Sutter, Megan; Benotsch, Eric G; Snipes, Daniel J

    2016-02-01

    Experiences with lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, or queer (LGBTQ) discrimination and racism have both been associated with mental health problems and illicit drug use. However, the cumulative effects of both forms of discrimination--and resulting internalized oppression--on illicit drug use in LGBTQ people of color (POC) has not been examined in the research literature. Using online questionnaires, this study collected self-report data from 200 LGBTQ POC about their experiences with racism, LGBTQ discrimination, internalized racism, internalized LGBTQ discrimination, and illicit drug use. Two structural equation models yielded adequate fit indices in which experiences with racism and LGBTQ discrimination led to more internalized oppression, which then led to greater illicit drug use magnitude. LGBTQ discrimination was directly related to increased internalized oppression, which was positively associated with illicit drug use magnitude; the relationship between LGBTQ discrimination and illicit drug use magnitude was mediated by internalized oppression in both models. However, racism and the interaction between racism and LGBTQ discrimination did not show valid direct effects on internalized oppression or indirect effects on illicit drug use magnitude. LGBTQ POC can be the targets of both racism and LGBTQ discrimination, although the current study found that the most psychologically damaging effects may come from LGBTQ discrimination. Interventions meant to decrease or prevent illicit drug use in LGBTQ POC may benefit from helping participants examine the links among LGBTQ discrimination, internalized oppression, and illicit drug use as a coping strategy, focusing on substituting more adaptive coping. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Recent illicit drug use among psychiatric patients in Brazil: a national representative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahas, Miriam Almeida; Melo, Ana Paula Souto; Cournos, Francine; Mckinnon, Karen; Wainberg, Milton; Guimarães, Mark Drew Crosland

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To estimate factors associated to illicit drug use among patients with mental illness in Brazil according to gender. METHODS A cross-sectional representative sample of psychiatric patients (2,475 individuals) was randomly selected from 11 hospitals and 15 public mental health outpatient clinics. Data on self-reported illicit drug use and sociodemographic, clinical and behavioral characteristics were obtained from face-to-face interviews. Logistic regression was used to estimate associations with recent illicit drug use. RESULTS The prevalence of any recent illicit drug use was 11.4%. Men had higher prevalence than women for all substances (17.5% and 5.6%, respectively). Lower education, history of physical violence, and history of homelessness were associated with drug use among men only; not professing a religion was associated with drug use in women only. For both men and women, younger age, current hospitalization, alcohol and tobacco use, history of incarceration, younger age at sexual debut, and more than one sexual partner were statistically associated with illicit drug use. CONCLUSIONS Recent illicit drug use among psychiatric patients is higher than among the general Brazilian population and it is associated with multiple factors including markers of psychiatric severity. Our data indicate the need for the development of gender-based drug-use interventions among psychiatric patients in Brazil. Integration of substance use treatment strategies with mental health treatment should be a priority. PMID:28832753

  2. Recent illicit drug use among psychiatric patients in Brazil: a national representative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam Almeida Nahas

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To estimate factors associated to illicit drug use among patients with mental illness in Brazil according to gender. METHODS A cross-sectional representative sample of psychiatric patients (2,475 individuals was randomly selected from 11 hospitals and 15 public mental health outpatient clinics. Data on self-reported illicit drug use and sociodemographic, clinical and behavioral characteristics were obtained from face-to-face interviews. Logistic regression was used to estimate associations with recent illicit drug use. RESULTS The prevalence of any recent illicit drug use was 11.4%. Men had higher prevalence than women for all substances (17.5% and 5.6%, respectively. Lower education, history of physical violence, and history of homelessness were associated with drug use among men only; not professing a religion was associated with drug use in women only. For both men and women, younger age, current hospitalization, alcohol and tobacco use, history of incarceration, younger age at sexual debut, and more than one sexual partner were statistically associated with illicit drug use. CONCLUSIONS Recent illicit drug use among psychiatric patients is higher than among the general Brazilian population and it is associated with multiple factors including markers of psychiatric severity. Our data indicate the need for the development of gender-based drug-use interventions among psychiatric patients in Brazil. Integration of substance use treatment strategies with mental health treatment should be a priority.

  3. The prison system in the Czech Republic: Analysis of the current state of illicit drug use and prevention and treatment measures

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Miovský, Michal; Gajdošíková, H.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 16, č. 4 (2005), s. 262-266 ISSN 0955-3959 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70250504 Keywords : Criminal offences * drug crime * illicit drugs * drug user * prevetntion and treatment measures Subject RIV: AN - Psychology

  4. Illicit Activities and Goondagardi

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The research analyzes the pathways through which exclusionary urban ... casual labour in construction or small-scale trade activities, etc) and ... PATHWAYS TO ILLICIT ACTIVITIES .... VGG Nagar had become a gambling den for some time.

  5. Solution to Detect, Classify, and Report Illicit Online Marketing and Sales of Controlled Substances via Twitter: Using Machine Learning and Web Forensics to Combat Digital Opioid Access.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackey, Tim; Kalyanam, Janani; Klugman, Josh; Kuzmenko, Ella; Gupta, Rashmi

    2018-04-27

    . The results of this study are in line with prior studies that have identified social media platforms, including Twitter, as a potential conduit for supply and sale of illicit opioids. To translate these results into action, authors also developed a prototype wireframe for the purposes of detecting, classifying, and reporting illicit online pharmacy tweets selling controlled substances illegally to the US Food and Drug Administration and the US Drug Enforcement Agency. Further development of solutions based on these methods has the potential to proactively alert regulators and law enforcement agencies of illegal opioid sales, while also making the online environment safer for the public. ©Tim Mackey, Janani Kalyanam, Josh Klugman, Ella Kuzmenko, Rashmi Gupta. Originally published in the Journal of Medical Internet Research (http://www.jmir.org), 27.04.2018.

  6. Self-reports of executive dysfunction in current ecstasy/polydrug Users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadjiefthyvoulou, Florentia; Fisk, John E; Montgomery, Catharine; Bridges, Nikola

    2012-09-01

    Ecstasy/polydrug users have exhibited deficits in executive functioning in laboratory tests. We sought to extend these findings by investigating the extent to which ecstasy/polydrug users manifest executive deficits in everyday life. Forty-two current ecstasy/polydrug users, 18 previous (abstinent for at least 6 months) ecstasy/polydrug users, and 50 non-users of ecstasy (including both non-users of any illicit drug and some cannabis-only users) completed the self-report Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function-Adult Version (BRIEF-A) measure. Current ecstasy/polydrug users performed significantly worse than previous users and non-users on subscales measuring inhibition, self-monitoring, initiating action, working memory, planning, monitoring ongoing task performance, and organizational ability. Previous ecstasy/polydrug users did not differ significantly from non-users. In regression analyses, although the current frequency of ecstasy use accounted for statistically significant unique variance on 3 of the 9 BRIEF-A subscales, daily cigarette consumption was the main predictor in 6 of the subscales. Current ecstasy/polydrug users report more executive dysfunction than do previous users and non-users. This finding appears to relate to some aspect of ongoing ecstasy use and seems largely unrelated to the use of other illicit drugs. An unexpected finding was the association of current nicotine consumption with executive dysfunction.

  7. Predictors of illicit drug/s use among university students in Northern Ireland, Wales and England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Ansari, Walid; Vallentin-Holbech, Lotte; Stock, Christiane

    2014-12-16

    The use of illicit drug/s among university students is a public health concern. Nevertheless, many UK studies investigated a narrow spectrum of variables to explore their association/s with illicit drug/s use. We assessed the associations between a wide range of socio-demographic, health and wellbeing variables (independent variables) and having used illicit drug/s regularly, occasionally or never in life (dependent variables). Data (3706 students) were collected from seven universities in England, Wales, and Northern Ireland, using a self-administered questionnaire. About 5% of the sample had regularly used illicit drug/s, 25% occasionally, and 70% never. Regular drug use (RDU) was significantly more likely among males aged 21-29 years, daily smokers, those with heavy episodic drinking or possible alcohol dependency (CAGE test), and those who perceived their academic performance better than their peers. RDU was less likely among students with high health awareness and those living with parents. The predictors of occasional drug use (ODU) were similar to those of RDU. However, in addition, students with higher perceived stress were less likely, and students who felt financial burden/s were more likely to report ODU, while no association with academic performance was found. Never use of illicit drug/s was inversely associated with most of the variables listed above, and was positively associated with religiosity. Illicit drug/s use goes along with other substance use (alcohol and smoking). The finding that illicit drug/s use was higher among students reporting good academic performance was surprising and raises the question of whether illicit drug/s may be used as performance enhancing drugs. The factors identified with illicit drug/s use in this study could be utilized to develop appropriate public health policies and preventive measures for the health of students. Multilevel, value based, comprehensive, and strategic long-term intervention plans are required. This

  8. Mechanisms of Association between Paternal Alcoholism and Abuse of Alcohol and Other Illicit Drugs among Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peleg-Oren, Neta; Hospital, Michelle; Morris, Staci Leon; Wagner, Eric F.

    2013-01-01

    The current study examines the effect of paternal alcohol problems on adolescent use of alcohol and other illicit drugs as a function of maternal communication, as well as adolescent social and coping skills (N = 145). Structural equation modeling (SEM) analyses indicated that adolescents with a paternal history of alcohol problems reported higher…

  9. Combating illicit trafficking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biro, L.L.; Grama, E.V.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: National Commission for Nuclear Activities Control (CNCAN) is the national authority, which is contact point for illicit trafficking and coordinates all measures and activities to combat and prevent illicit trafficking with nuclear material and radioactive sources. Legal framework regarding illicit trafficking has been improved due to new Physical Protection Regulations, Regulations on using the DBT, Regulations on requirements for qualification of guards and physical protection personnel, Design Basis Threat for each nuclear facility to avoid the unauthorized removal or theft of nuclear material or radioactive sources. New amendments of the Law for the safe deployment of nuclear activities, Law no. 111/1996, republished, in respect of illicit trafficking with nuclear material and radioactive sources are in the process to be approved by the Parliament. CNCAN is member of the Romanian Non-proliferation Group that is an interdepartmental mechanism of cooperation entered into force in August 1999. During the sessions of this group there are discussions focused on the preventing and combating illicit trafficking with nuclear material and radioactive sources. CNCAN is member of the Interministerial Council that controls import and export with strategic products including nuclear material, non nuclear material and equipment pertinent for proliferation of nuclear weapons. An Emergency Mobile Unit has been created in 2001 that contains instruments (gamma dose rate instruments portable and personal, contaminometers, mini MCA with CdZnTe detector, a CANBERRA Inspector with Nal, CdZnTe and HPGe detectors and 2 FiedSPEC, a mobile laboratory, 2 cars and individual equipment). CNCAN is cooperating with the Police through a National Plan to verify the authorization holders in order to prevent and combat illicit trafficking, and to find the orphan sources. CNCAN is the beneficiary of the PECO Project initiated by the European Commission in cooperation with the IAEA and

  10. To discuss illicit nuclear trafficking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balatsky, Galya I [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Severe, William R [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Wallace, Richard K [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01

    The Illicit nuclear trafficking panel was conducted at the 4th Annual INMM workshop on Reducing the Risk from Radioactive and Nuclear Materials on February 2-3, 2010 in Washington DC. While the workshop occurred prior to the Nuclear Security Summit, April 12-13 2010 in Washington DC, some of the summit issues were raised during the workshop. The Communique of the Washington Nuclear Security Summit stated that 'Nuclear terrorism is one of the most challenging threats to international security, and strong nuclear security measures are the most effective means to prevent terrorists, criminals, or other unauthorized actors from acquiring nuclear materials.' The Illicit Trafficking panel is one means to strengthen nuclear security and cooperation at bilateral, regional and multilateral levels. Such a panel promotes nuclear security culture through technology development, human resources development, education and training. It is a tool which stresses the importance of international cooperation and coordination of assistance to improve efforts to prevent and respond to incidents of illicit nuclear trafficking. Illicit trafficking panel included representatives from US government, an international organization (IAEA), private industry and a non-governmental organization to discuss illicit nuclear trafficking issues. The focus of discussions was on best practices and challenges for addressing illicit nuclear trafficking. Terrorism connection. Workshop discussions pointed out the identification of terrorist connections with several trafficking incidents. Several trafficking cases involved real buyers (as opposed to undercover law enforcement agents) and there have been reports identifying individuals associated with terrorist organizations as prospective plutonium buyers. Some specific groups have been identified that consistently search for materials to buy on the black market, but no criminal groups were identified that specialize in nuclear materials or isotope

  11. Uxoricide and dismemberment in a case of illicit anabolic steroid use: A case report and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allan Seppänen

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite abounding evidence for the harmful effects of synthetic anabolic-androgenic steroids, they are commonly misused for competitive and body-image reasons. Steroids are often used in the context of poly-drug misuse, which may mask their specific effects on behaviour, such as increasing aggression. We present our case report as a concrete example of current steroid-related substance-misuse trends. A 25-year old Finnish male with various psychiatric and drug-related symptomology, but almost no previous history of aggressive behaviour, battered his wife to death and mutilated her body after a five-week steroid regimen.

  12. Measuring illicit cigarette trade in Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldonado, Norman; Llorente, Blanca Amalia; Iglesias, Roberto Magno; Escobar, Diego

    2018-03-14

    By 2016, tobacco industry provided the only illicit trade estimates in Colombia and used these to discourage tax increases since the 1990s. To establish the viability of a threefold hike in the excise tax, policy makers needed unbiased estimates of the illicit cigarette. To estimate the size of illicit cigarette trade in five Colombian cities (63% of the market), analyse characteristics of smokers of illicit cigarettes and compare market share results with one industry-funded survey. Street cross-sectional survey with smokers' self-report on consumption pattern, last purchase information and direct observation of smoker's packs. Sampling frame: smokers, men and women, 12 years old or older, all income levels, resident in five Colombian cities (Bogotá, Medellín, Cali, Cartagena and Cúcuta) with 1 733 316 smokers in 2013. Sample size 1697, simple random sample by city, sampling weights based on age groups and cities. Confidence level 95%, margin of error 3.5% for Bogotá and Medellín and 5% for the other three cities. Data collection period: 24 August-14 September 2016. Illicit cigarettes represent 3.5% of consumption in the five cities, a much lower estimate than the industry data. There are significant differences across cities, with Bogotá at the bottom (1.5%) and Cúcuta at the top (22.8%). The low overall penetration of illicit cigarettes in Colombia indicates that the industry's warnings against tax increases are not justified. The limited importance of tax levels as determinant of consumption of illicit cigarettes is also suggested by the differences across cities, all of them with the same tax regime. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  13. The IAEA's Illicit Trafficking Database Programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anzelon, G.; Hammond, W.; Nicholas, M.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: As part of its overall programme on nuclear material security, the IAEA has since 1995 maintained a database of incidents of trafficking in nuclear materials and other radioactive sources. The Illicit Trafficking Database Programme (ITDP) is intended to assist Member States by alerting them to current incidents, by facilitating exchange of reliable, detailed information about incidents, and by identifying any common threads or trends that might assist States in combating illicit trafficking. The ITDP also seeks to better inform the public by providing basic information to the media concerning illicit trafficking events. Approximately 70 States have joined this programme for collecting and sharing information on trafficking incidents. Reporting States have the opportunity to designate what information may be shared with other States and what may be shared with the public. In cases where the IAEA's first information about a possible incident comes from news media or other open sources rather than from a State notification, the information first is evaluated, and then, if warranted, the relevant State or States are contacted to request confirmation or clarification of an alleged incident. During 2000, as a result of experience gained working with information on illicit nuclear trafficking, the IAEA developed of a flexible and comprehensive new database system. The new system has an open architecture that accommodates structured information from States, in-house information, open-source articles, and other information sources, such as pictures, maps and web links. The graphical user interface allows data entry, maintenance and standard and ad-hoc reporting. The system also is linked to a Web-based query engine, which enables searching of both structured and open-source information. For the period 1 January 1993 through 31 March 2001, the database recorded more than 550 incidents, of which about two-thirds have been confirmed by States. (Some of these

  14. Illicit drugs and the environment--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Raktim; Megharaj, Mallavarapu; Kirkbride, K Paul; Naidu, Ravi

    2013-10-01

    Illicit drugs and their metabolites are the latest group of emerging pollutants. Determination of their concentration in environment (such as water bodies, soil, sediment, air) is an indirect tool to estimate the community level consumption of illicit drug and to evaluate potential ecotoxicological impacts from chronic low level exposure. They enter the wastewater network as unaltered drugs and/or their active metabolites by human excretion after illegal consumption or by accidental or deliberate disposal from clandestine drug laboratories. This article critically reviews the occurrence and concentration levels of illicit drugs and their metabolites in different environmental compartments (e.g., wastewater, surface waters, groundwater, drinking water, and ambient air) and their potential impact on the ecosystem. There is limited published information available on the presence of illicit drugs in the environment, reports are available mainly from European countries, UK, USA, and Canada but there is a lack of information from the remainder of the world. Although the environmental concentrations are not very high, they can potentially impact the human health and ecosystem functioning. Cocaine, morphine, amphetamine, and MDMA have potent pharmacological activities and their presence as complex mixtures in water may cause adverse effect on aquatic organisms and human health. However, there is no current regulation demanding the determination of occurrence of these emerging pollutants in treated wastewater, surface water, drinking water, or atmosphere. Thus, critical investigation on distribution pattern of this new group of emerging contaminant and their potential harmful impact on our environment needs immediate attention. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. The lung effects of illicit drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crista Laslo

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Illicit drugs use is a real public health issue, especially among young people. The totality of the drugs harmful effects on the body is difficult to quantify, especially because of poor epidemiological data and ethical concerns about the inclusion of consumers in clinical trials. However, health professionals need to be alert to identify, report and fight drug-related pathology. This article aims to draw attention to the lung pathology induced by the consumption of some of the most commonly used illicit drugs: cocaine, heroin and cannabis.

  16. Illicit cigarette consumption and government revenue loss in Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahsan, Abdillah; Wiyono, Nur Hadi; Setyonaluri, Diahhadi; Denniston, Ryan; So, Anthony D

    2014-11-19

    Illicit cigarettes comprise more than 11% of tobacco consumption and 17% of consumption in low- and middle-income countries. Illicit cigarettes, defined as those that evade taxes, lower consumer prices, threaten national tobacco control efforts, and reduce excise tax collection. This paper measures the magnitude of illicit cigarette consumption within Indonesia using two methods: the discrepancies between legal cigarette sales and domestic consumption estimated from surveys, and discrepancies between imports recorded by Indonesia and exports recorded by trade partners. Smuggling plays a minor role in the availability of illicit cigarettes because Indonesians predominantly consume kreteks, which are primarily manufactured in Indonesia. Looking at the period from 1995 to 2013, illicit cigarettes first emerged in 2004. When no respondent under-reporting is assumed, illicit consumption makes up 17% of the domestic market in 2004, 9% in 2007, 11% in 2011, and 8% in 2013. Discrepancies in the trade data indicate that Indonesia was a recipient of smuggled cigarettes for each year between 1995 and 2012. The value of this illicit trade ranges from less than $1 million to nearly $50 million annually. Singapore, China, and Vietnam together accounted for nearly two-thirds of trade discrepancies over the period. Tax losses due to illicit consumption amount to between Rp 4.1 and 9.3 trillion rupiah, 4% to 13% of tobacco excise revenue, in 2011 and 2013. Due to the predominance of kretek consumption in Indonesia and Indonesia's status as the predominant producer of kreteks, illicit domestic production is likely the most important source for illicit cigarettes, and initiatives targeted to combat this illicit production carry the promise of the greatest potential impact.

  17. Self reported health status, and health service contact, of illicit drug users aged 50 and over: a qualitative interview study in Merseyside, United Kingdom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duffy Paul

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The populations of industrialised countries are ageing; as this occurs, those who continue to use alcohol and illicit drugs age also. While alcohol use among older people is well documented, use of illicit drugs continues to be perceived as behaviour of young people and is a neglected area of research. This is the first published qualitative research on the experiences of older drug users in the United Kingdom. Methods Semi-structured interviews were conducted in Merseyside, in 2008, with drug users aged 50 and over recruited through drug treatment services. Interviews were recorded and transcribed and analysed thematically. Only health status and health service contact are reported here. Results Nine men and one woman were interviewed (age range: 54 to 61 years; all but one had been using drugs continuously or intermittently for at least 30 years. Interviewees exhibited high levels of physical and mental morbidity; hepatitis C was particularly prevalent. Injecting-related damage to arm veins resulted in interviewees switching to riskier injecting practices. Poor mental health was evident and interviewees described their lives as depressing. The death of drug-using friends was a common theme and social isolation was apparent. Interviewees also described a deterioration of memory. Generic healthcare was not always perceived as optimal, while issues relating to drug specific services were similar to those arising among younger cohorts of drug users, for example, complaints about inadequate doses of prescribed medication. Conclusion The concurrent effects of drug use and ageing are not well understood but are thought to exacerbate, or accelerate the onset of, medical conditions which are more prevalent in older age. Here, interviewees had poor physical and mental health but low expectations of health services. Older drug users who are not in contact with services are likely to have greater unmet needs. The number of drug users

  18. The insults of illicit drug use on male fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fronczak, Carolyn M; Kim, Edward D; Barqawi, Al B

    2012-01-01

    One-third of infertile couples may have a male factor present. Illicit drug use can be an important cause of male factor infertility and includes use of anabolic-androgenic steroids, marijuana, opioid narcotics, cocaine, and methamphetamines. The use of these illicit drugs is common in the United States, with a yearly prevalence rate for any drug consistently higher in males compared with females. We aim to provide a review of recent literature on the prevalence and effects of illicit drug use on male fertility and to aid health professionals when counseling infertile men whose social history suggests illicit drug use. Anabolic-androgenic steroids, marijuana, cocaine, methamphetamines, and opioid narcotics all negatively impact male fertility, and adverse effects have been reported on the hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular axis, sperm function, and testicular structure. The use of illicit drugs is prevalent in our society and likely adversely impacting the fertility of men who abuse drugs.

  19. Illicit drugs and cardiac arrhythmias in athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furlanello, Francesco; Serdoz, Laura Vitali; Cappato, Riccardo; De Ambroggi, Luigi

    2007-08-01

    The current management of athletes with cardiac arrhythmias has become complicated by the widespread use of illicit drugs, which can be arrhythmogenic. The World Anti-Doping Agency annually updates a list of prohibited substances and methods banned by the International Olympic Committee that includes different classes of substances namely, anabolic androgenic steroids, hormones and related substances, beta2-agonists, diuretics, stimulants, narcotics, cannabinoids, glucocorticosteroids, alcohol, beta-blockers and others. Almost all illicit drugs may cause, through a direct or indirect arrhythmogenic effect, a wide range of cardiac arrhythmias (focal or reentry type, supraventricular and/or ventricular) that can even be lethal and which are frequently sport activity related. A large use of illicit drugs has been documented in competitive athletes, but the arrhythmogenic effect of specific substances is not precisely known. Precipitation of cardiac arrhythmias, particularly in the presence of a latent electrophysiologic substrate including some inherited cardiomyopathies, at risk of sudden death or due to long-term consumption of the substances, should raise the suspicion that illicit drugs may be a possible cause and lead cardiologists to investigate carefully this relationship and appropriately prevent the clinical consequences.

  20. 12-step programs for reducing illicit drug use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøg, Martin; Filges, Trine; Brännström, Lars

    2017-01-01

    12-step programs for reducing illicit drug use are neither better nor worse than other interventions Illicit drug abuse has serious and far-reaching implications for the abuser, their family members, friends, and society as a whole. Preferred intervention programs are those that effectively reduce...... illicit drug use and its negative consequences, and are cost-effective as well. Current evidence shows that overall, 12-step programs are just as effective as alternative, psychosocial interventions. The costs of programs are, therefore, an important consideration. However, the strength of the studies...

  1. Illicit substance use among university students from seven European countries: a comparison of personal and perceived peer use and attitudes towards illicit substance use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmer, S M; Mikolajczyk, R T; McAlaney, J; Vriesacker, B; Van Hal, G; Akvardar, Y; Guillen-Grima, F; Salonna, F; Stock, C; Dempsey, R C; Bewick, B M; Zeeb, H

    2014-10-01

    To compare European students' personal use and approval of illicit substance use with their perceptions of peer behaviours and attitudes, and investigate whether perceptions of peer norms are associated with personal use of illicit substances and attitudes. This study used baseline data from the Social Norms Intervention for the prevention of Polydrug usE (SNIPE) project involving 4482 students from seven European countries in 2012. Students completed an online survey which included questions on personal and perceived peer illicit substance use and personal and perceived peer attitude towards illicit substances. 8.3% of students reported having used illicit substances at least once in their life. 49.7% of students perceived that the majority of their peers have used illicit substances more frequently than themselves. The perception was significantly associated with higher odds for personal illicit substance use (OR: 1.97, 95% CI: 1.53-2.54). The perception that the majority of peers approve illicit substance use was significantly associated with higher odds for personal approval of illicit substance use (OR: 3.47, 95% CI: 2.73-4.41). Students commonly perceived that their peers used illicit subtances more often than themselves. We found an association between the perceived peer norms/attitudes and reported individual behaviour/attitudes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Current Editorial Initiatives: A Progress Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Werner Ulrich

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This editorial article reports on the progress that the Journal of Research Practice (JRP has achieved in its ongoing development since November 2011, when a number of editorial initiatives were announced. Several new initiatives are also proposed. In addition, there are some current announcements, including a number of recent awards, distinctions, and nominations.

  3. The lung effects of illicit drugs

    OpenAIRE

    Crista Laslo; Beatrice G. Ioan; Ovidiu G. Bratu; Bogdan Socea; Camelia Diaconu

    2018-01-01

    Illicit drugs use is a real public health issue, especially among young people. The totality of the drugs harmful effects on the body is difficult to quantify, especially because of poor epidemiological data and ethical concerns about the inclusion of consumers in clinical trials. However, health professionals need to be alert to identify, report and fight drug-related pathology. This article aims to draw attention to the lung pathology induced by the consumption of some of the most commonly ...

  4. Imaging of illicit drug use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venkatanarasimha, N., E-mail: nandashettykv@yahoo.co [Department of Radiology, Derriford Hospital, Plymouth (United Kingdom); Rock, B.; Riordan, R.D.; Roobottom, C.A.; Adams, W.M. [Department of Radiology, Derriford Hospital, Plymouth (United Kingdom)

    2010-12-15

    Illicit drug abuse is a continuing menace of epidemic proportions associated with serious medical and social problems. Drug abuse can have a wide variety of presentations some of which can be life-threatening. The clinical diagnosis can be challenging as the history is usually limited or absent. Radiologists need to be familiar with varied imaging presentations and the related complications of illicit drug abuse to ensure correct diagnosis and appropriate timely treatment. This review will illustrate the imaging spectrum of illicit drug abuse involving several organ systems and also discuss the pathophysiological consequences of drug abuse.

  5. Imaging of illicit drug use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venkatanarasimha, N.; Rock, B.; Riordan, R.D.; Roobottom, C.A.; Adams, W.M.

    2010-01-01

    Illicit drug abuse is a continuing menace of epidemic proportions associated with serious medical and social problems. Drug abuse can have a wide variety of presentations some of which can be life-threatening. The clinical diagnosis can be challenging as the history is usually limited or absent. Radiologists need to be familiar with varied imaging presentations and the related complications of illicit drug abuse to ensure correct diagnosis and appropriate timely treatment. This review will illustrate the imaging spectrum of illicit drug abuse involving several organ systems and also discuss the pathophysiological consequences of drug abuse.

  6. A report on recent progress of Central Analytical Laboratory (NRI Rez plc.) for upgrading capabilities for identification of illicit nuclear materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malek, Z.; Sus, F.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: In the first half of the 90's, the State Office for Nuclear Safety (SONS) -- in close co-operation with other state organizations and following the IAEA's extended safeguards system - strengthened its attention to the development of procedures for the characterization of unknown nuclear materials. This problem become important in the context of increasing danger of illicit trafficking of nuclear material which emerged with the political changes in former 'Comecon' countries during late 80's and 90's. Particular attention has been drawn to the upgrade of the counter-potential in possible transit countries situated in Central Europe. The Central Analytical Laboratory as the main Czech institution working in the field of nuclear material analytical chemistry participated in the development and upgrading of analytical procedures for detailed identification and characterization of nuclear material samples. The special methods for the determination of uranium content, isotopic composition, swipe sample analysis, determination of age and long-lived radioisotopes were developed. In second half of the 90's within the IAEA Project entitled 'Special Analytical Methods for Determination of Traces Radioactivity and Detection of Undeclared Nuclear Activities' basic procedures were prepared for the determination of: - selected isotopes of the natural disintegration series in the samples of water, sediments and technological waste solutions after termination of the uranium ores mining, - age of uranium and plutonium materials based on the 230 Th/ 234 Th, 226 Ra/ 234 U and 241 Am/ 241 Pu pairs, studies on the application of the 231 Pa/ 235 U pair were started. In 1998 PHARE PH5.01/95 project, 'Assistance in setting up special analytical services including a data bank for analysis of radioactive substances and nuclear materials of unknown origin' was started. The project was funded from the European Commission's PHARE Programme. The activities were performed at the

  7. Stable carbon isotope ratio profiling of illicit testosterone preparations--domestic and international seizures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooker, Lance; Cawley, Adam; Drury, Jason; Edey, Claire; Hasick, Nicole; Goebel, Catrin

    2014-10-01

    Gas chromatography-combustion-isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC-C-IRMS) is now established as a robust and mature analytical technique for the doping control of endogenous anabolic androgenic steroids in human sport. It relies on the assumption that the carbon isotope ratios of naturally produced steroids are significantly different to synthetically manufactured testosterone or testosterone prohormones used in commercial medical or dietary supplement products. Recent publications in this journal have highlighted the existence of black market testosterone preparations with carbon isotope ratios within the range reported for endogenous steroids (i.e. δ(13) C ≥ -25.8 ‰). In this study, we set out to profile domestic and international law enforcement seizures of illicit testosterone products to monitor the prevalence of 'enriched' substrates--which if administered to human subjects would be considered problematic for the use of current GC-C-IRMS methodologies for the doping control of testosterone in sport. The distribution of δ(13) C values for this illicit testosterone sample population (n = 283) ranged from -23.4 ‰ to -32.9 ‰ with mean and median of -28.6 ‰--comparable to previous work. However, only 13 out of 283 testosterone samples (4.6 %) were found to display δ(13) C values ≥ -25.8 ‰, confirming that in the vast majority of cases of illicit testosterone administration, current GC-C-IRMS doping control procedures would be capable of confirming misuse. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. The Health Risks of Belgian Illicit Indoor Cannabis Plantations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanhove, Wouter; Cuypers, Eva; Bonneure, Arne-Jan; Gotink, Joachim; Stassen, Mirna; Tytgat, Jan; Van Damme, Patrick

    2018-04-10

    We assessed the prevalence of potential health hazards to intervention staff and cannabis growers in Belgian indoor cannabis plantations. Surface mold swab samples were taken at 16 Belgian indoor plantations contained mostly Penicillium sp. and Aspergillus sp. However, their precise health impact on intervention staff and illicit growers is unclear as no molds spore concentrations were measured. Atmospheric gas monitoring in the studied cannabis plantations did not reveal dangerous toxic substances. Health symptoms were reported by 60% of 221 surveyed police, but could not be linked to specific plantation characteristics. We conclude that Belgian indoor cannabis plantations pose a potential health threat to growers and intervention staff. AS there are currently no clear safety guidelines for seizure and dismantling of Belgian indoor cannabis plantations, we recommend first responders to follow strict safety rules when entering the growth rooms, which include wearing appropriate personal protective equipment. © 2018 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  9. Aquantis Ocean Current Turbine Development Project Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fleming, Alex J.

    2014-08-23

    The Aquantis® Current Plane (“C-Plane”) technology developed by Dehlsen Associates, LLC (DA) and Aquantis, Inc. is an ocean current turbine designed to extract kinetic energy from ocean currents. The technology is capable of achieving competitively priced base-load, continuous, and reliable power generation from a source of renewable energy not before possible in this scale or form.

  10. Drug interactions between common illicit drugs and prescription therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsey, Wesley T; Stewart, David; Childress, Darrell

    2012-07-01

    The aim was to summarize the clinical literature on interactions between common illicit drugs and prescription therapies. Medline, Iowa Drug Information Service, International Pharmaceutical Abstracts, EBSCO Academic Search Premier, and Google Scholar were searched from date of origin of database to March 2011. Search terms were cocaine, marijuana, cannabis, methamphetamine, amphetamine, ecstasy, N-methyl-3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine, methylenedioxymethamphetamine, heroin, gamma-hydroxybutyrate, sodium oxybate, and combined with interactions, drug interactions, and drug-drug interactions. This review focuses on established clinical evidence. All applicable full-text English language articles and abstracts found were evaluated and included in the review as appropriate. The interactions of illicit drugs with prescription therapies have the ability to potentiate or attenuate the effects of both the illicit agent and/or the prescription therapeutic agent, which can lead to toxic effects or a reduction in the prescription agent's therapeutic activity. Most texts and databases focus on theoretical or probable interactions due to the kinetic properties of the drugs and do not fully explore the pharmacodynamic and clinical implications of these interactions. Clinical trials with coadministration of illicit drugs and prescription drugs are discussed along with case reports that demonstrate a potential interaction between agents. The illicit drugs discussed are cocaine, marijuana, amphetamines, methylenedioxymethamphetamine, heroin, and sodium oxybate. Although the use of illicit drugs is widespread, there are little experimental or clinical data regarding the effects of these agents on common prescription therapies. Potential drug interactions between illicit drugs and prescription drugs are described and evaluated on the Drug Interaction Probability Scale by Horn and Hansten.

  11. The global diversion of pharmaceutical drugs. India: the third largest illicit opium producer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paoli, Letizia; Greenfield, Victoria A; Charles, Molly; Reuter, Peter

    2009-03-01

    This paper explores India's role in the world illicit opiate market, particularly its role as a producer. India, a major illicit opiate consumer, is also the sole licensed exporter of raw opium: this unique status may be enabling substantial diversion to the illicit market. Participant observation and interviews were carried out at eight different sites. Information was also drawn from all standard secondary sources and the analysis of about 180 drug-related criminal proceedings reviewed by Indian High Courts and the Supreme Court from 1985 to 2001. Diversion from licit opium production takes place on such a large scale that India may be the third largest illicit opium producer after Afghanistan and Burma. With the possible exceptions of 2005 and 2006, 200-300 tons of India's opium may be diverted yearly. After estimating India's opiate consumption on the basis of UN-reported prevalence estimates, we find that diversion from licit production might have satisfied a quarter to more than a third of India's illicit opiate demand to 2004. India is not only among the world's largest consumer of illicit opiates but also one of the largest illicit opium producers. In contrast to all other illicit producers, India owes the latter distinction not to blatantly illicit cultivation but to diversion from licit cultivation. India's experience suggests the difficulty of preventing substantial leakage, even in a relatively well-governed nation.

  12. Comparisons between the attitudes of student nurses and other health and social care students toward illicit drug use: An attitudinal survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harling, Martyn R

    2017-01-01

    In the context of a recent emphasis on compassion in the delivery of health care, the current study set out to measure the attitudes of different groups of health and social care students toward illicit drug users. Previous research has identified variations in the attitudes of different groups of health and social care professionals toward working with illicit drug users. Nurses, in particular, have been reported as holding moralistic or stereotypical views of illicit drug users. However, few studies have measured the attitudes of student nurses or compared their attitudes to other health and social care students. This article describes the use of a bespoke attitude scale to measure the attitudes of cohorts of student nurses, clinical psychology trainees, health and social care, social work and midwifery students at the start of their course (N=308). Results indicated that student nurses had the least tolerant attitudes, reinforcing the need for a specific educational focus on working with illicit drug users in nurse education. Variations between student groups indicate that Interprofessional Education can provide an opportunity to improve attitudes toward illicit drug users, particularly amongst student nurses. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Illicit drugs policy through the lens of regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritter, Alison

    2010-07-01

    The application of regulatory theory to the problem of illicit drugs has generally been thought about only in terms of 'command and control'. The international treaties governing global illicit drug control and the use of law enforcement to dissuade and punish offenders have been primary strategies. In this paper I explore the application of other aspects of regulatory theory to illicit drugs-primarily self-regulation and market regulation. There has been an overreliance on strategies from the top of the regulatory pyramid. Two other regulatory strategies--self-regulation and market regulation--can be applied to illicit drugs. Self-regulation, driven by the proactive support of consumer groups may reduce drug-related harms. Market strategies such as pill-testing can change consumer preferences and encourage alternate seller behaviour. Regulatory theory is also concerned with partnerships between the state and third parties: strategies in these areas include partnerships between police and pharmacies regarding sale of potential precursor chemicals. Regulatory theory and practice is a rich and well-developed field in the social sciences. I argue that governments should consider the full array of regulatory strategies. Using regulatory theory provides a rationale and justification to strategies that are currently at the whim of politics, such as funding for user groups. The greater application of regulatory approaches may produce more flexible and structured illicit drug policies. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Relationships between Illicit Drug Use and Body Mass Index among Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackstone, Sarah R.; Herrmann, Lynn K.

    2016-01-01

    Prior research has established associations between body mass index (BMI) and use of alcohol, tobacco, and marijuana. However, little research has been done investigating the relationship between other common illicit drugs and BMI trends. The present study investigated whether adolescents who reported using illicit drugs showed differences in BMI…

  15. Media Exposure and Tobacco, Illicit Drugs, and Alcohol Use among Children and Adolescents: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunez-Smith, Marcella; Wolf, Elizabeth; Huang, Helen Mikiko; Chen, Peggy G.; Lee, Lana; Emanuel, Ezekiel J.; Gross, Cary P.

    2010-01-01

    The authors systematically reviewed 42 quantitative studies on the relationship between media exposure and tobacco, illicit drug, and alcohol use among children and adolescents. Overall, 83% of studies reported that media was associated with increased risk of smoking initiation, use of illicit drugs, and alcohol consumption. Of 30 studies…

  16. Alcohol and illicit drugs in drivers involved in road traffic crashes in the Milan area. A comparison with normal traffic reveals the possible inadequacy of current cut-off limits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Davide; Manca, Monica; Banfi, Giuseppe; Locatelli, Massimo

    2018-01-01

    Driving under the influence of alcohol and/or illicit drugs in Italy is regulated by the articles 186 and 187 of the National Street Code. Epidemiological studies on drivers involved in road traffic crashes (RTC) provide useful information about the use/abuse of these substances in the general population. Comparison with case control studies may reveal important information like the cut-off limits adequacy. Data from 1587 blood tests for alcohol and 1258 blood tests for illicit drugs on drivers involved in RTC around Milan between 2012 and 2016, were analyzed and compared with a published random survey (DRUID) from the European Community. Our data from RTC-involved drivers show that alcohol abuse is not age-related whereas illicit drugs are more common in young people. Cannabinoids are frequent among younger drivers (median age 27) whereas cocaine is more often detected in adults (median age 34). The calculated odds ratio after comparison with the DRUID survey shows that a blood alcohol concentration below the legal limit does not represent a risk factor in having a car accident whereas concentrations of cocaine and cannabinoids within the legal limits are associated with being involved in a car accident. Despite authority efforts, the abuse of alcohol and illicit drugs is still common in young drivers. We suspect that the cut-off limits for cannabinoids and cocaine and/or the pre-analytical procedures for these substances are inadequate. We suggest a better standardization of the procedure by shortening the time interval between the request for investigation and blood collection and propose the adoption of more stringent cut-off limits. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. The prevention of illicit trafficking of nuclear and radioactive material in Vietnam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguygen, N.T.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: I Introduction - Vietnam has signed the Safeguard Agreement under NPT in 1989 and is preparing to join the Convention on Physical Protection of Nuclear Materials. To enhance the fulfillment of commitment, at the beginning of 1993 a joint group of experts from VAEC, Ministry of Defense and Ministry of Security was set up to: Search the current situation of illicit trafficking of nuclear and radioactive material; and Prevent the illicit trafficking. Activities were carried out during four years with modest resources and results achieved are remarkable, no case of illicit trafficking has been detected from 1997 until now. II Searching the illicit trafficking situation - The objectives of searching are the following: What is material in the illicit trafficking?; What is the motivation of illicit trafficking?; What is the illicit trafficking ploy? 1. Material in the illicit trafficking - At the end of the seventies and during the eighties, there were rumors of black trade of precious and mysterious metal with unbelievable high prices, higher many times than the gold price. Rumors said the name of the metal was uranium, black copper or osmium . We have collected all material confiscated during that time and during our activities, and the study shows: 516.56 kg of confiscated material is depleted uranium with U-235 mass content ranging from 0.2% to 0.32%, uranium mass content (U-235+U-238) ranging from 80% to 99%; Mostly pieces have a mark Made in USA. The masses of pieces range from 0.3 kg to 150 kg. By geometry and structure there are some mechanical parts of still unidentified machines; All pieces can be considered as radioactive material, the radioactive dose rate at their surface ranges from 10μSv/h to 100μSv/h. (Background: 0.2μSv/h); 268.65 kg confiscated material is false uranium made of lead. Its mark is written in very bad English trying to imitate the mark of real pieces. One false osmium body is made of silver. 2. Motivation of illicit

  18. Prepovedane droge v slovenskih množičnih medijih: Illicit drugs in Slovene mass media:

    OpenAIRE

    Drev, Andreja; Kamin, Tanja; Sever, Maja

    2006-01-01

    Aim: The purpose of the article was to establish the frequency of Slovene media reports on illicit drugs, as well as to identify the main initiators of media coverage of illicit drugs and to determine the influence of health institutions on the information provided. Method: During the period studied, we collected 360 articles on illicit drugs published in twelve selected Slovene mass media. Basic techniques of descriptive statistical analysis and statistical significance tests were used. The ...

  19. Denial of pain medication by health care providers predicts in-hospital illicit drug use among individuals who use illicit drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ti, Lianping; Voon, Pauline; Dobrer, Sabina; Montaner, Julio; Wood, Evan; Kerr, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Undertreated pain is common among people who use illicit drugs (PWUD), and can often reflect the reluctance of health care providers to provide pain medication to individuals with substance use disorders. To investigate the relationship between having ever been denied pain medication by a health care provider and having ever reported using illicit drugs in hospital. Data were derived from participants enrolled in two Canadian prospective cohort studies between December 2012 and May 2013. Using bivariable and multivariable logistic regression analyses, the relationship between having ever been denied pain medication by a health care provider and having ever reported using illicit drugs in hospital was examined. Among 1053 PWUD who had experienced ≥ 1 hospitalization, 452 (44%) reported having ever used illicit drugs while in hospital and 491(48%) reported having ever been denied pain medication. In a multivariable model adjusted for confounders, having been denied pain medication was positively associated with having used illicit drugs in hospital (adjusted OR 1.46 [95% CI 1.14 to 1.88]). The results of the present study suggest that the denial of pain medication is associated with the use of illicit drugs while hospitalized. These findings raise questions about how to appropriately manage addiction and pain among PWUD and indicate the potential role that harm reduction programs may play in hospital settings.

  20. Safety analysis reports. Current status (third key report)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    A review of Ukrainian regulations and laws concerned with Nuclear power and radiation safety is presented with an overview of the requirements for the Safety Analysis Report Contents. Status of Safety Analysis Reports (SAR) is listed for each particular Ukrainian NPP including SAR development schedules. Organisational scheme of SAR development works includes: general technical co-ordination on Safety Analysis Report development; list of leading organisations and utilization of technical support within international projects

  1. Emerging and Underrecognized Complications of Illicit Drug Use

    OpenAIRE

    Wurcel, Alysse G.; Merchant, Elisabeth A.; Clark, Roger P.; Stone, David R.

    2015-01-01

    This comprehensive review of infectious and noninfectious syndromes associated with illicit drug use focuses on underrecognized complications of common illicit drugs and constellations of syndromes associated with emerging illicit drugs.

  2. Prevalence and predictors of illicit drug use among school-going ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    % females) reported having ever used marijuana or glue. ... Conclusions: Public health intervention aimed to prevent marijuana or glue use among adolescents should be designed with the understanding that illicit drug use may be associated ...

  3. Trends in the use of illicit substances in Thailand: Results from national household surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angkurawaranon, Chaisiri; Jiraporncharoen, Wichuda; Likhitsathian, Surinporn; Thaikla, Kanittha; Kanato, Manop; Perngparn, Usaneya; Assanangkornchai, Sawitri; Aramrattana, Apinun

    2018-02-27

    Thailand borders some of the world's largest methamphetamine and opioid producing countries and trafficking routes. Thailand's 'War on Drugs' campaign was launched in 2003. This study reports trends in illicit substance use in Thailand over the period 2001-2011. National Household surveys on illicit drug use were conducted in 2001, 2003, 2007, 2008 and 2011. A stratified multi-stage cluster random sampling technique was implemented for each survey. Provinces in four regions were systematically selected using a probability proportionate to the size of the targeted population. Participants were interviewed using structured questionnaires on their history of substance use. The prevalence of illicit drug use within the past drastically decreased from 4.5% in 2001 to 1.0% in 2003 (P survey. Other types of illicit drugs were less commonly used in Thailand. There was a decrease in prevalence of illicit drug use within the past year between 2001 and 2003 in Thailand. Since 2003, the past year prelavence of illicit drug use has remained relatively stable. From 2001 to 2011, cannabis, kratom and yaba have remained the three most commonly reported types of illicit drugs used in Thailand. © 2018 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  4. Measures for prevention illicit trafficking of nuclear and radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strezov, A.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: In the early 1990ies the number of illicit trafficking cases with nuclear material and radioactive sources began to appear in the press more often than before. This fact became of great concern among international organizations and different states that the nuclear material subjected to trafficking might become in possession of rogue states and be implicated in weapons production or that stolen radioactive sources may cause health and safety effects to the population or to the environment. The creation and proposition of a model scheme procedure for the developing countries is important for starting the initial process of preventing and combating the illicit traffic of nuclear materials. Particular efforts have been directed for the protection of fissile materials. The reported incidents for diversion of nuclear materials have raised the problem of potential nuclear terrorism and also for countries of proliferation to take a short cut to the bomb. There is a need of rapid implementation of comprehensive, mutually reinforcing strategy to control the existing stockpiles of fissile material and to lower the future production and use of such materials. The illicit traffic of nuclear materials is a new threat, which requires new efforts, new approaches and coordination of services and institutions and even new legislation. The propositions of a model-procedure will allow better and quicker upgrade of developing countries capabilities for combating illicit nuclear trafficking. (author)

  5. [Licit and illicit substance use during pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamy, Sandrine; Delavene, Héloise; Thibaut, Florence

    2014-03-01

    Licit and illicit substance use during pregnancy is a major public health concern. Alcohol and substance (tobacco, cannabis, cocaine...) use prevalence during pregnancy remains under estimated. Some studies have reported the prevalence of alcohol or substance use in different countries worldwide but most of them were based on the mother's interview. Consumption of one or more psychoactive substances during pregnancy may have serious consequences on the pregnancy and on the child development. However, the type of consequences is still a matter of controversies. The reasons are diverse: different rating scales, potential interactions with environmental and genetic factors. Considering the negative consequences of drug use during pregnancy, preventive campaigns against the use of drugs during pregnancy are strongly recommended.

  6. 12 CFR 563g.18 - Current and periodic reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Current and periodic reports. 563g.18 Section 563g.18 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SECURITIES OFFERINGS § 563g.18 Current and periodic reports. (a) Each savings association which files an offering circular...

  7. Do Digital Technologies Facilitate Illicit Financial Flows?

    OpenAIRE

    Tropina, Tatiana

    2016-01-01

    The emerging concept of illicit financial flows has become a crosscutting issue on the international agenda in recent years. This umbrella term refers to money illegally earned, transferred, or used. With the development of digital technologies, the use of information and communications networks as a tool for facilitating illicit financial flows is rising as one of the key challenges in ta...

  8. Illicit Drug Use Among South Korean Offenders: Assessing the Generality of Social Learning Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Minwoo; Kim, Eunyoung

    2015-10-01

    Since the mid-1990s, illicit drug use has become a problem in Korean society. This trend is likely due to the rapid globalization and expansion that occurred with the Internet revolution, which led to greater numbers of people socially learning about drug culture. The current study attempts to uncover criminogenic causality of such social learning about drug use by studying adult felony drug offenders in South Korea. The data used for the study were obtained from self-reported surveys, originally collected by the Korean Institution of Criminology (KIC). The final sample comprised 1,452 felony offenders convicted of illicit drug use, and their responses were analyzed with a set of multiple logistic regression tests. The current study found supportive evidence for the generalizability of social learning theory from the sample of the South Korean adult drug offenders. We argue that the current study provides additional empirical evidence that supports the generalizability of social learning theory. © The Author(s) 2014.

  9. Some Experience with Illicit Trafficking of Radioactive Materials in Tanzania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ngaile, J.E.; Banzi, F.P.; Kifanga, L.D.

    2008-01-01

    Illicit trafficking of radioactive materials (orphan sources or disuse sources) is of global concern. Reports on the IAEA Illicit Trafficking Data Base (ITDB) indicates increasing trend of incidents recorded in more than 40 countries on six continents[1]. It is suspected that nuclear trafficking is fueled by nuclear terrorism and is a threat for increasing illegal trade in nuclear and radioactive materials to manufacture Radiological Disposal Devices (RDD)- dirty bombs. As such, the international co-operative efforts are needed to uncover and combat nuclear trafficking in order to minimize its consequences such as external radiation exposure of persons from source to various radiation levels during illicit movement and after seizure; rupture of source leading to internal exposure of persons and environmental contamination. Although accidents with radioactive materials have not occurred in the United Republic of Tanzania (URT), incidents of illicit trafficking and unauthorized possession of radioactive materials has occurred thus prompting the Tanzania Atomic Energy Commission (TAEC) to strengthen its nuclear security of nuclear and radioactive material in the URT. Nuclear faclities and radioactive sources lacks adequate physical protection against theft, fire or different forms of unauthorized access. Tanzaniaia has recorded about thirteen (13) illicit trafficking incidents of radioactive between 1996-2006. Caesium-137, Uranium-238; and Uranium oxide standard and Radium-226 with activity ranging from low to significantly high were among the radiounuclides which were intercepted. Most of these incidents had their original outside Tanzania. The incidents were uncovered by informers in cooperation with the police. Despite the fact that the management of these incidents by the police were adequate, it was observed that there is an inadequate radiation protection arrangements during transport of seized sources; lack of precautions for safety when handling seized

  10. A strategy to reduce illicit drug use is effective in elite Australian football

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harcourt, Peter R; Unglik, Harry; Cook, Jill L

    2012-01-01

    Background The World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) prescribes that drug testing is conducted in sports competitions to detect drug use in athletes. This testing includes performance-enhancing drugs as well as illicit substances such as marijuana, amphetamines and cocaine. Illicit drugs are tested for on match days but not on non-match days. Some athletes are known to use illicit substances for recreational purposes, away from competition times and this poses a serious health and welfare issue not addressed by the usual sport drug testing regimes. This paper reports the results of the first 7 years of an illicit drug-testing programme that included non-match day testing in the elite Australian Football competition, the Australian Football League (AFL). Methods Players in the AFL were tested for illicit drugs both in-competition and out-of-competition. Players were selected for illicit substance tests either randomly or targeted based on previous test history or time since previous test. The number of tests conducted was increased each year from 2005 to 2011 and testing was focused on high-risk times during non-competition periods. Results There were no positive match day tests. There was a significant reduction in positive tests (19–6) for illicit drugs during non-competition periods over the 7 years (psport's WADA compliant Anti-Doping Code. PMID:22893512

  11. Nonnatural deaths among users of illicit drugs: pathological findings and illicit drug abuse stigmata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaveris, Gerd Jorunn Møller; Hoff-Olsen, Per; Rogde, Sidsel

    2015-03-01

    The aim of the study was to provide information on illicit drug abuse stigmata and general pathological findings among an adult narcotic drug-using population aged 20 to 59 years whose death was nonnatural. A total of 1603 medicolegal autopsy reports from 2000 to 2009 concerning cases positive for morphine, heroin, amphetamines, ecstasy, cannabis, LSD (lysergic acid diethylamide), PCP (phencyclidine), and high levels of GHB (γ-hydroxybutyric acid) in addition to methadone and buprenorphine were investigated. Reported findings of hepatitis, portal lymphadenopathy, recent injection marks, drug user's equipment, and numbers of significant pathological conditions were registered and analyzed according to cases positive for opiates, opioids (OPs), and central nervous system (CNS)-stimulating illicit drugs, respectively. Of the selected cases, 1305 were positive for one or more opiate or OP. Cases positive for OPs had significantly more findings of noninfectious pathological conditions. Hepatitis, portal lymphadenopathy, recent injections marks findings of drug user's equipment were all findings found more frequently among the opiate OP-positive individuals. Portal lymphadenopathy was significantly more often found in cases with hepatitis than in cases with other or no infection. In the population positive for CNS stimulants, hepatitis recent injection marks were more frequent findings than in the CNS stimulant-negative group, irrespective of whether they were opiate OP positive or negative.

  12. [Illicit drug use by pregnant women infected with HIV].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, Victor Hugo; Botelho, Ana Paula Machado; Maia, Marcelle Marie Martins; Correa, Mário Dias; Pinto, Jorge Andrade

    2014-12-01

    To determine if illicit drug use increases the vertical transmission of HIV, to identify the risk factors involved in mother and child health and the prevalence of illicit drug use among these pregnant women. Sixty-four (7.6%) of 845 pregnant women from the metropolitan region of Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil, attended in the service between October 1997 and February 2012 reported the use of illicit drugs. Cases were HIV-positive drug users (n=64) and controls were women who did not use drugs (n=192). Three controls were selected for each case. Several conditions of exposure were considered in the control group such as tobacco use, alcohol use, alcohol and tobacco use, maternal age, educational level, ethnicity, and marital status. Problems during the prenatal period, delivery and postpartum, vertical HIV transmission and neonatal outcomes were also investigated. Univariate analysis showed as significant variables: maternal age, tobacco use, number of prenatal care visits, antiretroviral therapy, mode of infection, and viral load at delivery. Logistic regression revealed as significant variables: maternal age (less than 25 years); tobacco use, and number of prenatal care visits (less than 6). The vertical transmission of HIV was 4,8% (95%CI 1.7-13.3) among drug users and 2,1% (95%CI 0.8-5.2) in the control group, with no statistically significant difference between groups. Neonatal complications were more frequent among drug users, but also with no statistically significant difference between groups. The use of illicit drug is frequent during pregnancy among HIV-infected women. The approach to illicit drug use should be routine during prenatal care visits. These women are more discriminated against and tend to deny their habits or do not seek prenatal care. There was no difference in vertical virus transmission between groups, probably indicating adherence to antiretroviral use for antiretroviral therapies during pregnancy.

  13. Human trafficking: fighting the illicit economy with the legitimate economy

    OpenAIRE

    Shelley, Louise; Bain, Christina

    2015-01-01

    Since the beginning of research on human trafficking, there has been attention paid to the challenges surrounding the illicit economy. In creating new strategies and initiatives on combatting human trafficking, there needs to be more discussion surrounding the legitimate economy and how the business sector can make an impact in the fight against trafficking. Currently, there is a growing movement of businesses that are looking to address human trafficking through training, education, and lead...

  14. Characteristics of pregnant illicit drug users and associations between cannabis use and perinatal outcome in a population-based study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gelder, M.M.H.J. van; Reefhuis, J.; Caton, A.R.; Werler, M.M.; Druschel, C.M.; Roeleveld, N.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: According to the 2004 National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 4.6% of American women reported use of an illicit drug during pregnancy. Previous studies on illicit drug use during pregnancy and perinatal outcomes showed inconsistent results. METHODS: This population-based study included

  15. The empirical analysis of cigarette tax avoidance and illicit trade in Vietnam, 1998-2010.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minh Thac Nguyen

    Full Text Available Illicit trade carries the potential to magnify existing tobacco-related health care costs through increased availability of untaxed and inexpensive cigarettes. What is known with respect to the magnitude of illicit trade for Vietnam is produced primarily by the industry, and methodologies are typically opaque. Independent assessment of the illicit cigarette trade in Vietnam is vital to tobacco control policy. This paper measures the magnitude of illicit cigarette trade for Vietnam between 1998 and 2010 using two methods, discrepancies between legitimate domestic cigarette sales and domestic tobacco consumption estimated from surveys, and trade discrepancies as recorded by Vietnam and trade partners. The results indicate that Vietnam likely experienced net smuggling in during the period studied. With the inclusion of adjustments for survey respondent under-reporting, inward illicit trade likely occurred in three of the four years for which surveys were available. Discrepancies in trade records indicate that the value of smuggled cigarettes into Vietnam ranges from $100 million to $300 million between 2000 and 2010 and that these cigarettes primarily originate in Singapore, Hong Kong, Macao, Malaysia, and Australia. Notable differences in trends over time exist between the two methods, but by comparison, the industry estimates consistently place the magnitude of illicit trade at the upper bounds of what this study shows. The unavailability of annual, survey-based estimates of consumption may obscure the true, annual trend over time. Second, as surveys changed over time, estimates relying on them may be inconsistent with one another. Finally, these two methods measure different components of illicit trade, specifically consumption of illicit cigarettes regardless of origin and smuggling of cigarettes into a particular market. However, absent a gold standard, comparisons of different approaches to illicit trade measurement serve efforts to refine

  16. The empirical analysis of cigarette tax avoidance and illicit trade in Vietnam, 1998-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Minh Thac; Denniston, Ryan; Nguyen, Hien Thi Thu; Hoang, Tuan Anh; Ross, Hana; So, Anthony D

    2014-01-01

    Illicit trade carries the potential to magnify existing tobacco-related health care costs through increased availability of untaxed and inexpensive cigarettes. What is known with respect to the magnitude of illicit trade for Vietnam is produced primarily by the industry, and methodologies are typically opaque. Independent assessment of the illicit cigarette trade in Vietnam is vital to tobacco control policy. This paper measures the magnitude of illicit cigarette trade for Vietnam between 1998 and 2010 using two methods, discrepancies between legitimate domestic cigarette sales and domestic tobacco consumption estimated from surveys, and trade discrepancies as recorded by Vietnam and trade partners. The results indicate that Vietnam likely experienced net smuggling in during the period studied. With the inclusion of adjustments for survey respondent under-reporting, inward illicit trade likely occurred in three of the four years for which surveys were available. Discrepancies in trade records indicate that the value of smuggled cigarettes into Vietnam ranges from $100 million to $300 million between 2000 and 2010 and that these cigarettes primarily originate in Singapore, Hong Kong, Macao, Malaysia, and Australia. Notable differences in trends over time exist between the two methods, but by comparison, the industry estimates consistently place the magnitude of illicit trade at the upper bounds of what this study shows. The unavailability of annual, survey-based estimates of consumption may obscure the true, annual trend over time. Second, as surveys changed over time, estimates relying on them may be inconsistent with one another. Finally, these two methods measure different components of illicit trade, specifically consumption of illicit cigarettes regardless of origin and smuggling of cigarettes into a particular market. However, absent a gold standard, comparisons of different approaches to illicit trade measurement serve efforts to refine and improve

  17. A strategy to reduce illicit drug use is effective in elite Australian football.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harcourt, Peter R; Unglik, Harry; Cook, Jill L

    2012-10-01

    The World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) prescribes that drug testing is conducted in sports competitions to detect drug use in athletes. This testing includes performance-enhancing drugs as well as illicit substances such as marijuana, amphetamines and cocaine. Illicit drugs are tested for on match days but not on non-match days. Some athletes are known to use illicit substances for recreational purposes, away from competition times and this poses a serious health and welfare issue not addressed by the usual sport drug testing regimes. This paper reports the results of the first 7 years of an illicit drug-testing programme that included non-match day testing in the elite Australian Football competition, the Australian Football League (AFL). Players in the AFL were tested for illicit drugs both in-competition and out-of-competition. Players were selected for illicit substance tests either randomly or targeted based on previous test history or time since previous test. The number of tests conducted was increased each year from 2005 to 2011 and testing was focused on high-risk times during non-competition periods. There were no positive match day tests. There was a significant reduction in positive tests (19-6) for illicit drugs during non-competition periods over the 7 years (p<0.0001). The reduction in positive tests may be related to player education, the greater number of tests conducted and the harm minimisation approach of the illicit drug policy. An illicit drugs programme using a harm minimisation strategy can work effectively alongside a sport's WADA compliant Anti-Doping Code.

  18. 12-step programs to reduce illicit drug use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Filges, Trine; Nielsen, Sine Kirkegaard; Jørgensen, Anne-Marie Klint

    2014-01-01

    Many treatments are not rigorously evaluated as to their effectiveness, and it is uncertain which types of interventions are more effective than others in reducing illicit drug use. The aim of this paper is to provide a systematic mapping of the research literature of the effectiveness of 12-step...... programs in reducing illicit drug use. A systematic literature search was conducted based on 17 international and Nordic Bibliographic databases. A total of 15993 references were screened, and eleven unique studies were finally included in this mapping. The included studies demonstrated conflicting results...... regarding the effectiveness of the 12-step treatment and TSF in reducing individuals’ drug use. Two studies reported a positive effect of the TSF treatment compared to the comparison conditions in reducing drug use. Six studies reported no differences between 12-step program and the comparison condition...

  19. Demographic Characteristics, Components of Sexuality and Gender, and Minority Stress and Their Associations to Excessive Alcohol, Cannabis, and Illicit (Noncannabis) Drug Use Among a Large Sample of Transgender People in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Cesar A; Gallego, Joseph D; Bockting, Walter O

    2017-08-01

    The current study examined demographics, sexual orientation, gender characteristics, and gender minority stress and their association to excessive alcohol, cannabis, and illicit (noncannabis) drug use among 1210 transgender adults living in the United States. The authors conducted a secondary analysis of data that included 680 transgender women (M age  = 32.63, SD age  = 12.29) and 530 transgender men (M age  = 26.14, SD age  = 7.42). A modified version of the Risk Behavioral Assessment quantified participants' alcohol, cannabis, and illicit drug use in the past 3 months. Overall, 21.5% of participants reported excessive alcohol use; no significant differences were found on the rates of excessive alcohol use between transgender women and men. Cannabis use among our sample was 24.4%; trangender men reported significantly higher rates of cannabis use compared to transgender women. Illicit drug (noncannabis) use among our sample was 11.6%; transgender men also reported significantly higher rates of illicit drug use compared to transgender women. Multivariate analyses suggested that gender dysphoria was significantly associated with: excessive alcohol use for transgender women, cannabis use among both transgender women and men, and illicit (noncannabis) drug use among transgender women. A nonheterosexual orientation was associated with increased odds of cannabis use among transgender women and men; a nonheterosexual orientation was associated with greater odds of illicit substance use among transgender men but not among transgender women. Gender minority stressors were independently associated with excessive alcohol use among transgender men and cannabis use among transgender women. The authors suggest that minority stress may only partially account for substance use among transgender people. Consequently, the authors suggest that in addition to minority stress, other biopsychosocial mechanisms should continue to be examined to identify pathways that may lead

  20. NELIS - a Neutron Inspection System for Detection of Illicit Drugs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barzilov, Alexander P.; Womble, Phillip C.; Vourvopoulos, George

    2003-01-01

    NELIS (Neutron ELemental Inspection System) is currently being developed to inspect cargo pallets for illicit drugs. NELIS must be used in conjunction with an x-ray imaging system to optimize the inspection capabilities at ports of entry. Pulsed fast-thermal neutron analysis is utilized to measure the major and minor chemical elements in a non-destructive and non-intrusive manner. Fourteen-MeV neutrons produced with a pulsed d-T neutron generator are the interrogating particles. NELIS analyzes the characteristic gamma rays emitted from the object that are produced by nuclear reactions from fast and thermal neutrons. These gamma rays have different energies for each chemical element, and act as their fingerprints. Since the elemental composition of illicit drugs is quite different from that of innocuous materials, drugs hidden in pallets are identified through the comparison of expected and measured elemental composition and ratios. Results of tests of the system will be discussed

  1. [International cooperation in combatting illicit drugs in Mozambique].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buvana, Flávia; Ventura, Carla Aparecida Arena

    2011-06-01

    Countries from Southern Africa have formed a Development Community (SADC) to stimulate common actions in several areas, among them illicit drugs combat. In this context, the goal of this qualitative study was to identify information and perception about the cooperation set up between Mozambique and other SADC members in combatting illicit drugs. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews with public employees developing actions directed at the implementation of the Protocol to Combat Drugs in SADC. After transcriptions, the interviews were analyzed by content analysis and resulted in the categories: "Mozambique as a drugs corridor", "Cooperation Initiatives on Drugs among African countries", "Cooperation Difficulties in Africa", "Problems in Protocol Implementation" and "Difficulties to implement a control policy". As a consequence, there is a need to review and update the policies and strategies in the drugs area, as they are not contextualized in the country's current reality.

