WorldWideScience

Sample records for reported contingent aversive

  1. Optimistic bias and pessimistic realism in judgments of contingency with aversive or rewarding outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonoda, Akihito

    2002-10-01

    A depressive personality influences judgments of contingency. This is called "depressive realism." The present experiment examined whether optimistic traits, as measured by various scales, are correlated with judgments of contingency. The valences of the target stimuli were aversive or rewarding (noise avoidance or gaining points). Analysis indicated that the optimistic subjects (as measured by explanatory style for negative events) tend to overestimate noncontingent events; however, optimism measured by other scales did not show such an effect. The findings are discussed in terms of a self-defensive attributional bias.

  2. Reporting, Recording, and Transferring Contingency Demand Data

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Smith, Bernard

    2000-01-01

    .... In this report, we develop a standard set of procedures for reporting and recording demand data at the contingency location and transferring contingency demand data to the home base - ensuring proper level allocation and valid worldwide peacetime operating stock (POS) and readiness spares package (RSP) requirements.

  3. Measuring Risk Aversion for Nuclear Power Plant Accident: Results of Contingent Valuation Survey in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sang Hun; Kang, Hyun Gook

    2015-01-01

    Within the evaluation of the external cost of nuclear energy, the estimation of the external cost of nuclear power plant (NPP) severe accident is one of the major topics to be addressed. For the evaluation of the external cost of NPP severe accident, the effect of public risk averse behavior against the group accidents, such as NPP accident, dam failure, must be addressed. Although the equivalent fatalities from a single group accident are not common and its risk is very small compared to other accidents, people perceive the group accident more seriously. In other words, people are more concerned about low probability/high consequence events than about high probability/low consequence events having the same mean damage. One of the representative method to integrate the risk aversion in the external costs of severe nuclear reactor accidents was developed by Eeckoudt et al., and he used the risk aversion coefficient, mainly based on the analysis of financial risks in the stock markets to evaluate the external cost of nuclear severe accident. However, the use of financial risk aversion coefficient to nuclear severe accidents is not appropriate, because financial risk and nuclear severe accident risk are entirely different. In this paper, the individual-level survey was conducted to measure the risk aversion coefficient and estimate the multiplication factor to integrate the risk aversion in the external costs of NPP severe accident. This study propose an integrated framework on estimation of the external cost associated with severe accidents of NPP considering public risk aversion behavior. The theoretical framework to estimate the risk aversion coefficient/multiplication factor and to assess economic damages from a hypothetical NPP accident was constructed. Based on the theoretical framework, the risk aversion coefficient can be analyzed by conducting public survey with a carefully designed lottery questions. Compared to the previous studies on estimation of the

  4. Measuring Risk Aversion for Nuclear Power Plant Accident: Results of Contingent Valuation Survey in Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sang Hun; Kang, Hyun Gook [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    Within the evaluation of the external cost of nuclear energy, the estimation of the external cost of nuclear power plant (NPP) severe accident is one of the major topics to be addressed. For the evaluation of the external cost of NPP severe accident, the effect of public risk averse behavior against the group accidents, such as NPP accident, dam failure, must be addressed. Although the equivalent fatalities from a single group accident are not common and its risk is very small compared to other accidents, people perceive the group accident more seriously. In other words, people are more concerned about low probability/high consequence events than about high probability/low consequence events having the same mean damage. One of the representative method to integrate the risk aversion in the external costs of severe nuclear reactor accidents was developed by Eeckoudt et al., and he used the risk aversion coefficient, mainly based on the analysis of financial risks in the stock markets to evaluate the external cost of nuclear severe accident. However, the use of financial risk aversion coefficient to nuclear severe accidents is not appropriate, because financial risk and nuclear severe accident risk are entirely different. In this paper, the individual-level survey was conducted to measure the risk aversion coefficient and estimate the multiplication factor to integrate the risk aversion in the external costs of NPP severe accident. This study propose an integrated framework on estimation of the external cost associated with severe accidents of NPP considering public risk aversion behavior. The theoretical framework to estimate the risk aversion coefficient/multiplication factor and to assess economic damages from a hypothetical NPP accident was constructed. Based on the theoretical framework, the risk aversion coefficient can be analyzed by conducting public survey with a carefully designed lottery questions. Compared to the previous studies on estimation of the

  5. Rapid prefrontal cortex activation towards aversively paired faces and enhanced contingency detection are observed in highly trait-anxious women under challenging conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maimu Alissa Rehbein

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Relative to healthy controls, anxiety-disorder patients show anomalies in classical conditioning that may either result from, or provide a risk factor for, clinically relevant anxiety. Here, we investigated whether healthy participants with enhanced anxiety vulnerability show abnormalities in a challenging affective-conditioning paradigm, in which many stimulus-reinforcer associations had to be acquired with only few learning trials. Forty-seven high and low trait-anxious females underwent MultiCS conditioning, in which 52 different neutral faces (CS+ were paired with an aversive noise (US, while further 52 faces (CS- remained unpaired. Emotional learning was assessed by evaluative (rating, behavioral (dot-probe, contingency report, and neurophysiological (magnetoencephalography measures before, during, and after learning. High and low trait-anxious groups did not differ in evaluative ratings or response priming before or after conditioning. High trait-anxious women, however, were better than low trait-anxious women at reporting CS+/US contingencies after conditioning, and showed an enhanced prefrontal cortex activation towards CS+ in the M1 (i.e., 80 to 117 ms and M170 time intervals (i.e., 140 to 160 ms during acquisition. These effects in MultiCS conditioning observed in individuals with elevated trait anxiety are consistent with theories of enhanced conditionability in anxiety vulnerability. Furthermore, they point towards increased threat monitoring and detection in highly trait-anxious females, possibly mediated by alterations in visual working memory.

  6. Rapid prefrontal cortex activation towards aversively paired faces and enhanced contingency detection are observed in highly trait-anxious women under challenging conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehbein, Maimu Alissa; Wessing, Ida; Zwitserlood, Pienie; Steinberg, Christian; Eden, Annuschka Salima; Dobel, Christian; Junghöfer, Markus

    2015-01-01

    Relative to healthy controls, anxiety-disorder patients show anomalies in classical conditioning that may either result from, or provide a risk factor for, clinically relevant anxiety. Here, we investigated whether healthy participants with enhanced anxiety vulnerability show abnormalities in a challenging affective-conditioning paradigm, in which many stimulus-reinforcer associations had to be acquired with only few learning trials. Forty-seven high and low trait-anxious females underwent MultiCS conditioning, in which 52 different neutral faces (CS+) were paired with an aversive noise (US), while further 52 faces (CS−) remained unpaired. Emotional learning was assessed by evaluative (rating), behavioral (dot-probe, contingency report), and neurophysiological (magnetoencephalography) measures before, during, and after learning. High and low trait-anxious groups did not differ in evaluative ratings or response priming before or after conditioning. High trait-anxious women, however, were better than low trait-anxious women at reporting CS+/US contingencies after conditioning, and showed an enhanced prefrontal cortex (PFC) activation towards CS+ in the M1 (i.e., 80–117 ms) and M170 time intervals (i.e., 140–160 ms) during acquisition. These effects in MultiCS conditioning observed in individuals with elevated trait anxiety are consistent with theories of enhanced conditionability in anxiety vulnerability. Furthermore, they point towards increased threat monitoring and detection in highly trait-anxious females, possibly mediated by alterations in visual working memory. PMID:26113814

  7. Risk Aversion and Public Reporting. Part 2: Mitigation Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahian, David M; Jacobs, Jeffrey P; Badhwar, Vinay; D'Agostino, Richard S; Bavaria, Joseph E; Prager, Richard L

    2017-12-01

    Part 1 of this review summarizes the consequences of risk aversion and the observational studies and surveys relevant to this phenomenon, almost all of which are derived from cardiac surgery and interventional cardiology. In Part 2, we describe the root cause of risk aversion-the belief by providers that current risk adjustment is inadequate to account for the severity of their highest-risk patients, thereby prejudicing their publicly reported performance scores. Evidence supporting the robustness of current risk adjustment is presented, as well as nine potential strategies to further mitigate risk aversion: optimization of data source, risk models, and performance measures; exclusion of high-risk patients; exclusion of non-procedure-related end points; separate reporting of high-risk patients; reporting by condition or diagnosis rather than by procedures; reporting at the hospital or program level rather than the physician level; collaborative, cross-disciplinary decision making; active surveillance for risk aversion; and improved stakeholder education. Of these, the first is most desirable, widely applicable, and resistant to gaming. Copyright © 2017 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Financial Management: DoD Process for Reporting Contingent Legal Liabilities

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Granetto, Paul J; Marsh, Patricia A; Peek, Marvin L; Brittingham, Scott S; Baidridge, Denise E; Egu, Charles O; Schenck, Kristy M; Adams, Carl L; Reiser, Cheri L

    2006-01-01

    ... contingent liabilities should read this report. It identifies areas where DoD and its Components have not fully complied with Federal financial accounting standards and are not consistent in computing and disclosing contingent legal liabilities...

  9. Risk Aversion and Public Reporting. Part 1: Observations From Cardiac Surgery and Interventional Cardiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahian, David M; Jacobs, Jeffrey P; Badhwar, Vinay; D'Agostino, Richard S; Bavaria, Joseph E; Prager, Richard L

    2017-12-01

    Risk aversion is a potential unintended consequence of health care public reporting. In Part 1 of this review, four possible consequences of this phenomenon are discussed, including the denial of interventions to some high-risk patients, stifling of innovation, appropriate avoidance of futile interventions, and better matching of high-risk patients to more capable providers. We also summarize relevant observational clinical reports and survey results from cardiovascular medicine and surgery, the two specialties from which almost all risk aversion observations have been derived. Although these demonstrate that risk aversion does occur, the empirical data are much more consistent and compelling for interventional cardiology than for cardiac surgery. Copyright © 2017 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Financial Management: DoD Process for Reporting Contingent Legal Liabilities

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Granetto, Paul J; Marsh, Patricia A; Peek, Marvin L; Brittingham, Scott S; Baidridge, Denise E; Egu, Charles O; Schenck, Kristy M; Adams, Carl L; Reiser, Cheri L

    2006-01-01

    .... The report is intended to convey systemic concerns across DoD and to provide DoD management and legal counsel the basis for developing policies and procedures for reporting and disclosing contingent...

  11. Drugs and taste aversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rondeau, D.B.; Jolicoeur, F.B.; Merkel, A.D.; Wayner, M.J.

    1981-01-01

    The literature on the effects of drugs on the acquisition and the magnitude of taste aversion is reviewed and discussed. Then, the results of a series of experiments on the effects of phenobarbital and related drugs on taste aversion are reported. A standard taste aversion model was used in all experiments; test drugs were injected prior to drinking in a one bottle situation on the first test day following the taste aversion treatment. Phenobarbital in doses ranging from 20 to 80 mg/kg significantly attenuated taste aversion induced by lithium chloride (LiCl) and x-radiation, the maximal effect occurred with the 60 mg/kg dose. The attenuating effect was found to be dependent upon the magnitude of the aversion to the sapid solution. Phenobarbital completely abolished aversion produced by 0.375 mEq LiCl while the attenuation effect decreased linearly with higher doses of LiCl. Results also indicate that phenobarbital's attenuating effect cannot be solely attributed to its dipsogenic characteristic or to its state dependent learning effect. Attenuation of LiCl aversion to a saccharin solution was also observed following single doses of amobarbital, 30 mg/kg, pentobarbital, 15 mg/kg, and chloropromazine, 0.75 mg/kg. Taste aversion was not affected by other doses of those drugs or by hexobarbital, barbital, and chlordiazepoxide. Phenobarbital's attenuating effect on taste aversion is discussed in relation to other known behavioral and neurophysiological effects of the drug

  12. Year 2000 Contingency Planning and Cost Reporting at the Defense Finance and Accounting Service

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1998-01-01

    ...: complied with the requirements of the DoD Year 2000 Management Plan, prepared adequate Year 2000 system-level contingency plans, and reported complete and reliable Year 2000 system cost estimates...

  13. 25 CFR 39.505 - What are the reporting requirements for the use of the contingency fund?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... contingency fund? 39.505 Section 39.505 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR EDUCATION THE INDIAN SCHOOL EQUALIZATION PROGRAM Contingency Fund § 39.505 What are the reporting requirements for the use of the contingency fund? (a) At the end of each fiscal year, Bureau/OIEP shall send an...

  14. Brief Report: Risk-Aversion and Rationality in Autism Spectrum Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosling, Corentin J; Moutier, Sylvain

    2018-05-30

    Risk-aversion and rationality have both been highlighted as core features of decision making in individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). This study tested whether risk-aversion is related to rational decision-making in ASD individuals. ASD and matched control adults completed a decision-making task that discriminated between the use of risk-averse and rational strategies. Results showed that overall, ASD participants were more risk-averse than control participants. Specifically, both groups made similar choices when risk-aversion was the less rational strategy but ASD participants chose more rational options than control participants when risk-aversion was the most rational strategy. This study confirmed that risk-aversion is a core feature of ASD and revealed that ASD individuals can switch their decision-making strategy adaptively to avoid negative consequences.

  15. Contingency Contractor Optimization Phase 3 Sustainment Verification and Validation V&V) Report - Contingency Contractor Optimization Engineering - Prototype

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bandlow, Alisa [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Operations Research and Computational Analysis; Durfee, Justin David [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Operations Research and Computational Analysis; Frazier, Christopher Rawls [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Operations Research and Computational Analysis; Gearhart, Jared Lee [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Operations Research and Computational Analysis; Jones, Katherine A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Operations Research and Computational Analysis; Adair, Kristin Lynn [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Operations Research and Computational Analysis; Turgeon, Jennifer [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). High Confidence System Environments

    2016-04-01

    The reports and test plans contained within this document serve as supporting materials to the activities listed within the “Contingency Contractor Optimization Tool – Prototype (CCOT-P) Verification & Validation Plan” [1]. The activities included test development, testing, peer reviews, and expert reviews. The engineering prototype reviews were done for both the software and the mathematical model used in CCOT-P. Section 2 includes the peer and expert review reports, which summarize the findings from each of the reviews and document the resolution of any issues. Section 3 details the test plans that were followed for functional testing of the application through the interface. Section 4 describes the unit tests that were run on the code.

  16. Loss Aversion in the Laboratory

    OpenAIRE

    Morrison, William G.; Oxoby, Robert J.

    2014-01-01

    We report the results of a laboratory experiment testing for the existence of loss aversion in a standard risk aversion protocol (Holt and Laury, 2002). In our experiment, participants earn and retain money for a week before using it in an incentivized risk preference elicitation task. We find loss aversion, distinct from risk aversion, has a significant effect on behavior resulting in participants requiring higher compensation to bear risk.

  17. Reporting individual surgeon outcomes does not lead to risk aversion in abdominal aortic aneurysm surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saratzis, A; Thatcher, A; Bath, M F; Sidloff, D A; Bown, M J; Shakespeare, J; Sayers, R D; Imray, C

    2017-02-01

    INTRODUCTION Reporting surgeons' outcomes has recently been introduced in the UK. This has the potential to result in surgeons becoming risk averse. The aim of this study was to investigate whether reporting outcomes for abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) surgery impacts on the number and risk profile (level of fitness) of patients offered elective treatment. METHODS Publically available National Vascular Registry data were used to compare the number of AAAs treated in those centres across the UK that reported outcomes for the periods 2008-2012, 2009-2013 and 2010-2014. Furthermore, the number and characteristics of patients referred for consideration of elective AAA repair at a single tertiary unit were analysed yearly between 2010 and 2014. Clinic, casualty and theatre event codes were searched to obtain all AAAs treated. The results of cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) were assessed. RESULTS For the 85 centres that reported outcomes in all three five-year periods, the median number of AAAs treated per unit increased between the periods 2008-2012 and 2010-2014 from 192 to 214 per year (p=0.006). In the single centre cohort study, the proportion of patients offered elective AAA repair increased from 74% in 2009-2010 to 81% in 2013-2014, with a maximum of 84% in 2012-2013. The age, aneurysm size and CPET results (anaerobic threshold levels) for those eventually offered elective treatment did not differ significantly between 2010 and 2014. CONCLUSIONS The results do not support the assumption that reporting individual surgeon outcomes is associated with a risk averse strategy regarding patient selection in aneurysm surgery at present.

  18. Standard format and content for radiological contingency plans for fuel cycle and materials facilities. Regulatory report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-07-01

    This report is issued as guidance to those fuel cycle and major materials licensees who are required by the NRC to prepare and submit a radiological contingency plan. This Standard Format has been prepared to help assure uniformity and completeness in the preparation of those plans

  19. The Effect of Various Reinforcement Contingencies on the Accuracy of Children's Self-Reports. Technical Report #46.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speidel, Gisela E.

    This study, part of the Kamehameha Early Education Program (KEEP), investigated the accuracy of children's self reports under various contingencies. Sixteen first grade arithmetic students were randomly assigned to two groups, A and B. It was found that both groups learned to check their own work and report it fairly accurately when no…

  20. Colour Separation and Aversion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah M Haigh

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Aversion to achromatic patterns is well documented but relatively little is known about discomfort from chromatic patterns. Large colour differences are uncommon in the natural environment and deviation from natural statistics makes images uncomfortable (Fernandez and Wilkins 2008, Perception, 37(7, 1098–113; Juricevic et al 2010, Perception, 39(7, 884–899. We report twelve studies documenting a linear increase in aversion to chromatic square-wave gratings as a function of the separation in UCS chromaticity between the component bars, independent of their luminance contrast. Two possible explanations for the aversion were investigated: (1 accommodative response, or (2 cortical metabolic demand. We found no correlation between chromaticity separation and accommodative lag or variance in lag, measured using an open-field autorefractor. However, near infrared spectroscopy of the occipital cortex revealed a larger oxyhaemoglobin response to patterns with large chromaticity separation. The aversion may be cortical in origin and does not appear to be due to accommodation.

  1. An analysis of contingency statements in a DRO procedure: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerow, Stephanie; Rispoli, Mandy; Boles, Margot B; Neely, Leslie C

    2015-06-01

    To examine latency to criterion for reduction of challenging behaviour with and without stating a contingency statement immediately prior to a DRO procedure. An ABAC design in which A was baseline, B was used to evaluate the efficacy of a DRO procedure, and C was used to evaluate the efficacy of a DRO procedure with a contingency statement. The DRO with the contingency statement intervention was associated with a shorter latency to behaviour change than the DRO procedure without the contingency statement. These preliminary findings from this case study highlight the importance of examining the efficiency of behaviour change procedures. Directions for future research are provided.

  2. Contingency analysis modeling for superfund sites and other sources. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christensen, D.; Kaiser, G.D.

    1993-01-01

    The report provides information on contingency modeling for a wide range of different accidental release scenarios of hazardous air pollutants that might take place at Superfund and other sites. The scenarios are used to illustrate how atmospheric dispersion models, including dense gas models, should be applied. Particular emphasis is made on the input data that is needed for proper applications of models. Flow charts direct the user to specific sections where various scenarios are discussed. A check list of items that should be discussed before running the model is provided. Several examples are provided to specifically show how to apply the models so as to produce a credible analysis for a particular release scenario

  3. Supervisory Styles: A Contingency Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehe, Dirk Michael

    2016-01-01

    While the contingent nature of doctoral supervision has been acknowledged, the literature on supervisory styles has yet to deliver a theory-based contingency framework. A contingency framework can assist supervisors and research students in identifying appropriate supervisory styles under varying circumstances. The conceptual study reported here…

  4. Criteria for selection of fuel cycle and major materials licenses needing radiological contingency plans. Regulatory report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisher, F.D.

    1981-07-01

    Quantities of NRC-licensed radioisotopes requiring the licensee to develop and submit radiological contingency planning information to the NRC for review and approval are developed and presented as limiting possession limits and conditions of possession

  5. Temporal contingency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallistel, C.R.; Craig, Andrew R.; Shahan, Timothy A.

    2015-01-01

    Contingency, and more particularly temporal contingency, has often figured in thinking about the nature of learning. However, it has never been formally defined in such a way as to make it a measure that can be applied to most animal learning protocols. We use elementary information theory to define contingency in such a way as to make it a measurable property of almost any conditioning protocol. We discuss how making it a measurable construct enables the exploration of the role of different contingencies in the acquisition and performance of classically and operantly conditioned behavior. PMID:23994260

  6. Temporal contingency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallistel, C R; Craig, Andrew R; Shahan, Timothy A

    2014-01-01

    Contingency, and more particularly temporal contingency, has often figured in thinking about the nature of learning. However, it has never been formally defined in such a way as to make it a measure that can be applied to most animal learning protocols. We use elementary information theory to define contingency in such a way as to make it a measurable property of almost any conditioning protocol. We discuss how making it a measurable construct enables the exploration of the role of different contingencies in the acquisition and performance of classically and operantly conditioned behavior. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Myopic loss aversion revisited

    OpenAIRE

    Blavatskyy, Pavlo; Pogrebna, Ganna

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we reexamine several experimental papers on myopic loss aversion by analyzing individual rather than aggregate choice patterns. We find that the behavior of the majority of subjects is inconsistent with the hypothesis of myopic loss aversion.

  8. Aversion learning can reduce meal size without taste avoidance in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tracy, Andrea L; Schurdak, Jennifer D; Chambers, James B; Benoit, Stephen C

    2016-03-01

    Nausea and aversive food responses are commonly reported following bariatric surgery, along with post-surgical reduction in meal size. This study investigates whether a meal size limit can be conditioned by associating large meals with aversive outcomes. In rats, the intake of meals exceeding a pre-defined size threshold was paired with lithium chloride-induced gastric illness, and the effects on self-determined food intakes and body weight were measured. Rats given LiCl contingent on the intake of a large meal learned to reliably reduce intake below this meal size threshold, while post-meal saline or LiCl before meals did not change meal size. It was further demonstrated that this is not a conditioned taste aversion and that this effect transferred to foods not explicitly trained. Finally, when rats received LiCl following all large meals, the number of small meals increased, but total food intake and body weight decreased. While further work is needed, this is the first demonstration that meal size may be conditioned, using an aversion procedure, to remain under a target threshold and that this effect is distinct from taste avoidance. Corresponding reduction in food intake and body weight suggests that this phenomenon may have implications for developing weight loss strategies and understanding the efficacy of bariatric surgery. © 2016 The Obesity Society.