  2. Suicide risk among Thai illicit drug users with and without mental/alcohol use disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kittirattanapaiboon P

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Phunnapa Kittirattanapaiboon,1 Sirijit Suttajit,2 Boonsiri Junsirimongkol,1 Surinporn Likhitsathian,2 Manit Srisurapanont2 1Department of Mental Health, Ministry of Public Health, Nonthaburi, Thailand; 2Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, Thailand Background: It is not yet known if the increased risk of suicide in substance abusers is caused by the causal and/or coexisting relationship between substance use and psychiatric disorders. This study was designed to estimate the suicide risk among individuals with illicit drug use alone, illicit drug users with mental disorders, and illicit drug users with alcohol use disorders. Methods: Subjects were participants of the 2008 Thai National Mental Health Survey. They were asked for their illicit drug use in the past year. The Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI, current suicidality (1 month prior to assessment, mood episodes, anxiety disorders, psychotic disorders, and alcohol use disorders were used for assessing mental/alcohol use disorders. A score of 1 or more for the MINI–Suicidality module was defined as the presence of suicide risk. Results: Of the total 17,140 respondents, 537 currently used illicit drugs, while 1,194 respondents had a suicide risk. Common illicit drugs were kratom (59% and (methamphetamine (24%. Compared with 16,603 Thais without illicit drug use, the illicit drug users with or without mental/alcohol use disorders (n=537 had an increased risk of suicide (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 95% confidence interval [CI] =2.09, 1.55–2.81. While those who used illicit drugs alone (no mental/alcohol use disorder (n=348 had no increased risk of suicide (adjusted OR, 95% CI =1.04, 0.66–1.65, the illicit drug users with mental or alcohol use disorders (n=27 and n=162, respectively had significantly increased risk of suicide (adjusted ORs, 95% CIs =14.06, 6.50–30.3 and 3.14, 1.98–4.99, respectively. Conclusion: A key

  3. Suicide risk among Thai illicit drug users with and without mental/alcohol use disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kittirattanapaiboon, Phunnapa; Suttajit, Sirijit; Junsirimongkol, Boonsiri; Likhitsathian, Surinporn; Srisurapanont, Manit

    2014-01-01

    Background It is not yet known if the increased risk of suicide in substance abusers is caused by the causal and/or coexisting relationship between substance use and psychiatric disorders. This study was designed to estimate the suicide risk among individuals with illicit drug use alone, illicit drug users with mental disorders, and illicit drug users with alcohol use disorders. Methods Subjects were participants of the 2008 Thai National Mental Health Survey. They were asked for their illicit drug use in the past year. The Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI), current suicidality (1 month prior to assessment), mood episodes, anxiety disorders, psychotic disorders, and alcohol use disorders were used for assessing mental/alcohol use disorders. A score of 1 or more for the MINI–Suicidality module was defined as the presence of suicide risk. Results Of the total 17,140 respondents, 537 currently used illicit drugs, while 1,194 respondents had a suicide risk. Common illicit drugs were kratom (59%) and (meth)amphetamine (24%). Compared with 16,603 Thais without illicit drug use, the illicit drug users with or without mental/alcohol use disorders (n=537) had an increased risk of suicide (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 95% confidence interval [CI] =2.09, 1.55–2.81). While those who used illicit drugs alone (no mental/alcohol use disorder) (n=348) had no increased risk of suicide (adjusted OR, 95% CI =1.04, 0.66–1.65), the illicit drug users with mental or alcohol use disorders (n=27 and n=162, respectively) had significantly increased risk of suicide (adjusted ORs, 95% CIs =14.06, 6.50–30.3 and 3.14, 1.98–4.99, respectively). Conclusion A key limitation of this study was the combined suicidal behaviors as a suicidality risk. Mental or alcohol use disorders found in this population actually increased the suicide risk. These findings support the coexisting relationship that mental and alcohol use disorders play a vital role in increasing the suicide

  4. Amount of self-reported illicit drug use compared to quantitative hair test results in community-recruited young drug users in Amsterdam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Welp, Esther A. E.; Bosman, Ingrid; Langendam, Miranda W.; Totté, Maja; Maes, Robert A. A.; van Ameijden, Erik J. C.

    2003-01-01

    To assess the dose-effect relationship between self-reported drug intake and the concentration of drugs and/or their metabolites in hair and to examine factors that may mediate this relationship. A cohort study among young drug users (YDU) in Amsterdam, the Netherlands, which began in July 2000. At

  5. From cigarette smuggling to illicit tobacco trade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joossens, Luk; Raw, Martin

    2012-03-01

    Tax policy is considered the most effective strategy to reduce tobacco consumption and prevalence. Tax avoidance and tax evasion therefore undermine the effectiveness of tax policies and result in less revenue for governments, cheaper prices for smokers and increased tobacco use. Tobacco smuggling and illicit tobacco trade have probably always existed, since tobacco's introduction as a valuable product from the New World, but the nature of the trade has changed. This article clarifies definitions, reviews the key issues related to illicit trade, describes the different ways taxes are circumvented and looks at the size of the problem, its changing nature and its causes. The difficulties of data collection and research are discussed. Finally, we look at the policy options to combat illicit trade and the negotiations for a WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) protocol on illicit tobacco trade. Twenty years ago the main type of illicit trade was large-scale cigarette smuggling of well known cigarette brands. A change occurred as some major international tobacco companies in Europe and the Americas reviewed their export practices due to tax regulations, investigations and lawsuits by the authorities. Other types of illicit trade emerged such as illegal manufacturing, including counterfeiting and the emergence of new cigarette brands, produced in a rather open manner at well known locations, which are only or mainly intended for the illegal market of another country. The global scope and multifaceted nature of the illicit tobacco trade requires a coordinated international response, so a strong protocol to the FCTC is essential. The illicit tobacco trade is a global problem which needs a global solution.

  6. Arrhythmogenic effects of illicit drugs in athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furlanello, Francesco; Bentivegna, Stefano; Cappato, Riccardo; De Ambroggi, Luigi

    2003-12-01

    Cardiac arrhythmias are among the most important causes of non-eligibility to sports activities, and may be due to different causes (cardiomyopathies, myocarditis, coronary abnormalities, valvular diseases, primary electrical disorders, abuse of illicit drugs). The list of illicit drugs banned by the International Olympic Committee and yearly updated by the World Anti-Doping Agency includes the following classes: stimulants, narcotics, anabolic agents (androgenic steroids and others such as beta-2 stimulants), peptide hormones, mimetics and analogues, diuretics, agents with an antiestrogenic activity, masking agents. Almost all illicit drugs may cause, through a direct or indirect arrhythmogenic effect, in the short, medium or long term, a wide range of cardiac arrhythmias (focal or reentry type, supraventricular and/or ventricular), lethal or not, even in healthy subjects with no previous history of cardiac diseases. Therefore, given the widespread abuse of illicit drugs among athletes, in the management of arrhythmic athletes the cardiologist should always take into consideration the possibility that the arrhythmias be due to the assumption of illicit drugs (sometimes more than one type), especially if no signs of cardiac diseases are present. On the other hand, in the presence of latent underlying arrhythmogenic heart disease including some inherited cardiomyopathies at risk of sudden cardiac death, illicit drugs could induce severe cardiac arrhythmic effects.

  7. A Systematic, Intensive Statistical Investigation of Data from the Comprehensive Analysis of Reported Drugs (CARD) for Compliance and Illicit Opioid Abstinence in Substance Addiction Treatment with Buprenorphine/naloxone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum, Kenneth; Han, David; Modestino, Edward J; Saunders, Scott; Roy, A Kennison; Jacobs, W; Inaba, Darryl S; Baron, David; Oscar-Berman, Marlene; Hauser, Mary; Badgaiyan, Rajendra D; Smith, David E; Femino, John; Gold, Mark S

    2018-01-28

    Buprenorphine and naloxone (bup/nal), a combination partial mu receptor agonist and low-dose delta mu antagonist, is presently recommended and used to treat opioid-use disorder. However, a literature review revealed a paucity of research involving data from urine drug tests that looked at compliance and abstinence in one sample. Statistical analysis of data from the Comprehensive Analysis of Reported Drugs (CARD) was used to assess compliance and abstinence during treatment in a large cohort of bup/nal patients attending chemical-dependency programs from eastern USA in 2010 and 2011. Part 1: Bup/nal was present in 93.4% of first (n = 1,282; p drugs were present in 47.7% (n = 655, p =.0261) of samples. Patients who were compliant to the bup/nal prescription were more likely than noncompliant patients to be abstinent during treatment (p =.0012; odds ratio = 1.69 with 95% confidence interval (1.210, 2.354). Part 2: An analysis of all samples collected in 2011 revealed a significant improvement in both compliance (p < 2.2 × 10 -16 ) and abstinence (p < 2.2 × 10 -16 ) during treatment. Conclusion/Importance: While significant use of illicit opioids during treatment with bup/nal is present, improvements in abstinence and high compliance during maintenance-assisted therapy programs may ameliorate fears of diversion in comprehensive programs. Expanded clinical datasets, the treatment modality, location, and year of sampling are important covariates, for further studies. The potential for long-term antireward effects from bup/nal use requires consideration in future investigations.

  8. Tobacco tax and the illicit trade in tobacco products in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajmal, Ali; U, Veng Ian

    2015-04-01

    To estimate the size of illegal tobacco trade and consumption and assess the impact of tobacco tax on the illicit tobacco market in New Zealand (NZ). Data on the import and seizure of legal and illegal tobacco in NZ was obtained from NZ Customs. Previous literature was used to calculate interception rates of illegal tobacco being smuggled and grown in NZ. Annual tobacco returns figures, obtained via the NZ Ministry of Health, were analysed to assess the market dynamics of legal tobacco products. This study found that illicit tobacco constituted 1.8-3.9% of total national tobacco consumption in NZ in 2013. This represents a minor increase compared to previous estimates from 2007-09, suggesting that tax increases enacted by the NZ Government since 2010 have had a minimal impact on encouraging the use and procurement of illicit tobacco. The results highlight a slight rise in small-scale tobacco smuggling through ports and mail centres. However, tobacco returns figures show that current tobacco tax policy has forced manufacturers to focus on the production of cheap legal tobacco products, directly competing with and undercutting the demand for illicit tobacco products. At the same time, locally grown illicit tobacco continues to remain a small, isolated problem and, with recent cuts in duty free tobacco allowance, it is expected that overall illicit tobacco will remain a very small proportion of total tobacco consumption in NZ. © 2015 Public Health Association of Australia.

  9. Illicit financial flows and foreign direct investment in developing countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Innocents Edoun

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Africa is facing a number of challenges that are negatively affecting socio-economic development at all levels of governments and local governments are expected to play a leading role for Africa’s development. One of these challenges are illicit financial flows that are perceived by many as a crime against Africa’s transformation. The continent is losing billions of dollars every year because of tax evasion, corruption and inappropriate transfer pricing and maladministration. With tax being one of Africa’s main sources of revenue, current and past researches revealed that, illicit financial flows (IFFs cripple African Governments tax base as a results of capital outflows and lack of good governance. This situation obviously is a challenge for Africa’s development as governments struggle to finance structuring projects and this in turn compels these governments to seek funds from international organisations at very high interest rates. It is also important to reveal that Foreign Direct Investment (FDI rapidly grew after the Second World War with the intention to maximize profit on investment in less developed countries and specifically in the African continent. In competing in Africa, most multinationals main objective is to pay less tax, make extensive profits and transfer the proceeds to their country of origin. This subsequently gave rise to illicit financial flows in Africa where the continent is losing billions of dollars. Past studies equally revealed that, Africa’s revenue could increase between 55 and 65%, if appropriate mechanisms of monitoring the flows were in place. This study therefore is based on the premise that, tax evasion, illicit financial flows, corruption and abusive transfers pricing are all factors that affect Africa’s development. Using appropriate method of inquiry, this study wants to demonstrate the presence of FDI’s in Africa as a modus operandi behind tax evasion. It also using the

  10. Trauma activation patients: evidence for routine alcohol and illicit drug screening.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Michael Dunham

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Statistics from the National Trauma Data Bank imply that discretionary blood alcohol and urine drug testing is common. However, there is little evidence to determine which patients are appropriate for routine testing, based on information available at trauma center arrival. In 2002, Langdorf reported alcohol and illicit drug rates in Trauma Activation Patients. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: This is a retrospective investigation of alcohol and illicit drug rates in consecutive St. Elizabeth Health Center (SEHC trauma patients. SEHC Trauma Activation Patients are compared with the Langdorf Activation Patients and with the SEHC Trauma Nonactivation Patients. Minimum Rates are positive tests divided by total patients (tested and not tested. Activation patients: The minimum alcohol rates were: SEHC 23.1%, Langdorf 28.2%, combined 24.8%. The minimum illicit drug rates were: SEHC 15.7%, Langdorf 23.5, combined 18.3%. The minimum alcohol and/or illicit drug rates were: SEHC 33.4%, Langdorf 41.8%, combined 36.2%. Nonactivation patients: The SEHC minimum alcohol rate was 4.7% and the minimum illicit drug rate was 6.0%. CONCLUSIONS: Alcohol and illicit drug rates were significantly greater for Trauma Activation Patients, when compared to Nonactivation Patients. At minimum, Trauma Activation Patients are likely to have a 1-in-3 positive test for alcohol and/or an illicit drug. This substantial rate suggests that Trauma Activation Patients, a readily discernible group at trauma center arrival, are appropriate for routine alcohol and illicit drug testing. However, discretionary testing is more reasonable for Trauma Nonactivation Patients, because minimum rates are low.

  11. Clinical exome sequencing reports: current informatics practice and future opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swaminathan, Rajeswari; Huang, Yungui; Astbury, Caroline; Fitzgerald-Butt, Sara; Miller, Katherine; Cole, Justin; Bartlett, Christopher; Lin, Simon

    2017-11-01

    The increased adoption of clinical whole exome sequencing (WES) has improved the diagnostic yield for patients with complex genetic conditions. However, the informatics practice for handling information contained in whole exome reports is still in its infancy, as evidenced by the lack of a common vocabulary within clinical sequencing reports generated across genetic laboratories. Genetic testing results are mostly transmitted using portable document format, which can make secondary analysis and data extraction challenging. This paper reviews a sample of clinical exome reports generated by Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments-certified genetic testing laboratories at tertiary-care facilities to assess and identify common data elements. Like structured radiology reports, which enable faster information retrieval and reuse, structuring genetic information within clinical WES reports would help facilitate integration of genetic information into electronic health records and enable retrospective research on the clinical utility of WES. We identify elements listed as mandatory according to practice guidelines but are currently missing from some of the clinical reports, which might help to organize the data when stored within structured databases. We also highlight elements, such as patient consent, that, although they do not appear within any of the current reports, may help in interpreting some of the information within the reports. Integrating genetic and clinical information would assist the adoption of personalized medicine for improved patient care and outcomes. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the American Medical Informatics Association. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. West Virginia Women Business Owners: Current Study and Trends Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holup, Linda L.; FitzGerald, Kathleen M.

    This report profiles current West Virginia women business owners and notes significant trends in the last eight years. It highlights a subgroup of women business owners, specifically low income, single women with children. These survey areas are discussed: industry sector, type of ownership, reasons for going/not going into business, planning…

  13. Current Trends in European Quality Assurance. ENQA Workshop Report 8

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozo, Dhurata; Damian, Radu; Gonzalez, Cecilia de la Rosa; Helle, Emmi; Imoda, Franco; Kohler, Alexander; Papazoglou, Vassilios J.; Dalmau, Gemma Rauret; Shopov, Todor

    2009-01-01

    The present report is a product of two ENQA (European Association for Quality Assurance in Higher Education) seminars, held in 2007, on current trends in European Quality Assurance. The first seminar, hosted by the Bulgarian National Evaluation and Accreditation Agency (NEAA), examined the situation in South-Eastern Europe. The second seminar…

  14. How do current public integrated reports align with the

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hurks, P.; Langendijk, H.P.A.J.; Nandram, K.

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines empirically the current practice with regard to integrated reporting according to the IR Framework among the 104 original participants (companies) of the IIRC Pilot program. We made a selection with respect to these 104 participants based on organization’s stipulation that they

  15. Trends in Childspacing: June 1975. Current Population Reports: Population Characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Maurice J.; And Others

    This report, largely statistical tables, presents data from the June 1975 Current Population Survey, on the timing and spacing of childbearing and discusses how such data is related to annual measures of fertility. By categorizing women according to their year of birth (birth cohort) or period of first marriage (marriage cohort), in addition to…

  16. "Shotgunning" as an illicit drug smoking practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perlman, D C; Perkins, M P; Paone, D; Kochems, L; Salomon, N; Friedmann, P; Des Jarlais, D C

    1997-01-01

    There has been a rise in illicit drug smoking in the United States. "Shotgunning" drugs (or "doing a shotgun") refers to the practice of inhaling smoke and then exhaling it into another individual's mouth, a practice with the potential for the efficient transmission of respiratory pathogens. Three hundred fifty-four drug users (239 from a syringe exchange and 115 from a drug detoxification program) were interviewed about shotgunning and screened for tuberculosis (TB). Fifty-nine (17%; 95% CI 12.9%-20.9%) reported shotgunning while smoking crack cocaine (68%), marijuana (41%), or heroin (2%). In multivariate analysis, age alcohol to intoxication (OR 2.2, 95% CI 1.1-4.3), having engaged in high-risk sex (OR 2.6, 95% CI 1.04-6.7), and crack use (OR 6.0, 95% CI 3.0-12) were independently associated with shotgunning. Shotgunning is a frequent drug smoking practice with the potential to transmit respiratory pathogens, underscoring the need for education of drug users about the risks of specific drug use practices, and the ongoing need for TB control among active drug users.

  17. Illicit Trafficking of Natural Radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedrich, Steinhaeusler; Lyudmila, Zaitseva

    2008-01-01

    Natural radionuclides have been subject to trafficking worldwide, involving natural uranium ore (U 238), processed uranium (yellow cake), low enriched uranium ( 20% U 235), radium (Ra 226), polonium (Po 210), and natural thorium ore (Th 232). An important prerequisite to successful illicit trafficking activities is access to a suitable logistical infrastructure enabling an undercover shipment of radioactive materials and, in case of trafficking natural uranium or thorium ore, capable of transporting large volumes of material. Covert en route diversion of an authorised uranium transport, together with covert diversion of uranium concentrate from an operating or closed uranium mines or mills, are subject of case studies. Such cases, involving Israel, Iran, Pakistan and Libya, have been analyzed in terms of international actors involved and methods deployed. Using international incident data contained in the Database on Nuclear Smuggling, Theft and Orphan Radiation Sources (DSTO) and international experience gained from the fight against drug trafficking, a generic Trafficking Pathway Model (TPM) is developed for trafficking of natural radionuclides. The TPM covers the complete trafficking cycle, ranging from material diversion, covert material transport, material concealment, and all associated operational procedures. The model subdivides the trafficking cycle into five phases: (1) Material diversion by insider(s) or initiation by outsider(s); (2) Covert transport; (3) Material brokerage; (4) Material sale; (5) Material delivery. An Action Plan is recommended, addressing the strengthening of the national infrastructure for material protection and accounting, development of higher standards of good governance, and needs for improving the control system deployed by customs, border guards and security forces

  18. Illicit Trafficking of Natural Radionuclides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedrich, Steinhäusler; Lyudmila, Zaitseva

    2008-08-01

    Natural radionuclides have been subject to trafficking worldwide, involving natural uranium ore (U 238), processed uranium (yellow cake), low enriched uranium (20% U 235), radium (Ra 226), polonium (Po 210), and natural thorium ore (Th 232). An important prerequisite to successful illicit trafficking activities is access to a suitable logistical infrastructure enabling an undercover shipment of radioactive materials and, in case of trafficking natural uranium or thorium ore, capable of transporting large volumes of material. Covert en route diversion of an authorised uranium transport, together with covert diversion of uranium concentrate from an operating or closed uranium mines or mills, are subject of case studies. Such cases, involving Israel, Iran, Pakistan and Libya, have been analyzed in terms of international actors involved and methods deployed. Using international incident data contained in the Database on Nuclear Smuggling, Theft and Orphan Radiation Sources (DSTO) and international experience gained from the fight against drug trafficking, a generic Trafficking Pathway Model (TPM) is developed for trafficking of natural radionuclides. The TPM covers the complete trafficking cycle, ranging from material diversion, covert material transport, material concealment, and all associated operational procedures. The model subdivides the trafficking cycle into five phases: (1) Material diversion by insider(s) or initiation by outsider(s); (2) Covert transport; (3) Material brokerage; (4) Material sale; (5) Material delivery. An Action Plan is recommended, addressing the strengthening of the national infrastructure for material protection and accounting, development of higher standards of good governance, and needs for improving the control system deployed by customs, border guards and security forces.

  19. Radiant business. Hazards of international, illicit trafficking with nuclear materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Attali, J.

    1996-03-01

    Since the Cold War has been terminated, public media increasingly come out with reports about cases of illicit trafficking with nuclear technology and nuclear materials. So far, the potential hazard has not been exploding into the big disaster, but imagine what may happen if uranium or plutonium falls into the hands of terrorists, fanatics, or Mafia-type organisations ? The author has been investigating into this problem on behalf of the Secretary General of the UN. He has been travelling all around the world in pursuit of information and indications, and now presents us with the essential results of his mission, compiled in this explosive report. (orig./HP) [de

  20. Current status of safety analysis report for ANPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amirjanyan, A.

    1999-01-01

    Current situation concerning Armenian NPP safety analysis report is considered within the frame of accepted safety practice. Licensing procedure is being developed. Technical support group was established in the Armenian Nuclear Regulatory Authority (ANRA). The task of the group is to study modern methods of NPP in depth safety analysis for technical assistance for the ANRA, and perform independent safety assessments. ANRA will be obliged to demand assistance from various foreign organisations for preparation of different parts of the Safety Analysis Report like determination though certain parts can be prepared in Armenia

  1. Modern Approaches to the Establishment of National Geoinformation Systems as a Means of Combating Nuclear Terrorism and Illicit Trafficking of Radioactive Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Navumenka, M.; Ivasechko, A.

    2015-01-01

    The report deals with the approaches to the establishment of National geoinformation systems as a means of combating nuclear terrorism and illicit trafficking of radioactive materials (hereinafter National geoinformation systems), which represent the integration of already existing and brand-new hardware and software into a single system for illicit trafficking control. It illustrates the model of transition from current operation system, which is based on engagement of different resources used by governmental agencies, to network solutions enabling to automatize and optimize the process of radiation control, to organize on-line radiological information exchange, thus, enhancing efficiency of reacting on illicit trafficking of nuclear or other radioactive materials. The report also describes operational algorithm of National geoinformation systems and experience of implementation of modern radiological network based equipment, which enables to indicate location, to take measurements and transfer results to the remote expert centre on-line using different data transmission means. Web-application of National geoinformation systems enables to automatize processing of radiological information, which is transferred from different users to a single server, to display the location on the map, to maintain the database of illicit trafficking of nuclear and other radioactive materials, and to exchange information between concerned member-states and IAEA contact points. In general, the suggested system combines new possibilities, which allow to integrate a number of devices into a single network, to display radiological data with GPS-location marks, to give access to the experts for estimating the results of the radiological measurements, to manage the actions of different users from a single remote expert centre and, if necessary, to render on-line expert assistance. The described in the report National geoinformation system has been adopted by a number of users, has turned

  2. Street-level classification of illicit heroin using inorganic elements coupled with pattern monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kar-Weng Chan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A total of 96 illicit heroin samples seized in 2013–2014 were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS to determine 16 inorganic elements at parts-per-billion (ppb level. Of eleven submissions, two or three samples with similar appearance were taken from the same seizure to form related samples. These samples were used to monitor the clustering outcome suggested by principal component analysis (PCA. They provided hints regarding the acceptance of within-seizure variability in-situ. The previously established data pretreatment method (N+4R did not function well with the present data probably due to the higher concentrations reported for the current samples. With the aid of the above-cited related samples for pattern monitoring, a better outcome was achieved when the pretreatment method was modified to employ solely standardization (S to optimize the necessary variability for sample classification.

  3. Relationship between marijuana and other illicit drug use and depression/suicidal thoughts among late middle-aged and older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Namkee G; DiNitto, Diana M; Marti, C Nathan; Choi, Bryan Y

    2016-04-01

    Despite growing numbers of older-adult illicit drug users, research on this topic is rare. This study examined the relationship between marijuana and/or other illicit drug use and major depressive episode (MDE) and serious suicidal thoughts among those aged 50+ years in the USA. The public use files of the 2008 to 2012 US National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) provided data on 29,634 individuals aged 50+ years. Logistic regression analysis was used to test hypothesized associations between past-year marijuana and/or other illicit drug use and MDE and serious suicidal thoughts. Nearly 6% of the 50+ years age group reported past-year marijuana and/or other illicit drug use. Compared to non-users of any illicit drug, the odds of past-year MDE among those who used marijuana only, other illicit drugs only, and marijuana and other illicit drugs were 1.54 (95% CI = 1.17-2.03), 2.75 (95% CI = 1.75-4.33), and 2.12 (95% CI = 1.45-3.09), respectively. Those who used marijuana and other drugs also had higher odds (2.44, 95% CI = 1.58-3.77) of suicidal thoughts than non-users of any illicit drug. However, among users of any illicit drug, no difference was found among users of marijuana only, marijuana and other illicit drugs, and other illicit drugs only. Among marijuana users, marijuana use frequency was a significant correlate of suicidal thoughts only among those with MDE. Health and mental health (MH) service providers should pay close attention to the potential reciprocal effects of marijuana and other illicit drug use and MDE and suicidal thoughts among late middle-aged and older adults.

  4. Use of tobacco tax stamps to prevent and reduce illicit tobacco trade--United States, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chriqui, Jamie; DeLong, Hillary; Gourdet, Camille; Chaloupka, Frank; Edwards, Sarah Matthes; Xu, Xin; Promoff, Gabbi

    2015-05-29

    Tobacco use is the leading cause of preventable disease and death in the United States. Increasing the unit price on tobacco products is the most effective tobacco prevention and control measure. Illicit tobacco trade (illicit trade) undermines high tobacco prices by providing tobacco users with cheaper-priced alternatives. In the United States, illicit trade primarily occurs when cigarettes are bought from states, jurisdictions, and federal reservation land with lower or no excise taxes, and sold in jurisdictions with higher taxes. Applying tax stamps to tobacco products, which provides documentation that taxes have been paid, is an important tool to combat illicit trade. Comprehensive tax stamping policy, which includes using digital, encrypted ("high-tech") stamps, applying stamps to all tobacco products, and working with tribes on stamping agreements, can further prevent and reduce illicit trade. This report describes state laws governing tax stamps on cigarettes, little cigars (cigarette-sized cigars), roll-your-own tobacco (RYOT), and tribal tobacco sales across the United States as of January 1, 2014, and assesses the extent of comprehensive tobacco tax stamping in the United States. Forty-four states (including the District of Columbia [DC]) applied traditional paper ("low-tech") tax stamps to cigarettes, whereas four authorized more effective high-tech stamps. Six states explicitly required stamps on other tobacco products (i.e., tobacco products other than cigarettes), and in approximately one third of states with tribal lands, tribes required tax stamping to address illicit purchases by nonmembers. No U.S. state had a comprehensive approach to tobacco tax stamping. Enhancing tobacco tax stamping across the country might further prevent and reduce illicit trade in the United States.

  5. Hepatitis C, illicit drug use and public health: does Canada really have a viable plan?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Benedikt; Kalousek, Kate; Rehm, Jürgen; Powis, Jeff; Krajden, Mel; Reimer, Jens

    2006-01-01

    Some 300,000 individuals are infected with the hepatitis C virus (HCV) in Canada. HCV infection is associated with major morbidity, mortality and health care costs; these indicators are projected to rise over the next decade. The vast majority of prevalent and incident HCV infections in Canada are illicit drug use-related; thus, the HCV disease burden can only be addressed through interventions targeting this primary risk factor. Both preventive (e.g., needle exchange, methadone treatment) and therapeutic (e.g., the accessibility of HCV treatment for illicit drug users) interventions aimed at HCV in illicit drug users have been broadly expanded in Canada in recent years. However, evidence suggests that existing preventive measures only offer limited effectiveness in reducing HCV risk exposure. Also, due to restricted resources, treatment for HCV currently only reaches an extremely small proportion (i.e., Canada is not achieving a net reduction in the prevalence of HCV-related to illicit drug use. In order to reduce the HCV disease burden, Canada needs to reconsider the scope, delivery and resourcing of both preventive and treatment interventions targeting the primary risk population of illicit drug users.

  6. Influence of depression and early adverse experiences on illicit drug dependence: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferigolo, Maristela; Stein, Airton T; Fuchs, Flavio D; Barros, Helena M T

    2009-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between depression and illicit drug dependence among a Latin-American population. illicit drug dependent patients (n = 137) and controls (n = 274) were interviewed using the Diagnostic Interview for Genetic Studies, in order to detect lifetime and current depressive disorder and illicit (cocaine, cannabis or inhalants) substance dependence. A regression analysis was used to estimate the odds ratio for drug dependence according to the diagnosis of depression. The lifetime diagnosis of depression (p = 0.001; OR = 4.9; 95% CI, 1.9-12.7) predicts illegal drugs dependence. Sociodemographic variables such as male gender (p drug dependence. Additional influent factors detected were having parents (p = 0.006; OR = 18.9; 95% CI, 2.3-158) or friends (p illicit drugs dependents. although a causal relationship between dependence on illicit drugs and depression cannot be determined, comparison of the sequence of events point to the occurrence of depression later in life than dependence. It remains to be determined whether depression is a comorbidity of dependence, sharing etiological factors, or a consequence of drug abuse and/or abstinence.

  7. Prevalence and Motives for Illicit Use of Prescription Stimulants in an Undergraduate Student Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teter, Christian J.; McCabe, Sean Esteban; Cranford, James A.; Boyd, Carol J.; Guthrie, Sally K.

    2005-01-01

    To assess the prevalence and motives for illicit use of prescription stimulants and alcohol and other drugs (AODs), associated with these motives, the authors distributed a self-administered Web survey TO a random sample of 9,161 undergraduate college students. Of the study participants, 8.1% reported lifetime and 5.4% reported past-year illicit…

  8. Illicit Drug Use, Illicit Drug Use Disorders, and Drug Overdose Deaths in Metropolitan and Nonmetropolitan Areas - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mack, Karin A; Jones, Christopher M; Ballesteros, Michael F

    2017-10-20

    Drug overdoses are a leading cause of injury death in the United States, resulting in approximately 52,000 deaths in 2015. Understanding differences in illicit drug use, illicit drug use disorders, and overall drug overdose deaths in metropolitan and nonmetropolitan areas is important for informing public health programs, interventions, and policies. Illicit drug use and drug use disorders during 2003-2014, and drug overdose deaths during 1999-2015. The National Survey of Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) collects information through face-to-face household interviews about the use of illicit drugs, alcohol, and tobacco among the U.S. noninstitutionalized civilian population aged ≥12 years. Respondents include residents of households and noninstitutional group quarters (e.g., shelters, rooming houses, dormitories, migratory workers' camps, and halfway houses) and civilians living on military bases. NSDUH variables include sex, age, race/ethnicity, residence (metropolitan/nonmetropolitan), annual household income, self-reported drug use, and drug use disorders. National Vital Statistics System Mortality (NVSS-M) data for U.S. residents include information from death certificates filed in the 50 states and the District of Columbia. Cases were selected with an underlying cause of death based on the ICD-10 codes for drug overdoses (X40-X44, X60-X64, X85, and Y10-Y14). NVSS-M variables include decedent characteristics (sex, age, and race/ethnicity) and information on intent (unintentional, suicide, homicide, or undetermined), location of death (medical facility, in a home, or other [including nursing homes, hospices, unknown, and other locations]) and county of residence (metropolitan/nonmetropolitan). Metropolitan/nonmetropolitan status is assigned independently in each data system. NSDUH uses a three-category system: Core Based Statistical Area (CBSA) of ≥1 million persons; CBSA of illicit drugs, the prevalence was highest for the large metropolitan areas compared with

  9. Typography and layout of technical reports - Survey of current practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinelli, T. E.; Cordle, V. M.; Mccullough, R.

    1985-01-01

    As part of a review of the NASA Langley Research Center scientific and technical information program, 50 technical reports from industry, research institutions, and government agencies were systematically examined and analyzed to determine current usage and practice in regard to (1) typography, including composition method, type style, type size, and margin treatment; (2) graphic design, including layout and imposition of material on the page; and (3) physical media, including paper, ink, and binding methods. The results indicate that approximately 50 percent of the reports were typeset, 70 percent used Roman (serif) type, 80 percent used 10- or 11-point type for text, 60 percent used a ragged right-hand margin, slightly more than half used paragraph indentation, 75 percent used a single-column layout, 65 percent had one or more figures or tables placed perpendicular to (not aligned with) the text, and perfect binding was the most frequently used binding method.

  10. Figures in clinical trial reports: current practice & scope for improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pocock, Stuart J; Travison, Thomas G; Wruck, Lisa M

    2007-11-19

    Most clinical trial publications include figures, but there is little guidance on what results should be displayed as figures and how. To evaluate the current use of figures in Trial reports, and to make constructive suggestions for future practice. We surveyed all 77 reports of randomised controlled trials in five general medical journals during November 2006 to January 2007. The numbers and types of figures were determined, and then each Figure was assessed for its style, content, clarity and suitability. As a consequence, guidelines are developed for presenting figures, both in general and for each specific common type of Figure. Most trial reports contained one to three figures, mean 2.3 per article. The four main types were flow diagram, Kaplan Meier plot, Forest plot (for subgroup analyses) and repeated measures over time: these accounted for 92% of all figures published. For each type of figure there is a considerable diversity of practice in both style and content which we illustrate with selected examples of both good and bad practice. Some pointers on what to do, and what to avoid, are derived from our critical evaluation of these articles' use of figures. There is considerable scope for authors to improve their use of figures in clinical trial reports, as regards which figures to choose, their style of presentation and labelling, and their specific content. Particular improvements are needed for the four main types of figures commonly used.

  11. Figures in clinical trial reports: current practice & scope for improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Travison Thomas G

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most clinical trial publications include figures, but there is little guidance on what results should be displayed as figures and how. Purpose To evaluate the current use of figures in Trial reports, and to make constructive suggestions for future practice. Methods We surveyed all 77 reports of randomised controlled trials in five general medical journals during November 2006 to January 2007. The numbers and types of figures were determined, and then each Figure was assessed for its style, content, clarity and suitability. As a consequence, guidelines are developed for presenting figures, both in general and for each specific common type of Figure. Results Most trial reports contained one to three figures, mean 2.3 per article. The four main types were flow diagram, Kaplan Meier plot, Forest plot (for subgroup analyses and repeated measures over time: these accounted for 92% of all figures published. For each type of figure there is a considerable diversity of practice in both style and content which we illustrate with selected examples of both good and bad practice. Some pointers on what to do, and what to avoid, are derived from our critical evaluation of these articles' use of figures. Conclusion There is considerable scope for authors to improve their use of figures in clinical trial reports, as regards which figures to choose, their style of presentation and labelling, and their specific content. Particular improvements are needed for the four main types of figures commonly used.

  12. Patterns of, and Factors Associated With, Illicit Pharmaceutical Opioid Analgesic Use in a Prospective Cohort of People Who Inject Drugs in Melbourne, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horyniak, Danielle; Agius, Paul A; Degenhardt, Louisa; Reddel, Siobhan; Higgs, Peter; Aitken, Campbell; Stoové, Mark; Dietze, Paul

    2015-01-01

    People who inject drugs (PWID) are a key population engaging in pharmaceutical opioid analgesic (PO) use, yet little is known about patterns of illicit PO use among this group. The aims of this research were to measure the prevalence and frequency of lifetime and past-month illicit PO use and injection in a sample of regular PWID, to examine patterns of past-month illicit PO use within individuals over time, and to identify factors independently associated with past-month illicit PO use. Data were drawn from a prospective cohort study of regular PWID (N = 666) in Melbourne, Australia. Data from five waves of annual data collection (including baseline) were analyzed descriptively and using generalized estimating equations (GEE). At baseline, 59% of participants reported lifetime illicit PO use and 20% reported past-month use, predominantly through injecting. Most illicit PO users at baseline transitioned to nonuse of illicit POs across the study period. In multivariable GEE analysis, factors associated with past-month illicit PO use included past-year arrest [adjusted odds ratio (AOR): 1.39], opioids other than heroin as drug of choice (AOR: 5.14), experiencing poorer physical health (AOR: 0.98) and a range of other drug use variables. We found little evidence of ongoing illicit PO use among those followed up, with illicit PO use linked to polydrug use more broadly. Nonetheless, trends in illicit PO use among PWID should continue to be monitored and harm reduction interventions implemented to reduce the associated public health risks.

  13. Illicit drug use and treatment in South Africa: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltzer, Karl; Ramlagan, Shandir; Johnson, Bruce D; Phaswana-Mafuya, Nancy

    2010-11-01

    This review synthesizes available epidemiological data on current drug use and substance user treatment admissions in South Africa since 1994, and how changes in the political, economic, and social structures within South Africa, both before and after Apartheid, has made the country more vulnerable to drug use. Based on national surveys, current use of cannabis ranged among adolescents from 2% to 9% and among adults it was 2%, cocaine/crack (0.3%), mandrax/sedatives (0.3%), club drugs/amphetamine-type stimulants (0.2%), opiates (0.1%), and hallucinogens (0.1%). The use of primary illicit substance at admission to South African drug user treatment centers was cannabis 16.9%, methamphetamine (tik) 12.8%, crack/cocaine 9.6%, cannabis and mandrax 3.4%, heroin/opiates 9.2%, and prescription and OTC drugs 2.6%. An increase in substance user treatment admissions has increased. While the prevalence of illicit drug use in South Africa is relatively low compared to the United States and Australia, prevention and intervention policies need to be designed to reduce these levels by targeting the more risky subpopulations identified from this review.

  14. A Mixture-Model Approach to Linking ADHD to Adolescent Onset of Illicit Drug Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malone, Patrick S.; Van Eck, Kathryn; Flory, Kate; Lamis, Dorian A.

    2010-01-01

    Prior research findings have been mixed as to whether attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is related to illicit drug use independent of conduct problems (CP). With the current study, the authors add to this literature by investigating the association between trajectories of ADHD symptoms across childhood and adolescence and onset of…

  15. Reasons for recent marijuana use in relation to use of other illicit drugs among high school seniors in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palamar, Joseph J; Griffin-Tomas, Marybec; Kamboukos, Dimitra

    2015-01-01

    Studies show that illicit cannabis (marijuana) use is related to use of other illicit drugs and that reasons for use are related to frequency of marijuana use. However, research is needed to examine whether specific reasons for marijuana use are associated with use of other illicit drugs. Data from recent marijuana-using high school seniors were examined from 12 cohorts of Monitoring the Future (Weighted n = 6481) to examine whether reasons for recent marijuana use are associated with use of eight other illicit drugs. Using "to experiment" decreased odds of reporting use of each drug and using to decrease effects of other drugs increased odds of reporting use of each drug. In multivariable models, using marijuana "to experiment" decreased the odds for reporting use of hallucinogens other than LSD and narcotics other than heroin. Using marijuana for "insight" increased the odds for use of hallucinogens other than LSD, and use due to "boredom" increased the odds for reporting use of powder cocaine and hallucinogens other than LSD. Using marijuana to increase effects of other drugs increased odds of reporting use of each of the eight drugs, and using it to decrease other drug effects increased odds of reporting use of crack, hallucinogens other than LSD, and amphetamine/stimulants. This study helped identify illicit marijuana users who are more likely to report use of other illicit drugs. Prevention efforts need to focus on students who report certain reasons for marijuana use as they may be at risk for use of other illicit drugs.

  16. Searching for illicit materials using nuclear resonance fluorescence stimulated by narrow-band photon sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, M.S., E-mail: johnson329@llnl.gov [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States); San Jose State University, San Jose, CA 95192 (United States); Hagmann, C.A.; Hall, J.M.; McNabb, D.P. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States); Kelley, J.H.; Huibregtse, C. [North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695 (United States); Kwan, E.; Rusev, G.; Tonchev, A.P. [Duke University, Durham, NC 27708 (United States)

    2012-08-15

    We report the results of an experimental study of the sensitivity of two distinct classes of systems that exploit nuclear resonance fluorescence (NRF) to search for illicit materials in containers. One class of systems is based on the direct detection of NRF photons emitted from isotopes of interest. The other class infers the presence of a particular isotope by observing the preferential attenuation of resonant photons in the incident beam. We developed a detailed analytical model for both approaches. We performed experiments to test the model using depleted uranium as a surrogate for illicit material and used tungsten as a random choice for shielding. We performed the experiments at Duke University's High Intensity Gamma Source (HIGS). Using the methodology we detail in this paper one can use this model to estimate the performance of potential inspection systems in certifying containers as free of illicit materials and for detecting the presence of those same materials.

  17. Tobacco industry manipulation of data on and press coverage of the illicit tobacco trade in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowell, A; Evans-Reeves, K; Gilmore, A B

    2014-05-01

    In the UK, transnational tobacco companies (TTCs) have been arguing that levels of illicit trade are high and increasing and will rise further if standardised packaging is implemented. This paper examines trends in and accuracy of media reporting of, and industry data on, illicit tobacco in the UK. Quantification of the volume, nature and quality of press articles citing industry data on illicit tobacco in UK newspapers from March 2008 to March 2013. Examination of published TTC data on illicit, including a comparison with independent data and of TTC reporting of Her Majesty's Revenue and Customs data on illicit. Media stories citing industry data on illicit tobacco began in June 2011, 2 months after the Tobacco Control Plan for England, which heralded standardised packaging, was published. The majority of data cited are based on industry Empty Pack Surveys for which no methodology is available. For almost all parts of the country where repeat data were cited in press stories, they indicated an increase, often substantial, in non-domestic/illicit cigarettes that is not supported by independent data. Similarly, national data from two published industry sources show a sudden large increase in non-domestic product between 2011 and 2012. Yet the methodology of one report changes over this period and the other provides no published methodology. In contrast, independent data show steady declines in non-domestic and illicit cigarette penetration from 2006 to 2012 and either a continued decline or small increase to 2013. Industry claims that use of Non-UK Duty Paid/illicit cigarettes in the UK is sharply increasing are inconsistent with historical trends and recent independent data. TTCs are exaggerating the threat of illicit tobacco by commissioning surveys whose methodology and validity remain uncertain, planting misleading stories and misquoting government data. Industry data on levels of illicit should be treated with extreme caution. Published by the BMJ Publishing

  18. Binge drinking and illicit drug use among adolescent students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raposo, Jakelline Cipriano Dos Santos; Costa, Ana Carolina de Queiroz; Valença, Paula Andréa de Melo; Zarzar, Patrícia Maria; Diniz, Alcides da Silva; Colares, Viviane; Franca, Carolina da

    2017-09-04

    To estimate the prevalence of illicit drug use and its association with binge drinking and sociodemographic factors among adolescent students. This is a cross-sectional study with probabilistic conglomerate sampling, involving 1,154 students, aged 13 to 19 years old, from the public school system, in the city of Olinda, State of Pernambuco, Brazil, carried out in 2014. We used the Youth Risk Behavior Survey questionnaire, validated for use with Brazilian adolescents. The Chi-square test (≤ 0.05) and Poisson regression analysis were used to estimate the prevalence ratios, with 95% confidence intervals. Use in life of illicit drugs was four times more prevalent among students who reported binge drinking (95%CI 3.19-5.45). Being in the age group of 16 to 19 years, being male, and having no religion were also significantly associated with illicit drug use. The prevalence of use in life of illicit drugs was higher in this study than in other studies carried out in Brazil and it was strongly associated with binge drinking. This factor was associated with gender, age, and religion. Estimar a prevalência do uso de drogas ilícitas e sua associação com binge drinking e fatores sociodemográficos entre estudantes adolescentes. Estudo transversal com amostra probabilística por conglomerado, envolvendo 1.154 estudantes, de 13 a 19 anos de idade, da rede pública de ensino, no município de Olinda, PE, 2014. Foi utilizado o questionário Youth Risk Behavior Survey, validado para uso com adolescentes brasileiros. Para análise dos dados foi utilizado o teste do Qui-quadrado (≤ 0,05) e análise de regressão de Poisson, para estimar razões de prevalência, com intervalos com 95% de confiança. O uso na vida de drogas ilícitas foi quatro vezes mais prevalente entre os estudantes que relataram o binge drinking (IC95% 3,19-5,45). Estar na faixa etária de 16 a 19 anos, ser do sexo masculino e não ter religião também foram significativamente associados ao uso de drogas

  19. Adolescents' use of alcohol, tobacco and illicit drugs in relation to prenatal alcohol exposure: modifications by gender and ethnicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfinder, Manuela; Liebig, Stefan; Feldmann, Reinhold

    2014-01-01

    The study aimed to investigate (a) the association between low to moderate prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) and the use of alcohol, tobacco and illicit drugs in adolescence and (b) whether the associations are modified by gender and ethnicity. The subjects of the study were 5922 children and adolescents, aged from 11 to 17 years, enrolled in the cross-sectional German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents (the KiGGS study). Information on PAE is based on parental self-report questionnaires. Use of alcohol, tobacco and illicit drugs was assessed through self-report questionnaires for adolescents. Low to moderate PAE was associated with an increased risk of drinking alcohol (adjusted odds ratio (OR) 1.73, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.34, 2.18) and also of illicit drug use (adjusted OR 1.62, 95% CI 1.23, 2.14). The associations between PAE and the use of alcohol, tobacco and illicit drugs differed according to gender and ethnicity. Gender-stratified analyses resulted in adverse effects of PAE on drinking alcohol, smoking and illicit drug use in females; however, in German males, the associations disappeared. Stronger associations between PAE and the outcome measures were found in non-Germans. Our findings indicate that low to moderate levels of maternal alcohol intake during pregnancy are a risk factor for use of alcohol, tobacco and illicit drugs by the offspring, with stronger associations in females and non-Germans.

  20. Neural network application for illicit substances identification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nunes, Wallace V.; Silva, Ademir X. da; Crispim, Verginia R.; Schirru, Roberto

    2000-01-01

    Thermal neutron activation analysis is based on neutron capture prompt gamma-ray analysis and has been used in wide variety of fields, for examples, for inspection of checked airline baggage and for detection of buried land mines. In all of these applications, the detected γ-ray intensities from the elements present are used to estimate their concentrations. A study about application using a trained neutral network is presented to determine the presence of illicit substances, such as explosives and drugs, carried out in the luggages. The illicit substances emit characteristic detected γ-ray which are the fingerprint of each isotope. The fingerprint data-base of the gamma-ray spectrum of substances is obtained via Monte Carlo N-Particle Transport code, MCNP, version 4B. It was possible to train the neural network to determine the presence of explosives and narcotics even hidden by several materials. (author)

  1. Factors influencing alcohol and illicit drug use amongst first year medical students

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Popescu, Codruta Alina; Bob, Mihai Horatiu; Junjan, Veronica; Armean, Sebastian Mihai; Buzoianu, Anca Dana

    2014-01-01

    The aims of this study were a) to investigate patterns of alcohol, smoking and illicit drug use and b) evaluate the relationship between substance abuse and personality factors in a cohort of 267 first year medical students. 12.3 % (men) and 11.8% (female) medical students reported to be drinking

  2. Illicit stimulant use in humans is associated with a long-term increase in tremor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanley C Flavel

    Full Text Available Use of illicit stimulants such as methamphetamine, cocaine, and ecstasy is a significant health problem. The United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime estimates that 14-57 million people use stimulants each year. Chronic use of illicit stimulants can cause neurotoxicity in animals and humans but the long-term functional consequences are not well understood. Stimulant users self-report problems with tremor whilst abstinent. Thus, the aim of the current study was to investigate the long-term effect of stimulant use on human tremor during rest and movement. We hypothesized that individuals with a history of stimulant use would exhibit abnormally large tremor during rest and movement. Tremor was assessed in abstinent ecstasy users (n = 9; 22 ± 3 yrs and abstinent users of amphetamine-like drugs (n = 7; 33 ± 9 yrs and in two control groups: non-drug users (n = 23; 27 ± 8 yrs and cannabis users (n = 12; 24 ± 7 yrs. Tremor was measured with an accelerometer attached to the index finger at rest (30 s and during flexion and extension of the index finger (30 s. Acceleration traces were analyzed with fast-Fourier transform. During movement, tremor amplitude was significantly greater in ecstasy users than in non-drug users (frequency range 3.9-13.3 Hz; P<0.05, but was unaffected in cannabis users or users of amphetamine-like drugs. The peak frequency of tremor did not significantly differ between groups nor did resting tremor. In conclusion, abstinent ecstasy users exhibit an abnormally large tremor during movement. Further work is required to determine if the abnormality translates to increased risk of movement disorders in this population.

  3. Illicit Anabolic-Androgenic Steroid Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanayama, Gen; Hudson, James I.; Pope, Harrison G.

    2009-01-01

    The anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) are a family of hormones that includes testosterone and its derivatives. These substances have been used by elite athletes since the 1950s, but they did not become widespread drugs of abuse in the general population until the 1980s. Thus, knowledge of the medical and behavioral effects of illicit AAS use is still evolving. Surveys suggest that many millions of boys and men, primarily in Western countries, have abused AAS to enhance athletic performance or personal appearance. AAS use among girls and women is much less common. Taken in supraphysiologic doses, AAS show various long-term adverse medical effects, especially cardiovascular toxicity. Behavioral effects of AAS include hypomanic or manic symptoms, sometimes accompanied by aggression or violence, which usually occur while taking AAS, and depressive symptoms occurring during AAS withdrawal. However, these symptoms are idiosyncratic and afflict only a minority of illicit users; the mechanism of these idiosyncratic responses remains unclear. AAS users may also ingest a range of other illicit drugs, including both “body-image” drugs to enhance physical appearance or performance, and classical drugs of abuse. In particular, AAS users appear particularly prone to opioid use. There may well be a biological basis for this association, since both human and animal data suggest that AAS and opioids may share similar brain mechanisms. Finally, AAS may cause a dependence syndrome in a substantial minority of users. AAS dependence may pose a growing public health problem in future years, but remains little studied. PMID:19769977

  4. Illicit use of androgens and other hormones: recent advances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanayama, Gen; Pope, Harrison G

    2012-06-01

    To summarize recent advances in studies of illicit use of androgens and other hormones. Androgens and other appearance-enhancing and performance-enhancing substances are widely abused worldwide. Three notable clusters of findings have emerged in this field in recent years. First, studies almost unanimously find that androgen users engage in polypharmacy, often ingesting other hormones (e.g., human growth hormone, thyroid hormones, and insulin), ergo/thermogenic drugs (e.g., caffeine, ephedrine, and clenbuterol), and classical drugs of abuse (e.g., cannabis, opiates, and cocaine). Second, reports of long-term psychiatric and medical adverse effects of androgens continue to accumulate. In cardiovascular research particularly, controlled studies have begun to supersede anecdotal evidence, strengthening the case that androgens (possibly acting synergistically with other abused drugs) may cause significant morbidity and even mortality. Third, it is increasingly recognized that androgen use may lead to a dependence syndrome with both psychological and physiological origins. Androgen dependence likely affects some millions of individuals worldwide, and arguably represents the least studied major class of illicit drug dependence. Given mounting evidence of the adverse effects of androgens and associated polypharmacy, this topic will likely represent an expanding area of research and an issue of growing public health concern.

  5. Development of measures to deal with illicit trafficking of nuclear materials in Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schandorf, C.; Amoako, J.K.; Asiamah, S.D.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: The world has now become a global village as such no country can isolate itself from global trends. Reported cases of illicit trafficking in nuclear materials have focused international attention on ways to combat an emerging phenomenon of the 1990's. Of the 324 confirmed cases of illicit trafficking nearly 130 involved individuals trying to illegally sell radioactive materials used in medicine or industry whose unauthorized use or movement poses a danger to public health. Some other cases have involved samples of weapons-grade materials confiscated from individuals. These incidents have raised public and governmental concerns. This has prompted stronger efforts to prevent illicit nuclear trafficking by state authorities, including collaboration and co-operation with international organizational such as the IAEA. The IAEA has established the Illicit Trafficking Database Programme and is encouraging all Member States to participate and to report all incidents of illicit trafficking in nuclear materials and other radioactive materials and other radioactive sources that come to their notice. From the data available from the Regulatory Authority Information System (RAIS), Ghana, there are 344 highly enriched uranium fuel elements (998.2g) in use in the 30kW Research Reactor, (GHARR-1) and 80 radioactive materials in use in medicine, history, research and teaching. The reactor has been subjected to safeguards inspections by IAEA on regular basis. Additionally there have been on the average about nine authorized imports of radioactive into the country in the past seven years. Unlawful use of nuclear materials, through criminal or terrorist activities, may pose a proliferation treat, while unlawful use of radiation poses risks to the public. Ghana has therefore decided to established an effective counter measure against illicit trafficking in nuclear and other materials which might pose both proliferation threat as well as radiological risk to the public and

  6. Human Trafficking: Fighting the Illicit Economy with the Legitimate Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise Shelley

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Since the beginning of research on human trafficking, there has been attention paid to the challenges surrounding the illicit economy. In creating new strategies and initiatives on combatting human trafficking, there needs to be more discussion surrounding the legitimate economy and how the business sector can make an impact in the fight against trafficking. Currently, there is a growing movement of businesses that are looking to address human trafficking through training, education, and leadership initiatives; codes of conduct; supply chain management; and financial analysis. This paper will examine the latest in these strategies and approaches by businesses in the global war against human trafficking, in addition to a discussion of a new initiative engaging the private sector co-led by Dr. Louise Shelley and Christina Bain through the World Economic Forum’s Global Agenda Council Network.

  7. Resistive current limiter with high-temperature superconductors. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schubert, M.

    1995-12-01

    Fundamental results of the possibility of using high temperature superconductors (HTSC) in resistive fault current limiters are discussed. Measurement of the homogeneity of BSCCO-powder-in-tube materials were made. In addition, investigations of the transition from superconducting to normalconducting state under AC-current conditions were carried out. Based on these results, simulations of HTSC-materials on ceramic substrate were made and recent results are presented. Important results of the investigations are: 1. Current-limiting without external trigger only possible when the critical current density of HTSC exceeds 10 4 A/cm 2 . 2. Inhomogeneities sometimes cause problems with local destruction. This can be solved by parallel-elements or external trigger. 3. Fast current-limiting causes overvoltages which can be reduced by using parallel-elements. (orig.) [de

  8. Unattended Dual Current Monitor (UDCM) FY17 Summary Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newell, Matthew R. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-10-13

    The UDCM is a low current measurement device designed to record pico-amp to micro-amp currents from radiation detectors. The UDCM is the planned replacement for the IAEA’s obsolete MiniGRAND data acquisition module. Preliminary testing of the UDCM at the IAEA facilities lead to the following recommendations from the IAEA: Increase the measurement range. Lower range by a factor of 5 and upper range by 2 orders of magnitude; Modifications to the web interface; Increase programmable acquisition time to 3600s; Develop a method to handle current offsets and negative current; Error checking when writing data to the uSD card; and Writing BID files along with the currently stored BI0 files.

  9. Illicit trafficking of radioactive material in Hungary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golder, I.

    1996-01-01

    Hungary, due to its geographical location is a convenient region for illegal transit of nuclear material between source and target countries. In recent years nine cases have became known and altogether 21.7 kg depleted, 4.6 kg natural, and 2.5 kg low enriched uranium have been confiscated. A brief summary is given of possible origin of the illicitly transported radioactive material. The most important elements of the security of sources including the national and accounting system of radioactive material and the intervention plans are discussed. (author)

  10. Illicit Opioid Intoxication: Diagnosis and Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Fareed

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Opioid intoxications and overdose are associated with high rates of morbidity and mortality. Opioid overdose may occur in the setting of intravenous or intranasal heroin use, illicit use of diverted opioid medications, intentional or accidental misuse of prescription pain medications, or iatrogenic overdose. In this review, we focused on the epidemiology of illict opioid use in the United States and on the mechanism of action of opioid drugs. We also described the signs and symptoms, and diagnoses of intoxication and overdose. Lastly, we updated the reader about the most recent recommendations for treatment and prevention of opioid intoxications and overdose.

  11. Response to Illicit Trafficking of Radioactive Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    Two response paths are discussed in the presentation. Reactive response follows when an alarm of a border monitor goes off or a notification is received about an incident involving or suspected to involve radioactive materials. The response can also be the result of the finding of a discrepancy between a customs declaration form and the corresponding actual shipment. Proactive response is undertaken upon receipt of intelligence information suggesting the illicit trafficking of radioactive materials, notification about the discovery of non-compliance with transport regulations or if discrepancies are found in an inventory of radioactive materials.

  12. Stopping Illicit Procurement: Lessons from Global Finance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hund, Gretchen; Kurzrok, Andrew J.

    2014-06-19

    Government regulators and the financial sector cooperate to combat money laundering and terrorist financing. This information-sharing relationship is built upon a strong legislative foundation and effective operational procedures. As with money-laundering and terrorist financing, halting the illicit procurement of dual-use commodities requires close coordination between government and industry. However, many of the legal and operational features present in financial threat cooperation do not exist in the export control realm. This article analyzes the applicability of financial industry cooperative measures to nonproliferation.

  13. The use of pesticides in Belgian illicit indoor cannabis plantations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuypers, Eva; Vanhove, Wouter; Gotink, Joachim; Bonneure, Arne; Van Damme, Patrick; Tytgat, Jan

    2017-08-01

    Cannabis (Cannabis spp.) use and cultivation continue to increase in many (European) countries. The illicit indoor cannabis plantations that supply Belgian and European cannabis markets create problems and concerns about health and safety of intervention staff, dismantling companies, the direct environment of cannabis plantations and, eventually, of cannabis users. Main risks may come from pesticide residues on plants, cultivation infrastructure and materials; left-over plant growth-promoting substances; mycotoxins from fungal pathogens on harvested plants; and/or high levels of cannabinoids in cannabis plant parts for consumption. In the present research, we report on pesticides found in illicit indoor cannabis plantations in Belgium. EN15662 QuEChERS extraction method and LC-MS/MS analysis were used to identify pesticides in indoor cannabis plantations and thus to evaluate the hazards associated with the use, cultivation and removal of cannabis plants in plantations as well as with dismantling activities in the cultivation rooms. We found pesticides in 64.3% of 72 cannabis plant samples and in 65.2% of 46 carbon filter cloth samples. Overall, 19 pesticides belonging to different chemical classes were identified. We found o-phenylphenol, bifenazate, cypermethrin, imidacloprid, propamocarb, propiconazole and tebuconazole, which is consistent with the commonly reported pesticides from literature. In only a few cases, pesticides found in bottles with a commercial label, were also identified in plant or stagnant water samples collected from the growth rooms where the bottles had been collected. We further revealed that, even though most pesticides have a low volatility, they could be detected from the carbon filters hanging at the ceiling of cultivation rooms. As a result, it is likely that pesticides also prevail in the plantation atmosphere during and after cultivation. The risk of inhaling the latter pesticides increases when plants sprayed with pesticides are

  14. Migration and illicit drug use among two types of male migrants in Shanghai, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Frank Y; He, N; Huang, Z J; Young, D; O'Conor, C; Ding, Y Y; Fu, C; Arayasirikul, S

    2010-03-01

    Large-scale internal migrations within China have led to speculation of increased drug use, but with little empirical evidence. This cross-sectional study examines the association between migration characteristics and illicit drug use in 100 general male migrants and 239 "money boys" (i.e., male migrants engaging in same-sex transactional sex) in Shanghai, China. Only three general male migrants reported any drug use. Among money boys, lifetime illicit drug use was 12%; Ecstasy and methamphetamine appeared to be the most popular drugs. In addition, depression prevalence was very high among both types of male migrants. Depression was associated with lifetime soft- and hard-drug use, while earning a higher income was associated with lifetime soft-drug use. These findings provide the first set of quantitative evidence of illicit drug use among Chinese male migrants. Although illicit drug use among male migrants is low compared to Western countries, its resurgence after 30 years of drug control gives cause for concern.

  15. Use of illicit drugs by adolescents and young adults of an urban settlement in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Alves Guimarães

    Full Text Available Summary Objective: To estimate the prevalence and factors associated with illicit drug use by adolescents and young adults of a formal urban settlement. Method: Cross-sectional study including adolescents and young adults 12-24 years of an urban settlement in the Midwest Region of Brazil. Data were collected using a structured questionnaire and analyzed using Stata, version 12.0. We used Poisson regression model to estimate the factors associated with illicit drug use. Results: Of the total participants (n=105, 27.6% (95CI 20.0-36.9% had used illicit drugs such as marijuana, cocaine, crack, LSD and inhalants. The consumption of these substances was associated with male gender, use of body piercing and/or tattoos, licit drug use and self-report of signs and/or symptoms of sexually transmitted infections. Conclusion: High prevalence of illicit drug use was found in the individuals investigated, ratifying the presence of risk factors to the vulnerability of the settlers to use these substances in the urban settlement population.

  16. Use of illicit drugs by adolescents and young adults of an urban settlement in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimarães, Rafael Alves; Souza, Márcia Maria de; Caetano, Karlla Antonieta Amorim; Teles, Sheila Araujo; Matos, Marcos André de

    2018-02-01

    To estimate the prevalence and factors associated with illicit drug use by adolescents and young adults of a formal urban settlement. Cross-sectional study including adolescents and young adults 12-24 years of an urban settlement in the Midwest Region of Brazil. Data were collected using a structured questionnaire and analyzed using Stata, version 12.0. We used Poisson regression model to estimate the factors associated with illicit drug use. Of the total participants (n=105), 27.6% (95CI 20.0-36.9%) had used illicit drugs such as marijuana, cocaine, crack, LSD and inhalants. The consumption of these substances was associated with male gender, use of body piercing and/or tattoos, licit drug use and self-report of signs and/or symptoms of sexually transmitted infections. High prevalence of illicit drug use was found in the individuals investigated, ratifying the presence of risk factors to the vulnerability of the settlers to use these substances in the urban settlement population.

  17. Short Report: New use of current technology to measure rectal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South African Journal of Sports Medicine. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 17, No 1 (2005) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  18. Smoking behaviour and associated factors of illicit cigarette consumption in a border province of southern Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ketchoo, Chittawet; Sangthong, Rassamee; Chongsuvivatwong, Virasakdi; Geater, Alan; McNeil, Edward

    2013-07-01

    Illicit cigarette consumption has increased worldwide. It is important to understand this problem thoroughly. To investigate behaviours and factors associated with illicit cigarette consumption in southern Thailand. A survey and qualitative study were conducted in a border province in southern Thailand next to Malaysia. A modified snowballing technique was used to recruit 300 illicit and 150 non-illicit cigarette smokers. A questionnaire was used to interview subjects. Illicit cigarette packs were obtained in order to identify their characteristics. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression was used for data analysis. Smoking of illicit cigarettes has become accepted in the communities. They were available in supermarkets and vendor shops. Friends and other illicit smokers known by illicit cigarette smokers were an important source of information for access to illicit cigarette products. The main factors associated with smoking illicit cigarettes, compared with smoking non-illicit cigarettes, were younger age, higher education and higher average monthly expenditure on cigarettes (most illicit smokers smoked illicit cigarettes (average price per packet = 33 THB (US$1.1), while most non-illicit smokers smoked hand-rolled cigarettes (average price per packet = 7 THB (US$0.2)) and knowledge of other illicit cigarette smokers. The low price of illicit cigarettes was the main reason for their use. Selling strategies included sale of singles, sale in shops and direct sale through social networking. Illicit cigarette consumption has become more acceptable especially among young adult smokers. Age and extent of social networks are important factors associated with smoking illicit cigarettes.

  19. Illicit financial flows and measures to counter them: An introduction

    OpenAIRE

    Fontana, Alessandra; Hearson, Martin

    2012-01-01

    The most common sources of illicit financial flows are tax evasion and money laundering. Countermeasures include institution building strategies, international cooperation and information exchange, and fiscal transparency. Development practitioners need to understand the nature of the problem of illicit financial flows as an obstacle to development, and be aware of interventions that can reduce such flows.

  20. 21 CFR 1301.92 - Illicit activities by employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... MANUFACTURERS, DISTRIBUTORS, AND DISPENSERS OF CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES Employee Screening-Non-Practitioners § 1301.92 Illicit activities by employees. It is the position of DEA that employees who possess, sell, use... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Illicit activities by employees. 1301.92 Section...

  1. Fentanyl and heroin contained in seized illicit drugs and overdose-related deaths in British Columbia, Canada: An observational analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Nicholas; Gray, Roger; Goel, Anirudh; Wood, Evan; Buxton, Jane A; Rieb, Launette Marie

    2018-04-01

    Due to the alarming rise in opioid-related overdose deaths, a public health emergency was declared in British Columbia (BC). In this study, we examined the relationship between illicit fentanyl and heroin found in seized drugs and illicit overdose deaths in BC. An observational cross-sectional survey was conducted using BC data from Health Canada's Drug Analysis Service, which analyzes drug samples seized by law enforcement agencies, and non-intentional illicit overdoses from the BC Coroner's Service, from 2000 to 2016. Initial scatter plots and subsequent multivariate regression analysis were performed to describe the potential relationship between seized illicit fentanyl samples and overdose deaths and to determine if this differed from seized heroin and overdose deaths. Fentanyl samples were analyzed for other drug content. Fentanyl is increasingly being found combined with other opioid and non-opioid illicit drugs. Strong positive relationships were found between the number of seized fentanyl samples and total overdose deaths (R2 = 0.97) as well as between seized fentanyl and fentanyl-detected overdose deaths (R2 = 0.99). A positive association was found between the number of seized heroin samples and total overdose deaths (R2 = 0.78). This research contributes to the expanding body of evidence implicating illicit fentanyl use (often combined with heroin or other substances) in overdose deaths in BC. Policy makers and healthcare providers are urged to implement drug treatment and harm reduction strategies for people at risk of overdose associated with current trends in illicit opioid use. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Exploring drug-target interaction networks of illicit drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atreya, Ravi V; Sun, Jingchun; Zhao, Zhongming

    2013-01-01

    Drug addiction is a complex and chronic mental disease, which places a large burden on the American healthcare system due to its negative effects on patients and their families. Recently, network pharmacology is emerging as a promising approach to drug discovery by integrating network biology and polypharmacology, allowing for a deeper understanding of molecular mechanisms of drug actions at the systems level. This study seeks to apply this approach for investigation of illicit drugs and their targets in order to elucidate their interaction patterns and potential secondary drugs that can aid future research and clinical care. In this study, we extracted 188 illicit substances and their related information from the DrugBank database. The data process revealed 86 illicit drugs targeting a total of 73 unique human genes, which forms an illicit drug-target network. Compared to the full drug-target network from DrugBank, illicit drugs and their target genes tend to cluster together and form four subnetworks, corresponding to four major medication categories: depressants, stimulants, analgesics, and steroids. External analysis of Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical (ATC) second sublevel classifications confirmed that the illicit drugs have neurological functions or act via mechanisms of stimulants, opioids, and steroids. To further explore other drugs potentially having associations with illicit drugs, we constructed an illicit-extended drug-target network by adding the drugs that have the same target(s) as illicit drugs to the illicit drug-target network. After analyzing the degree and betweenness of the network, we identified hubs and bridge nodes, which might play important roles in the development and treatment of drug addiction. Among them, 49 non-illicit drugs might have potential to be used to treat addiction or have addictive effects, including some results that are supported by previous studies. This study presents the first systematic review of the network

  3. Detection of illicit online sales of fentanyls via Twitter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackey, Tim K; Kalyanam, Janani

    2017-01-01

    A counterfeit fentanyl crisis is currently underway in the United States.  Counterfeit versions of commonly abused prescription drugs laced with fentanyl are being manufactured, distributed, and sold globally, leading to an increase in overdose and death in countries like the United States and Canada.  Despite concerns from the U.S. Drug Enforcement Agency regarding covert and overt sale of fentanyls online, no study has examined the role of the Internet and social media on fentanyl illegal marketing and direct-to-consumer access.  In response, this study collected and analyzed five months of Twitter data (from June-November 2015) filtered for the keyword "fentanyl" using Amazon Web Services.  We then analyzed 28,711 fentanyl-related tweets using text filtering and a machine learning approach called a Biterm Topic Model (BTM) to detect underlying latent patterns or "topics" present in the corpus of tweets.  Using this approach we detected a subset of 771 tweets marketing the sale of fentanyls online and then filtered this down to nine unique tweets containing hyperlinks to external websites.  Six hyperlinks were associated with online fentanyl classified ads, 2 with illicit online pharmacies, and 1 could not be classified due to traffic redirection.  Importantly, the one illicit online pharmacy detected was still accessible and offered the sale of fentanyls and other controlled substances direct-to-consumers with no prescription required at the time of publication of this study.   Overall, we detected a relatively small sample of Tweets promoting illegal online sale of fentanyls.  However, the detection of even a few online sellers represents a public health danger and a direct violation of law that demands further study.

  4. Drug use patterns among Thai illicit drug injectors amidst increased police presence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suwannawong Paisan

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Thailand has traditionally pursued an aggressive enforcement-based anti-illicit drug policy in an effort to make the country "drug-free." In light of this ongoing approach, we sought to assess impacts of enforcement on drug use behaviors among a cohort of injection drug users (IDU in Thailand. We examined drug use patterns among IDU participating in a cross-sectional study conducted in Bangkok (n = 252. Participants were asked to provide data regarding patterns of drug use in the previous six months, including types of drugs consumed, method of consumption, frequency of use, and weekly income spent on drugs. We also conducted bivariate analyses to identify a possible effect of a reported increase in police presence on measures of drug use and related risk behaviors among study participants. One hundred fifty-five (61.5% individuals reported injection heroin use and 132 (52.4% individuals reported injection midazolam use at least daily in the past six months. Additionally, 86 (34.1% individuals reported at least daily injection Yaba and Ice (i.e., methamphetamine use. Participants in our study reported high levels of illicit drug use, including the injection of both illicit and licit drugs. In bivariate analyses, no association between increased police presence and drug use behaviors was observed. These findings demonstrate high ongoing rates of drug injecting in Thailand despite reports of increased levels of strict enforcement and enforcement-related violence, and raise questions regarding the merits of this approach.

  5. [Peer group influence and illicit drug use among adolescent students in Brazil: a cross-sectional study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorge, Kelly Oliva; Ferreira, Raquel Conceição; Ferreira, Efigênia Ferreira E; Kawachi, Ichiro; Zarzar, Patrícia Maria; Pordeus, Isabela Almeida

    2018-03-08

    The aim of the present cross-sectional study was to examine illicit drug use and associations with socioeconomic factors as well as peer group influence among Brazilian adolescents aged 15 to 19 years. Two-stage cluster sampling was adopted, involving the random selection of public and private schools from the nine administrative districts of a Brazilian state capital and the random selection of classrooms at each school. Illicit drug use was the outcome and was measured through the question: "Have you ever used any illicit drugs (marijuana, inhalants, hypnotics, cocaine/crack, hallucinogens, amphetamines and opioids) in your life?". The most important group of friends was ranked as school, family, religious activities and sports/culture. The area-based Health Vulnerability Index (HVI) was used to assess socioeconomic status. Data from 891 adolescents were analyzed using the chi-squared test and logistic regression. The overall rate of illicit drug use was 15.2%. Gender heterogeneity within groups (OR = 3.14; 95%CI: 1.63-6.06), religion-based friendships (OR = 0.36; 95%CI: 0.17-0.75) and sports/culture-based friendships (OR = 0.44; 95%CI: 0.22-0.87) remained significantly associated with illicit drug use. Adolescents who lived in less vulnerable areas had higher chance of drug use in comparison with those living in more vulnerable areas. Religion-based and sports/culture-based friendships seem to demonstrate a protective effect against lifetime illicit drug use. Gender heterogeneity within groups and residing in a less vulnerable area increased the chances of adolescents reporting illicit drug use.

  6. Tobacco, alcohol and illicit drugs during pregnancy and risk of neuroblastoma: systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller-Schulte, Eloise; Kurlemann, Gerhard; Harder, Anja

    2017-11-21

    To determine whether prenatal and perinatal maternal consumption of alcohol, tobacco and/or illicit drugs is associated with risk of neuroblastoma. Medline and Embase (both from inception to February 2017), and reference lists of included studies. To be eligible, a study had to be an original report including data on intake of alcohol, tobacco smoking and/or consumption of illicit drugs during pregnancy and risk of neuroblastoma in the child. From eligible studies, data study characteristics as well as effect measures and confounders were extracted. We assessed unadjusted and confounder-adjusted estimates, performed risk of bias analysis, constructed random-effects models and assessed heterogeneity. We identified 14 case-control studies (1987-2016) involving a total of 3114 children with neuroblastoma. Meta-analysis of unadjusted estimates showed an association between alcohol (OR 1.26; 95% CI 1.07 to 1.49), tobacco (OR 1.22; 95% CI 1.04 to 1.44) and illicit drug consumption during pregnancy and risk of neuroblastoma during childhood, with illicit drug consumption showing the strongest association (OR 3.26; 95% CI 1.36 to 7.86). However, adjusted estimates were highly heterogeneous. All studies were at high risk of bias. Smoking, alcohol or illicit drugs during pregnancy might play a role in the development of neuroblastoma. However, well-designed studies are needed to assess whether these exposures are causal and whether time period during pregnancy, dose or co-consumption of substances is critical. Registration number CRD42016036165. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  7. Using technology to assess and intervene with illicit drug-using persons at risk for HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horvath, Keith J; Lammert, Sara; LeGrand, Sara; Muessig, Kathryn E; Bauermeister, José A

    2017-09-01

    This review describes recent literature on novel ways technology is used for assessment of illicit drug use and HIV risk behaviours, suggestions for optimizing intervention acceptability, and recently completed and ongoing technology-based interventions for drug-using persons at risk for HIV and others with high rates of drug use and HIV risk behaviour. Among studies (n = 5) comparing technology-based to traditional assessment methods, those using Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA) had high rates of reported drug use and high concordance with traditional assessment methods. The two recent studies assessing the acceptability of mHealth approaches overall demonstrate high interest in these approaches. Current or in-progress technology-based interventions (n = 8) are delivered using mobile apps (n = 5), text messaging (n = 2) and computers (n = 1). Most intervention studies are in progress or do not report intervention outcomes; the results from one efficacy trial showed significantly higher HIV testing rates among persons in need of drug treatment. Studies are needed to continually assess technology adoption and intervention preferences among drug-using populations to ensure that interventions are appropriately matched to users. Large-scale technology-based intervention trials to assess the efficacy of these approaches, as well as the impact of individual intervention components, on drug use and other high-risk behaviours are recommended.

  8. New drugs on the street: changing inner city patterns of illicit consumption

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Singer, Merrill

    2005-01-01

    .... 16, No. 1/2 2000. The journal is renumbered to start as Vol. 1, No. 1 2002. New Drugs on the Street: Changing Inner City Patterns of Illicit Consumption, edited by Merrill Singer, PhD (Vol. 4, No. 2, 2005). "ESSENTIAL READING for anyone in the drug use area who wants to be brought up-to-date on the current state of the field. This edited ...

  9. Internet use and attitudes towards illicit internet use behavior in a sample of Russian college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palesh, Oxana; Saltzman, Kasey; Koopman, Cheryl

    2004-10-01

    This study assessed Internet use and attitudes toward illicit use of the Internet in a sample of Russian college students. A sample comprised of 198 students was recruited from a university in Moscow. Each participant completed a survey assessing demographic characteristics, Internet use, and attitudes towards engaging in illicit behaviors over the Internet. About half of the students reported that they used the Internet at least several times a year, with 8% reporting daily use of the Internet. Among Internet users, most reported having Internet access either at home or at a friends' home, and 16 % reported having Internet access from work, school, or a computer center. Among Internet users, the main purpose was for school-related activities (60%), followed by e-mail (55%), entertainment (50%), chatting (24%), and searching for pornography (6%). Although most students thought it was inappropriate to read someone else's e-mail, use someone else's password or credit card information without their permission, or break into someone's computer, many students did endorse those illicit behaviors. Over a fifth of the students reported that they knew hackers. Forty three percent of students agreed that people make too much fuss about watching videos, movies or downloading music on the Internet without paying. Males were more likely than females to report using the Internet for entertainment purposes (p = 0.006) and were more likely to agree that it was okay to break into someone's computer (p = 0.04). The results of this study suggest that these Russian college students predominately use the Internet to help with their schoolwork, to communicate with others, and for entertainment. These results also suggest that interventions may be useful to change attitudes endorsing illicit uses of the Internet.

  10. IMPLICATIONS OF THE CURRENT EXPOSURE DRAFT ON AUDIT REPORTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Silviu CORDOȘ

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The regulatory changes come as a response to perceived deficiencies in the postfinancial crisis, and their goal is to improve users' perception of the usefulness and quality of the audit report. The article approaches the subject of these proposals to revise the standards and their implications for the audit report. The article is divided into five parts: the first part the authors present a brief introduction to the subject matter; the second part presents the research methodology; the third part the authors present a review of the literature research; the fourth section presents an analysis of the responses of EU respondents to the Exposure Draft issued by the IAASB in July 2013 and the last part the authors present research findings, limitations and perspectives.

  11. Report on results of current and future metal casting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unal, Cetin; Carlson, Neil N.

    2015-01-01

    New modeling capabilities needed to simulate the casting of metallic fuels are added to Truchas code. In this report we summarize improvements we made in FY2015 in three areas; (1) Analysis of new casting experiments conducted with BCS and EFL designs, (2) the simulation of INL's U-Zr casting experiments with Flow3D computer program, (3) the implementation of surface tension model into Truchas for unstructured mesh required to run U-Zr casting.

  12. Analysis of Illicit Liquor by Headspace Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (HS-GC-MS): A Preliminary Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Punia, Bhupinder Singh; Yadav, Praveen Kumar; Bumbrah, Gurvinder Singh; Sharma, Rakesh Mohan

    2017-01-01

    Illicit liquors are illegally manufactured to evade taxes and represent the majority of unrecorded liquors in developing countries. Because there are no standards, the composition of illicit liquors varies greatly from sample to sample. In the current study, we analyzed the volatile components of 27 different illicit liquors via samples collected from various locations in the northern region of India. Ethanol content varied drastically and methanol was not present in any of the samples. The components found can be categorized into different groups, namely alcohols, esters, acids, nitrogen-containing components, ketones, and aldehydes. Some components-such as 1-propanol; 1-pentanol; 1-butanol; d-limonene; phenylethyl alcohols; anethole; and decanoic, octanoic, and pentanoic acids-were frequently encountered.

  13. ITRAP. Illicit trafficking radiation detection assessment program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beck, P.

    2001-02-01

    Illicit trafficking in nuclear materials (nuclear criminality) has become more and more a problem, due to the circulation of the a high number of radioactive sources and the big amount of nuclear material, particularly, caused by the changes of the organisational infrastructures to supervise these material within the successor states of the former Soviet Union. The IAEA data base counts at present more than 300 verified cases. The endangering cased thereby ranges from possible health defect for the publication to terrorists activities and production of nuclear weapons. In addition to the primary criminal reasons the illegal deposal of radioactive sources as salvage, scrap and others show a further problem, which has lead to severe accidents and lethal effects in the past (e.g. Goiana, Mexiko). As the study ITRAP (Illicit Trafficking Radiation Assessment Program) can show, also in Austria the cases of partly considerable contaminated scrap transports from neighbouring countries exists. Some countries have already under taken countermeasures (e.g. Monitoring at the Finnish-Russian and German-Polish border, border monitoring in Italy). The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has reacted on this actual problem by setting up a new program to fight against nuclear criminality and has suggested a pilot study for the practical test of border monitoring systems. Aim of the study was to work out the technical requirements and the practicability of an useful monitoring system at border crossings. The results of the study will be offered by the IAEA to the member states as international recommendations for border monitoring systems. (author)

  14. Adverse childhood experiences and consumption of alcohol, tobacco and illicit drugs among adolescents of a Brazilian birth cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Helen; Soares, Ana Luiza Gonçalves; Santos, Ana Paula Gomes Dos; Ribeiro, Camila Garcez; Bierhals, Isabel Oliveira; Vieira, Luna Strieder; Hellwig, Natália Limões; Wehrmeister, Fernando C; Menezes, Ana M B

    2016-11-03

    The objective of this study was to investigate the association between adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) and the use of alcohol, tobacco and illicit drugs among adolescents from a Brazilian cohort. The occurrence of five ACEs, the use of alcohol and tobacco and trying illicit drugs were investigated in the 1993 Pelotas birth cohort at the age of 15 (n = 4,230). A score was created for the ACEs and their association with the use of substances was evaluated. Around 25% of adolescents consumed alcohol, 6% smoked and 2.1% reported having used drugs at least once in their lives. The ACEs were associated with the use of alcohol, tobacco and illicit drugs. A dose-response relation between the number of ACEs and the substance use was found, particularly with regard to illicit drugs. The occurrence of ACEs was positively associated with the use of alcohol, tobacco and illicit drugs among adolescents and the risk may be different for men and women. These results point to the fact that strategies for preventing the use of substances should include interventions both among adolescents and within the family environment.

  15. Increasing availability of illicit and prescription opioids among people who inject drugs in a Canadian setting, 2010-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Joel; DeBeck, Kora; Milloy, M-J; Dong, Huiru; Wood, Evan; Kerr, Thomas; Hayashi, Kanna

    2018-01-01

    Nonmedical use of prescription opioid and illicit opioid has been increasing at an alarming rate in North America over the past decade. We sought to examine the temporal trends and correlates of the availability of illicit and prescription opioids among people who inject drugs (PWID) in Vancouver, Canada. Data were derived from three prospective cohort studies of PWID in Vancouver between 2010 and 2014. In semiannual interviews, participants reported the availability of five sets of illicit and prescription opioids: (1) heroin; (2) Percocet (oxycodone/acetaminophen), Vicodin (hydrocodone/acetaminophen), or Demerol (meperidine); (3) Dilaudid (hydromorphone); (4) Morphine; (5) oxycontin/OxyNEO (controlled-release oxycodone). We defined perceived availability as immediate (e.g., available within 10 minutes) versus no availability/available after 10 minutes. The trend and correlation of immediate availability were identified by multivariable generalized estimating equations logistic regression. Among 1584 participants, of which 564 (35.6%) were female, the immediate availability of all illicit and prescribed opioids (except for oxycontin/OxyNEO) increased over time, independent of potential confounders. The Adjusted Odds Ratios of immediate availability associated with every calendar year increase were between 1.09 (95% confidence interval 1.05-1.12) (morphine and Dilaudid) and 1.13 (95% confidence interval 1.09-1.17) (Percocet/Vicodin/Demerol) (all p-values illicit and prescription opioid use among PWID that could potentially increase the risk of overdose.

  16. Cost comparison between Subterrene and current tunneling methods. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bledsoe, J.D.; Hill, J.E.; Coon, R.F.

    1975-05-01

    A study was made to compare tunnel construction costs between the Subterrene tunneling system and methods currently in use. Three completed tunnels were selected for study cases to represent finished diameters ranging from 3.05 meters (10 feet) to 6.25 meters (20.5 feet). The study cases were normalized by deleting extraneous work and assigning labor, equipment, and materials costs for the Southern California area in 1974. Detailed cost estimates (shown in Appendix A) were then made for the three tunnels for baseline. A conceptual nuclear powered Subterrene tunneling machine (NSTM) was designed. It was assumed that NSTM's were available for each of the three baseline tunnels. Costs were estimated (shown in Appendix B) for the baseline tunnels driven by NSTM

  17. Sirenomelia: case reports and current concepts of pathogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillay, Minnie; Yesodharan, Dhanya; Narayanan, Dhanya Lakshmi; Jojo, Annie; Luiz, Newton; Nampoothiri, Sheela

    2012-01-01

    We present 2 cases of sirenomelia and highlight the recent theories about its pathogenesis. Both cases had a large aberrant abdominal umbilical artery (AAUA) arising from the aorta, suggesting vascular steal as the pathophysiology. However, the bilateral upper limb defects noted in 1 case, the reported 10% association of holoprosencephaly and anencephaly, and the reports of sirenomelia with normal umbilical arteries point to the alternative caudal dysgenesis (CD) theory. This proposes that an insult at the early blastogenic stage interferes with the formation of the notochord, resulting in abnormal development of caudal structures, an AAUA, and occasional neural tube defects. We have also analyzed the implications of the similarities between sirenomelia/CD and the VATER association; the increased risk of CD but not sirenomelia in infants of diabetic mothers; the fact that sirenomelia, holoprosencephaly, and the VATER association are all more common in monozygotic twins; the experimental production of sirenomelia in mice; and the possible genetic implications of the co-occurrence of sirenomelia and CD.

  18. Illicit use of opioid substitution drugs: prevalence, user characteristics, and the association with non-fatal overdoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bretteville-Jensen, Anne Line; Lillehagen, Mats; Gjersing, Linn; Andreas, Jasmina Burdzovic

    2015-02-01

    Diversion of opioid substitution drugs (OSD) is of public concern. This study examined the prevalence, frequency, and predictors of illicit OSD use in a group of injecting drug users (IDUs) and assessed if such use was associated with non-fatal overdoses. Semi-annual cross-sectional interviews conducted in Oslo, Norway (2006-2013), from 1355 street-recruited IDUs. Hurdle, logistic, and multinomial regression models were employed. Overall, 27% reported illicit OSD use in the past four weeks; 16.8% methadone, 12.5% buprenorphine, and 2.9% both drugs. Almost 1/10 reported at least one non-fatal overdose in the past four weeks, and roughly 1/3 reported such experience in the past year. Use of additional drugs tended to be equally, or more prevalent among illicit OSD users than other IDUs. In terms of illicit OSD use being a risk factor for non-lethal overdoses, our results showed significant associations only for infrequent buprenorphine use (using once or less than once per week). Other factors associated with non-fatal overdoses included age, education, homelessness, as well as the benzodiazepines, stimulants, and heroin use. Users of diverted OSD may represent a high-risk population, as they used more additional drugs and used them more frequently than other IDUs. However, illicit OSD use may be less harmful than previously assumed. After accounting for an extensive set of covariates, only infrequent illicit buprenorphine use, but not methadone use, was associated with non-fatal overdoses. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Lower hybrid current drive for edge current density modification in DIII-D: Final status report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fenstermacher, M.E.; Porkolab, M.

    1993-01-01

    Application of Lower Hybrid (LH) Current Drive (CD) in the DIII-D tokamak has been studied at LLNL, off and on, for several years. The latest effort began in February 1992 in response to a letter from ASDEX indicating that the 2.45 GHz, 3 MW system there was available to be used on another device. An initial assessment of the possible uses for such a system on DIII-D was made and documented in September 1992. Multiple meetings with GA personnel and members of the LH community nationwide have occurred since that time. The work continued through the submission of the 1995 Field Work Proposals in March 1993 and was then put on hold due to budget limitations. The purpose of this document is to record the status of the work in such a way that it could fairly easily be restarted at a future date. This document will take the form of a collection of Appendices giving both background and the latest results from the FY 1993 work, connected by brief descriptive text. Section 2 will describe the final workshop on LHCD in DIII-D held at GA in February 1993. This was an open meeting with attendees from GA, LLNL, MIT and PPPL. Summary documents from the meeting and subsequent papers describing the results will be included in Appendices. Section 3 will describe the status of work on the use of low frequency (2.45 GHZ) LH power and Parametric Decay Instabilities (PDI) for the special case of high dielectric in the edge regions of the DIII-D plasma. This was one of the critical issues identified at the workshop. Other potential issues for LHCD in the DIII-D scenarios are: (1) damping of the waves on fast ions from neutral beam injection, (2) runaway electrons in the low density edge plasma, (3) the validity of the WKB approximation used in the ray-tracing models in the steep edge density gradients

  20. A series of forensic toxicology and drug seizure cases involving illicit fentanyl alone and in combination with heroin, cocaine or heroin and cocaine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinetti, Laureen J; Ehlers, Brooke J

    2014-10-01

    The Montgomery County Coroner's Office Toxicology Section and the Miami Valley Regional Crime Lab (MVRCL) Drug Chemistry Section have been receiving case work in drug seizures, death cases and human performance cases involving products marketed as heroin or as illicit fentanyl. Upon analysis by the Drug Chemistry Section, these products were found to contain various drug(s) including illicit fentanyl only, illicit fentanyl and heroin, illicit fentanyl and cocaine and illicit fentanyl, heroin and cocaine. Both the Chemistry and Toxicology Sections began seeing these combinations starting in late October 2013. The percentage of the combinations encountered by the MVRCL as well as the physical appearance of the product, and the results of presumptive screening tests will be discussed. The demographics of the users and the results of toxicology and autopsy findings on the decedents will also be discussed. According to regional drug task force undercover agents, there is evidence that some of the products are being sold as illicit fentanyl and not just as a heroin product. Also, there is no evidence to support that the fentanyl source is being diverted from pharmaceutical grade fentanyl. The chemistry section currently has over 109 confirmed cases, and the toxicology section currently has 81 confirmed drug deaths, 8 driving under the influence of drugs and 1 suicidal hanging. Both sections are continuing to see these cases at the present time. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Feelings and codependent behavior in the family of illicit drugs users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruna da Costa

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Current descriptive and qualitative study described feelings and codependent behavior in relatives of illicit drug users. Data were collected between March and April 2012 by an open interview with eight family members of illicit drugs-dependent individuals and subjected to theme-mode content analysis. Results were classified into two categories which showed intense suffering coupled to feelings of guilt, fear, shame, sadness, shame and manifestation of codependent behaviors such as denial and control of the one´s situation and that of others. Professionals should know the situation in which the families of drug addicts live to assist them in a different way. They should also identify codependent relatives, since they also need care so that their behavior does not worsen the symptoms and behavior of the drug user and prevents a possible medical or psychiatric diagnosis.

  2. Combating illicit trafficking of nuclear material and other radioactive sources in Republic of Bulgaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gotsev, A.; Dimitov, K.

    2001-01-01

    The turbulent history of the Republic of Bulgaria is proof of its importance for the commercial and military interests of the nations that have conquered and exploited the country through the ages. It is clear that it is the connecting node of two continents, Europe and Asia. It is a natural stop in the movement of goods for transcontinental commercial purposes as well as a natural resting place for the movement of armies during the ancient and medieval times. The geopolitical situation that currently exists in the Republic of Bulgaria may form conditions for illicit trafficking. This paper gives a short description of the efforts of the Government of Bulgaria to combat the illicit trafficking of nuclear material and other radioactive sources. (author)

  3. Development of international standards for instrumentation used for detection of illicit trafficking of radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voytchev, M.; Chiaro, P.; Radev, R.

    2006-01-01

    Subcommittee 45 B 'Radiation Protection Instrumentation' of the International Electrotechnical Commission (I.E.C.) is charged with the development of international standards for instrumentation used for monitoring of illicit trafficking of radioactive material through international boarders and territories, as well as inside countries. Currently three I.E.C. standards are in advanced stages of development. They are expected to be approved and published in 2006-2007. The international participation and the main characteristics of the following three standards are discussed and presented: I.E.C. 62327 'Hand-held Instruments for the Detection and Identification of Radionuclides and Additionally for the Indication of Ambient Dose Equivalent Rate from Photon Radiation', I.E.C. 62401 'Alarming Personal Radiation Devices for Detection of Illicit Trafficking of Radioactive Material' and I.E.C. 62244 'Installed Radiation Monitors for the Detection of Radioactive and Special Nuclear Materials at National Borders'

  4. Use of illicit drugs by truck drivers arriving at Paranaguá port terminal, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peixe, Tiago Severo; de Almeida, Rafael Menck; Girotto, Edmarlon; de Andrade, Selma Maffei; Mesas, Arthur Eumann

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to estimate the prevalence of recent use of illicit drugs among truck drivers who had parked their vehicles at the terminal port in Paranaguá City at Paraná State, southern Brazil. This cross-sectional study was part of a larger research project conducted among drivers at a regional Brazilian port. Data on professional characteristics, involvement in road traffic injuries, sleep, and use of alcohol and illicit drugs were collected using a questionnaire. Urine samples were collected and analyzed for amphetamines, cocaine, and cannabis using gas chromatography with mass spectrometric detection. Sixty-two drivers were included in the study. Toxicological analyses showed that 8.1 percent (95% confidence interval [CI], 2.7-17.8%) of the urine samples were positive for drugs (4.8% for cocaine, 1.6% for amphetamine, and 1.6% for both); 8.1 percent reported drug use during the preceding 30 days in the questionnaire and only one tested positive for the drug in the urine sample. No sample was positive for cannabinoids. In total, at least 14.5 percent (95% CI, 6.9-25.8%) had used illicit drugs during the preceding 30 days based on self-reports and urine testing. Drivers who reported involvement in traffic injuries the year before more often tested positive for drugs in biological samples (P illicit stimulants was common among professional truck drivers transporting grain loads. Thus, actions are needed to reduce drug use among truck drivers in order to prevent drug-related road traffic injuries.

  5. The social exigencies of the gateway progression to the use of illicit drugs from adolescence into adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otten, Roy; Mun, Chung Jung; Dishion, Thomas J

    2017-10-01

    There is limited empirical integration between peer clustering theory and the Gateway framework. The goal of the present study was to test the hypothesis that friendship associations partly predict gateway escalations in the use of drugs from adolescence to adulthood. This longitudinal study analyzed 3 waves of data from a community sample of 711 male and female participants without a history of illicit drug use reporting drug use at age 17, 22, and 27. Substance use assessments including tobacco, alcohol, cannabis, onset and abuse/dependence tendency of illicit drugs other than cannabis (i.e., cocaine, methamphetamine, and opiates), and friends' reported use of illicit drugs. Structural equation modeling was used to test the hypothesized model. Participants' cannabis use level at age 17 was positively associated with perceived friends' drug use at age 22, which in turn predicted participants' onset of illicit drug use between ages 22 and 27. Moreover, progression of tobacco use throughout age 17 to 22 was associated with an increased onset of illicit drug use between ages 22 and 27. Apart for an effect of cannabis use at age 22 on abuse and dependence tendency to various drugs at age 28, results were similar. During this period of development, the availability and selection of drug-using friends contributes to the progression to potentially more rewarding and damaging illicit drugs. These findings suggest the need to attend to the peer ecology in prevention and support the common practice of using abstaining peers in treatment for drug dependence. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Differentiation of illicit drugs with THz time-domain spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Guifeng; Ma Shihua; Ji Te; Zhao Hongwei; Wang Wenfeng

    2010-01-01

    The tera hertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) was used for sensing and identifying illicit drugs. The absorption spectra of seven illicit drug samples(morphine and its hydrochloride, cocaine hydrochloride, codeine phosphate, papaverine hydrochloride, pethidine hydrochloride, and thebaine) were studied by THz-TDS at 0.3-2.0 THz at room temperature. The geometric structure and vibration frequencies of morphine were calculated by density functional theory. The four absorption features were dominated by intra-/inter-molecular collective or lattice vibration modes. Each illicit drug has a distinct signature in its THz spectra. The results indicate that the THz-TDS can be used to identify and discriminate illicit drugs by their characteristic fingerprints. (authors)

  7. Harassment, discrimination, violence, and illicit drug use among young men who have sex with men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Carolyn F; Weiss, George; Ayala, George; Kipke, Michele D

    2010-08-01

    We examined the relationship among social discrimination, violence, and illicit drug use among an ethnically diverse cohort of young men who have sex with men (YMSM) residing in Los Angeles. Five Hundred twenty-six YMSM (aged 18-24 years) were recruited using a venue-based, stratified probability sampling design. Surveys assessed childhood financial hardship, violence (physical assault, sexual assault, intimate partner violence), social discrimination (homophobia and racism), and illicit drug use in the past 3 months. Analyses examined main and interaction effects of key variables on drug use. Experiences of financial hardship, physical intimate partner violence and homophobia predicted drug use. Although African American participants were less likely to report drug use than their Caucasian peers, those who experienced greater sexual racism were at significantly greater risk for drug use. Racial/ethnic minority YMSM were at increased risk for experiencing various forms of social discrimination and violence that place them at increased risk for drug use.

  8. Illicit Financial Flows and their Developmental Impacts: An Overview

    OpenAIRE

    Herkenrath, Marc

    2015-01-01

    Illicit financial flows — cross-border capital movements for the purposes of concealing illegal activities and evading taxes — pose major challenges to developing countries. They deprive the country concerned of urgently needed resources for private and public investment, thereby hampering infrastructure building and economic growth. This research overview shows that illicit financial flows also favour political changes that go hand in hand with the weakening of state institutions and growing...

  9. Evaluation of neutron techniques for illicit substance detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fink, C.L.; Micklich, B.J.; Yule, T.J.; Humm, P.; Sagalovsky, L.; Martin, M.M.

    1995-01-01

    We are studying inspection systems based on the use of fast neutrons for detecting illicit substances such as explosives and drugs in luggage and cargo containers. Fast-neutron techniques can determine the quantities of light elements such as carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen in a volume element. Illicit substances containing these elements are characterized by distinctive elemental densities or density ratios. We discuss modeling and tomographic reconstruction studies for fast-neutron transmission spectroscopy. (orig.)

  10. Evaluation of neutron techniques for illicit substance detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fink, C.L.; Micklich, B.J.; Yule, T.J.; Humm, P.; Sagalovsky, L.; Martin, M.M.

    1994-01-01

    The authors are studying inspection systems based on the use of fast neutrons for detecting illicit substances such as explosives and drugs in luggage and cargo containers. Fast neutron techniques can determine the quantities of light elements such as carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen in a volume element. Illicit substances containing these elements are characterized by distinctive elemental densities or density ratios. They discuss modeling and tomographic reconstruction studies for fast-neutron transmission spectroscopy

  11. Unintended messages in online advertising to youth: illicit drug imagery in a Canadian sports marketing campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auger, Nathalie; Daniel, Mark; Knäuper, Bärbel; Dourian, Tara; Raynault, Marie-France

    2015-04-01

    We assessed the potential for harmful messages in online advertisements targeted to youth, using the example of the Canadian "Light It Up" marketing campaign from a large sports corporation. We undertook a cluster randomized controlled trial of 20 secondary school classes in Montreal, Canada. Classes were randomly allocated to view a "Light It Up" advertisement (n = 205) or a neutral comparison advertisement (n = 192). The main outcome measures were self-reports of illicit drug messages in the advertisements. Of the students, 22.9% reported that the "Light It Up" advertisement contained illicit drug messages compared with 1.0% for the comparison advertisement (relative risk, 22.0; 95% confidence interval, 6.5-74.9). Although meant to promote sports, youth in this study believed that the "Light It Up" advertisement was related to illicit drugs. The campaign illustrates how advertisements may inadvertently market unwanted behaviors to children. Copyright © 2015 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Breaking the Taboo: Illicit Drug Use among Adolescents with Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna M. Hogendorf

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The aim of the study was to explore the prevalence of illicit drug use in a group of Polish adolescents with type 1 diabetes (DM1 in comparison with a national cohort of their healthy peers. Methods. Two hundred and nine adolescents with DM1, aged 15–18 years, were studied in 2013 with an anonymous questionnaire prepared for the European School Survey Project on Alcohol and Other Drugs (ESPAD. The control group was a representative sample of 12114 students at the same age who took part in ESPAD in 2011. Metabolic control was regarded as good if self-reported HbA1c was <8% or poor if HbA1c was ≥8%. Results. Lifetime prevalence of illicit drug use was lower among adolescents with DM1 than in the control group [58 (28% versus 5524 (46%, p=10-5]. Cannabis preparations were the most frequently used substances [38 (18.3% versus 3976 (33.1%, p=10-5], followed by tranquilizers, sedatives, and amphetamine. Lifetime and last 12-month use of cannabis were associated with poorer glycemic control (HbA1c ≥ 8%, p<0.01 and 0.02, respectively. Conclusions. Adolescents with DM1 report using illicit drugs to a lesser extent than their healthy peers. The use of cannabis is associated with a poorer metabolic control in teens with DM1.

  13. Improving recruitment to pharmacological trials for illicit opioid use: findings from a qualitative focus group study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neale, Joanne; Tompkins, Charlotte N E; McDonald, Rebecca; Strang, John

    2018-06-01

    To explore potential study participants' views on willingness to join clinical trials of pharmacological interventions for illicit opioid use to inform and improve future recruitment strategies. Qualitative focus group study [six groups: oral methadone (two groups); buprenorphine tablets (two groups); injectable opioid agonist treatment (one group); and former opioid agonist treatment (one group)]. Drug and alcohol services and a peer support recovery service (London, UK). Forty people with experience of opioid agonist treatment for heroin dependence (26 males, 14 females; aged 33-66 years). Data collection was facilitated by a topic guide that explored willingness to enrol in clinical pharmacological trials. Groups were audio-recorded and transcribed. Transcribed data were analysed inductively via Iterative Categorization. Participants' willingness to join pharmacological trials of medications for opioid dependence was affected by factors relating to study burden, study drug, study design, study population and study relationships. Participants worried that the trial drug might be worse than, or interfere with, their current treatment. They also misunderstood aspects of trial design despite the researchers' explanations. Recruitment of participants for clinical trials of pharmacological interventions for illicit opioid use could be improved if researchers became better at explaining clinical trials to potential participants, dispelling misconceptions about trials and increasing trust in the research process and research establishment. A checklist of issues to consider when designing pharmacological trials for illicit opioid use is proposed. © 2018 The Authors. Addiction published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society for the Study of Addiction.

  14. Transweb and trafficking in illicit nuclear materials: beyond the borders of physical security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballard, J.D.; Dilger, F.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: Transweb is a developing threat assessment analytical protocol that uses real time GIS based assessments (a.k.a., GTA for GIS Threat Assessment) to better understand potential trafficking in illicit nuclear materials that may come from energy related sites and/or weapons production facilities. This is not a physical security protocol nor is this program a border check format like the DOE's Second Line of Defense which is designed to detect special nuclear fuels. Transweb is a tool that allows the user to look at surreptitious transportation pathways that may be used to move illicit nuclear materials after they have already breached traditional physical security barriers and allows for movement prediction and potential mitigation/intervention if they are not traveling on the highways or railways, traversing the waterways, or entering ports equipped with detecting equipment like that deployed in Second Line of Defense program. Transweb is for the real world, a world where physical security may be breached and the smugglers that capture these materials do not follow the most traveled highways, railways, or waterways in a given society. Transweb focuses on the less obvious transportation routes that may be the most likely ways that illicit nuclear materials will be transported. Thus this program offers an additional layer of security analysis not currently in use as physical protection or as border mitigation. (author)

  15. The Nuclear Smuggling International Technical Working Group: Making a difference in combating illicit trafficking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niemeyer, S.; Koch, L.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: The ITWG was first formed in 1995 for the purpose of fostering international cooperation for combating illicit trafficking of nuclear materials. The initial focus for the ITWG was on the development of nuclear forensics to help answer attribution questions regarding nuclear materials of unknown origin. More recently, the ITWG has also expanded its focus to include detection of nuclear materials during transit. This paper presents some of the key developments by this group and their potential impact for combating nuclear smuggling. The initial focus of the ITWG was to write a status report on international cooperation on nuclear smuggling forensic analysis. This 26-page report summarized previous work on nuclear forensics and gave an initial analysis on prioritizing techniques and methods for forensic analysis regarding source and route attribution. This report was submitted to the G-8 countries, and shortly thereafter, nuclear forensics was endorsed at the Moscow Summit in April, 1996, as part of an illicit trafficking program. The work of the ITWG has also been noted at subsequent summit declarations, e.g. Cologne. The ITWG's primary goal is to develop a preferred approach to nuclear forensic investigations that is widely understood and accepted as credible. The technical elements include: 1) development of protocols for a) collection and preservation of evidence and b) for laboratory investigation, 2) prioritizing of techniques for forensic analysis, 3) development of forensic databanks to assist in interpretation, 4) executing inter-laboratory exercises, and 5) facilitating technical assistance to countries upon request. The development of protocols has been conducted jointly by law enforcement officials and laboratory scientists. A major focus during much of the past six years has been the development of a model action plan for nuclear forensics. This action plan lays out the elements that are needed in the instance that illicit nuclear material is

  16. Prevention of the inadvertent movement and illicit trafficking of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-05-01

    of Understanding (MOU) (1998) to promote co-operation at the international level in order to improve the control of radioactive materials. At the time of the drafting of this report, a similar MOU between the IAEA and the International Criminal Police Organization (INTERPOL) is pending. There are a number of measures that must be undertaken by States to combat the illicit trafficking and inadvertent movements of radioactive materials. These measures are, generally, shared between the regulatory and law enforcement agencies as part of a State's national arrangements. This Technical Document (TECDOC) will primarily be of interest to customs, border police and other law enforcement bodies. The report outlines the typical regulatory framework so that customs, police and other law enforcement staff are aware of the measures being taken to prevent loss of control. It also deals with the roles of customs, border police and other law enforcement bodies in the prevention of the inadvertent movement and illicit trafficking of radioactive materials. This publication outlines the supporting infrastructure concerned with the control of radioactive materials of all types, including radioactive sources, radioactive wastes and nuclear materials, in order to prevent them being involved in inadvertent movement or illicit trafficking. In particular. it explains the contribution that may be made by customs, police and other law enforcement bodies towards solving this problem. This TECDOC has neither the aim nor intention of interfering with the regulation or practice of customs or other law enforcement agencies. It is intended to support their countermeasures against inadvertent movement and illicit trafficking of radioactive materials. The purpose of this publication is to provide information to customs, police and other law enforcement bodies on the arrangements for effectively preventing inadvertent movements and illicit trafficking, and the role that they might play in this. It is

  17. Prevention of the inadvertent movement and illicit trafficking of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-12-01

    of Understanding (MOU) (1998) to promote co-operation at the international level in order to improve the control of radioactive materials. At the time of the drafting of this report, a similar MOU between the IAEA and the International Criminal Police Organization (INTERPOL) is pending. There are a number of measures that must be undertaken by States to combat the illicit trafficking and inadvertent movements of radioactive materials. These measures are, generally, shared between the regulatory and law enforcement agencies as part of a State's national arrangements. This Technical Document (TECDOC) will primarily be of interest to customs, border police and other law enforcement bodies. The report outlines the typical regulatory framework so that customs, police and other law enforcement staff are aware of the measures being taken to prevent loss of control. It also deals with the roles of customs, border police and other law enforcement bodies in the prevention of the inadvertent movement and illicit trafficking of radioactive materials. This publication outlines the supporting infrastructure concerned with the control of radioactive materials of all types, including radioactive sources, radioactive wastes and nuclear materials, in order to prevent them being involved in inadvertent movement or illicit trafficking. In particular. it explains the contribution that may be made by customs, police and other law enforcement bodies towards solving this problem. This TECDOC has neither the aim nor intention of interfering with the regulation or practice of customs or other law enforcement agencies. It is intended to support their countermeasures against inadvertent movement and illicit trafficking of radioactive materials. The purpose of this publication is to provide information to customs, police and other law enforcement bodies on the arrangements for effectively preventing inadvertent movements and illicit trafficking, and the role that they might play in this. It is

  18. Prevention of the inadvertent movement and illicit trafficking of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-08-01

    of Understanding (MOU) (1998) to promote co-operation at the international level in order to improve the control of radioactive materials. At the time of the drafting of this report, a similar MOU between the IAEA and the International Criminal Police Organization (INTERPOL) is pending. There are a number of measures that must be undertaken by States to combat the illicit trafficking and inadvertent movements of radioactive materials. These measures are, generally, shared between the regulatory and law enforcement agencies as part of a State's national arrangements. This Technical Document (TECDOC) will primarily be of interest to customs, border police and other law enforcement bodies. The report outlines the typical regulatory framework so that customs, police and other law enforcement staff are aware of the measures being taken to prevent loss of control. It also deals with the roles of customs, border police and other law enforcement bodies in the prevention of the inadvertent movement and illicit trafficking of radioactive materials. This publication outlines the supporting infrastructure concerned with the control of radioactive materials of all types, including radioactive sources, radioactive wastes and nuclear materials, in order to prevent them being involved in inadvertent movement or illicit trafficking. In particular. it explains the contribution that may be made by customs, police and other law enforcement bodies towards solving this problem. This TECDOC has neither the aim nor intention of interfering with the regulation or practice of customs or other law enforcement agencies. It is intended to support their countermeasures against inadvertent movement and illicit trafficking of radioactive materials. The purpose of this publication is to provide information to customs, police and other law enforcement bodies on the arrangements for effectively preventing inadvertent movements and illicit trafficking, and the role that they might play in this. It is

  19. Prevention of the inadvertent movement and illicit trafficking of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-05-01

    of Understanding (MOU) (1998) to promote co-operation at the international level in order to improve the control of radioactive materials. At the time of the drafting of this report, a similar MOU between the IAEA and the International Criminal Police Organization (INTERPOL) is pending. There are a number of measures that must be undertaken by States to combat the illicit trafficking and inadvertent movements of radioactive materials. These measures are, generally, shared between the regulatory and law enforcement agencies as part of a State's national arrangements. This Technical Document (TECDOC) will primarily be of interest to customs, border police and other law enforcement bodies. The report outlines the typical regulatory framework so that customs, police and other law enforcement staff are aware of the measures being taken to prevent loss of control. It also deals with the roles of customs, border police and other law enforcement bodies in the prevention of the inadvertent movement and illicit trafficking of radioactive materials. This publication outlines the supporting infrastructure concerned with the control of radioactive materials of all types, including radioactive sources, radioactive wastes and nuclear materials, in order to prevent them being involved in inadvertent movement or illicit trafficking. In particular. it explains the contribution that may be made by customs, police and other law enforcement bodies towards solving this problem. This TECDOC has neither the aim nor intention of interfering with the regulation or practice of customs or other law enforcement agencies. It is intended to support their countermeasures against inadvertent movement and illicit trafficking of radioactive materials. The purpose of this publication is to provide information to customs, police and other law enforcement bodies on the arrangements for effectively preventing inadvertent movements and illicit trafficking, and the role that they might play in this. It is

  20. Prevention of the inadvertent movement and illicit trafficking of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-09-01

    of Understanding (MOU) (1998) to promote co-operation at the international level in order to improve the control of radioactive materials. At the time of the drafting of this report, a similar MOU between the IAEA and the International Criminal Police Organization (INTERPOL) is pending. There are a number of measures that must be undertaken by States to combat the illicit trafficking and inadvertent movements of radioactive materials. These measures are, generally, shared between the regulatory and law enforcement agencies as part of a State's national arrangements. This Technical Document (TECDOC) will primarily be of interest to customs, border police and other law enforcement bodies. The report outlines the typical regulatory framework so that customs, police and other law enforcement staff are aware of the measures being taken to prevent loss of control. It also deals with the roles of customs, border police and other law enforcement bodies in the prevention of the inadvertent movement and illicit trafficking of radioactive materials. This publication outlines the supporting infrastructure concerned with the control of radioactive materials of all types, including radioactive sources, radioactive wastes and nuclear materials, in order to prevent them being involved in inadvertent movement or illicit trafficking. In particular. it explains the contribution that may be made by customs, police and other law enforcement bodies towards solving this problem. This TECDOC has neither the aim nor intention of interfering with the regulation or practice of customs or other law enforcement agencies. It is intended to support their countermeasures against inadvertent movement and illicit trafficking of radioactive materials. The purpose of this publication is to provide information to customs, police and other law enforcement bodies on the arrangements for effectively preventing inadvertent movements and illicit trafficking, and the role that they might play in this. It is

  1. Health spending, illicit financial flows and tax incentives in Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Hare, B; Curtis, M

    2014-12-01

    This analysis examines the gaps in health care financing in Malawi and how foregone taxes could fill these gaps. It begins with an assessment of the disease burden and government health expenditure. Then it analyses the tax revenues foregone by the government of Malawi by two main routes: Illicit financial flows (IFF) from the country, Tax incentives. We find that there are significant financing gaps in the health sector; for example, government expenditure is United States Dollars (USD) 177 million for 2013/2014 while projected donor contribution in 2013/2014 is USD 207 million and the total cost for the minimal health package is USD 535 million. Thus the funding gap between the government budget for health and the required spending to provide the minimal package for 2013/2014 is USD 358 million. On the other hand we estimate that almost USD 400 million is lost through IFF and corporate utilization of tax incentives each year. The revenues foregone plus the current government health spending would be sufficient to cover the minimal public health package for all Malawians and would help tackle Malawi's disease burden. Every effort must be made, including improving transparency and revising laws, to curtail IFF and moderate tax incentives.

  2. [Prevalence of illicit drug use and associated factors during pregnancy in the BRISA cohort].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Priscila Coimbra; Britto e Alves, Maria Teresa Seabra Soares de; Chagas, Deysianne Costa das; Silva, Antônio Augusto Moura da; Batista, Rosangela Fernandes Lucena; Silva, Raimundo Antonio da

    2016-01-01

    This study analyzes the prevalence of illicit drug use and associated factors during pregnancy. This was a cross-sectional study of participants in the BRISA prenatal care cohort. Frequencies and hierarchical logistic regression were used. Estimated prevalence rates were 1.45% for illicit drug use, 22.32% for alcohol consumption, and 4.22% for smoking. The study population was mostly young (81% in the 20-34-year bracket), with 9 to 11 years of schooling (75.55%), with more than half of the women outside the workforce (52.18%), and in economic class "C" (67.61%). Pregnant women showed a high level of stress (24.46%), moderate to intense anxiety (40.84%), and severe depressive symptoms (28.8%). Approximately half (49.72%) of the pregnant women reported some type of violence, and they had wide networks (72.77%) and low social support (65.21%). Use of legal drugs, high stress levels, and single parenthood were independently associated with illicit drug use in pregnancy.

  3. Digital danger: a review of the global public health, patient safety and cybersecurity threats posed by illicit online pharmacies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackey, Tim K.; Nayyar, Gaurvika

    2016-01-01

    Background Amidst the rise of e-commerce, there has been a proliferation of illicit online pharmacies that threaten global patient safety by selling drugs without a prescription directly to the consumer. Despite this clear threat, little is known about the key risk characteristics, central challenges and current legal, regulatory and law enforcement responses. Sources of data A review was conducted of the English literature with search terms ‘online pharmacies’, ‘Internet pharmacies’, ‘cyber pharmacies’, ‘rogue pharmacies’, and ‘e-pharmacies’ using PubMed, JSTOR, and Google Scholar from 1999–2005. Areas of agreement Illicit online pharmacies are a rapidly growing public health threat and are characterized by a number of complex and interrelated risk factors. Areas of controversy Solutions are varied and are of questionable utility in the face of evolving technology that enables this form of transnational cybercrime. Growing points Legal, regulatory and technology solutions must address the entire illicit online pharmacy ecosystem in order to be effective. Areas timely for developing research There is a critical need to build international consensus, conduct additional research and develop technology to combat illicit online pharmacies. PMID:27151957

  4. Sport participation and alcohol and illicit drug use in adolescents and young adults: a systematic review of longitudinal studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwan, Matthew; Bobko, Sarah; Faulkner, Guy; Donnelly, Peter; Cairney, John

    2014-03-01

    Sport participation can play an important and positive role in the health and development of children and youth. One area that has recently been receiving greater attention is the role that sport participation might play in preventing drug and alcohol use among youth. The current study is a systematic review of 17 longitudinal studies examining the relationship between sport participation and alcohol and drug use among adolescents. Results indicated that sport participation is associated with alcohol use, with 82% of the included studies (14/17) showing a significant positive relationship. Sport participation, however, appears to be related to reduced illicit drug use, especially use of non-cannabis related drugs. Eighty percent of the studies found sport participation associated with decreased illicit drug use, while 50% of the studies found negative association between sport participation and marijuana use. Further investigation revealed that participation in sports reduced the risk of overall illicit drug use, but particularly during high school; suggesting that this may be a critical period to reduce or prevent the use of drugs through sport. Future research must better understand what conditions are necessary for sport participation to have beneficial outcomes in terms of preventing alcohol and/or illicit drug use. This has been absent in the extent literature and will be central to intervention efforts in this area. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Digital danger: a review of the global public health, patient safety and cybersecurity threats posed by illicit online pharmacies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackey, Tim K; Nayyar, Gaurvika

    2016-06-01

    Amidst the rise of e-commerce, there has been a proliferation of illicit online pharmacies that threaten global patient safety by selling drugs without a prescription directly to the consumer. Despite this clear threat, little is known about the key risk characteristics, central challenges and current legal, regulatory and law enforcement responses. A review was conducted of the English literature with search terms 'online pharmacies', 'Internet pharmacies', 'cyber pharmacies', 'rogue pharmacies', and 'e-pharmacies' using PubMed, JSTOR, and Google Scholar from 1999-2005. Illicit online pharmacies are a rapidly growing public health threat and are characterized by a number of complex and interrelated risk factors. Solutions are varied and are of questionable utility in the face of evolving technology that enables this form of transnational cybercrime. Legal, regulatory and technology solutions must address the entire illicit online pharmacy ecosystem in order to be effective. There is a critical need to build international consensus, conduct additional research and develop technology to combat illicit online pharmacies. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Critical review on the stability of illicit drugs in sewers and wastewater samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCall, Ann-Kathrin; Bade, Richard; Kinyua, Juliet; Lai, Foon Yin; Thai, Phong K; Covaci, Adrian; Bijlsma, Lubertus; van Nuijs, Alexander L N; Ort, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    Wastewater-based epidemiology (WBE) applies advanced analytical methods to quantify drug residues in wastewater with the aim to estimate illicit drug use at the population level. Transformation processes during transport in sewers (chemical and biological reactors) and storage of wastewater samples before analysis are expected to change concentrations of different drugs to varying degrees. Ignoring transformation for drugs with low to medium stability will lead to an unknown degree of systematic under- or overestimation of drug use, which should be avoided. This review aims to summarize the current knowledge related to the stability of commonly investigated drugs and, furthermore, suggest a more effective approach to future experiments. From over 100 WBE studies, around 50 mentioned the importance of stability and 24 included tests in wastewater. Most focused on in-sample stability (i.e., sample preparation, preservation and storage) and some extrapolated to in-sewer stability (i.e., during transport in real sewers). While consistent results were reported for rather stable compounds (e.g., MDMA and methamphetamine), a varying range of stability under different or similar conditions was observed for other compounds (e.g., cocaine, amphetamine and morphine). Wastewater composition can vary considerably over time, and different conditions prevail in different sewer systems. In summary, this indicates that more systematic studies are needed to: i) cover the range of possible conditions in sewers and ii) compare results more objectively. To facilitate the latter, we propose a set of parameters that should be reported for in-sewer stability experiments. Finally, a best practice of sample collection, preservation, and preparation before analysis is suggested in order to minimize transformation during these steps. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. An intelligence led approach to intercepting the illicit trafficking of nuclear and other radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulinich, O.

    2001-01-01

    Recognizing the actuality and importance of nuclear material illicit trafficking problems, the Security Service of Ukraine pays great attention to the security and theft prevention of nuclear materials in Ukraine. For this purpose the state system, which includes organizational and legislative measures, has been established and is functioning. Within the frame of this system the detection and perception of illicit trafficking of nuclear materials and radioactive substances take an important place in the work of law enforcement authorities, including Security Service, in Ukraine. The Laws of Ukraine nuclear power utilization and radioactive safety, sanitary and epidemiological population control, the respective articles of the Criminal Code of Ukraine (art. 228-2, 228-3, 228-4, 228-5) and the statement of the Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine no. 207 on 04.03.1997 which determines the interaction procedure between executive authorities in case of illicit trafficking of radiation source detection, are its legislative basis. The analysis of the situation shows that this problem became the most pressing after the USSR collapse in 1991 due to some objective and subjective causes. Some criminals and common staff of the enterprises and organizations which were responsible for the above mentioned materials as well as former military men were involved in illegal activity associated with illicit trafficking of nuclear materials and radioactive substances. Although after the USSR collapsed the Ukraine had the nuclear arsenal which was the third in the world, it did not become the source of nuclear weapons material proliferation. It shows the effectiveness of the measures undertaken by the government within the system of nuclear material physical protection provision. It is evident that nuclear weapon removal from the territory of Ukraine was performed without any case of its loss or theft. Therefore, currently in Ukraine there is only the necessary amount of nuclear material

  8. Illicit Financial Flows and their Developmental Impacts: An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Herkenrath

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Illicit financial flows — cross-border capital movements for the purposes of concealing illegal activities and evading taxes — pose major challenges to developing countries. They deprive the country concerned of urgently needed resources for private and public investment, thereby hampering infrastructure building and economic growth. This research overview shows that illicit financial flows also favour political changes that go hand in hand with the weakening of state institutions and growing corruption and rent-seeking. As yet, there are no empirical quantitative findings as to the exact functioning and significance of these effects. What is clear, however, is that approaches to problem-solving must come not only from the countries where illicit financial flows originate but also from the recipient countries — offshore financial centres with a high level of financial secrecy.

  9. Impact of use of alcohol and illicit drugs by AIDS patients on adherence to antiretroviral therapy in Bahia, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Celia; Dourado, Maria De Lourdes; Santos, Marcio P; Brites, Carlos

    2013-05-01

    Use of alcohol and illicit drugs is a common finding among HIV-infected individuals, but there are many open questions about its impact on adherence to antiretroviral therapy and virological outcomes. Our study aimed to evaluate the impact of the use of alcohol and illicit drugs on the adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) among patients starting ART in Salvador, Brazil. We followed up 144 AIDS patients initiating ART for a 6-month period. At baseline, they were interviewed about demographics, behavior, and use of illicit drugs and alcohol. All of them had HIV-1 RNA plasma viral load and CD4(+)/CD8(+) cells count measured before starting therapy. After 60 days of treatment they were asked to answer a new questionnaire on adherence to ART. All patients were monitored during the following months, and new CD4(+) cell count/HIV-1 RNA plasma viral load determinations were performed after 6 months of therapy. Optimal adherence to therapy was defined by self-reported questionnaire, by 95% use of prescribed drug doses, and by using plasma HIV-1 RNA viral load as a biological marker. A total of 61 (42.4%) patients reported alcohol use, 7 (4.9%) used illicit drugs, and 17 (11.8%) used both alcohol and illicit drugs. Being in a steady relationship was protective to nonadherence (95% CI: 0.18-0.84). Missing more than two medical visits was also associated with a 68% higher likelihood of nonadherence (95% CI: 0.10-1.02). After logistic regression we detected a higher risk of nonadherence for patients declaring use of alcohol plus illicit drugs (odds ratio=6.0; 95% CI: 1.78-20.28) or high-intensity use of alcohol (odds ratio=3.29; 95% CI: 1.83-5.92). AIDS patients using alcohol and/or illicit drugs are socially vulnerable, and need specific and flexible programs, combining mental health care, harm reduction strategies, and assisted drug therapy to maximize the chances of successful use of ART.

  10. The prevalence of violence and relation to depression and illicit drug use among incarcerated women in Recife, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Elizabeth; Raj, Anita; Falbo, Gilliatt; Caminha, Fatima; Decker, Michele R; Kaliel, Deborah C; Missmer, Stacey A; Molnar, Beth E; Silverman, Jay G

    2009-01-01

    To assess the prevalence and different types of violence experienced by women prisoners in Brazil and the effects of violence on women's depression and illicit drug use. Participants (N=377) were incarcerated women from a state prison in a northeastern city of Brazil. Multivariate logistic regression models (adjusted for age, education, partner status, prison history, drug related offense, and sentencing status) were used to assess associations between each type of violence (physical abuse, sexual abuse, and life threats) and each outcome variable: recent depression and illicit drug use. The majority of participants (87%) reported experiencing some type of violence in their lifetime, including physical violence (83%), sexual victimization (36%), and threats on their life (29%.) Sexual violence was significantly related to both recent depression (Odds Ratio (OR)=2.8; 95% Confidence Interval (CI)=1.4-5.3) and recent substance use (OR=2.7; 95% CI=1.6-4.4) in adjusted models. Experiences of life threats were also significantly associated with illicit drug use (OR=2.2; 95% CI: 1.3-3.7), as was physical violence (OR=2.4; 95% CI: 1.2-4.9); however, neither of these latter two violence variables were significantly associated with depression. Reports of lifetime violence victimization among this incarcerated sample of women were extremely prevalent and relevant to women's depression and illicit drug use. Prison efforts to address women's depression and illicit drug use may be most effective by incorporating aspects related to women's history of victimization, especially given the high rates of violence experienced by women in this sample.

  11. International conference in Stockholm to address protection of nuclear material and radioactive sources from illicit trafficking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    The Conference will look at approaches for enhancing security of material in general as well as protecting facilities against terrorism and sabotage. More specifically it will address measures for interception and response to illicit trafficking and discuss the practices and measures currently being used to minimize the possibilities of the unauthorized removal and movement of nuclear materials and critical equipment. It will also consider the importance of closer co-operation with law enforcement authorities and intelligence agencies and the necessity of applying new technologies to this effort

  12. Low frequency RF current drive. Final report, January 1, 1988 - May 31, 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hershkowitz, N.

    1999-01-01

    This report starts with a summary of research done on the Phaedrus Tandom Mirror concept and how this research led to the design and construction of the Phaedrus-T Tokamak. Next it gives a more detailed description of the results from the last four years of research, which include the following areas: (1) first experimental demonstration of AWCD (Alfven Wave Current Drive); (2) current drive location and loop voltage response; (3) trapping and current drive efficiency; and (4) reflectometry

  13. Licit and illicit drugs: a group approach with teenagers

    OpenAIRE

    Deborah Amaral Donnini; Darilene Rocha Cordeiro; Bruna Camargos de Lima; Selma Maria da Fonseca Viegas

    2017-01-01

    This work is an extension intervention arising from the results of an epidemiological cross-sectional study with 605 teenagers from 13 to 16 years old. The extension actions had as a method the group educational practice on licit and illicit drugs, with 2.012 teenagers from 22 municipal and state public schools of the urban region of Divinópolis, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil, from March 2015 to February 2016. It aimed to work with group educational practices on licit and illicit drugs in the...