  9. Loss aversion and rent-seeking: An experimental study

    OpenAIRE

    Kong, Xiaojing

    2008-01-01

    We report an experiment designed to evaluate the impact of loss aversion on rent-seeking contests. We find, as theoretically predicted, a negative relationship between rent-seeking expenditures and loss aversion. However, for any degree of loss aversion, levels of rent-seeking expenditure are higher than predicted. Moreover, we find that the effect of loss aversion becomes weaker with repetition of the contest.

  10. The Effect of Contingent Reinforcement on the Acquisition of Sight Vocabulary. Technical Report No. 49.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Mary E.; And Others

    The present study is a replication of a Lahey and Drabman study (1974) which investigated the effects of contingent versus noncontingent reinforcement on the learning of sight words. The subjects in this study were 14 Kamehameha Early Education Program (KEEP) students who composed the lowest reading group in a combined first-second grade…

  11. Effects of Behavioral Contingencies on Adolescent Active Videogame Play and Overall Activity: A Randomized Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Gregory J; Adams, Marc A; Ramirez, Ernesto R; Carlson, Jordan A; Kerr, Jacqueline; Godbole, Suneeta; Dillon, Lindsay; Marshall, Simon J

    2013-06-01

    This study evaluated the effect of four active videogames (AVGs) varying in behavioral contingencies (behavior-consequence relations) on adolescent AVG play and overall activity levels over 4 weeks. Each AVG, manufactured by SSD/Xavix(®) (Shiseido Co. of Japan, Tokyo, Japan), was coded and scored for the number of positive and aversive behavioral contingencies within the games. "Bowling" and "Tennis" were classified as having "higher contingency scores," and "Boxing" and aerobic fitness training were classified as having "lower contingency scores." Adolescents (n=63; 11-15 years old; 62% male; 38% Hispanic; 44% overweight or obese) were randomized to play one of the four AVGs at home and recorded game play sessions in a paper log. Baseline and week 4 assessments were completed at home; week 1, 2, and 3 assessments were completed by telephone. Accelerometers were worn during baseline and weeks 1 and 4. Accelerometer-measured sedentary and light activity hours/day were stable over time, whereas moderate-vigorous physical activity minutes/day increased in the higher contingency group and decreased in the lower contingency group (interaction effect, 6.43, P=0.024). Reported game play minutes decreased in both groups from week 1 to week 4 (-29.42 minutes, P=0.001). There was some support for the hypothesis that AVGs with more behavioral contingencies, compared with AVGs with fewer behavioral contingencies, result in more physical activity. However, overall AVG play decreased substantially after the first week. Further study is needed to better understand how behavioral contingencies can be used in AVGs to enhance their potential to provide health benefits to game players.

  12. Future Contingents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Øhrstrøm, Peter; Hasle., Per F. V.

    2015-01-01

    contingent statements. The problem of future contingents is interwoven with a number of issues in theology, philosophy, logic, semantics of natural language, computer science, and applied mathematics. The theological issue of how to reconcile the assumption of God's foreknowledge with the freedom and moral...... accountability of human beings has been a main impetus to the discussion and a major inspiration to the development of various logical models of time and future contingents. This theological issue is connected with the general philosophical question of determinism versus indeterminism. Within logic, the relation...... about the future. Finally, it should be mentioned that temporal logic has found a remarkable application in computer science and applied mathematics. In the late 1970s the first computer scientists realised the relevance of temporal logic for the purposes of computer science (see Hasle and Øhrstrøm 2004)....

  13. Future Contingents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Øhrstrøm, Peter; Hasle., Per F. V.

    2011-01-01

    contingent statements. The problem of future contingents is interwoven with a number of issues in theology, philosophy, logic, semantics of natural language, computer science, and applied mathematics. The theological issue of how to reconcile the assumption of God's foreknowledge with the freedom and moral...... accountability of human beings has been a main impetus to the discussion and a major inspiration to the development of various logical models of time and future contingents. This theological issue is connected with the general philosophical question of determinism versus indeterminism. Within logic, the relation...... about the future. Finally, it should be mentioned that temporal logic has found a remarkable application in computer science and applied mathematics. In the late 1970s the first computer scientists realised the relevance of temporal logic for the purposes of computer science (see Hasle and Øhrstrøm 2004)....

  14. Risk Aversion Relates to Cognitive Ability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Ola; Holm, Håkan J.; Tyran, Jean-Robert Karl

    2016-01-01

    Recent experimental studies suggest that risk aversion is negatively related to cognitive ability. In this paper we report evidence that this relation might be spurious. We recruit a large subject pool drawn from the general Danish population for our experiment. By presenting subjects with choice...... tasks that vary the bias induced by random choices, we are able to generate both negative and positive correlations between risk aversion and cognitive ability. Structural estimation allowing for heterogeneity of noise yields no significant relation between risk aversion and cognitive ability. Our...... results suggest that cognitive ability is related to random decision making, rather than to risk preferences....

  15. Risk aversion relates to cognitive ability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Ola; Holm, Håkan J.; Tyran, Jean-Robert Karl

    Recent experimental studies suggest that risk aversion is negatively related to cognitive ability. In this paper we report evidence that this relation might be spurious. We recruit a large subject pool drawn from the general Danish population for our experiment. By presenting subjects with choice...... tasks that vary the bias induced by random choices, we are able to generate both negative and positive correlations between risk aversion and cognitive ability. Structural estimation allowing for heterogeneity of noise yields no significant relation between risk aversion and cognitive ability. Our...... results suggest that cognitive ability is related to random decision making rather than to risk preferences....

  16. Contingency Theories of Leadership: A Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Sunhir K.

    1979-01-01

    Some of the major contingency theories of leadership are reviewed; some results from the author's study of Fiedler's contingency model are reported; and some thoughts for the future of leadership research are provided. (Author/MLF)

  17. Aversive smell associations shape social judgment

    OpenAIRE

    Homan, Philipp; Ely, Benjamin A.; Yuan, May; Brosch, Tobias; Ng, John; Trope, Yaacov; Schiller, Daniela

    2017-01-01

    Once associating another person with an unpleasant smell, how do we perceive and judge this person from that moment on? Here, we used aversive olfactory conditioning followed by a social attribution task during functional magnetic resonance imaging to address this question. After conditioning, where one of two faces was repeatedly paired with an aversive smell, the participants reported negative affect when viewing the smell-conditioned but not the neutral face. When subsequently confronted w...

  18. Loss aversion in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trémeau, Fabien; Brady, Melissa; Saccente, Erica; Moreno, Alexis; Epstein, Henry; Citrome, Leslie; Malaspina, Dolores; Javitt, Daniel

    2008-08-01

    Loss aversion in decision-making refers to a higher sensitivity to losses than to gains. Loss aversion is conceived as an affective interference in cognitive processes such as judgment and decision-making. Loss aversion in non-risky choices has not been studied in schizophrenia. Forty-two individuals with schizophrenia and 42 non-patient control subjects, matched by gender and age, were randomized to two different scenarios (a buying scenario and a selling scenario). Subjects were asked to evaluate the price of a decorated mug. Schizophrenia subjects were re-tested four weeks later with the other scenario. Contrary to non-patient controls, schizophrenia subjects did not show loss aversion. In the schizophrenia group, absence of loss aversion was correlated with age, duration of illness, number of months in State hospitals, and poorer performance in the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, but not with current psychopathology and two domains of emotional experience. Absence of loss aversion in schizophrenia represents a deficit in the processing of emotional information during decision-making. It can be interpreted as a lack of integration between the emotional and the cognitive systems, or to a more diffuse and de-differentiated impact of emotional information on decision-making. Future studies should bring more clarity to this question.

  19. A Moist Crevice for Word Aversion: In Semantics Not Sounds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul H Thibodeau

    Full Text Available Why do people self-report an aversion to words like "moist"? The present studies represent an initial scientific exploration into the phenomenon of word aversion by investigating its prevalence and cause. Results of five experiments indicate that about 10-20% of the population is averse to the word "moist." This population often speculates that phonological properties of the word are the cause of their displeasure. However, data from the current studies point to semantic features of the word-namely, associations with disgusting bodily functions-as a more prominent source of peoples' unpleasant experience. "Moist," for averse participants, was notable for its valence and personal use, rather than imagery or arousal-a finding that was confirmed by an experiment designed to induce an aversion to the word. Analyses of individual difference measures suggest that word aversion is more prevalent among younger, more educated, and more neurotic people, and is more commonly reported by females than males.

  20. Some aversive characteristics of centrifugally generated gravity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altman, F.

    1973-01-01

    The effective weight of rats was manipulated by centrifugation. Two effective weight levels were obtained. In three escape avoidance conditions a lever press produced a change from a base level of 2.1 g to a response level of 1.1 g. In a punishment condition a response produced a change from a 1.1 g level to a 2.1 g level and in an extinction condition responses had no effect on the 2.1 g effective weight level present. All changes took 30 sec and were maintained for an additional 10 sec before a return to base level was initiated. When responses occurred closer together than the 40 sec, they delayed the return to base level by 40 sec. This 40 sec interval is referred to as response-contingent-time. The response rate and amount of response-contingent-time served as the data. The results confirmed previous data that centrifugation is aversive. The results are interpreted as indicating that the aversiveness is attributable to the increase in effective weight, and that rats can discriminate the different angular velocity-radius of rotation combinations used.

  1. Loss Aversion and Individual Characteristics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Katrine; Fosgerau, Mogens

    2011-01-01

    Many studies have shown that loss aversion affects the valuation of non-market goods. Using stated choice data, this paper presents an empirical investigation of how individual-level loss aversion varies with observable personal characteristics and with the choice context. We investigate loss...... aversion with respect to travel time and money, and find significant loss aversion in both dimensions. The degree of loss aversion in the time dimension is larger than in the money dimension, and depends on age and education. Subjects tend to be more loss averse when the reference is well established....

  2. The Effect of Wealth Shocks on Loss Aversion: Behavior and Neural Correlates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. S. Chandrasekhar Pammi

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Kahneman and Tversky (1979 first demonstrated that when individuals decide whether or not to accept a gamble, potential losses receive more weight than possible gains in the decision. This phenomenon is referred to as loss aversion. We investigated how loss aversion in risky financial decisions is influenced by sudden changes to wealth, employing both behavioral and neurobiological measures. We implemented an fMRI experimental paradigm, based on that employed by Tom et al. (2007. There are two treatments, called RANDOM and CONTINGENT. In RANDOM, the baseline setting, the changes to wealth, referred to as wealth shocks in economics, are independent of the actual choices participants make. Under CONTINGENT, we induce the belief that the changes in income are a consequence of subjects' own decisions. The magnitudes and sequence of the shocks to wealth are identical between the CONTINGENT and RANDOM treatments. We investigated whether more loss aversion existed in one treatment than another. The behavioral results showed significantly greater loss aversion in CONTINGENT compared to RANDOM after a negative wealth shock. No differences were observed in the response to positive shocks. The fMRI results revealed a neural loss aversion network, comprising the bilateral striatum, amygdala and dorsal anterior cingulate cortex that was common to the CONTINGENT and RANDOM tasks. However, the ventral prefrontal cortex, primary somatosensory cortex and superior occipital cortex, showed greater activation in response to a negative change in wealth due to individual's own decisions than when the change was exogenous. These results indicate that striatum activation correlates with loss aversion independently of the source of the shock, and that the ventral prefrontal cortex (vPFC codes the experimental manipulation of agency in one's actions influencing loss aversion.

  3. The Effect of Wealth Shocks on Loss Aversion: Behavior and Neural Correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pammi, V S Chandrasekhar; Ruiz, Sergio; Lee, Sangkyun; Noussair, Charles N; Sitaram, Ranganatha

    2017-01-01

    Kahneman and Tversky (1979) first demonstrated that when individuals decide whether or not to accept a gamble, potential losses receive more weight than possible gains in the decision. This phenomenon is referred to as loss aversion. We investigated how loss aversion in risky financial decisions is influenced by sudden changes to wealth, employing both behavioral and neurobiological measures. We implemented an fMRI experimental paradigm, based on that employed by Tom et al. (2007). There are two treatments, called RANDOM and CONTINGENT. In RANDOM, the baseline setting, the changes to wealth, referred to as wealth shocks in economics, are independent of the actual choices participants make. Under CONTINGENT, we induce the belief that the changes in income are a consequence of subjects' own decisions. The magnitudes and sequence of the shocks to wealth are identical between the CONTINGENT and RANDOM treatments. We investigated whether more loss aversion existed in one treatment than another. The behavioral results showed significantly greater loss aversion in CONTINGENT compared to RANDOM after a negative wealth shock. No differences were observed in the response to positive shocks. The fMRI results revealed a neural loss aversion network, comprising the bilateral striatum, amygdala and dorsal anterior cingulate cortex that was common to the CONTINGENT and RANDOM tasks. However, the ventral prefrontal cortex, primary somatosensory cortex and superior occipital cortex, showed greater activation in response to a negative change in wealth due to individual's own decisions than when the change was exogenous. These results indicate that striatum activation correlates with loss aversion independently of the source of the shock, and that the ventral prefrontal cortex (vPFC) codes the experimental manipulation of agency in one's actions influencing loss aversion.

  4. Waste Management Project Contingency Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edward L. Parsons, Jr.

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide the office of Waste Management (WM) with recommended contingency calculation procedures for typical WM projects. Typical projects were defined as conventional construction-type activities that use innovative elements when necessary to meet the project objectives. Projects involve treatment, storage, and disposal of low level, mixed low level, hazardous, transuranic, and high level waste. Cost contingencies are an essential part of Total Cost Management. A contingency is an amount added to a cost estimate to compensate for unexpected expenses resulting from incomplete design, unforeseen and unpredictable conditions, or uncertainties in the project scope (DOE 1994, AACE 1998). Contingency allowances are expressed as percentages of estimated cost and improve cost estimates by accounting for uncertainties. The contingency allowance is large at the beginning of a project because there are more uncertainties, but as a project develops, the allowance shrinks to adjust for costs already incurred. Ideally, the total estimated cost remains the same throughout a project. Project contingency reflects the degree of uncertainty caused by lack of project definition, and process contingency reflects the degree of uncertainty caused by use of new technology. Different cost estimation methods were reviewed and compared with respect to terminology, accuracy, and Cost Guide standards. The Association for the Advancement of Cost Engineering (AACE) methods for cost estimation were selected to represent best industry practice. AACE methodology for contingency analysis can be readily applied to WM Projects, accounts for uncertainties associated with different stages of a project, and considers both project and process contingencies and the stage of technical readiness. As recommended, AACE contingency allowances taper off linearly as a project nears completion

  5. ARE PEOPLE INEQUALITY AVERSE OR JUST RISK AVERSE?

    OpenAIRE

    Carlsson, Fredrik; Daruvala, Dinky; Johansson-Stenman, Olof

    2001-01-01

    Individuals’ preferences for risk and inequality are measured through experimental choices between hypothetical societies and lotteries. The median relative risk aversion, which is often seen to reflect social inequality aversion, is between 2 and 3. We also estimate the individual inequality aversion, reflecting individuals’ willingness to pay for living in a more equal society. Left-wing voters and women are both more risk- and inequality averse than others. The model allows for non-monoton...

  6. Contingency proportion systematically influences contingency learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrin, Noah D; MacLeod, Colin M

    2018-01-01

    In the color-word contingency learning paradigm, each word appears more often in one color (high contingency) than in the other colors (low contingency). Shortly after beginning the task, color identification responses become faster on the high-contingency trials than on the low-contingency trials-the contingency learning effect. Across five groups, we varied the high-contingency proportion in 10% steps, from 80% to 40%. The size of the contingency learning effect was positively related to high-contingency proportion, with the effect disappearing when high contingency was reduced to 40%. At the two highest contingency proportions, the magnitude of the effect increased over trials, the pattern suggesting that there was an increasing cost for the low-contingency trials rather than an increasing benefit for the high-contingency trials. Overall, the results fit a modified version of Schmidt's (2013, Acta Psychologica, 142, 119-126) parallel episodic processing account in which prior trial instances are routinely retrieved from memory and influence current trial performance.

  7. An Index of Loss Aversion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Köbberling, V.; Wakker, P.P.

    2005-01-01

    To a considerable extent, risk aversion as it is commonly observed is caused by loss aversion. Several indexes of loss aversion have been proposed in the literature. The one proposed in this paper leads to a clear decomposition of risk attitude into three distinct components: basic utility,

  8. An Index of Loss Aversion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    V. Köbberling (Veronika); P.P. Wakker (Peter)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractTo a considerable extent, risk aversion as it is commonly observed is caused by loss aversion. Several indexes of loss aversion have been proposed in the literature. The one proposed in this paper leads to a clear decomposition of risk attitude into three distinct components: basic

  9. Risk Aversion and Emotions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen, Y.; Noussair, C.N.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract: We consider the relationship between emotions and decision-making under risk. Specifically, we examine the emotional correlates of risk-averse decisions. In our experiment, individuals' facial expressions are monitored with facereading software, as they are presented with risky lotteries.

  10. Inequity aversion revisted

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, Y.; Onderstal, S.; Schram, A.

    2012-01-01

    We provide the first systematic study of the robustness of parameter estimates for the Fehr-Schmidt (1999) model of inequity aversion with respect to (i) the occurrence of efficiency concerns; (ii) the scale of payoffs; and (iii) the game used (i.e., cross-game consistency). Moreover, we provide

  11. Secret Sauce and Snake Oil: Writing Monthly Reports in a Highly Contingent Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinuzzi, Clay

    2010-01-01

    At a search marketing company, each search engine optimization (SEO) specialist writes up to 10 to 12 complex 20-page monthly reports in the first ten business days of each month. These SEO specialists do not consider themselves to be writers, yet they generate these structurally and rhetorically complex reports as a matter of course, while…

  12. How does economic risk aversion affect biodiversity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouysset, L; Doyen, L; Jiguet, F

    2013-01-01

    Significant decline of biodiversity in farmlands has been reported for several decades. To limit the negative impact of agriculture, many agro-environmental schemes have been implemented, but their effectiveness remains controversial. In this context, the study of economic drivers is helpful to understand the role played by farming on biodiversity. The present paper analyzes the impact of risk aversion on farmland biodiversity. Here "risk aversion" means a cautious behavior of farmers facing uncertainty. We develop a bio-economic model that articulates bird community dynamics and representative farmers selecting land uses within an uncertain macro-economic context. It is specialized and calibrated at a regional scale for France through national databases. The influence of risk aversion is assessed on ecological, agricultural, and economic outputs through projections at the 2050 horizon. A high enough risk aversion appears sufficient to both manage economic risk and promote ecological performance. This occurs through a diversification mechanism on regional land uses. However, economic calibration leads to a weak risk-aversion parameter, which is consistent with the current decline of farmland birds. Spatial disparities however suggest that public incentives could be necessary to reinforce the diversification and bio-economic effectiveness.

  13. Understanding Loan Aversion in Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Boatman

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Although prior research has suggested that some students may be averse to taking out loans to finance their college education, there is little empirical evidence showing the extent to which loan aversion exists or how it affects different populations of students. This study provides the first large-scale quantitative evidence of levels of loan aversion in the United States. Using survey data collected on more than 6,000 individuals, we examine the frequency of loan aversion in three distinct populations. Depending on the measure, between 20 and 40% of high school seniors exhibit loan aversion with lower rates among community college students and adults not in college. Women are less likely to express loan-averse attitudes than men, and Hispanic respondents are more likely to be loan averse than White respondents.

  14. Further evidence for conditioned taste aversion induced by forced swimming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masaki, Takahisa; Nakajima, Sadahiko

    2005-01-31

    A series of experiments with rats reported that aversion to a taste solution can be established by forced swimming in a water pool. Experiment 1 demonstrated that correlation of taste and swimming is a critical factor for this phenomenon, indicating associative (i.e., Pavlovian) nature of this learning. Experiment 2 showed that this learning obeys the Pavlovian law of strength, by displaying a positive relationship between the duration of water immersion in training and the taste aversion observed in subsequent testing. Experiment 3 revealed that swimming rather than being wet is the critical agent, because a water shower did not endow rats with taste aversion. Experiment 4 found that taste aversion was a positive function of water level of the pools in training (0, 12 or 32 cm). These results, taken together, suggest that energy expenditure caused by physical exercise might be involved in the development of taste aversion.

  15. Acceptable losses: the debatable origins of loss aversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yechiam, Eldad

    2018-04-16

    It is often claimed that negative events carry a larger weight than positive events. Loss aversion is the manifestation of this argument in monetary outcomes. In this review, we examine early studies of the utility function of gains and losses, and in particular the original evidence for loss aversion reported by Kahneman and Tversky (Econometrica  47:263-291, 1979). We suggest that loss aversion proponents have over-interpreted these findings. Specifically, the early studies of utility functions have shown that while very large losses are overweighted, smaller losses are often not. In addition, the findings of some of these studies have been systematically misrepresented to reflect loss aversion, though they did not find it. These findings shed light both on the inability of modern studies to reproduce loss aversion as well as a second literature arguing strongly for it.

  16. Contingent Commitments: Bringing Part-Time Faculty into Focus. A Special Report from the Center for Community College Student Engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Center for Community College Student Engagement, 2014

    2014-01-01

    Part-time faculty teach approximately 58% of U.S. community college classes and thus manage learning experiences for more than half (53%) of students enrolled in community colleges (JBL Associates, 2008). Often referred to as "contingent faculty," their work is conditional; the college typically has no obligation to them beyond the…

  17. Risk Aversion and Job Mobility

    OpenAIRE

    van Huizen, T.M.; Alessie, Rob

    2016-01-01

    Job mobility is inherently risky as workers have limited ex ante information about the quality of outside jobs. Using a large longitudinal Dutch dataset, which includes data on risk preferences elicited through (incentivized) experiments, we examine the relation between risk aversion and job mobility. The results for men show that risk averse workers are less likely to move to other jobs. For women, the evidence that risk aversion affects job mobility is weak. Our empirical findings indicate ...

  18. Hanford Facility contingency plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutton, L.N.; Miskho, A.G.; Brunke, R.C.