  14. THE EFFECT OF ILLICIT TRADE IN NARCOTICS ON GLOBAL ECONOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALASMARI Khaled

    2013-07-01

    Illicit markets especially those dealing with narcotics constitute grievous issues to the world’s economies, putting to test global safety, economic progress as well as security and many other aspects. Seemingly, illicit narcotics trade in the last decade – that is 2000 to 2011 underwent a significant boom, resulting from a wide spectrum of illegal drugs such as cocaine as well as heroin among many other hard drugs. In today’s global society, several concerns are emerging on the rise of illicit narcotics trade accompanied with organized crime, chiefly as major hindrances to consistent global economic progress. Apparently, some of the effects of illicit narcotics trade are that; this trade gradually turns upside down business rules, opening way for new unruly market players besides reconfiguring influence in global economics as well as politics. Surprisingly, the revenue from illegal drugs in 2011 alone was roughly 10% of the global GDP. Hence, exaggerating local economies’ incomes and triggering ceaseless conflicts among market players, while at the same time reducing legal business activities likewise disintegrating socioeconomic conditions. An empirical research method was adopted for this study, analyzing illicit trade in narcotics on the global arena as from 2000 to 2011 and its resultant effects. The research findings indicate that, illegal drugs trade particularly on the world economy besides growing at a high rate, it endangers the overall welfare of humans likewise the business environment. This is ostensibly because this trade has high chances of engrossing regional economies into illegal drugs business activities, causing them to neglect sustainable ethical businesses. Now, to effectively address negative economic issues related to illegal drugs trade, there is apparent need for integrated efforts from local as well as international authorities. Such efforts are chiefly to control not only the harmful effects resulting from the use of illicit

  15. Adulteration Practices of Psychoactive Illicit Drugs: An Updated Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solimini, Renata; Rotolo, Maria C; Pellegrini, Manuela; Minutillo, Adele; Pacifici, Roberta; Busardò, Francesco P; Zaami, Simona

    2017-01-01

    Powdery drugs such as cocaine and heroin are frequently adulterated or diluted predominantly to obtain more doses and to increase the drug dealer's profits, but also to enhance, to modify or to oppose drug effects. The aim of this report is to provide an overview of the recent scientific literature on medicines as well as on new psychoactive substances, used as cutting agents (i.e. pharmacologically active adulterants) and on the related adverse health effects on consumers, possibly due to the synergistic effect of the adulterants laced with substances of abuse. A literature search up to January 2017 was performed on MEDLINE, Scopus and Web of Science and reports and documents of international agencies or institutions were also searched. Pharmacologically active substances such as: paracetamol, caffeine, dextromethorphan, clenbuterol for heroin; levamisole, phenacetine, lidocaine, hydroxyzine and diltiazem for cocaine; caffeine and phentermine for amphetamine, have been identified over the years. Furthermore, since cocaine and morphine (this latter as a precursor of heroin) are both extracted from natural products, some impurities and minor alkaloids can be present in the final preparation. In this context, it is worth considering that new psychoactive substances are also used as cutting agents. The wide availability of illicit psychotropic drugs is the most serious hazard threatening consumers. Indeed emergency departments are often responsible in evaluating damages caused not only by the base substance, but also by other eventual compounds added to mimic or antagonize drug effects or simply dilute the drug amount, with a possible harmful synergic toxic action. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  16. The Empirical Analysis of Cigarette Tax Avoidance and Illicit Trade in Vietnam, 1998-2010

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, Minh Thac; Denniston, Ryan; Nguyen, Hien Thi Thu; Hoang, Tuan Anh; Ross, Hana; So, Anthony D.

    2014-01-01

    Illicit trade carries the potential to magnify existing tobacco-related health care costs through increased availability of untaxed and inexpensive cigarettes. What is known with respect to the magnitude of illicit trade for Vietnam is produced primarily by the industry, and methodologies are typically opaque. Independent assessment of the illicit cigarette trade in Vietnam is vital to tobacco control policy. This paper measures the magnitude of illicit cigarette trade for Vietnam between 199...

  17. Response to events involving the inadvertent movement or illicit trafficking of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-08-01

    of Understanding (MOU) (1998) to promote co-operation at the international level in order to improve the control of radioactive materials. At the time of the drafting of this report, a similar MOU between the IAEA and the International Criminal Police Organization (INTERPOL) is pending. There are a number of measures that must be undertaken by States to combat the illicit trafficking and inadvertent movements of radioactive materials. These measures are, generally, shared between the regulatory and law enforcement agencies as part of a State's national arrangements. One of these measures is monitoring for radioactive materials at borders. This Technical Document (TECDOC) provides information to front-line officers on response to events involving the detection of inadvertent movement or illicit trafficking of radioactive materials. The emphasis in this publication is on operational and tactical response measures. These may entail a multi-agency response, particularly at the tactical level. Detailed scientific information has been kept to a minimum as it is recognized that the majority of law enforcement personnel will not have the background necessary to use such information effectively. The prime objective of this TECDOC is to provide Member States with practical information for use by emergency response and law enforcement personnel involved in dealing with incidents of inadvertent movement or illicit trafficking of radioactive materials. The purpose of the response is to regain control of the relevant radioactive materials so that the risk of harm to people and the environment is mitigated. This information is aimed primarily at police, customs and other law enforcement officers who may become involved in incidents concerning inadvertent movement or illicit trafficking of radioactive materials. Effective inter-agency co-operation can only be achieved if personnel who are not normally involved with radiological emergencies are aware of the issues associated with

  18. Response to events involving the inadvertent movement or illicit trafficking of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-09-01

    of Understanding (MOU) (1998) to promote co-operation at the international level in order to improve the control of radioactive materials. At the time of the drafting of this report, a similar MOU between the IAEA and the International Criminal Police Organization (INTERPOL) is pending. There are a number of measures that must be undertaken by States to combat the illicit trafficking and inadvertent movements of radioactive materials. These measures are, generally, shared between the regulatory and law enforcement agencies as part of a State's national arrangements. One of these measures is monitoring for radioactive materials at borders. This Technical Document (TECDOC) provides information to front-line officers on response to events involving the detection of inadvertent movement or illicit trafficking of radioactive materials. The emphasis in this publication is on operational and tactical response measures. These may entail a multi-agency response, particularly at the tactical level. Detailed scientific information has been kept to a minimum as it is recognized that the majority of law enforcement personnel will not have the background necessary to use such information effectively. The prime objective of this TECDOC is to provide Member States with practical information for use by emergency response and law enforcement personnel involved in dealing with incidents of inadvertent movement or illicit trafficking of radioactive materials. The purpose of the response is to regain control of the relevant radioactive materials so that the risk of harm to people and the environment is mitigated. This information is aimed primarily at police, customs and other law enforcement officers who may become involved in incidents concerning inadvertent movement or illicit trafficking of radioactive materials. Effective inter-agency co-operation can only be achieved if personnel who are not normally involved with radiological emergencies are aware of the issues associated with

  19. Response to events involving the inadvertent movement or illicit trafficking of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-08-01

    of Understanding (MOU) (1998) to promote co-operation at the international level in order to improve the control of radioactive materials. At the time of the drafting of this report, a similar MOU between the IAEA and the International Criminal Police Organization (INTERPOL) is pending. There are a number of measures that must be undertaken by States to combat the illicit trafficking and inadvertent movements of radioactive materials. These measures are, generally, shared between the regulatory and law enforcement agencies as part of a State's national arrangements. One of these measures is monitoring for radioactive materials at borders. This Technical Document (TECDOC) provides information to front-line officers on response to events involving the detection of inadvertent movement or illicit trafficking of radioactive materials. The emphasis in this publication is on operational and tactical response measures. These may entail a multi-agency response, particularly at the tactical level. Detailed scientific information has been kept to a minimum as it is recognized that the majority of law enforcement personnel will not have the background necessary to use such information effectively. The prime objective of this TECDOC is to provide Member States with practical information for use by emergency response and law enforcement personnel involved in dealing with incidents of inadvertent movement or illicit trafficking of radioactive materials. The purpose of the response is to regain control of the relevant radioactive materials so that the risk of harm to people and the environment is mitigated. This information is aimed primarily at police, customs and other law enforcement officers who may become involved in incidents concerning inadvertent movement or illicit trafficking of radioactive materials. Effective inter-agency co-operation can only be achieved if personnel who are not normally involved with radiological emergencies are aware of the issues associated with

  20. Response to events involving the inadvertent movement or illicit trafficking of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-08-01

    of Understanding (MOU) (1998) to promote co-operation at the international level in order to improve the control of radioactive materials. At the time of the drafting of this report, a similar MOU between the IAEA and the International Criminal Police Organization (INTERPOL) is pending. There are a number of measures that must be undertaken by States to combat the illicit trafficking and inadvertent movements of radioactive materials. These measures are, generally, shared between the regulatory and law enforcement agencies as part of a State's national arrangements. One of these measures is monitoring for radioactive materials at borders. This Technical Document (TECDOC) provides information to front-line officers on response to events involving the detection of inadvertent movement or illicit trafficking of radioactive materials. The emphasis in this publication is on operational and tactical response measures. These may entail a multi-agency response, particularly at the tactical level. Detailed scientific information has been kept to a minimum as it is recognized that the majority of law enforcement personnel will not have the background necessary to use such information effectively. The prime objective of this TECDOC is to provide Member States with practical information for use by emergency response and law enforcement personnel involved in dealing with incidents of inadvertent movement or illicit trafficking of radioactive materials. The purpose of the response is to regain control of the relevant radioactive materials so that the risk of harm to people and the environment is mitigated. This information is aimed primarily at police, customs and other law enforcement officers who may become involved in incidents concerning inadvertent movement or illicit trafficking of radioactive materials. Effective inter-agency co-operation can only be achieved if personnel who are not normally involved with radiological emergencies are aware of the issues associated with

  1. 76 FR 28726 - Grain Market News Reports; Request for Extension of a Currently Approved Information Collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-18

    ... Service [Doc. No. AMS-LS-11-0035] Grain Market News Reports; Request for Extension of a Currently Approved... grain market news reports. DATES: Comments must be received by July 18, 2011. ADDRESSES: Comments should... Lynch, Chief, Livestock and Grain Market News Branch, Livestock and Seed Program, Agricultural Marketing...

  2. Educational Attainment in the United States: 2015. Population Characteristics. Current Population Reports. P20-578

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Camille L.; Bauman, Kurt

    2016-01-01

    This report provides a portrait of educational attainment in the United States based on data collected from the Current Population Survey (CPS). The report examines educational attainment of the adult population by demographic and social characteristics such as age, sex, race and Hispanic origin, and disability status, as well as differences in…

  3. School Enrollment in the United States: 2006. Population Characteristics. Current Population Reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Jessica W.; Bauman, Kurt J.

    2008-01-01

    This report discusses school enrollment levels and trends in the population aged 3 and older based on data collected in 2006 by the U.S. Census Bureau in the American Community Survey (ACS) and the Current Population Survey (CPS). Historically, the CPS has been the only data source used to produce school enrollment reports. This is the first…

  4. Critical report of current fisheries management measures implemented for the North Sea mixed demersal fisheries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, J. Rasmus; Ulrich, Clara; Hegland, Troels J.

    The present report is an EU-FP7-SOCIOEC Report giving an overview and critical evaluation of the current management measures implemented for the North Sea mixed demersal fisheries and the fish stocks involved in this. Also, this involves review and critical evaluation of the scientific advice...

  5. Illicit stimulant use is associated with abnormal substantia nigra morphology in humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabrielle Todd

    Full Text Available Use of illicit stimulants such as methamphetamine, cocaine, and ecstasy is an increasing health problem. Chronic use can cause neurotoxicity in animals and humans but the long-term consequences are not well understood. The aim of the current study was to investigate the long-term effect of stimulant use on the morphology of the human substantia nigra. We hypothesised that history of illicit stimulant use is associated with an abnormally bright and enlarged substantia nigra (termed 'hyperechogenicity' when viewed with transcranial sonography. Substantia nigra morphology was assessed in abstinent stimulant users (n = 36; 31±9 yrs and in two groups of control subjects: non-drug users (n = 29; 24±5 yrs and cannabis users (n = 12; 25±7 yrs. Substantia nigra morphology was viewed with transcranial sonography and the area of echogenicity at the anatomical site of the substantia nigra was measured at its greatest extent. The area of substantia nigra echogenicity was significantly larger in the stimulant group (0.273±0.078 cm(2 than in the control (0.201±0.054 cm(2; P<0.001 and cannabis (0.202±0.045 cm(2; P<0.007 groups. 53% of stimulant users exhibited echogenicity that exceeded the 90(th percentile for the control group. The results of the current study suggest that individuals with a history of illicit stimulant use exhibit abnormal substantia nigra morphology. Substantia nigra hyperechogenicity is a strong risk factor for developing Parkinson's disease later in life and further research is required to determine if the observed abnormality in stimulant users is associated with a functional deficit of the nigro-striatal system.

  6. Detection of Illicit Drugs by Trained Honeybees (Apis mellifera.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Schott

    Full Text Available Illegal drugs exacerbate global social challenges such as substance addiction, mental health issues and violent crime. Police and customs officials often rely on specially-trained sniffer dogs, which act as sensitive biological detectors to find concealed illegal drugs. However, the dog "alert" is no longer sufficient evidence to allow a search without a warrant or additional probable cause because cannabis has been legalized in two US states and is decriminalized in many others. Retraining dogs to recognize a narrower spectrum of drugs is difficult and training new dogs is time consuming, yet there are no analytical devices with the portability and sensitivity necessary to detect substance-specific chemical signatures. This means there is currently no substitute for sniffer dogs. Here we describe an insect screening procedure showing that the western honeybee (Apis mellifera can sense volatiles associated with pure samples of heroin and cocaine. We developed a portable electroantennographic device for the on-site measurement of volatile perception by these insects, and found a positive correlation between honeybee antennal responses and the concentration of specific drugs in test samples. Furthermore, we tested the ability of honeybees to learn the scent of heroin and trained them to show a reliable behavioral response in the presence of a highly-diluted scent of pure heroin. Trained honeybees could therefore be used to complement or replace the role of sniffer dogs as part of an automated drug detection system. Insects are highly sensitive to volatile compounds and provide an untapped resource for the development of biosensors. Automated conditioning as presented in this study could be developed as a platform for the practical detection of illicit drugs using insect-based sensors.

  7. Detection of Illicit Drugs by Trained Honeybees (Apis mellifera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schott, Matthias; Klein, Birgit; Vilcinskas, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Illegal drugs exacerbate global social challenges such as substance addiction, mental health issues and violent crime. Police and customs officials often rely on specially-trained sniffer dogs, which act as sensitive biological detectors to find concealed illegal drugs. However, the dog "alert" is no longer sufficient evidence to allow a search without a warrant or additional probable cause because cannabis has been legalized in two US states and is decriminalized in many others. Retraining dogs to recognize a narrower spectrum of drugs is difficult and training new dogs is time consuming, yet there are no analytical devices with the portability and sensitivity necessary to detect substance-specific chemical signatures. This means there is currently no substitute for sniffer dogs. Here we describe an insect screening procedure showing that the western honeybee (Apis mellifera) can sense volatiles associated with pure samples of heroin and cocaine. We developed a portable electroantennographic device for the on-site measurement of volatile perception by these insects, and found a positive correlation between honeybee antennal responses and the concentration of specific drugs in test samples. Furthermore, we tested the ability of honeybees to learn the scent of heroin and trained them to show a reliable behavioral response in the presence of a highly-diluted scent of pure heroin. Trained honeybees could therefore be used to complement or replace the role of sniffer dogs as part of an automated drug detection system. Insects are highly sensitive to volatile compounds and provide an untapped resource for the development of biosensors. Automated conditioning as presented in this study could be developed as a platform for the practical detection of illicit drugs using insect-based sensors.

  8. [Alcohol and illicit drug use and its influence on the sexual behavior of teenagers from Minas Gerais State, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertoni, Neilane; Bastos, Francisco I; Mello, Maeve Brito de; Makuch, Maria Yolanda; Sousa, Maria Helena de; Osis, Maria José; Faúndes, Anibal

    2009-06-01

    This article summarizes the findings of a survey including 5,981 students from public schools in Minas Gerais State, Brazil. The analysis assessed the influence of drug use on sexual practices. Among the boys engaged in relationships with casual partners who stated having used illicit drugs, 55.7% reported consistent condom use, as compared to 65.4% among those not reporting such habits. Among boys engaged in relationships with stable partners who reported illicit drug use, consistent condom use was reported by 42.7%, versus 64.1% among those not reporting such habits. In the subgroup of boys engaged in stable relationships who did not report illicit drug use, consistent condom use was less frequent among those that used alcohol/cigarettes, compared to those who did not drink or smoke (60.7% vs. 71.1%). Girls were less likely than boys to use condoms consistently, regardless of the nature of their relationships, without a noticeable influence of drug use. Policies to prevent drug abuse, sexually transmitted diseases, and unplanned pregnancy should be fully integrated.

  9. Social and structural barriers to housing among street-involved youth who use illicit drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krüsi, Andrea; Fast, Danya; Small, Will; Wood, Evan; Kerr, Thomas

    2010-05-01

    In Canada, approximately 150,000 youth live on the street. Street-involvement and homelessness have been associated with various health risks, including increased substance use, blood-borne infections and sexually transmitted diseases. We undertook a qualitative study to better understand the social and structural barriers street-involved youth who use illicit drugs encounter when seeking housing. We conducted 38 semi-structured interviews with street-involved youth in Vancouver, Canada from May to October 2008. Interviewees were recruited from the At-risk Youth Study (ARYS) cohort, which follows youth aged 14 to 26 who have experience with illicit drug use. All interviews were thematically analyzed, with particular emphasis on participants' perspectives regarding their housing situation and their experiences seeking housing. Many street-involved youth reported feeling unsupported in their efforts to find housing. For the majority of youth, existing abstinence-focused shelters did not constitute a viable option and, as a result, many felt excluded from these facilities. Many youth identified inflexible shelter rules and a lack of privacy as outweighing the benefits of sleeping indoors. Single-room occupancy hotels (SROs) were reported to be the only affordable housing options, as many landlords would not rent to youth on welfare. Many youth reported resisting moving to SROs as they viewed them as unsafe and as giving up hope for a return to mainstream society. The findings of the present study shed light on the social and structural barriers street-involved youth face in attaining housing and challenge the popular view of youth homelessness constituting a lifestyle choice. Our findings point to the need for housing strategies that include safe, low threshold, harm reduction focused housing options for youth who engage in illicit substance use.

  10. Pill-poppers and dopers: a comparison of non-medical prescription drug use and illicit/street drug use among college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Jason A; Arrastia, Meagan C

    2008-07-01

    Data from the 2001 College Alcohol Study, a national sample of U.S. college students, were used to conduct multinomial logistic regression analysis examining correlates of substance use. Students were divided into three groups based on their lifetime substance use: non-users, non-medical prescription drug use only, and illicit/street drug use only. The purpose of this analytic strategy was to examine the similarities/differences in the correlates of non-medical prescription drug use and illicit/street drug use. Findings indicate that race, age, G.P.A., sexual activity, health, binge drinking, marijuana use, social bonding and social learning measures are correlates of non-medical prescription drug use. Correlates of illicit/street drug use include gender, Hispanic ethnicity, sexual activity, binge drinking, marijuana use, social bonding and social learning measures. Finally, the focus of the paper is a comparison of students who report only non-medical prescription drug use to students who report only illicit/street drug use. Findings indicate that gender, race, marital status, sexual activity, marijuana use, and social bonding measures significantly distinguish illicit/street drug use from non-medical prescription drug use. Important implications, limitations, and future research needs were discussed.

  11. Illicit drug use is increasing among non-medical users of prescription drugs-Results from population-based surveys 2002-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karjalainen, Karoliina; Lintonen, Tomi; Hakkarainen, Pekka

    2017-09-01

    Non-medical use of prescription drugs (NMUPD) is known to be associated with illicit drug use, but less is known about how illicit drug use has changed in NMUPD. We examined (1) the changes in illicit drug use among Finnish non-medical users of prescription drugs during the 2000s and (2) whether the trends of illicit drug use differ by non-medical use of prescription drugs in the general population. Data were derived from population-based (aged 15-69) Drug Surveys conducted in Finland in 2002, 2006, 2010 and 2014. The response rates varied between 63% and 48%. NMUPD during the last year was measured (n=252). Past-year illicit drug use among non-medical users of prescription drugs and the reference population not reporting NMUPD (n=10,967) was compared. Logistic regression was used to estimate the p-values for trends. Illicit drug use has increased notably among Finnish non-medical users of prescription drugs (from 21% to 70%, p for trendillicit drug use also increased statistically significantly, but much more moderately (from 2.5% to 5.4%). The difference between the trends was confirmed by an interaction test (p=0.022). NMUPD seems to be increasingly merging with illicit drug use. This indicates an increasing prevalence of polydrug use among non-medical users of prescription drugs, which may bring about more severe harms and worse health outcomes for users and more challenges in regard to treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. CRISIS UNDER THE RADAR: ILLICIT AMPHETAMINE USE IS REACHING EPIDEMIC PROPORTIONS AND CONTRIBUTING TO RESOURCE OVER-UTILIZATION AT A LEVEL 1 TRAUMA CENTER.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gemma, Vincent A; Chapple, Kristina A; Goslar, Pamela W; Israr, Sharjeel; Petersen, Scott R; Weinberg, Jordan A

    2018-05-21

    Trauma centers reported illicit amphetamine use in approximately 10% of trauma admissions in the previous decade. From experience at a trauma center located in a southwestern metropolis, our perception is that illicit amphetamine use is on the rise, and that these patients utilize in-hospital resources beyond what would be expected for their injuries. The purpose of this study was to document the incidence of illicit amphetamine use among our trauma patients and to evaluate its impact on resource utilization. We conducted a retrospective cohort study using 7 consecutive years of data (starting July 2010) from our institution's trauma registry. Toxicology screenings were used to categorize patients into one of three groups: illicit amphetamine, other drugs, or drug free. Adjusted linear and logistic regression models were used to predict hospital cost, length of stay, ICU admission and ventilation between drug groups. Models were conducted with combined injury severity (ISS) and then repeated for ISS <9, ISS 9-15 and ISS 16 and above. 8,589 patients were categorized into the following three toxicology groups: 1255 (14.6%) illicit amphetamine, 2214 (25.8%) other drugs, and 5120 (59.6%) drug free. Illicit amphetamine use increased threefold over the course of the study (from 7.85% to 25.0% of annual trauma admissions). Adjusted linear models demonstrated that illicit amphetamine among patients with ISS<9 was associated with 4.6% increase in hospital cost (P=.019) and 7.4% increase in LOS (P=.043). Logistic models revealed significantly increased odds of ventilation across all ISS groups and increased odds of ICU admission when all ISS groups were combined (P=.001) and within the ISS<9 group (P=.002). Hospital resource utilization of amphetamine patients with minor injuries is significant. Trauma centers with similar epidemic growth in proportion of amphetamine patients face a potentially significant resource strain relative to other centers. Prognostic and

  13. Report on the Current Technical Issues on ASME Nuclear Code and Standard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koo, Gyeong Hoi; Lee, B. S.; Yoo, S. H.

    2008-11-01

    This report describes the analysis on the current revision movement related to the mechanical design issues of the U.S ASME nuclear code and standard. ASME nuclear mechanical design in this report is composed of the nuclear material, primary system, secondary system and high temperature reactor. This report includes the countermeasures based on the ASME Code meeting for current issues of each major field. KAMC(ASME Mirror Committee) of this project is willing to reflect a standpoint of the domestic nuclear industry on ASME nuclear mechanical design and play a technical bridge role for the domestic nuclear industry in ASME Codes application

  14. Reporting Multiple Individual Injuries in Studies of Team Ball Sports: A Systematic Review of Current Practice

    OpenAIRE

    Fortington, Lauren V; van der Worp, Henk; van den Akker-Scheek, Inge; Finch, Caroline F

    2017-01-01

    Background To identify and prioritise targets for injury prevention efforts, injury incidence studies are widely reported. The accuracy and consistency in calculation and reporting of injury incidence is crucial. Many individuals experience more than one injury but multiple injuries are not consistently reported in sport injury incidence studies. Objective The aim of this systematic review was to evaluate current practice of how multiple injuries within individuals have been defined and repor...

  15. Transactional Sex among Noninjecting Illicit Drug Users: Implications for HIV Transmission

    OpenAIRE

    Guimar?es, Rafael Alves; Rodovalho, Aur?lio Goulart; Fernandes, Inaina Lara; Silva, Graciele Cristina; de Felipe, Rodrigo Lopes; Vera, Iv?nia; Greg?rio, Val?ria Duarte; Lucchese, Roselma

    2016-01-01

    Noninjecting illicit drug users (NIDUs) present high risk for HIV infection, due especially to transactional sex. This study aimed to estimate the prevalence and risk factors for transactional sex among NIDUs in the Southwest region of Goi?s State, Central Brazil. The prevalence of self-reported transactional sex was 22.8%. Prevalence in women and men was 52.7% and 16.8%, respectively, a significant difference (p < 0.001). Crack use and history of sexually transmitted infections (STI) were ri...

  16. [Acting out and psychoactive substances: alcohol, drugs, illicit substances].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillet, C; Polard, E; Mauduit, N; Allain, H

    2001-01-01

    In humans, some psychotropic agents (alcohol, drugs, illicit substances) have been suggested to play a role in the occurrence of major behavioural disorders, mainly due to the suppression of psychomotor inhibition. Behavioural disinhibition is a physiological mechanism which allows humans to behave appropriately according to a given environmental situation. The behavioural disinhibition induced by either therapeutic dosage or misuse involves the loss of restraint over certain types of social behaviour and may increase the risk of auto or hetero-aggression and acting out. The increased use of psychotropic agents in recent years and the occurrence of unwanted effects are worrying and must be detected and evaluated. The objective of the present study was to establish a causal relationship between psychoactive substance use and occurrence of major behavioural disorders, such as paradoxical rage reactions and suicidal behaviour, based on a literature analysis. It consisted of reviewing reports of drug-induced violent reactions in healthy volunteers and demonstrating, where possible, a cause-effect relationship. Patients with schizophrenia and psychopathic personalities were not included in our study since psychiatric comorbidity could influence behavioural responses. Psychotropic agents included drugs, licit and illicit substances already associated with violence in the past. Many reports used the "Go/No Go test" to evaluate the disinhibiting effect of psychotropic substances; this allows the "cognitive mapping" of drugs. The results suggest that only alcohol, antidepressants, benzodiazepines and cocaïne are related to aggressive behaviour. The best known precipitant of behavioural disinhibition is alcohol, which induces aggressive behaviour. However, there are large differences between individuals, and attentional mechanisms are now recognised as being important in mediating the effects of alcohol. Suicidal tendency as an adverse antidepressant reaction is rare

  17. Legal framework and practice to prevent and detect illicit trafficking of nuclear and radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sembiring, D.

    2001-01-01

    . BAPETEN also established the Decree on the Guidance for Physical Protection of nuclear material under Chairman Decree of BAPETEN No. 02-P/1999 (adopted from IAEA document INFCIRC/225 Rev. 1), as the implementation of the Convention on Physical Protection of nuclear material signed in 1986 and ratified by Presidential Decree No. 49/86. The second component of the regulatory function is licensing. An organization or individual intending to utilized nuclear energy must obtain license from BAPETEN. Guidance for applicants is provided in the form of standard format, which contain license conditions. Any utilization of nuclear energy shall maintain physical protection program or security plans. When the applicants meet BAPETEN's criteria for physical protection of nuclear material and facility, a license is granted. By this licensing, BAPETEN is able to know where, by whom, and how the use of nuclear and radioactive materials is conducted. The third component of the regulatory function is inspection. To ensure that legal user's activities comply with BAPETEN regulation and the conditions of their licenses, BAPETEN periodically inspects BAPETEN-licensed facilities. Inspections can be announced or unannounced, and varies in scope and frequency according to the authorized activities. The finding of all inspection are documented in inspection reports. These reports are sent to the licensees to inform them of the BAPETEN findings. When inspections disclose violations of BAPETEN requirement, BAPETEN has a range of enforcement sanctions available. Recommendation stated in the inspection report requires the licensee to correct the problem, take steps to prevent a recurrence of the violation, and advise BAPETEN at the action it has taken. The result of inspection by BAPETEN is published periodically and open for public. Some illicit trafficking of nuclear and radioactive materials can be detected during inspections. This detection must lead to prompt information of BAPETEN in order to

  18. Young Risk Takers: Alcohol, Illicit Drugs, and Sexual Practices among a Sample of Music Festival Attendees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkinson, Rebecca; Bowring, Anna; Dietze, Paul; Hellard, Margaret; Lim, Megan S. C.

    2014-01-01

    Background. Alcohol and other drug use and sexual risk behaviour are increasing among young Australians, with associated preventable health outcomes such as sexually transmissible infections (STIs) on the rise. Methods. A cross-sectional study of young people's health behaviours conducted at a music festival in Melbourne, Australia, in 2011. Results. 1365 young people aged 16–29 completed the survey; 62% were female with a mean age of 20 years. The majority (94%, n = 1287) reported drinking alcohol during the previous 12 months; among those, 32% reported “binge” drinking (6+ drinks) at least weekly. Half (52%) reported ever using illicit drugs and 25% reported past month use. One-quarter (27%) were identified as being at risk of STIs through unprotected sex with new or casual partners during the previous 12 months. Multivariable analyses found that risky sexual behaviour was associated with younger age (≤19 years), younger age of sexual debut (≤15 years), having discussed sexual health/contraception with a doctor, regular binge drinking, and recent illicit drug use. Conclusion. Substance use correlated strongly with risky sexual behaviour. Further research should explore young people's knowledge of alcohol/drug-related impairment and associated risk-taking behaviours, and campaigns should encourage appropriate STI testing among music festival attendees. PMID:26316974

  19. Economic-Social Analysis of Global Illicit Drug Trade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salahedin Ghaderi

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Political unstability, less respect to the role of law, low life standards and suitable conditions for poppy/coca cultivation, have all affected on growing illicit drug international trafficking. Colombia is the center for global cocaine industry. Colombians had to use ship in the Carribean but now they pass Mexico where the costs are half of using ship. Mexican traffickers permit that the domestic poppy plants turned into herion, Colombian cocaine transited to USA and methamephtamine manufactured and distributed. Golden triangle in southeast Asia is one of the major regions for opium poppy cultivation. This region has seen many guerrilla warfare for selling illicit drugs especially in Myanmar. Manufactured hroin is usually dealt in Thailand. Golden Crescent region in southwest Asia has a suitable climate for opium poppy cultivation which provides necessay money for purchasing needed weapons by rival groups in northwestern border provinces of Afghanistan and Pakistan. Nigeria is one of the main centers for transporting heroin from Golden Crescent and cocaine from Brazil. Dominics run cocaine trade in New York and New England and Afro-American criminal organizations conduct heroin trading in big cities such as New york, Detroit, Chicago, Phila Delphia and Washington. Street trading of illicit drugs is mainly done by cultural or commanding gangs. Illicit drug traffickers apply many methods to laundering their profits including money exchange, smurfs, electronic transferring, and faced firms (the firms that are only registered.

  20. Illicit Financial Flows and Governance : The Importance of Disaggregation

    OpenAIRE

    Reuter, Peter

    2017-01-01

    After decades of billion dollar scandals around long-serving dictators removing vast fortunes from their impoverished nations, the broader phenomenon of which this is part has acquired a label: Illicit Financial Flows (IFFs). The term encompasses the international transfer of moneys generated by bribery, tax evasion and illegal markets. IFFs have been the object of much attention from high...

  1. Country Presentation on Illicit Trafficking of Nuclear Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mwandime, C.

    2010-01-01

    Assess the role of various agences in Kenya in fighting illicit traficking of nuclear materials. These includes the police, customs, National Council for Science and Technology, Radiation and Protection Board. Gives incidences of trafficking of various materials in Kenya and related activities like the 1998 terrorist attack of American Embassy in Nairobi and the Kikambala Tourist Hotel in Mombasa

  2. Young Women's Experiences of Resisting Invitations to Use Illicit Drugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koehn, Corinne V.; O'Neill, Linda K.

    2011-01-01

    Ten young women were interviewed regarding their experiences of resisting invitations to use illicit drugs. Hermeneutic phenomenology was used to gather and analyze information. One key theme was the motivations that inspired women to refuse drug offers. Young women resisted drug invitations because of their desires to be authentic, protect their…

  3. Illicit Drugs, Policing and the Evidence-Based Policy Paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritter, Alison; Lancaster, Kari

    2013-01-01

    The mantra of evidence-based policy (EBP) suggests that endeavours to implement evidence-based policing will produce better outcomes. However there is dissonance between the rhetoric of EBP and the actuality of policing policy. This disjuncture is critically analysed using the case study of illicit drugs policing. The dissonance may be ameliorated…

  4. Attributions for Abstinence from Illicit Drugs by University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, Harold; Baylen, Chelsea; Murray, Shanna; Phillips, Kristina; Tisak, Marie S.; Versland, Amelia; Pristas, Erica

    2008-01-01

    Aim: To assess college students' attributions for abstinence from alcohol and illicit drugs. Method: We recruited 125 undergraduates to rate the degree to which each of 41 listed reasons influenced their abstention from six specific substances (alcohol, MDMA/ecstasy, inhalants, cocaine, marijuana, and hallucinogens). Findings: Internal consistency…

  5. Illicit online marketing of lorcaserin before DEA scheduling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Bryan A; Mackey, Tim K; Archer-Hayes, Ashley N; Shinn, Linda M

    2013-05-01

    Antiobesity drugs have been marketed illicitly by "no prescription" online pharmacies after approval and scheduling by the drug enforcement agency. We assess whether antiobesity drug Belviq® (lorcaserin HCl) was available from illicit online vendors before DEA-scheduling when sales are unauthorized. Online searches of "buy Belviq no prescription" examining first five result pages marketing the drug. Searches were performed from 11/5/2012-12/8/2012, prior to DEA scheduing. Belviq® is actively marketed by "no prescription" online vendors despite official unavailability and prescription requirements. Approaches included direct-to-consumer advertising using descriptive website URLs; linking to illicit marketers; and directing customers to other weight-loss websites for additional marketing. Finally, large quantities were marketed by business-to-business vendors. Illicit online "no prescription" pharmacies are marketing unauthorized, suspect antiobesity drugs before DEA scheduling and permitted marketing. Regulators must legally intercede to ensure patient safety, and providers must educate patients about online-sourcing risks. Copyright © 2013 The Obesity Society.

  6. Health spending, illicit financial flows and tax incentives in Malawi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Health spending, illicit financial flows and tax incentives in Malawi. B O'Hare, M Curtis. Abstract. This analysis examines the gaps in health care financing in Malawi and how foregone taxes could fill these gaps. It begins with an assessment of the disease burden and government health expenditure. Then it analyses the tax ...

  7. Illicit drug use among adolescent students. A peer phenomenon?

    OpenAIRE

    Cousineau, D.; Savard, M.; Allard, D.

    1993-01-01

    Illicit drug use was studied in 2071 students 11 to 18 years of age. Almost all drug users had friends who consumed drugs, compared with only one third of those who did not use drugs. This suggests a bond between adolescent drug users, who form a distinct group of which most students are unaware.

  8. Occurrence of illicit drugs in water and wastewater and their removal during wastewater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Meena K; Short, Michael D; Aryal, Rupak; Gerber, Cobus; van den Akker, Ben; Saint, Christopher P

    2017-11-01

    This review critically evaluates the types and concentrations of key illicit drugs (cocaine, amphetamines, cannabinoids, opioids and their metabolites) found in wastewater, surface water and drinking water sources worldwide and what is known on the effectiveness of wastewater treatment in removing such compounds. It is also important to amass information on the trends in specific drug use as well as the sources of such compounds that enter the environment and we review current international knowledge on this. There are regional differences in the types and quantities of illicit drug consumption and this is reflected in the quantities detected in water. Generally, the levels of illicit drugs in wastewater effluents are lower than in raw influent, indicating that the majority of compounds can be at least partially removed by conventional treatment processes such as activated sludge or trickling filters. However, the literature also indicates that it is too simplistic to assume non-detection equates to drug removal and/or mitigation of associated risks, as there is evidence that some compounds may avoid detection via inadequate sampling and/or analysis protocols, or through conversion to transformation products. Partitioning of drugs from the water to the solids fraction (sludge/biosolids) may also simply shift the potential risk burden to a different environmental compartment and the review found no information on drug stability and persistence in biosolids. Generally speaking, activated sludge-type processes appear to offer better removal efficacy across a range of substances, but the lack of detail in many studies makes it difficult to comment on the most effective process configurations and operations. There is also a paucity of information on the removal effectiveness of alternative treatment processes. Research is also required on natural removal processes in both water and sediments that may over time facilitate further removal of these compounds in receiving

  9. Ongoing efforts to combat illicit trafficking in Tajikistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirsaidov, I.U.; Khamidov, F.; Makhmudov, M.

    2010-01-01

    Full text: Present article is devoted to ongoing efforts to combat illicit trafficking in Tajikistan. The radiation protection system created in our country is the instrument for prevention of nuclear and radiological terrorism but such parts of the radiation protection infrastructure as accounting and control of sources of ionizing radiation, physical security of sources, means for detection and analysis of orphan sources and public information which is useful and helpful to prevent the nuclear and radioactive materials against theft, important equipment against sabotage, to prevent illegal trafficking of such materials is not developed due to the fact that socio-economic conditions were affected by civil war (1992-1997). The Republic of Tajikistan just in 2001 became the member of IAEA and the established regulatory authority is functioning just four years. There are currently 4 Laws and 6 regulations are worked out for ensuring the radiation safety in Tajikistan and new regulations are under the process of development. Mainly radiation safety in Tajikistan is based on the Law on Radiation Safety (June, 2003) and on the Law on Utilization of Atomic Energy (November, 2004). Unfortunately in the Republic of Tajikistan because of limited national budget there are no any appropriate and accredited technical services. There is only one functioning laboratory (Republican Chemical and Radiometric Laboratory) which performs measurements and radiation measurement laboratory analysis of material. Metrological attestation of devices and sources of this laboratory was carried out by the laboratory of technique measuring KSAVO (Central Asian military division) but it was in 1992. After that period no metrological attestation was carried out. Some devices were delivered under IAEA project but it is not enough at all to cover the needs of the country. One of the most disturbing problems nowadays is terrorism with use of nuclear materials. Also terrorists are able to use so

  10. Incidents of illicit trafficking and other unauthorized activities involving nuclear and other radioactive materials (1993-2005)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    The confirmed incidents of illicit trafficking and other unauthorized activities involving nuclear and other radioactive materials between 1993-2005 shows that, 27% involved nuclear materials, 62% radioactive materials,7% involved both nuclear and other radioactive materials while the remainder involved other radioactive and non radioactive materials.Also 80% of nuclear material which was recovered during the same period was not reported as stolen or lost.

  11. Traces of evidence. Nuclear forensics and illicit trafficking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, L.

    2003-01-01

    An IAEA databank lists a number of reported cases of illicitly trafficked nuclear or other radioactive materials. Apart from the traditional concern with nuclear proliferation, the post September 11th public is now wary of a possible attack by terrorists with a nuclear or radiation dispersion device (RDD). Until now, the seized quantities have not been sufficient to manufacture a nuclear explosive device, but they might be enough to construct an RDD. Recognizing the latent global challenge to public health and safety, the G8 States (Japan, USA, Germany, France, UK, Italy, Canada, and Russia) have called for 'joint international efforts to identify and suppress illicit supply' of, and demand for, nuclear material and to deter potential traffickers. One measure gaining in significance is to identify seized material and trace it back to its origin the objective of an emerging science known as nuclear forensics. Repeatedly nuclear or other radioactive material of unknown origin are observed being released into the environment or illegally possessed. This follows from: accidents involving dispersed material; illegal dumping of nuclear scrap or waste; releases of traces from declared or clandestine activities; orphaned radioactive sources; diverted nuclear material; illicit trafficking of nuclear or other radioactive material. In investigating such incidents, questions arise regarding the intended use, the origin and, where applicable, the smuggling route of the detected material. For this purpose the Nuclear Smuggling International Technical Working Group developed a 'Model Action Plan' outlining a series of steps to be taken once material is found or seized. The IAEA and ITU jointly assisted Member States in its implementation and application through a demonstration exercise. As a result of training and technical upgrading, law enforcement services in those States are now able to establish to what extent seized nuclear material might constitute an occupational hazard

  12. Analysis of illicit drugs seized in the Province of Florence from 2006 to 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertol, Elisabetta; Bigagli, Laura; D'Errico, Stefano; Mari, Francesco; Palumbo, Diego; Pascali, Jennifer P; Vaiano, Fabio

    2018-03-01

    Comprehension of illicit drug market's features at local level is useful to plan and to correctly set-up specific informative and contrast activities. In this paper we report trends, purities and consumption estimations of illicit substances available on the Florentine territory from 2006 to 2016. These data were obtained by the analysis of 10,451 samples seized by the Law Enforcement Agencies in case of personal use offence. Analytical procedures consisted in targeted and untargeted analyses by gas chromatography-flame ionization detector, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The most detected substances were: cannabis (78.0%; resin: 51.7%; herb: 26.3%), cocaine (10.4%), opiates (6.6%; heroin: 6.5%; morphine: 0.1%), ketamine (1.4%), amphetamines (1.3%; 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine - MDMA -: 0.7%; methamphetamine: 0.6%; amphetamine: market, while THC content in cannabis seizures was unexpectedly below the European mean values. Starting from 2015, a total of 5 new psychoactive substances (NPS) were detected in seized material, mainly composed of white powders (pentedrone, 3-methylmethcathinone, 4-fluoroamphetamine, methoxethamine and AB-FUBINACA). Most of the seizures (75.5%) were from young male adults (14-34 years old). These data contribute to highlight new trends in the illicit drug market in the Tuscany area, but also to verify the persistence of old habits of drug consumption, confirming the need for more effective counteraction and prevention plans, especially among young people, where the diffusion of the legal highs is worrisome, also in consideration of the young age and the unconsciousness of the possible health effects. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Use and Abuse of Alcohol and Illicit Drugs in US Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swendsen, Joel; Burstein, Marcy; Case, Brady; Conway, Kevin P.; Dierker, Lisa; He, Jianping; Merikangas, Kathleen R.

    2013-01-01

    Context Comprehensive descriptions of substance use and abuse trajectories have been lacking in nationally representative samples of adolescents. Objective To examine the prevalence, age at onset, and sociodemographic correlates of alcohol and illicit drug use and abuse among US adolescents. Design Cross-sectional survey of adolescents using a modified version of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview. Setting Combined household and school adolescent samples. Participants Nationally representative sample of 10 123 adolescents aged 13 to 18 years. Main Outcome Measures Lifetime estimates of alcohol and illicit substance use and DSM-IV diagnoses of abuse, with or without dependence. Results By late adolescence, 78.2% of US adolescents had consumed alcohol, 47.1% had reached regular drinking levels defined by at least 12 drinks within a given year, and 15.1% met criteria for lifetime abuse. The opportunity to use illicit drugs was reported by 81.4% of the oldest adolescents, drug use by 42.5%, and drug abuse by 16.4%. The median age at onset was 14 years for alcohol abuse with or without dependence, 14 years for drug abuse with dependence, and 15 years for drug abuse without dependence. The associations observed by age, sex, and race/ ethnicity often varied significantly by previous stage of use. Conclusions Alcohol and drug use is common in US adolescents, and the findings of this study indicate that most cases of abuse have their initial onset in this important period of development. Prevention and treatment efforts would benefit from careful attention to the correlates and risk factors that are specific to the stage of substance use in adolescents. PMID:22474107

  14. Non-natural manners of death among users of illicit drugs: Substance findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaveris, Gerd Jorunn M; Teige, Brita; Rogde, Sidsel

    2014-05-01

    The aim of the study was to explore differences and similarities between the various non-natural manners of death (accident, suicide, homicide) regarding toxicological findings in illicit drug users. Medicolegal autopsy reports from the Institute of Forensic Medicine University of Oslo concerning deaths from 2000 to 2009 were investigated. Those aged 20-59 whose manner of death was non-natural and who tested positive for any narcotic drug (morphine/heroin, amphetamines, ecstasy, cannabis, LSD, PCP, and high levels of GHB in addition to methadone and buprenorphine) were selected. All substance findings were registered and categorized (narcotics, ethanol, and medicinal products). Of the 1603 autopsies that met the selection criteria, 1204 were accidental intoxications, 122 accidents other than intoxication, 114 suicides by intoxication, 119 non-intoxication suicides, and 44 victims of homicide. Poly drug use was found in all manners of death. The drug profile as well as the mean number of substances (illicit drugs and medicinal products) varied from 2.9 to 4.6 substances per case, depending on the manner of death. Intoxication suicides had the highest number of substances and a total drug profile similar to accidental intoxications. Non-intoxication suicides had a total drug profile similar to homicide and accidents other than intoxication. The number of substances found per case increased during the decade, mainly due to increased findings of methadone, cannabis, amphetamines, and benzodiazepines. Methadone findings increased much more than buprenorphine. Methadone was found 20 times more often than buprenorphine in accidental intoxication cases. In summary, poly drug findings are common in adults who suffer a non-natural death while using illicit drugs. The different manners of death have some specific characteristics and significant differences regarding drug profile. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Filling in the blanks. An estimation of illicit cannabis growers' profits in Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanhove, Wouter; Surmont, Tim; Van Damme, Patrick; De Ruyver, Brice

    2014-05-01

    As a result of increased pressure on cannabis cultivation in The Netherlands, the number of confiscated indoor cannabis plantations in Belgium is rising. Although increases are reported for all plantations sizes, half of the seized plantations contain less than 50 plants. In this study, factors and variables that influence costs and benefits of indoor cannabis cultivation are investigated as well as how these costs and benefits vary between different cannabis grower types. Real-situation data of four growers were used to perform financial analyses. Costs included fixed and variable material costs, as well as opportunity costs. Gross revenue per grow cycle was calculated based on most recent forensic findings for illicit Belgian cannabis plantations and was adjusted for the risk of getting caught. Finally, gross revenues and return on costs (ROC) were calculated over 1 year (4 cycles). Financial analysis shows that in all cases gross revenues as well as ROC are considerable, even after a single growth cycle. Highest profitability was found for large-scale (600 plants, ROC=6.8) and mid-scale plantations (150 plants, ROC=6.0). However, industrial plantations (23,000 plants, ROC=1.4) and micro-scale plantations (5 plants, ROC=2.8) are also highly remunerative. Shift of police focus away from micro-scale growers, least likely to be involved in criminal gangs, to large-scale and industrial scale plantations would influence costs as a result of changing risks of getting caught. However, sensitivity analysis shows that this does not significantly influence the conclusions on profitability of different types of indoor cannabis growers. Seizure and confiscation of profits are important elements in the integral and integrated policy approach required for tackling illicit indoor cannabis plantations. The large return of costs evidenced in the present study, underpin the policy relevance of confiscating those illicit profits as part of enforcement. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B

  16. Gender discrimination, educational attainment, and illicit drug use among U.S. women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carliner, Hannah; Sarvet, Aaron L; Gordon, Allegra R; Hasin, Deborah S

    2017-03-01

    While gender inequality has been a topic of concern for decades, little is known about the relationship between gender discrimination and illicit drug use. Further, whether this association varies by education level is unknown. Among 19,209 women participants in Wave 2 of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (2004-2005), we used logistic regression to test the association between gender discrimination (measured with four items from the Experiences of Discrimination instrument) and three outcomes: past-year illicit drug use, frequent drug use, and drug use disorders. We then tested whether associations differed by education level. Gender discrimination was reported by 9% of women and was associated with past-year drug use [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 2.67; 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.17-3.29], frequent drug use (aOR = 2.82; CI 1.99-4.00), and past-year drug use disorders (aOR = 3.15; CI 2.16-4.61). All specific domains of gender discrimination (on the job, in public, with institutions, being called a sexist name) were associated with all drug use outcomes. The association between gender discrimination and past-year drug use was stronger among women with less than a high school education (aOR = 6.33; CI 3.38-11.85) compared to those with more education (aOR = 2.45; CI 1.97-3.04; p interaction  Gender discrimination is consistently and strongly associated with illicit drug use and drug use disorders among U.S. women, with significantly higher odds for drug use among women with less than a high school education. Future research should examine whether explicitly addressing distress from discrimination could benefit women in drug treatment, especially among clients with lower educational attainment.

  17. Prevalence and associated factors of illicit drug use among university students in the association of southeast Asian nations (ASEAN).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Siyan; Peltzer, Karl; Pengpid, Supa; Susilowati, Indri Hapsari

    2017-04-06

    Illicit drug use among university students has been recognized as a global public health issue in recent years. It may lead to poor academic performance that in turn leads to poor productivity in their later life. This study explores prevalence of and factors associated with illicit drug use among university students in the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN). This multi-country cross-sectional study was conducted in 2015 in Cambodia, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, the Philippines, Singapore, Thailand and Vietnam. A multi-stage cluster sampling was used to select undergraduate students from one or two universities in each country for self-administered questionnaire survey. Multivariate logistic regression analyses was performed to explore risk factors related to illicit drug use. Participants included 7,923 students with a mean age of 20.6 years (SD = 2.8), ranging from 18-30 years. The overall prevalence of frequent (≥10 times), infrequent (1-9 times) and ever (at least once) illicit drug use in the past 12 months was 2.2, 14.7, and 16.9%, respectively. After adjustment, male students were significantly less likely to be infrequent (1-9 times vs. never), but significantly more likely to be ever users compared to females. Compared to those living with parents/guardians, students living away from parents/guardians were significantly less likely to be frequent (≥10 times vs. never) and infrequent users. Students from lower-middle-income countries were significantly more likely to be frequent and infrequent users, but significantly less likely to be ever users compared to those from upper-middle or high-income countries. Students with poor subjective health status were significantly more likely to be frequent users compared to those who reported good subjective health status. Students who reported binge drinking in the past month were significantly more likely to be infrequent users, but significantly less likely to be ever users. Our

  18. Live Reporting in a News / Current Affairs TV Show as a Factor of (Non Credibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tena Perišin

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Only a perfunctory glance at the content of current aff airs/news programs makes it clear that in just a few years time, live reporting on Croatian TV news shows has increased dramatically. Technologicaladvancements, the equipping of TV stations with mobile satellite vans, and the pressure of competition have all resulted in increased instances of live reporting. When investigating news values, pictureand sound, as well as the possibility of immediate, timely reporting represent the key characteristics of TV journalism. In this context, live reports, as part of a news segment, should add to the authenticity and credibility of the program. Currently, however, TV broadcasting houses attempt to best one another in the number of live broadcasts as a means to purport a higher quality of their program. The direct address to the camera turns a reporter from an anonymous bearer of information into the “main star”. The figures accumulated on the extent of this form used in a news show do not determine the professional level of the editorial policy. Live reporting cannot be regarded as news value if other news values are neglected in the process. Recent research shows that live reports, in most cases, have been stripped of the initial notion of reporting on important and recent events. As such, they are becoming less of a justifi ed element in the creation of news.

  19. Illicit drugs in alternative biological specimens: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margalho, Cláudia; Franco, João; Corte-Real, Francisco; Vieira, Duarte Nuno

    2011-04-01

    Postmortem tissues (e.g. liver, kidney) have been long used in forensic applications especially in those cases where blood is unavailable. The aim of this paper is to demonstrate the importance of the information provided to the forensic toxicologist at the time of carrying out the toxicological analysis, especially in cases where the samples commonly used in forensic toxicology are unavailable. This work describes the toxicological findings in a violent death resulting from a man who was hit by a train. Vitreous humor, liver and kidney were sent for toxicological analysis, once it was not possible to obtain blood and urine. The validated procedures used in the routine casework of Forensic Toxicology Laboratory of the Centre Branch of the National Institute of Legal Medicine, were applied in the analysis of liver, kidney and vitreous humor, using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry after solid-phase extraction and gas chromatography-flame ionization detector for the analysis of drugs of abuse and ethanol, respectively. Morphine, codeine, cocaine, benzoylecgonine and ecgonine methyl ester were found in the liver and in the kidney and no ethanol was found in the vitreous humor. The method validation included the study of specificity, selectivity, limits of detection, recovery and carryover. Although blood and urine are the most common and preferred matrices used for toxicological studies involving drugs of abuse, sometimes the choice of specimen is determined by the case under investigation. The forensic pathologist must be aware that relevant information must be provided so that the toxicological analysis can be conducted in accordance with case history, particularly when the only samples available for analysis are these "unconventional" specimens, since the interpretation of the obtained results is more difficult. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  20. Alternative methods for skin irritation testing: the current status : ECVAM skin irritation task force report 1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Botham, P.A.; Earl, L.K.; Fentem, J.H.; Roguet, R.; Sandt, J.J.M.

    1998-01-01

    The ECVAM Skin Irritation Task Force was established in November 1996, primarily to prepare a report on the current status of the development and validation of alternative tests for skin irritation and corrosion and, in particular, to identify any appropriate non-animal tests for predicting human

  1. 78 FR 32226 - Poultry Market News Reports; Request for Extension and Revision of the Currently Approved...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-29

    ... Service [Doc. No. AMS-LPS-13-0021] Poultry Market News Reports; Request for Extension and Revision of the Currently Approved Information Collection and To Merge the Collections of Livestock, Poultry, Meat, Grain... merged its Livestock and Grain Market News Division with the Poultry Market News Division, creating the...

  2. Women and Men in the United States: March 2002. Population Characteristics. Current Population Reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spraggins, Renee E.

    This report compares the status of women and men on such measures as age, marital status, educational attainment, occupation, income, and poverty status. Findings are based on data collected by the Census Bureau in the Annual Demographic Supplement to the March 2002 Current Population Survey. Overall, women slightly outnumber men in the total…

  3. Educational Attainment in the United States: 2009. Population Characteristics. Current Population Reports. P20-566

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Camille L.; Siebens, Julie

    2012-01-01

    This report provides a portrait of educational attainment in the United States based on data collected in the 2009 American Community Survey (ACS) and the 2005-2009 ACS 5-year estimates. It also uses data from the Annual Social and Economic Supplement (ASEC) to the Current Population Survey (CPS) collected in 2009 and earlier, as well as monthly…

  4. America's Families and Living Arrangements: 2003. Population Characteristics. Current Population Reports. P20-553

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fields, Jason

    2004-01-01

    The data in this report is from the Annual Social and Economic Supplement (ASEC) to the 2003 Current Population Survey (CPS). The population represented (the population universe) in the ASEC is the civilian non institutionalized population living in the United States. Members of the Armed Forces living off post or with their families on post are…

  5. Educational Attainment in the United States: 2003. Population Characteristics. Current Population Reports. P20-550

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoops, Nicole

    2004-01-01

    This report provides information on basic educational trends and attainment levels across many segments of the population. The findings are based on data collected in the 2003 Annual Social and Economic Supplement (ASEC) to the Current Population Survey (CPS) and refer to the population 25 years and over unless otherwise specified. The population…

  6. Externe verslaggeving How do current public Integrated Reports align with the IR Framework?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hurks, P.; Langendijk, H.P.A.J.; Nandram, K.

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines empirically the current practice with regard to integrated reporting according to the IR Framework among the 104 original participants (companies) of the IIRC Pilot program. We made a selection with respect to these 104 participants based on organization’s stipulation that they

  7. Farm Population of the United States: 1972. Current Population Reports: Farm Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bureau of the Census (DOC), Suitland, MD. Population Div.

    Based on data derived from the Current Population Survey of the Bureau of Census, this statistical report presents demographic and labor force characteristics of the U.S. farm population and comparisons of the farm and nonfarm populations. Tabular data are presented as follows: (1) U.S. Population, Total and Farm: April 1960 to 1972; (2) Persons…

  8. Farm Population of the United States: 1974. Current Population Reports, Farm Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, Vera J.; And Others

    Based on data derived primarily from the Current Population Survey of the Bureau of the Census, this statistical report presents demographic and labor force characteristics of the U.S. farm population and a comparison of selected characteristics of the farm and nonfarm population. Tabular data are presented as follows: (1) Population of the U.S.,…

  9. Farm Population of the United States: 1971. Current Population Reports: Farm Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bureau of the Census (DOC), Suitland, MD. Population Div.

    Based on data derived from the Current Population Survey of the Bureau of the Census, this statistical report presents demographic and labor force characteristics of the U.S. farm population and comparisons of the farm and nonfarm populations. Tabular data are presented as follows: (1) U.S. Population, Total and Farm: April 1960 and 1971; (2)…

  10. Water quality in coastal wetlands: illicit drugs in surface waters of L'Albufera Natural Park (Valencia, Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vazquez-Roig, P.; Blasco, C.; Andreu, V.; Pascual, J. A.; Rubio, J. L.; Picó, Y.

    2010-05-01

    A wide range of emerging pollutants have been identified in environment: antibiotics, hormones, personal care products, etc. But quite recently a new class of ecological threat has been reported: the presence in waters of abuse drugs coming from human consumption [1,2]. Treatment of wastewaters may remove a portion of these compounds, but sometimes, these treatments are insufficient or nonexistent, residues can reach into the aquatic environment. ĹAlbufera Natural Park (Valencia, Spain) is a marsh area of a great interest because it is the habitat of a large quantity of unique species of flora and fauna, and a zone of refuge, feeding and breeding for a large number of migratory birds. However, this area is threatened by urban, industrial and agricultural pressures. The aim of this work has been to develop a fast and sensitive multi-residue analytical method for to establish the occurrence and distribution of commonly consumed illicit drugs in surface waters of ĹAlbufera lake. A representative set of abuse drugs with different mode of action was chosen for this purpose, including: amphetaminics, opiates, cocainics and cannabinoids (THC and nor-9-carboxy-THC). In April 2008 and October 2008 a total of 16 samples of water were collected, corresponding to different sampling points previously designed, and covering the most important channels that flow in to the lake. Samples of 250 mL of water were concentrated by Solid Phase Extraction through an Oasis HLB cartridge and extracted subsequently with methanol as solvent. Quantification was carried out by LC-MS/MS with an ESI interface. Performance characteristics of the PLE-SPE followed by LC-MS/MS were established by validation procedure. Selectivity, linearity, precision, recoveries and limits of detection (LOD) and quantification (LOQ) were studied. Our search shows that current sewage treatment systems do not completely remove illicit drug residues from urban wastewater. Benzoylecgonine, the main metabolite from

  11. Development of international standards for instrumentation used for detection of illicit trafficking of radioactive material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voytchev, M. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire (IRSN/DSU/SERAC/CTHIR), 91 - Gif sur Yvette (France); Chiaro, P. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Radev, R. [LLNL, Livermore, CA (United States)

    2006-07-01

    Subcommittee 45 B 'Radiation Protection Instrumentation' of the International Electrotechnical Commission (I.E.C.) is charged with the development of international standards for instrumentation used for monitoring of illicit trafficking of radioactive material through international boarders and territories, as well as inside countries. Currently three I.E.C. standards are in advanced stages of development. They are expected to be approved and published in 2006-2007. The international participation and the main characteristics of the following three standards are discussed and presented: I.E.C. 62327 'Hand-held Instruments for the Detection and Identification of Radionuclides and Additionally for the Indication of Ambient Dose Equivalent Rate from Photon Radiation', I.E.C. 62401 'Alarming Personal Radiation Devices for Detection of Illicit Trafficking of Radioactive Material' and I.E.C. 62244 'Installed Radiation Monitors for the Detection of Radioactive and Special Nuclear Materials at National Borders'.

  12. Drug decriminalization and the price of illicit drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Félix, Sónia; Portugal, Pedro

    2017-01-01

    This study is an empirical assessment of the impact of the drug decriminalization policy followed by Portugal in July 2001, on the price of illicit drugs. The analysis is performed using a difference-in-differences approach and the Synthetic Control Method in order to construct a synthetic control unit from a convex combination of countries. The results suggest that the prices of opiates and cocaine in the post-treatment period did not decrease in the sequence of the policy change. We conclude that the drug decriminalization policy seems to have caused no harm through lower illicit drugs prices, which would lead to higher drug usage and dependence. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. International Technical Working Group Cooperation to Counter Illicit Nuclear Trafficking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, D K; Niemeyer, S

    2004-01-01

    The Nuclear Smuggling International Technical Working Group (ITWG) is an international body of nuclear forensic experts that cooperate to deter the illicit trafficking of nuclear materials. The objective of the ITWG is to provide a common approach and effective technical solutions to governments who request assistance in nuclear forensics. The ITWG was chartered in 1996 and since that time more than 28 nations and organizations have participated in 9 international meetings and 2 analytical round-robin trials. Soon after its founding the ITWG adopted a general framework to guide nuclear forensics investigations that includes recommendations for nuclear crime scene security and analysis, the best application of radioanalytical methods, the conduct of traditional forensic analysis of contaminated materials, and effective data analysis to interpret the history of seized nuclear materials. This approach has been adopted by many nations as they respond to incidents of illicit nuclear trafficking

  14. The preventing of illicit trafficking of radioactive materials in Estonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velbri, T.; Aasmann, L.

    1998-01-01

    This paper explains the situation of legislation, practical border-control and equipment of different relevant authorities dealing with the control of radioactive materials in Estonia. The overview of legislation concerning radiation and radiation protection is given. The roles of Estonian Customs Authority, Estonian border Guard, National Rescue Board and Police Authority in the preventing of illicit trafficking of radioactive materials are shown. The incidents of illicit trafficking of radioactive materials are listed. Also the most important border-crossing points and the types of equipment used there are shown. Finally the problems of controlling the borders in Estonia and the future plans in order to make the controlling system more efficient are discussed. (author)

  15. Externalizing behaviors and cigarette smoking as predictors for use of illicit drugs: a longitudinal study among Finnish adolescent twins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korhonen, Tellervo; Levälahti, Esko; Dick, Danielle M; Pulkkinen, Lea; Rose, Richard J; Kaprio, Jaakko; Huizink, Anja C

    2010-12-01

    We examined whether externalizing problem behaviors (hyperactivity-impulsivity, aggressiveness, and inattention) predict illicit drug use independently, or whether their associations with drug use are mediated through cigarette smoking. We used a prospective longitudinal design within the FinnTwin12-17 study among Finnish adolescents with baseline at age 12 and follow-up surveys at ages 14 and 17. Path models were conducted with Mplus and included 1992 boys and 2123 girls. The outcome was self-reported ever use of cannabis or other illicit drugs at age 17. The predictors were: externalizing behaviors (hyperactivity-impulsivity, aggressiveness, and inattention) assessed by teachers and parents (age 12) and self-reported cigarette smoking (age 14). The findings differed across behavior studied. The association of hyperactivity-impulsivity with drug use was mostly mediated through earlier cigarette smoking. Concerning aggressiveness and inattention, the results were different among girls than boys. Among girls no significant mediation occurred, whereas among boys more consistent evidence on mediation was seen. Consistently in all models, the direct association of early cigarette smoking on drug use was strong and highly significant. We conclude that the associations of externalizing problem behaviors with illicit drug use are partially mediated through cigarette smoking. Although interventions targeting externalizing problem behaviors may protect adolescents from early onset smoking and subsequently experimenting with drugs, interventions to prevent cigarette smoking initiation are also important in reducing risk of later drug use.

  16. ILLICIT DOPAMINE TRANSIENTS: RECONCILING ACTIONS OF ABUSED DRUGS

    OpenAIRE

    Covey, Dan P.; Roitman, Mitchell F.; Garris, Paul A.

    2014-01-01

    Phasic increases in brain dopamine are required for cue-directed reward seeking. While compelling within the framework of appetitive behavior, the view that illicit drugs hijack reward circuits by hyper-activating these dopamine transients is inconsistent with established psychostimulant pharmacology. However, recent work reclassifying amphetamine (AMPH), cocaine, and other addictive dopamine-transporter inhibitors (DAT-Is) supports transient hyper-activation as a unifying hypothesis of abuse...

  17. Illicit networks targeting the nexus between terrorists, proliferators, and narcotraffickers

    OpenAIRE

    Dietz, Rebekah K.

    2010-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited Globalization and the liberal international marketplace have provided fertile ground for the rise of transnational and non-state actors. Unfortunately, while states and businesses have profited from the increased fluidity of borders and the rise of global commerce, so have the criminal organizations that threaten national and international security. These illicit networks are stateless; they conduct their business in failed or failing ...

  18. Implementing the illicit financial flows agenda: Perspectives from developing countries

    OpenAIRE

    Fontana, Alessandra; Hansen-Shino, Kjetil

    2012-01-01

    While once considered solely a concern of law enforcement agencies; money laundering, tax evasion and secrecy jurisdictions are now perceived as important obstacles to development. Dealing with illicit financial flows is an important aspect of the policy coherence agenda in international development, and developed country governments have made international commitments to tackle the problem Reforms and actions are necessary both in developed and developing countries, and this Brief looks at t...

  19. Economic-Social Analysis of Global Illicit Drug Trade

    OpenAIRE

    Salahedin Ghaderi

    2003-01-01

    Political unstability, less respect to the role of law, low life standards and suitable conditions for poppy/coca cultivation, have all affected on growing illicit drug international trafficking. Colombia is the center for global cocaine industry. Colombians had to use ship in the Carribean but now they pass Mexico where the costs are half of using ship. Mexican traffickers permit that the domestic poppy plants turned into herion, Colombian cocaine transited to USA and methamephtamine manufac...

  20. Binge drinking and illicit drug use among adolescent students

    OpenAIRE

    Jakelline Cipriano dos Santos Raposo; Ana Carolina de Queiroz Costa; Paula Andréa de Melo Valença; Patrícia Maria Zarzar; Alcides da Silva Diniz; Viviane Colares; Carolina da Franca

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To estimate the prevalence of illicit drug use and its association with binge drinking and sociodemographic factors among adolescent students. METHODS This is a cross-sectional study with probabilistic conglomerate sampling, involving 1,154 students, aged 13 to 19 years old, from the public school system, in the city of Olinda, State of Pernambuco, Brazil, carried out in 2014. We used the Youth Risk Behavior Survey questionnaire, validated for use with Brazilian adolesc...

  1. Identification of illicit drugs by using SOM neural networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liang Meiyan; Shen Jingling; Wang Guangqin [Beijing Key Lab for Terahertz Spectroscopy and Imaging, Key Laboratory of Terahertz Optoelectronics, Ministry of Education, Department of Physics, Capital Normal University, Beijing 100037 (China)], E-mail: liangyan661982@163.com, E-mail: jinglingshen@gmail.com, E-mail: pywgq2004@163.com

    2008-07-07

    Absorption spectra of six illicit drugs were measured by using the terahertz time-domain spectroscopy technique in the range 0.2-2.6 THz and then clustered with self-organization feature map (SOM) artificial neural network. After the network training process, the spectra collected at another time were identified successfully by the well-trained SOM network. An effective distance was introduced as a quantitative criterion to decide which cluster the new spectra were affiliated with.

  2. Measures to Prevent Financial Fraud and Legalization of Illicit Funds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunitska Iryna I.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The problems of preventing financial fraud and legalization of funds using mechanisms of the financial market are considered. The relevance of this problem in general and peculiar features of its research in developing economies are substantiated. The experience of organizations created to prevent the legalization of illicit funds is studied. It is determined that new organizations are created in response to the global challenges. It is justified that in Ukraine the fight against the legalization of illicit funds has actualized due to a lack of financial resources in the country, declaration of course towards European values and also as a result of the military conflict in the east of the country. The risk factors for financial fraud and illegal movement of financial flows are systematized according to the groups of conditions: pressure, favorable situation, propensity (justification. It is determined which levels of risk of generating illegal financial flows are inherent in different sectors of the economy depending on institutional factors. It is argued that the increase in the risks of illegal financial flows occurs under conditions of a low level of maturity of the institutional environment and a high level of information asymmetry. Types and tools of fraud in the financial market that increase the risks of illegal financial flows are systematized. It is determined that main types of fraud in the financial market are related to information manipulations and regulatory deficiencies. The world experience of legislative initiatives on counteracting the legalization of funds in financial markets is systematized. It is justified that, in order to prevent financial fraud and prevent legalization of illicit funds in Ukraine, it is necessary to ensure maximum transparency of information on the movement of financial flows in financial markets. In addition, regulators of the financial market should not only cooperate with each other but also prevent

  3. Mirage: Mitigating Illicit Inventorying in a RFID Enabled Retail Environment

    OpenAIRE

    White, Jonathan; Banerjee, Nilanjan

    2010-01-01

    Given its low dollar and maintenance cost, RFID is poised to become the enabling technology for inventory control and supply chain management. However, as an outcome of its low cost, RFID based inventory control is susceptible to pernicious security and privacy threats. A deleterious attack on such a system is corporate espionage, where attackers through illicit inventorying infer sales and restocking trends for products. In this paper, we first present plausible aftermaths of corporate espio...

  4. Identification of illicit drugs by using SOM neural networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang Meiyan; Shen Jingling; Wang Guangqin

    2008-01-01

    Absorption spectra of six illicit drugs were measured by using the terahertz time-domain spectroscopy technique in the range 0.2-2.6 THz and then clustered with self-organization feature map (SOM) artificial neural network. After the network training process, the spectra collected at another time were identified successfully by the well-trained SOM network. An effective distance was introduced as a quantitative criterion to decide which cluster the new spectra were affiliated with

  5. Postmortem diagnosis and toxicological validation of illicit substance use

    OpenAIRE

    Lehrmann, E; Afanador, ZR; Deep-Soboslay, A; Gallegos, G; Darwin, WD; Lowe, RH; Barnes, AJ; Huestis, MA; Cadet, JL; Herman, MM; Hyde, TM; Kleinman, JE; Freed, WJ

    2008-01-01

    The present study examines the diagnostic challenges of identifying ante-mortem illicit substance use in human postmortem cases. Substance use, assessed by clinical case history reviews, structured next-of-kin interviews, by general toxicology of blood, urine, and/or brain, and by scalp hair testing, identified 33 cocaine, 29 cannabis, 10 phencyclidine and 9 opioid cases. Case history identified 42% cocaine, 76% cannabis, 10% phencyclidine, and 33% opioid cases. Next-of-kin interviews identif...

  6. Exploring drug-target interaction networks of illicit drugs

    OpenAIRE

    Atreya, Ravi V; Sun, Jingchun; Zhao, Zhongming

    2013-01-01

    Background Drug addiction is a complex and chronic mental disease, which places a large burden on the American healthcare system due to its negative effects on patients and their families. Recently, network pharmacology is emerging as a promising approach to drug discovery by integrating network biology and polypharmacology, allowing for a deeper understanding of molecular mechanisms of drug actions at the systems level. This study seeks to apply this approach for investigation of illicit dru...

  7. Detecting alcohol and illicit drugs in oral fluid samples collected from truck drivers in the state of São Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yonamine, Mauricio; Sanches, Livia Rentas; Paranhos, Beatriz Aparecida Passos Bismara; de Almeida, Rafael Menck; Andreuccetti, Gabriel; Leyton, Vilma

    2013-01-01

    Alcohol and drug use by truck drivers is a current problem in Brazil. Though there is evidence that alcohol consumption is occurring in higher proportions, the use of stimulant drugs to avoid fatigue and to maintain the work schedule has also been reported. The purpose of this study was to estimate the incidence of alcohol and illicit drug use among truck drivers on São Paulo state roads. São Paulo is the most populous state in Brazil and has the largest industrial park and economic production in the country. Data were assessed not only using a questionnaire but also, and more reliably, through toxicological analysis of oral fluid samples. Between the years 2002 and 2008, 1250 oral fluid samples were collected from truck drivers on the roads during morning hours. The samples were tested for the presence of alcohol, cocaine, tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), and amphetamine/methamphetamine. A previously published, validated gas chromatographic (gas chromatography-flame ionization detection and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry) method was applied to the samples for alcohol and drug detection. Of the total analyzed samples, 3.1 percent (n = 39) were positive: 1.44 percent (n = 18) were positive for alcohol, 0.64 percent (n = 8) for amphetamines, 0.56 percent (n = 7) for cocaine, and 0.40 percent (n = 5) for THC. In one case, cocaine and THC were detected. The results are indicative of the extent of alcohol and drug use by truck drivers in the state of São Paulo, Brazil. This research provides evidence that not only alcohol but also illicit drug use is a real problem among professional drivers. The use of these substances should be controlled to better promote safe driving conditions on Brazilian roads.

  8. Misuse of prescription and illicit drugs among high-risk young adults in Los Angeles and New York

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen E. Lankenau

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Background. Prescription drug misuse among young adults is increasingly viewed as a public health concern, yet most research has focused on student populations and excluded high-risk groups. Furthermore, research on populations who report recent prescription drug misuse is limited. This study examined patterns of prescription drug misuse among high-risk young adults in Los Angeles (LA and New York (NY, which represent different local markets for illicit and prescription drugs. Design and Methods. Between 2009 and 2011, 596 young adults (16 to 25 years old who had misused prescription drugs within the past 90 days were interviewed in Los Angeles and New York. Sampling was stratified to enroll three groups of high-risk young adults: injection drug users (IDUs; homeless persons; and polydrug users. Results. In both sites, lifetime history of receiving a prescription for an opioid, tranquilizer, or stimulant was high and commonly preceded misuse. Moreover, initiation of opioids occurred before heroin and initiation of prescription stimulants happened prior to illicit stimulants. NY participants more frequently misused oxycodone, heroin, and cocaine, and LA participants more frequently misused codeine, marijuana, and methamphetamine. Combining prescription and illicit drugs during drug using events was commonly reported in both sites. Opioids and tranquilizers were used as substitutes for other drugs, e.g., heroin, when these drugs were not available. Conclusion. Patterns of drug use among high-risk young adults in Los Angeles and New York appear to be linked to differences in local markets in each city for illicit drugs and diverted prescription drugs.

  9. Licit and illicit drugs: a group approach with teenagers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah Amaral Donnini

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This work is an extension intervention arising from the results of an epidemiological cross-sectional study with 605 teenagers from 13 to 16 years old. The extension actions had as a method the group educational practice on licit and illicit drugs, with 2.012 teenagers from 22 municipal and state public schools of the urban region of Divinópolis, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil, from March 2015 to February 2016. It aimed to work with group educational practices on licit and illicit drugs in the school environment with teenagers. The extension and research allowed us to understand the context in which adolescents were inserted through the communication kept with them and among them; to know the level of information the teenagers had about licit and illicit drugs; to provide new knowledges, attitudes and opportunities in the recreation of an own way of selfcare. It was stressed that education is an important tool for health promotion and prevention of risks and hazards, as well as plays a key role in the formation of the proactive subject.

  10. Establishing capabilities for combating illicit trafficking: the Syrian experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Othman, I.; Suman, H.

    2008-01-01

    Since the late 80 's, Syria has been taking steps towards combating illicit trafficking or inadvertent movement involving radioactive or nuclear material within the country or across its border. By applying the proper combination of technical and procedural measures, an acceptable level of performance has been achieved. The measures undertaken by AECS include anticipative measures, which aim at identifying potential loss of control over radioactive sources and potential illicit trafficking within the country, as well as defensive measures which aim at detection of and response to events of illicit trafficking. In addition, a tight follow up of radiation source along their entire lifetime in the Syrian territory, supported by proper data analysis is one of the most efficient tools for identifying potential loss of control over sources. AECS has established Border Monitoring Centers (BMC) in almost all border crossings. They work in close cooperation with the customs and other relevant authorities at the Syrian borders. AECS has been also providing the necessary training for the front-line officers. (author)

  11. Establishing capabilities for combating illicit trafficking: the Syrian experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Othman, I.; Suman, H.

    2008-01-01

    Since the late 80's, Syria has been taking steps towards combating illicit trafficking or inadvertent movement involving radioactive or nuclear material within the country or across its border. By applying the proper combination of technical and procedural measures, an acceptable level of performance has been achieved. The measures undertaken by AECS include anticipative measures, which aim at identifying potential loss of control over radioactive sources and potential illicit trafficking within the country, as well as defensive measures which aim at detection of and response to events of illicit trafficking. In addition, a tight follow up of radiation source along their entire lifetime in the Syrian territory, supported by proper data analysis is one of the most efficient tools for identifying potential loss of control over sources. AECS has established Border Monitoring Centers (BMC) in almost all border crossings. They work in close cooperation with the customs and other relevant authorities at the Syrian borders. AECS has been also providing the necessary training for the frontline officers. (author)

  12. Prescription Drug Diversion: Predictors of Illicit Acquisition and Redistribution in Three U.S. Metropolitan Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shana Harris

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Prescription drug diversion, the transfer of prescription drugs from lawful to unlawful channels for distribution or use, is a problem in the United States. Despite the pervasiveness of diversion, there are gaps in the literature regarding characteristics of individuals who participate in the illicit trade of prescription drugs. This study examines a range of predictors (e.g., demographics, prescription insurance coverage, perceived risk associated with prescription drug diversion of membership in three distinct diverter groups: individuals who illicitly acquire prescription drugs, those who redistribute them, and those who engage in both behaviors. Methods: Data were drawn from a cross-sectional Internet study (N = 846 of prescription drug use and diversion patterns in New York City, South Florida, and Washington, D.C.. Participants were classified into diversion categories based on their self-reported involvement in the trade of prescription drugs. Group differences in background characteristics of diverter groups were assessed by Chi-Square tests and followed up with multivariate logistic regressions. Results: While individuals in all diversion groups were more likely to be younger and have a licit prescription for any of the assessed drugs in the past year than those who did not divert, individuals who both acquire and redistribute are more likely to live in New York City, not have prescription insurance coverage, and perceive fewer legal risks of prescription drug diversion. Conclusion: Findings suggest that predictive characteristics vary according to diverter group.

  13. Prescription Drug Diversion: Predictors of Illicit Acquisition and Redistribution in Three U.S. Metropolitan Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Shana; Nikulina, Valentina; Gelpí-Acosta, Camila; Morton, Cory; Newsome, Valerie; Gunn, Alana; Hoefinger, Heidi; Aikins, Ross; Smith, Vivian; Barry, Victoria; Downing, Martin J

    2015-12-02

    Prescription drug diversion, the transfer of prescription drugs from lawful to unlawful channels for distribution or use, is a problem in the United States. Despite the pervasiveness of diversion, there are gaps in the literature regarding characteristics of individuals who participate in the illicit trade of prescription drugs. This study examines a range of predictors (e.g., demographics, prescription insurance coverage, perceived risk associated with prescription drug diversion) of membership in three distinct diverter groups: individuals who illicitly acquire prescription drugs, those who redistribute them, and those who engage in both behaviors. Data were drawn from a cross-sectional Internet study ( N = 846) of prescription drug use and diversion patterns in New York City, South Florida, and Washington, D.C.. Participants were classified into diversion categories based on their self-reported involvement in the trade of prescription drugs. Group differences in background characteristics of diverter groups were assessed by Chi-Square tests and followed up with multivariate logistic regressions. While individuals in all diversion groups were more likely to be younger and have a licit prescription for any of the assessed drugs in the past year than those who did not divert, individuals who both acquire and redistribute are more likely to live in New York City, not have prescription insurance coverage, and perceive fewer legal risks of prescription drug diversion. Findings suggest that predictive characteristics vary according to diverter group.

  14. International cooperation in combating illicit trafficking of nuclear materials by technical means

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herbillon, J; Koch, L; Mason, G; Niemeyer, S; Nikiforov, N

    1999-01-01

    A consensus has been emerging during the past several years that illicit trafficking of nuclear materials is a problem that needs a more focused international response. One possible component of a program to combat illicit trafficking is nuclear forensics whereby intercepted nuclear materials are analyzed to provide clues for answering attribution questions. In this report we focus on international cooperation that is specifically addressing the development of nuclear forensics. First we will describe the role of the Nuclear Smuggling International Technical Working Group (ITWG) in developing nuclear forensics, and then we will present some specific examples of cooperative work by the Institute for Transuranium Elements of the European Commission with various European states. Recognizing the potential importance of a nuclear forensics capability, the P-8 countries in 1995 encouraged technical experts to evaluate the role of nuclear forensics in combating nuclear smuggling and possibly developing mechanisms for international cooperation. As a result, an International Conference on Nuclear Smuggling Forensic Analysis was held in November, 1995, at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory to investigate technical cooperation on nuclear forensics. The International Conference provided a unique mix of scientists, law enforcement, and intelligence experts from 14 countries and organizations. All participants were invited to make presentations, and the format of the Conference was designed to encourage open discussion and broad participation

  15. Use of licit and illicit drugs at the University of Alfenas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorini, João Evangelista; Alves, Adriana Luiza; Ferreira, Luciano Resende; Fiorini, Celso Maia; Durães, Sandro Willian; Santos, Ricardo Luiz Diniz; Nascimento, Luiz Carlos do; Geraldini, Andréa Mantelo Vicente; Ortiz, Cássia de Fátima

    2003-01-01

    This paper reports the study of drug consumption carried out within the population of undergraduate students from 2 colleges of Alfenas, in the state of Minas Gerais state. Both licit and illicit drugs were studied, including alcohol, tobacco, marijuana, cocaine, heroin, crack, inhalants, glue, tranquilizers, stimulants, and others. The research included a wide bibliographical search and the application of a questionnaire to approximately 23% of the students (total of 6500 students). A total of 1500 students participated in this investigation. The results demonstrated that there was a significant consumption of both licit and illicit drugs. The pattern of drug consumption in the research sample was similar to other investigations conducted in Brazil and in other countries. It was observed that 55% of the university students use drugs. However, the most surprising finding was that most of the students (88%) answered "yes" to the inquiry, "Have you already tried any type of drug, including alcohol and cigarettes?" The students revealed that they had taken drugs even prior to the admission to the university. The results suggest clearly that the university environment does not necessarily represent the starting point for student drug consumption.

  16. The occurrence of illicit and therapeutic pharmaceuticals in wastewater effluent and surface waters in Nebraska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartelt-Hunt, Shannon L. [Department of Civil Engineering, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, 203B Peter Kiewit Institute, Omaha, NE 68182-0178 (United States)], E-mail: sbartelt2@unl.edu; Snow, Daniel D.; Damon, Teyona [Water Sciences Laboratory, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, NE 68583-0844 (United States); Shockley, Johnette [Department of Civil Engineering, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, 203B Peter Kiewit Institute, Omaha, NE 68182-0178 (United States); Hoagland, Kyle [UNL Water Center, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, NE 68583-0995 (United States)

    2009-03-15

    The occurrence and estimated concentration of twenty illicit and therapeutic pharmaceuticals and metabolites in surface waters influenced by wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) discharge and in wastewater effluents in Nebraska were determined using Polar Organic Chemical Integrative Samplers (POCIS). Samplers were installed in rivers upstream and downstream of treated WWTP discharge at four sites and in a discharge canal at a fifth location. Based on differences in estimated concentrations determined from pharmaceuticals recovered from POCIS, WWTP effluent was found to be a significant source of pharmaceutical loading to the receiving waters. Effluents from WWTPs with trickling filters or trickling filters in parallel with activated sludge resulted in the highest observed in-stream pharmaceutical concentrations. Azithromycin, caffeine, 1,7-dimethylzanthine, carbamazepine, cotinine, DEET, diphenhydramine, and sulfamethazine were detected at all locations. Methamphetamine, an illicit pharmaceutical, was detected at all but one of the sampling locations, representing only the second report of methamphetamine detected in WWTP effluent and in streams impacted by WWTP effluent. - Passive samplers were used to develop semi-quantitative estimates of pharmaceutical concentrations in receiving waters influenced by wastewater effluent.

  17. Illicit Drug Markets Among New Orleans Evacuees Before and Soon After Hurricane Katrina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunlap, Eloise; Johnson, Bruce D; Morse, Edward

    2007-09-01

    This paper analyzes illicit drug markets in New Orleans before and after Hurricane Katrina and access to drug markets following evacuation at many locations and in Houston. Among New Orleans arrestees pre-Katrina, rates of crack and heroin use and market participation was comparable to New York and higher than in other southern cities. Both cities have vigorous outdoor drug markets. Over 100 New Orleans evacuees provide rich accounts describing the illicit markets in New Orleans and elsewhere. The flooding of New Orleans disrupted the city's flourishing drug markets, both during and immediately after the storm. Drug supplies, though limited, were never completely unavailable. Subjects reported that alcohol or drugs were not being used in the Houston Astrodome, and it was a supportive environment. Outside the Astrodome, they were often approached by or could easily locate middlemen and drug sellers. Evacuees could typically access illegal drug markets wherever they went. This paper analyzes the impact of a major disaster upon users of illegal drugs and the illegal drug markets in New Orleans and among the diaspora of New Orleans evacuees following Hurricane Katrina. This analysis includes data from criminal justice sources that specify what the drug markets were like before this disaster occurred. This analysis also includes some comparison cities where no disaster occurred, but which help inform the similarities and differences in drug markets in other cities. The data presented also include an initial analysis of ethnographic interview data from over 100 New Orleans Evacuees recruited in New Orleans and Houston.

  18. The occurrence of illicit and therapeutic pharmaceuticals in wastewater effluent and surface waters in Nebraska

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartelt-Hunt, Shannon L.; Snow, Daniel D.; Damon, Teyona; Shockley, Johnette; Hoagland, Kyle

    2009-01-01

    The occurrence and estimated concentration of twenty illicit and therapeutic pharmaceuticals and metabolites in surface waters influenced by wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) discharge and in wastewater effluents in Nebraska were determined using Polar Organic Chemical Integrative Samplers (POCIS). Samplers were installed in rivers upstream and downstream of treated WWTP discharge at four sites and in a discharge canal at a fifth location. Based on differences in estimated concentrations determined from pharmaceuticals recovered from POCIS, WWTP effluent was found to be a significant source of pharmaceutical loading to the receiving waters. Effluents from WWTPs with trickling filters or trickling filters in parallel with activated sludge resulted in the highest observed in-stream pharmaceutical concentrations. Azithromycin, caffeine, 1,7-dimethylzanthine, carbamazepine, cotinine, DEET, diphenhydramine, and sulfamethazine were detected at all locations. Methamphetamine, an illicit pharmaceutical, was detected at all but one of the sampling locations, representing only the second report of methamphetamine detected in WWTP effluent and in streams impacted by WWTP effluent. - Passive samplers were used to develop semi-quantitative estimates of pharmaceutical concentrations in receiving waters influenced by wastewater effluent

  19. Non-Financial Reporting in Croatia: Current Trends Analysis and Future Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Galant

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Non-financial reporting forms part of corporate reporting. Among other, it includes disclosure of information regarding corporate social responsibility (CSR/sustainability issues and as such represent the supplement to the information provided by financial statements. Compared to the financial reporting, non-financial reporting is voluntary in majority of countries, including Croatia. Thus, companies decide on their own whether to disclose on this issue or not. Considering its voluntariness, the aim of this paper is to determine the current state of non-financial reporting in Croatia by identifying the financial characteristics of companies disclosing non-financial reports. In data analysis, the logistic regression was used. The research was conducted on a sample of Croatian publicly listed companies. Obtained results indicate that larger, more profitable and efficient companies are more probable to disclose non-financial reports, while indebtedness is not significant for it. In addition, further development of corporate social accounting is required, as well as promotion of non-financial reporting benefits.

  20. Reporting Multiple Individual Injuries in Studies of Team Ball Sports: A Systematic Review of Current Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortington, Lauren V; van der Worp, Henk; van den Akker-Scheek, Inge; Finch, Caroline F

    2017-06-01

    To identify and prioritise targets for injury prevention efforts, injury incidence studies are widely reported. The accuracy and consistency in calculation and reporting of injury incidence is crucial. Many individuals experience more than one injury but multiple injuries are not consistently reported in sport injury incidence studies. The aim of this systematic review was to evaluate current practice of how multiple injuries within individuals have been defined and reported in prospective, long-term, injury studies in team ball sports. A systematic search of three online databases for articles published before 2016. Publications were included if (1) they collected prospective data on musculoskeletal injuries in individual participants; (2) the study duration was >1 consecutive calendar year/season; and (3) individuals were the unit of analysis. Key study features were summarised, including definitions of injury, how multiple individual injuries were reported and results relating to multiple injuries. Of the 71 publications included, half did not specifically indicate multiple individual injuries; those that did were largely limited to reporting recurrent injuries. Eight studies reported the number/proportion of athletes with more than one injury, and 11 studies presented the mean/number of injuries per athlete. Despite it being relatively common to collect data on individuals across more than one season, the reporting of multiple injuries within individuals is much more limited. Ultimately, better addressing of multiple injuries will improve the accuracy of injury incidence studies and enable more precise targeting and monitoring of the effectiveness of preventive interventions.

  1. Tijeras Arroyo Groundwater Current Conceptual Model and Corrective Measures Evaluation Report - December 2016.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Copland, John R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-03-01

    This Tijeras Arroyo Groundwater Current Conceptual Model and Corrective Measures Evaluation Report (CCM/CME Report) has been prepared by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and Sandia Corporation (Sandia) to meet requirements under the Sandia National Laboratories-New Mexico (SNL/NM) Compliance Order on Consent (the Consent Order). The Consent Order, entered into by the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED), DOE, and Sandia, became effective on April 29, 2004. The Consent Order identified the Tijeras Arroyo Groundwater (TAG) Area of Concern (AOC) as an area of groundwater contamination requiring further characterization and corrective action. This report presents an updated Conceptual Site Model (CSM) of the TAG AOC that describes the contaminant release sites, the geological and hydrogeological setting, and the distribution and migration of contaminants in the subsurface. The dataset used for this report includes the analytical results from groundwater samples collected through December 2015.

  2. NELIS-an illicit drug detection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dokhale, P.A.; Csikai, J.; Womble, P.C.; Vourvopoulos, G.

    2001-01-01

    NELIS (Neutron Elemental Inspection System) is currently being developed to inspect pallets laden with various commodities for contraband (drugs, etc.). NELIS analyzes the characteristic gamma rays from the elements in drugs such as C, O, H, Cl, N, etc. that are produced by nuclear reactions from fast and thermal neutrons (Pulsed Fast/Thermal Neutron Analysis). Hidden drugs are identified through the measurement of the elemental content of the object, and the comparison of expected and measured elemental ratios. NELIS can be coupled with conventional X-ray imaging system to optimize the inspection capabilities at ports of entry

  3. Countering the demand for, and supply of, illicit tobacco: an assessment of the 'North of England Tackling Illicit Tobacco for Better Health' Programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeill, Ann; Iringe-Koko, Belinda; Bains, Manpreet; Bauld, Linda; Siggens, Geoffrey; Russell, Andrew

    2014-05-01

    Illicit tobacco (IT) undermines the effectiveness of tobacco control strategies. We assessed the implementation and impact of a new programme designed to reduce demand for, as well as supply of, IT, in the north of England, where IT was prevalent. 'Mixed methods' research was undertaken. Qualitative methods included stakeholder interviews (at outset and 1 year later) and ethnographic research. Indicators reflecting those supply and demand issues for which data were available were identified and monitored, including relevant items on two cross-sectional surveys carried out in 2009 and 2011 with over 4000 individuals from which a social marketing campaign was also developed. IT reports to two existing hotlines, promoted through the programme, were assessed. Initially, concerns abounded about the different philosophies and ways of working of local and national enforcement and health agencies, but these were much reduced at follow-up. A protocol was developed which greatly facilitated the flow of intelligence about IT supply. A social marketing campaign was developed highlighting two messages: IT makes it easier for children to start smoking and brings crime into the community, thereby avoiding misleading messages about relative harms of illicit and licit tobacco. Public and stakeholder awareness of IT increased as did calls to both hotlines. A partnership of agencies, with competing values, was established to tackle IT, a complex public health issue and, inter alia, implemented a social marketing campaign using novel messages. This improved the flow of intelligence about the supply of IT and increased awareness of IT. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  4. [Use of illicit drugs and critical perspectives of drug users' relatives and acquaintances in Northern Rio de Janeiro City, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargens, Octavio Muniz da Costa; Brands, Bruna; Adlaf, Edward; Giesbrecht, Norman; Simich, Laura; Wright, Maria da Gloria Miotto

    2009-01-01

    This article presents the partial results of a multicenter, qualitative study, which involved seven Latin-American countries and Canada. The results presented refer to Northern Rio de Janeiro (city), Brazil. The objective of the study was to describe the perspective of relatives/acquaintances of illicit drug users about protective and risk factors, prevention initiatives, treatment services, and legal aspects regarding illicit drugs. Interviews were performed with 99 individuals, who reported being affected by their relationship with an illicit drug user (relative or acquaintance), approaching their perspectives regarding the key-domains. Most participants were women (73.7%); relatives who used drugs were mostly men (78.2%); the most consumed drug was marijuana (77.8%). The highlighted protective factor was having recreational-sports activities in the community (88.9%), and the risk factor was curiosity for trying something new (94.4%). The main treatment services were Church Groups (51.5%), and participants stated that laws should be more punitive (82.8%). In conclusion, this information is essential to fight against drug use/abuse, showing that there is a need for actions that consider different perspectives at different levels.

  5. Young people's attitudes towards illicit drugs: A population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friis, Karina; Østergaard, Jeanette; Reese, Sidsel; Lasgaard, Mathias

    2017-12-01

    Previous studies indicate that young people who have positive attitudes towards illicit drugs are more inclined to experiment with them. The first aim of our study was to identify the sociodemographic and risk behaviour characteristics of young people (16-24 years) with positive attitudes towards illicit drug use. The second aim was to identify the characteristics of young people with positive attitudes towards illicit drugs among those who had never tried drugs, those who had tried cannabis but no other illicit drugs, and those who regularly used cannabis and/or had tried other illicit drugs. The analysis was based on a population-based survey from 2013 ( N = 3812). Multiple logistic regression was used to analyse the association between sociodemographic and risk behaviour characteristics and positive attitudes towards illicit drugs. Young men had twice the odds of having positive attitudes towards illicit drug use compared with young women (AOR = 2.1). Also, young age, being single, being employed, smoking tobacco, practising unprotected sex, and experimental cannabis use were associated with positive attitudes towards illicit drug use. Finally, use of cannabis at least 10 times during the previous year and/or use of other illicit drugs had the strongest association with positive attitudes to illicit drug use (AOR = 6.0). Young people who have positive attitudes towards illicit drug use are characterized by a broad range of risky behaviours. These findings may help to identify young people at risk of initiating illicit drug use and thereby support the development and implementation of prevention programmes.

  6. From illicit trafficking to nuclear terrorism? - The role of nuclear forensics science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schenkel, R.; Cromboom, O.; Daures, P.; Janssens, W.; Koch, L.; Mayer, K.; Ray, I.

    2002-01-01

    The events of 11th September 2001 have reminded us of the importance of taking preventive action in the field of nuclear terrorism as well as measures to mitigate the effects after such an attack. We have seen in the last 10 years the emergence of a new and potentially hazardous form of smuggling: that of nuclear and radioactive materials. The threat of terrorist activities involving nuclear materials has now become a matter of concern as well. Dispersion of such materials over urban areas, their introduction in the food chain or drinking water system are examples of currently perceived risks to our modern societies. Following its early involvement in a large number of cases of illicit trafficking and environmental issues the Institute for Transuranium Elements has developed a new discipline to support Member State authorities to combat illicit trafficking and dealing with criminal environmental issues: nuclear forensic science. The principal aims of research in this field at ITU are: (1) To maintain and develop further investigative techniques for identifying the nature of seized materials, to assess the immediate danger, to locate the original source of the material and, as far as possible, the route it has taken, and to give an opinion on the probable intended use of the material; (2) To foster close contacts with law enforcement agencies -- Europol, Interpol, World Customs Organisation and national police forces -- and to develop techniques to optimise collaboration between standard forensic techniques and the special requirements of the nuclear scientist; (3) To develop and implement a programme of assistance for applicant countries in combating illicit trafficking within their own borders. This involves giving advice, training operators and officials in the detection of illicit materials and the supply of appropriate equipment, such as radiation detectors; (4) To maintain and update an extensive database on commercial nuclear materials -- a separate section

  7. Revised Tijeras Arroyo Groundwater Current Conceptual Model and Corrective Measures Evaluation Report - February 2018.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Copland, John R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2018-02-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the management and operating (M&O) contractor for Sandia National Laboratories beginning on May 1, 2017, National Technology & Engineering Solutions of Sandia, LLC (NTESS), hereinafter collectively referred to as DOE/NTESS, prepared this Revised Tijeras Arroyo Groundwater Current Conceptual Model (CCM) and Corrective Measures Evaluation (CME) Report , referred to as the Revised CCM/CME Report, to meet requirements under the Sandia National Laboratories-New Mexico (SNL/NM) Compliance Order on Consent (Consent Order). The Consent Order became effective on April 29, 2004. The Consent Order identifies the Tijeras Arroyo Groundwater (TAG) Area of Concern (AOC) as an area of groundwater contamination requiring further characterization and corrective action. In November 2004, New Mexico Environment Department (NMED) approved the July 2004 CME Work Plan. In April 2005, DOE and the SNL M&O contractor at the time, Sandia Corporation (Sandia), hereinafter collectively referred to as DOE/Sandia, submitted a CME Report, but NMED did not finalize review of that document. In December 2016, DOE/Sandia submitted a combined and updated CCM/CME Report. NMED issued a disapproval letter in May 2017 that included comments on the December 2016 CCM/CME Report. In August 2017, NMED and DOE/NTESS staff held a meeting to discuss and clarify outstanding issues. This Revised CCM/CME Report addresses (1) the issues presented in the NMED May 2017 disapproval letter and (2) findings from the August 2017 meeting.

  8. Illicit Drugs and the Terrorist Threat: Causal Links and Implications for Domestic Drug Control Policy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kleiman, Mark A

    2004-01-01

    ...: supplying cash, creating chaos and instability, supporting corruption, providing "cover" and sustaining common infrastructures for illicit activity, and competing for law enforcement and intelligence attention...

  9. Illicit Drugs and the Terrorist Threat: Causal Links and Implications for Domestic Drug Control Policy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kleiman, Mark A

    2004-01-01

    ...: supplying cash, creating chaos and instability, supporting corruption, providing cover and sustaining common infrastructures for illicit activity, and competing for law enforcement and intelligence attention...

  10. Perceived unmet need and barriers to care amongst street-involved people who use illicit drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyshka, Elaine; Anderson, Jalene Tayler; Wild, T Cameron

    2017-05-01

    Research on perceived unmet need for care for mental health and substance use problems focuses on general populations to the detriment of hidden populations. This study describes prevalence and correlates of perceived unmet need for care in a community-based sample of street-involved people who use illicit drugs and identifies barriers to care. A sample of 320 street-involved people who use drugs participated in a structured, interviewer-assisted survey in Edmonton, Canada. The survey included the Perceived Need for Care Questionnaire, which assessed unmet need for care for mental health and substance use problems across seven service types. Logistic regression examined the associations between perceived unmet need, extent of socioeconomic marginalisation and problem severity. Barriers underlying unmet service needs were also examined. Most (82%) participants reported unmet need for one or more services during the past year. Odds of reporting one or more unmet needs were elevated amongst participants reporting substantial housing instability (adjusted odds ratio = 2.37; 95% confidence interval 1.19-4.28) and amongst participants meeting criteria for drug dependence (adjusted odds ratio = 1.22; 95% confidence interval 1.03-1.50), even after adjustment for sociodemographic covariates. Structural, rather than motivational barriers were the most commonly reported reasons underlying unmet service needs. Street-involved people who use drugs experience very high rates of perceived unmet need for care for mental health and substance use problems. General population studies on perceived unmet need are insufficient for understanding needs and barriers to care in hidden populations.[Hyshka E, Anderson JT, Wild TC. Perceived unmet need and barriers to care amongst street-involved people who use illicit drugs. Drug Alcohol Rev 2017;36:295-304]. © 2016 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  11. Smoke, alcohol consumption and illicit drug use in an Italian population of pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Santis, Marco; De Luca, Carmen; Mappa, Ilenia; Quattrocchi, Tomasella; Angelo, Licameli; Cesari, Elena

    2011-11-01

    High-risk behaviours are associated with an increased risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes. Exposure to drugs, infection or radiation is a cause of concern for pregnant women, who contact Teratology Information Services (TIS) to have a counseling but with an accurate medical history is possible to detect additional behavioural risk factors that can significantly interfere with pregnancy outcome. The aim of this study is to describe risk behaviours in a population of Italian women calling our TIS and to identify related maternal factors. Between December 2008 and January 2010 we collected data from 503 pregnant women calling our TIS (Telefono Rosso, Rome). We investigated about smoke, alcohol and abuse substances addiction and we also collected demographic data. Of the 503 women consenting to participate 34% were found to have an additional risk marker during the current pregnancy. Within this group were 22.7% (n=119) who reported smoking, the 17.7% (n=89) admitted to drink and 2 women (0.4%) used illicit drugs. In 13.7% of cases (n=69) reason for calling represented an exposure to teratogenic agents. Unmarried status and previous induced abortion represent a risk factor for all high-risk behaviours. Lower education (pdrugs (pconsumption. A lower parity was a risk factor for alcohol assumption (p=0.04). Women with high-risk behaviours tend to be exposed to more than a risk factor. Teratogen Information Services are an important system to identify women with pregnancy risk markers. These services should have the ability to provide risk reduction information to women who smoke cigarettes or with alcohol or drug use. In addition to the phone based information these women may benefit from referral back to their physician for assessment and management of substance use/abuse during pregnancy. Substance abuse risks are often underestimated by pregnant women. Single mothers or women with an history of terminations of pregnancy represents an high-risk population. Physicians

  12. Family meal traditions. Comparing reported childhood food habits to current food habits among university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Backer, Charlotte J S

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate if reported childhood food habits predict the food habits of students at present. Questions addressed are: does the memory of childhood family meals promote commensality among students? Does the memory of (grand)parents' cooking influence students' cooking? And, is there still a gender difference in passing on everyday cooking skills? Using a cross-sectional survey, 104 students were asked about their current eating and cooking habits, and their eating habits and the cooking behavior of their (grand)parents during their childhood. Results show that frequencies in reported childhood family meals predict frequencies of students' commensality at present. The effects appear for breakfast and dinner, and stay within the same meal: recalled childhood family breakfasts predict current breakfast commensality, recalled childhood family dinners predict current dinner commensality. In terms of recalled cookery of (grand)parents and the use of family recipes a matrilineal dominance can be observed. Mothers are most influential, and maternal grandmothers outscore paternal grandmothers. Yet, fathers' childhood cooking did not pass unnoticed either. They seem to influence male students' cookery. Overall, in a life-stage of transgression students appear to maintain recalled childhood food rituals. Suggestions are discussed to further validate these results. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Mexicans’ Use of Illicit Drugs in an Era of Drug Reform: National Comparative Analysis by Migrant Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villatoro, Jorge Ameth; Kong, Yinfei; Gamiño, Marycarmen Bustos; Vega, William A.; Mora, Maria Elena Medina

    2014-01-01

    Although rates of illicit drug use are considerably lower in Mexico than in the United States, rates in Mexico have risen significantly. This increase has particular implications for Mexican women and U.S. migrants, who are considered at increased risk of drug use. Due to drug reforms enacted in Mexico in 2008, it is critical to evaluate patterns of drug use among migrants who reside in both regions. We analysed a sample of Mexicans (N = 16,249) surveyed during a national household survey in 2011, the Encuesta Nacional de Adicciones (National Survey of Addictions). Comparative analyses based on Mexicans’ migrant status—(1) never in the United States, (2) visited the United States, or (3) lived in the United States (transnationals)—featured analysis of variance and chi-square global tests. Two multilevel regressions were conducted to determine the relationships among migrant status, women, and illicit drug use. Comparative findings showed significant differences in type and number of drugs used among Mexicans by migrant status. The regression models showed that compared with Mexicans who had never visited the United States, Mexican transnationals were more likely to report having used drugs (OR = 2.453, 95% CI = 1.933, 3.113) and using more illicit drugs (IRR = 2.061, 95% CI = 1.626, 2.613). Women were less likely than men to report having used drugs (OR = 0.187, 95% CI = 0.146, 0.239) and using more illicit drugs (IRR = 0.153, 95% CI = 0.116, 0.202). Overall, the findings support further exploration of risk factors for illicit drug use among Mexican transnationals, who exhibit greater drug use behaviours than Mexicans never in the United States. Because drug reform mandates referrals to treatment for those with recurrent issues of drug use, it is critical for the Mexican government and civic society to develop the capacity to offer evidence-based substance abuse treatment for returning migrants with high-risk drug behaviours. PMID:24816376

  14. Mexicans' use of illicit drugs in an era of drug reform: national comparative analysis by migrant status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero, Erick G; Villatoro, Jorge Ameth; Kong, Yinfei; Gamiño, Marycarmen Bustos; Vega, William A; Mora, Maria Elena Medina

    2014-05-01

    Although rates of illicit drug use are considerably lower in Mexico than in the United States, rates in Mexico have risen significantly. This increase has particular implications for Mexican women and US migrants, who are considered at increased risk of drug use. Due to drug reforms enacted in Mexico in 2008, it is critical to evaluate patterns of drug use among migrants who reside in both regions. We analysed a sample of Mexicans (N=16,249) surveyed during a national household survey in 2011, the Encuesta Nacional de Adicciones (National Survey of Addictions). Comparative analyses based on Mexicans' migrant status - (1) never in the United States, (2) visited the United States, or (3) lived in the United States (transnationals) - featured analysis of variance and Chi-square global tests. Two multilevel regressions were conducted to determine the relationships among migrant status, women, and illicit drug use. Comparative findings showed significant differences in type and number of drugs used among Mexicans by migrant status. The regression models showed that compared with Mexicans who had never visited the United States, Mexican transnationals were more likely to report having used drugs (OR=2.453, 95% CI=1.933, 3.113) and using more illicit drugs (IRR=2.061, 95% CI=1.626, 2.613). Women were less likely than men to report having used drugs (OR=0.187, 95% CI=0.146, 0.239) and using more illicit drugs (IRR=0.153, 95% CI=0.116, 0.202). Overall, the findings support further exploration of risk factors for illicit drug use among Mexican transnationals, who exhibit greater drug use behaviours than Mexicans never in the United States. Because drug reform mandates referrals to treatment for those with recurrent issues of drug use, it is critical for the Mexican government and civic society to develop the capacity to offer evidence-based substance abuse treatment for returning migrants with high-risk drug behaviours. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Superconducting fault current limiter. Fifth quarterly technical progress report, August 8, 1978-November 7, 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-01-01

    Progress in the development of fault current limiters for superconducting power transmission systems is reported. The analysis and design of a magnetically switched resistive device and the experimental program were emphasized and reported. A transient heat transfer model was developed which indicates the parameters which are important in determining the thermal heating and recovery of the superconduting film. Designs for the switching coil and the S/C element were also carried out and are reported. A four-pole magnetic coil is recommended; this generates a magnetic field which is nearly perpendicular to spiral or helical S/C film geometrics. A spirally-designed, 3000 ohm limiter is shown to be able to fit within a .5 to 1m inner radius, .05 to .03 m wide, 1.3 to 3.9 m long annualr region. The experimental program has included work on materials development and on prepartion of the switching and thermal recovery experimental facility. The material development program has uncovered several serious short-comings of NbN as the S/C film material. Macroscopic holes and surface debris, and microscopic imperfections reduce the critical current density below the expected value and, in addition, cause nonuniform switching. Reasons for these effects are postulated, and a continuing, vigorous materials program is suggested in hopes of alleviating these problems. Virtually all of the experimental equipment had been installed, and so the magnetic switching and thermal recovery experiments can begin and progress during the next quarter. (LCL)

  16. Regulatory Requirements to Combat Illicit Trafficking of Hazardous Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussein, A.Z.; Zakaria, Kh.M.

    2011-01-01

    Since more than a decade illicit Trafficking of hazardous ( CBRNE), materials ( chemical, biological, radiological, nuclear and explosive ) has been identified as a key threat in national, regional, inter regional and international strategies. An Effective response to hazardous materials (CBRNE) risk and threat were realized to require a very high level of cooperation and coordination between various governments and their responsible organizations and authorities of regional and international partner. While improper policy of actions may easily be exploited by non- state members to (CBRNE) trafficking which may lead to develop weapon of mass destruction (WMD). Such strategy are of paramount important between all levels of the states and among regional agreements through comprehensive tailored assistance packages (e.g. export control, illicit trafficking of hazardous materials, redirection of scientist, emergency planning, crisis response safety and security culture. Capacity building, action plans and instruments for stability are necessary actions for efficient combating against illicit trafficking of hazardous materials. Regarding the needs of assessment phase, assistance must be based on data collection, analysis and prioritization of implanting the regulatory controls. Several activities have to be conducted to reduce CBRNE threat. The one- by- one approach, covering either nuclear and radioactive or chemical or biological materials has to be implanted on the country basis performance to mitigate CBRNE hazardous risk. On several consequent phases of intervention dealing with CBRNE risk mitigation the country has to establish a network of local, regional and international capabilities. Such network is setting up the mechanism for the country needs identifications, the guidelines for data collection, for data platform maintenance and update, the data assessment and the competent and operative organizations. This network will be to strengthen the long - term

  17. Illicit Drug Analysis Using Two-Dimension Liquid Chromatography/Tandem Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallet, Claude; Botch-Jones, Sabra

    2016-10-01

    For the identification of illicit drugs in forensic toxicological casework, analysis can be delayed and potentially compromised due to lengthy sample preparation techniques. For a complete forensic identification, a robust methodology is required and the current trend in forensic laboratories is the use of liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (LC/MS or LC/MS-MS). However, to achieve satisfactory results, extensive and time-consuming sample preparation protocols are required to reach sub-ng/mL levels. The concept of sequential 2D extraction was designed to capture the retention behavior of a target analyte in response to various extraction parameters. Therefore, optimized conditions can be selected to excise a region of interest during extraction. The utilization of multi-dimensional chromatography combined with a micro-extraction technique was evaluated to decrease sample preparation time while enhancing the separation integrity observed with current single-dimensional chromatography techniques. A wide range of illicit drugs were spiked in human urine and extracted using three extraction protocols for performance evaluation. The extraction process was performed using a reversed-phase solid phase extraction (SPE) in 1D, 2D-optimized, 2D-sequential and cumulative elution modes. The chosen 2D chromatography conditions that were used in this application were identified using a 6 × 6 automated methods development protocol (144 methods total). The extraction of urine samples containing target analytes was completed in less than 20 min. The analysis was performed using 200 µL of the final organic solvent (MeOH) extracts. The limit of detection for all drugs was measured at 100 pg/mL (ppt) from a 1 mL sample volume. Several analytes showed excellent signal at 10 pg/mL (ppt). © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Individual and population level impacts of illicit drug use, sexual risk behaviours on sexually transmitted infections among young Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people: results from the GOANNA survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Handan Wand

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sexually transmitted infections (STIs have been increasing among Australian Indigenous young people for over two decades. Little is known about the association between alcohol and other drug use and sexual risk behaviours and diagnosis of STIs among this population. Methods A cross-sectional, community based self-administered survey was conducted among young Aboriginal people aged 16–29 years of age. Questionnaires included socio-demographic characteristics, knowledge, sexual risk behaviours alcohol and other drug use and health service access including self-reported history of diagnosis with a STI. Logistic regression models and population attributable risks were used to assess individual and population level impacts of illicit drug use on high risk sexual behaviours and ever reported diagnosis of an STI. Results Of the 2877 participants, 2320 (81 % identified as sexually active and were included in this study. More than 50 % of the study population reported that they had used at least one illicit drug in past year. Cannabis, ecstasy and methamphetamines were the three most commonly used illicit drugs in the past year. The prevalence of self-reported STI diagnosis was 25 %. Compared with people who did not report using illicit drugs, risky alcohol use and sexual behaviours including inconsistent condom use, multiple sexual partners in the past year and sex with casual partners were all significantly higher among illicit drug users. In adjusted analysis, participants who reported using illicit drugs were significantly more likely to engage in sexual risk behaviours and to ever have been diagnosed with an STI. Adjusted Odds Ratios ranged from 1.86 to 3.00 (males and from 1.43 to 2.46 (females. At the population level, more than 70 % of the STI diagnoses were attributed to illicit drug-use and sexual risk behaviours for males and females. Conclusion Illicit drug use in this population is relatively high compared to other

  19. Consequences of Illicit Trafficking of Nuclear or Other Radioactive Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, G.M.

    2010-01-01

    Explosion of a nuclear yield device is probably the worst consequence of Illicit Trafficking of nuclear or other radioactive materials.The nuclear yield device might be a stolen nuclear weapon, or an improvised nuclear device. An improvised nuclear device requires nuclear material design, and construction ability. Use of a radioactive dispersal device probably would not result in large numbers of casualties.However economic losses can be enormous. Non-Technical effects of nuclear trafficking (e.g. public panic, work disruption, etc.) and political and psychological consequences can far exceed technical consequences

  20. Economic effects of detecting and confiscating illicitly trafficked radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montmayeul, J.P.

    1998-01-01

    Development smuggling and confiscation of illicit radioactive materials demands taking into account its financial implications. The real beneficiaries of smuggling are often difficult to identify. Generally the violation cases are impossible to solve. Who would pay? How the costs of detection, analysis and decontamination could be covered. One of the primary solutions could be better charge of different parties (prisoners). It could as well be the responsibility of involved parties (transporters, enterprises, etc.). Another possibility would be to apply the principle of responsibility for payment by the party responsible for contamination

  1. Recovery and identification of bacterial DNA from illicit drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Kaymann T; Richardson, Michelle M; Kirkbride, K Paul; McNevin, Dennis; Nelson, Michelle; Pianca, Dennis; Roffey, Paul; Gahan, Michelle E

    2014-02-01

    Bacterial infections, including Bacillus anthracis (anthrax), are a common risk associated with illicit drug use, particularly among injecting drug users. There is, therefore, an urgent need to survey illicit drugs used for injection for the presence of bacteria and provide valuable information to health and forensic authorities. The objectives of this study were to develop a method for the extraction of bacterial DNA from illicit drugs and conduct a metagenomic survey of heroin and methamphetamine seized in the Australian Capital Territory during 2002-2011 for the presence of pathogens. Trends or patterns in drug contamination and their health implications for injecting drug users were also investigated. Methods based on the ChargeSwitch(®)gDNA mini kit (Invitrogen), QIAamp DNA extraction mini kit (QIAGEN) with and without bead-beating, and an organic phenol/chloroform extraction with ethanol precipitation were assessed for the recovery efficiency of both free and cellular bacterial DNA. Bacteria were identified using polymerase chain reaction and electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (PCR/ESI-MS). An isopropanol pre-wash to remove traces of the drug and diluents, followed by a modified ChargeSwitch(®) method, was found to efficiently lyse cells and extract free and cellular DNA from Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria in heroin and methamphetamine which could then be identified by PCR/ESI-MS. Analysis of 12 heroin samples revealed the presence of DNA from species of Comamonas, Weissella, Bacillus, Streptococcus and Arthrobacter. No organisms were detected in the nine methamphetamine samples analysed. This study develops a method to extract and identify Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria from illicit drugs and demonstrates the presence of a range of bacterial pathogens in seized drug samples. These results will prove valuable for future work investigating trends or patterns in drug contamination and their health implications for injecting drug

  2. The nuclear smuggling international technical working group: Making a difference in combating illicit trafficking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niemeyer, S.; Koch, L.

    2001-01-01

    The ITWG was first formed in 1995 for the purpose of fostering international cooperation for combating illicit trafficking of nuclear materials. The initial focus for the ITWG was on the development of nuclear forensics to help answer attribution questions regarding nuclear materials of unknown origin. More recently, the ITWG has also expanded its focus to include detection of nuclear materials during transit. This paper presents some of the key developments by this group and their potential impact for combating nuclear smuggling. The initial focus of the ITWG was to write a status report on international cooperation on nuclear smuggling forensic analysis. This report was submitted to the G-8 countries, and shortly thereafter, nuclear forensics was endorsed at the Moscow Summit in April, 1996, as part of an illicit trafficking program. The ITWG's primary goal is to develop a preferred approach to nuclear forensic investigations that is widely understood and accepted as credible. The technical elements include: 1) development of protocols for a) collection and preservation of evidence and b) for laboratory investigation; 2) prioritizing of techniques for forensic analysis; 3) development of forensic databanks to assist in interpretation; 4) executing inter-laboratory exercises; and 5) facilitating technical assistance to countries upon request. The development of protocols has been conducted jointly by law enforcement officials and laboratory scientists. A major focus during much of the past five years has been the development of a model action plan for nuclear forensics of seized nuclear materials. This action plan lays out the elements that are needed in the instance that illicit nuclear material is uncovered, e.g. incident response, crime scene analysis, collection of evidence (both radioactive and 'traditional' forensics, transportation to a nuclear facility, subsequent laboratory analysis, and then development of the case. At the most recent meeting (ITWG-6

  3. Illicit drugs: contaminants in the environment and utility in forensic epidemiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daughton, Christian G

    2011-01-01

    bioconcentration i tissues. In contrast to pharmaceuticals, chemical monitoring surveys have revealed the presence of certain IDIs in air and monetary currencies--the latter being of interest for the forensic tracking of money used in drug trafficking. Another unknown with regard to IDIs is the accuracy of current knowledge regarding the complete scope of chemical identities of the numerous types of IDIs in actual use (particularly some of the continually evolving designer drugs new to forensic chemistry) as well as the total quantities being trafficked, consumed, or disposed. The major aspect unique to the study of IDI's in the environment is making use of their presence in the environment as a tool to obtain better estimates of the collective usage of illicit drugs across entire communities. First proposed in 2001, but under investigation with field applications only since 2005, this new modeling approach for estimating drug usage by monitoring the concentrations of IDIs (or certain unique metabolites) in untreated sewage has potential as an additional source of data to augment or corroborate the information-collection ability of conventional written and oral surveys of drug-user populations. This still evolving monitoring tool has been called "sewer epidemiology" but is referred to in this chapter by a more descriptive proposed term "FEUDS" (Forensic Epidemiology Using Drugs in Sewage). The major limitation of FEUDS surrounds the variables involved at various steps performed in FEUDS calculations. These variables are summarized and span sampling and chemical analysis to the final numeric calculations, which particularly require a better understanding of IDI pharmacokinetics than currently exists. Although little examined in the literature, the potential for abuse of FEUDS as a tool in law enforcement is briefly discussed. Finally, the growing interest in FEUDS as a methodological approach for estimating collective public usage of illicit drugs points to the feasibility of

  4. Illicit trafficking of nuclear and other radioactive material in Paraguay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Facetti, J.F. [Institute of Strategic Studies, Asuncion (Paraguay)], E-mail: jfacetti@yahoo.com

    2009-07-01

    Full text: In order to be effective, a defence system must be designed on the basis of real conflict hypotheses, that is, on the basis of well identified real possibilities of occurrence of aggressions against national interests. Threat assessment and analysis depend on complete and correct information. By making an accurate appreciation of the strategic situation we can identify quite precisely current or potential conflicts that could genuinely affect national interests and be prepared to meet them in the form best suited to their nature, rationally using the budget resources allocated to defence. Lack of preparation to counterattack real threats implies being absolutely defenceless. On the other hand, being prepared without knowing exactly what for is a waste of people's money. A growing concern, not only of G8 countries but also of affected countries, is governance and lawless areas, or areas where the State is absent. The concept of lawless areas in particular has been time and again used by the Ministries of Foreign Affairs of several European countries, by the Pentagon and by the US Department of State to refer to lawless areas or areas without government in Latin America, Africa, Asia and even Central Europe, where presumably there exist groups of terrorists and traffickers of weapons and other illicit materials. In such as areas some terrorist group can be actively seeking nuclear weapons or the materials and knowledge need to make them or to make Radiation Dispersion Artefacts RDA, improvised nuclear artefacts (INA). At the end of March 2008 the Colombian Police seized at least 66 pounds (30 kg) of uranium from the terrorist group FARC. This is new for Latin America and could bring the FARC into the major leagues of black market terrorist transactions. In Latin America, one of these areas is the Tri-Border Area; the other is the Leticia-Tabatinga area between Colombia and Brazil. Recently, the countries of the 3 + 1 Agreement signed a joint declaration

  5. Illicit trafficking of nuclear and other radioactive material in Paraguay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Facetti, J.F.

    2009-01-01

    Full text: In order to be effective, a defence system must be designed on the basis of real conflict hypotheses, that is, on the basis of well identified real possibilities of occurrence of aggressions against national interests. Threat assessment and analysis depend on complete and correct information. By making an accurate appreciation of the strategic situation we can identify quite precisely current or potential conflicts that could genuinely affect national interests and be prepared to meet them in the form best suited to their nature, rationally using the budget resources allocated to defence. Lack of preparation to counterattack real threats implies being absolutely defenceless. On the other hand, being prepared without knowing exactly what for is a waste of people's money. A growing concern, not only of G8 countries but also of affected countries, is governance and lawless areas, or areas where the State is absent. The concept of lawless areas in particular has been time and again used by the Ministries of Foreign Affairs of several European countries, by the Pentagon and by the US Department of State to refer to lawless areas or areas without government in Latin America, Africa, Asia and even Central Europe, where presumably there exist groups of terrorists and traffickers of weapons and other illicit materials. In such as areas some terrorist group can be actively seeking nuclear weapons or the materials and knowledge need to make them or to make Radiation Dispersion Artefacts RDA, improvised nuclear artefacts (INA). At the end of March 2008 the Colombian Police seized at least 66 pounds (30 kg) of uranium from the terrorist group FARC. This is new for Latin America and could bring the FARC into the major leagues of black market terrorist transactions. In Latin America, one of these areas is the Tri-Border Area; the other is the Leticia-Tabatinga area between Colombia and Brazil. Recently, the countries of the 3 + 1 Agreement signed a joint declaration

  6. Lifetime use of illicit drugs and associated factors among Brazilian schoolchildren, National Adolescent School-based Health Survey (PeNSE 2012).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horta, Rogério Lessa; Horta, Bernardo Lessa; da Costa, Andre Wallace Nery; do Prado, Rogério Ruscitto; Oliveira-Campos, Maryane; Malta, Deborah Carvalho

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed at describing the prevalence of illicit drug use among 9th grade students in the morning period of public and private schools in Brazil, and assessing associated factors. The Brazilian survey PeNSE (National Adolescent School-based Health Survey) 2012 evaluated a representative sample of 9th grade students in the morning period, in Brazil and its five regions. The use of illicit drugs at least once in life was assessed for the most commonly used drugs, such as marijuana, cocaine, crack, solvent-based glue, general ether-based inhalants, ecstasy and oxy. Data were subjected to descriptive analysis, and Pearson's χ² test and logistic regression was used in the multivariate analysis. The use of illicit drugs at least once in life was reported by 7.3% (95%CI 5.3 - 9.4) of the respondents. Logistic regression was used for multivariate analysis and the evidences suggest that illicit drug use is associated to social conditions of greater consumption power, the use of alcohol and tobacco, behaviors related to socialization, such as having friends or sexual activity, and also the perception of loneliness, loose contact between school and parents and experiences of abuse in the family environment. The outcome was inversely associated with close contact with parents and parental supervision. In addition to the association with the processes of socialization and consumption, the influence of family and school is expressed in a particularly protective manner in different records of direct supervision and care.

  7. ESN information bulletin. European science notes information bulletin reports on current European/Middle eastern science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orendorf, C.R.

    1989-10-01

    The European Science Notes Information Bulletin (ESNIB) 89-09 is a compilation of reports on recent developments in European science of specific interest to the U.S. research and development community, and is issued in support of the mission of the Office of Naval Research European Office. Issue Number 89-09, in addition to European area news, notes, and abstracts, contains reports in the fields of Acoustics, Computer Science, Condensed-Matter Physics, Materials Science, Mathematics, Physics, Psychology, and Solid-State Physics. It is not intended to be part of the scientific literature. The value of the ESNIB to Americans is to call attention to current activity in European science and technology and to identify the institutions and people responsible for these efforts. The ESNIB authors are primarily ONREUR staff members; other reports are prepared by or in cooperation with staff members of the USAF European Office of Aero space Research and Development or the U.S. Army Research, Development and Standardization Group. Scientists from the U.S. who are traveling in Europe may also be invited to submit reports.

  8. ESN information bulletin. European science notes information bulletin reports on current European/Middle eastern science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orendorf, C.R.

    1990-06-01

    The European Science Notes Information Bulletin (ESNIB) 90-05 is a compilation of reports on recent developments in European science of specific interest to the U.S. research and development community, and is issued in support of the mission of the Office of Naval Research European Office. Issue Number 90-05, in addition to European area news, notes, and abstracts, contains reports in the fields of Acoustics, Atmospheric Electricity, Computer Science, Electronics, and Physics. The value of the ESNIB to Americans is to call attention to current activity in European science and technology and to identify the institutions and people responsible for these efforts. The ESNIB authors are primarily ONREUR staff members; other reports are prepared by or in cooperation with staff members of the USAF European Office of Aerospace Research and Development or the U.S. Army Research, Development and Standardination Group. Scientists from the U.S. who are traveling in Europe may also be invited to submit reports.

  9. Supporting PECO countries in combating illicit trafficking of nuclear materials - Status of ongoing projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janssens, W.; Daures, P.; Cromboom, O.; Mayer, K.; Koch, L.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: In order to support the development of an efficient and validated response to counteract illicit trafficking of nuclear materials in the EU, the candidate countries and some CIS countries, ITU is currently executing a series of dedicated projects with the Candidate Countries to the European Union, based upon the experience gained in previous Phare and Tacis projects. Following the recommendations of the International Technical Working Group (ITWG), the objectives of the projects are: assessment of the national situation during a fact-finding mission in the country; technical upgrade and/or training related to the categorisation of nuclear material on the spot and assistance for the identification of seized nuclear material, through joint analysis at ITU; implementation of the recommended Model Action Plan in the form of a national handbook called RITNUM (Response to Illicit Trafficking of NUclear Material); validation of the national Model Action Plan by the organisation of a demonstration exercise in the country involving all the identified services in the field. After a kick-off meeting held in Karlsruhe in November 2000 and attended by two participants of each country, 5 fact-finding missions have been already performed (Romania, Slovenia and the three Baltic States). A general meeting with all the involved parties (Customs, Police, Intelligence services. Health Physics, Nuclear reference laboratory...) was organised to describe the procedure of the integrated response and the national needs were assessed. The corresponding training sessions are planed in January 2002 at ITU for three participants for each country (Customs and Police officer and high level scientist dealing with nuclear measurements). This training session will be organised and supported by IAEA which have a common interest through its Regional Program on Combating Illicit Trafficking (RER60). This joint action will be extended to other eastern countries (ex. Belarus) on IAEA request

  10. Radiation Detection System for Prevention of Illicit Trafficking of Nuclear and Radioactive Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwak, Sung Woo; Chang, Sung Soon; Yoo, Ho Sik

    2010-01-01

    Fixed radiation portal monitors (RPMs) deployed at border, seaport, airport and key traffic checkpoints have played an important role in preventing the illicit trafficking and transport of nuclear and radioactive materials. However, the RPM is usually large and heavy and can't easily be moved to different locations. These reasons motivate us to develop a mobile radiation detection system. The objective of this paper is to report our experience on developing the mobile radiation detection system for search and detection of nuclear and radioactive materials during road transport. Field tests to characterize the developed detection system were performed at various speeds and distances between the radioactive isotope (RI) transporting car and the measurement car. Results of measurements and detection limits of our system are described in this paper. The mobile radiation detection system developed should contribute to defending public's health and safety and the environment against nuclear and radiological terrorism by detecting nuclear or radioactive material hidden illegally in a vehicle

  11. Transactional Sex among Noninjecting Illicit Drug Users: Implications for HIV Transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimarães, Rafael Alves; Rodovalho, Aurélio Goulart; Fernandes, Inaina Lara; Silva, Graciele Cristina; de Felipe, Rodrigo Lopes; Vera, Ivânia; Gregório, Valéria Duarte; Lucchese, Roselma

    2016-01-01

    Noninjecting illicit drug users (NIDUs) present high risk for HIV infection, due especially to transactional sex. This study aimed to estimate the prevalence and risk factors for transactional sex among NIDUs in the Southwest region of Goiás State, Central Brazil. The prevalence of self-reported transactional sex was 22.8%. Prevalence in women and men was 52.7% and 16.8%, respectively, a significant difference (p drugs, and history of sexual violence were risk factors for transactional sex in women. A high prevalence of transactional sex was observed among NIDUs. This risk behavior may contribute to the high rates of HIV among this population and their social networks and in the general population.