    1993-10-01

    The Hanford Facility Contingency Plan, together with each TSD unit-specific contingency plan, meets the WAC 173-303 requirements for a contingency plan. This plan includes descriptions of responses to a nonradiological hazardous materials spill or release at Hanford Facility locations not covered by TSD unit-specific contingency plans or building emergency plans. This plan includes descriptions of responses for spills or releases as a result of transportation activities, movement of materials, packaging, and storage of hazardous materials

  19. Characterizing the genetic influences on risk aversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrati, Amal

    2014-01-01

    Risk aversion has long been cited as an important factor in retirement decisions, investment behavior, and health. Some of the heterogeneity in individual risk tolerance is well understood, reflecting age gradients, wealth gradients, and similar effects, but much remains unexplained. This study explores genetic contributions to heterogeneity in risk aversion among older Americans. Using over 2 million genetic markers per individual from the U.S. Health and Retirement Study, I report results from a genome-wide association study (GWAS) on risk preferences using a sample of 10,455 adults. None of the single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are found to be statistically significant determinants of risk preferences at levels stricter than 5 × 10(-8). These results suggest that risk aversion is a complex trait that is highly polygenic. The analysis leads to upper bounds on the number of genetic effects that could exceed certain thresholds of significance and still remain undetected at the current sample size. The findings suggest that the known heritability in risk aversion is likely to be driven by large numbers of genetic variants, each with a small effect size.

  20. Risk aversion and social networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kovářík, J.; van der Leij, M.J.

    2014-01-01

    This paper first investigates empirically the relationship between risk aversion and social network structure in a large group of undergraduate students. We find that risk aversion is strongly correlated to local network clustering, that is, the probability that one has a social tie to friends of

  1. The ontogeny of ethanol aversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saalfield, Jessica; Spear, Linda

    2016-03-15

    Recent work has suggested separate developmental periods within the broader framework of adolescence, with data suggesting distinct alterations and vulnerabilities within these intervals. While previous research has suggested reduced sensitivity to the aversive effects of alcohol in adolescence relative to adults, a more detailed ontogeny of this effect has yet to be conducted. The adolescent brain undergoes significant transitions throughout adolescence, including in regions linked with drug reward and aversion. The current study aimed to determine the ontogeny of ethanol aversion by utilizing a conditioned taste aversion procedure at six different ages to test the hypothesis that the transitions into, through, and out of adolescence are associated with ontogenetic alterations in sensitivity to the aversive properties of ethanol. Non-deprived animals given Boost® as the conditioned stimulus (CS) were used in Experiment 1, whereas Experiment 2 used water-restricted animals provided with a saccharin/sucrose solution as the CS. In both experiments, an attenuated sensitivity to the aversive properties of ethanol was evident in adolescents compared to adults, although more age differences were apparent in water deprived animals than when a highly palatable CS was given to ad libitum animals. Overall, the data suggest an attenuated sensitivity to the aversive properties of ethanol that is most pronounced during pre- and early adolescence, declining thereafter to reach the enhanced aversive sensitivity of adults. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Aversive tension in female adolescents with Anorexia Nervosa: a controlled ecological momentary assessment using smartphones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolar, David R; Hammerle, Florian; Jenetzky, Ekkehart; Huss, Michael; Bürger, Arne

    2016-04-12

    Current models of Anorexia Nervosa (AN) emphasize the role of emotion regulation. Aversive tension, described as a state of intense arousal and negative valence, is considered to be a link between emotional events and disordered eating. Recent research focused only on adult patients, and mainly general emotion regulation traits were studied. However, the momentary occurrence of aversive tension, particularly in adolescents with AN, has not been previously studied. 20 female adolescents with AN in outpatient treatment and 20 healthy adolescents aged 12 to 19 years participated in an ecological momentary assessment using their smartphones. Current states of aversive tension and events were assessed hourly for two consecutive weekdays. Mean and maximum values of aversive tension were compared. Multilevel analyses were computed to test the influence of time and reported events on aversive tension. The effect of reported events on subsequent changes of aversive tension in patients with AN were additionally tested in a multilevel model. AN patients showed higher mean and maximum levels of aversive tension. In a multilevel model, reported food intake was associated with higher levels of aversive tension in the AN group, whereas reported school or sport-related events were not linked to specific states of aversive tension. After food intake, subsequent increases of aversive tension were diminished and decreases of aversive tension were induced in adolescents with AN. Aversive tension may play a substantial role in the psychopathology of AN, particular in relation with food intake. Therefore, treatment should consider aversive tension as a possible intervening variable during refeeding. Our findings encourage further research on aversive tension and its link to disordered eating. German register of clinical trials (DRKS): DRKS00005228 (Date of registration: September 2, 2013).

  3. The role of risk aversion in non-conscious decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shuo; Krajbich, Ian; Adolphs, Ralph; Tsuchiya, Naotsugu

    2012-01-01

    To what extent can people choose advantageously without knowing why they are making those choices? This hotly debated question has capitalized on the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT), in which people often learn to choose advantageously without appearing to know why. However, because the IGT is unconstrained in many respects, this finding remains debated and other interpretations are possible (e.g., risk aversion, ambiguity aversion, limits of working memory, or insensitivity to reward/punishment can explain the finding of the IGT). Here we devised an improved variant of the IGT in which the deck-payoff contingency switches after subjects repeatedly choose from a good deck, offering the statistical power of repeated within-subject measures based on learning the reward contingencies associated with each deck. We found that participants exhibited low confidence in their choices, as probed with post-decision wagering, despite high accuracy in selecting advantageous decks in the task, which is putative evidence for non-conscious decision making. However, such a behavioral dissociation could also be explained by risk aversion, a tendency to avoid risky decisions under uncertainty. By explicitly measuring risk aversion for each individual, we predicted subjects' post-decision wagering using Bayesian modeling. We found that risk aversion indeed does play a role, but that it did not explain the entire effect. Moreover, independently measured risk aversion was uncorrelated with risk aversion exhibited during our version of the IGT, raising the possibility that the latter risk aversion may be non-conscious. Our findings support the idea that people can make optimal choices without being fully aware of the basis of their decision. We suggest that non-conscious decision making may be mediated by emotional feelings of risk that are based on mechanisms distinct from those that support cognitive assessment of risk.

  4. Sensitivity of the brain to loss aversion during risky gambles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreher, Jean-Claude

    2007-07-01

    Little is known about the neural systems that subserve human loss aversion. A recent neuroimaging study by Tom, Poldrack and colleagues reports that this pattern of behaviour is directly tied to the greater sensitivity of the brain to potential losses compared with potential gains and uncovers a brain network whose activity increases with potential gains and decreases with potential losses. These results challenge the common view that loss aversion engages a distinct emotion-related brain network (e.g. amygdala and insula).

  5. Good luck, bad luck, and ambiguity aversion

    OpenAIRE

    Briony D. Pulford; Poonam Gill

    2014-01-01

    We report a series of experiments investigating the influence of feeling lucky or unlucky on people's choice of known-risk or ambiguous options using the traditional Ellsberg Urns decision-making task. We induced a state of feeling lucky or unlucky in subjects by using a rigged wheel-of-fortune game, which just missed either the bankrupt or the jackpot outcome. In the first experiment a large reversal of the usual ambiguity aversion effect was shown, indicating that feeling ...

  6. Turning negative memories around: Contingency versus devaluation techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dibbets, Pauline; Lemmens, Anke; Voncken, Marisol

    2018-09-01

    It is assumed that fear responses can be altered by changing the contingency between a conditioned stimulus (CS) and an unconditioned stimulus (US), or by devaluing the present mental representation of the US. The aim of the present study was to compare the efficacy of contingency- and devaluation-based intervention techniques on the diminishment in - and return of fear. We hypothesized that extinction (EXT, contingency-based) would outperform devaluation-based techniques regarding contingency measures, but that devaluation-based techniques would be most effective in reducing the mental representation of the US. Additionally, we expected that incorporations of the US during devaluation would result in less reinstatement of the US averseness. Healthy participants received a fear conditioning paradigm followed by one of three interventions: extinction (EXT, contingency-based), imagery rescripting (ImRs, devaluation-based) or eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR, devaluation-based). A reinstatement procedure and test followed the next day. EXT was indeed most successful in diminishing contingency-based US expectancies and skin conductance responses (SCRs), but all interventions were equally successful in reducing the averseness of the mental US representation. After reinstatement EXT showed lowest expectancies and SCRs; no differences were observed between the conditions concerning the mental US representation. A partial reinforcement schedule was used, resulting in a vast amount of contingency unaware participants. Additionally, a non-clinical sample was used, which may limit the generalizability to clinical populations. EXT is most effective in reducing conditioned fear responses. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Linking Measured Risk Aversion to Individual Characteristics.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartog, J.; Ferrer-i-Carbonell, A.; Jonker, N.

    2002-01-01

    From the stated price of a specified lottery in three unrelated surveys we deduce individuals' Arrow-Pratt measure of risk aversion. We find that risk aversion indeed falls with income and wealth. Entrepreneurs are less risk averse than employees, civil servants are more risk averse than private

  8. Food Aversions and Cravings during Pregnancy on Yasawa Island, Fiji.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKerracher, Luseadra; Collard, Mark; Henrich, Joseph

    2016-09-01

    Women often experience novel food aversions and cravings during pregnancy. These appetite changes have been hypothesized to work alongside cultural strategies as adaptive responses to the challenges posed by pregnancy (e.g., maternal immune suppression). Here, we report a study that assessed whether data from an indigenous population in Fiji are consistent with the predictions of this hypothesis. We found that aversions focus predominantly on foods expected to exacerbate the challenges of pregnancy. Cravings focus on foods that provide calories and micronutrients while posing few threats to mothers and fetuses. We also found that women who experience aversions to specific foods are more likely to crave foods that meet nutritional needs similar to those provided by the aversive foods. These findings are in line with the predictions of the hypothesis. This adds further weight to the argument that appetite changes may function in parallel with cultural mechanisms to solve pregnancy challenges.

  9. The origin of risk aversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ruixun; Brennan, Thomas J; Lo, Andrew W

    2014-12-16

    Risk aversion is one of the most basic assumptions of economic behavior, but few studies have addressed the question of where risk preferences come from and why they differ from one individual to the next. Here, we propose an evolutionary explanation for the origin of risk aversion. In the context of a simple binary-choice model, we show that risk aversion emerges by natural selection if reproductive risk is systematic (i.e., correlated across individuals in a given generation). In contrast, risk neutrality emerges if reproductive risk is idiosyncratic (i.e., uncorrelated across each given generation). More generally, our framework implies that the degree of risk aversion is determined by the stochastic nature of reproductive rates, and we show that different statistical properties lead to different utility functions. The simplicity and generality of our model suggest that these implications are primitive and cut across species, physiology, and genetic origins.

  10. Peer effects in risk aversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balsa, Ana I; Gandelman, Néstor; González, Nicolás

    2015-01-01

    We estimate peer effects in risk attitudes in a sample of high school students. Relative risk aversion is elicited from surveys administered at school. Identification of peer effects is based on parents not being able to choose the class within the school of their choice, and on the use of instrumental variables conditional on school-grade fixed effects. We find a significant and quantitatively large impact of peers' risk attitudes on a male individual's coefficient of risk aversion. Specifically, a one standard deviation increase in the group's coefficient of risk aversion increases an individual's risk aversion by 43%. Our findings shed light on the origin and stability of risk attitudes and, more generally, on the determinants of economic preferences. © 2014 Society for Risk Analysis.

  11. Alcohol reduces aversion to ambiguity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadeusz eTyszka

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Several years ago, Cohen, Dearnaley, and Hansel [1] demonstrated that under the influence of alcohol drivers became more risk prone, although their risk perception remained unchanged. Research shows that ambiguity aversion is to some extent positively correlated with risk aversion, though not very highly [2]. The question addressed by the present research is whether alcohol reduces ambiguity aversion. Our research was conducted in a natural setting (a restaurant bar, where customers with differing levels of alcohol intoxication were offered a choice between a risky and an ambiguous lottery. We found that alcohol reduced ambiguity aversion and that the effect occurred in men but not women. We interpret these findings in terms of the risk-as-value hypothesis, according to which, people in Western culture tend to value risk, and suggest that alcohol consumption triggers adherence to socially and culturally valued patterns of conduct different for men and women.

  12. Alcohol reduces aversion to ambiguity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyszka, Tadeusz; Macko, Anna; Stańczak, Maciej

    2014-01-01

    Several years ago, Cohen et al. (1958) demonstrated that under the influence of alcohol drivers became more risk prone, although their risk perception remained unchanged. Research shows that ambiguity aversion is to some extent positively correlated with risk aversion, though not very highly (Camerer and Weber, 1992). The question addressed by the present research is whether alcohol reduces ambiguity aversion. Our research was conducted in a natural setting (a restaurant bar), where customers with differing levels of alcohol intoxication were offered a choice between a risky and an ambiguous lottery. We found that alcohol reduced ambiguity aversion and that the effect occurred in men but not women. We interpret these findings in terms of the risk-as-value hypothesis, according to which, people in Western culture tend to value risk, and suggest that alcohol consumption triggers adherence to socially and culturally valued patterns of conduct different for men and women.

  13. Contingency planning: preparation of contingency plans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westergaard, J M

    2008-01-01

    . The risk of introducing disease pathogens into a country and the spread of the agent within a country depends on a number of factors including import controls, movement of animals and animal products and the biosecurity applied by livestock producers. An adequate contingency plan is an important instrument...... in the preparation for and the handling of an epidemic. The legislation of the European Union requires that all Member States draw up a contingency plan which specifies the national measures required to maintain a high level of awareness and preparedness and is to be implemented in the event of disease outbreak...

  14. Effects of subdiaphragmatic vagotomy on the acquisition of a radiation-induced conditioned taste aversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunt, W.A.; Rabin, B.M.; Lee, J.

    1987-01-01

    The effect of subdiaphragmatic vagotomy on the acquisition of a radiation-induced taste aversion was examined to assess the importance of the vagus nerve in transmitting information on the peripheral toxicity of radiation to the brain. Vagotomy had no effect on taste aversion learning, consistent with reports using other toxins. The data support the involvement of a blood-borne factor in the acquisition of taste aversion induced by ionizing radiation

  15. Health shocks and risk aversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decker, Simon; Schmitz, Hendrik

    2016-12-01

    We empirically assess whether a health shock influences individual risk aversion. We use grip strength data to obtain an objective health shock indicator. In order to account for the non-random nature of our data regression-adjusted matching is employed. Risk preferences are traditionally assumed to be constant. However, we find that a health shock increases individual risk aversion. The finding is robust to a series of sensitivity analyses and persists for at least four years after the shock. Income changes do not seem to be the driving mechanism. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Licensee safeguards contingency plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1978-01-01

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission is amending its regulations to require that licensees authorized to operate a nuclear reactor (other than certain research and test reactors), and those authorized to possess strategic quantities of plutonium, uranium-233, or uranium-235 develop and implement acceptable plans for responding to threats, thefts, and industrial sabotage of licensed nuclear materials and facilities. The plans will provide a structured, orderly, and timely response to safeguards contingencies and will be an important segment of NRC's contingency planning programs. Licensee safeguards contingency plans will result in organizing licensee's safeguards resources in such a way that, in the unlikely event of a safeguards contingency, the responding participants will be identified, their several responsibilities specified, and their responses coordinated

  17. Small Stakes Risk Aversion in the Laboratory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harrison, Glenn W.; Lau, Morten I.; Ross, Don

    2017-01-01

    Evidence of risk aversion in laboratory settings over small stakes leads to a priori implausible levels of risk aversion over large stakes under certain assumptions. One core assumption in statements of this calibration puzzle is that small-stakes risk aversion is observed over all levels of wealth...

  18. Optimal portfolio choice under loss aversion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.B. Berkelaar (Arjan); R.R.P. Kouwenberg (Roy)

    2000-01-01

    textabstractProspect theory and loss aversion play a dominant role in behavioral finance. In this paper we derive closed-form solutions for optimal portfolio choice under loss aversion. When confronted with gains a loss averse investor behaves similar to a portfolio insurer. When confronted with

  19. Aversive racism in Spain: testing the theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wojcieszak, M.

    2015-01-01

    This study applies the aversive racism framework to Spain and tests whether aversive racism depends on intergroup contact. Relying on a 3 (qualifications) by 3 (ethnicity) experiment, this study finds that aversive racism is especially pronounced against the Mexican job applicant, and emerges among

  20. A note on testing guilt aversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bellemare, Charles; Sebald, Alexander Christopher; Suetens, Sigrid

    2017-01-01

    We compare three approaches to test for guilt aversion in two economic experiments. The first approach elicits second-order beliefs using self-reports. The second approach discloses first-order beliefs of matched players to decision makers, which are taken as exogenous second-order beliefs...... of decision makers. The third approach lets decision makers make choices conditional on a sequence of possible first-order beliefs of matched players. We find that the first and third approach generate similar results, both qualitatively and quantitatively. The second approach, however, generates...

  1. Ambiguity aversion in rhesus macaques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin eHayden

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available People generally prefer risky options, which have fully specified outcome probabilities, to ambiguous options, which have unspecified probabilities. This preference, formalized in economics, is strong enough that people will reliably prefer a risky option to an ambiguous option with a greater expected value. Explanations for ambiguity aversion often invoke uniquely human faculties like language, self-justification, or a desire to avoid public embarrassment. Challenging these ideas, here we demonstrate that a preference for unambiguous options is shared with rhesus macaques. We trained four monkeys to choose between pairs of options that both offered explicitly cued probabilities of large and small juice outcomes. We then introduced occasional trials where one of the options was obscured and examined their resulting preferences; we ran humans in a parallel experiment on a nearly identical task. We found that monkeys reliably preferred risky options to ambiguous ones, even when this bias was costly, closely matching the behavior of humans in the analogous task. Notably, ambiguity aversion varied parametrically with the extent of ambiguity. As expected, ambiguity aversion gradually declined as monkeys learned the underlying probability distribution of rewards. These data indicate that ambiguity aversion reflects fundamental cognitive biases shared with other animals rather than uniquely human factors guiding decisions.

  2. Ambiguity aversion is not universal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kocher, M.G.; Lahno, Amrei; Trautmann, Stefan

    Assuming universal ambiguity aversion, an extensive theoretical literature studies how ambiguity can account for market anomalies from the perspective of expected utility-based theories. We provide a systematic experimental assessment of ambiguity attitudes in different likelihood ranges, and in the

  3. Risk Aversion and Job Mobility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Huizen, T.M.; Alessie, Rob

    2016-01-01

    Job mobility is inherently risky as workers have limited ex ante information about the quality of outside jobs. Using a large longitudinal Dutch dataset, which includes data on risk preferences elicited through (incentivized) experiments, we examine the relation between risk aversion and job

  4. Aversive Stimulation -- Criteria for Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, Patrick A.; Ohlson, Glenn A.

    Criteria for applying aversive stimulation with severely handicapped children are examined, and practical and ethical issues are considered. Factors seen to influence punishment outcomes include timing, intensity, and schedule of reinforcement. Suggested is the need for further research on the comparative effectiveness of positive and negative…

  5. Small- and large-stakes risk aversion: implications of concavity calabration for decision theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cox, J.C.; Sadiraj, V.

    2006-01-01

    A growing literature reports the conclusions that: (a) expected utility theory does not provide a plausible theory of risk aversion for both small-stakes and large-stakes gambles; and (b) this decision theory should be replaced with an alternative theory characterized by loss aversion. This paper

  6. The effect of accountability on loss aversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieider, Ferdinand M

    2009-09-01

    This paper investigates the effect of accountability-the expectation on the side of the decision maker of having to justify his/her decisions to somebody else-on loss aversion. Loss aversion is commonly thought to be the strongest component of risk aversion. Accountability is found to reduce the bias of loss aversion. This effect is explained by the higher cognitive effort induced by accountability, which triggers a rational check on emotional reactions at the base of loss aversion, leading to a reduction of the latter. Connections to dual-processing models are discussed.

  7. Are ambiguity aversion and ambiguity intolerance identical? A neuroeconomics investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Yusuke; Fujino, Junya; Ideno, Takashi; Okubo, Shigetaka; Takemura, Kazuhisa; Miyata, Jun; Kawada, Ryosaku; Fujimoto, Shinsuke; Kubota, Manabu; Sasamoto, Akihiko; Hirose, Kimito; Takeuchi, Hideaki; Fukuyama, Hidenao; Murai, Toshiya; Takahashi, Hidehiko

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, there has been growing interest in understanding a person's reaction to ambiguous situations, and two similar constructs related to ambiguity, "ambiguity aversion" and "ambiguity intolerance," are defined in different disciplines. In the field of economic decision-making research, "ambiguity aversion" represents a preference for known risks relative to unknown risks. On the other hand, in clinical psychology, "ambiguity intolerance" describes the tendency to perceive ambiguous situations as undesirable. However, it remains unclear whether these two notions derived from different disciplines are identical or not. To clarify this issue, we combined an economic task, psychological questionnaires, and voxel-based morphometry (VBM) of structural brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in a sample of healthy volunteers. The individual ambiguity aversion tendency parameter, as measured by our economic task, was negatively correlated with agreeableness scores on the self-reported version of the Revised NEO Personality Inventory. However, it was not correlated with scores of discomfort with ambiguity, one of the subscales of the Need for Closure Scale. Furthermore, the ambiguity aversion tendency parameter was negatively correlated with gray matter (GM) volume of areas in the lateral prefrontal cortex and parietal cortex, whereas ambiguity intolerance was not correlated with GM volume in any region. Our results suggest that ambiguity aversion, described in decision theory, may not necessarily be identical to ambiguity intolerance, referred to in clinical psychology. Cautious applications of decision theory to clinical neuropsychiatry are recommended.

  8. Experimental evidence against the paradigm of mortality risk aversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rheinberger, Christoph M

    2010-04-01

    This article deals with the question of how societal impacts of fatal accidents can be integrated into the management of natural or man-made hazards. Today, many governmental agencies give additional weight to the number of potential fatalities in their risk assessments to reflect society's aversion to large accidents. Although mortality risk aversion has been proposed in numerous risk management guidelines, there has been no evidence that lay people want public decisionmakers to overweight infrequent accidents of large societal consequences against more frequent ones of smaller societal consequences. Furthermore, it is not known whether public decisionmakers actually do such overweighting when they decide upon the mitigation of natural or technical hazards. In this article, we report on two experimental tasks that required participants to evaluate negative prospects involving 1-100 potential fatalities. Our results show that neither lay people nor hazard experts exhibit risk-averse behavior in decisions on mortality risks.