  12. Transactional Sex among Noninjecting Illicit Drug Users: Implications for HIV Transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Alves Guimarães

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Noninjecting illicit drug users (NIDUs present high risk for HIV infection, due especially to transactional sex. This study aimed to estimate the prevalence and risk factors for transactional sex among NIDUs in the Southwest region of Goiás State, Central Brazil. The prevalence of self-reported transactional sex was 22.8%. Prevalence in women and men was 52.7% and 16.8%, respectively, a significant difference (p<0.001. Crack use and history of sexually transmitted infections (STI were risk factors for transactional sex in men. Homelessness, crack use, sex under the influence of drugs, and history of sexual violence were risk factors for transactional sex in women. A high prevalence of transactional sex was observed among NIDUs. This risk behavior may contribute to the high rates of HIV among this population and their social networks and in the general population.

  13. Patterns and correlates of illicit drug selling among youth in the USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmedani B

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Michael G Vaughn1, Jeffrey J Shook2, Brian E Perron3, Arnelyn Abdon4, Brian Ahmedani51School of Social Work, School of Public Health and Department of Public Policy Studies, Saint Louis University, St Louis, MO USA; 2School of Social Work, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA USA; 3School of Social Work, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI USA; 4School of Economics, University of the Philippines, Quezon City, Philippines; 5Henry Ford Health System, Detroit MI, USAPurpose: Despite the high rates of drug selling among youth in juvenile justice and youth residing in disadvantage neighborhoods, relatively little is known about the patterns of illicit drug selling among youth in the general population.Methods: Using the public-use data file from the adolescent sample (N = 17 842 in the 2008 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH, this study employed multiple logistic regression to compare the behavioral, parental involvement, and prevention experiences of youth who sold and did not sell illicit drugs in the past year.Results: Findings from a series of logistic regression models indicated youth who sold drugs were far more likely to use a wide variety of drugs and engage in delinquent acts. Drug-selling youth were significantly less likely to report having a parent involved in their life and have someone to talk to about serious problems but were more likely to report exposure to drug prevention programming.Conclusion: Selling of drugs by youth appears to be a byproduct of substance abuse and deviance proneness, and the prevention programs these youth experience are likely a result of mandated exposure derived from contact with the criminal justice system. Assuming no major drug supply side reductions, policies, and practices associated with increasing drug abuse treatment, parental involvement and supervision, and school engagement are suggested.Keywords: drug distribution, prevention, adolescent risk, youth experiences, parental

  14. Interest in low-threshold employment among people who inject illicit drugs: implications for street disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debeck, Kora; Wood, Evan; Qi, Jiezhi; Fu, Eric; McArthur, Doug; Montaner, Julio; Kerr, Thomas

    2011-09-01

    Income generation opportunities available to people who use illicit drugs have been associated with street disorder. Among a cohort of injection drug users (IDU) we sought to examine street-based income generation practices and willingness to forgo these sources of income if other low-threshold work opportunities were made available. Data were derived from a prospective community recruited cohort of IDU. We assessed the prevalence of engaging in disorderly street-based income generation activities, including sex work, drug dealing, panhandling, and recycling/salvaging/vending. Using multivariate logistic regressions based on Akaike information criterion and the best subset selection procedure, we identified factors associated with disorderly income generation activities, and assessed willingness to forgo these sources of income during the period of November 2008 to July 2009. Among our sample of 874 IDU, 418 (48%) reported engaging in a disorderly income generation activity in the previous six months. In multivariate analyses, engaging in disorderly income generation activities was independently associated with high intensity stimulant use, as well as binge drug use, having encounters with police, being a victim of violence, sharing used syringes, and injecting in public areas. Among those engaged in disorderly income generation, 198 (47%) reported a willingness to forgo these income sources if given opportunities for low-threshold employment, with sex workers being most willing to engage in alternative employment. Engagement in disorderly street-based income generation activities was associated with high intensity stimulant drug use and various markers of risk. We found that a high proportion of illicit drug users were willing to cease engagement in these activities if they had options for causal low-threshold employment. These findings indicate that there is a high demand for low-threshold employment that may offer important opportunities to reduce drug

  15. Heavy alcohol use and suicidal behavior among people who use illicit drugs: A cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Mary Clare; Marshall, Brandon D L; Hayashi, Kanna; Nguyen, Paul; Wood, Evan; Kerr, Thomas

    2015-06-01

    People who use illicit drugs (PWUD) are known to experience high rates of suicidal behavior. While heavy alcohol use has been associated with suicide risk, its impact on the suicidal behavior of PWUD has not been well characterized. Therefore, we examined the relationship between heavy alcohol use and suicidal behavior among PWUD in Vancouver, Canada. Data are derived from two prospective cohort studies of PWUD in Vancouver, Canada, from 2005 to 2013. Participants completed questionnaires that elicited information regarding sociodemographics, drug use patterns, and mental health problems, including suicidal behavior. We used recurrent event survival analyses to estimate the independent association between at-risk/heavy drinking (based on National Institute of Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism [NIAAA] criteria) and risk of incident, self-reported suicide attempts. Of 1757 participants, 162 participants (9.2%) reported 227 suicide attempts over the 8-year study period, resulting in an incidence rate of 2.5 cases per 100 person-years. After adjusting for potential confounders, including intensive illicit drug use patterns, heavy alcohol use (adjusted hazard ratio [AHR] = 1.97; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.39, 2.78) was positively associated with an increased risk of suicidal behavior. We observed a high burden of suicidal behavior among a community-recruited sample of PWUD. Heavy alcohol use predicted a higher risk of suicide attempt, independent of other drug use patterns. These findings demonstrate the need for evidence-based interventions to address suicide risk among PWUD, particularly those who are heavy consumers of alcohol. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Staff training makes a difference: improvements in neonatal illicit drug testing and intervention at a tertiary hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oral, Resmiye; Koc, Feyza; Jogerst, Kristen; Bayman, Levent; Austin, Andrea; Sullivan, Shannon; Bayman, Emine Ozgur

    2014-07-01

    This project explored the impact of staff training on the rates of perinatal maternal and neonatal illicit drug testing. Controlled, retrospective chart review on 1186 newborn and mother dyads from 2006 (pre-training control group) and on 1861 dyads from 2009 (post-training study group) was completed. Differences between rates of infant and mother drug testing were compared. Increased drug testing rates for the mothers and infants led to increased case finding that tripled both for the mothers (13-3.7%, p importance of and encourages other hospitals to analyze the efficacy of their current protocol and staff training practices in place to ensure the best child protection services.

  17. Fatalities involving illicit drug use in Pretoria, South Africa, for the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The most frequently detected drug was heroin, the presence of which was confirmed in 35.2% of cases, followed by cocaine in 19.9%. Alcohol in combination with an illicit drug or drugs was detected in 56 cases (36.4%). Conclusions. Results from this study indicate that illicit drugs were implicated in a considerable number ...

  18. Screening for illicit heroin use in patients in a heroin-assisted treatment program

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rook, Elisabeth J.; Huitema, Alwin D. R.; van den Brink, Wim; Hillebrand, Michel J. X.; van Ree, Jan M.; Beijnen, Jos H.

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the use of illicit heroin among patients in a heroin-assisted treatment program. In this program, pharmaceutical-grade heroin was administered to heroin-addicted patients. Monitoring of illicit heroin use was considered important for the evaluation of this

  19. Assessment of detection limits of fiber-optic distributed temperature sensing for detection of illicit connections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nienhuis, J.; De Haan, C.; Langeveld, J.G.; Klootwijk, M.; Clemens, F.H.L.R.

    2012-01-01

    Distributed Temperature Sensing (DTS) with fiber-optic cables is a powerful tool to detect illicit connections in storm sewer systems. High frequency temperature measurements along the in-sewer cable create a detailed representation of temperature anomalies due to illicit discharges. The detection

  20. Whistleblowing in the financial industry: The right means to curb illicit flows from developing countries?

    OpenAIRE

    Ledergerber, Zora; Fontana, Alessandra

    2011-01-01

    Information provided by insiders can contribute to the goal of reducing illicit capital flight from developing countries. It helps address one of the most difficult aspects in investigating such flows (the secrecy of the banking industry) and makes accepting illicit money a riskier endeavour for banks.

  1. Alcohol, tobacco and illicit substances in music videos: a content analysis of prevalence and genre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, Enid L; Thau, Helaine M; Hill, Douglas L; Fisher, Deborah A; Grube, Joel W

    2005-07-01

    Content analyses examined mention of alcohol, tobacco, and illicit substances in music videos (n = 359) broadcast in 2001, as well as genre and presence of humor. Findings indicated that references to illicit substances were more prevalent than tobacco in music videos. Humor was 2.5 times as likely to appear in videos containing references to substances than those without substances.

  2. Illicit Drug Use from Adolescence to Young Adulthood among Child Welfare-Involved Youths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casanueva, Cecilia; Stambaugh, Leyla; Urato, Matthew; Fraser, Jenifer Goldman; Williams, Jason

    2014-01-01

    This study examined illicit substance use among 1,004 adolescents, ages 11-21, involved with the Child Welfare System (CWS) and followed from 1999 to 2007. By the time they reached transition age, more than 60% of the sample had used an illicit substance in their lifetime. Predictors of regular use during adolescence were having a prior CWS…

  3. Illicit drug use and violence in acute psychosis among acute adult ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Stellenbosch ... Background and objective: The prevalence of mental illness and illicit .... risk to the patients or adverse implications on their rights ... (age, gender, and drainage area), illicit drug use, violent ... whom (62.6%) were older than 35 years.

  4. Progress in the activities on prevention and combating of illicit trafficking of nuclear material in Lithuania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurselis, S.; Stadalnikas, A.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: The paper gives a general overview of the progress which has been made in the activities on prevention and combating of illicit trafficking of nuclear material in Lithuania. It describes the measures which were taken to strengthen nuclear material accounting and control and physical protection. The current status of the national legislation and the functions of institutions involved in control of nuclear material and combating of illicit trafficking are discussed. Lithuania, similar to many countries, did not avoid a new type of a crime - smuggling of nuclear materials - which was observed in the 1990's. The most serious case in Lithuania happened in 1993 when fresh fuel assembly was stolen from Ignalina NPP. This assembly contains approximately 124 kg of UO 2 (enrichment 2%). 100 kg of the pellets from this assembly was found later in several pieces at different places. This case served as a strong stimulus to strengthen prevention measures of Illicit trafficking. The legal basis was created and governmental institutions were obliged with special duties related with nuclear material. The laws and regulations set the order for the shipment and handling of nuclear material. The penalties for violation of these laws and regulations specified in Penal Code and Administrative Code were made stricter. The State system of accounting for and control of nuclear material (SSAC) is a very important element in prevention of the illicit trafficking. The Regulations of Accounting for and Control of Nuclear Material at Nuclear Facilities and LOFs was issued by the State Nuclear Power Safety Inspectorate (VATESI) on 10 December 1997 following the provisions of the Law on Nuclear Energy. Lithuania extended its international obligations by ratifying the Protocol Additional to the Safeguards Agreement (entered into force on 5 July 2000). The fully computerized nuclear material accountancy system was created at Ignalina NPP. The system gives the possibility to find the

  5. International technical working group cooperation to counter illicit nuclear trafficking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, D.K.; Niemeyer, S.

    2004-01-01

    The Nuclear Smuggling International Technical Working Group (ITWG) is an international group of nuclear forensic experts that cooperate to deter the illicit trafficking of nuclear materials. The objective of the ITWG is to provide a common approach and effective technical solutions to governments who request assistance in nuclear forensics. The ITWG was chartered in 1996 and since that time more than 28 nations and organizations have participated in 9 international meetings and 2 analytical round-robin trials. Soon after its founding the ITWG adopted a general framework to guide nuclear forensics investigations that includes recommendations for nuclear crime scene security and analysis, the best application of radioanalytical methods, the conduct of traditional forensic analysis of contaminated materials, and effective data analysis to interpret the history of seized nuclear materials. This approach has been adopted by many nations as they respond to incidents of illicit nuclear trafficking. ITWG members include policy and decision makers, law enforcement personnel, and scientists with expertise in, and responsibility for, nuclear forensics. (author)

  6. Capillary electrophoresis: principles and applications in illicit drug analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagliaro, F; Turrina, S; Smith, F P

    1996-02-09

    Capillary electrophoresis, which appeared in the early 1980s, is now rapidly expanding into many scientific disciplines, including analytical chemistry, biotechnology and biomedical and pharmaceutical sciences. In capillary electrophoresis,electrokinetic separations are carried out in tiny capillaries at high voltages (10-30 kV), thus obtaining high efficiencies (N > 10(5)) and excellent mass sensitivities (down to 10(-18)-10(-20) moles). The main features of capillary electrophoresis are: versatility of application (from inorganic ions to large DNA fragments), use of different separation modes with different selectivity, extremely low demands on sample volume, negligible running costs, possibility of interfacing with different detection systems, ruggedness and simplicity of instrumentation. Capillary electrophoresis applications in forensic sciences have appeared only recently, but are now rapidly growing, particularly in forensic toxicology. The present paper briefly describes the basic principles of capillary electrophoresis, from both the instrumental and analytical points of view. Furthermore, the main applications in the analysis of illicit/controlled drugs in both illicit preparations and biological samples are presented and discussed (43 references). It is concluded that the particular separation mechanism and the high complementarity of this technique to chromatography makes capillary electrophoresis a new powerful tool of investigation in the hands of forensic toxicologists.

  7. Illicit trafficking of nuclear material and other radioactive sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yilmazer, A.; Yuecel, A.; Yavuz, U.

    2001-01-01

    As it is known, for the fact that the illicit trafficking and trading of nuclear materials are being increased over the past few years because of the huge demand of third world states. Nuclear materials like uranium, plutonium, and thorium are used in nuclear explosives that have very attractive features for crime groups, terrorist groups and, the states that are willing to have this power. Crime groups that make illegal trade of nuclear material are also trying to market strategic radioactive sources like red mercury and Osmium. This kind of illegal trade threats public safety, human health, environment also it brings significant threat on world peace and world public health. For these reasons, both states and international organizations should take a role in dealing with illicit trafficking. An important precondition for preventing this kind of incidents is the existence of a strengthened national system for control of all nuclear materials and other radioactive sources. Further, Governments are responsible for law enforcement within their borders for prevention of illegal trading and trafficking of nuclear materials and radiation sources

  8. Early evidence about the predicted unintended consequences of standardised packaging of tobacco products in Australia: a cross-sectional study of the place of purchase, regular brands and use of illicit tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scollo, Michelle; Zacher, Meghan; Durkin, Sarah; Wakefield, Melanie

    2014-07-18

    To test for early evidence whether, following the standardisation of tobacco packaging, smokers in Australia were--as predicted by the tobacco industry--less likely to purchase from small mixed business retailers, more likely to purchase cheap brands imported from Asia and more likely to use illicit tobacco. Serial cross-sectional population telephone surveys in November 2011 (a year prior to implementation), 2012 (during roll-out) and 2013 (a year after implementation). Smokers aged 18 years and over identified in an annual population survey in the Australian state of Victoria (2011: n=754; 2012: n=590; 2013: n=601). Changes between 2011 and 2013 in: proportions of current smokers who purchased their last cigarette from discount outlets such as supermarkets compared with small mixed business retail outlets; prevalence of regular use of low-cost brands imported from Asia and use of unbranded tobacco. The proportion of smokers purchasing from supermarkets did not increase between 2011 (65.4%) and 2013 (65.7%; p=0.98), and the percentage purchasing from small mixed business outlets did not decline (2011: 9.2%; 2012: 11.2%; p=0.32). The prevalence of low-cost Asian brands was low and did not increase between 2011 (1.1%) and 2013 (0.9%; p=0.98). The proportion reporting current use of unbranded illicit tobacco was 2.3% in 2011 and 1.9% in 2013 (p=0.46). In 2013, 2.6% of cigarette smokers reported having purchased one or more packets of cigarettes in non-compliant packaging in the past 3 months; 1.7% had purchased one or more packets from an informal seller in the past year. One year after implementation, this study found no evidence of the major unintended consequences concerning loss of smoker patrons from small retail outlets, flooding of the market by cheap Asian brands and use of illicit tobacco predicted by opponents of plain packaging in Australia. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence

  9. Steam generator automated eddy current data analysis: A benchmarking study. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, S.D.

    1998-12-01

    The eddy current examination of steam generator tubes is a very demanding process. Challenges include: complex signal analysis, massive amount of data to be reviewed quickly with extreme precision and accuracy, shortages of data analysts during peak periods, and the desire to reduce examination costs. One method to address these challenges is by incorporating automation into the data analysis process. Specific advantages, which automated data analysis has the potential to provide, include the ability to analyze data more quickly, consistently and accurately than can be performed manually. Also, automated data analysis can potentially perform the data analysis function with significantly smaller levels of analyst staffing. Despite the clear advantages that an automated data analysis system has the potential to provide, no automated system has been produced and qualified that can perform all of the functions that utility engineers demand. This report investigates the current status of automated data analysis, both at the commercial and developmental level. A summary of the various commercial and developmental data analysis systems is provided which includes the signal processing methodologies used and, where available, the performance data obtained for each system. Also, included in this report is input from seventeen research organizations regarding the actions required and obstacles to be overcome in order to bring automatic data analysis from the laboratory into the field environment. In order to provide assistance with ongoing and future research efforts in the automated data analysis arena, the most promising approaches to signal processing are described in this report. These approaches include: wavelet applications, pattern recognition, template matching, expert systems, artificial neural networks, fuzzy logic, case based reasoning and genetic algorithms. Utility engineers and NDE researchers can use this information to assist in developing automated data

  10. IAEA coordinated research project on improvement of technical measures to detect and respond to illicit trafficking of nuclear and other radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abedin-Zadeh, R.; Abou-Zahra, A.; Weiss, B.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Monitoring to detect the illicit trafficking of nuclear and other radioactive materials includes screening vehicles, cargo and individuals at borders to 1) detect smuggling of these materials; 2) locate, measure and characterize the source of radiation; and 3) fully characterize any confiscated material. Currently available instruments used for the field measurements are not optimized for this purpose and may not detect shielded plutonium and highly enriched uranium. Confiscated radioactive materials need to be characterized with macro- and microanalysis techniques to fully understand the significance of the material and to provide credible evidence in the event of prosecution of the traffickers. Although most States have national laboratories capable to determine the basic characteristics of such material, only a few member States have the sophisticated analytical capability necessary to perform proper forensics analysis. The coordinated research project on 'Improvement of Technical Measures to Detect and Respond to Illicit Trafficking of Nuclear and other Radioactive Materials' has been established to: Improve the detection capability and performance of hand-held and portable isotope measurement devices, including the technical and functional specifications for such devices; standardize procedures to examine suspicious packages and to assess the hazard of confiscated material; and develop recommendations and guidelines for establishing a system to provide nuclear forensics support to member States for the characterization of seized nuclear material. Related to the nuclear forensics support, it should be noted that with the inception of the Agency's nuclear security programme in 1995, the IAEA has offered the services of its laboratories in Seibersdorf and associated laboratories to assist States in analysing confiscated nuclear materials. Since 1993 the IAEA has received reports of over 300 cases of smuggling of nuclear and other radioactive materials

  11. Radiotherapy of Teikyo University. (3rd report) Experience and the current status at Ichihara Hospital

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogata, Hitoshi; Furui, Shigeru; Machida, Namio; Uchiyama, Katsuhiro

    2006-01-01

    Information disclosure is becoming a big trend these days, especially in the medical environment. To deal with the associated demands, the Department of Radiology, Teikyo University is continuing to report the experience and current status of radiotherapy. This report analyzed the total cases treated at Ichihara Hospital between the beginning of radiotherapy practice and the end of 2002. The basic items (age, sex, primary disease, primary organ, initial date of radiotherapy, initial department before radiotherapy, etc) of each case were studied. The accumulative numbers of the new patients and the overall treated patients were 1384 cases (278 from Surgery, 235 from Internal Medicine, 203 from Head and Neck (H and N), 143 from Ophthalmology, 134 from gynecology, etc) and 1795 cases (337 from Surgery, 321 from Internal Medicine, 271 from head and Neck (H and N), 180 from ophthalmology, 134 from Gynecology, etc) respectively. The sites of the primary lesions were 213 in digestive, 182 in respiratory, 171 in H and N, 159 in breast, 156 in central nervous system (CNS), 149 in hematologic, 131 in gynecologic, and 124 in urological organs. There are 60 cases of retinoblastoma in CNS tumors. It was thought that Ichihara Hospital of Teikyo University was very typical with regard to the patients referred to the Radiotherapy division. We will update this report periodically. (author)

  12. Encouraging the Disuse of Illicit Drugs Among At-Risk Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Chau-kiu; Ngai, Steven Sek-yum

    2016-05-01

    Youth at risk of illicit drug abuse and other delinquent acts are the target of social work services. Preventing or discouraging the use of illicit drugs among at-risk youth is a long-standing practical and research concern. For this reason, the preventive function of courage is a research gap the present study seeks to fill. The study collected data from 169 at-risk youths and their social workers with two-wave panel surveys. Results show that courage in Wave 1 presented a strong negative effect on illicit drug use in Wave 2 in the youth, controlling for illicit drug use in Wave 1 and background characteristics. Moreover, the negative effect was stronger when Wave 1 drug use was more likely. These results imply the helpfulness of encouraging at-risk youth to gather courage to resist the temptation to use illicit drugs. © The Author(s) 2014.

  13. Detection of illicit online sales of fentanyls via Twitter [version 1; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim K. Mackey

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available A counterfeit fentanyl crisis is currently underway in the United States.  Counterfeit versions of commonly abused prescription drugs laced with fentanyl are being manufactured, distributed, and sold globally, leading to an increase in overdose and death in countries like the United States and Canada.  Despite concerns from the U.S. Drug Enforcement Agency regarding covert and overt sale of fentanyls online, no study has examined the role of the Internet and social media on fentanyl illegal marketing and direct-to-consumer access.  In response, this study collected and analyzed five months of Twitter data (from June-November 2015 filtered for the keyword “fentanyl” using Amazon Web Services.  We then analyzed 28,711 fentanyl-related tweets using text filtering and a machine learning approach called a Biterm Topic Model (BTM to detect underlying latent patterns or “topics” present in the corpus of tweets.  Using this approach we detected a subset of 771 tweets marketing the sale of fentanyls online and then filtered this down to nine unique tweets containing hyperlinks to external websites.  Six hyperlinks were associated with online fentanyl classified ads, 2 with illicit online pharmacies, and 1 could not be classified due to traffic redirection.  Importantly, the one illicit online pharmacy detected was still accessible and offered the sale of fentanyls and other controlled substances direct-to-consumers with no prescription required at the time of publication of this study.   Overall, we detected a relatively small sample of Tweets promoting illegal online sale of fentanyls.  However, the detection of even a few online sellers represents a public health danger and a direct violation of law that demands further study.

  14. Pregabalin Use Among Users of Illicit Drugs: A Cross-Sectional Survey in Southern Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snellgrove, Brendan J; Steinert, Tilman; Jaeger, Susanne

    2017-10-01

    The antiepileptic drug pregabalin is one of the best-selling pharmaceutical products worldwide. There are increasing concerns about its potential for misuse and dependence especially among patients with former or current substance use disorders (SUDs). Our objective was to clarify the extent and pattern of pregabalin use as well as motives and predictors in this population. We conducted a cross-sectional study with patients on a detoxification ward for illicit drugs at the Center for Psychiatry, Südwürttemberg, Ravensburg in southern Germany from August 2012 until July 2013. We used an extensive questionnaire, part of the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition) Axis I Disorders (SCID-I) and urine samples. Of the 253 participating patients, 56% had used pregabalin at least once. Of these, 92% had acquired it at least in part from illegal sources. The main motives for the use of pregabalin were the attenuation of opioid withdrawal symptoms, the augmentation of other psychotropic substances, and the psychotropic effects of pregabalin itself. Predictors for pregabalin use were opioid and sedative use as well as younger age. The criteria of dependency according to DSM-IV was met by 11% of pregabalin users and 13% of urine samples were positive for pregabalin. Use of pregabalin is common among users of illicit drugs in large parts of southern Germany, with motives for use, acquisition, and mode of use suggesting misuse. The mode of use, especially intake of high doses and concomitant use of other drugs, poses a serious risk to this population, including the development of dependency.

  15. Exposure to fentanyl-contaminated heroin and overdose risk among illicit opioid users in Rhode Island: A mixed methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Jennifer J; Marshall, Brandon D L; Rich, Josiah D; Green, Traci C

    2017-08-01

    Illicit fentanyl use has become wide spread in the US, causing high rates of overdose deaths among people who use drugs. This study describes patterns and perceptions of fentanyl exposure among opioid users in Rhode Island. A mixed methods study was conducted via questionnaire with a convenience sample of 149 individuals using illicit opioids or misusing prescription opioids in Rhode Island between January and November 2016. Of these, 121 knew of fentanyl and reported known or suspected exposure to fentanyl in the past year. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with the first 47 participants. Study participants were predominantly male (64%) and white (61%). Demographic variables were similar across sample strata. Heroin was the most frequently reported drug of choice (72%). Self-reported exposure to illicit fentanyl in the past year was common (50.4%, n=61). In multivariate models, regular (at least weekly) heroin use was independently associated with known or suspected fentanyl exposure in the past year (adjusted prevalence ratio (APR)=4.07, 95% CI: 1.24-13.3, p=0.020). In interviews, users described fentanyl as unpleasant, potentially deadly, and to be avoided. Participants reporting fentanyl exposure routinely experienced or encountered non-fatal overdose. Heroin users reported limited ability to identify fentanyl in their drugs. Harm reduction strategies used to protect themselves from fentanyl exposure and overdose, included test hits, seeking prescription opioids in lieu of heroin, and seeking treatment with combination buprenorphine/naloxone. Participants were often unsuccessful in accessing structured treatment programs. Among illicit opioid users in Rhode Island, known or suspected fentanyl exposure is common, yet demand for fentanyl is low. Fentanyl-contaminated drugs are generating user interest in effective risk mitigation strategies, including treatment. Responses to the fentanyl epidemic should be informed by the perceptions and experiences of

  16. Legal aspects of the control and repression of illicit trafficking of nuclear and other radioactive materials. Is there a need for an international convention?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spence, Scott

    2012-01-01

    It is generally recognised that illicit trafficking of nuclear and other radioactive materials is a serious problem, and one that must be tackled with a comprehensive response involving national governments as well as a number of intergovernmental organisations including the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). The IAEA notes that 1 773 incidents were reported to its Illicit Trafficking Database, or ITDB, between January 1993 and December 2009, and that 351 of these involved '... unauthorized possession and related criminal activities' such as '... illegal possession, movement or attempts to illegally trade in or use nuclear material or radioactive sources'. The IAEA adds that 222 more incidents were confirmed between July 2009 and June 2010 and concludes that: - the availability of unsecured nuclear and other radioactive material persists; - effective border control measures help to detect illicit trafficking, although effective control is not uniformly implemented at all international border points; and - individuals and groups are prepared to engage in trafficking this material. A disturbing trend is trafficking in particularly sensitive regions of the world, such as in countries that were formerly a part of the former Soviet Union. In November 2010, Georgian officials seized four individuals allegedly trying to sell cesium-137, which though fairly common can be used to make a radiological dispersion device (RDD) or 'dirty bomb'. This closely followed a court case in Georgia involving Armenian nationals who had attempted to sell weapon-grade plutonium. More recently, in June 2011, Moldovan police arrested six individuals suspected of trafficking in uranium-235. In view of the problem, this paper considers whether an international convention specifically targeting illicit trafficking is needed or not. The paper does not go conceptually beyond the legal aspects of controlling and repressing illicit trafficking; rather, it will look at whether the existing

  17. International dimension of illicit trafficking in nuclear and other radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaitseva, L.; Bunn, G.; Steinhaeusler, F.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Illicit trafficking in nuclear and other radioactive material is primarily associated with Russia and other former Soviet republics. Indeed, with the collapse of the former Soviet Union (FSU) in 1991, hundreds of tons of weapons-usable nuclear material and thousands of radiation sources were left without adequate control and protection, thus posing a risk for sabotage, theft and diversion. Out of 700 illicit trafficking incidents recorded in the Stanford's database on nuclear smuggling, theft and orphan radiation sources (DSTO), over 450 either took place in the former Soviet Union or involved material that had reportedly originated from the FSU. In the period 1992-1994, Western and Eastern Europe were heavily affected by the inflow of nuclear material smuggled from the FSU. Since then, various measures were taken by the European countries and former Soviet republics to prevent the trafficking of radioactive substances ranging from the improvement of physical security at nuclear facilities to the installation of detection equipment at international borders. However, although the number of illicit trafficking incidents in Western Europe has decreased dramatically since 1994 and the overall annual number of such cases has been lower than in 1994, evidence suggests that diverted nuclear material is still being smuggled out of the FSU. An increased number of interceptions of nuclear and other radioactive material in the Caucasus, Turkey and Central Asia, well-known for their drugs and arms smuggling routes, over the past three years demonstrates that the material may now be moving south rather than west. This is particularly alarming considering the proximity of three countries to the potential end-users of nuclear and other radioactive material, such as AI Qaida terrorist network and aspiring nuclear weapon states in the Middle East. Although the FSU remains the major potential source of nuclear and other radioactive material, it is not the only one. Thefts

  18. 76 FR 17778 - Control of Ergocristine, a Chemical Precursor Used in the Illicit Manufacture of Lysergic Acid...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-31

    ... 1117-AB24 Control of Ergocristine, a Chemical Precursor Used in the Illicit Manufacture of Lysergic... for the List I chemicals ergotamine and ergonovine to illicitly manufacture the schedule I controlled..., due to growing concerns regarding its use for the illicit manufacture of LSD. [[Page 17779...

  19. Relationship between hunger, adherence to antiretroviral therapy and plasma HIV RNA suppression among HIV-positive illicit drug users in a Canadian setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anema, Aranka; Kerr, Thomas; Milloy, M-J; Feng, Cindy; Montaner, Julio S G; Wood, Evan

    2014-04-01

    Food insecurity may be a barrier to achieving optimal HIV treatment-related outcomes among illicit drug users. This study therefore, aimed to assess the impact of severe food insecurity, or hunger, on plasma HIV RNA suppression among illicit drug users receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART). A cross-sectional Multivariate logistic regression model was used to assess the potential relationship between hunger and plasma HIV RNA suppression. A sample of n = 406 adults was derived from a community-recruited open prospective cohort of HIV-positive illicit drug users, in Vancouver, British Columbia (BC), Canada. A total of 235 (63.7%) reported "being hungry and unable to afford enough food," and 241 (59.4%) had plasma HIV RNA hunger was associated with lower odds of plasma HIV RNA suppression (Odds Ratio = 0.59, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.39-0.90, p = 0.015). In multivariate analyses, this association was no longer significant after controlling for socio-demographic, behavioral, and clinical characteristics, including 95% adherence (Adjusted Odds Ratio [AOR] = 0.65, 95% CI: 0.37-1.10, p = 0.105). Multivariate models stratified by 95% adherence found that the direction and magnitude of this association was not significantly altered by the adherence level. Hunger was common among illicit drug users in this setting. Although, there was an association between hunger and lower likelihood of plasma HIV RNA suppression, this did not persist in adjusted analyses. Further research is warranted to understand the social-structural, policy, and physical factors shaping the HIV outcomes of illicit drug users.

  20. KAPEX RAFOS float data report 1997 - 1999. Pt. A. The Agulhas- and South Atlantic current components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boebel, O.; Anderson-Fontana, S.; Lazarevich, P.; Prater, M.; Rossby, T. [Rhode Island Univ., Narragansett, RI (United States). Graduate School of Oceanography; Schmid, C.; Zenk, W. [Institut fuer Meereskunde an der Univ. Kiel (Germany); Ansorge, I.; Lutjeharms, J. [Cape Town Univ. (South Africa). Dept. of Oceanography

    2000-10-01

    This data report presents trajectories and corresponding in-situ data for all acoustically tracked RAFOS floats that were deployed within the Agulhas and the South Atlantic Current components of KAPEX. KAPEX stands for Cape of Good Hope Experiment, Kaap die Goeie Hoop Eksperimente or Kap der Guten Hoffnung Experiment in the three languages of the participating authors. The objective of the program was to study the interocean exchange of subsurface waters south of Africa between the Atlantic and the Indian Oceans. A total of 92 floats were deployed during four cruises at depths between 100 - 1200 m during March 1997 and June 1998. It is the first time that eddy-resolving floats are used to measure ocean flow patterns at intermediate and thermocline levels off southern Africa. (orig.)

  1. Relationship of herpes simplex encephalitis and transcranial direct current stimulation--a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yuanbin; Xiao, Juan; Song, Haiqing; Wang, Ralph; Hussain, Mohammed; Song, Weiqun

    2015-04-01

    We report a rare case of relapsing herpes simplex encephalitis in a-37-year-old patient which was previously confirmed by positive polymerase chain reaction, herpes simplex virus (HSV) type1 IgG antibodies in cerebrospinal fluid and characterized on MRI. During the first admission, he was treated with continuous acyclovir treatment for one month with clinical improvement except for residual aphasia, for which he received a course of outpatient transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS). A constant current of 1.2 mA was applied for 20 min twice daily. After the 4th day the patient was found to be irritable and uncooperative by staff and family members. A subsequent MRI showed significant deterioration of the lesion on comparison to the first MRI which led to discontinuation of tDCS.The relatively rapid exacerbation of HSV in only a few days is unusual. Our aim is to discuss if tDCS is related to HSV relapse and in doing so highlight possible mechanisms. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Radiotherapy of Teikyo University. Second report. Experience and the current status at Itabashi Hospital. Brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogata, Hitoshi; Yokokawa, Tokuzo; Shirai, Tatsuo; Furui, Shigeru

    2005-01-01

    To answer the big trend of information disclosure, we are trying to report the experience and the current status of Radiotherapy in Teikyo University. Since 1974, Teikyo University has installed a High-Dose-Rate Remote Afterloading System (HDR RALS) at Itabashi Hospital for brachytherapy. We analyzed the total cases comprehensively in this paper. There were 421 cases treated by Ralstron (Shimazu Co.) between 1974 and 1995 and 128 cases treated additionally between the renewal by Microselectron (Nucletron Co.) and the end of 2002. For several years from the beginning, the number of cases treated by Ralstron had been 30-35 cases annually, but since 1987, the number decreased markedly to fewer than 10 cases per year. After the installation of Microselectron, the number increased gradually to 15 cases per year. Gynecologic tumors accounted for 88.5% of the total cases, namely 96.9% by Ralstron and 60.1% by Microselectron. The others treated by Microselectron were 27 cases with Head and Neck tumors, and 21 cases with digestive tract tumors. To increase the number of the patients for brachytherapy, we should continue to open our current status, and make close relationships between the neighbor hospitals and Teikyo Hospital. (author)

  3. Two-phase unsaturated flow at Yucca Mountain, Nevada - A Report on Current Understanding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pruess, K.

    1998-01-01

    The U.S. civilian nuclear waste program is unique in its focus on disposal of high-level wastes in the unsaturated zone (UZ), above the water table. The potential repository site currently under investigation is located in a semi-arid region of the southwestern U.S. at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The geology of the site consists of layered sequences of faulted, fractured, and bedded tuffs. The groundwater table is approximately 600 m beneath the land surface, while the proposed repository horizon is at a nominal depth of approximately 375 m. In this kind of environment, two-phase flow is not just a localized perturbation to natural conditions, as in the saturated zone, but is the predominant mode of water and gas flow. The purpose of this report is to review the current understanding of gas and water flow, and mass transport, in the unique hydrogeologic environment of Yucca Mountain. Characteristics of the Yucca Mountain site are examined, and concepts and mathematical modeling approaches are described for variably saturated flow in thick unsaturated zones of fractured rock. The paper includes a brief summary of the disposal concept and repository design, as developed by a team of engineering contractors to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), with strong participation from the DOE National Laboratories

  4. Risk behaviours of illicit drug users while travelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatja Kostnapfel Rihtar

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Despite various formal limitations, an increasing number of opioid users, especially those stabilised in substitution therapy, travel abroad, away from their permanent residence to neighbouring and remote countries on other continents. Drug users are particularly at risk to get infected with hepatitis A, B, C and HIV during travelling.The main objectives of the study were to identify and determine the frequency of potential travel-related risk behaviour, such as illicit drug use, sharing of injecting equipment, unprotected sex, involvement in criminal activities and the extent of risk in illicit drug users, included in the programmes of the Centers for Prevention and Treatment of Drug Addiction in Slovenia.Methods: The study was carried out in two phases. The first phase included semi-structured interviews conducted in a group of drug users willing to participate in the study. Based on the analysis of transcripts and additional data, the original questionnaire Risky behaviour of illicit drug users during travels was developed and filled in anonymously and on a voluntary basis at the network of Centres for Prevention and Treatment of Drug Addiction. Univariate analysis between independent and dependent factors was conducted based on chi-square test and t-test for independent factors. Multivariate analysis of the impact of independent factors on the dependent factor was conducted based on binary logistic regression.Results: The questionnaire was filled out anonymously and voluntarily by 776 individuals in 14 Slovene centres for prevention and treatment of drug addiction. The results confirmed the first hypothesis that drug users travelling away from their permanent residence are more likely to share their injecting equipment, and engage in unprotected sex and in drug-related crime, and the second hypothesis stating that illegal drug users included in the substitution treatment programmes, who regularly use drugs at home, more often

  5. Drug affordability-potential tool for comparing illicit drug markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groshkova, Teodora; Cunningham, Andrew; Royuela, Luis; Singleton, Nicola; Saggers, Tony; Sedefov, Roumen

    2018-06-01

    The importance of illicit drug price data and making appropriate adjustments for purity has been repeatedly highlighted for understanding illicit drug markets. The European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction (EMCDDA) has been collecting retail price data for a number of drug types alongside drug-specific purity information for over 15 years. While these data are useful for a number of monitoring and analytical purposes, they are not without their limitations and there are circumstances where additional adjustment needs to be considered. This paper reviews some conceptual issues and measurement challenges relevant to the interpretation of price data. It also highlights the issues with between-country comparisons of drug prices and introduces the concept of affordability of drugs, going beyond purity-adjustment to account for varying national economies. Based on a 2015 European data set of price and purity data across the heroin and cocaine retail markets, the paper demonstrates a new model for drug market comparative analysis; calculation of drug affordability is achieved by applying to purity-adjusted prices 2015 Price Level Indices (PLI, Eurostat). Available data allowed retail heroin and cocaine market comparison for 27 European countries. The lowest and highest unadjusted prices per gram were observed for heroin: in Estonia, Belgium, Greece and Bulgaria (lowest) and Finland, Ireland, Sweden and Latvia (highest); for cocaine: the Netherlands, Belgium and the United Kingdom (lowest) and Turkey, Finland, Estonia and Romania (highest). The affordability per gram of heroin and cocaine when taking into account adjustment for both purity and economy demonstrates different patterns. It is argued that purity-adjusted price alone provides an incomplete comparison of retail price across countries. The proposed new method takes account of the differing economic conditions within European countries, thus providing a more sophisticated tool for cross

  6. Self-reported interoceptive awareness in primary care patients with past or current low back pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehling WE

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Wolf E Mehling,1,2 Jennifer Daubenmier,1,3 Cynthia J Price,5 Mike Acree,1 Elizabeth Bartmess,1 Anita L Stewart41Osher Center for Integrative Medicine, 2Department of Family and Community Medicine, 3Department of Medicine, 4School of Nursing, Institute for Health and Aging, University of California, San Francisco, CA, 5School of Nursing, Department of Biobehavioral Nursing and Health Systems, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USABackground: Mind–body interactions play a major role in the prognosis of chronic pain, and mind–body therapies such as meditation, yoga, Tai Chi, and Feldenkrais presumably provide benefits for pain patients. The Multidimensional Assessment of Interoceptive Awareness (MAIA scales, designed to measure key aspects of mind–body interaction, were developed and validated with individuals practicing mind–body therapies, but have never been used in pain patients.Methods: We administered the MAIA to primary care patients with past or current low back pain and explored differences in the performance of the MAIA scales between this and the original validation sample. We compared scale means, exploratory item cluster and confirmatory factor analyses, scale–scale correlations, and internal-consistency reliability between the two samples and explored correlations with validity measures.Results: Responses were analyzed from 435 patients, of whom 40% reported current pain. Cross-sectional comparison between the two groups showed marked differences in eight aspects of interoceptive awareness. Factor and cluster analyses generally confirmed the conceptual model with its eight dimensions in a pain population. Correlations with validity measures were in the expected direction. Internal-consistency reliability was good for six of eight MAIA scales. We provided specific suggestions for their further development.Conclusion: Self-reported aspects of interoceptive awareness differ between primary care patients with past or current

  7. Current role of cryotherapy in retinopathy of prematurity: a report by the American Academy of Ophthalmology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Jennifer L; Melia, Michele; Yang, Michael B; Buffenn, Angela N; Chiang, Michael F; Lambert, Scott R

    2012-04-01

    To evaluate the role of cryotherapy in the current treatment of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP). Literature searches of PubMed and the Cochrane Library were conducted on December 2, 2009, for articles published after 1984. The searches included all languages and retrieved 187 relevant citations. Thirteen articles were deemed relevant to the assessment question and were rated according to the strength of evidence. Four articles reported results from 2 large multicenter randomized clinical trials, and the remaining 9 articles reported results of 3 small randomized trials that directly compared cryotherapy and laser. Neither of the multicenter randomized clinical trials was a direct comparison of cryotherapy with laser. These studies were used to evaluate the comparative trials based on treatment criteria, study populations, and clinical results. Higher percentages of poor structural and functional outcomes generally were seen in eyes treated with cryotherapy compared with eyes undergoing laser treatment. Higher rates of systemic complications and myopia also were identified after treatment with cryotherapy. Despite a relative paucity of level I evidence directly comparing cryotherapy and laser treatment for threshold ROP, the literature suggests that neonatal facilities should gain access to laser technology and laser-trained ophthalmic staff to achieve better outcomes for treatment of the disease. Copyright © 2012 American Academy of Ophthalmology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. The Pharmacologic and Clinical Effects of Illicit Synthetic Cannabinoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, C Michael

    2017-03-01

    This article presents information on illicitly used synthetic cannabinoids. Synthetic cannabinoids are structurally heterogeneous and commonly used drugs of abuse that act as full agonists of the cannabinoid type-1 receptor but have a variety of additional pharmacologic effects. There are numerous cases of patient harm and death in the United States, Europe, and Australia with many psychological, neurological, cardiovascular, pulmonary, and renal adverse events. Although most users prefer using cannabis, there are convenience, legal, and cost reasons driving the utilization of synthetic cannabinoids. Clinicians should be aware of pharmacologic and clinical similarities and differences between synthetic cannabinoid and cannabis use, the limited ability to detect synthetic cannabinoids in the urine or serum, and guidance to treat adverse events. © 2016, The American College of Clinical Pharmacology.

  9. Illicit dopamine transients: reconciling actions of abused drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Covey, Dan P; Roitman, Mitchell F; Garris, Paul A

    2014-04-01

    Phasic increases in brain dopamine are required for cue-directed reward seeking. Although compelling within the framework of appetitive behavior, the view that illicit drugs hijack reward circuits by hyperactivating these dopamine transients is inconsistent with established psychostimulant pharmacology. However, recent work reclassifying amphetamine (AMPH), cocaine, and other addictive dopamine-transporter inhibitors (DAT-Is) supports transient hyperactivation as a unifying hypothesis of abused drugs. We argue here that reclassification also identifies generating burst firing by dopamine neurons as a keystone action. Unlike natural rewards, which are processed by sensory systems, drugs act directly on the brain. Consequently, to mimic natural rewards and exploit reward circuits, dopamine transients must be elicited de novo. Of available drug targets, only burst firing achieves this essential outcome. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Illicit substance use among adolescents: a matrix of prospective predictors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petraitis, J; Flay, B R; Miller, T Q; Torpy, E J; Greiner, B

    1998-11-01

    This paper reviews findings from 58 prospective studies of illicit substance use (ISU) among adolescents. It arranges 384 findings according to three types of influence (viz., social, attitudinal, and intrapersonal) and four levels of influence (viz., ultimate, distal, proximal, and immediate). The bulk of evidence reconfirms the importance of several predictors of ISU (e.g., intentions and prior substance-related behavior, friendship patterns and peer behaviors, absence of supportive parents, psychological temperament), reveals that a few variables thought to be well-established predictors may not be (e.g., parental behaviors, parental permissiveness, depression, low self-esteem), and uncovers several variables where findings were either sparse or inconsistent (e.g., the role of public policies concerning ISU, mass media depictions of ISU, certain parenting styles, affective states, perceptions of parental disapproval for ISU, and substance-specific refusal skills). Directions for future research are discussed.

  11. Fast neutron attenuation measurements for detection of illicit materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Hee Seock; Chung, Chin Wha; Guon, Ki Il; Lee, Bo Young; Ko, Seung Kook; Shin, Yong Mu

    2002-01-01

    Experiments were carried out to develop a novel method using neutron attenuation for the detection of illicit materials. By using pulsed fast neutrons generated from a Bi target bombarded with a 2 GeV electron beam, attenuation spectra of C, N, and O have been measured to study the feasibility of a practical application. The spectral dependence on the material thickness and the geometrical distribution as well as the ability to identify different elements in a layered environment have been studied. For the elements mentioned here, the total cross sections have been obtained from the measured attenuation spectra and compared with ENDF-VI, which showed good agreement. The study confirms that a conventional low energy electron linac can be put into a practical use, and some practical idea is presented

  12. When color fails: illicit blue tablets containing anabolic androgen steroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favretto, Donata; Castagna, Franca; Maietti, Sergio; Boscolo-Berto, Rafael; Ferrara, Santo Davide

    2013-09-01

    The necessity of specific, confirmatory tests in the identification of seized illicit products was highlighted by the analysis of eighteen heart shaped, blue tablets confiscated by Police at a street control in the North East of Italy. The tablets responded as amphetamines to a preliminary color test (Marquis); a subsequent, confirmatory assay by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry revealed the presence of two anabolic androgen steroids (AAS), methandienone and methyltestosterone, in concentration of 1.7 and 1.5mg respectively per tablet; no trace of amphetamine-like or nitrogen containing compounds was found. The observed orange coloration was due to the reaction of concentrated sulphuric acid, contained in the Marquis reagent, with the Δ(4) C-3 keto group of steroids. The two AAS, banned under the world antidoping code, are not considered as psychoactive drugs of abuse in most countries, although their trafficking may entangle severe public health concerns. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. ILLICIT DOPAMINE TRANSIENTS: RECONCILING ACTIONS OF ABUSED DRUGS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Covey, Dan P.; Roitman, Mitchell F.; Garris, Paul A.

    2014-01-01

    Phasic increases in brain dopamine are required for cue-directed reward seeking. While compelling within the framework of appetitive behavior, the view that illicit drugs hijack reward circuits by hyper-activating these dopamine transients is inconsistent with established psychostimulant pharmacology. However, recent work reclassifying amphetamine (AMPH), cocaine, and other addictive dopamine-transporter inhibitors (DAT-Is) supports transient hyper-activation as a unifying hypothesis of abused drugs. We argue here that reclassification also identifies generating burst firing by dopamine neurons as a keystone action. Unlike natural rewards, which are processed by sensory systems, drugs act directly on the brain. Consequently, to mimic natural reward and exploit reward circuits, dopamine transients must be elicited de novo. Of available drug targets, only burst firing achieves this essential outcome. PMID:24656971

  14. A Structural Model of the Retail Market for Illicit Drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galenianos, Manolis; Gavazza, Alessandro

    2017-03-01

    We estimate a model of illicit drugs markets using data on purchases of crack cocaine. Buyers are searching for high-quality drugs, but they determine drugs' quality (i.e., their purity) only after consuming them. Hence, sellers can rip off first-time buyers or can offer higher-quality drugs to induce buyers to purchase from them again. In equilibrium, a distribution of qualities persists. The estimated model implies that if drugs were legalized, in which case purity could be regulated and hence observable, the average purity of drugs would increase by approximately 20 percent and the dispersion would decrease by approximately 80 percent. Moreover, increasing penalties may raise the purity and affordability of the drugs traded by increasing sellers’ relative profitability of targeting loyal buyers versus first-time buyers.

  15. Measures against illicit trafficking of nuclear materials and other radioactive sources in Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coker, A.J.; Adesanmi, C.A.

    2001-01-01

    safety of the general public, radiation workers, properties and the environment. Pending the time the NRA and IRP are brought to operational existence, the FRPS has been mandated to perform the role of the Regulatory Body while the existing three Energy Research Centres and FRPS are jointly saddled with the responsibilities of the IRP. All these government agencies and the research centres play major roles in the National Committee on Illicit Trafficking and form the core of the Technical Committee of the National Committee. Manpower Training and Development - The Technical Committee (TC) is to provide adequate supervision for the programme, guide the personnel involved in the monitoring of our territories at the seaports, airports, border posts and hinterland, and develop a sound training programme for all the participants. In addition, members of the TC are to pay regular visits to the monitoring centres particularly at the ports. During each visit, Seminars/Lectures are to be organised for the personnel of FEPA, Police, Customs, Immigration and the Ports Authority. This is to increase awareness at the ports of entry and for capacity building of manpower for radiation monitoring at the ports. The responsibility of the TC also includes presentation of progress report and the IAEA reports to the National Committee at the quarterly meetings. Provision of Adequate and Necessary Facilities and Infrastructure - In order to establish the necessary infrastructure, 6 seaports, 4 international airports and 5 land border posts were selected as monitoring stations to be equipped with radiation monitoring equipment. The six data collection centres are to be upgraded with all necessary modem radiation monitoring facilities. Presently, three of the centres have facilities to detect and determine the type of radionuclides, type and quantity of radiation and provide further testing of any radioactive materials intercepted from unauthorised persons. Conclusion: Problems and Areas of

  16. A review of illicit psychoactive drug use in elective surgery patients: Detection, effects, and policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvaggi, Gennaro; Spagnolo, Antonio G; Elander, Anna

    2017-12-01

    Limited information is present in literature regarding detection of illicit drug users visiting physicians when planning elective surgery; also, there is no update manuscript that is illustrating the effects of illicit drugs use that require reconstructive surgery interventions. Aims of this manuscript are: 1) to summarize existing knowledge, and give surgeons information how to detect patients who might possible use illicit drugs; 2) to review the effects of illicit drug use that specifically require reconstructive surgery interventions; 3) to assess on existing policies on asymptomatic illicit drug users when planning elective surgery. Studies were identified by searching systematically in the electronic databases PubMed, Medline, The Cochrane Library and SveMed+. Because of the nature of research questions to be investigated (drug policy and surgery), a "systematic review" was not possible. In spite of some existing policies to detect illicit drug use in specific situations such as workplaces or acute trauma patients, there is a lack of data and lack of information, and subsequently no policy has ever been made, for detection and management of illicit drug use asymptomatic patients requesting or referred for plastic surgery interventions. This manuscript poses questions for further ethical evaluations and future policy. Copyright © 2017 IJS Publishing Group Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Deadly heroin or the death of heroin -- overdoses caused by illicit drugs of abuse in Budapest, Hungary between 1994 and 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horváth, Mónika; Dunay, György; Csonka, Renata; Keller, Éva

    2013-12-01

    Rates of illicit drug use and drug-related deaths have continuously increased in developed countries since the 1960s even though the patterns of use and thus the related mortality differ from region to region. In Europe heroin is the drug most often implicated in overdoses. The decedents are most often male, between 20 and 30 years of age and have a long history of drug use. According to the majority of available studies a concomitant use of alcohol and benzodiazepines is one of the risk factors of heroin overdose. In our study we have examined the basic demographic and toxicological features of illicit drug related death cases in Budapest, Hungary between 1994 and 2012. Drug overdose death cases have been divided into two subgroups according to the substances responsible for the death of the subjects: an opioid group and a non-opioid group. The huge majority (87.9%) of decedents died due to heroin overdose and were male (87%). There has been a significant increase in the mean age of the opioid group for the past 19 years. The majority of heroin overdose cases (58%) has had no other psychofarmacons present at the toxicological examination. We have found a slight but significant positive correlation (p=0.0204, r=0.349) between the number of heroin overdose death cases and the mean concentration of street level purity heroin. Most of the examined demographic and toxicological features of the population studied have been in concordance with data previously reported. However, in contrast to other studies we report a strikingly high proportion of "pure" heroin overdose cases where no other psychoactive substances were found. The reason for this is currently unknown; we can only speculate that it can be related to the fact that heroin is used and abused differently from other countries. The remarkable phenomenon of the "ageing" of heroin users may also support a change in the drug use habits of the youngest population. The emergence and spread of new designer drugs also

  18. Ukrainian efforts in preventing illicit trafficking in nuclear materials and other radioactive sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondratov, S.I.

    1998-01-01

    The Ukrainian efforts in preventing illicit trafficking in nuclear materials and other radioactive sources are described. Attention is paid for Ukrainian Government's Decree intended, in particular, to facilitate in establishing well-coordinated activities of the Ukrainian law enforcement bodies and other agencies involved, assigning the status of the main expert organization on illicit trafficking in nuclear materials to the Scientific Center 'Institute for Nuclear Research', in developing the three-years Program on prevention illicit trafficking in nuclear materials and other radioactive sources on the Ukrainian territory as well as measures at the State and customs borders. The main directions provided by the draft Program mentioned are presented as well. (author)

  19. Current Work in Energy Analysis (Energy Analysis Program -1996 Annual Report)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Energy Analysis Program

    1998-03-01

    This report describes the work that Environmental Energy Technologies Division of Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory has been doing most recently. One of our proudest accomplishments is the publication of Scenarios of U.S. Carbon Reductions, an analysis of the potential of energy technologies to reduce carbon emissions in the U.S. This analysis played a key role in shaping the U.S. position on climate change in the Kyoto Protocol negotiations. Our participation in the fundamental characterization of the climate change issue by the IPCC is described. We are also especially proud of our study of ''leaking electricity,'' which is stimulating an international campaign for a one-watt ceiling for standby electricity losses from appliances. This ceiling has the potential to save two-thirds of the 5% of U.S. residential electricity currently expended on standby losses. The 54 vignettes contained in the following pages summarize results of research. activities ranging in scale from calculating the efficacy of individual lamp ballasts to estimating the cost-effectiveness of the national ENERGY STAR{reg_sign} labeling program, and ranging in location from a scoping study of energy-efficiency market transformation in California to development of an energy-efficiency project in the auto parts industry in Shandong Province, China. These are the intellectual endeavors of a talented team of researchers dedicated to public service.

  20. Recurrent Direct Current Cardioversion Induced Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy. A Case Report and Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athanasios Smyrlis

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Stress cardiomyopathy (SCM, also called broken heart syndrome and Takotsubo cardiomyopathy is an increasingly reported syndrome generally characterized by transient systolic dysfunction of the apical and or mid segments of the left ventricle that mimics myocardial infarction, in the absence of obstructive coronary artery disease. Typically patients present within a few hours of exposure to physical or emotional stress. However, the mechanism by which these stressors result in myocardial dysfunction is unclear. Proposed factors include catecholamine excess and coronary vasospasm1. We present the case of a 61-year-old female who experienced acute pulmonary edema secondary to stress cardiomyopathy, on two occasions immediately after undergoing elective direct current cardioversion (DCCV for atrial fibrillation (Afib. After an urgent hospitalization for management of acute left ventricular failure, she made a complete clinical and echocardiographic recovery. The incidence, clinical implications and prognosis of DCCV induced SCM is unknown. Given DCCV for Afib is a common outpatient procedure and DCCV induced SCM can lead to acute clinical deterioration it is important that physicians are vigilant about this newly recognized DCCV complication.

  1. AAPM/SNMMI Joint Task Force: report on the current state of nuclear medicine physics training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, Jerry D.; Clements, Jessica B.; Coffey, Charles W.; Fahey, Frederic H.; Gress, Dustin A.; Kinahan, Paul E.; Nickoloff, Edward L.; Mawlawi, Osama R.; MacDougall, Robert D.; Pizzuitello, Robert J.

    2015-01-01

    The American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM) and the Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging (SNMMI) recognized the need for a review of the current state of nuclear medicine physics training and the need to explore pathways for improving nuclear medicine physics training opportunities. For these reasons, the two organizations formed a joint AAPM/SNMMI Ad Hoc Task Force on Nuclear Medicine Physics Training. The mission of this task force was to assemble a representative group of stakeholders to: Estimate the demand for board‐certified nuclear medicine physicists in the next 5–10 years,Identify the critical issues related to supplying an adequate number of physicists who have received the appropriate level of training in nuclear medicine physics, andIdentify approaches that may be considered to facilitate the training of nuclear medicine physicists. As a result, a task force was appointed and chaired by an active member of both organizations that included representation from the AAPM, SNMMI, the American Board of Radiology (ABR), the American Board of Science in Nuclear Medicine (ABSNM), and the Commission for the Accreditation of Medical Physics Educational Programs (CAMPEP). The Task Force first met at the AAPM Annual Meeting in Charlotte in July 2012 and has met regularly face‐to‐face, online, and by conference calls. This manuscript reports the findings of the Task Force, as well as recommendations to achieve the stated mission. PACS number: 01.40.G‐ PMID:26699325

  2. "The first shot": the context of first injection of illicit drugs, ongoing injecting practices, and hepatitis C infection in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria de Lourdes Aguiar Oliveira

    Full Text Available The context of first drug injection and its association with ongoing injecting practices and HCV (hepatitis C virus infection were investigated. Injection drug users (IDUs (N = 606 were recruited in "drug scenes" (public places, bars in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, interviewed, and tested for HCV. Sharing of needles/syringes was more prevalent at the first injection (51.3% than at the baseline interview (36.8%. Those who shared syringes/needles at first injection were more likely to be currently engaged in direct/indirect sharing practices. Among young injectors (< 30 years, those reporting sharing of needles/ syringes at the first injection were about four times more likely to have been infected by HCV. Hepatitis C virus prevalence among active IDUs (n = 272 was 11%. Prison history and longer duration of drug injection were identified as independent predictors of HCV infection. To effectively curb HCV transmission among IDUs and minimize harms associated with risk behaviors, preventive strategies should target individuals initiating drug injection beginning with their very first injection and discourage the transition from non-injecting use to the self-injection of illicit drugs.

  3. Tobacco industry's elaborate attempts to control a global track and trace system and fundamentally undermine the Illicit Trade Protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmore, Anna B; Gallagher, Allen W A; Rowell, Andy

    2018-06-13

    currently or previously owned by the TI, or being promoted or implemented by companies with TI links, is incompatible with the ITP and would not serve to reduce illicit trade. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  4. The IAEA Illicit Trafficking Database Programme: Operations and Structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    the IAEA I TDB currently has 90 states participating voluntarily to the database. Information on about 827 incidents of which 500 involved radioactive sources has been reported. States provide information by submitting an Information Notification Form. The incident is assigned an identification number and entered in the database. Information from open sources is collected daily and reviewed. If the information warrants it a new incident is created in the database.

  5. Illicit drugs in wastewater of the city of Zagreb (Croatia) - Estimation of drug abuse in a transition country

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terzic, Senka, E-mail: terzic@irb.h [Division for Marine and Environmental Research, Rudjer Boskovic Institute, Bijenicka 54, 10000 Zagreb (Croatia); Senta, Ivan; Ahel, Marijan [Division for Marine and Environmental Research, Rudjer Boskovic Institute, Bijenicka 54, 10000 Zagreb (Croatia)

    2010-08-15

    A comprehensive study of various psychoactive substances and their metabolites was performed in the wastewater treatment plant of the city of Zagreb (780 000 inhabitants) using liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS). The estimation of drug abuse for five different illicit drugs, including heroin, cocaine, marijuana, amphetamine and ecstasy, was made on the basis of their representative excretion rates, which were determined over a period of 8 months. Marijuana (1000 kg/year), heroin (75 kg/year) and cocaine (47 kg/year) were found to be the most frequently consumed illicit drugs, while the consumption of amphetamine-type drugs was much lower (1-3 kg/year). A comparison with other reports indicated that drug abuse profiles in transition countries might be different from those reported for Western Europe, in particular with respect to the comparatively increased consumption of heroin. Enhanced consumption of stimulating drugs (cocaine and ectasy) was systematically detected during weekends. - Wastewater analysis is a promising complementary tool to assess drug abuse patterns.

  6. Illicit drugs in wastewater of the city of Zagreb (Croatia) - Estimation of drug abuse in a transition country

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terzic, Senka; Senta, Ivan; Ahel, Marijan

    2010-01-01

    A comprehensive study of various psychoactive substances and their metabolites was performed in the wastewater treatment plant of the city of Zagreb (780 000 inhabitants) using liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS). The estimation of drug abuse for five different illicit drugs, including heroin, cocaine, marijuana, amphetamine and ecstasy, was made on the basis of their representative excretion rates, which were determined over a period of 8 months. Marijuana (1000 kg/year), heroin (75 kg/year) and cocaine (47 kg/year) were found to be the most frequently consumed illicit drugs, while the consumption of amphetamine-type drugs was much lower (1-3 kg/year). A comparison with other reports indicated that drug abuse profiles in transition countries might be different from those reported for Western Europe, in particular with respect to the comparatively increased consumption of heroin. Enhanced consumption of stimulating drugs (cocaine and ectasy) was systematically detected during weekends. - Wastewater analysis is a promising complementary tool to assess drug abuse patterns.

  7. Neoclassical current studies in high beta plasmas. Technical progress report, October 1, 1982-September 31, 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    During the 12-month period, October 1, 1982 to September 30, 1983 the Levitated Octupole has been dedicated to a study of neoclassical currents. At beta values of a few percent, both the Pfirsch-Schlueter current and the bootstrap current have been observed and compared with theoretical predictions. The spatial variation of the current both radially and poloidally are found to agree with the prediction over a wide range of collisionality. A four megawatt ICRH capability exists for sustaining the current in steady state

  8. Leaving the Hospital Against Medical Advice Among People Who Use Illicit Drugs: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ti, Lianlian

    2015-01-01

    Background. Leaving the hospital against medical advice is an increasing problem in acute care settings and is associated with an array of negative health consequences that may lead to readmission for a worsened health outcome or mortality. Leaving the hospital against medical advice is particularly common among people who use illicit drugs (PWUD) and has been linked to a number of complex issues; however, few studies have focused specifically on this population beyond identifying them as being at an increased risk of leaving the hospital prematurely. Furthermore, programs and interventions for reducing the rate of leaving the hospital against medical advice among PWUD in acute care settings have not been well studied. Objectives. We systematically assessed the literature examining hospital discharge against medical advice from acute care among this population and identified potential methods to minimize the occurrence of this phenomenon. Search methods. We searched 5 electronic databases (from database inception to August 2014) and article reference lists for articles investigating hospital discharge from acute care against medical advice among PWUD. Search terms consistent across databases included “patient discharge,” “hospital discharge,” “against medical advice,” “drug user,” “substance-related disorders,” and “intravenous substance abuse.” Selection criteria. Studies were eligible for inclusion if they were published in a peer-reviewed journal as an original research article in English. We excluded gray literature, case reports, case series, reviews, and editorials. We retained original studies that reported illicit drug use as a predictor of leaving the hospital against medical advice and studies of discharge against medical advice that included PWUD as a population of interest, and we assessed significance through appropriate statistical tests. We excluded studies that reported patients leaving the hospital against medical advice

  9. XBRL Standard for Financial Reporting in Croatia: Current State and Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gostimir Dejan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Harmonization and standardization is becoming important among regulators and business community. XBRL has entered the global stage as a financial reporting standard. Its mission was to standardize the financial reporting, lower the reporting costs and make the reporting as transparent as possible.