  9. Risk Aversion, Loss Aversion, and the Demand for Insurance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louis Eeckhoudt

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we analyze insurance demand when the utility function depends both upon final wealth and the level of losses or gains relative to a reference point. Besides some comparative statics results, we discuss the links with first-order risk aversion, with the Omega measure, and with a tendency to over-insure modest risks that has been been extensively documented in real insurance markets.

  10. The Betrayal Aversion Elicitation Task: An Individual Level Betrayal Aversion Measure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aimone, Jason; Ball, Sheryl; King-Casas, Brooks

    2015-01-01

    Research on betrayal aversion shows that individuals' response to risk depends not only on probabilities and payoffs, but also on whether the risk includes a betrayal of trust. While previous studies focus on measuring aggregate levels of betrayal aversion, the connection between an individual's own betrayal aversion and other individually varying factors, including risk preferences, are currently unexplored. This paper develops a new task to elicit an individual's level of betrayal aversion that can then be compared to individual characteristics. We demonstrate the feasibility of our new task and show that our aggregate individual results are consistent with previous studies. We then use this classification to ask whether betrayal aversion is correlated with risk aversion. While we find risk aversion and betrayal aversion have no significant relationship, we do observe that risk aversion is correlated with non-social risk preferences, but not the social, betrayal related, risk component of the new task.

  11. Contingencies of Value

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strandvad, Sara Malou

    2014-01-01

    Based on a study of the admission test at a design school, this paper investigates the contingencies of aesthetic values as these become visible in assessment practices. Theoretically, the paper takes its starting point in Herrnstein Smith’s notion of ‘contingencies of values’ and outlines...... a pragmatist ground where cultural sociology and economic sociology meet. Informed by the literature on cultural intermediaries, the paper discusses the role of evaluators and the devices which accompany them. Whereas studies of cultural intermediaries traditionally apply a Bourdieusian perspective, recent......, the paper does not accept this storyline. As an alternative, the paper outlines the contingencies of values which are at play at the admission test, composed of official assessment criteria and scoring devices together with conventions within the world of design, and set in motion by interactions...

  12. Leverage Aversion and Risk Parity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asness, Clifford; Frazzini, Andrea; Heje Pedersen, Lasse

    2012-01-01

    The authors show that leverage aversion changes the predictions of modern portfolio theory: Safer assets must offer higher risk-adjusted returns than riskier assets. Consuming the high risk-adjusted returns of safer assets requires leverage, creating an opportunity for investors with the ability...... to apply leverage. Risk parity portfolios exploit this opportunity by equalizing the risk allocation across asset classes, thus overweighting safer assets relative to their weight in the market portfolio....

  13. Appendix F - Sample Contingency Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    This sample Contingency Plan in Appendix F is intended to provide examples of contingency planning as a reference when a facility determines that the required secondary containment is impracticable, pursuant to 40 CFR §112.7(d).

  14. Contingent valuation and incentives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patricia A. Champ; Nicholas E. Flores; Thomas C. Brown; James Chivers

    2002-01-01

    We empirically investigate the effect of the payment mechanism on contingent values by asking a willingness-to-pay question with one of three different payment mechanisms: individual contribution, contribution with provision point, and referendum. We find statistical evidence of more affirmative responses in the referendum treatment relative to the individual...

  15. The effects of nicotine on ethanol-induced conditioned taste aversions in Long-Evans rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinker, Jennifer A; Busse, Gregory D; Roma, Peter G; Chen, Scott A; Barr, Christina S; Riley, Anthony L

    2008-04-01

    Overall drug acceptability is thought to be a function of the balance between its rewarding and aversive effects, the latter of which is reportedly affected by polydrug use. Given that nicotine and alcohol are commonly co-used, the present experiments sought to assess nicotine's impact on ethanol's aversive effects within a conditioned taste aversion design. Experiment 1 examined various doses of nicotine (0, 0.4, 0.8, 1.2 mg/kg) to determine a behaviorally active dose, and experiment 2 examined various doses of ethanol (0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 g/kg) to determine a dose that produced intermediate aversions. Experiment 3 then examined the aversive effects of nicotine (0.8 mg/kg) and ethanol (1.0 g/kg) alone and in combination. Additionally, nicotine's effects on blood alcohol concentrations (BAC) and ethanol-induced hypothermia were examined. Nicotine and ethanol combined produced aversions significantly greater than those produced by either drug alone or the summed aversive effects of the individual compounds. These effects were unrelated to changes in BAC, but nicotine and ethanol combined produced a prolonged hypothermic effect which may contribute to the increased aversions induced by the combination. These data demonstrate that nicotine may interact with ethanol, increasing ethanol's aversive effects. Although the rewarding effects of concurrently administered nicotine and ethanol were not assessed, these data do indicate that the reported high incidence of nicotine and ethanol co-use is unlikely due to reductions in the aversiveness of ethanol with concurrently administered nicotine. It is more likely attributable to nicotine-related changes in ethanol's rewarding effects.

  16. Contingency diagrams as teaching tools

    OpenAIRE

    Mattaini, Mark A.

    1995-01-01

    Contingency diagrams are particularly effective teaching tools, because they provide a means for students to view the complexities of contingency networks present in natural and laboratory settings while displaying the elementary processes that constitute those networks. This paper sketches recent developments in this visualization technology and illustrates approaches for using contingency diagrams in teaching.

  17. Are Teams Less Inequality Averse than Individuals?

    OpenAIRE

    He, Haoran; Villeval, Marie Claire

    2014-01-01

    We compare inequality aversion in individuals and teams by means of both within- and between-subject experimental designs, and we investigate how teams aggregate individual preferences. We find that team decisions reveal less inequality aversion than individual initial proposals in team decision-making. However, teams are no more selfish than individuals who decide in isolation. Individuals express strategically more inequality aversion in their initial proposals in team decision-making becau...

  18. Exercise ASKARI SERPENT: enabling clinical data collection during exercises and operations to support future contingency planning and assurance of category-based reporting systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Iain T; Wheatley, R J; Carter, P

    2016-02-01

    Exercise ASKARI SERPENT (Ex AS) is a British Army exercise that provides primary healthcare (PHC) to Kenyan civilians in support of local health authorities. It is conducted in partnership with the Kenya Defence Force Medical Services (KDFMS). Accurate epidemiological data is critical in planning the exercise and for any future short-notice contingency operations in similar environments. This paper reports epidemiological data for Ex AS using a novel data collection system. PHC on Ex AS was delivered by trained and validated combat medical technicians (CMTs) using a set of Read-coded protocols. The CMTs were also directly supported and supervised by medical officers and nurses. A total of 3093 consultations were conducted over a 16-day period. Of these, 2707 (87.5%) consultations fell within the remit of the CMT protocols, with only 386 consultations (12.5%) being conducted exclusively by the medical officers or nurses. A Read-coded matrix built on CMT protocols is a simple and useful tool, particularly in civilian populations, for collecting morbidity data with the vast majority of conditions accounted for in the protocols. It is anticipated that such a system can better inform training, manning, medical material and pharmaceutical procurement than current category-based morbidity surveillance systems such as EPINATO (NATO epidemiological data). There is clear advantage to directly linking data capture to treatment algorithms. Accuracy, both in terms of numbers and condition, is likely improved. Data is also captured contemporaneously rather than after indeterminate time. Read coding has the added benefit of being an established electronic standard. In addition, the system would support traditional reporting methods such as EPINATO by providing increased assurance. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  19. Deciding for Future Selves Reduces Loss Aversion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiqi Cheng

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present an incentivized experiment to investigate the degree of loss aversion when people make decisions for their current selves and future selves under risk. We find that when participants make decisions for their future selves, they are less loss averse compared to when they make decisions for their current selves. This finding is consistent with the interpretation of loss aversion as a bias in decision-making driven by emotions, which are reduced when making decisions for future selves. Our findings endorsed the external validity of previous studies on the impact of emotion on loss aversion in a real world decision-making environment.

  20. Deciding for Future Selves Reduces Loss Aversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Qiqi; He, Guibing

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we present an incentivized experiment to investigate the degree of loss aversion when people make decisions for their current selves and future selves under risk. We find that when participants make decisions for their future selves, they are less loss averse compared to when they make decisions for their current selves. This finding is consistent with the interpretation of loss aversion as a bias in decision-making driven by emotions, which are reduced when making decisions for future selves. Our findings endorsed the external validity of previous studies on the impact of emotion on loss aversion in a real world decision-making environment.

  1. Alcohol-Aversion Therapy: Relation Between Strength of Aversion and Abstinence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannon, Dale S.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Assessed degree of alcohol aversion in 60 alcoholics who received emetic alcohol-aversion therapy. Results revealed changes in response to alcoholic, but not to nonalcoholic, flavors, including decreased consumption in taste tests, more negative flavor ratings, overt behavioral indicants of aversion and increased tachycardiac response. (Author/NB)

  2. The effects of cocaine, alcohol and cocaine/alcohol combinations in conditioned taste aversion learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busse, Gregory D; Verendeev, Andrey; Jones, Jermaine; Riley, Anthony L

    2005-09-01

    We have recently reported that alcohol attenuates cocaine place preferences. Although the basis for this effect is unknown, alcohol may attenuate cocaine reward by potentiating its aversive effects. To examine this possibility, these experiments assessed the effects of alcohol on cocaine-induced taste aversions under conditions similar to those that resulted in attenuated place preferences. Specifically, Experiments 1 and 2 assessed the effects of alcohol (0.5 g/kg) on taste aversions induced by 20, 30 and 40 mg/kg cocaine. Experiment 3 examined the role of intertrial interval in the effects of alcohol (0.5 g/kg) on cocaine (30 mg/kg) taste aversions. In Experiments 1 and 2, cocaine was effective at conditioning aversions. Alcohol produced no measurable effect. Combining cocaine and alcohol produced no greater aversion than cocaine alone (and, in fact, weakened aversions at the lowest dose of cocaine). In Experiment 3, varying the intertrial interval from 3 days (as in the case of Experiments 1 and 2) to 1 day (a procedure identical to that in which alcohol attenuated cocaine place preferences) resulted in significant alcohol- and cocaine-induced taste aversions. Nonetheless, alcohol remained ineffective in potentiating cocaine aversions. Thus, under these conditions alcohol does not potentiate cocaine's aversiveness. These results were discussed in terms of their implication for the effects of alcohol on cocaine-induced place preferences. Further, the effects of alcohol on place preferences conditioned by cocaine were discussed in relation to other assessments of the effects of alcohol on the affective properties of cocaine and the implications of these interactions for alcohol and cocaine co-use.

  3. Significant others and contingencies of self-worth: activation and consequences of relationship-specific contingencies of self-worth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horberg, E J; Chen, Serena

    2010-01-01

    Three studies tested the activation and consequences of contingencies of self-worth associated with specific significant others, that is, relationship-specific contingencies of self-worth. The results showed that activating the mental representation of a significant other with whom one strongly desires closeness led participants to stake their self-esteem in domains in which the significant other wanted them to excel. This was shown in terms of self-reported contingencies of self-worth (Study 1), in terms of self-worth after receiving feedback on a successful or unsatisfactory performance in a relationship-specific contingency domain (Study 2), and in terms of feelings of reduced self-worth after thinking about a failure in a relationship-specific contingency domain (Study 3). Across studies, a variety of contingency domains were examined. Furthermore, Study 3 showed that failing in an activated relationship-specific contingency domain had negative implications for current feelings of closeness and acceptance in the significant-other relationship. Overall, the findings suggest that people's contingencies of self-worth depend on the social situation and that performance in relationship-specific contingency domains can influence people's perceptions of their relationships.

  4. Risk aversion and religious behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jytte Seested; Bech, Mickael; Christensen, Kaare

    2017-01-01

    would expect that risk averse individuals would demand a more generous protection plan which they may do by devoting more effort and resources into religious activities such as church attendance and prayer, which seems to be in accordance with previous empirical results. However, a general concern...... and prayer frequency on the other controlling for unobservable variables using survey data of Danish same-sex twin pairs. We verify the correlation between risk preferences and religion found previously by carrying out cross-sectional analyses. We also show that the association between risk attitudes...

  5. Correlations of self-esteem and intolerance of ambiguity with risk aversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johanson, J C

    2000-10-01

    The current paper reports for 80 undergraduates that risk aversion is greater among those with lower self-esteem scores on Rosenberg's Self-esteem Scale and those with higher scores on Budner's Intolerance of Ambiguity Scale.

  6. Social Sensorimotor Contingencies

    OpenAIRE

    Bütepage, Judith

    2016-01-01

    As the field of robotics advances, more robots are employed in our everyday environment. Thus, the implementation of robots that can actively engage in physical collaboration and naturally interact with humans is of high importance. In order to achieve this goal, it is necessary to study human interaction and social cognition and how these aspects can be implemented in robotic agents. The theory of social sensorimotor contingencies hypothesises that many aspects of human-human interaction de...

  7. Inequality Aversion and Voting on Redistribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Höchtl, Wolfgang; Sausgruber, Rupert; Tyran, Jean-Robert

    of income classes. We experimentally study voting on redistribution between two income classes and show that the effect of inequality aversion is asymmetric. Inequality aversion is more likely to matter if the “rich” are in majority. With a “poor” majority, we find that redistribution outcomes look...

  8. Risk Aversion, Price Uncertainty and Irreversible Investments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Goorbergh, R.W.J.; Huisman, K.J.M.; Kort, P.M.

    2003-01-01

    This paper generalizes the theory of irreversible investment under uncertainty by allowing for risk averse investors in the absence of com-plete markets.Until now this theory has only been developed in the cases of risk neutrality, or risk aversion in combination with complete markets.Within a

  9. Incidental fear cues increase monetary loss aversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulreich, Stefan; Gerhardt, Holger; Heekeren, Hauke R

    2016-04-01

    In many everyday decisions, people exhibit loss aversion-a greater sensitivity to losses relative to gains of equal size. Loss aversion is thought to be (at least partly) mediated by emotional--in particular, fear-related--processes. Decision research has shown that even incidental emotions, which are unrelated to the decision at hand, can influence decision making. The effect of incidental fear on loss aversion, however, is thus far unclear. In two studies, we experimentally investigated how incidental fear cues, presented during (Study 1) or before (Study 2) choices to accept or reject mixed gambles over real monetary stakes, influence monetary loss aversion. We find that the presentation of fearful faces, relative to the presentation of neutral faces, increased risk aversion-an effect that could be attributed to increased loss aversion. The size of this effect was moderated by psychopathic personality: Fearless dominance, in particular its interpersonal facet, but not self-centered impulsivity, attenuated the effect of incidental fear cues on loss aversion, consistent with reduced fear reactivity. Together, these results highlight the sensitivity of loss aversion to the affective context. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. Inequality aversion and voting on redistribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Höchtl, Wolfgang; Sausgruber, Rupert; Tyran, Jean-Robert Karl

    2012-01-01

    of income classes. We experimentally study voting on redistribution between two income classes and show that the effect of inequality aversion is asymmetric. Inequality aversion is more likely to matter if the “rich” are in majority. With a “poor” majority, we find that redistribution outcomes look...

  11. An Aversion-Desensitization Treatment for Alcoholism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Primo, Richard V.; And Others

    1972-01-01

    A six-to nine-month interview follow-up showed that five of the seven traceable Ss given the interpersonal aversion-systematic desensitization treatment had been abstinent, compared with only one of seven treated by the interpersonal aversion-control procedure. (Author)

  12. Unpleasant odors increase aversion to monetary losses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stancak, Andrej; Xie, Yuxin; Fallon, Nicholas; Bulsing, Patricia; Giesbrecht, Timo; Thomas, Anna; Pantelous, Athanasios A

    2015-04-01

    Loss aversion is the tendency to prefer avoiding losses over acquiring gains of equal nominal values. Unpleasant odors not only influence affective state but have also been shown to activate brain regions similar to those mediating loss aversion. Therefore, we hypothesized a stronger loss aversion in a monetary gamble task if gambles were associated with an unpleasant as opposed to pleasant odor. In thirty human subjects, unpleasant (methylmercaptan), pleasant (jasmine), and neutral (clean air) odors were presented for 4 s. At the same time, uncertain gambles offering an equal chance of gain or loss of a variable amount of money, or a prospect of an assured win were displayed. One hundred different gambles were presented three times, each time paired with a different odor. Loss aversion, risk aversion, and logit sensitivity were evaluated using non-linear fitting of individual gamble decisions. Loss aversion was larger when prospects were displayed in the presence of methylmercaptan compared to jasmine or clean air. Moreover, individual differences in changes in loss aversion to the unpleasant as compared to pleasant odor correlated with odor pleasantness but not with odor intensity. Skin conductance responses to losses during the outcome period were larger when gambles were associated with methylmercaptan compared to jasmine. Increased loss aversion while perceiving an unpleasant odor suggests a dynamic adjustment of loss aversion toward greater sensitivity to losses. Given that odors are biological signals of hazards, such adjustment of loss aversion may have adaptive value in situations entailing threat or danger. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Health Security and Risk Aversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herington, Jonathan

    2016-09-01

    Health security has become a popular way of justifying efforts to control catastrophic threats to public health. Unfortunately, there has been little analysis of the concept of health security, nor the relationship between health security and other potential aims of public health policy. In this paper I develop an account of health security as an aversion to risky policy options. I explore three reasons for thinking risk avoidance is a distinctly worthwhile aim of public health policy: (i) that security is intrinsically valuable, (ii) that it is necessary for social planning and (iii) that it is an appropriate response to decision-making in contexts of very limited information. Striking the right balance between securing and maximizing population health thus requires a substantive, and hitherto unrecognized, value judgment. Finally, I critically evaluate the current health security agenda in light of this new account of the concept and its relationship to the other aims of public health policy. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Contrasting Effects of Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors on Reward and Aversive Olfactory Memories in the Honey Bee

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabrielle A Lockett

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Much of what we have learnt from rodent models about the essential role of epigenetic processes in brain plasticity has made use of aversive learning, yet the role of histone acetylation in aversive memory in the honey bee, a popular invertebrate model for both memory and epigenetics, was previously unknown. We examined the effects of histone deacetylase (HDAC inhibition on both aversive and reward olfactory associative learning in a discrimination proboscis extension reflex (PER assay. We report that treatment with the HDAC inhibitors APHA compound 8 (C8, phenylbutyrate (PB or sodium butyrate (NaB impaired discrimination memory due to impairment of aversive memory in a dose-dependent manner, while simultaneously having no effect on reward memory. Treatment with C8 1 h before training, 1 h after training or 1 h before testing, impaired aversive but not reward memory at test. C8 treatment 1 h before training also improved aversive but not reward learning during training. PB treatment only impaired aversive memory at test when administered 1 h after training, suggesting an effect on memory consolidation specifically. Specific impairment of aversive memory (but not reward memory by HDAC inhibiting compounds was robust, reproducible, occurred following treatment with three drugs targeting the same mechanism, and is likely to be genuinely due to alterations to memory as sucrose sensitivity and locomotion were unaffected by HDAC inhibitor treatment. This pharmacological dissection of memory highlights the involvement of histone acetylation in aversive memory in the honey bee, and expands our knowledge of epigenetic control of neural plasticity in invertebrates.

  15. Rapid, Labile, and Protein Synthesis– Independent Short-Term Memory in Conditioned Taste Aversion

    OpenAIRE

    Houpt, Thomas A.; Berlin, RoseAnn

    1999-01-01

    Short-term memory is a rapid, labile, and protein-synthesis-independent phase of memory. The existence of short-term memory in conditioned taste aversion (CTA) learning has not been demonstrated formally. To determine the earliest time at which a CTA is expressed, we measured intraoral intake of sucrose at 15 min, 1 hr, 6 hr, or 48 h after contingent pairing of an intraoral infusion of 5% sucrose (6.6 ml over 6 min) and toxic lithium chloride injection (76 mg/kg). Rats were implanted with int...

  16. Heterogeneity of Loss Aversion in Pathological Gambling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Hideaki; Kawada, Ryosaku; Tsurumi, Kosuke; Yokoyama, Naoto; Takemura, Ariyoshi; Murao, Takuro; Murai, Toshiya; Takahashi, Hidehiko

    2016-12-01

    Pathological gambling (PG) is characterized by continual repeated gambling behavior despite negative consequences. PG is considered to be a disorder of altered decision-making under risk, and behavioral economics tools were utilized by studies on decision-making under risk. At the same time, PG was suggested to be a heterogeneous disorder in terms of personality traits as well as risk attitude. We aimed to examine the heterogeneity of PG in terms of loss aversion, which means that a loss is subjectively felt to be larger than the same amount of gain. Thirty-one male PG subjects and 26 male healthy control (HC) subjects underwent a behavioral economics task for estimation of loss aversion and personality traits assessment. Although loss aversion in PG subjects was not significantly different from that in HC subjects, distributions of loss aversion differed between PG and HC subjects. HC subjects were uniformly classified into three levels (low, middle, high) of loss aversion, whereas PG subjects were mostly classified into the two extremes, and few PG subjects were classified into the middle range. PG subjects with low and high loss aversion showed a significant difference in anxiety, excitement-seeking and craving intensity. Our study suggested that PG was a heterogeneous disorder in terms of loss aversion. This result might be useful for understanding cognitive and neurobiological mechanisms and the establishment of treatment strategies for PG.

  17. Personality, risk aversion and speeding: an empirical investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greaves, Stephen P; Ellison, Adrian B

    2011-09-01

    Evidence suggests that in addition to demographics, there are strong relationships between facets of drivers' personality (e.g., aggression, thrill-seeking, altruism), aversion to risk and driving behaviour, particularly speeding. However, evidence is muted by the reliance on self-reported driving behaviour, which is thought to not accurately reflect actual driving behaviour. This paper reports on a study of 133 drivers in Sydney, who were asked to complete a short survey to develop their personality and risk aversion profiles and self-reported speeding behaviour. A Global Positioning System (GPS) device was then installed in their vehicle for several weeks as part of a major investigation of driving behaviour from which empirical measures of speeding are derived. Among the most pertinent findings are: (1) the tendency for drivers to both under and over-estimate their propensity to speed, (2) significant heterogeneity in speeding with a small, but notable number of drivers exceeding the limit for more than 20 percent of the distance driven, (3) weak relationships between the personality/risk-aversion measures and actual speeding, and (4) the suggestion that different personality traits appear to influence behaviour in different situations both from self-reported and actual speeding behaviour. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Social influences on inequity aversion in children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine McAuliffe

    Full Text Available Adults and children are willing to sacrifice personal gain to avoid both disadvantageous and advantageous inequity. These two forms of inequity aversion follow different developmental trajectories, with disadvantageous inequity aversion emerging around 4 years and advantageous inequity aversion emerging around 8 years. Although inequity aversion is assumed to be specific to situations where resources are distributed among individuals, the role of social context has not been tested in children. Here, we investigated the influence of two aspects of social context on inequity aversion in 4- to 9-year-old children: (1 the role of the experimenter distributing rewards and (2 the presence of a peer with whom rewards could be shared. Experiment 1 showed that children rejected inequity at the same rate, regardless of whether the experimenter had control over reward allocations. This indicates that children's decisions are based upon reward allocations between themselves and a peer and are not attempts to elicit more favorable distributions from the experimenter. Experiment 2 compared rejections of unequal reward allocations in children interacting with or without a peer partner. When faced with a disadvantageous distribution, children frequently rejected a smaller reward when a larger reward was visible, even if no partner would obtain the larger reward. This suggests that nonsocial factors partly explain disadvantageous inequity rejections. However, rejections of disadvantageous distributions were higher when the larger amount would go to a peer, indicating that social context enhances disadvantageous inequity aversion. By contrast, children rejected advantageous distributions almost exclusively in the social context. Therefore, advantageous inequity aversion appears to be genuinely social, highlighting its potential relevance for the development of fairness concerns. By comparing social and nonsocial factors, this study provides a detailed picture of

  19. Visual Aversive Learning Compromises Sensory Discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shalev, Lee; Paz, Rony; Avidan, Galia

    2018-03-14

    Aversive learning is thought to modulate perceptual thresholds, which can lead to overgeneralization. However, it remains undetermined whether this modulation is domain specific or a general effect. Moreover, despite the unique role of the visual modality in human perception, it is unclear whether this aspect of aversive learning exists in this modality. The current study was designed to examine the effect of visual aversive outcomes on the perception of basic visual and auditory features. We tested the ability of healthy participants, both males and females, to discriminate between neutral stimuli, before and after visual learning. In each experiment, neutral stimuli were associated with aversive images in an experimental group and with neutral images in a control group. Participants demonstrated a deterioration in discrimination (higher discrimination thresholds) only after aversive learning. This deterioration was measured for both auditory (tone frequency) and visual (orientation and contrast) features. The effect was replicated in five different experiments and lasted for at least 24 h. fMRI neural responses and pupil size were also measured during learning. We showed an increase in neural activations in the anterior cingulate cortex, insula, and amygdala during aversive compared with neutral learning. Interestingly, the early visual cortex showed increased brain activity during aversive compared with neutral context trials, with identical visual information. Our findings imply the existence of a central multimodal mechanism, which modulates early perceptual properties, following exposure to negative situations. Such a mechanism could contribute to abnormal responses that underlie anxiety states, even in new and safe environments. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Using a visual aversive-learning paradigm, we found deteriorated discrimination abilities for visual and auditory stimuli that were associated with visual aversive stimuli. We showed increased neural

  20. Dynamic Contingency Analysis Tool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-01-14

    The Dynamic Contingency Analysis Tool (DCAT) is an open-platform and publicly available methodology to help develop applications that aim to improve the capabilities of power system planning engineers to assess the impact and likelihood of extreme contingencies and potential cascading events across their systems and interconnections. Outputs from the DCAT will help find mitigation solutions to reduce the risk of cascading outages in technically sound and effective ways. The current prototype DCAT implementation has been developed as a Python code that accesses the simulation functions of the Siemens PSS/E planning tool (PSS/E). It has the following features: It uses a hybrid dynamic and steady-state approach to simulating the cascading outage sequences that includes fast dynamic and slower steady-state events. It integrates dynamic models with protection scheme models for generation, transmission, and load. It models special protection systems (SPSs)/remedial action schemes (RASs) and automatic and manual corrective actions. Overall, the DCAT attempts to bridge multiple gaps in cascading-outage analysis in a single, unique prototype tool capable of automatically simulating and analyzing cascading sequences in real systems using multiprocessor computers.While the DCAT has been implemented using PSS/E in Phase I of the study, other commercial software packages with similar capabilities can be used within the DCAT framework.

  1. Effects of antiemetics on the acquisition and recall of radiation- and lithium chloride-induced conditioned taste aversions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabin, B.M.; Hunt, W.A.

    1983-01-01

    A series of experiments were run to evaluate the effect of antiemetics on the acquisition and recall of a conditioned taste aversion induced by exposure to ionizing radiation or by injection of lithium chloride. Groups of male rats were exposed to 100 rad gamma radiation or 3 mEq/kg lithium chloride following consumption of a 10% sucrose solution. They were then injected with saline or with one of three antiemetics (prochlorperazine, trimethobenzamide, or cyclizine) at dose levels that have been reported to be effective in attenuating a previously acquired lithium chloride-induced taste aversion. The pretreatments with antiemetics had no effect on the acquisition or recall of either the lithium chloride- or radiation-induced taste aversion. The data suggest that antiemetics do not disrupt lithium chloride-induced taste aversions as previously reported, nor do they effect radiation-induced taste aversion learning

  2. Alternative Forms of Fit in Contingency Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drazin, Robert; Van de Ven, Andrew H.

    1985-01-01

    This paper examines the selection, interaction, and systems approaches to fit in structural contingency theory. The concepts of fit evaluated may be applied not only to structural contingency theory but to contingency theories in general. (MD)

  3. Climate policy: Risk-averse governments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Paul G.

    2014-04-01

    Relative to the scale of the problem, climate policies worldwide have failed. Now research explains why policy innovations are often inadequate, routinely reflecting the aversion of policymakers to the risk of failure.

  4. Small Stakes Risk Aversion in the Laboratory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harrison, Glenn W.; Lau, Morten; Ross, Don

    Evidence of risk aversion in laboratory settings over small stakes leads to a priori implausible levels of risk aversion over large stakes under certain assumptions. One core assumption in standard statements of this calibration puzzle is that individuals define utility over terminal wealth......, and that terminal wealth is defined as the sum of extra-lab wealth and any wealth accumulated in the lab. This assumption is often used in Expected Utility Theory, as well as popular alternatives such as RankDependent Utility theory. Another core assumption is that the small-stakes risk aversion is observed over...... all levels of wealth, or over a “sufficiently large” range of wealth. Although this second assumption if often viewed as self-evident from the vast experimental literature showing risk aversion over laboratory stakes, it actually requires that lab wealth be varied for a given subject as one takes...

  5. Contingent Conspiracies: Art, Philosophy, Science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilson, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    The question of whether creativity comes from being “open” or “closed” to contingent processes, deeply intersects art-historical discourse on authorship, style, technique and practice: from the Greek notion of the Daimon, through commedia dell'arte’s improvised styles and romanticism’s investment......, Hegel) contain a deeper tension between contingency and necessity, often revealed in correlate discussions of the sublime. But as artists find themselves returning again to a concern or care for contingency (a thread running through Heidegger, Levinas and Derrida) or the question how to conspire...... with contingency (Negarestani), they do so today with a new paradigm of scientific knowledge at their disposal. For science too has increasingly been forced to respond to the notion of contingency. Progressively discovering the ubiquity of non-linear dynamics, deterministic chaos and emergent complexity...

  6. Contingent capture effects in temporal order judgments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Born, Sabine; Kerzel, Dirk; Pratt, Jay

    2015-08-01

    The contingent attentional capture hypothesis proposes that visual stimuli that do not possess characteristics relevant for the current task will not capture attention, irrespective of their bottom-up saliency. Typically, contingent capture is tested in a spatial cuing paradigm, comparing manual reaction times (RTs) across different conditions. However, attention may act through several mechanisms and RTs may not be ideal to disentangle those different components. In 3 experiments, we examined whether color singleton cues provoke cuing effects in temporal order judgments (TOJs) and whether they would be contingent on attentional control sets. Experiment 1 showed that color singleton cues indeed produce cuing effects in TOJs, even in a cluttered and dynamic target display containing multiple heterogeneous distractors. In Experiment 2, consistent with contingent capture, we observed reliable cuing effects only when the singleton cue matched participants' current attentional control set. Experiment 3 suggests that a sensory interaction account of the differences found in Experiment 2 is unlikely. Our results help to discern the attentional components that may play a role in contingent capture. Further, we discuss a number of other effects (e.g., reversed cuing effects) that are found in RTs, but so far have not been reported in TOJs. Those differences suggest that RTs are influenced by a multitude of mechanisms; however, not all of these mechanisms may affect TOJs. We conclude by highlighting how the study of attentional capture in TOJs provides valuable insights for the attention literature, but also for studies concerned with the perceived timing between stimuli. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. Anxiety and spatial attention moderate the electrocortical response to aversive pictures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacNamara, Annmarie; Hajcak, Greg

    2009-11-01

    Aversive stimuli capture attention and elicit increased neural activity, as indexed by behavioral, electrocortical and hemodynamic measures; moreover, individual differences in anxiety relate to a further increased sensitivity to threatening stimuli. Evidence has been mixed, however, as to whether aversive pictures elicit increased neural response when presented in unattended spatial locations. In the current study, ERP and behavioral data were recorded from 49 participants as aversive and neutral pictures were simultaneously presented in spatially attended and unattended locations; on each trial, participants made same/different judgments about pictures presented in attended locations. Aversive images presented in unattended locations resulted in increased error rate and reaction time. The late positive potential (LPP) component of the ERP was only larger when aversive images were presented in attended locations, and this increase was positively correlated with self-reported state anxiety. Findings are discussed in regard to the sensitivity of ERP and behavioral responses to aversive distracters, and in terms of increased neural processing of threatening stimuli in anxiety.

  8. The functional and structural neural basis of individual differences in loss aversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canessa, Nicola; Crespi, Chiara; Motterlini, Matteo; Baud-Bovy, Gabriel; Chierchia, Gabriele; Pantaleo, Giuseppe; Tettamanti, Marco; Cappa, Stefano F

    2013-09-04

    Decision making under risk entails the anticipation of prospective outcomes, typically leading to the greater sensitivity to losses than gains known as loss aversion. Previous studies on the neural bases of choice-outcome anticipation and loss aversion provided inconsistent results, showing either bidirectional mesolimbic responses of activation for gains and deactivation for losses, or a specific amygdala involvement in processing losses. Here we focused on loss aversion with the aim to address interindividual differences in the neural bases of choice-outcome anticipation. Fifty-six healthy human participants accepted or rejected 104 mixed gambles offering equal (50%) chances of gaining or losing different amounts of money while their brain activity was measured with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). We report both bidirectional and gain/loss-specific responses while evaluating risky gambles, with amygdala and posterior insula specifically tracking the magnitude of potential losses. At the individual level, loss aversion was reflected both in limbic fMRI responses and in gray matter volume in a structural amygdala-thalamus-striatum network, in which the volume of the "output" centromedial amygdala nuclei mediating avoidance behavior was negatively correlated with monetary performance. We conclude that outcome anticipation and ensuing loss aversion involve multiple neural systems, showing functional and structural individual variability directly related to the actual financial outcomes of choices. By supporting the simultaneous involvement of both appetitive and aversive processing in economic decision making, these results contribute to the interpretation of existing inconsistencies on the neural bases of anticipating choice outcomes.

  9. Pupillometry reveals the physiological underpinnings of the aversion to holes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayzenberg, Vladislav; Hickey, Meghan R; Lourenco, Stella F

    2018-01-01

    An unusual, but common, aversion to images with clusters of holes is known as trypophobia. Recent research suggests that trypophobic reactions are caused by visual spectral properties also present in aversive images of evolutionary threatening animals (e.g., snakes and spiders). However, despite similar spectral properties, it remains unknown whether there is a shared emotional response to holes and threatening animals. Whereas snakes and spiders are known to elicit a fear reaction, associated with the sympathetic nervous system, anecdotal reports from self-described trypophobes suggest reactions more consistent with disgust, which is associated with activation of the parasympathetic nervous system. Here we used pupillometry in a novel attempt to uncover the distinct emotional response associated with a trypophobic response to holes. Across two experiments, images of holes elicited greater constriction compared to images of threatening animals and neutral images. Moreover, this effect held when controlling for level of arousal and accounting for the pupil grating response. This pattern of pupillary response is consistent with involvement of the parasympathetic nervous system and suggests a disgust, not a fear, response to images of holes. Although general aversion may be rooted in shared visual-spectral properties, we propose that the specific emotion is determined by cognitive appraisal of the distinct image content.

  10. 49 CFR 1544.301 - Contingency plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contingency plan. 1544.301 Section 1544.301... COMMERCIAL OPERATORS Threat and Threat Response § 1544.301 Contingency plan. Each aircraft operator must adopt a contingency plan and must: (a) Implement its contingency plan when directed by TSA. (b) Ensure...

  11. 30 CFR 282.26 - Contingency Plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Contingency Plan. 282.26 Section 282.26 Mineral... § 282.26 Contingency Plan. (a) When required by the Director, a lessee shall include a Contingency Plan as part of its request for approval of a Delineation, Testing, or Mining Plan. The Contingency Plan...

  12. National Contingency Plan Subpart J

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subpart J of the National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP) directs EPA to prepare a schedule of dispersants, other chemicals, and oil spill mitigating devices and substances that may be used to remove or control oil discharges.

  13. Reference-dependent preferences and loss aversion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Einat Neuman

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available This study employs a Discrete Choice Experiment (DCE in the health-care sector to test the loss aversion theory that is derived from reference-dependent preferences: The absolute subjective value of a deviation from a reference point is generally greater when the deviation represents a loss than when the same-sized change is perceived as a gain. As far as is known, this paper is the first to use a DCE to test the loss aversion theory. A DCE is a highly suitable tool for such testing because it estimates the marginal valuations of attributes, based onextit{ deviations from a reference point} (a constant scenario. Moreover, loss aversion can be examined for extit{each attribute separately}. Another advantage of a DCE is that is can be applied toextit{ non-traded goods with non-tangible attributes}. A health-care event is used for empirical illustration: The loss aversion theory is tested within the context of preference structures for maternity-ward attributes, estimated using data gathered from 3850 observations made by a sample of 542 women who had recently given birth. Seven hypotheses are presented and tested. Overall, significant support for behavioral loss aversion theories was found. %JEL codes: D01, D12, I19

  14. Mobile contingency unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Sergio O. da; Magalhaes, Milton P. de [Petroleo Brasileiro S.A. (PETROBRAS), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Junqueira, Rodrigo A.; Torres, Carlos A.R. [PETROBRAS Transporte S/A (TRANSPETRO), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    This paper is aimed at presenting what is already a reality in TRANSPETRO in the area covered by OSBRA, a pipeline that carries by-products to the Mid-West region of Brazil. In order to meet the needs of covering occasional accidents, TRANSPETRO counts on a standardized system of emergency management. It is a great challenge to secure an efficient communication along the 964 km of extension, considering that there are shadow zones where it is not possible to use conventional means of communication such as mobile telephony and internet. It was in this context that the Mobile Contingency Unit Via Satellite - MCU was developed, to extend the communication facilities existing in fixed installations to remote places, mainly the pipeline right of ways. In case of emergency, simulation and work in the pipeline right of way, MCU is fully able to provide the same data, voice, closed-circuit TV and satellite video conference facilities that are available in any internal area of the PETROBRAS system. (author)

  15. How to make loss aversion disappear and reverse: tests of the decision by sampling origin of loss aversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walasek, Lukasz; Stewart, Neil

    2015-02-01

    One of the most robust empirical findings in the behavioral sciences is loss aversion--the finding that losses loom larger than gains. We offer a new psychological explanation of the origins of loss aversion in which loss aversion emerges from differences in the distribution of gains and losses people experience. In 4 experiments, we tested this proposition by manipulating the range of gains and losses that individuals saw during the process of eliciting their loss aversion. We were able to find loss aversion, loss neutrality, and even the reverse of loss aversion.

  16. Interoceptive ability predicts aversion to losses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokol-Hessner, Peter; Hartley, Catherine A; Hamilton, Jeffrey R; Phelps, Elizabeth A

    2015-01-01

    Emotions have been proposed to inform risky decision-making through the influence of affective physiological responses on subjective value. The ability to perceive internal body states, or "interoception" may influence this relationship. Here, we examined whether interoception predicts participants' degree of loss aversion, which has been previously linked to choice-related arousal responses. Participants performed both a heartbeat-detection task indexing interoception and a risky monetary decision-making task, from which loss aversion, risk attitudes and choice consistency were parametrically measured. Interoceptive ability correlated selectively with loss aversion and was unrelated to the other value parameters. This finding suggests that specific and separable component processes underlying valuation are shaped not only by our physiological responses, as shown in previous findings, but also by our interoceptive access to such signals.

  17. Effective return, risk aversion and drawdowns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dacorogna, Michel M.; Gençay, Ramazan; Müller, Ulrich A.; Pictet, Olivier V.

    2001-01-01

    We derive two risk-adjusted performance measures for investors with risk averse preferences. Maximizing these measures is equivalent to maximizing the expected utility of an investor. The first measure, Xeff, is derived assuming a constant risk aversion while the second measure, Reff, is based on a stronger risk aversion to clustering of losses than of gains. The clustering of returns is captured through a multi-horizon framework. The empirical properties of Xeff, Reff are studied within the context of real-time trading models for foreign exchange rates and their properties are compared to those of more traditional measures like the annualized return, the Sharpe Ratio and the maximum drawdown. Our measures are shown to be more robust against clustering of losses and have the ability to fully characterize the dynamic behaviour of investment strategies.

  18. "Incidental fear cues increase monetary loss aversion": Correction to Schulreich, Gerhardt, and Heekeren (2016).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    Reports an error in "Incidental fear cues increase monetary loss aversion" by Stefan Schulreich, Holger Gerhardt and Hauke R. Heekeren ( Emotion , 2016[Apr], Vol 16[3], 402-412). In the current article, there was an error in the Study 2 portion of the article. The fourth paragraph of the Results section should read as follows: Performing the same analyses as in Study 1, we found an effect of incidental fear cues on decision behavior. Participants accepted fewer gambles in the fearful-face condition (32.77%) than in the neutral-face condition (33.96%), with Z = -2.187, p = .027, d = -0.998 in the Wilcoxon signed-ranks test and β = 0.012, SE = 0.0053, F(1, 21) = 4.434, p = .047, partial η² = .174 in the linear regression. This suggests increased risk aversion in the fearful-face condition. Concerning personality, however, there were no significant between-subjects effects or between-within interaction effects (all ps = .349). (The following abstract of the original article appeared in record 2015-52358-001.) In many everyday decisions, people exhibit loss aversion-a greater sensitivity to losses relative to gains of equal size. Loss aversion is thought to be (at least partly) mediated by emotional-in particular, fear-related-processes. Decision research has shown that even incidental emotions, which are unrelated to the decision at hand, can influence decision making. The effect of incidental fear on loss aversion, however, is thus far unclear. In two studies, we experimentally investigated how incidental fear cues, presented during (Study 1) or before (Study 2) choices to accept or reject mixed gambles over real monetary stakes, influence monetary loss aversion. We find that the presentation of fearful faces, relative to the presentation of neutral faces, increased risk aversion-an effect that could be attributed to increased loss aversion. The size of this effect was moderated by psychopathic personality: Fearless dominance, in particular its interpersonal facet

  19. Discrete Serotonin Systems Mediate Memory Enhancement and Escape Latencies after Unpredicted Aversive Experience in Drosophila Place Memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Divya Sitaraman

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Feedback mechanisms in operant learning are critical for animals to increase reward or reduce punishment. However, not all conditions have a behavior that can readily resolve an event. Animals must then try out different behaviors to better their situation through outcome learning. This form of learning allows for novel solutions and with positive experience can lead to unexpected behavioral routines. Learned helplessness, as a type of outcome learning, manifests in part as increases in escape latency in the face of repeated unpredicted shocks. Little is known about the mechanisms of outcome learning. When fruit fly Drosophilamelanogaster are exposed to unpredicted high temperatures in a place learning paradigm, flies both increase escape latencies and have a higher memory when given control of a place/temperature contingency. Here we describe discrete serotonin neuronal circuits that mediate aversive reinforcement, escape latencies, and memory levels after place learning in the presence and absence of unexpected aversive events. The results show that two features of learned helplessness depend on the same modulatory system as aversive reinforcement. Moreover, changes in aversive reinforcement and escape latency depend on local neural circuit modulation, while memory enhancement requires larger modulation of multiple behavioral control circuits.

  20. Empirical analysis of time preferences and risk aversion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tu, Q.

    2005-01-01

    One of the important contributions is that a structural model with the reference point and loss aversion for intertemporal choice was developed to estimate the coefficient of loss aversion and the reference points of individuals.

  1. Mathematical Modeling for Risk Averse Firm Facing Loss Averse Customer’s Stochastic Uncertainty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seungbeom Kim

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available To optimize the firm’s profit during a finite planning horizon, a dynamic programming model is used to make joint pricing and inventory replenishment decision assuming that customers are loss averse and the firm is risk averse. We model the loss averse customer’s demand using the multinomial choice model. In this choice model, we consider the acquisition and transition utilities widely used by a mental accounting theory which also incorporate the reference price and actual price. Then, we show that there is an optimal inventory policy which is base-stock policy depending on the accumulated wealth in each period.

  2. Sound-contingent visual motion aftereffect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kobayashi Maori

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background After a prolonged exposure to a paired presentation of different types of signals (e.g., color and motion, one of the signals (color becomes a driver for the other signal (motion. This phenomenon, which is known as contingent motion aftereffect, indicates that the brain can establish new neural representations even in the adult's brain. However, contingent motion aftereffect has been reported only in visual or auditory domain. Here, we demonstrate that a visual motion aftereffect can be contingent on a specific sound. Results Dynamic random dots moving in an alternating right or left direction were presented to the participants. Each direction of motion was accompanied by an auditory tone of a unique and specific frequency. After a 3-minutes exposure, the tones began to exert marked influence on the visual motion perception, and the percentage of dots required to trigger motion perception systematically changed depending on the tones. Furthermore, this effect lasted for at least 2 days. Conclusions These results indicate that a new neural representation can be rapidly established between auditory and visual modalities.