  10. Illicit drug use and violence in acute psychosis among acute adult ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keywords: Illicit drug use, violence, acute psychosis, psychiatric hospital. ... violence and substance abuse. Methods ... and identifiable data were anonymized and/or stored in .... only a handful had urine tests done at the referral centres.

  11. Illicit Drugs: Contaminants in the Environment and Utility in Forensic Epidemiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    The published literature surrounding the origin, occurrence, fate, and effects of illicit drug ingredients (IDIs) in the environment is examined. Similarities exist with medical pharmaceuticals, particularly with regard to the basic processes by which these ingredients enter the ...

  12. Multi-level governance: The way forward for European illicit drug policy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatwin, Caroline

    2007-12-01

    Illicit drug policy has long been an area that has attracted international policy intervention, however, the European Union has declared it an area of subsidiarity, leaving ultimate control to national governments. Nevertheless, European Union preoccupation with the illicit drug issue and international drug trafficking and organised crime concerns have ensured that continued and increased cooperation in illicit drug policy is never off the agenda. This article examines the history of European integration in contrasting areas of policy and considers both the desirability and the viability of an increasingly harmonised drug policy for Europe. Finally, it proposes a model of integrated illicit drug policy that is strongly connected to developing patterns of European social policy, calling on multi-level governance and close involvement at the level of the citizen.

  13. Current practice and recommendations in UK epilepsy monitoring units. Report of a national survey and workshop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamandi, Khalid; Beniczky, Sandor; Diehl, Beate; Kandler, Rosalind H; Pressler, Ronit M; Sen, Arjune; Solomon, Juliet; Walker, Matthew C; Bagary, Manny

    2017-08-01

    Inpatient video-EEG monitoring (VEM) is an important investigation in patients with seizures or blackouts, and in the pre-surgical workup of patients with epilepsy. There has been an expansion in the number of Epilepsy Monitoring Units (EMU) in the UK offering VEM with a necessary increase in attention on quality and safety. Previous surveys have shown variation across centres on issues including consent and patient monitoring. In an effort to bring together healthcare professionals in the UK managing patients on EMU, we conducted an online survey of current VEM practice and held a one-day workshop convened under the auspices of the British Chapter of the ILAE. The survey and workshop aimed to cover all aspects of VEM, including pre-admission, consent procedures, patient safety, drug reduction and reinstatement, seizure management, staffing levels, ictal testing and good data recording practice. This paper reports on the findings of the survey, the workshop presentations and workshop discussions. 32 centres took part in the survey and there were representatives from 22 centres at the workshop. There was variation in protocols, procedures and consent processes between units, and levels of observation of monitored patients. Nevertheless, the workshop discussion found broad areas of agreement on points. A survey and workshop of UK epilepsy monitoring units found that some variability in practice is inevitable due to different local arrangements and patient groups under investigation. However, there were areas of clear consensus particularly in relation to consent and patient safety that can be applied to most units and form a basis for setting minimum standards. Copyright © 2017 British Epilepsy Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The integrated reporting: A presentation of the current state of art and aspects of integrated reporting that need further development

    OpenAIRE

    Morrós Ribera, Jordi

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to synthesise what is the emerging field of integrated reporting, with particular emphasis in the International Integrated Reporting Council, and outline a list of items for future research in this area. Design/methodology/approach: The approach is to outline a presentation of integrated reporting (IR), and make a review of the implications for the research agenda of the most important items. Findings: The need for quality researchers to address a number ...

  15. Estimating the size of illicit tobacco consumption in Brazil: findings from the global adult tobacco survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iglesias, Roberto Magno; Szklo, André Salem; Souza, Mirian Carvalho de; de Almeida, Liz Maria

    2017-01-01

    Brazil experienced a large decline in smoking prevalence between 2008 and 2013. Tax rate increases since 2007 and a new tobacco tax structure in 2012 may have played an important role in this decline. However, continuous tax rate increases pushed up cigarette prices over personal income growth and, therefore, some consumers, especially lower income individuals, may have migrated to cheaper illicit cigarettes. To use tobacco surveillance data to estimate the size of illicit tobacco consumption before and after excise tax increases. We defined a threshold price and compared it with purchasing prices obtained from two representative surveys conducted in 2008 and 2013 to estimate the proportion of illicit cigarette use among daily smokers. Generalised linear model was specified to understand whether the absolute difference in proportions over time differed by sociodemographic groups and consumption levels. Our findings were validated using an alternative method. Total proportion of illicit daily consumption increased from 16.6% to 31.1% between 2008 and 2013. We observed a pattern of unadjusted absolute decreases in cigarette smoking prevalence and increases in the proportion of illicit consumption, irrespective of gender, age, educational level, area of residence and amount of cigarettes consumed. The strategy of raising taxes has increased government revenues, reduced smoking prevalence and resulted in an increased illicit trade. Surveillance data can be used to provide information on illicit tobacco trade to help in the implementation of WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) article 15 and the FCTC Protocol to Eliminate Illicit Trade in Tobacco Products. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  16. Extractive sectors and illicit financial flows: What role for revenue governance initiatives?

    OpenAIRE

    Le Billon, Philippe

    2011-01-01

    Countries highly dependent on natural resources are among the most severely affected by the problem of illicit financial flows. Despite a lack of definite studies proving the correlation between higher dependency on natural resources and higher levels of illicit flows, there are grounds to believe extractive industries’ revenues provide a large contribution to these flows. Most existing initiatives to address governance issues in extractive sectors have not been designed with the problem of i...

  17. Illicit Flows and Trade Misinvoicing: Are we looking under the wrong lamppost?

    OpenAIRE

    Forstater, Maya

    2016-01-01

    Illicit financial flows (IFFs) have become a high profile issue in recent years. The Sustainable Development Goals include a target (16.4: significantly reduce illicit financial and arms flows, strengthen the recovery and return of stolen assets and combat all forms of organized crime ), and the issues has been included in the Addis Ababa Action Agenda and the work of the G20 and the OECD. Donors including NORAD and DFID and multilateral organisations such as the World Bank and African Devel...

  18. Use of illicit drugs by adolescents and young adults of an urban settlement in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Guimarães, Rafael Alves; Souza, Márcia Maria de; Caetano, Karlla Antonieta Amorim; Teles, Sheila Araujo; Matos, Marcos André de

    2018-01-01

    Summary Objective: To estimate the prevalence and factors associated with illicit drug use by adolescents and young adults of a formal urban settlement. Method: Cross-sectional study including adolescents and young adults 12-24 years of an urban settlement in the Midwest Region of Brazil. Data were collected using a structured questionnaire and analyzed using Stata, version 12.0. We used Poisson regression model to estimate the factors associated with illicit drug use. Results: Of the tota...

  19. Crisis and the Emergence of Illicit Markets: A Pragmatist View on Economic Action outside the Law

    OpenAIRE

    Dewey, M.

    2014-01-01

    Although illicit exchange has also been an organized, silent, and ever-present response to harsh economic crisis, only protest and social movements have captured scholars’ attention. In order to fill this void, this paper analyzes the emergence of illegal markets under situations of social breakdown. I claim that an illicit market emerging under socio-economic crisis conditions might be understood as the result of a constant valuation process and the intervention of what Herbert Mead called “...

  20. Research and development of an aimed magnetic lead current density-magnetic field diagnostic. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    A diagnostics survey was made to provide a clear definition of advanced diagnostic needs and the limitations of current approaches in addressing those needs. Special attention was given to the adequacy with which current diagnostics are interfaced to signal processing/data acquisition devices and systems. Critical evaluations of selected alternative diagnostic techniques for future R and D activities are presented. The conceptual basis of the Aimed Magnetic Lead Gradiometric system as a current density/magnetic field diagnostic is established

  1. International technical working group cooperation to counter illicit nuclear trafficking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, D.K.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: The Nuclear Smuggling International Technical Working Group (ITWG) is an international group of nuclear forensic experts that cooperate to deter the illicit trafficking of nuclear materials. The objective of the ITWG is to provide a common approach and effective technical solutions to governments who request assistance in nuclear forensics. The ITWG was chartered in 1996 and since that time more than 28 nations and organizations have participated in 9 international meetings and 2 analytical round-robin trials. Soon after its founding the ITWG adopted a general framework to guide nuclear forensics investigations that includes recommendations for nuclear crime scene security and analysis, the best application of radioanalytical methods, the conduct of traditional forensic analysis of contaminated materials, and effective data analysis to interpret the history of seized nuclear materials. This approach has been adopted by many nations as they respond to incidents of illicit nuclear trafficking. ITWG members include policy and decision makers, law enforcement personnel, and scientists with expertise in, and responsibility for, nuclear forensics. It remains an association of active practitioners of nuclear forensics underwritten by funding from sponsoring countries and organizations. While the primary mission of the ITWG continues to be advancing the science and techniques of nuclear forensics and sharing technical and information resources to combat nuclear trafficking, recently the ITWG has focused on improvements to its organization and outreach. Central is the establishment of guidelines for best practices in nuclear forensics, conducting international exercises, promoting research and development, communicating with external organizations, providing a point-of-contact for nuclear forensics assistance, and providing mutual assistance in nuclear forensics investigations. By its very nature nuclear trafficking is a transboundary problem; nuclear materials

  2. Letter Report on 500 nA Pulsed Current from Field Ionization Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellsworth, Jennifer L.

    2013-01-01

    We recently produced a milestone 500 nA of pulsed current using 40 Ir field ionizer electrodes in our ion source. In conclusion, we have produced the milestone pulsed current of 500 nA using 40 electrochemically etched iridium tips in a field ionization source. The pulsed current output is repeatable and scales as expected with gas fill pressure and bias voltage. We expect these current will be sufficient to produce neutral yields of 1 · 10 7 DT n/s.

  3. Illicit use of LSD or psilocybin, but not MDMA or nonpsychedelic drugs, is associated with mystical experiences in a dose-dependent manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyvers, Michael; Meester, Molly

    2012-01-01

    Psychedelic drugs have long been known to be capable of inducing mystical or transcendental experiences. However, given the common "recreational" nature of much present-day psychedelic use, with typical doses tending to be lower than those commonly taken in the 1960s, the extent to which illicit use of psychedelics today is associated with mystical experiences is not known. Furthermore the mild psychedelic MDMA ("Ecstasy") is more popular today than "full" psychedelics such as LSD or psilocybin, and the contribution of illicit MDMA use to mystical experiences is not known. The present study recruited 337 adults from the website and newsletter of the Multidisciplinary Association for Psychedelic Studies (MAPS), most of whom reported use of a variety of drugs both licit and illicit including psychedelics. Although only a quarter of the sample reported "spiritual" motives for using psychedelics, use of LSD and psilocybin was significantly positively related to scores on two well-known indices of mystical experiences in a dose-related manner, whereas use of MDMA, cannabis, cocaine, opiates and alcohol was not. Results suggest that even in today's context of "recreational" drug use, psychedelics such as LSD and psilocybin, when taken at higher doses, continue to induce mystical experiences in many users.

  4. Increasing availability of illicit drugs among people who inject drugs in Bangkok, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Kanna; Nosyk, Bohdan; Ti, Lianping; Suwannawong, Paisan; Kaplan, Karyn; Wood, Evan; Kerr, Thomas

    2013-09-01

    In recent years, the Thai government has strengthened drug law enforcement as a strategy to address a continuing epidemic of illicit drug use. We sought to assess temporal trends in street-level availability of illicit drugs among injection drug users (IDUs) in Bangkok, Thailand. Using univariate statistics and multivariate logistic regression, we assessed changes in the availability of five substances (heroin, methamphetamine, crystal methamphetamine, midazolam, and illicit methadone) between 2009 and 2011 and examined social, structural and individual factors influencing availability among community-recruited samples of IDUs in Bangkok. Availability was measured in three levels: immediate (available in ≤10 min); moderate (available in 10-90 min); and delayed (available in >90 min; our reference category). The analyses included 718 IDUs, including 165 (23.0%) women. Controlling for changes in participant characteristics between assessments, and in a period of constant nominal illicit drug prices, moderate availability of all substances increased significantly between 2009 and 2011, with adjusted odds ratios ranging between 2.36 (illicit methadone) and 4.61 (crystal methamphetamine) (all pdrug suppression efforts, the availability of illicit drugs among IDUs in Bangkok increased significantly between 2009 and 2011. The findings raise concern about the overreliance on drug law enforcement-based approaches and point to the need for greater investment in evidence-based drug policies. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. A review of ecological effects and environmental fate of illicit drugs in aquatic ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosi-Marshall, E J; Snow, D; Bartelt-Hunt, S L; Paspalof, A; Tank, J L

    2015-01-23

    Although illicit drugs are detected in surface waters throughout the world, their environmental fate and ecological effects are not well understood. Many illicit drugs and their breakdown products have been detected in surface waters and temporal and spatial variability in use translates into "hot spots and hot moments" of occurrence. Illicit drug occurrence in regions of production and use and areas with insufficient wastewater treatment are not well studied and should be targeted for further study. Evidence suggests that illicit drugs may not be persistent, as their half-lives are relatively short, but may exhibit "pseudo-persistence" wherein continual use results in persistent occurrence. We reviewed the literature on the ecological effects of these compounds on aquatic organisms and although research is limited, a wide array of aquatic organisms, including bacteria, algae, invertebrates, and fishes, have receptors that make them potentially sensitive to these compounds. In summary, illicit drugs occur in surface waters and aquatic organisms may be affected by these compounds; research is needed that focuses on concentrations of illicit drugs in areas of production and high use, environmental fate of these compounds, and effects of these compounds on aquatic ecosystems at the concentrations that typically occur in the environment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Correlates of illicit methadone use in New York City: A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frye Victoria

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite growing concern about illicit methadone use in the US and other countries, there is little data about the prevalence and correlates of methadone use in large urban areas. We assessed the prevalence and examined correlates of lifetime and recent illicit methadone use in New York City (NYC. Methods 1,415 heroin, crack, and cocaine users aged 15–40 years were recruited in NYC between 2000 and 2004 to complete interviewer-administered questionnaires. Results In multivariable logistic regression, non-injection drug users who used illicit methadone were more likely to be heroin dependent, less than daily methamphetamine users and to have a heroin using sex partner in the last two months. Injection drug users who used illicit methadone were more likely to use heroin daily, share injection paraphernalia and less likely to have been in a detoxification program and to have not used marijuana in the last six months. Conclusion The results overall suggest that illicit (or street methadone use is likely not a primary drug of choice, but is instead more common in concert with other illicit drug use.

  7. Systematic review of surveillance by social media platforms for illicit drug use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazemi, Donna M; Borsari, Brian; Levine, Maureen J; Dooley, Beau

    2017-12-01

    The use of social media (SM) as a surveillance tool of global illicit drug use is limited. To address this limitation, a systematic review of literature focused on the ability of SM to better recognize illicit drug use trends was addressed. A search was conducted in databases: PubMed, CINAHL via Ebsco, PsychINFO via Ebsco, Medline via Ebsco, ERIC, Cochrane Library, Science Direct, ABI/INFORM Complete and Communication and Mass Media Complete. Included studies were original research published in peer-reviewed journals between January 2005 and June 2015 that primarily focused on collecting data from SM platforms to track trends in illicit drug use. Excluded were studies focused on purchasing prescription drugs from illicit online pharmacies. Selected studies used a range of SM tools/applications, including message boards, Twitter and blog/forums/platform discussions. Limitations included relevance, a lack of standardized surveillance systems and a lack of efficient algorithms to isolate relevant items. Illicit drug use is a worldwide problem, and the rise of global social networking sites has led to the evolution of a readily accessible surveillance tool. Systematic approaches need to be developed to efficiently extract and analyze illicit drug content from social networks to supplement effective prevention programs. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  8. Measures against illicit trafficking of nuclear material and radioactive sources in the Republic of Belarus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piotoukh, O.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: The Republic of Belarus strives to take an active part in international cooperation in the field of prevention and interception of illicit uses of nuclear material and radioactive sources through: multilateral international agreements and bilateral interagency treatments; information exchange within the IAEA Illicit Trafficking Database; participation in different international seminars, workshops, conferences including those under the IAEA auspices etc. Belarus is constantly improving regulatory, legal and technical aspects of activities aimed at: accounting, control and ensuring of physical protection of nuclear material and security of radioactive sources; exercising efficient control over their export and import; detecting cases of their illicit uses and illegal cross-border movements and informing of such cases through the IAEA Illicit Trafficking Database; developing and providing training opportunities for personnel. Through Resolution 'On Measures for Physical Protection of Nuclear Materials' issued by the Council of Ministers in 1993, Committee for Supervision of Industrial and Nuclear Safety (PROMATOMNADZOR) was appointed as the authority responsible for ensuring physical protection of nuclear materials and facilities. Through Resolution 'On Measures for Fulfillment of Provisions of the Non-Proliferation Treaty' issued by the Council of Ministers in 1993, Promatomnadzor was designated as the national competent authority responsible for the establishment and maintenance of the State System of Accounting and Control of nuclear material. The system accounts all the nuclear material meeting the criteria defined in the Safeguards Agreement with the IAEA. The system includes two levels: i.e. on-site accounting and control and state accounting and control exercised by Promatomnadzor. Apart from reporting to the Agency, the system also provides for national tasks being accomplished: control over uses of nuclear material, its physical protection, access

  9. Self-reported history of anorexia nervosa and current quality of life: findings from a community-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchison, D; Hay, P; Mond, J; Slewa-Younan, S

    2013-03-01

    To evaluate the impact of a lifetime history of anorexia nervosa (AN) on current quality of life (QoL) and eating disorder (ED) symptomatology. 3,034 participants from a randomly selected sample of households in the Australian population were interviewed for current ED symptoms and QoL (SF-36). 89 participants (2.9 %) reported a history of AN, 73 of whom were female. These participants scored lower on six of the eight subscales on the SF-36, including all of the mental health subscales, and were more likely to report binge eating and extreme weight or shape concerns than participants who did not report a history of AN. On the other hand, participants who reported a history of AN were less likely to be overweight. None of the participants who reported a history of AN met current criteria for AN; however, one met criteria for bulimia nervosa non-purging subtype and four met criteria for binge eating disorder. The endorsement of current ED symptoms was found to moderate the impact of a history of AN on scores of the social functioning and role limitations due to emotional health SF-36 subscales, such that participants who reported a history of AN scored lower on these subscales if they also reported current ED symptoms. A history of AN has a deleterious impact on current QoL, despite remittance from the disorder. This may be explained in part by the presence of certain ED symptoms, including objective binge eating and the persistence of extreme weight and shape concerns.

  10. Characteristics of men with substance use disorder consequent to illicit drug use: comparison of a random sample and volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Maureen D; Tarter, Ralph E; Kirisci, Levent

    2004-09-06

    Men qualifying for substance use disorder (SUD) consequent to consumption of an illicit drug were compared according to recruitment method. It was hypothesized that volunteers would be more self-disclosing and exhibit more severe disturbances compared to randomly recruited subjects. Personal, demographic, family, social, substance use, psychiatric, and SUD characteristics of volunteers (N = 146) were compared to randomly recruited (N = 102) subjects. Volunteers had lower socioceconomic status, were more likely to be African American, and had lower IQ than randomly recruited subjects. Volunteers also evidenced greater social and family maladjustment and more frequently had received treatment for substance abuse. In addition, lower social desirability response bias was observed in the volunteers. SUD was not more severe in the volunteers; however, they reported a higher lifetime rate of opiate, diet, depressant, and analgesic drug use. Volunteers and randomly recruited subjects qualifying for SUD consequent to illicit drug use are similar in SUD severity but differ in terms of severity of psychosocial disturbance and history of drug involvement. The factors discriminating volunteers and randomly recruited subjects are well known to impact on outcome, hence they need to be considered in research design, especially when selecting a sampling strategy in treatment research.

  11. Prevalence of prescription and illicit drugs in pregnancy-associated non-natural deaths of Florida mothers, 1999-2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardt, Nancy; Wong, Tit D; Burt, Martha J; Harrison, Ross; Winter, Will; Roth, Jeffrey

    2013-11-01

    Abuse of prescription and illicit drugs has been rapidly increasing. This study examines the prevalence of drug use in the non-natural deaths of pregnant or recently pregnant women. Records from Florida's Pregnancy Associated Mortality Review conducted between 1999 and 2005 (n = 415) were linked to 385 toxicology reports obtained from Florida medical examiners' offices. The final study sample consisted of 169 drug-positive, pregnancy-associated non-natural deaths. Of these, 86 were positive for both blood and urine, 64 were positive for blood only and five for urine only, and the remainder were positive for some other specimen. Among these deaths, 91 cases (54%) involved prescription drugs, 78 cases (46%) involved illicit drugs, and 69 cases (41%) involved alcohol. Opioids constituted the majority of deaths associated with prescription drugs. Substantial co-use of opioids and benzodiazepines was seen. Pregnant or recently pregnant women may have more interactions with healthcare providers, which may present more opportunities for intervention and prevention. © 2013 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  12. Radiant business. Hazards of international, illicit trafficking with nuclear materials; Strahlende Geschaefte. Gefahren des internationalen Atomschmuggels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Attali, J.

    1996-03-01

    Since the Cold War has been terminated, public media increasingly come out with reports about cases of illicit trafficking with nuclear technology and nuclear materials. So far, the potential hazard has not been exploding into the big disaster, but imagine what may happen if uranium or plutonium falls into the hands of terrorists, fanatics, or Mafia-type organisations ? The author has been investigating into this problem on behalf of the Secretary General of the UN. He has been travelling all around the world in pursuit of information and indications, and now presents us with the essential results of his mission, compiled in this explosive report. (orig./HP) [Deutsch] Seit dem Ende des Kalten Krieges berichten die Medien immer haeufiger ueber Schmuggel von Atomtechnologie und spaltbarem Material. Bis heute ist uns eine Katastrophe erspart geblieben. Was geschieht aber, wenn Uran oder Plutonium in die Haende von Terroristen, Fanatikern oder mafiaaehnlichen Kartellen faellt? Der Autor ist im Auftrag des Generalsekretaers der Vereinten Nationen dieser Frage nachgegangen. Rund um die Welt fuehrten ihn seine Nachforschungen und Gespraeche. Die wichtigsten Ergebnisse aus seinem brisanten Bericht enthuellt er in diesem Buch. (orig./HP)

  13. Pharmaceutical quality of "party pills" raises additional safety concerns in the use of illicit recreational drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Simon A; Thrimawithana, Thilini R; Antia, Ushtana; Fredatovich, John D; Na, Yonky; Neale, Peter T; Roberts, Amy F; Zhou, Huanyi; Russell, Bruce

    2013-06-14

    To determine the content and release kinetics of 1-benzylpiperazine (BZP) and 1-(3-trifluoromethyl-phenyl)piperazine (TFMPP) from "party pill" formulations. From these data, the possible impact of pharmaceutical quality upon the safety of such illicit formulations may be inferred. The amount of BZP and TFMPP in party pill formulations was determined using a validated HPLC method. The in-vitro release kinetics of selected party pill brands were determined using a USP dissolution apparatus (75 rpm, 37.5 degrees Celsius). The release data were then fitted to a first order release model using PLOT software and the time taken to achieve 90% release reported. Many of the tested party pill brands contained amounts of BZP and TFMPP that varied considerably from that stated on the packaging; including considerable TFMPP content in some brands not labelled to contain this drug. Dissolution studies revealed that there was considerable variability in the release kinetics between brands; in one case 90% release required >30 minutes. Lack of quality control in party pill manufacture may have led to the toxic effects reported by users unaware of the true content and release of drug from pills. More stringent regulation in the manufacture and quality control of "new generation party pills" is essential to the harm reduction campaign.

  14. An illicit economy: scavenging and recycling of medical waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patwary, Masum A; O'Hare, William Thomas; Sarker, M H

    2011-11-01

    This paper discusses a significant illicit economy, including black and grey aspects, associated with medical waste scavenging and recycling in a megacity, considering hazards to the specific group involved in scavenging as well as hazards to the general population of city dwellers. Data were collected in Dhaka, Bangladesh, using a variety of techniques based on formal representative sampling for fixed populations (such as recycling operatives) and adaptive sampling for roaming populations (such as scavengers). Extremely hazardous items (including date expired medicines, used syringes, knives, blades and saline bags) were scavenged, repackaged and resold to the community. Some HCE employees were also observed to sell hazardous items directly to scavengers, and both employees and scavengers were observed to supply contaminated items to an informal plastics recycling industry. This trade was made possible by the absence of segregation, secure storage and proper disposal of medical waste. Corruption, a lack of accountability and individual responsibility were also found to be contributors. In most cases the individuals involved with these activities did not understand the risks. Although motivation was often for personal gain or in support of substance abuse, participants sometimes felt that they were providing a useful service to the community. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Open source intelligence: A tool to combat illicit trafficking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sjoeberg, J [Swedish Armed Forces HQ, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2001-10-01

    The purpose of my presentation is to provide some thoughts on Open Sources and how Open Sources can be used as tools for detecting illicit trafficking and proliferation. To fulfill this purpose I would like to deal with the following points during my presentation: What is Open Source? How can it be defined? - Different sources - Methods. Open Source information can be defined as publicly available information as well as other unclassified information that has limited public distribution or access to it. It comes in print, electronic or oral form. It can be found distributed either to the mass public by print or electronic media or to a much more limited customer base like companies, experts or specialists of some kind including the so called gray literature. Open Source information is not a single source but a multi-source. Thus, you can say that Open Sources does not say anything about the information itself, it only refers to if the information is classified or not.

  16. Illicit substance detection using fast-neutron transmission spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Micklich, B.J.; Harper, M.K.; Novick, A.H.; Smith, D.L.

    1994-01-01

    Fast-neutron interrogation techniques are of interest for detecting illicit substances such as explosives and drugs because of their ability to identify light elements such as carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen. Fast-Neutron Transmission Spectroscopy (FNTS) uses standard time-of-flight techniques to measure the energy spectrum of neutrons emitted from a collimated continuum source before and after transmission through the interrogated sample. The Monte Carlo transport code MCNP is used to model fast-neutron transmission experiments using a 9 Be(d, n) source (E d =5 MeV). The areal densities (number of atoms per cm 2 ), and the uncertainties, of various elements present in the sample are determined by an unfolding algorithm which includes the effects of cross-section errors and correlations. Results are displayed in the form of normalized densities, including their errors and correlations, which are then compared to the values for explosives and benign substances. Probabilistic interpretations of the results are discussed in terms of substance detection and identification. ((orig.))

  17. Illicit substance detection using Fast-Neutron Transmission Spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Micklich, B.J.; Harper, M.K.; Novick, A.H.; Smith, D.L.

    1994-01-01

    Fast-neutron interrogation techniques are of interest for detecting illicit substances such as explosives and drugs because of their ability to identify light elements such as carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen. Fast-Neutron Transmission Spectroscopy (FNTS) uses standard time-of-flight techniques to measure the energy spectrum of neutrons emitted from a collimated continuum source before and after transmission through the interrogated sample. The Monte Carlo transport code MCNP is used to model fast-neutron transmission experiments using a 9 Be(d,n) source [E d = 5 MeV]. The areal densities (number of atoms per cm 2 ), and the uncertainties, of various elements present in the sample are determined by an unfolding algorithm which includes the effects of cross-section errors and correlations. Results are displayed in the form of normalized densities, including their errors and correlations, which are then compared to the values for explosives and benign substances. Probabilistic interpretations of the results are discussed in terms of substance detection and identification

  18. Illicit drug detection using energy dispersive x-ray diffraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, E. J.; Griffiths, J. A.; Koutalonis, M.; Gent, C.; Pani, S.; Horrocks, J. A.; George, L.; Hardwick, S.; Speller, R.

    2009-05-01

    Illicit drugs are imported into countries in myriad ways, including via the postal system and courier services. An automated system is required to detect drugs in parcels for which X-ray diffraction is a suitable technique as it is non-destructive, material specific and uses X-rays of sufficiently high energy to penetrate parcels containing a range of attenuating materials. A database has been constructed containing the measured powder diffraction profiles of several thousand materials likely to be found in parcels. These include drugs, cutting agents, packaging and other innocuous materials. A software model has been developed using these data to predict the diffraction profiles which would be obtained by X-ray diffraction systems with a range of suggested detector (high purity germanium, CZT and scintillation), source and collimation options. The aim of the model was to identify the most promising system geometries, which was done with the aid of multivariate analysis (MVA). The most promising systems were constructed and tested. The diffraction profiles of a range of materials have been measured and used to both validate the model and to identify the presence of drugs in sample packages.

  19. Open source intelligence: A tool to combat illicit trafficking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sjoeberg, J.

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of my presentation is to provide some thoughts on Open Sources and how Open Sources can be used as tools for detecting illicit trafficking and proliferation. To fulfill this purpose I would like to deal with the following points during my presentation: What is Open Source? How can it be defined? - Different sources - Methods. Open Source information can be defined as publicly available information as well as other unclassified information that has limited public distribution or access to it. It comes in print, electronic or oral form. It can be found distributed either to the mass public by print or electronic media or to a much more limited customer base like companies, experts or specialists of some kind including the so called gray literature. Open Source information is not a single source but a multi-source. Thus, you can say that Open Sources does not say anything about the information itself, it only refers to if the information is classified or not

  20. The integrated reporting: A presentation of the current state of art and aspects of integrated reporting that need further development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordi Morros

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to synthesise what is the emerging field of integrated reporting, with particular emphasis in the International Integrated Reporting Council, and outline a list of items for future research in this area. Design/methodology/approach: The approach is to outline a presentation of integrated reporting (IR, and make a review of the implications for the research agenda of the most important items. Findings: The need for quality researchers to address a number of pressing challenges posed by the rapid development of IR policies and practices. Research limitations/implications: The paper provide insights into issues and aspects of integrated reporting that need further development and need robust evidence to help inform improvements in policy and practice. Practical implications: Highlight how companies may benefit from integrated reporting in response to stakeholders’ calls for enhanced disclosure of environmental, social, governance and other non financial information. Social implications: The main social implication is to promote the wider public interest of improving the relevance of information for decision-making, for all stakeholders, and allow greater efficiency in the allocation of financial and other resources and in adding public value Originality/value: This paper offers a general view on a subject that is a challenge for entities oriented to the implementation of sustainability in their values and also in their reporting.

  1. Use of illicit tobacco following introduction of standardised packaging of tobacco products in Australia: results from a national cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scollo, Michelle; Zacher, Meghan; Coomber, Kerri; Wakefield, Melanie

    2015-04-01

    To assess whether following standardisation of tobacco packaging in Australia, smokers were, as predicted by the tobacco industry, more likely to use illicit tobacco. National cross-sectional telephone surveys conducted continuously from April 2012 (6 months before implementation of plain packaging (PP)) to March 2014 (15 months after) using responses from current cigarette smokers (n=8679). Changes between pre-PP, the transition to PP and PP phase were examined using logistic regression models. Among those whose factory-made cigarettes were purchased in Australia, compared with pre-PP, there were no significant increases in the PP phase in use of: 'cheap whites' (<0.1%; OR=0.24, 95% CI 0.04 to 1.56, p=0.134); international brands purchased for 20% or more below the recommended retail price (0.2%; OR=3.49, 95% CI 0.66 to 18.35, p=0.140); or packs purchased from informal sellers (<0.1%; OR=0.24, 95% CI 0.04 to 1.47, p=0.124). The prevalence of any use of unbranded illicit tobacco remained at about 3% (adjusted OR=0.79, 95% CI 0.58 to 1.08, p=0.141). While unable to quantify the total extent of use of illicit manufactured cigarettes, in this large national survey we found no evidence in Australia of increased use of two categories of manufactured cigarettes likely to be contraband, no increase in purchase from informal sellers and no increased use of unbranded illicit 'chop-chop' tobacco. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  2. State-of-the-art report on the current status of methodologies for seismic PSA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    unlikely to exist at any other plant, even another similar plant. Sometimes the issue is site-related, and sometimes it is design-related. Also, even in areas where earthquakes are very uncommon phenomena, these types of accident sequences often appear as important contributors to the residual risk, typically because in such areas the attention given to designing nuclear stations against earthquakes is much less than in earthquake-prone areas. Given this background, it is obvious that no full-scope PSA can be considered complete without an examination of earthquakes. This report is a review of the methodology for conducting a seismic-PSA at a nuclear power station. The objective of this review is as follows: To provide an up-to-date review of the state-of-the-art of the various sub-methodologies that comprise the overall seismic- PSA methodology for addressing the safety of nuclear power stations, plus an overview of the whole methodological picture. In preparing this review, the author has had in mind several categories of readers and users: policy-level decision-makers (such as managers of nuclear power stations and regulators of nuclear safety), seismic- PSA practitioners, and PSA practitioners more broadly. The review will concentrate on evaluating the extent to which today's seismic-PSA methodology produces reliable and useful results and insights, at its current state-of-the-art level, for assessing nuclear-power station safety. Also, this review paper will deal exclusively with seismic-PSA for addressing nuclear-power-station safety. Because the author is based in the U.S., it is natural that this review will contain more emphasis on U.S. experience than on experience in other countries. However, significant experience elsewhere is a major part of the basis for this evaluation. In summary, this report is an up-to-date review of the state-of-the-art of the methodologies for conducting a seismic- PSA at a nuclear power station, including the six sub-methodologies that

  3. Prevention of the inadvertent movement and illicit trafficking of radioactive and nuclear materials in Argentine border

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonet Duran, Stella M.; Canibano, Javier A.; Menossi, Sergio A.; Rodriguez, Carlos E.

    2004-01-01

    organization to prevent the occurrence of such events. This paper describes the current nuclear regulatory system aiming at controlling all activities involving radioactive materials in the Country, focusing on particular emphasis in those related to border control to prevent and minimize illicit movements of nuclear and other radioactive materials across the borders. (author)

  4. Yellow Nail Syndrome: Report of Two Cases and a Brief Review of the Current Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eunice Silva Oliveira

    2015-12-01

    We present two cases of undiagnosed YNS until the current admissions, despite several years of investigation. The authors wish to draw attention to this syndrome, of which diagnosis is clinical and of exclusion.

  5. Human Drug Discrimination: Elucidating the Neuropharmacology of Commonly Abused Illicit Drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolin, B Levi; Alcorn, Joseph L; Reynolds, Anna R; Lile, Joshua A; Stoops, William W; Rush, Craig R

    2016-06-07

    Drug-discrimination procedures empirically evaluate the control that internal drug states have over behavior. They provide a highly selective method to investigate the neuropharmacological underpinnings of the interoceptive effects of drugs in vivo. As a result, drug discrimination has been one of the most widely used assays in the field of behavioral pharmacology. Drug-discrimination procedures have been adapted for use with humans and are conceptually similar to preclinical drug-discrimination techniques in that a behavior is differentially reinforced contingent on the presence or absence of a specific interoceptive drug stimulus. This chapter provides a basic overview of human drug-discrimination procedures and reviews the extant literature concerning the use of these procedures to elucidate the underlying neuropharmacological mechanisms of commonly abused illicit drugs (i.e., stimulants, opioids, and cannabis) in humans. This chapter is not intended to review every available study that used drug-discrimination procedures in humans. Instead, when possible, exemplary studies that used a stimulant, opioid, or Δ 9 -tetrahydrocannabinol (the primary psychoactive constituent of cannabis) to assess the discriminative-stimulus effects of drugs in humans are reviewed for illustrative purposes. We conclude by commenting on the current state and future of human drug-discrimination research.

  6. Evaluation of a Low-Threshold/High-Tolerance Methadone Maintenance Treatment Clinic in Saint John, New Brunswick, Canada: One Year Retention Rate and Illicit Drug Use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy K. S. Christie

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To report the one-year retention rate and the prevalence of illicit opioid use and cocaine use in the Low-Threshold/High-Tolerance (LTHT methadone maintenance treatment (MMT clinic located in Saint John, New Brunswick, Canada. Methods. A description of the LTHT MMT clinic is provided. The one-year retention rate was determined by collecting data on patients who enrolled in the LTHT MMT clinic between August 04, 2009 and August 04, 2010. The prevalence of illicit drug use was determined using a randomly selected retrospective cohort of 84 participants. For each participant the results of six consecutive urine tests for the most recent three months were compared to the results of the first six consecutive urine tests after program entry. Results. The one-year retention rate was 95%, 67% of the cohort achieved abstinence from illicit opioids and an additional 13% abstained from cocaine use. Conclusion. The novel feature of the LTHT MMT clinic is that patients are not denied methadone because of lack of ancillary services. Traditional comprehensive MMT programs invest the majority of financial resources in ancillary services that support the biopsychosocial model, whereas the LTHT approach utilizes a medical model and directs resources at medical management.

  7. Contamination profiles, mass loadings, and sewage epidemiology of neuropsychiatric and illicit drugs in wastewater and river waters from a community in the Midwestern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skees, Allie J; Foppe, Katelyn S; Loganathan, Bommanna; Subedi, Bikram

    2018-08-01

    In this study, residues of the neuropsychiatric and illicit drugs including stimulants, opioids, hallucinogens, antischizophrenics, sedatives, and antidepressants were determined in influent and effluent samples from a small wastewater treatment plant, a receiving creek, and river waters in the Four Rivers region of the Midwestern United States. Nineteen neuropsychiatric drugs, eight illicit drugs, and three metabolites of illicit drugs were detected and quantitated in the water samples using HPLC-MS/MS. Residual concentrations of the drugs varied from below the detection limit to sub-μg/L levels. The source of residual cocaine and benzoylecgonine in wastewater is primarily from human consumption of cocaine rather than direct disposal. Wastewater based epidemiology is utilized to estimate the community usage of drugs based on the concentration of drug residues in wastewater, wastewater inflow, and the population served by the centralized wastewater treatment plant. The per-capita consumption rate of methamphetamine (1740 mg/d/1000 people) and amphetamine (970 mg/d/1000 people) found in this study were the highest reported per-capita consumption rates in the USA. Antidepressant venlafaxine found to have the highest environmental emission from the WWTP (333 ± 160 mg/d/1000 people) followed by citalopram (132 ± 60.2 mg/d/1000 people), methamphetamine (111 ± 43.6 mg/d/1000 people), and hydrocodone (108 ± 90.1 mg/d/1000 people). Bee Creek, an immediate receiving water body, is found to be a source of several neuropsychiatric and illicit drugs including methamphetamine, methadone, alprazolam, oxazepam, temazepam, carbamazepine, venlafaxine, citalopram, sertraline, oxycodone, and hydrocodone (p < 0.036) in the Clarks River. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Reporting Multiple Individual Injuries in Studies of Team Ball Sports : A Systematic Review of Current Practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fortington, Lauren V; van der Worp, Henk; van den Akker-Scheek, Inge; Finch, Caroline F

    Background To identify and prioritise targets for injury prevention efforts, injury incidence studies are widely reported. The accuracy and consistency in calculation and reporting of injury incidence is crucial. Many individuals experience more than one injury but multiple injuries are not

  9. Management Tools for Bus Maintenance: Current Practices and New Methods. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foerster, James; And Others

    Management of bus fleet maintenance requires systematic recordkeeping, management reporting, and work scheduling procedures. Tools for controlling and monitoring routine maintenance activities are in common use. These include defect and fluid consumption reports, work order systems, historical maintenance records, and performance and cost…

  10. Illicit drug use among rave attendees in a nationally representative sample of US high school seniors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palamar, Joseph J; Griffin-Tomas, Marybec; Ompad, Danielle C

    2015-07-01

    The popularity of electronic dance music and rave parties such as dance festivals has increased in recent years. Targeted samples of party-goers suggest high rates of drug use among attendees, but few nationally representative studies have examined these associations. We examined sociodemographic correlates of rave attendance and relationships between rave attendance and recent (12-month) use of various drugs in a representative sample of US high school seniors (modal age: 18) from the Monitoring the Future study (2011-2013; Weighted N=7373). One out of five students (19.8%) reported ever attending a rave, and 7.7% reported attending at least monthly. Females and highly religious students were less likely to attend raves, and Hispanics, students residing in cities, students with higher income and those who go out for fun multiple times per week were more likely to attend. Rave attendees were more likely than non-attendees to report use of an illicit drug other than marijuana (35.5% vs. 15.6%, p<0.0001). Attendees were more likely to report use of each of the 18 drugs assessed, and attendees were more likely to report more frequent use (≥6 times) of each drug (ps<0.0001). Controlling for sociodemographic covariates, frequent attendance (monthly or more often) was associated with higher odds of use of each drug (ps<0.0001). Frequent attendees were at highest risk for use of "club drugs." Findings from this study can help inform prevention and harm reduction among rave attendees at greatest risk for drug use. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Improving the detection of illicit substance use in preoperative anesthesiological assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinwächter, R; Kork, F; Weiss-Gerlach, E; Ramme, A; Linnen, H; Radtke, F; Lütz, A; Krampe, H; Spies, C D

    2010-01-01

    Illicit substance use (ISU) is a worldwide burden, and its prevalence in surgical patients has not been well investigated. Co-consumption of legal substances, such as alcohol and tobacco, complicates the perioperative management and is frequently underestimated during routine preoperative assessment. The aim of this study was to compare the anesthesiologists' detection rate of ISU during routine preoperative assessment with a computerized self-assessment questionnaire. In total, 2,938 patients were included in this study. Prior to preoperative assessment, patients were asked to complete a computer-based questionnaire that addressed ISU, alcohol use disorder (AUDIT), nicotine use (Fagerström) and socio-economic variables (education, income, employment, partnership and size of household). Medical records were reviewed, and the anesthesiologists' detection of ISU was compared to the patients' self-reported ISU. Seven point five percent of patients reported ISU within the previous twelve months. ISU was highest in the age group between 18 and 30 years (26.4%; P<0.01). Patients reporting ISU were more often men than women (P<0.01), smokers (P<0.01) and tested positive for alcohol use disorder (P<0.01). Anesthesiologists detected ISU in one in 43 patients, whereas the computerized self-assessment reported it in one in 13 patients. The detection was best in the subgroup self-reporting frequent ISU (P<0.01). Anesthesiologists underestimate the prevalence of ISU. Computer-based self-assessment increases the detection of ISU in preoperative assessment and may decrease perioperative risk. More strategies to improve the detection of ISU as well as brief interventions for ISU are required in preoperative assessment clinics.

  12. Application of an eddy current technique to steam generator U-bend characterization. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cramer, W.E.; de la Pintiere, L.; Narita, S.; Bergander, M.J.

    1982-04-01

    Eddy current nondestructive testing techniques are used widely throughout the utility industry for the early detection of tube damage in critical power plant components such as steam generators. In this project, the application of an eddy current technique for the characterization of U-bend transitions in the first row tubing in Westinghouse 51 Series Steam Generators has been investigated. A method has been developed for detection of the opposite transition in the U-bend and for defining its severity. Investigation included two different types of U-bend transitions. Using the developed eddy current method for U-bend characterization, on-site inspection was performed on all tubes in the first row in four 51 Series steam generators in Power Plant Unit No. 2 and in one 51 Series steam generator in Power Plant Unit No. 1. The advantages and limitations of the developed method as well as the recommendations for further investigations are included

  13. Measuring changes in the illicit cigarette market using government revenue data: the example of South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Walbeek, Corné

    2014-05-01

    The tobacco industry claims that illicit trade in cigarettes has increased sharply since the 1990s and that government has lost substantial tax revenue. (1) To determine whether cigarette excise tax revenue has been below budget in recent years, compared with previous decades. (2) To determine trends in the size of the illicit market since 1995. For (1), mean percentage errors and root mean square percentage errors were calculated for budget revenue deviation for three products (cigarettes, beer and spirits), for various subperiods. For (2), predicted changes in total consumption, using actual cigarette price and GDP changes and previously published price and income elasticity estimates, were calculated and compared with changes in tax-paid consumption. Cigarette excise revenues were 0.7% below budget for 2000-2012 on average, compared with 3.0% below budget for beer and 4.7% below budget for spirits. There is no evidence that illicit trade in cigarettes in South Africa increased between 2002 and 2009. There is a substantial increase in illicit trade in 2010, probably peaking in 2011. In 2012 tax-paid consumption of cigarettes increased 2.6%, implying that the illicit market share decreased an estimated 0.6 percentage points. Other than in 2010, there is no evidence that illicit trade is significantly undermining government revenue. Claims that illicit trade has consistently increased over the past 15 years, and has continued its sharp increase since 2010, are not supported. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  14. Elite athletes' estimates of the prevalence of illicit drug use: evidence for the false consensus effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Matthew; Thomas, Johanna O; Swift, Wendy; Burns, Lucinda

    2012-01-01

    The false consensus effect (FCE) is the tendency for people to assume that others share their attitudes and behaviours to a greater extent than they actually do. The FCE has been demonstrated for a range of health behaviours, including substance use. The study aimed to explore the relationship between elite athlete's engagement in recreational drug use and their consensus estimates (the FCE) and to determine whether those who engage in the behaviour overestimate the use of others around them. The FCE was investigated among 974 elite Australian athletes who were classified according to their drug use history. Participants tended to report that there was a higher prevalence of drug use among athletes in general compared with athletes in their sport, and these estimates appeared to be influenced by participants' drug use history. While overestimation of drug use by participants was not common, this overestimation also appeared to be influenced by athletes' drug use history. The results suggest that athletes who have a history of illicit drug use overestimate the prevalence of drug use among athletes. These findings may be helpful in the formulation of normative education initiatives. © 2011 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  15. The Role of Automatic Radiation Monitoring in Control of Illicit Trafficking of Radioactive Materials in Slovenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitic, D.

    2003-01-01

    Automatic radiation monitoring in Slovenia comprises monitoring of external gamma radiation, aerosol radioactivity, radon progeny concentration, and radioactive deposition measurements. The officer on duty has an important part in assuring proper and undisturbed functioning of our automatic radiation monitoring. He is the one who gets the first alert message on radiation levels when exceeded pre-set values in the territory of Slovenia. Together with continuous control over the functioning of automatic radiation monitoring, the officer on duty has been also assigned for receiving messages from users, who carry the 'Radiation pager' (it is a trade mark for Sensor Technology Engineering, inc. from USA). All valuable experiences of the officer on duty who has been accepting reports from customs officers, police officers, from Slovenian radiation and nuclear safety inspectors, are described in this article. The officer on duty with his new role contributes to prevention of the illicit trafficking and inadvertent movement of radioactive materials over the territory of Slovenia. In the last year there where many different causes of emergency calls: from many cases of patient after radioisotopes medical treatment to serious rejected shipment with exceeded radiation. This is only a beginning of responsible task how to introduce and assure the control of the inadvertent movement of radioactive materials in Slovenia. (author)

  16. Use of licit and illicit substances among adolescents in Brazil--a national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madruga, Clarice S; Laranjeira, Ronaldo; Caetano, Raul; Pinsky, Ilana; Zaleski, Marcos; Ferri, Cleusa P

    2012-10-01

    We estimate the prevalence of alcohol, tobacco and illegal substance use in a national representative sample of adolescents. We also estimate how socio demographic characteristics, household environment and mental health are associated with substance misuse. This is a cross-sectional study using data from the first Brazilian National Alcohol Survey, which gathered information on the use of psychoactive substances in 761 participants aged 14 to 19 years old. Weighted logistic regression was used to calculate adjusted odds ratios. More than half of the adolescents interviewed were regular alcohol users and one out of ten were abusers and/or dependents. Older male adolescents living in urban areas were more likely to present alcohol related disorders and to smoke. Age had an inverse association with illegal substance use. Smokers and those using illegal substances were more likely to report domestic violence while those with alcohol abuse/dependence were more likely to have depression. The high prevalence of alcohol, tobacco and illicit substance consumption among Brazilian adolescents is staggering. Young males with mood disorders from urban areas are more at risk of developing alcohol disorders while illegal drug use is highly associated to household dysfunction in early life. Brazilian growing economy will possibly lead to increased levels of substance use among adolescents if new prevention measures are not implemented. The intensification of law enforcement strategies to reduce psychotropic substances access is required. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Microfluidic Diatomite Analytical Devices for Illicit Drug Sensing with ppb-Level Sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Xianming; Chong, Xinyuan; Squire, Kenny; Wang, Alan X

    2018-04-15

    The escalating research interests in porous media microfluidics, such as microfluidic paper-based analytical devices, have fostered a new spectrum of biomedical devices for point-of-care (POC) diagnosis and biosensing. In this paper, we report microfluidic diatomite analytical devices (μDADs), which consist of highly porous photonic crystal biosilica channels, as an innovative lab-on-a-chip platform to detect illicit drugs. The μDADs in this work are fabricated by spin-coating and tape-stripping diatomaceous earth on regular glass slides with cross section of 400×30µm 2 . As the most unique feature, our μDADs can simultaneously perform on-chip chromatography to separate small molecules from complex biofluidic samples and acquire the surface-enhanced Raman scattering spectra of the target chemicals with high specificity. Owing to the ultra-small dimension of the diatomite microfluidic channels and the photonic crystal effect from the fossilized diatom frustules, we demonstrate unprecedented sensitivity down to part-per-billion (ppb) level when detecting pyrene (1ppb) from mixed sample with Raman dye and cocaine (10 ppb) from human plasma. This pioneering work proves the exclusive advantage of μDADs as emerging microfluidic devices for chemical and biomedical sensing, especially for POC drug screening.

  18. The Surgical Impact of E-Cigarettes: A Case Report and Review of the Current Literature

    OpenAIRE

    Megan Fracol; Robert Dorfman; Lindsay Janes; Swati Kulkarni; Kevin Bethke; Nora Hansen; John Kim

    2017-01-01

    We report a case of a 51 years old female with a 25 pack year smoking history who underwent bilateral mastectomy and immediate tissue expander reconstruction for newly diagnosed right breast cancer. The patient reported herself as a non-smoker despite significant e-cigarette use, with resulting significant mastectomy skin flap necrosis and breast reconstruction failure. Little is known about the physiologic effect of e-cigarettes on wound healing and tissue perfusion. To this end, we provide ...

  19. An Analysis of the Current Status of Media Reports about the social acceptance of nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Ho Yeon; Lee, Jae Young; Park, Wons Seok

    2016-01-01

    The object of this paper is to analyze intensively media reports on nuclear energy to share information in information and technology centric society. As this study is not focus on special incident, but it is setting any period. So we established database on media report refer to nuclear industry and then we analysed them by social scientific method. This paper dealt with data construction, standard of data classification, data analysis method, continue to operate Wolsung 1 reactor and public acceptance

  20. An Analysis of the Current Status of Media Reports about the social acceptance of nuclear industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Ho Yeon; Lee, Jae Young [Handong University, Pohang (Korea, Republic of); Park, Wons Seok [SFRA, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    The object of this paper is to analyze intensively media reports on nuclear energy to share information in information and technology centric society. As this study is not focus on special incident, but it is setting any period. So we established database on media report refer to nuclear industry and then we analysed them by social scientific method. This paper dealt with data construction, standard of data classification, data analysis method, continue to operate Wolsung 1 reactor and public acceptance.

  1. Analysis of current meter records at the northwest atlantic 2800 metre radioactive waste dumpsite. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamilton, P.

    1982-01-01

    In August, 1976, four current meter arrays were deployed for a period of three months at the Atlantic 2800 meter radioactive waste disposal site as part of a scientific survey by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency to assess the environmental conditions at this formerly used site. The disposal site is located on the Continental Rise and is centered at 38 deg 30' N, 72 deg 06' W. The four arrays were placed in a rectangle near the periphery of the site, each with a current meter 5.1 meters off the bottom, with an additional meter located 96 meters from the bottom at the southwest mooring. The principal findings included a 3-4 cm/s southwesterly mean current observed near the bottom. The low frequency part of the spectrum is explained as bottom trapped topographic Rossby waves. The high frequency motions are dominated by inertial oscillations with a maximum amplitude of about 10 cm/s. The potential for sediment transport during the measurement period is considered very small based on the observed current speeds

  2. United Kingdom. Report 3 [Marine Radioecology. Current Research and Future Scope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preston, A.

    1967-01-01

    Present research programmes: There are two current programmes, one in the Irish Sea (fission product distribution in coastal water environments) and one in the Blackwater Estuary - North Sea (effects of discharge of neutron activation radionuclides, e.g, 65 Zn, 51 Cr, 60 Co, 54 Mn, on an estuarine environment)

  3. Are the physical activity parenting practices reported by U.S. and Canadian parents captured in currently published instruments?

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of this study was to compare the physical activity parenting practices (PAPPs) parents report using with the PAPPs incorporated in the published literature. PAPPs in the literature were identified by reviewing the content of 74 published PAPPs measures obtained from current systematic re...

  4. Quantum information processing and communication : Strategic report on current status, visions and goals for research in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kouwenhoven, L.; Mooij, J.E.

    2005-01-01

    e present an excerpt of the document “Quantum Information Processing and Communication: Strategic report on current status, visions and goals for research in Europe”, which has been recently published in electronic form at the website of FET (the Future and Emerging Technologies Unit of the

  5. Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2012. Current Population Reports P60-245

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeNavas-Walt, Carmen; Proctor, Bernadette D.; Smith, Jessica C.

    2013-01-01

    This report presents data on income, poverty, and health insurance coverage in the United States based on information collected in the 2013 and earlier Current Population Survey Annual Social and Economic Supplements (CPS ASEC) conducted by the U.S. Census Bureau. For most groups, the 2012 income, poverty, and health insurance estimates were not…

  6. Illicit drug consumption in school populations measured by wastewater analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuccato, Ettore; Gracia-Lor, Emma; Rousis, Nikolaos I; Parabiaghi, Alberto; Senta, Ivan; Riva, Francesco; Castiglioni, Sara

    2017-09-01

    Analysis of student consumption of illicit drugs (ID) by school population surveys (SPS) provides information useful for prevention, but the results may be influenced by subjective factors. We explored wastewater (WW) analysis to improve the information. We used WW analysis to measure ID consumption in eight secondary schools in Italy in 2010-13 (students aged 15-19). Samples were collected from the sewage pipes of the schools during lessons for one week each year. Samples were analysed by mass spectrometry to measure ID and consumption by students was compared to that of the general population. We found THCCOOH (human metabolite of THC) concentrations in 2010 indicating significant consumption of cannabis in all the schools and benzoylecgonine (human metabolite of cocaine) suggesting a limited consumption of cocaine in all but one school. Morphine was only found in traces, and amphetamine, methamphetamine, ecstasy, ketamine and mephedrone were not detectable. Repeated analysis showed cannabis stable until 2012 with increases in 2013, low cocaine and morphine levels, and none of the other ID. WW analysis suggested that students used amounts of cannabis comparable to the general population, with low, sporadic use of cocaine and opioids, but excluded the use of significant amounts of amphetamine, methamphetamine, ecstasy, ketamine and mephedrone. WW analysis was useful to confirm SPS figures and provides complementary findings for effective prevention strategies. This is the first time WW analysis has been used to investigate consumption of a large number of ID and new psychoactive substances (NPS) in schools. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Development of a safety case for the use of current limiting devices to manage short circuit currents on electrical distribution networks. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    The original objective of this study was to review the safety issues associated with the use of current limiting devices and to write a risk assessment in accordance with good practice. But, when legislative procedures became apparent, the scope was changed to include involvement with the HSE, the DTI and Ofgem. It turned out that it would have been very difficult to write a safety case that would satisfy all of the agencies, or a risk assessment that would cover all applications. The scope of the study was therefore changed to focus on how the existing barriers should be tackled and the implications of the existing legislation. The approach to the study is described; it included reviews of background information and literature, questionnaires to manufacturers, a review of the reliability and hazards of the devices, and a review of UK safety legislation. The Final Report describes all this and includes discussion on the consequences of failure of fault current limiting devices, control measures which could be used to minimise risk, and recommendations for a way forward.

  8. Scoping review of response shift methods: current reporting practices and recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajobi, Tolulope T; Brahmbatt, Ronak; Lix, Lisa M; Zumbo, Bruno D; Sawatzky, Richard

    2018-05-01

    Response shift (RS) has been defined as a change in the meaning of an individual's self-evaluation of his/her health status and quality of life. Several statistical model- and design-based methods have been developed to test for RS in longitudinal data. We reviewed the uptake of these methods in patient-reported outcomes (PRO) literature. CINHAHL, EMBASE, Medline, ProQuest, PsycINFO, and Web of Science were searched to identify English-language articles about RS published until 2016. Data on year and country of publication, PRO measure adopted, RS detection method, type of RS detected, and testing of underlying model assumptions were extracted from the included articles. Of the 1032 articles identified, 101 (9.8%) articles were included in the study. While 54.5 of the articles reported on the Then-test, 30.7% of the articles reported on Oort's or Schmitt's structural equation modeling (SEM) procedure. Newer RS detection methods, such as relative importance analysis and random forest regression, have been used less frequently. Less than 25% reported on testing the assumptions underlying the adopted RS detection method(s). Despite rapid methodological advancements in RS research, this review highlights the need for further research about RS detection methods for complex longitudinal data and standardized reporting guidelines.

  9. Feasibility of Tidal and Ocean Current Energy in False Pass, Aleutian Islands, Alaska final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, Bruce Albert [Aleutian Pribilof Islands Association, Inc., Anchorage, AK (United States)

    2014-05-07

    The Aleutian Pribilof Islands Association was awarded a U.S. Department of Energy Tribal Energy Program grant (DE-EE0005624) for the Feasibility of Tidal and Ocean Current Energy in False Pass, Aleutian Islands, Alaska (Project). The goal of the Project was to perform a feasibility study to determine if a tidal energy project would be a viable means to generate electricity and heat to meet long-term fossil fuel use reduction goals, specifically to produce at least 30% of the electrical and heating needs of the tribally-owned buildings in False Pass. The Project Team included the Aleut Region organizations comprised of the Aleutian Pribilof Island Association (APIA), and Aleutian Pribilof Island Community Development Association (APICDA); the University of Alaska Anchorage, ORPC Alaska a wholly-owned subsidiary of Ocean Renewable Power Company (ORPC), City of False Pass, Benthic GeoScience, and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). The following Project objectives were completed: collected existing bathymetric, tidal, and ocean current data to develop a basic model of current circulation at False Pass, measured current velocities at two sites for a full lunar cycle to establish the viability of the current resource, collected data on transmission infrastructure, electrical loads, and electrical generation at False Pass, performed economic analysis based on current costs of energy and amount of energy anticipated from and costs associated with the tidal energy project conceptual design and scoped environmental issues. Utilizing circulation modeling, the Project Team identified two target sites with strong potential for robust tidal energy resources in Isanotski Strait and another nearer the City of False Pass. In addition, the Project Team completed a survey of the electrical infrastructure, which identified likely sites of interconnection and clarified required transmission distances from the tidal energy resources. Based on resource and electrical data

  10. THE CURRENT STATE OF APPLICATION OF INTERNATIONAL FINANCIAL REPORTING STANDARDS IN UKRAINE.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Zasadnyi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzed the process of reforming the system of accounting and reporting in Ukraine in accordance with International Financial Reporting Standards. The main results of the tasks of the Strategy of application IFRS in Ukraine approved by the Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine in 2007 are identified. The results of analysis showed that only 1% of the total number of enterprises form the financial statements in accordance with IFRS, the others apply national standards of accounting. The proportion of small enterprises is 95% that do not have the financial capacity, qualified staff and the necessary motivation for the formation of financial statements in accordance with IFRS. As a result, one of the main objectives of the reform of the accounting and reporting is to improve the legislation on accounting for small enterprises and develop national accounting standards of the simplified procedure for accounting of assets, liabilities, equity and financial results of the calculation for small enterprises.

  11. European Science Notes Information Bulletin Reports on Current European/Middle Eastern Science,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-07-01

    horticulture , and the food industry. The test system, including simplicity, case of use, robustness, current world market for reagents, kits, and instruments and...at the end. For the pro- Aqueous Two-Phase Partitioning for the duction of highly purified therapeutic proteins, some pro- Purification of an Enzyme...purification for production of therapeutic proteins. a buffer without denaturing agent. In both cases, these Rinderknecht said that one of the major

  12. Studying illicit drug trafficking on Darknet markets: Structure and organisation from a Canadian perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broséus, J; Rhumorbarbe, D; Mireault, C; Ouellette, V; Crispino, F; Décary-Hétu, D

    2016-07-01

    Cryptomarkets are online marketplaces that are part of the Dark Web and mainly devoted to the sale of illicit drugs. They combine tools to ensure anonymity of participants with the delivery of products by mail to enable the development of illicit drug trafficking. Using data collected on eight cryptomarkets, this study provides an overview of the Canadian illicit drug market. It seeks to inform about the most prevalent illicit drugs vendors offer for sale and preferred destination countries. Moreover, the research gives an insight into the structure and organisation of distribution networks existing online. In particular, we provide information about how vendors are diversifying and replicating across marketplaces. We inform on the number of listings each vendor manages, the number of cryptomarkets they are active on and the products they offer. This research demonstrates the importance of online marketplaces in the context of illicit drug trafficking. It shows how the analysis of data available online may elicit knowledge on criminal activities. Such knowledge is mandatory to design efficient policy for monitoring or repressive purposes against anonymous marketplaces. Nevertheless, trafficking on Dark Net markets is difficult to analyse based only on digital data. A more holistic approach for investigating this crime problem should be developed. This should rely on a combined use and interpretation of digital and physical data within a single collaborative intelligence model. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. A further component analysis for illicit drugs mixtures with THz-TDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Wei; Shen, Jingling; He, Ting; Pan, Rui

    2009-07-01

    A new method for quantitative analysis of mixtures of illicit drugs with THz time domain spectroscopy was proposed and verified experimentally. In traditional method we need fingerprints of all the pure chemical components. In practical as only the objective components in a mixture and their absorption features are known, it is necessary and important to present a more practical technique for the detection and identification. Our new method of quantitatively inspect of the mixtures of illicit drugs is developed by using derivative spectrum. In this method, the ratio of objective components in a mixture can be obtained on the assumption that all objective components in the mixture and their absorption features are known but the unknown components are not needed. Then methamphetamine and flour, a illicit drug and a common adulterant, were selected for our experiment. The experimental result verified the effectiveness of the method, which suggested that it could be an effective method for quantitative identification of illicit drugs. This THz spectroscopy technique is great significant in the real-world applications of illicit drugs quantitative analysis. It could be an effective method in the field of security and pharmaceuticals inspection.

  14. Tobacco, illicit drugs use and risk of cardiovascular disease in patients living with HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raposeiras-Roubín, Sergio; Abu-Assi, Emad; Iñiguez-Romo, Andrés

    2017-11-01

    There is a strong link between HIV, smoking and illicit drugs. This association could be clinically relevant as it may potentiate the risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVD). The purpose of this review is to bring readers up to date on issues concerning the cardiovascular risk associated with tobacco and illicit drugs in patients living with HIV (PLHIV), examining the studies related to this topic published in the last year. There is a strong association between smoking and atherosclerotic disease in PLHIV, reducing life expectancy secondary to CVD by up to 6 years. Illicit drugs were associated with increased risk of atherosclerotic problems but to a lesser extent than smoking. A significant association of drugs such as cocaine with subclinical coronary atherosclerosis been demonstrated. The relation of marijuana, heroin and amphetamines with atherosclerosis generates more controversy. However, those drugs are associated with cardiovascular morbidity, independently of smoking and other traditional risk factors. Tobacco and illicit drugs are linked to CVD in HIV patients. This leads to the need to create special programs to address the addiction to smoking and illicit drugs, in order to mitigate their consequences and reduce cardiovascular risk.

  15. My Daddy Takes Care of Me! Fathers as Care Providers. Current Population Reports. Household Economic Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casper, Lynne M.

    1997-01-01

    This report examines statistical data on fathers caring for their children during mothers' working hours and which types of fathers are the most likely to take care of their children. Data are taken from the Survey of Income and Program Participation, a longitudinal survey conducted at four-month intervals by the Census Bureau. Care by fathers is…

  16. Overview of current peculiarities of promotion of energy from renewable sources in Lithuania. Country reports: Lithuania

    OpenAIRE

    Griguolaitė, Rita

    2015-01-01

    This report provides an overview of the legal background and strategic planning of development and promotion of energy from renewable sources in Lithuania. It discusses the main provisions of the Law on Energy from Renewable Sources in the sectors of electricity, transport and heat. Also, established national financial incentives for the promotion of energy from renewable sources are described.