  3. Common brain activations for painful and non-painful aversive stimuli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayes Dave J

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Identification of potentially harmful stimuli is necessary for the well-being and self-preservation of all organisms. However, the neural substrates involved in the processing of aversive stimuli are not well understood. For instance, painful and non-painful aversive stimuli are largely thought to activate different neural networks. However, it is presently unclear whether there is a common aversion-related network of brain regions responsible for the basic processing of aversive stimuli. To help clarify this issue, this report used a cross-species translational approach in humans (i.e. meta-analysis and rodents (i.e. systematic review of functional neuroanatomy. Results Animal and human data combined to show a core aversion-related network, consisting of similar cortical (i.e. MCC, PCC, AI, DMPFC, RTG, SMA, VLOFC; see results section or abbreviation section for full names and subcortical (i.e. Amyg, BNST, DS, Hab, Hipp/Parahipp, Hyp, NAc, NTS, PAG, PBN, raphe, septal nuclei, Thal, LC, midbrain regions. In addition, a number of regions appeared to be more involved in pain-related (e.g. sensory cortex or non-pain-related (e.g. amygdala aversive processing. Conclusions This investigation suggests that aversive processing, at the most basic level, relies on similar neural substrates, and that differential responses may be due, in part, to the recruitment of additional structures as well as the spatio-temporal dynamic activity of the network. This network perspective may provide a clearer understanding of why components of this circuit appear dysfunctional in some psychiatric and pain-related disorders.

  4. Strain-dependent sex differences in the effects of alcohol on cocaine-induced taste aversions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jermaine D; Busse, Gregory D; Riley, Anthony L

    2006-04-01

    Research using the conditioned taste aversion procedure has reported that a cocaine/alcohol combination induces a significantly stronger taste aversion than either cocaine or alcohol alone. These findings suggest that the co-administration of alcohol intensifies the aversive effects of cocaine. Although the behavioral interaction of cocaine and alcohol is well established, little is known about how the effects of this drug combination might be modulated by a variety of subject variables. The current investigation addressed this by assessing if the ability of alcohol to potentiate cocaine-induced taste aversions is dependent upon the strain and/or sex of the subject. In this series of studies, male and female rats of Long-Evans (Experiment 1) and Sprague-Dawley (Experiment 2) descent were given limited access to a novel saccharin solution to drink and were then injected with either vehicle, cocaine (20 mg/kg), alcohol (0.56 g/kg) or the alcohol/cocaine combination. This procedure was repeated every fourth day for a total of four conditioning trials. All subjects were then compared on an Aversion Test that followed the fourth conditioning cycle. In three of the groups tested (male Long-Evans; male and female Sprague-Dawley), cocaine induced a significant taste aversion that was unaffected by the co-administration of alcohol. However, in female Long-Evans subjects, the addition of alcohol significantly strengthened the avoidance of the saccharin solution. Although the effects of alcohol on cocaine-induced taste aversions are dependent upon an interaction of sex and strain, the basis for this SexxStrain interaction is not known. That such an interaction is evident suggests that attention to such factors in assessing the effects of drug combinations is important to understanding the likelihood of the use and abuse of such drugs.

  5. Multiattribute Utility Theory, Intertemporal Utility and Correlation Aversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Steffen; Harrison, Glenn W.; Lau, Morten

    2018-01-01

    Convenient assumptions about qualitative properties of the intertemporal utility function have generated counterintuitive implications for the relationship between atemporal risk aversion and the intertemporal elasticity of substitution. If the intertemporal utility function is additively separable...... aversion. Our results show that subjects are correlation averse over lotteries with intertemporal income profiles....

  6. Probabilistic Sophistication, Second Order Stochastic Dominance, and Uncertainty Aversion

    OpenAIRE

    Simone Cerreia-Vioglio; Fabio Maccheroni; Massimo Marinacci; Luigi Montrucchio

    2010-01-01

    We study the interplay of probabilistic sophistication, second order stochastic dominance, and uncertainty aversion, three fundamental notions in choice under uncertainty. In particular, our main result, Theorem 2, characterizes uncertainty averse preferences that satisfy second order stochastic dominance, as well as uncertainty averse preferences that are probabilistically sophisticated.

  7. Aversion substance(s) of the rat coagulating glands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawienowski, Anthony M.; Berry, Iver J.; Kennelly, James J.

    1982-01-01

    The aversive substance(s) present in adult male urine were not found in castrate rat urine. Removal of the coagulating glands also resulted in a loss of the aversion compounds. The aversion substances were restored to the urine after androgen treatment of the castrate rats.

  8. Risk aversion, time preference, and the social cost of carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anthoff, David; Tol, Richard S J; Yohe, Gary W

    2009-01-01

    The Stern Review reported a social cost of carbon of over $300/tC, calling for ambitious climate policy. We here conduct a systematic sensitivity analysis of this result on two crucial parameters: the rate of pure time preference, and the rate of risk aversion. We show that the social cost of carbon lies anywhere in between 0 and $120 000/tC. However, if we restrict these two parameters to matching observed behaviour, an expected social cost of carbon of $60/tC results. If we correct this estimate for income differences across the world, the social cost of carbon rises to over $200/tC.

  9. Contingent Commitments: Bringing Part-Time Faculty into Focus. Methodology Supplement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Center for Community College Student Engagement, 2014

    2014-01-01

    Center reporting prior to 2013 focused primarily on descriptive statistics (frequencies and means) of student and faculty behaviors. The goal of the analyses reported here and in "Contingent Commitments: Bringing Part-Time Faculty into Focus" is to understand the engagement of part-time or contingent faculty in various activities that…

  10. Financial literacy, risk aversion and choice of mortgage type by households

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cox, R.; Brounen, Dirk; Neuteboom, P.

    2015-01-01

    This paper analyzes how financial literacy and reported willingness to take financial risk impact a household’s choice of mortgage type. The results show that households reporting higher financial literacy and lower risk aversion are 55 to 97 % more likely to opt for interest-only mortgages. The

  11. Aversive Life Events Enhance Human Freezing Responses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hagenaars, M.A.; Stins, J.F.; Roelofs, K.

    2012-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated the effect of prior aversive life events on freezing-like responses. Fifty healthy females were presented neutral, pleasant, and unpleasant images from the International Affective Picture System while standing on a stabilometric platform and wearing a polar band

  12. Aversive life events enhance human freezing responses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hagenaars, M.A.; Stins, J.F.; Roelofs, K.

    2012-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated the effect of prior aversive life events on freezing-like responses. Fifty healthy females were presented neutral, pleasant, and unpleasant images from the International Affective Picture System while standing on a stabilometric platform and wearing a polar band

  13. Risk Aversion and the Value of Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eeckhoudt, Louis; Godfroid, Phillippe

    2000-01-01

    Explains why risk aversion does not always induce a greater information value, but instead may induce a lower information value when increased. Presents a basic model defining the concept of perfect information value and providing a numerical illustration. Includes references. (CMK)

  14. Random queues and risk averse users

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Palma, André; Fosgerau, Mogens

    2013-01-01

    We analyze Nash equilibrium in time of use of a congested facility. Users are risk averse with general concave utility. Queues are subject to varying degrees of random sorting, ranging from strict queue priority to a completely random queue. We define the key “no residual queue” property, which...

  15. Household portfolios and implicit risk aversion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bucciol, A.; Miniaci, R.

    2008-01-01

    We derive from a sample of US households the distribution of the risk aversion implicit in their portfolio choice. Our estimate minimizes the distance between the certainty equivalent return generated with observed portfolios and portfolios that are optimal in a mean-variance framework. Taking into

  16. Memory reconsolidation in aversive and appetitive settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy Claire Reichelt

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Memory reconsolidation has been observed across species and in a number of behavioural paradigms. The majority of memory reconsolidation studies have been carried out in pavlovian fear conditioning and other aversive memory settings, with potential implications for the treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder. However, there is a growing literature on memory reconsolidation in appetitive reward-related memory paradigms, including translational models of drug addiction. While there appears to be substantial similarity in the basic phenomenon and underlying mechanisms of memory reconsolidation across unconditioned stimulus valence, there are also notable discrepancies. These arise both when comparing aversive to appetitive paradigms and also across different paradigms within the same valence of memory. We review the demonstration of memory reconsolidation across different aversive and appetitive memory paradigms, the commonalities and differences in underlying mechanisms and the conditions under which each memory undergoes reconsolidation. We focus particularly on whether principles derived from the aversive literature are applicable to appetitive settings, and also whether the expanding literature in appetitive paradigms is informative for fear memory reconsolidation.

  17. Public Sector Employees: Risk Averse and Altruistic?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.W.J.M. Buurman (Margaretha); A.J. Dur (Robert); S. Bossche, van den (Seth)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractWe assess whether public sector employees have a stronger inclination to serve others and are more risk averse than employees in the private sector. A unique feature of our study is that we use revealed rather than stated preferences data. Respondents of a large-scale survey were offered

  18. Public sector employees: risk averse and altruistic?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buurman, M.; Delfgaauw, J.; Dur, R.; Bossche, S.N.J. van den

    2012-01-01

    We assess whether public sector employees have a stronger inclination to serve others and are more risk averse than employees in the private sector. A unique feature of our study is that we use revealed rather than stated preferences data. Respondents of a large-scale survey were offered a

  19. Public sector employees: risk averse and altruistic?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buurman, M.; Dur, R.; Bossche, S.N.J. van den

    2009-01-01

    We assess whether public sector employees have a stronger inclination to serve others and are more risk averse than employees in the private sector. A unique feature of our study is that we use revealed rather than stated preferences data. Respondents of a large-scale survey were offered a

  20. Risk Aversion and Skewness Preference: a comment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.T. Post (Thierry); P. van Vliet (Pim)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractEmpirically, co-skewness of asset returns seems to explain a substantial part of the cross-sectional variation of mean return not explained by beta. Thisfinding is typically interpreted in terms of a risk averse representativeinvestor with a cubic utility function. This comment questions

  1. Comparing uncertainty aversion towards different sources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baillon, Aurélien; Liu, Ning; van Dolder, Dennie

    2017-01-01

    We propose simple behavioral definitions of comparative uncertainty aversion for a single agent towards different sources of uncertainty. Our definitions allow for the comparison of utility curvature for different sources if the agent’s choices satisfy subjective expected utility towards each

  2. Amygdala damage eliminates monetary loss aversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Martino, Benedetto; Camerer, Colin F; Adolphs, Ralph

    2010-02-23

    Losses are a possibility in many risky decisions, and organisms have evolved mechanisms to evaluate and avoid them. Laboratory and field evidence suggests that people often avoid risks with losses even when they might earn a substantially larger gain, a behavioral preference termed "loss aversion." The cautionary brake on behavior known to rely on the amygdala is a plausible candidate mechanism for loss aversion, yet evidence for this idea has so far not been found. We studied two rare individuals with focal bilateral amygdala lesions using a series of experimental economics tasks. To measure individual sensitivity to financial losses we asked participants to play a variety of monetary gambles with possible gains and losses. Although both participants retained a normal ability to respond to changes in the gambles' expected value and risk, they showed a dramatic reduction in loss aversion compared to matched controls. The findings suggest that the amygdala plays a key role in generating loss aversion by inhibiting actions with potentially deleterious outcomes.

  3. On Loss Aversion in Capuchin Monkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silberberg, Alan; Roma, Peter G.; Huntsberry, Mary E.; Warren-Boulton, Frederick R.; Sakagami, Takayuki; Ruggiero, Angela M.; Suomi, Stephen J.

    2008-01-01

    Chen, Lakshminarayanan, and Santos (2006) claim to show in three choice experiments that monkeys react rationally to price and wealth shocks, but, when faced with gambles, display hallmark, human-like biases that include loss aversion. We present three experiments with monkeys and humans consistent with a reinterpretation of their data that…

  4. Enhanced Risk Aversion, But Not Loss Aversion, in Unmedicated Pathological Anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charpentier, Caroline J; Aylward, Jessica; Roiser, Jonathan P; Robinson, Oliver J

    2017-06-15

    Anxiety disorders are associated with disruptions in both emotional processing and decision making. As a result, anxious individuals often make decisions that favor harm avoidance. However, this bias could be driven by enhanced aversion to uncertainty about the decision outcome (e.g., risk) or aversion to negative outcomes (e.g., loss). Distinguishing between these possibilities may provide a better cognitive understanding of anxiety disorders and hence inform treatment strategies. To address this question, unmedicated individuals with pathological anxiety (n = 25) and matched healthy control subjects (n = 23) completed a gambling task featuring a decision between a gamble and a safe (certain) option on every trial. Choices on one type of gamble-involving weighing a potential win against a potential loss (mixed)-could be driven by both loss and risk aversion, whereas choices on the other type-featuring only wins (gain only)-were exclusively driven by risk aversion. By fitting a computational prospect theory model to participants' choices, we were able to reliably estimate risk and loss aversion and their respective contribution to gambling decisions. Relative to healthy control subjects, pathologically anxious participants exhibited enhanced risk aversion but equivalent levels of loss aversion. Individuals with pathological anxiety demonstrate clear avoidance biases in their decision making. These findings suggest that this may be driven by a reduced propensity to take risks rather than a stronger aversion to losses. This important clarification suggests that psychological interventions for anxiety should focus on reducing risk sensitivity rather than reducing sensitivity to negative outcomes per se. Copyright © 2017 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. A conditioned aversion study of sucrose and SC45647 taste in TRPM5 knockout mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eddy, Meghan C; Eschle, Benjamin K; Peterson, Darlene; Lauras, Nathan; Margolskee, Robert F; Delay, Eugene R

    2012-06-01

    Previously, published studies have reported mixed results regarding the role of the TRPM5 cation channel in signaling sweet taste by taste sensory cells. Some studies have reported a complete loss of sweet taste preference in TRPM5 knockout (KO) mice, whereas others have reported only a partial loss of sweet taste preference. This study reports the results of conditioned aversion studies designed to motivate wild-type (WT) and KO mice to respond to sweet substances. In conditioned taste aversion experiments, WT mice showed nearly complete LiCl-induced response suppression to sucrose and SC45647. In contrast, TRPM5 KO mice showed a much smaller conditioned aversion to either sweet substance, suggesting a compromised, but not absent, ability to detect sweet taste. A subsequent conditioned flavor aversion experiment was conducted to determine if TRPM5 KO mice were impaired in their ability to learn a conditioned aversion. In this experiment, KO and WT mice were conditioned to a mixture of SC45647 and amyl acetate (an odor cue). Although WT mice avoided both components of the stimulus mixture, they avoided SC45647 more than the odor cue. The KO mice also avoided both stimuli, but they avoided the odor component more than SC45647, suggesting that while the KO mice are capable of learning an aversion, to them the odor cue was more salient than the taste cue. Collectively, these findings suggest the TRPM5 KO mice have some residual ability to detect SC45647 and sucrose, and, like bitter, there may be a TRPM5-independent transduction pathway for detecting these substances.

  6. Inevitability, contingency, and epistemic humility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidd, Ian James

    2016-02-01

    This paper offers an epistemological framework for the debate about whether the results of scientific enquiry are inevitable or contingent. I argue in Sections 2 and 3 that inevitabilist stances are doubly guilty of epistemic hubris--a lack of epistemic humility--and that the real question concerns the scope and strength of our contingentism. The latter stages of the paper-Sections 4 and 5-address some epistemological and historiographical worries and sketch some examples of deep contingencies to guide further debate. I conclude by affirming that the concept of epistemic humility can usefully inform critical reflection on the contingency of the sciences and the practice of history of science. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Contingent Employment in the Netherlands

    OpenAIRE

    Pot, F.; Koene, Bas; Paauwe, Jaap

    2001-01-01

    textabstractIn the last decade the Dutch labour market has demonstrated an admirable capacity to generate jobs. Consequently, the unemployment rate has significantly decreased. However, the newly generated jobs are a-typical in the sense that they are not full-time jobs based on open-ended contracts. Instead, the job growth has relied on the growth of part-time and contingent jobs. While the creation of part-time jobs seems to be employee-driven, contingent employment, in contrast, seems to b...

  8. Emotion-induced loss aversion and striatal-amygdala coupling in low-anxious individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charpentier, Caroline J; De Martino, Benedetto; Sim, Alena L; Sharot, Tali; Roiser, Jonathan P

    2016-04-01

    Adapting behavior to changes in the environment is a crucial ability for survival but such adaptation varies widely across individuals. Here, we asked how humans alter their economic decision-making in response to emotional cues, and whether this is related to trait anxiety. Developing an emotional decision-making task for functional magnetic resonance imaging, in which gambling decisions were preceded by emotional and non-emotional primes, we assessed emotional influences on loss aversion, the tendency to overweigh potential monetary losses relative to gains. Our behavioral results revealed that only low-anxious individuals exhibited increased loss aversion under emotional conditions. This emotional modulation of decision-making was accompanied by a corresponding emotion-elicited increase in amygdala-striatal functional connectivity, which correlated with the behavioral effect across participants. Consistent with prior reports of 'neural loss aversion', both amygdala and ventral striatum tracked losses more strongly than gains, and amygdala loss aversion signals were exaggerated by emotion, suggesting a potential role for this structure in integrating value and emotion cues. Increased loss aversion and striatal-amygdala coupling induced by emotional cues may reflect the engagement of adaptive harm-avoidance mechanisms in low-anxious individuals, possibly promoting resilience to psychopathology. © The Author (2015). Published by Oxford University Press.

  9. My loss is your loss ... Sometimes: loss aversion and the effect of motivational biases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Robyn S; Arvai, Joseph L; Arkes, Hal R

    2008-08-01

    Findings from previous studies of individual decision-making behavior predict that losses will loom larger than gains. It is less clear, however, if this loss aversion applies to the way in which individuals attribute value to the gains and losses of others, or if it is robust across a broad spectrum of policy and management decision contexts. Consistent with previous work, the results from a series of experiments reported here revealed that subjects exhibited loss aversion when evaluating their own financial gains and losses. The presence of loss aversion was also confirmed for the way in which individuals attribute value to the financial gains and losses of others. However, similar evaluations within social and environmental contexts did not exhibit loss aversion. In addition, research subjects expected that individuals who were unknown to them would significantly undervalue the subjects' own losses across all contexts. The implications of these findings for risk-based policy and management are many. Specifically, they warrant caution when relying upon loss aversion to explain or predict the reaction of affected individuals to risk-based decisions that involve moral or protected values. The findings also suggest that motivational biases may lead decisionmakers to assume that their attitudes and beliefs are common among those affected by a decision, while those affected may expect unfamiliar others to be unable to identify and act in accordance with shared values.

  10. Contingency Teaching during Close Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Douglas; Frey, Nancy

    2015-01-01

    12 teachers were interviewed and observed as they engaged students in close reading. We analyzed their responses and instruction to determine the scaffolds that were used as well as the contingency teaching plans they implemented when students were unable to understand the text.

  11. Breakdown concepts for contingency tables

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuhnt, S.

    2010-01-01

    Loglinear Poisson models are commonly used to analyse contingency tables. So far, robustness of parameter estimators as well as outlier detection have rarely been treated in this context. We start with finite-sample breakdown points. We yield that the breakdown point of mean value estimators

  12. Developing standardized facility contingency plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davidson, D.A.

    1993-01-01

    Texaco consists of several operating departments that are, in effect, independent companies. Each of these departments is responsible for complying with all environmental laws and regulations. This includes the preparation by each facility to respond to an oil spill at that location. For larger spills, however, management of the response will rest with corporate regional response teams. Personnel from all departments make up the regional teams. In 1990, Congress passed the Oil Pollution Act. In 1991, the US Coast Guard began developing oil spill response contingency plan regulations, which they are still working on. Meanwhile, four of the five west coast states have also passed laws requiring contingency plans. (Only Hawaii has chosen to wait and see what the federal regulations will entail). Three of the states have already adopted regulations. Given these laws and regulations, along with its corporate structure, Texaco addressed the need to standardize local facility plans as well as its response organization. This paper discusses how, by working together, the Texaco corporate international oil spill response staff and the Texaco western region on-scene commander developed: A standard contingency plan format crossing corporate boundaries and meeting federal and state requirements. A response organization applicable to any size facility or spill. A strategy to sell the standard contingency plan and response organization to the operating units

  13. Lessons in Contingent, Recursive Humility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vagle, Mark D.

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author argues that critical work in teacher education should begin with teacher educators turning a critical eye on their own practices. The author uses Lesko's conception of contingent, recursive growth and change to analyze a lesson he observed as part of a phenomenological study aimed at understanding more about what it is…

  14. Job satisfaction and contingent employment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Graaf-Zijl, M.

    2012-01-01

    This paper analyses job satisfaction as an aggregate of satisfaction with several job aspects, with special focus on the influence of contingent-employment contracts. Fixed-effect analysis is applied on a longitudinal sample of Dutch employees in four work arrangements: regular, fixed-term, on-call

  15. A Profile of Contingent Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polivka, Anne E.

    1996-01-01

    Based on data from the supplement to the February 1995 Current Population Survey, contingent workers were more likely to be female, black, young, enrolled in school, and employed in services and construction industries than were noncontingent workers. More than 10% were teachers. (Author)

  16. How Precarious Is Contingent Work?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheuer, Steen

    2015-01-01

    agree. This study focuses on a number of non-pay conditions for contingent employees, compared to permanent staff, under the assumption that these conditions are cumulatively negative. The article is based on utilizes a survey of app.4,900 employees (response rate 57%), asking questions concerning...

  17. 48 CFR 18.201 - Contingency operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contingency operation. 18... METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES EMERGENCY ACQUISITIONS Emergency Acquisition Flexibilities 18.201 Contingency operation. (a) Contingency operation is defined in 2.101. (b) Micro-purchase threshold. The threshold...

  18. 48 CFR 218.201 - Contingency operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contingency operation. 218... Flexibilities 218.201 Contingency operation. (1) Selection, appointment, and termination of appointment... in a contingency contracting force. See 201.603-2(2). (2) Policy for unique item identification...

  19. 49 CFR 1542.301 - Contingency plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contingency plan. 1542.301 Section 1542.301..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY AIRPORT SECURITY Contingency Measures § 1542.301 Contingency plan. (a) Each airport operator required to have a security program under § 1542.103(a) and (b...

  20. Shared risk aversion in spontaneous and induced abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catalano, Ralph; Bruckner, Tim A; Karasek, Deborah; Adler, Nancy E; Mortensen, Laust H

    2016-05-01

    Does the incidence of spontaneous abortion correlate positively over conception cohorts with the incidence of non-clinically indicated induced abortion as predicted by shared risk aversion? We find that the number of spontaneous and non-clinically indicated induced abortions correlates in conception cohorts, suggesting that risk aversion affects both the conscious and non-conscious mechanisms that control parturition. Much literature speculates that natural selection conserved risk aversion because the trait enhanced Darwinian fitness. Risk aversion, moreover, supposedly influences all decisions including those that individuals can and cannot report making. We argue that these circumstances, if real, would manifest in conscious and non-conscious decisions to invest in prospective offspring, and therefore affect incidence of induced and spontaneous abortion over time. Using data from Denmark, we test the hypothesis that monthly conception cohorts yielding unexpectedly many non-clinically indicated induced abortions also yield unexpectedly many spontaneous abortions. The 180 month test period (January 1995 through December 2009), yielded 1 351 800 gestations including 156 780 spontaneous as well as 233 280 induced abortions 9100 of which were clinically indicated. We use Box-Jenkins transfer functions to adjust the incidence of spontaneous and non-clinically indicated induced abortions for autocorrelation (including seasonality), cohort size, and fetal as well as gestational anomalies over the 180-month test period. We use cross-correlation to test our hypothesized association. We find a positive association between spontaneous and non-clinically indicated induced abortions. This suggests, consistent with our theory, that mothers of conception cohorts that yielded more spontaneous abortions than expected opted more frequently than expected for non-clinically indicated induced abortion. Limitations of our work include that even the world's best registration system

  1. Inequity aversion and the evolution of cooperation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Asrar; Karlapalem, Kamalakar

    2014-02-01

    Evolution of cooperation is a widely studied problem in biology, social science, economics, and artificial intelligence. Most of the existing approaches that explain cooperation rely on some notion of direct or indirect reciprocity. These reciprocity based models assume agents recognize their partner and know their previous interactions, which requires advanced cognitive abilities. In this paper we are interested in developing a model that produces cooperation without requiring any explicit memory of previous game plays. Our model is based on the notion of inequity aversion, a concept introduced within behavioral economics, whereby individuals care about payoff equality in outcomes. Here we explore the effect of using income inequality to guide partner selection and interaction. We study our model by considering both the well-mixed and the spatially structured population and present the conditions under which cooperation becomes dominant. Our results support the hypothesis that inequity aversion promotes cooperative relationship among nonkin.

  2. Deciding for Others Reduces Loss Aversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Ola; Holm, Håkan J.; Tyran, Jean-Robert Karl

    2016-01-01

    We study risk taking on behalf of others, both when choices involve losses and when they do not. A large-scale incentivized experiment with subjects randomly drawn from the Danish population is conducted. We find that deciding for others reduces loss aversion. When choosing between risky prospects...... when losses loom. This finding is consistent with an interpretation of loss aversion as a bias in decision making driven by emotions and that these emotions are reduced when making decisions for others....... for which losses are ruled out by design, subjects make the same choices for themselves as for others. In contrast, when losses are possible, we find that the two types of choices differ. In particular, we find that subjects who make choices for themselves take less risk than those who decide for others...

  3. Exposure to Sexist Humor and Rape Proclivity: The Moderator Effect of Aversiveness Ratings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-Sanchez, Monica; Duran, Mercedes; Carretero-Dios, Hugo; Megias, Jesus L.; Moya, Miguel

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study is to explore the effect of exposure to sexist humor about women on men's self-reported rape proclivity. Earlier studies have shown that exposure to this type of humor increases rape proclivity and that funniness responses to jokes are a key element to consider. However, the role of aversiveness responses has not been…

  4. A note on risk aversion and labour market outcomes: further evidence from German survey data

    OpenAIRE

    Pfeifer, Christian

    2008-01-01

    Using the large-scale German Socio-Economic Panel, this note reports direct empirical evidence for significant correlations between risk aversion and labour market outcomes (full-time employment, temporary agency work, fixed-term contracts, employer change, quits, training, wages, and job satisfaction).

  5. A Representation Theorem for Guilt Aversion

    OpenAIRE

    Jensen, Martin Kaae; Kozlovskaya, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Guilt aversion has been shown to play an important role in economic decision-making. In this paper, we take an axiomatic approach to guilt by deducing a utility representation from a list of easily interpretable assumptions on an agent's preferences. It turns out that our logarithmic representation can mitigate the problem of multiplicity of equilibria to which psychological games are prone. We apply the model in three well-known games and show that its predictions are consistent with experim...

  6. Different components of conditioned food aversion memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikitin, Vladimir P; Solntseva, Svetlana V; Kozyrev, Sergey A; Nikitin, Pavel V; Shevelkin, Alexey V

    2016-07-01

    Memory reconsolidation processes and protein kinase Mzeta (PKMzeta) activity in memory maintenance and reorganization are poorly understood. Therefore, we examined memory reconsolidation and PKMzeta activity during the maintenance and reorganization of a conditioned food aversion memory among snails. These processes were specifically evaluated after administration of a serotonin receptor antagonist (methiothepin), NMDA glutamate receptor antagonist (MK-801), protein synthesis inhibitor (cycloheximide; CYH), or PKMzeta inhibitor (zeta inhibitory peptide; ZIP) either 2 or 10 days after aversion training. Two days post-training, injections of MK-801 or CYH, combined with a conditioned stimulus reminder, caused amnesia development, and a second training 11 days after this induction did not lead to long-term memory formation. Interestingly, MK-801 or CYH injections and the reminder 10 days after training did not affect memory retrieval. Methiothepin and the reminder, or ZIP without the reminder, at 2 and 10 days after training led to memory impairment, while a second training 11 days after amnesia induction resulted in memory formation. These results suggest that the maintenance of a conditioned food aversion involves two different components with variable dynamics. One component could be characterized by memory strengthening over time and involve N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors and protein synthesis reconsolidation at early, but not late, training stages. The other memory component could involve serotonin-dependent reconsolidation and Mzeta-like kinase activity at both early and late stages after learning. Deficiencies within these two components led to various forms of memory impairment, which differed in terms of the formation of a conditioned food aversion during the second training. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Inflation Aversion and the Optimal Inflation Tax

    OpenAIRE

    Gaowang Wang; Heng-fu Zou

    2011-01-01

    The optimal inflation tax is reexamined in the framework of dynamic second best economy populated by individuals with inflation aversion. A simple formula for the optimal inflation rate is derived. Different from the literature, it is shown that if the marginal excess burden of other distorting taxes approaches zero, Friedman's rule for optimum quantity of money is not optimal, and the optimal inflation tax is negative; if the marginal excess burden of other taxes is nonzero, the optimal infl...

  8. Neural mechanisms underlying paradoxical performance for monetary incentives are driven by loss aversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chib, Vikram S; De Martino, Benedetto; Shimojo, Shinsuke; O'Doherty, John P

    2012-05-10

    Employers often make payment contingent on performance in order to motivate workers. We used fMRI with a novel incentivized skill task to examine the neural processes underlying behavioral responses to performance-based pay. We found that individuals' performance increased with increasing incentives; however, very high incentive levels led to the paradoxical consequence of worse performance. Between initial incentive presentation and task execution, striatal activity rapidly switched between activation and deactivation in response to increasing incentives. Critically, decrements in performance and striatal deactivations were directly predicted by an independent measure of behavioral loss aversion. These results suggest that incentives associated with successful task performance are initially encoded as a potential gain; however, when actually performing a task, individuals encode the potential loss that would arise from failure. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Effects of loss aversion on post-decision wagering: implications for measures of awareness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Stephen M; Dolan, Raymond J

    2010-03-01

    Wagering contingent on a previous decision, or post-decision wagering, has recently been proposed to measure conscious awareness. Whilst intuitively appealing, it remains unclear whether economic context interacts with subjective confidence and how such interactions might impact on the measurement of awareness. Here we propose a signal detection model which predicts that advantageous wagers placed on the identity of preceding stimuli are affected by loss aversion, despite stimulus visibility remaining constant. This pattern of predicted results was evident in a psychophysical task where we independently manipulated perceptual and economic factors. Changes in wagering behaviour induced by changes in wager size were largely driven by changes in criterion, consistent with the model. However, for near-threshold stimuli, a reduction in wagering efficiency was also evident, consistent with an apparent but potentially illusory decrease in awareness of the stimulus. These findings challenge an assertion that post-decision wagering provides a direct index of subjective awareness.

  10. Category learning in the color-word contingency learning paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, James R; Augustinova, Maria; De Houwer, Jan

    2018-04-01

    In the typical color-word contingency learning paradigm, participants respond to the print color of words where each word is presented most often in one color. Learning is indicated by faster and more accurate responses when a word is presented in its usual color, relative to another color. To eliminate the possibility that this effect is driven exclusively by the familiarity of item-specific word-color pairings, we examine whether contingency learning effects can be observed also when colors are related to categories of words rather than to individual words. To this end, the reported experiments used three categories of words (animals, verbs, and professions) that were each predictive of one color. Importantly, each individual word was presented only once, thus eliminating individual color-word contingencies. Nevertheless, for the first time, a category-based contingency effect was observed, with faster and more accurate responses when a category item was presented in the color in which most of the other items of that category were presented. This finding helps to constrain episodic learning models and sets the stage for new research on category-based contingency learning.

  11. The Effectiveness of Gaze-Contingent Control in Computer Games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlov, Paul A; Apraksin, Nikolay

    2015-01-01

    Eye-tracking technology and gaze-contingent control in human-computer interaction have become an objective reality. This article reports on a series of eye-tracking experiments, in which we concentrated on one aspect of gaze-contingent interaction: Its effectiveness compared with mouse-based control in a computer strategy game. We propose a measure for evaluating the effectiveness of interaction based on "the time of recognition" the game unit. In this article, we use this measure to compare gaze- and mouse-contingent systems, and we present the analysis of the differences as a function of the number of game units. Our results indicate that performance of gaze-contingent interaction is typically higher than mouse manipulation in a visual searching task. When tested on 60 subjects, the results showed that the effectiveness of gaze-contingent systems over 1.5 times higher. In addition, we obtained that eye behavior stays quite stabile with or without mouse interaction. © The Author(s) 2015.

  12. Vagal tone during infant contingency learning and its disruption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Margaret Wolan

    2016-04-01

    This study used contingency learning to examine changes in infants' vagal tone during learning and its disruption. The heart rate of 160 five-month-old infants was recorded continuously during the first of two training sessions as they experienced an audiovisual event contingent on their pulling. Maternal reports of infant temperament were also collected. Baseline vagal tone, a measure of parasympathetic regulation of the heart, was related to vagal levels during the infants' contingency learning session, but not to their learner status. Vagal tone levels did not vary significantly over session minutes. Instead, vagal tone levels were a function of both individual differences in learner status and infant soothability. Vagal levels of infants who learned in the initial session were similar regardless of their soothability; however, vagal levels of infants who learned in a subsequent session differed as a function of soothability. Additionally, vagal levels during contingency disruption were significantly higher among infants in this group who were more soothable as opposed to those who were less soothable. The results suggest that contingency learning and disruption is associated with stable vagal tone in the majority of infants, but that individual differences in attention processes and state associated with vagal tone may be most readily observed during the disruption phase. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Fuzzy-set based contingency ranking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsu, Y.Y.; Kuo, H.C.

    1992-01-01

    In this paper, a new approach based on fuzzy set theory is developed for contingency ranking of Taiwan power system. To examine whether a power system can remain in a secure and reliable operating state under contingency conditions, those contingency cases that will result in loss-of-load, loss-of generation, or islanding are first identified. Then 1P-1Q iteration of fast decoupled load flow is preformed to estimate post-contingent quantities (line flows, bus voltages) for other contingency cases. Based on system operators' past experience, each post-contingent quantity is assigned a degree of severity according to the potential damage that could be imposed on the power system by the quantity, should the contingency occurs. An approach based on fuzzy set theory is developed to deal with the imprecision of linguistic terms

  14. Electrical Aversion Conditioning with Chronic Alcoholics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogler, Roger E.; And Others

    1970-01-01

    Pseudoconditioning (random shock delivery), sham conditioning (no shock), and ward controls (routine hospital treatment) ( were compared with two conditioning groups. Conditioning only (contingent shock) and booster Ss (additional conditioning sessions after release from hospital) were shocked for drinking and reinforced by shock termination for…

  15. Wind Turbine Contingency Control Through Generator De-Rating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frost, Susan; Goebel, Kai; Balas, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Maximizing turbine up-time and reducing maintenance costs are key technology drivers for wind turbine operators. Components within wind turbines are subject to considerable stresses due to unpredictable environmental conditions resulting from rapidly changing local dynamics. In that context, systems health management has the aim to assess the state-of-health of components within a wind turbine, to estimate remaining life, and to aid in autonomous decision-making to minimize damage to the turbine. Advanced contingency control is one way to enable autonomous decision-making by providing the mechanism to enable safe and efficient turbine operation. The work reported herein explores the integration of condition monitoring of wind turbines with contingency control to balance the trade-offs between maintaining system health and energy capture. The contingency control involves de-rating the generator operating point to achieve reduced loads on the wind turbine. Results are demonstrated using a high fidelity simulator of a utility-scale wind turbine.

  16. Risk aversion and compliance in markets for pollution control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stranlund, John K

    2008-07-01

    This paper examines the effects of risk aversion on compliance choices in markets for pollution control. A firm's decision to be compliant or not is independent of its manager's risk preference. However, non-compliant firms with risk-averse managers will have lower violations than otherwise identical firms with risk-neutral managers. The violations of non-compliant firms with risk-averse managers are independent of differences in their profit functions and their initial allocations of permits if and only if their managers' utility functions exhibit constant absolute risk aversion. However, firm-level characteristics do impact violation choices when managers have coefficients of absolute risk aversion that are increasing or decreasing in profit levels. Finally, in the equilibrium of a market for emissions rights with widespread non-compliance, risk aversion is associated with higher permit prices, better environmental quality, and lower aggregate violations.

  17. Time-varying risk aversion. An application to energy hedging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cotter, John [Centre for Financial Markets, School of Business, University College Dublin, Blackrock, Co. Dublin (Ireland); Hanly, Jim [School of Accounting and Finance, Dublin Institute of Technology, Dublin 2 (Ireland)

    2010-03-15

    Risk aversion is a key element of utility maximizing hedge strategies; however, it has typically been assigned an arbitrary value in the literature. This paper instead applies a GARCH-in-Mean (GARCH-M) model to estimate a time-varying measure of risk aversion that is based on the observed risk preferences of energy hedging market participants. The resulting estimates are applied to derive explicit risk aversion based optimal hedge strategies for both short and long hedgers. Out-of-sample results are also presented based on a unique approach that allows us to forecast risk aversion, thereby estimating hedge strategies that address the potential future needs of energy hedgers. We find that the risk aversion based hedges differ significantly from simpler OLS hedges. When implemented in-sample, risk aversion hedges for short hedgers outperform the OLS hedge ratio in a utility based comparison. (author)

  18. Time-varying risk aversion. An application to energy hedging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cotter, John; Hanly, Jim

    2010-01-01

    Risk aversion is a key element of utility maximizing hedge strategies; however, it has typically been assigned an arbitrary value in the literature. This paper instead applies a GARCH-in-Mean (GARCH-M) model to estimate a time-varying measure of risk aversion that is based on the observed risk preferences of energy hedging market participants. The resulting estimates are applied to derive explicit risk aversion based optimal hedge strategies for both short and long hedgers. Out-of-sample results are also presented based on a unique approach that allows us to forecast risk aversion, thereby estimating hedge strategies that address the potential future needs of energy hedgers. We find that the risk aversion based hedges differ significantly from simpler OLS hedges. When implemented in-sample, risk aversion hedges for short hedgers outperform the OLS hedge ratio in a utility based comparison. (author)

  19. Body Image Concerns and Contingent Self-Esteem in Male and Female College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossbard, Joel R; Lee, Christine M; Neighbors, Clayton; Larimer, Mary E

    2009-02-01

    Body dissatisfaction in females, and to a lesser extent males, is associated with low self-esteem, depression, and eating disorders. This research examined gender as a moderator of the association between contingent self-esteem and body image concerns, including weight and muscularity. Participants included 359 (59.1% female) heavy drinking first-year U.S. undergraduate students who completed a survey assessing health-related risk behaviors. Hierarchical multiple regression was used to examine relations among gender, contingent self-esteem, and body image. Females reported higher levels of contingent self-esteem and greater concerns about their weight, although males reported a greater drive for muscularity. The relationship between contingent self-esteem and weight concerns was stronger among females, and for males, greater contingent self-esteem was associated with a greater drive for muscularity.

  20. Control, Contingency and Delegation in Decision-Making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael, Stephen R.

    1979-01-01

    Proposes a model which emphasizes the delegation of decision-making authority and managerial control of operations. Suggests that risks can be reduced by using (1) a contingency approach to delegation, (2) decision rules for consistency, (3) decision models for specific situations, (4) vital indicator reports, (5) management by objectives, and (6)…

  1. Identifying the warm glow effect in contingent valuation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nunes, P.A.L.D.; Schokkaert, E.

    2003-01-01

    This paper reports the results from a contingent valuation study designed to investigate the influence of warm glow in willingness to pay (WTP) responses. Interindividual differences in warm glow motivation are measured through a factor analysis, performed on a list of attitudinal items. The

  2. Contingent factors affecting network learning

    OpenAIRE

    Peters, Linda D.; Pressey, Andrew D.; Johnston, Wesley J.

    2016-01-01

    To increase understanding of the impact of individuals on organizational learning processes, this paper explores the impact of individual cognition and action on the absorptive capacity process of the wider network. In particular this study shows how contingent factors such as social integration mechanisms and power relationships influence how network members engage in, and benefit from, learning. The use of cognitive consistency and sensemaking theory enables examination of how these conting...

  3. Are team members less inequality averse than individual decision makers?

    OpenAIRE

    Haoran He; Marie Claire Villeval

    2014-01-01

    révision Août 2015; We compare inequality aversion in individuals and teams by means of both within- and between-subject experimental designs, and we investigate how teams aggregate individual preferences. We find that team decisions reveal less inequality aversion than individual initial proposals in team decision-making. However, teams are no more selfish than individuals who decide in isolation. Individuals express strategically more inequality aversion in their initial proposals in team d...

  4. Are group members less inequality averse than individual decision makers?

    OpenAIRE

    He, Haoran; Villeval, Marie Claire

    2017-01-01

    International audience; We compare inequality aversion in individuals and teams by means of both within- and between-subject experimental designs, and we investigate how teams aggregate individual preferences. We find that team decisions reveal less inequality aversion than individual initial proposals in team decision-making. However, teams are no more selfish than individuals who decide in isolation. Individuals express strategically more inequality aversion in their initial proposals in te...

  5. Risk aversion in medical decision making: a survey

    OpenAIRE

    Liliana Chicaíza; Mario García; Giancarlo Romano

    2011-01-01

    This article surveys the literature on risk aversion in medical decision making. The search covered Econlit, Jstor Science Direct and Springer Link since 1985. The results are classified in three topics: Risk aversion in the frameworks of Expected Utility and Rank Dependent Expected Utility theories, and the methodologies for measuring risk aversion and its applications to clinical situations from the points of view of economics and psychology. It was found that, despite conceptual and method...

  6. Risk Aversion and Expected-Utility Theory: A Calibration Theorem.

    OpenAIRE

    Matthew Rabin.

    2000-01-01

    Within the expected-utility framework, the only explanation for risk aversion is that the utility function for wealth is concave: A person has lower marginal utility for additional wealth when she is wealthy than when she is poor. This paper provides a theorem showing that expected-utility theory is an utterly implausible explanation for appreciable risk aversion over modest stakes: Within expected-utility theory, for any concave utility function, even very little risk aversion over modest st...

  7. Suited Contingency Ops Food - 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, J. W.; Leong, M. L.; Douglas, G. L.

    2014-01-01

    The contingency scenario for an emergency cabin depressurization event may require crewmembers to subsist in a pressurized suit for up to 144 hours. This scenario requires the capability for safe nutrition delivery through a helmet feed port against a 4 psi pressure differential to enable crewmembers to maintain strength and cognition to perform critical tasks. Two nutritional delivery prototypes were developed and analyzed for compatibility with the helmet feed port interface and for operational effectiveness against the pressure differential. The bag-in-bag (BiB) prototype, designed to equalize the suit pressure with the beverage pouch and enable a crewmember to drink normally, delivered water successfully to three different subjects in suits pressurized to 4 psi. The Boa restrainer pouch, designed to provide mechanical leverage to overcome the pressure differential, did not operate sufficiently. Guidelines were developed and compiled for contingency beverages that provide macro-nutritional requirements, a minimum one-year shelf life, and compatibility with the delivery hardware. Evaluation results and food product parameters have the potential to be used to improve future prototype designs and develop complete nutritional beverages for contingency events. These feeding capabilities would have additional use on extended surface mission EVAs, where the current in-suit drinking device may be insufficient.