  17. Computer-Based Simulations for Maintenance Training: Current ARI Research. Technical Report 544.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knerr, Bruce W.; And Others

    Three research efforts that used computer-based simulations for maintenance training were in progress when this report was written: Game-Based Learning, which investigated the use of computer-based games to train electronics diagnostic skills; Human Performance in Fault Diagnosis Tasks, which evaluated the use of context-free tasks to train…

  18. National inventory of selected biological monitoring programs. Summary report of current or recently completed projects, 1976

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kemp, H. T.

    1976-10-01

    The Inventory has resulted in establishment of a series of data bases containing biological monitoring information of varying types, namely, directory of investigators, record of projects received from mail questionnaire, detailed description of selected biomonitoring projects, and bibliographic citations supporting the projects received. This report contains detailed descriptions of selected biomonitoring projects organized on a state-by-state basis and with appropriate indices.

  19. 12 CFR 335.311 - Forms for annual, quarterly, current, and other reports of issuers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... for Financial Statements can generally be found in Regulation S-X (17 CFR part 210). Banks may also... interim reports. The requirements for Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and... REGULATIONS AND STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY SECURITIES OF NONMEMBER INSURED BANKS § 335.311 Forms for annual...

  20. Farm Population of the United States: 1975. Current Population Reports: Farm Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, Vera J.; And Others

    Presented via narrative and tabular data, this report includes: Population of the U.S., Total and Farm: 1960-1975; Metropolitan-Nonmetropolitan Residence of the Farm and Nonfarm Population, by Race: 1975; Fertility Characteristics of Farm and Nonfarm Women, by Race: 1975; Persons 14 Years Old and Over Employed in Agriculture, by Farm-Nonfarm…

  1. Solar Heating/Cooling of Buildings: Current Building Community Projects. An Interim Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Academy of Sciences - National Research Council, Washington, DC. Building Research Advisory Board.

    Projects being carried out by the private sector involving the use of solar energy for heating and cooling buildings are profiled in this report. A substantial portion of the data were collected from a broad cross-section of the building community. Data collection efforts also involved the canvassing of the nearly 200 trade and professional…

  2. [Magnetic helicity and current drive in fusion devices]. Final technical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The research program focused on two main themes: (i) magnetic helicity and (ii) current drive by low-frequency waves. At first these themes seemed unrelated, but as time progressed, they became interwoven, and ultimately closely connected. A sub-theme is that while the MHD model of a plasma stimulates many intriguing counter-intuitive ideas for creating and sustaining magnetic confinement configurations, usually the crux of these schemes involves some sort of breakdown of MHD, i.e., involves physics which transcends MHD

  3. United Kingdom. Report 2 [Marine Radioecology. Current Research and Future Scope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, J.H.

    1967-01-01

    Present research programme: 1.1. The biology of the Solway Firth in relation to the movement and accumulation of radioactive materials. 1.2. To determine the maximum capacity of the Solway Firth for the receipt of radioactive effluent. 1.3. The work has included study of the estuarine currents, using drifters; study of the relationship between deposition of radioactivity and soil by means of transects; studies of the nature and variation, with season and position in the estuary, of fish feeding; and studies of the flora and fauna of the estuary (including some minor studies of how they are affected by climatic changes)

  4. USXR Based MHD, Transport, Equilibria and Current Profile Diagnostics for NSTX. Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finkenthal, Michael

    2009-01-01

    The present report resumes the research activities of the Plasma Spectroscopy/Diagnostics Group at Johns Hopkins University performed on the NSTX tokamak at PPPL during the period 1999-2009. During this period we have designed and implemented XUV based diagnostics for a large number of tasks: study of impurity content and particle transport, MHD activity, time-resolved electron temperature measeurements, ELM research, etc. Both line emission and continuum were used in the XUV range. New technics and novel methods have been devised within the framework of the present research. Graduate and post-graduate students have been involved at all times in addition to the senior research personnel. Several tens of papers have been published and lectures have been given based on the obtained results at conferences and various research institutions (lists of these activities were attached both in each proposal and in the annual reports submitted to our supervisors at OFES)

  5. ESN (European Science Notes) Information Bulletin Reports on Current European/Middle Eastern Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-10-01

    about 35 institutes. tion method for technical alcohol, a modified upflow The quality of research carried out at the various fermenter was constructed in...developed for research with this fermenter whereby suc- application. It is beyond the scope of this report to de- rose, glucose, fructose, and...that lactobacilli in Food Research. Among the important aspects of the di- foods such as yogurt , cheese, sausage, and sauerkraut vision’s work on basic

  6. European Science Notes Information Bulletin Reports on Current European/Middle Eastern Science,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-02-01

    All the general lectures served as cents," Centro de Psicologia Social , valuable introductions to scientific Report No. 2 (July 1987). fields in which...out by Professor Felix Monteiro Neto, director of the Portugal’s University of Oporto Center of Social Psychology. Neto’s work is concerned with the...have social research is concerned with the resulted in some very positive outcomes problem of unemployment (e.g., see ESN for the society. They created

  7. European Science Notes Information Bulletin Reports on Current European/Middle Eastern Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-02-01

    throughout Europe exchanges of views among national scientific advisors , about weaknesses in the IT sector. Before 1984, the Eu- The report asserts...technology products and services. rather than annual levels, as in the U.S. The 3-year first Priorities include advanced computer hardware, robo - phase was...materials, while two- that previously, he and his advisors would be able to rank thirds of the 122 Type 11 proposals for focused university their

  8. Farm Population of the United States: 1977. Current Population Reports: Farm Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, Vera J.; DeAre, Diana

    The farm population has declined fairly steadily for more than half a century. By 1970 the proportion of the U.S. population residing on farms had fallen to about 5 per cent, and by 1977 had dropped to 3.6 per cent. About 1.4 per cent of the farm population was of Spanish origin (represented for the first time in this year's report), as compared…

  9. Documentation of currently operating low-level radioactive waste treatment systems: Shredder/compactor report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-04-01

    The report documents a volume reduction waste treatment system for dry active waste, a shredder/compactor, and includes specifics on system selection, system descriptions, and detailed system performance data from three operational nuclear power plants. Data gathered from the plants have shown the ability to increase the density (thereby reducing the volume) of dry active waste to /approximately/50 pounds per cubic foot when using shredder/compactors and/approximately/80 to 100 pounds per cubic foot for shredder/high pressure compactors depending on reactor type and plant specific waste characteristics. An economic evaluation of various alternative volume reduction systems for dry active waste is also presented. The report presents a method on calculating the associated costs and paybacks achieved using various volume reduction alternatives. A 10 year cost (operating expenses and capital outlay for equipment) for a shredder/high pressure compactor is 1.85 million dollars for a BWR as compared to /approximately/3 million for a conventional drum compactor. The resulting payback for the shredder/compactor is as low as 1.7 years. The report provides generators of low level waste additional information to understand the nuances of shredder/compactor systems to select a system which best suits their individual needs. 4 refs., 6 figs., 10 tabs

  10. Alcohol, tobacco and illicit drug use amongst same-sex attracted women: results from the Western Australian Lesbian and Bisexual Women's Health and Well-Being Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McManus Alexandra

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevalence of alcohol, tobacco and illicit drug use has been reported to be higher amongst lesbian and bisexual women (LBW than their heterosexual counterparts. However, few studies have been conducted with this population in Australia and rates that have been reported vary considerably. Methods A self-completed questionnaire exploring a range of health issues was administered to 917 women aged 15-65 years (median 34 years living in Western Australia, who identified as lesbian or bisexual, or reported having sex with another woman. Participants were recruited from a range of settings, including Perth Pride Festival events (67.0%, n = 615, online (13.2%, n = 121, at gay bars and nightclubs (12.9%, n = 118, and through community groups (6.9%, n = 63. Results were compared against available state and national surveillance data. Results LBW reported consuming alcohol more frequently and in greater quantities than women in the general population. A quarter of LBW (25.7%, n = 236 exceeded national alcohol guidelines by consuming more than four standard drinks on a single occasion, once a week or more. However, only 6.8% (n = 62 described themselves as a heavy drinker, suggesting that exceeding national alcohol guidelines may be a normalised behaviour amongst LBW. Of the 876 women who provided data on tobacco use, 28.1% (n = 246 were smokers, nearly double the rate in the female population as a whole. One third of the sample (33.6%, n = 308 reported use of an illicit drug in the previous six months. The illicit drugs most commonly reported were cannabis (26.4%, n = 242, meth/amphetamine (18.6%, n = 171, and ecstasy (17.9%, n = 164. Injecting drug use was reported by 3.5% (n = 32 of participants. Conclusion LBW appear to use alcohol, tobacco and illicit drugs at higher rates than women generally, indicating that mainstream health promotion messages are not reaching this group or are not perceived as relevant. There is an urgent

  11. Crime, Controversy and the Comments Section: Discussing archaeological looting, trafficking, and the illicit antiquities trade online

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meg Lambert

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In this article we will discuss the challenges involved in presenting the looting of archaeological sites and the illicit trade in cultural property to the interested public. We will contrast our experiences of building two popular illicit antiquities-focused blogs (Things You Can't Take Back and Anonymous Swiss Collector with the process of developing an informative academic website on the same topic (Trafficking Culture. We will discuss our motivations for starting these blogs, our struggles with the tone of the popular discourse on this topic, and our inability to escape our own emotions; why we have moved away from illicit antiquities blogging in the past year and why we are coming back. Finally, having learned from our mistakes, we will make recommendations to others wishing to engage with the public about sensitive issues via social media.

  12. Correlates of Illicit Drug Use Among Indigenous Peoples in Canada: A Test of Social Support Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Liqun; Burton, Velmer S; Liu, Liu

    2018-02-01

    Relying on a national stratified random sample of Indigenous peoples aged 19 years old and above in Canada, this study investigates the correlates of illicit drug use among Indigenous peoples, paying special attention to the association between social support measures and illegal drug use. Results from multivariate logistical regression show that measures of social support, such as residential mobility, strength of ties within communities, and lack of timely counseling, are statistically significant correlates of illicit drug use. Those identifying as Christian are significantly less likely to use illegal drugs. This is the first nationwide analysis of the illicit drug usage of Indigenous peoples in Canada. The results are robust because we have controlled for a range of comorbidity variables as well as a series of sociodemographic variables. Policy implications from these findings are discussed.

  13. PENERAPAN BEBAN PEMBUKTIAN TERBALIK DALAM PERAMPASAN ILLICIT ENRICHMENT KAITANNYA DENGAN HAK ASASI MANUSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A Mirah Endraswari

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The way to prevention of corruption is to use the reversal burden of proof system to the official public wealth that is not fair ( illicit enrichment , but in the implementation there is an indication against violation of human rights. This research will be discuss how rule about the reversal burden of proof in the penal law system of Indonesia ? and how to application the reversal burden of proof in deprivation the illicit enrichment which is related with the human rights ?. Method used in this research is normative law research. Data analysis is conducted on primary and secondary law materials and then comparing those both as well were processed and presented by descriptive analysis. Related norm about the reversal burden of proof system now is regulated in act No. 31 of 1999, act No 20 of 2001 and act No. 8 of 2010, but the character of reversal burden of proof system in Indonesia still limited because it can only be used during the trials. Then related illicit enrichment norm is not regulated in Indonesia act’s, while Indonesia has been ratified about illicit enrichment in Article 20 UNCAC. The pros and cons related to the implementation of reversal burden of proof to illicit enrichment it happens because it is considered to against of human rights, which is related to the principle of presumption of innocence and non – self incrimination. However, with regard to other legal principles and consider the interests of the wider, the regulation of the illicit enrichment should be regulated in the provisions of the law in Indonesia. Considering the purpose of the law it self is fighting corruption, money laundering and optimize return on assets of criminals who gained from the crime. Penanggulangan tindak pidana korupsi sebagai kejahatan yang sifatnya luar biasa (extraordinary crime membutuhkan penanganan yang sifatnya luar biasa pula. Adapun cara yang dapat ditempuh yaitu dengan menerapan sistem pembuktian terbalik  terhadap kekayaan

  14. Illicit drug use in seven Latin American countries: critical perspectives of families and familiars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Jaqueline da; Ventura, Carla Aparecida Arena; Vargens, Octavio Muniz da Costa; Loyola, Cristina Maria Douat; Albarracín, Daniel Gonzalo Eslava; Diaz, Jorge; Funes, Gladys Magdalena Rodríguez; Hernández, Mabell Granados; Torres, Ruth Magdalena Gallegos; Rodriguez, Ruth Jakeline Oviedo

    2009-01-01

    This cross-sectional multi-centre study explored how family members and friends of illicit drug users perceived protective and risk factors, treatment facilities and policies and laws regarding illicit drug use. Family members and friends of illicit drug users were recruited in 10 urban health care outpatient units in 7 Latin American countries (Brazil, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Guatemala, Honduras and Mexico) to complete a questionnaire. The majority of the respondents chose psycho-social factors over genetic or biological explanations as causes of drug problems. Respondents felt that families and governments were responsible for preventing drug problems. Church/religious institutions were most often mentioned in the context of accessible treatment. When asked about access to treatment facilities, the majority said that there were not enough. Shame about drug use, cost, and limited treatment options were most often cited as barriers to treatment.

  15. Kebijakan Formulasi Pengaturan “Illicit Enrichment” Sebagai Upaya Pemberantasan Tindak Pidana Korupsi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milda Istiqomah

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In its progress, the criminal sanctions given to the convicted offenders of corruption are not effective. Therefore, in order to prevent corruption, the strategy needs a certain mechanism to criminalize the alleged offenders of corruption. The proper strategy is to provide a deterrent effect aims to impoverish corruptor. This study attempts to examine the regulations of corruption and offers alternative setting formulations of illicit enrichment as an effort to prevent the corruption. This research applies normative judicial method with statute approach and comparative approach. This study concludes that Indonesia doesn’t have regulations related to illicit enrichment; therefore the author offers an alternative on regulation of illicit enrichment as effort to eradicate corruption in Indonesia.

  16. Current approaches to the diagnosis, treatment, and reporting of trichomoniasis and candidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, B H; Adler, M W

    1979-02-01

    The current approach to the management of trichomoniasis and candidosis in sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinics in England and Wales is described. Microscopy alone was used in the diagnosis of trichomoniasis in 44% of clinics and of candidosis in 35% of clinics. Oral metronidazole was used for the treatment of trichomoniasis in women in 92% of clinics. Vaginal pessaries containing nystatin or clotrimazole were routinely used to treat candidosis in 95% of clinics. Male sexual contacts of female patients with candidosis and trichomoniasis were invited to attend for examination in 88% of clinics. Physicians in 81% of clinics prescribed treatment on epidemiological grounds for male contacts of female patients with trichomoniasis. A more uniform approach to the diagnostic categories used for the quarterly returns for cases treated epidemiologically is recommended.

  17. Periodic Fever, Aphthous Stomatitis, Pharyngitis and Cervical Adenitis Syndrome: Current Literature Review with a Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmut Demirtaş

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Periodic Fever, Aphthous Stomatitis, Pharyngitis and Cervical Adenitis syndrome (PFAPA is a frequently seen, important medical condition, which must be kept in mind in periodic fever etiology. Although its etiology is not clearly understood, autoimmune etiology is suspected due to response to steroids. There is no specific test for the diagnosis of disease. Diagnosis is based on symptoms and physical examination. Although medical treatment is the first choice for the management of the disease, tonsillectomy take over in treatment options for termination of attacks and permanent results. We have presented a patient that was performed tonsillectomy in our clinic for frequent attacks despite recurrent medical therapy with diagnosis of PFAPA with review of current literature.

  18. Data report for current meters on Mooring CMMW-4, 1981; Pacific study area W-N

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pillsbury, R.D.; Bottero, J.; Still, R.E.; Heath, G.R.

    1985-01-01

    The mooring designated CMMW-4 was installed on cruise W8103A by R/V Wecoma during March, 1981. It was recovered by the same ship 5 months later. All four meters from the mooring were recovered and gave good data. CMMW-4 is the continuation of the central series of W-N moorings (it was preceded by CMMW-1, 2, and 3). The series is designed to determined the long-term mean flow at W-N; and in combination with spatial data from CMMW-5 to 9, it will provide input data for a circulation model of the eastern Pacific. The CMMW-4 results re-establish the net SSE current trends evident in CMMW-1. The eddy-like feature in the CMMW-2 records has moved on. The low-frequency component of the deep meter records is quite coherent, but some shear is evident between 1250 and 3000 meters. 5 references, 54 figures, 1 tables

  19. Case report: BRCA in the Ashkenazi population: are current testing guidelines too exclusive?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saunders Katherine H

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The BRCA1/2 genes account for a significant portion of hereditary breast and ovarian cancers and they are especially prevalent in the Ashkenazi Jewish population. Women who have a mutation can prevent breast and ovarian cancer with surgical intervention. We describe an Ashkenazi Jewish patient who illustrates that current testing criteria are too restrictive, particularly for this population of patients. The patient's sister was diagnosed with breast cancer at age 33; however, she was not a mutation carrier. Based on practice guidelines, the patient was not recommended genetic testing. She subsequently underwent direct-to-consumer (DTC testing and discovered that she was a mutation carrier. This case demonstrates the need for clinicians to be aware of the higher prevalence of BRCA mutations in the Ashkenazi population. It also exemplifies the need to involve medical professionals, including genetic counselors, in the dissemination of DNA test results.

  20. Analysis of environmental constraints on expanding reserves in current and future reservoirs in wetlands. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harder, B.J.

    1995-03-01

    Louisiana wetlands require careful management to allow exploitation of non-renewable resources without destroying renewable resources. Current regulatory requirements have been moderately successful in meeting this goal by restricting development in wetland habitats. Continuing public emphasis on reducing environmental impacts of resource development is causing regulators to reassess their regulations and operators to rethink their compliance strategies. We examined the regulatory system and found that reducing the number of applications required by going to a single application process and having a coherent map of the steps required for operations in wetland areas would reduce regulatory burdens. Incremental changes can be made to regulations to allow one agency to be the lead for wetland permitting at minimal cost to operators. Operators need cost effective means of access that will reduce environmental impacts, decrease permitting time, and limit future liability. Regulators and industry must partner to develop incentive based regulations that can provide significant environmental impact reduction for minimal economic cost. In addition regulators need forecasts of future E&P trends to estimate the impact of future regulations. To determine future activity we attempted to survey potential operators when this approach was unsuccessful we created two econometric models of north and south Louisiana relating drilling activity, success ratio, and price to predict future wetland activity. Results of the econometric models indicate that environmental regulations have a small but statistically significant effect on drilling operations in wetland areas of Louisiana. We examined current wetland practices and evaluated those practices comparing environmental versus economic costs and created a method for ranking the practices.

  1. The Surgical Impact of E-Cigarettes: A Case Report and Review of the Current Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fracol, Megan; Dorfman, Robert; Janes, Lindsay; Kulkarni, Swati; Bethke, Kevin; Hansen, Nora; Kim, John

    2017-11-01

    We report a case of a 51 years old female with a 25 pack year smoking history who underwent bilateral mastectomy and immediate tissue expander reconstruction for newly diagnosed right breast cancer. The patient reported herself as a non-smoker despite significant e-cigarette use, with resulting significant mastectomy skin flap necrosis and breast reconstruction failure. Little is known about the physiologic effect of e-cigarettes on wound healing and tissue perfusion. To this end, we provide an updated review of the impact of e-cigarettes on surgical outcomes. PubMed, Ovid MEDLINE, and PRS GO were searched for the terms "e-cigarette", "electronic cigarette", "e-cig", "electronic nicotine delivery system", "vaping", "surgery", "surgical", "peri-operative", "operate", "operative", and "wound healing". Abstract review of all articles was performed. 123 articles returned that contained both variants of e-cigarettes and surgery as keywords. Of those, manual assessment returned three articles which were found to be relevant to e-cigarette use in the surgical patient. No articles were found that compared perioperative complications in e-cigarette versus traditional cigarette users in humans. In conclusion, our case report depicts the potential dangers associated with e-cigarette use in the surgical patient. There is a public misconception that e-cigarettes are healthier than traditional cigarettes and as such their use may go unreported by patients. Early evidence suggests e-cigarettes may induce some of the same physiologic changes as traditional cigarettes, and may have a significant deleterious effect on wound healing.

  2. The Surgical Impact of E-Cigarettes: A Case Report and Review of the Current Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan Fracol

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of a 51 years old female with a 25 pack year smoking history who underwent bilateral mastectomy and immediate tissue expander reconstruction for newly diagnosed right breast cancer. The patient reported herself as a non-smoker despite significant e-cigarette use, with resulting significant mastectomy skin flap necrosis and breast reconstruction failure. Little is known about the physiologic effect of e-cigarettes on wound healing and tissue perfusion. To this end, we provide an updated review of the impact of e-cigarettes on surgical outcomes. PubMed, Ovid MEDLINE, and PRS GO were searched for the terms “e-cigarette”, “electronic cigarette”, “e-cig”, “electronic nicotine delivery system”, “vaping”, “surgery”, “surgical”, “peri-operative”, “operate”, “operative”, and “wound healing”. Abstract review of all articles was performed. 123 articles returned that contained both variants of e-cigarettes and surgery as keywords. Of those, manual assessment returned three articles which were found to be relevant to e-cigarette use in the surgical patient. No articles were found that compared perioperative complications in e-cigarette versus traditional cigarette users in humans. In conclusion, our case report depicts the potential dangers associated with e-cigarette use in the surgical patient. There is a public misconception that e-cigarettes are healthier than traditional cigarettes and as such their use may go unreported by patients. Early evidence suggests e-cigarettes may induce some of the same physiologic changes as traditional cigarettes, and may have a significant deleterious effect on wound healing.

  3. Necrotizing fasciitis of the lower extremity: a case report and current concept of diagnosis and management.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Naqvi, G A

    2012-02-01

    Necrotizing fasciitis is a severe soft tissue infection characterized by rapidly progressing necrosis, involving subcutaneous tissues. This rare condition carries high mortality rate and require prompt diagnosis and urgent treatment with radical debridement and antibiotics. We describe a case of 21-year old man who presented with the history of trivial injury to the knee. Initially he was admitted and treated for septic arthritis but later was diagnosed as necrotizing fasciitis which was successfully treated with no ill effects what so ever from this devastating condition. This rare condition has been reported in literature but still early diagnosis, which is a key for successful treatment, remains a challenge.

  4. Radiogenic age and isotopic studies: report 9. Current research 1995-F

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    `Radiogenic Age and Isotopic Studies` is an annual collection of research presentations containing U-Pb, Sm-Nd, Rb-Sr, and {sup 40}Ar-{sup 39}Ar data generated by the Geochronology Laboratory under the auspices of the Continental Geoscience Division, Geological Survey of Canada. Report 9 contains 5 papers from regions across Canada, followed by a compilation of {sup 40}Ar-{sup 39}Ar and K-Ar ages. Authors herein present data, relate results to field settings, and make brief interpretations. Readers are thus reminded that much of the research encompassed represents `work-in-progress` and that more extensive publications may follow at a later date.

  5. Radiogenic age and isotopic studies: report 9. Current research 1995-F

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    'Radiogenic Age and Isotopic Studies' is an annual collection of research presentations containing U-Pb, Sm-Nd, Rb-Sr, and 40 Ar- 39 Ar data generated by the Geochronology Laboratory under the auspices of the Continental Geoscience Division, Geological Survey of Canada. Report 9 contains 5 papers from regions across Canada, followed by a compilation of 40 Ar- 39 Ar and K-Ar ages. Authors herein present data, relate results to field settings, and make brief interpretations. Readers are thus reminded that much of the research encompassed represents 'work-in-progress' and that more extensive publications may follow at a later date

  6. Global Reach of Direct-to-Consumer Advertising Using Social Media for Illicit Online Drug Sales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Bryan A

    2013-01-01

    Background Illicit or rogue Internet pharmacies are a recognized global public health threat that have been identified as utilizing various forms of online marketing and promotion, including social media. Objective To assess the accessibility of creating illicit no prescription direct-to-consumer advertising (DTCA) online pharmacy social media marketing (eDTCA2.0) and evaluate its potential global reach. Methods We identified the top 4 social media platforms allowing eDTCA2.0. After determining applicable platforms (ie, Facebook, Twitter, Google+, and MySpace), we created a fictitious advertisement advertising no prescription drugs online and posted it to the identified social media platforms. Each advertisement linked to a unique website URL that consisted of a site error page. Employing Web search analytics, we tracked the number of users visiting these sites and their location. We used commercially available Internet tools and services, including website hosting, domain registration, and website analytic services. Results Illicit online pharmacy social media content for Facebook, Twitter, and MySpace remained accessible despite highly questionable and potentially illegal content. Fictitious advertisements promoting illicit sale of drugs generated aggregate unique user traffic of 2795 visits over a 10-month period. Further, traffic to our websites originated from a number of countries, including high-income and middle-income countries, and emerging markets. Conclusions Our results indicate there are few barriers to entry for social media–based illicit online drug marketing. Further, illicit eDTCA2.0 has globalized outside US borders to other countries through unregulated Internet marketing. PMID:23718965

  7. Measures Against-Illicit Trafficking of Nuclear Materials and Other Radioactive Sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barakat, M.B.; Nassef, M.H.; El Mongy, S.A.

    2008-01-01

    Since the early nineties, illicit trafficking (IT) of nuclear materials and radioactive sources appeared as a new trend which raised the concern of the international community due to the grave consequences that would merge if these materials or radioactive sources fell into the hands of terrorist groups. However, by the end of the last century illicit trafficking of nuclear materials and radioactive sources lost its considerable salience, in spite of seizure of considerable amounts of 2 '3'5U (76% enrichment) in Bulgaria (May 1999) and also 235 U (30% enrichment) in Georgia (April 2000). Nevertheless, IT should be always considered as a continued and viable threat to the international community. Awareness of the problem should be developed and maintained among concerned circles as the first step towards combating illicit trafficking of nuclear materials and radioactive sources. Illicit trafficking of nuclear and radioactive materials needs serious consideration and proper attention by the governmental law enforcement authorities. Measures to combat with IT of nuclear material or radioactive sources should be effective in recovery, of stolen, removed or lost nuclear materials or radioactive sources due to the failure of the physical protection system or the State System Accounting and Control (SSAC) system which are normally applied for protecting these materials against illegal actions. Measures such as use of modern and efficient radiation monitoring equipment at the borders inspection points, is an important step in preventing the illicit trafficking of nuclear and radioactive materials across the borders. Also providing radiological training to specific personnel and workers in this field will minimize the consequences of a radiological attack in case of its occurrence. There is a real need to start to enter into cooperative agreements to strengthen borders security under the umbrella of IAEA to faster as an international cooperation in the illicit trafficking

  8. Physical protection as the most important part of the national system of combating illicit trafficking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishchenko, V.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: It is now obvious today that illicit trafficking, including its most dangerous manifestations proliferation of nuclear weapons, smuggling of nuclear materials and equipment - present a serious threat to the international community. To defeat this evil is possible only by joint efforts, by undertaken protective measures on national and international level. Joint efforts should be directed at fulfilling three main tasks as follows: safe and reliable handling of nuclear material, effective measures of its physical protection, accountancy and control in order to prevent proliferation; joint activities of intelligence customs and law-enforcement authorities directed at prevention of international trafficking and marketing of stolen goods; joint activities directed at identification and prevention of illegal supply and demand of fissionable materials counteracting thereby various criminal structures. In order to solve these problems an international regime should be established. Such regime will define a number of criteria and demands to be met by-the states to ensure effective combat illicit trafficking. The international regime should be based on national systems of combating illicit trafficking, which include measures for prevention, detection and response regarding illicit trafficking in each specific state of across its borders. When undertaking these measures one should take into account specific characteristics of the state, its unique features and its geography, political and economic situation, as well as different types of potential threat of proliferation of nuclear weapons; availability of materials subjected to illicit trafficking in this state, general situation of criminal trafficking in this state, general situation of criminal trafficking with radioactive materials, potential consumers and suppliers, market features, possible incentives for crime etc. In the paper I would like to reflect the vital components of national systems for combating

  9. Strategies to reduce illicit uses of radioactive materials. The Ethiopian perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gebeyehu Wolde, G.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: The illicit uses of radioactive sources can impose a direct danger to public health and safety. A number of cases worldwide have resulted in ionizing radiation exposures to individuals. Although the incident of illicit trafficking is greatly influenced by the national system of protection of radioactive materials at their use and storage location this alone may not ensure an absolute guarantee against such occurrence. The challenges of preventing illicit uses of radioactive sources and activities are more complex in the face of more integrated global economic environment. The national system of control, the cross border involvement, multiplicity of participants in the supply to end-use chain, diversity of systems and instruments are factors contributing to this complexity. Smooth interplay and overall systemic effectiveness of the national system of regulatory control, the strategic coordination of responsible parties and the systemic tie of such bodies, the efficiency of information flow and the pattern of know-how and training is what ensure the effectiveness of preventing, detecting and responding to any illicit activities and trafficking of radioactive sources. In Ethiopia, the attempts/incidents of illegal use were so far limited. However, the possibility of such occurrence cannot be ruled out and due attention should be paid as the activity is complex and is a global problem of general concern. Therefore, in addressing these issues the following strategies are believed appropriate in Ethiopia's perspective for preventing and controlling illicit uses and trafficking of radioactive materials: Strengthening the national system of control and protection including boarder controlling; Achieving effective coordination within and among regulators, law enforcement bodies and customs; Developing and maintaining effective system of information handling and flow; Training of principally responsible parties in the prevention, detection and response to illicit

  10. Illicit trafficking of nuclear and other radioactive material: the 'net' security threat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaitseva, L.; Steinhaeusler, F.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: Illicit trafficking in nuclear and other radioactive material, which could lead to the creation of a nuclear device or a radiological dispersal device (RDD), has been a subject of concern for more than a decade now. This concern became even more pronounced after the September 11 th attacks in the United States, which demonstrated that modern day terrorists are willing and capable of inflicting mass casualties among civilian population in target countries in order to further their goals. The problem of illicit trafficking - intentional diversion and smuggling of nuclear fissile material and radioactive sources - has been closely watched and studied by several national institutions and international organizations. This resulted in the establishment of several nuclear smuggling databases, tracking illicit trafficking incidents. The number of such incidents for a given period varies widely between the different databases, reflecting the different sources of information used, the different geographical regions covered, as well as the different methodologies applied to data mining and data analysis. One major obstacle to assessing the actual security threat due to illicit trafficking is the inclusion of incidents in the analysis, which do not represent a security threat in the sense of being the pre-stage of a terrorist operation or a malevolent act. Such incidents mainly involve inadvertent movement of illegally disposed of radioactive sources in scrap metal or contaminated goods across international borders and discoveries of so called 'orphan' radiation sources. This paper analyzes the global data contained in the database on nuclear smuggling, theft and orphan radiation sources (DSTO) operated by the University of Salzburg, using special filters to discriminate between illicit trafficking incidents involving a criminal intent and those that do not. Thereby, the net security threat of illicit trafficking will be determined to help provide a realistic

  11. Global reach of direct-to-consumer advertising using social media for illicit online drug sales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackey, Tim Ken; Liang, Bryan A

    2013-05-29

    Illicit or rogue Internet pharmacies are a recognized global public health threat that have been identified as utilizing various forms of online marketing and promotion, including social media. To assess the accessibility of creating illicit no prescription direct-to-consumer advertising (DTCA) online pharmacy social media marketing (eDTCA2.0) and evaluate its potential global reach. We identified the top 4 social media platforms allowing eDTCA2.0. After determining applicable platforms (ie, Facebook, Twitter, Google+, and MySpace), we created a fictitious advertisement advertising no prescription drugs online and posted it to the identified social media platforms. Each advertisement linked to a unique website URL that consisted of a site error page. Employing Web search analytics, we tracked the number of users visiting these sites and their location. We used commercially available Internet tools and services, including website hosting, domain registration, and website analytic services. Illicit online pharmacy social media content for Facebook, Twitter, and MySpace remained accessible despite highly questionable and potentially illegal content. Fictitious advertisements promoting illicit sale of drugs generated aggregate unique user traffic of 2795 visits over a 10-month period. Further, traffic to our websites originated from a number of countries, including high-income and middle-income countries, and emerging markets. Our results indicate there are few barriers to entry for social media-based illicit online drug marketing. Further, illicit eDTCA2.0 has globalized outside US borders to other countries through unregulated Internet marketing.

  12. Strategies to reduce illicit uses of radioactive materials (the Ethiopian perspective)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gebeyehu, G.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: The illicit uses of radioactive sources can impose a direct danger to public health and safety. A number of cases worldwide have resulted in ionizing radiation exposures to individuals. Although the incident of illicit trafficking is greatly influenced by the national system of protection of radioactive materials at their use and storage location this alone may not ensure an absolute guarantee against such occurrence. The challenges of preventing illicit use of radioactive sources and activities are more complex in the face of more integrated global economic environment. The national system of control, the cross border involvement, multiplicity of participants in the supply to end-use chain, diversity of systems and instruments are factors contributing to this complexity. Smooth interplay and overall systemic effectiveness of the national system of regulatory control, the strategic coordination of responsible parties and the systemic tie of such bodies, the efficiency of information flow and the pattern of know-how and training is what ensure the effectiveness of preventing, detecting and responding to any illicit activities and trafficking of radioactive sources. In Ethiopia, the attempts /incidents of illegal use were so far limited. However, the possibility of such occurrence cannot be ruled out and due attention should be paid as the activity is complex and is global problem of general concern. Therefore, in addressing these issues the following strategies are believed appropriate in Ethiopia's perspective for preventing and controlling illicit of use and trafficking of radioactive materials. Strengthening the national system of control and protection including boarder controlling; achieving effective coordination within and among regulators, law enforcement bodies and customs; developing and maintaining effective system of information handling and flow; training of principally responsible parties in the prevention, detection and response to illicit

  13. Summary Report for the Evaluation of Current QA Processes Within the FRMAC FAL and EPA MERL.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shanks, Sonoya T.; Ted Redding; Lynn Jaussi; Allen, Mark B.; Fournier, Sean Donovan; Leonard, Elliott J.

    2017-04-01

    The Federal Radiological Monitoring and Assessment Center (FRMAC) relies on accurate and defensible analytical laboratory data to support its mission. Therefore, FRMAC must ensure that the environmental analytical laboratories providing analytical services maintain an ongoing capability to provide accurate analytical results to DOE. It is undeniable that the more Quality Assurance (QA) and Quality Control (QC) measures required of the laboratory, the less resources that are available for analysis of response samples. Being that QA and QC measures in general are understood to comprise a major effort related to a laboratory’s operations, requirements should only be considered if they are deemed “value-added” for the FRMAC mission. This report provides observations of areas for improvement and potential interoperability opportunities in the areas of Batch Quality Control Requirements, Written Communications, Data Review Processes, Data Reporting Processes, along with the lessons learned as they apply to items in the early phase of a response that will be critical for developing a more efficient, integrated response for future interactions between the FRMAC and EPA assets.

  14. Collective acceleration of electrons and ions in a high current relativistic electron beam. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nation, J.A.

    1992-01-01

    This report describes work carried out on DOE contract number DE-AC02-80ER10569 during the period December 15, 1979 to May 31, 1992. The original purpose of this research was to investigate the use of slow space charge waves on weakly relativistic electron beams for ion acceleration. The work had three major objectives: development of a suitable ion injector, growth and study of the properties of slow space charge waves on an electron beam, and a combination of the two components into a suitable proof-of-principle demonstration of the wave accelerator. Work focused on the first two of these objectives. Control of the space charge waves' phase velocity was not obtained to the degree required for a working accelerator, so the project was duly terminated in favor of a program which focused on generating ultra high power microwave signals suitable for use in the next linear collider. Work done to develop suitable efficient, inexpensive, phase-stable microwave sources, with peak powers of up to 1 GW in the X band in pulses shorter than 1 ns, is described. Included are lists of the journal and conference papers resulting from this work, as well as a list of graduate students who completed their Ph.D. studies on the projects described in this report

  15. Acromegaly in a patient with a pulmonary neuroendocrine tumor: case report and review of current literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krug, Sebastian; Boch, Michael; Rexin, Peter; Pfestroff, Andreas; Gress, Thomas; Michl, Patrick; Rinke, Anja

    2016-06-27

    Pulmonary neuroendocrine tumors (NET) form a heterogeneous group of rare diseases. In these tumors, paraneoplastic syndromes have been described to drive the course of the disease, among them acromegaly induced by paraneoplastic secretion of growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH). We report the case of a 43 years old patient initially diagnosed with acromegaly accompanied by weight gain and acral enlargement. Subsequently, further diagnostic work-up identified a solitary pulmonary neuroendocrine tumor (NET). Laboratory tests revealed markedly increased growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) without GHRH elevation in the absence of pituitary pathologies confirming the paraneoplastic origin of clinical presentation with acromegaly. Curative surgery was performed leading to normalization of the elevated hormone levels and improvement of the clinical symptoms. Immunohistochemically, a typical carcinoid (TC) was seen with low proliferation index and abundant IGF-1 expression. The association of acromegaly and pulmonary NET has only rarely been reported. We present an individual case of paraneoplastic GH- and IGF-1 secretion in a patient with pulmonary NET. Based on their rarity, the knowledge of paraneoplastic syndromes occurring in patients with pulmonary NET such as acromegaly due to paraneoplastic GH- and IGF-1 secretion is mandatory to adequately diagnose and treat these patients.

  16. Surgical management of gingival overgrowth associated with Cowden sydrome: a case report and current understanding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feitosa, Daniela da Silva; Santamaria, Mauro Pedrine; Casati, Márcio Zaffalon; Sallum, Enilson Antonio; Nociti Júnior, Francisco Humberto; de Toledo, Sérgio

    2011-05-01

    Cowden syndrome, also known as multiple hamartoma syndrome, is a rare autosomal dominant disorder characterized by multiple hamartomas and a high risk of development of malignancy. Oral findings, such as papillomatous lesions and fibromas, are common features; however, a periodontal phenotype has not been reported previously. Therefore, this report presents a case of gingival overgrowth associated with Cowden syndrome, its successful surgical management, and the 12-month follow-up results. Additionally, we discuss the implications for clinicians. A 23-year-old woman was referred to the Department of Periodontics, Piracicaba Dental School, presenting with generalized gingival overgrowth. A detailed dental and medical history and clinical examination confirmed the systemic diagnosis of Cowden syndrome. Histology, radiographs, and clinical data document the entire clinical approach and follow-up. Clinically, there were minor signs of recurrence of gingival overgrowth in a 12-month period after gingivectomy; however, papular lesions reappeared in keratinized gingiva immediately after healing. No signs of bone loss related to the systemic condition were observed radiographically. Histologically, a dense connective tissue with a moderate chronic inflammatory infiltrate and epithelial acanthosis, which is characteristic of gingival hyperplasia, were demonstrated. Gingival overgrowth may occur as an oral phenotype related to Cowden syndrome and can be successfully treated by means of external bevel gingivectomy, followed by regular maintenance therapy, contributing to the patient's well-being, both functionally and esthetically.

  17. FINAL TECHNICAL REPORT - Critical Current Metrology for Nb3Sn Conductor Development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodrich, Loren F.

    2011-01-01

    NIST has played a key role in many of the one-on-one, domestic, and international interlaboratory comparisons of measurements on superconductors. The history of interlaboratory comparisons of measurements on superconductors tells us that careful measurement methods are needed to obtain consistent results. Inconsistent results can lead to many problems including: a mistrust of the results of others, unfair advantages in commerce, and erroneous feedback in the optimization of conductor performance. NIST has experience in many interlaboratory comparisons; a long-term commitment to measurement accuracy; and independent, third-party laboratory status. The principal investigator's direct involvement in the measurements and daily supervision of sample mounting is the unique situation that has allowed important discoveries and evolution of our capabilities over the last 30 years. The principal investigator's research and metrology has helped to improve the accuracy of critical-current (I c ) measurements in laboratories throughout the world. As conductors continue to improve and design limits are tested, the continuation of the long-term commitment to measurement accuracy could be vitally important to the success of new conductor development programs. It is extremely important to the U.S. wire manufacturers to get accurate (high certainty) I c measurements in order to optimize conductor performance. The optimization requires the adjustment of several fabrication parameters (such as reaction time, reaction temperature, conductor design, doping, diffusion barrier, Cu to non-Cu ratio, and twist pitch) based on the I c measurement of the conductor. If the I c measurements are made with high variability, it may be unclear whether or not the parameters are being adjusted in the optimal direction or whether or not the conductor meets the target specification. Our metrology is vital to the U.S. wire manufacturers in the highly competitive international arena and to meet the

  18. Current status of food irradiation in overseas (2013). From the meeting report of RCA food irradiation project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Todoriki, Setsuko

    2013-01-01

    The report introduces the activity of RCA (Regional Cooperative Agreement for Research Development and Training Related to Nuclear Science and Technology for Asia and Pacific) food irradiation project (RAS/5/057) and information obtained at the two workshops on current status of Asia and Pacific areas together with EU, USA and Japan. Also current trends of RAS/5/057 Implementing Best Practices for food irradiation for plant sanitary and phytosanitary purposes are described. Amount of food irradiation products of RCA member countries, minimum adopted doses for quarantine harmful insects (70 to 232 Gy) and import amount of fruits of USA (79 to 5500 tons) are tabulated. Finally current status of Japan is explained. (S. Ohno)

  19. Current fusion plasma theory grant: Task I, Magnetic confinement fusion plasma theory: Final report, December 1, 1987--November 14, 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Callen, J.D.

    1988-07-01

    The research performed under this grant over the current 11-1/2 month period has concentrated on key tokamak plasma confinement and heating theory issues: extensions of neoclassical MHD; viscosity coefficients and transport; nonlinear resistive MHD simulations of Tokapole II plasmas; ICRF and edge plasma interactions; energy confinement degradation due to macroscopic phenomena; and coordination of a new transport initiative. Progress and publications in these areas are briefly summarized in this report. 21 refs

  20. 'What does not get measured, does not get done'. The methods and limitations of measuring illicit financial flows

    OpenAIRE

    Fontana, Alessandra

    2010-01-01

    Estimates of the size of illicit financial flows have been questioned because data used to measure the phenomenon is fraught with problems. However, such estimates are necessary to inform policy making on this issue. Improving the quality of data gathering in poor countries and asking questions beyond statistics can improve the understanding of and response to illicit flows.

  1. Remote Sensing Data Fusion to Detect Illicit Crops and Unauthorized Airstrips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pena, J. A.; Yumin, T.; Liu, H.; Zhao, B.; Garcia, J. A.; Pinto, J.

    2018-04-01

    Remote sensing data fusion has been playing a more and more important role in crop planting area monitoring, especially for crop area information acquisition. Multi-temporal data and multi-spectral time series are two major aspects for improving crop identification accuracy. Remote sensing fusion provides high quality multi-spectral and panchromatic images in terms of spectral and spatial information, respectively. In this paper, we take one step further and prove the application of remote sensing data fusion in detecting illicit crop through LSMM, GOBIA, and MCE analyzing of strategic information. This methodology emerges as a complementary and effective strategy to control and eradicate illicit crops.

  2. A case study of illicit preparation of antirheumatic analgesic with phenylbutazone as active ingredient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thuan, C E; Huat, L B

    1989-06-01

    The abuse of phenylbutazone among rheumatoid arthritis patients has recently become a subject of interest. Unscrupulous manufacturers take advantage of the miraculous analgesic property of phenylbutazone and deliberately add this toxic drug in their preparations without declaring its presence on the label. In a recent survey, many such illicit preparations were seized from Chinese medical halls in Johor and sent to the Department of Chemistry, Johor Bahru for analysis. Here a Gas Chromatograph Mass Selective Detector (GC-MSD) method was developed for the determination of phenylbutazone in illicit traditional preparations.

  3. The association between alcohol exposure and self-reported health status: the effect of separating former and current drinkers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenbin Liang

    Full Text Available To investigate the direction and degree of potential bias introducedto analyses of drinking and health status which exclude former drinkers from exposure groups.Pooled analysis of 14 waves (1997-2010 of the U.S. National Health Interview Survey (NHIS.General population-based study.404,462 participants, from 14 waves of the NHIS, who had knownself-reported health status and alcohol consumption status.Self-reported health status was used as the indicatorof health. Two approaches were used to classify alcohol consumption: (i separation of former drinkers and current drinkers, and (ii combined former and current drinkers. The prevalence of fair/poor health by alcohol use, gender and age with 95% confidence intervals was estimated. The difference in prevalence of fair/poor health status for lifetime abstainers, former drinkers, current drinkers and drinkers (former drinkers and current drinkers combined were compared using Poisson regression with robust estimations of variance.Excluding former drinkers from drinker groups exaggerates the difference in health status between abstainers and drinkers, especially for males.In cohort study analyses, former drinkers should be assigned to a drinking category based on their previous alcohol consumption patterns and not treated as a discrete exposure group.

  4. The current state of knowledge of ecosystems and ecosystem services in Russia: A status report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukvareva, Elena N; Grunewald, Karsten; Bobylev, Sergey N; Zamolodchikov, Dimitry G; Zimenko, Alexey V; Bastian, Olaf

    2015-10-01

    This paper focusses on a conceptual overview of ways to address a comprehensive analysis of ecosystem services (ES) in a country as large and heterogeneous as Russia. As a first step, a methodology for assessing the services for the federal subjects of Russia was chosen, i.e., its constituent provinces and similar entities, in physical terms. Russia harbors a great diversity of natural conditions and ecosystems which are suppliers of ES, and likewise a variety of the socio-economic conditions that shape the demand for these services and their consumption. The methodological approach described permits several important tasks to be addressed: the evaluation of the degree of satisfaction of people's needs for ES, the identification of ecological donor and acceptor regions, and zoning of the country's territory for ES assessment. The next step is to prepare a prototype of a National Report on ES in Russia, for which we are presenting the planned structure.

  5. De Quervain’s thyroiditis: current concepts and a report of four cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Boni

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: De Quervain’s subacute thyroiditis is a self-limiting granulomatous inflammatory disorder, which is thought to be virally induced in genetically predisposed individuals. It is characterized by thyroid pain and thyrotoxicosis, as well as by systemic symptoms like fever, hepatic cytolysis, and an elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate. It is often mistaken for an upper respiratory tract infection. Materials and methods: The authors review recent advances in the understanding of the pathogenesis and pathophysiology of De Quervain’s subacute thyroiditis; risk factors for complications, with emphasis on relapses and end-stage hypothyroidism; differential diagnosis and the exclusion of other subtypes of thyroiditis; and current treatment options. Four cases of De Quervain’s thyroiditis are then analyzed and compared with cases in the literature. Discussion: In three of the patients, onset occurred in June and was probably related to a small, seasonal epidemic cluster. These cases were quite different from the fourth one, which occurred in October, suggesting that two distinct viruses might be involved. One of the patients presented a very rare complication, vocal-cord paralysis, which responded well to glucocorticoid therapy. Another presented with an even rarer post-partum form of painful thyroiditis.

  6. [Lessons from abroad. Current and previous crisis in other countries. SESPAS report 2014].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivadeneyra-Sicilia, Ana; Minué Lorenzo, Sergio; Artundo Purroy, Carlos; Márquez Calderón, Soledad

    2014-06-01

    The evidence available on the impact of previous crises on health reveals different patterns attributable to study designs, the characteristics of each crisis, and other factors related to the socioeconomic and political context. There is greater consensus on the mediating role of government policy responses to financial crises. These responses may magnify or mitigate the adverse effects of crises on population health. Some studies have shown a significant deterioration in some health indicators in the context of the current crisis, mainly in relation to mental health and communicable diseases. Alcohol and tobacco use have also declined in some European countries. In addition, this crisis is being used by some governments to push reforms aimed at privatizing health services, thereby restricting the right to health and healthcare. Specifically, action is being taken on the three axes that determine health system financing: the population covered, the scope of services, and the share of the costs covered. These measures are often arbitrarily implemented based on ideological decisions rather than on the available evidence and therefore adverse consequences are to be expected in terms of financial protection, efficiency, and equity. Copyright © 2013 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  7. The WTS report on the current status of women in cardiothoracic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donington, Jessica S; Litle, Virginia R; Sesti, Joanna; Colson, Yolonda L

    2012-08-01

    The purpose of this work was to assess career demographics, professional activities, and career satisfaction of board-certified female cardiothoracic surgeons in the United States, 50 years after certification of the first women diplomats by the American Board of Thoracic Surgery (ABTS). All ABTS-certified women were surveyed anonymously in December 2010, using surveymonkey.com. Questions were in five categories: demographics, training, practice activities, activities of nonpracticing cardiothoracic surgeons, and career satisfaction. Respondents were grouped by year of certification: group 1 (1961 to 1999) and group 2 (2000 to 2010). Broad comparisons to the entire thoracic surgery workforce were based on The Society of Thoracic Surgeons and American Association for Thoracic Surgery 2009 practice survey. Of the 204 living female diplomats, 190 were surveyed, as 14 (7%) were unavailable owing to lack of contact information. Survey response rate was 64% (121 of 190). Mean respondent's age was 48 years (range, 35 to 74), with the majority being Caucasian (94 of 121). Women spent a mean of 9.1 years in training, and 56% (68 of 121) reported non-Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education training time. Duration of training and resultant debt has increased over time, as respondents in group 1 (n=52) reported training for 8.5 years versus 9.5 years in group 2 (n=68; p=0.01), and a doubling of graduates with educational debt more than $100,000 from 19% to 41%, respectively (p=0.003). The average number of years in practice was 8 (range, 1 to 30), with the majority working in urban setting (65 of 106), in group practices of 2 to 10 surgeons (82 of 106), and as the sole female surgeon in their group (84 of 106). Of the 54 women with academic appointments, more than 60% (33 of 54) are at the instructor or assistant professor level, but 18% (10 of 54) are full professors. Nearly a third (16 of 54) have secured research funding, and 20% (11 of 54) have protected

  8. NIDDK international conference report on diabetes and depression: current understanding and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Richard I G; de Groot, Mary; Lucki, Irwin; Hunter, Christine M; Sartorius, Norman; Golden, Sherita H

    2014-08-01

    Comorbid diabetes and depression are a major clinical challenge as the outcomes of each condition are worsened by the other. This article is based on the presentations and discussions during an international meeting on diabetes and depression convened by the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK) in collaboration with the National Institute of Mental Health and the Dialogue on Diabetes and Depression. While the psychological burden of diabetes may contribute to depression in some cases, this explanation does not sufficiently explain the relationship between these two conditions. Shared biological and behavioral mechanisms, such as hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activation, inflammation, autonomic dysfunction, sleep disturbance, inactive lifestyle, poor dietary habits, and environmental and cultural risk factors, are important to consider in understanding the link between depression and diabetes. Both individual psychological and pharmacological depression treatments are effective in people with diabetes, but the current range of treatment options is limited and has shown mixed effects on glycemic outcomes. More research is needed to understand what factors contribute to individual differences in vulnerability, treatment response, and resilience to depression and metabolic disorders across the life course and how best to provide care for people with comorbid diabetes and depression in different health care settings. Training programs are needed to create a cross-disciplinary workforce that can work in different models of care for comorbid conditions. © 2014 by the American Diabetes Association. Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered.

  9. Critical current densities amd pinning mechanisms of high-Tc films on single crystalline and technologically relevant substrates. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adrian, H.

    1995-12-01

    The report deals with six project tasks: (1) Effects of impurity additions at atomic level on the pinning behaviour and the critical current densities, examined in epitactic YBA 2 (Cu 1-x Ni x ) 3 O 7 films. It could be proven that the Ni atoms increase the activation energy for flux movement and the critical current density in a concentration range of 0 2 Sr 2 Ca n-1 Cu n O 2n+4+δ films (n = 2 and 3) with good crystalline properties, high critical currents, and high current densities were prepared. Thin YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7 films of high quality could be grown on saphire substrates, both by the MO-CVD process and by MBE. The aim of depositing biaxially textured YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7 films with high critical current densities on polycrystalline, metallic substrates was achieved by the IBAD process combined with MBE. The buffer layer was YSZ. Heterostructures of the layer sequence YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7 /CeO 2 /Y 0.3 Pr 0.7 Ba 2 Cu 3 O 7 /YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7 and YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7 /CeO 2 /Au were prepared by laser ablation and sputtering processes, in order to examine Josephson ramp contacts and superconducting field-effect transistors. (orig./MM) [de

  10. He said, she said: The gender wage gap according to self and proxy reports in the Current Population Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Jeremy; Wenger, Jeffrey B

    2012-03-01

    Roughly half the labor force data in the Current Population Survey (CPS) are provided by proxy respondents, and since 1979, men's reliance on proxies has dropped dramatically while women's reliance on proxies has increased. Few authors, however, have examined how combining these first-hand and second-hand reports may influence our understanding of long-term economic trends. We exploit the outgoing rotation group structure of the CPS by matching individual records one year apart, and we find that self-reported wages are higher than proxy-reported wages even after controlling for all time invariant characteristics. Furthermore, we find that changes in the use of proxy respondents by men and women since 1979 have made current estimates of the gender wage gap larger than they would have been without changes in reporting status. This suggests that the gender wage gap has closed more than previously estimated. We recommend that researchers combine self and proxy responses with great care, especially when analyzing time trends or making gender comparisons. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Current self-reported symptoms of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder are associated with total brain volume in healthy adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martine Hoogman

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Reduced total brain volume is a consistent finding in children with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD. In order to get a better understanding of the neurobiology of ADHD, we take the first step in studying the dimensionality of current self-reported adult ADHD symptoms, by looking at its relation with total brain volume. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In a sample of 652 highly educated adults, the association between total brain volume, assessed with magnetic resonance imaging, and current number of self-reported ADHD symptoms was studied. The results showed an association between these self-reported ADHD symptoms and total brain volume. Post-hoc analysis revealed that the symptom domain of inattention had the strongest association with total brain volume. In addition, the threshold for impairment coincides with the threshold for brain volume reduction. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This finding improves our understanding of the biological substrates of self-reported ADHD symptoms, and suggests total brain volume as a target intermediate phenotype for future gene-finding in ADHD.

  12. [Anesthetic Care of Patient With Heroin Addiction: A Case Report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Wen-Yi; Kuo, Shu-Yu

    2018-04-01

    The use of illegal drugs in Taiwan is on the rise. Drug addicts often have complex physical, psychological, and social problems. In addition, they often avoid disclosing their illicit drug use by deceit, concealment, or under-reporting. Building and maintaining relationships of trust with drug-addict patients has become a critical issue in achieving better care quality. In this case report, we report on an anesthesia care process for a heroin addict who was admitted for open reduction and internal fixation surgery for the femur and patella fractures after a car accident. During the six-hour perioperative care period, starting from 11pm on November 30th to 5am on December 1st, 2015, the patient was not willing to disclose his illicit drug use before the surgery. However, the nurse anesthetist noticed signs and symptoms of drug use. The nurse empathized with the patient's worries, provided him with a safe communication environment, and gained trust from the patient in a timely manner, which then enabled the patient to fully disclose his illicit drug use with the nurse anesthetist. The anesthesia-care strategy was then modified according to client's condition. The nurse anesthetist played an important role of bridging communications between the patient and medical care staffs and of modifying the care strategies in a timely manner. During the care period, the blood-borne disease contamination was successfully prevented, the client received uneventful pain management, there was a lack of withdrawal symptoms, and the staffs and patient safety was maintained. The literature on the anesthetic care of heroin patients undergoing surgery is relatively limited in Taiwan. The findings in the current case report add information on providing anesthetic care to patients with drug addiction. Publishing additional case reports, research, and clinical recommendations is essential for improving care quality for this vulnerable population.

  13. Wavelet applications for modeling in the atmospheric sciences: Current status and potential extensions. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Envair, J.H.; Ekstrom, P.

    1995-11-01

    Wavelets are elementary mathematical functions used to construct, transform, and analyze higher functions and observational data. This report describes the results of an exploratory research effort to evaluate wavelet applications for numerically integrating differential equations associated with air pollution transport and conversion models. It is intended to provide a primer on wavelets, and specifically outlines the use of wavelets in a model that addresses derivative-evaluation and boundary-condition problems. Several factors complicate the use of wavelets for integrating differential equations. First, an enormous range of different wavelet types exists, making the choice of wavelet family for a given application challenging. Moreover, in contrast to the Fourier series, the functional derivatives necessary for numerical approximation are difficult to evaluate and consolidate in terms of wavelet expansions, introducing appreciable complexity into any attempt at wavelet-based integration. On the positive side, wavelet techniques do hold promise for effectively interfacing plume and other subgrid-scale phenomena in grid models. Moreover, workable techniques for derivative evaluation and simulation of boundary features appear feasible. Wavelet use may provide a viable, advantageous option for numerically integrating model equations describing fields on all scales of time and distance, especially where inhomogeneous fields exist, and provide a computationally efficient method of focusing on high-variability regions. The potential for wavelets to conduct integrations totally in transform space contrasts with Fourier-based approaches, which essentially preclude such treatments whenever nonlinear chemical processes occur in the modeled system

  14. Current trends in endodontic treatment by general dental practitioners: report of a United States national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savani, Gina M; Sabbah, Wael; Sedgley, Christine M; Whitten, Brian

    2014-05-01

    In the United States almost 70% of root canal treatment (RCT) is performed by general dentists (GPs), yet little is known about their treatment protocols. A paper survey was mailed to 2000 United States GPs with questions about the types of endodontic cases treated, routine treatment protocols, use of newer technologies, and endodontic continuing education (CE). Completed surveys were returned by 479 respondents (24%). GPs who perform RCT (84%) reported providing anterior (99%), bicuspid (95%), and molar (62%) RCT and retreatment (18%). Rubber dam was used always (60%), usually (16%), sometimes (13%), and never (11%). Newer technologies used by GPs included digital radiography (72%), magnification (80%), electronic apex locator (70%), and nickel-titanium rotary instrumentation (74%). Compared with GPs with >20 years of experience, those in practice for ≤10 years were more likely to use rubber dam (P 20 years were more likely to perform retreatments (P 5 hours of CE were more likely to use rotary instrumentation (P irrigant activation devices (P 20 years. More experienced GPs were more likely to take on complicated cases than those with fewer years of practice. There was no association between hours of CE and compliance with rubber dam usage. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. CONTEMPORARY ISSUES RELATED TO ILLICIT DRUG TRAFFICKING AND CONSUMPTION TARGETING THE NATIONAL SECURITY OF ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan MARINESCU

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available A serious social problem is drug use, which is very widespread all over the world. Drugs are a terrible problem whose seriousness becomes more visible every day. Problems caused by drug abuse and illegal trafficking are among the most serious problems faced by the world today but also threatening future generations. After the First World War, drugs began to be consumed on a large scale. Up to the end of the 30s, they were legal. Their marketing over time has led to enormous profits outlaw, making drugs an invaluable source for the black market. Scourge illicit drug trafficking from South America and the Middle East comprised the whole the planet. Governments have begun to allocate more resources to the fight against drugs, but the processes were slow because the problem was very complex. The impact was very high among young people who out of curiosity, terrible or solidarity with the entourage, have begun to consume. The Romanian society was caught by surprise by this drug scourge, coming out so very serious problems both in justice and in the medical world. Weak reactions and untrained authorities have favored the phenomenon of drug abuse that has come to be devastating. Drug use is a high-risk activity. Optimism and illusion of maintaining self-control is also dangerous because it affects reasoning. The drug consumer becomes not only an unfortunate person, but also a social problem. Changes made by traffickers are evident in street-related lawsuits: thefts, arsonists, assassinations. We are all affected in some way by drug trafficking. The extent of the problem current narcotics outweighs the concerns of the police forces and the medical world, constituting a threat to the economic and social order of the world.

  16. Sewage epidemiology and illicit drug research: the development of ethical research guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prichard, Jeremy; Hall, Wayne; de Voogt, Pim; Zuccato, Ettore

    2014-02-15

    To discuss the need to develop ethical guidelines for researchers using sewage epidemiology to monitor drug use in the general population and specific precincts, including prisons, schools and workplaces. Describe current applications of sewage epidemiology, identify potential ethical risks associated with this science, and identify key means by which these risks may be mitigated through proportionate ethical guidance that allows this science to be fully developed. A rapidly advancing field of research is sewage epidemiology (SE) - the analysis of wastewater samples to monitor illicit drug use and other substances. Typically this research involves low ethical risks because individual participants cannot be identified and, consequently, review has been waived by human research ethics committees. In the absence of such oversight, ethical research guidelines are recommended for SE teams, peer reviewers and journal editors; guidelines will assist them to mitigate any risks in general population studies and studies of prisons, schools and workplaces. Potential harms include the stigmatisation of participants and, in the prison setting, austere policy responses to SE data that impact negatively upon inmate-participants. The risk of harm can be managed through research planning, awareness of the socio-political context in which results will be interpreted (or, in the case of media, sensationalised) and careful relations with industry partners. Ethical guidelines should be developed in consultation with SE scholars and be periodically amended. They should include publication processes that safeguard scientific rigour and be promulgated through existing research governance structures. Guidelines will assist to promote an ethical research culture among SE teams and scholars involved in the publication process and this will work to protect the reputation of the field. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Physiotherapy management of patients with coronary artery disease: a report on current practice in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Roos

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Coronary artery disease (CAD is a worldwide health problem with  an  increased  prevalence  in  sub-Saharan  Africa.  Physiotherapists  inter-nationally  are  involved  in  the  care  of  these  patients  from  the  acute  stage following  a  cardiac  event  until  phase  III  cardiac  rehabilitation  is  completed.  The  purpose  of  this  study  was  to  determine  the  current  physiotherapy management  of  patients  with  CAD  in  South  Africa.  An  observational  cross-sectional  study  was  conducted  over  two  months  with  a  questionnaire  that  was  sent  to  the  government  and  private  health  care  sectors.  Results  showed  that  more  cardiopulmonary  physiotherapists  provided  care  (62%  than  those who  didn’t  (38%.  Care  was  mostly  provided  in  a  hospital  setting  (81%  and  out- patient phase III cardiac rehabilitation was lacking (11%. In-hospital physiotherapy treatment was mostly provided once daily. Deep breathing exercises (99%, circulatory exercises (95% and manual chest clearance techniques (88% were mostly used during physiotherapy. Evidence based practice was consistent regarding early mobilization but was inconsistent with regards to the use of manual chest clearance techniques.

  18. Illicit Cigarette Trade in Five South American Countries: A Gap Analysis for Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia and Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paraje, Guillermo

    2018-05-15

    Due to its nature, it is very hard to measure tobacco illicit trade in any product. In the case of Latin American countries, there is scant information on the magnitude and characteristics of this trade in the case of cigarettes. The goal of this article is to provide estimates on the evolution of the illicit cigarette trade in five South American countries: Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia and Peru. Gap analysis estimates for cigarette tax evasion/avoidance (a comparison on the evolution of the difference between registered cigarette sales and measured population consumption) is developed for Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia and Peru. Nationally representative surveys, conducted regularly, are used to measure population consumption. Confidence intervals constructed by bootstrapping sample estimates are generated in order to statistically evaluate the evolution of the gap. Cigarette illicit trade has increased as a percentage of total sales in Brazil in recent years. In the case of Argentina, after a relative decrease between 2005 and 2009 it seems to have stabilized. There is no statistical evidence to argue that there has been an increase of cigarette illicit trade in Chile, Colombia and Peru, despite substantial price increases in Chile and tax increase in both Colombia and Peru. Using simple statistical methods, it is possible to assess the trend in tobacco illicit trend over time to better inform policy-makers. Getting reliable and regular population consumption surveys can also help to track tobacco illicit trade. Claims by tobacco industry of a positive association between price/tax changes and illicit trade are unsubstantiated. Evolution of cigarette