  8. Decomposing Self-Control:Individual Differences in Goal Pursuit Despite Interfering Aversion, Temptation, and Distraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa eSteimke

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Self-control can be defined as the ability to exert control over ones impulses. Currently, most research in the area relies on self-report. Focusing on attentional control processes involved in self-control, we modified a spatial selective attentional cueing task to test three domains of self-control experimentally in one task using aversive, tempting, and neutral picture-distractors. The aims of the study were (1 to investigate individual differences in the susceptibility to aversive, tempting and neutral distraction within one paradigm and (2 to test the association of these three self-control domains to conventional measures of self-control including self-report. The final sample consisted of 116 participants. The task required participants to identify target letters E or F presented at a cued target location while the distractors were presented. Behavioral and eyetracking data were obtained during the performance of the task. High task performance was encouraged via monetary incentives. In addition to the attentional self-control task, self-reported self-control was assessed and participants performed a color Stroop task, an unsolvable anagram task and a delay of gratification task using chocolate sweets. We found that aversion, temptation, and neutral distraction were associated with significantly increased error rates, reaction times and gaze pattern deviations. Overall task performance on our task correlated with self-reported self-control ability. Measures of aversion, temptation, and distraction showed moderate split-half reliability, but did not correlate with each other across participants. Additionally, participants who made a self-controlled decision in the delay of gratification task were less distracted by temptations in our task than participants who made an impulsive choice. Our individual differences analyses suggest that (1 the ability to endure aversion, resist temptations and ignore neutral distractions are independent of

  9. Decomposing Self-Control: Individual Differences in Goal Pursuit Despite Interfering Aversion, Temptation, and Distraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steimke, Rosa; Stelzel, Christine; Gaschler, Robert; Rothkirch, Marcus; Ludwig, Vera U.; Paschke, Lena M.; Trempler, Ima; Kathmann, Norbert; Goschke, Thomas; Walter, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    Self-control can be defined as the ability to exert control over ones impulses. Currently, most research in the area relies on self-report. Focusing on attentional control processes involved in self-control, we modified a spatial selective attentional cueing task to test three domains of self-control experimentally in one task using aversive, tempting, and neutral picture-distractors. The aims of the study were (1) to investigate individual differences in the susceptibility to aversive, tempting, and neutral distraction within one paradigm and (2) to test the association of these three self-control domains to conventional measures of self-control including self-report. The final sample consisted of 116 participants. The task required participants to identify target letters “E” or “F” presented at a cued target location while the distractors were presented. Behavioral and eyetracking data were obtained during the performance of the task. High task performance was encouraged via monetary incentives. In addition to the attentional self-control task, self-reported self-control was assessed and participants performed a color Stroop task, an unsolvable anagram task and a delay of gratification task using chocolate sweets. We found that aversion, temptation, and neutral distraction were associated with significantly increased error rates, reaction times and gaze pattern deviations. Overall task performance on our task correlated with self-reported self-control ability. Measures of aversion, temptation, and distraction showed moderate split-half reliability, but did not correlate with each other across participants. Additionally, participants who made a self-controlled decision in the delay of gratification task were less distracted by temptations in our task than participants who made an impulsive choice. Our individual differences analyses suggest that (1) the ability to endure aversion, resist temptations and ignore neutral distractions are independent of each

  10. Event-related potential components as measures of aversive conditioning in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacigalupo, Felix; Luck, Steven J

    2018-04-01

    For more than 60 years, the gold standard for assessing aversive conditioning in humans has been the skin conductance response (SCR), which arises from the activation of the peripheral nervous system. Although the SCR has been proven useful, it has some properties that impact the kinds of questions it can be used to answer. In particular, the SCR is slow, reaching a peak 4-5 s after stimulus onset, and it decreases in amplitude after a few trials (habituation). The present study asked whether the late positive potential (LPP) of the ERP waveform could be a useful complementary method for assessing aversive conditioning in humans. The SCR and LPP were measured in an aversive conditioning paradigm consisting of three blocks in which one color was paired with a loud noise (CS+) and other colors were not paired with the noise (CS-). Participants also reported the perceived likelihood of being exposed to the noise for each color. Both SCR and LPP were significantly larger on CS+ trials than on CS- trials. However, SCR decreased steeply after the first conditioning block, whereas LPP and self-reports were stable over blocks. These results indicate that the LPP can be used to assess aversive conditioning and has several useful properties: (a) it is a direct response of the central nervous system, (b) it is fast, with an onset latency of 300 ms, (c) it does not habituate over time. © 2017 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  11. Mechanisms of radiation-induced conditioned taste aversion learning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabin, B.M.; Hunt, W.A.

    1986-01-01

    The literature on taste aversion learning is reviewed and discussed, with particular emphasis on those studies that have used exposure to ionizing radiation as an unconditioned stimulus to produce a conditioned taste aversion. The primary aim of the review is to attempt to define the mechanisms that lead to the initiation of the taste aversion response following exposure to ionizing radiation. Studies using drug treatments to produce a taste aversion have been included to the extent that they are relevant to understanding the mechanisms by which exposure to ionizing radiation can affect the behavior of the organism. 141 references

  12. Cross-sectional survey: risk-averse French general practitioners are more favorable toward influenza vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massin, Sophie; Ventelou, Bruno; Nebout, Antoine; Verger, Pierre; Pulcini, Céline

    2015-01-29

    We tested the following hypotheses: (i) risk-averse general practitioners (GPs) are more likely to be vaccinated against influenza; (ii) and risk-averse GPs recommend influenza vaccination more often to their patients. In risk-averse GPs, the perceived benefits of the vaccine and/or the perceived risks of the infectious disease might indeed outweigh the perceived risks of the vaccine. In 2010-2012, we conducted a cross-sectional survey of a nationwide French representative sample of 1136 GPs. Multivariate analyses adjusted for four stratification variables (age, gender, urban/suburban/rural practice location and annual patient consultations) and for GPs' characteristics (group/solo practice, and occasional practice of alternative medicine, e.g., homeopathy) looked for associations between their risk attitudes and self-reported vaccination behavior. Individual risk attitudes were expressed as a continuous variable, from 0 (risk-tolerant) to 10 (risk-averse). Overall, 69% of GPs reported that they were very favorable toward vaccination in general. Self-reported vaccination coverage was 78% for 2009/2010 seasonal influenza and 62% for A/H1N1 pandemic influenza. Most GPs (72%) reported recommending the pandemic influenza vaccination to at-risk young adults in 2009, but few than half (42%) to young adults not at risk. In multivariate analyses, risk-averse GPs were more often vaccinated against seasonal (marginal effect=1.3%, P=0.02) and pandemic influenza (marginal effect=1.5%, P=0.02). Risk-averse GPs recommended the pandemic influenza vaccination more often than their more risk-tolerant colleagues to patients without risk factors (marginal effect=1.7%, P=0.01), but not to their at-risk patients and were more favorable toward vaccination in general (marginal effect=1.5%, P=0.04). Individual risk attitudes may influence GPs' practices regarding influenza vaccination, both for themselves and their patients. Our results suggest that risk-averse GPs may perceive the risks

  13. Contingency management for patients with dual disorders in intensive outpatient treatment for addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Thomas M; Daley, Dennis C; Douaihy, Antoine B

    2014-01-01

    This quality improvement program evaluation investigated the effectiveness of contingency management for improving retention in treatment and positive outcomes among patients with dual disorders in intensive outpatient treatment for addiction. The effect of contingency management was explored among a group of 160 patients exposed to contingency management (n = 88) and not exposed to contingency management (no contingency management, n = 72) in a six-week partial hospitalization program. Patients referred to the partial hospitalization program for treatment of substance use and comorbid psychiatric disorders received diagnoses from psychiatrists and specialist clinicians according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of the American Psychiatric Association. A unique application of the contingency management "fishbowl" method was used to improve the consistency of attendance at treatment sessions, which patients attended 5 days a week. Days attending treatment and drug-free days were the main outcome variables. Other outcomes of interest were depression, anxiety and psychological stress, coping ability, and intensity of drug cravings. Patients in the contingency management group attended more treatment days compared to patients in the no contingency management group; M = 16.2 days (SD = 10.0) versus M = 9.9 days (SD = 8.5), respectively; t = 4.2, df = 158, p contingency management and self-reported drug-free days. Contingency management is a valuable adjunct for increasing retention in treatment among patients with dual disorders in partial hospitalization treatment. Exposure to contingency management increases retention in treatment, which in turn contributes to increased drug-free days. Interventions for coping with psychological stress and drug cravings should be emphasized in intensive dual diagnosis group therapy.

  14. How to Make Loss Aversion Disappear and Reverse: Tests of the Decision by Sampling Origin of Loss Aversion

    OpenAIRE

    Walasek, Lukasz; Stewart, Neil

    2014-01-01

    One of the most robust empirical findings in the behavioral sciences is loss aversion—the finding that losses loom larger than gains. We offer a new psychological explanation of the origins of loss aversion in which loss aversion emerges from differences in the distribution of gains and losses people experience. In 4 experiments, we tested this proposition by manipulating the range of gains and losses that individuals saw during the process of eliciting their loss aversion. We were able to fi...

  15. Lossed in translation: an off-the-shelf method to recover probabilistic beliefs from loss-averse agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Offerman, Theo; Palley, Asa B

    2016-01-01

    Strictly proper scoring rules are designed to truthfully elicit subjective probabilistic beliefs from risk neutral agents. Previous experimental studies have identified two problems with this method: (i) risk aversion causes agents to bias their reports toward the probability of [Formula: see text], and (ii) for moderate beliefs agents simply report [Formula: see text]. Applying a prospect theory model of risk preferences, we show that loss aversion can explain both of these behavioral phenomena. Using the insights of this model, we develop a simple off-the-shelf probability assessment mechanism that encourages loss-averse agents to report true beliefs. In an experiment, we demonstrate the effectiveness of this modification in both eliminating uninformative reports and eliciting true probabilistic beliefs.

  16. Loss aversion and duration of residence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip S. Morrison

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Studies of internal migration ask who moves, why they move, and what are the consequences - to themselves, their origin, and their destination. By contrast, studies of those who stay for very long durations are less common, despite the fact that most people move relatively infrequently. Objective: We argue that staying is the dominant, preferred state and that moving is simply an adjustment toward a desired state of stability (or equilibrium. The core of our argument, already recognized in the literature, is that migration is risky. However, we extend the argument to loss aversion as developed within prospect theory. Prospect theory posits that existing possessions, including the dwelling and existing commodities, are attributed a value well beyond their purchase price and that this extends the average period of staying among the loss-averse. Methods: Applying prospect theory has several challenges, including measurement of the reference point and potential degrees of gain and loss households face in deciding to change residence, as well as their own degree of loss aversion. The growing number of large panel sets should make it possible to estimate the degree to which endowment effects are likely to extend durations of residence as predicted by prospect theory. Conclusions: Rational expectations models of mobility focus on the changes in the level of consumption of residential services. By contrast, prospect theory focuses on potential gains and losses relative to the existing dwelling - the reference point. As we confront increasing durations of residence in contemporary society, an application of prospect theory is likely to yield important advantages over existing models of mobility and staying.

  17. Feasible sets, comparative risk aversion, and comparative uncertainty aversion in bargaining

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Driesen, B.W.I.; Lombardi, M.; Peters, H.J.M.

    2015-01-01

    We study feasible sets of the bargaining problem under two different assumptions: the players are subjective expected utility maximizers or the players are Choquet expected utility maximizers. For the latter case, we consider the effects on bargaining solutions when players become more risk averse

  18. Loss aversion is an affective forecasting error.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kermer, Deborah A; Driver-Linn, Erin; Wilson, Timothy D; Gilbert, Daniel T

    2006-08-01

    Loss aversion occurs because people expect losses to have greater hedonic impact than gains of equal magnitude. In two studies, people predicted that losses in a gambling task would have greater hedonic impact than would gains of equal magnitude, but when people actually gambled, losses did not have as much of an emotional impact as they predicted. People overestimated the hedonic impact of losses because they underestimated their tendency to rationalize losses and overestimated their tendency to dwell on losses. The asymmetrical impact of losses and gains was thus more a property of affective forecasts than a property of affective experience.

  19. Report: EPA Could Improve Physical Access and Service Continuity/Contingency Controls for Financial and Mixed-Financial Systems Located at its Research Triangle Park Campus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Report #2006-P-00005, December 14, 2005. Controls needed to be improved in areas such as visitor access to facilities, use of contractor access badges, and general physical access to the NCC, computer rooms outside the NCC, and media storage rooms.

  20. Counterfactual reasoning for regretted situations involving controllable versus uncontrollable events: the modulating role of contingent self-esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Meredith R; Ball, Linden J; Alford, David

    2015-01-01

    We report a study that examined the modulating impact of contingent self-esteem on regret intensity for regretted outcomes associated with controllable versus uncontrollable events. The Contingent Self-Esteem Scale (e.g., Kernis & Goldman, 2006) was used to assess the extent to which a person's sense of self-worth is based on self and others' expectations. We found that there was an influence of self-esteem contingency for controllable but not for uncontrollable regret types. For controllable regret types individuals with a high contingent (i.e., unstable) self-esteem reported greater regret intensity than those with a low contingent (i.e., stable) self-esteem. We interpret this finding as reflecting a functional and adaptive role of high contingent self-esteem in terms of mobilizing the application of counterfactual reasoning and planning mechanisms that can enable personal expectations to be achieved in the future.

  1. Counterfactual Reasoning for Regretted Situations Involving Controllable Versus Uncontrollable Events: The Modulating Role of Contingent Self-Esteem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Meredith R.; Ball, Linden J.; Alford, David

    2015-01-01

    We report a study that examined the modulating impact of contingent self-esteem on regret intensity for regretted outcomes associated with controllable versus uncontrollable events. The Contingent Self-Esteem Scale (e.g., Kernis & Goldman, 2006) was used to assess the extent to which a person’s sense of self-worth is based on self and others’ expectations. We found that there was an influence of self-esteem contingency for controllable but not for uncontrollable regret types. For controllable regret types individuals with a high contingent (i.e., unstable) self-esteem reported greater regret intensity than those with a low contingent (i.e., stable) self-esteem. We interpret this finding as reflecting a functional and adaptive role of high contingent self-esteem in terms of mobilizing the application of counterfactual reasoning and planning mechanisms that can enable personal expectations to be achieved in the future. PMID:25883697

  2. MATERNAL ANXIETY SYMPTOMS AND MOTHER–INFANT SELF- AND INTERACTIVE CONTINGENCY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beebe, Beatrice; Steele, Miriam; Jaffe, Joseph; Buck, Karen A.; Chen, Henian; Cohen, Patricia; Kaitz, Marsha; Markese, Sara; Andrews, Howard; Margolis, Amy; Feldstein, Stanley

    2014-01-01

    Associations of maternal self-report anxiety-related symptoms with mother–infant 4-month face-to-face play were investigated in 119 pairs. Attention, affect, spatial orientation, and touch were coded from split-screen videotape on a 1-s time base. Self- and interactive contingency were assessed by time-series methods. Because anxiety symptoms signal emotional dysregulation, we expected to find atypical patterns of mother–infant interactive contingencies, and of degree of stability/lability within an individual’s own rhythms of behavior (self-contingencies). Consistent with our optimum midrange model, maternal anxiety-related symptoms biased the interaction toward interactive contingencies that were both heightened (vigilant) in some modalities and lowered (withdrawn) in others; both may be efforts to adapt to stress. Infant self-contingency was lowered (“destabilized”) with maternal anxiety symptoms; however, maternal self-contingency was both lowered in some modalities and heightened (overly stable) in others. Interactive contingency patterns were characterized by intermodal discrepancies, confusing forms of communication. For example, mothers vigilantly monitored infants visually, but withdrew from contingently coordinating with infants emotionally, as if mothers were “looking through” them. This picture fits descriptions of mothers with anxiety symptoms as overaroused/fearful, leading to vigilance, but dealing with their fear through emotional distancing. Infants heightened facial affect coordination (vigilance), but dampened vocal affect coordination (withdrawal), with mother’s face—a pattern of conflict. The maternal and infant patterns together generated a mutual ambivalence. PMID:25983359

  3. Reward-centricity and attenuated aversions: An adolescent phenotype emerging from studies in laboratory animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doremus-Fitzwater, Tamara L; Spear, Linda P

    2016-11-01

    Adolescence is an evolutionarily conserved developmental period, with neural circuits and behaviors contributing to the detection, procurement, and receipt of rewards bearing similarity across species. Studies with laboratory animals suggest that adolescence is typified by a "reward-centric" phenotype-an increased sensitivity to rewards relative to adults. In contrast, adolescent rodents are reportedly less sensitive to the aversive properties of many drugs and naturally aversive stimuli. Alterations within the mesocorticolimbic dopamine and endocannabinoid systems likely contribute to an adolescent reward-sensitive, yet aversion-resistant, phenotype. Although early hypotheses postulated that developmental changes in dopaminergic circuitry would result in a "reward deficiency" syndrome, evidence now suggests the opposite: that adolescents are uniquely poised to seek out hedonic stimuli, experience greater "pleasure" from rewards, and consume rewarding stimuli in excess. Future studies that more clearly define the role of specific brain regions and neurotransmitter systems in the expression of behaviors toward reward- and aversive-related cues and stimuli are necessary to more fully understand an adolescent-proclivity for and vulnerability to rewards and drugs of potential abuse. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Dissecting neural pathways for forgetting in Drosophila olfactory aversive memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuai, Yichun; Hirokawa, Areekul; Ai, Yulian; Zhang, Min; Li, Wanhe; Zhong, Yi

    2015-12-01

    Recent studies have identified molecular pathways driving forgetting and supported the notion that forgetting is a biologically active process. The circuit mechanisms of forgetting, however, remain largely unknown. Here we report two sets of Drosophila neurons that account for the rapid forgetting of early olfactory aversive memory. We show that inactivating these neurons inhibits memory decay without altering learning, whereas activating them promotes forgetting. These neurons, including a cluster of dopaminergic neurons (PAM-β'1) and a pair of glutamatergic neurons (MBON-γ4>γ1γ2), terminate in distinct subdomains in the mushroom body and represent parallel neural pathways for regulating forgetting. Interestingly, although activity of these neurons is required for memory decay over time, they are not required for acute forgetting during reversal learning. Our results thus not only establish the presence of multiple neural pathways for forgetting in Drosophila but also suggest the existence of diverse circuit mechanisms of forgetting in different contexts.

  5. Network location theory and contingency planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hakimi, S L

    1983-08-01

    A brief survey of results in network location theory is first presented. Then, a systems view of contingency planning is described. Finally, some results in location theory are re-examined and it is shown that they are motivated by contingency planning considerations. Some new issues and problems in location theory are described, which, if properly tackled, will have a substantial impact on contingency planning in transportation.

  6. Radiological Contingency Planning for the Mars Science Laboratory Launch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul P. Guss

    2008-04-01

    This paper describes the contingency planning for the launch of the Mars Science Laboratory scheduled for the 21-day window beginning on September 15, 2009. National Security Technologies, LLC (NSTec), based in Las Vegas, Nevada, will support the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) in its role for managing the overall radiological contingency planning support effort. This paper will focus on new technologies that NSTec’s Remote Sensing Laboratory (RSL) is developing to enhance the overall response capability that would be required for a highly unlikely anomaly. This paper presents recent advances in collecting and collating data transmitted from deployed teams and sensors. RSL is responsible to prepare the contingency planning for a range of areas from monitoring and assessment, sample collection and control, contaminated material release criteria, data management, reporting, recording, and even communications. The tools RSL has available to support these efforts will be reported. The data platform RSL will provide shall also be compatible with integration of assets and field data acquired with other DOE, National Space and Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), state, and local resources, personnel, and equipment. This paper also outlines the organizational structure for response elements in radiological contingency planning.

  7. 40 CFR 264.53 - Copies of contingency plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Copies of contingency plan. 264.53... Contingency Plan and Emergency Procedures § 264.53 Copies of contingency plan. A copy of the contingency plan... called upon to provide emergency services. [Comment: The contingency plan must be submitted to the...

  8. Pavlovian contingencies and temporal information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balsam, Peter D; Fairhurst, Stephen; Gallistel, Charles R

    2006-07-01

    The effects of altering the contingency between the conditioned stimulus (CS) and the unconditioned stimulus (US) on the acquisition of autoshaped responding was investigated by changing the frequency of unsignaled USs during the intertrial interval. The addition of the unsignaled USs had an effect on acquisition speed comparable with that of massing trials. The effects of these manipulations can be understood in terms of their effect on the amount of information (number of bits) that the average CS conveys to the subject about the timing of the next US. The number of reinforced CSs prior to acquisition is inversely related to the information content of the CS.

  9. Does ambiguity aversion survive in experimental asset markets?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Füllbrunn, Sascha; Rau, Holger A.; Weitzel, Utz

    2014-01-01

    Although a number of theoretical studies explain empirical puzzles in finance with ambiguity aversion, it is not a given that individual ambiguity attitudes survive in markets. In fact, despite ample evidence of ambiguity aversion in individual decision making, most studies find no or only limited

  10. Black Faces, White Spaces: Adjusting Self to Manage Aversive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article focuses on conversations in which South Africans speak about their experiences of aversive racism in 'raced' spaces. The article interrogates experiences of aversive racism and argues that, for various reasons, racial segregation and less overt forms of racism remain entrenched in South Africa. Presently, those ...

  11. Aversive Learning and Trait Aggression Influence Retaliatory Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molapour, Tanaz; Lindström, Björn; Olsson, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    In two experiments (n = 35, n = 34), we used a modified fear-conditioning paradigm to investigate the role of aversive learning in retaliatory behavior in social context. Participants first completed an initial aversive learning phase in which the pairing of a neutral conditioned stimulus (CS; i.e., neutral face) with a naturally aversive unconditioned stimulus (US; electric shock) was learned. Then they were given an opportunity to interact (i.e., administer 0-2 shocks) with the same faces again, during a Test phase. In Experiment 2, we used the same paradigm with the addition of online trial-by-trial ratings (e.g., US expectancy and anger) to examine the role of aversive learning, anger, and the learned expectancy of receiving punishment more closely. Our results indicate that learned aversions influenced future retaliation in a social context. In both experiments, participants showed largest skin conductance responses (SCRs) to the faces paired with one or two shocks, demonstrating successful aversive learning. Importantly, participants administered more shocks to the faces paired with the most number of shocks when the opportunity was given during test. Also, our results revealed that aggressive traits (Buss and Perry Aggression scale) were associated with retaliation only toward CSs associated with aversive experiences. These two experiments show that aggressive traits, when paired with aversive learning experiences enhance the likelihood to act anti-socially toward others.

  12. Loss Aversion under Prospect Theory: a Parameter-Free Measurement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H. Bleichrodt (Han); M. Abdellaoui (Mohammed); C. Paraschiv (Corina)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractA growing body of qualitative evidence shows that loss aversion, a phenomenon formalized in prospect theory, can explain a variety of field and experimental data. Quantifications of loss aversion are, however, hindered by the absence of a general preference-based method to elicit the

  13. Probability Weighting and Loss Aversion in Futures Hedging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mattos, F.; Garcia, P.; Pennings, J.M.E.

    2008-01-01

    We analyze how the introduction of probability weighting and loss aversion in a futures hedging model affects decision making. Analytical findings indicate that probability weighting alone always affects optimal hedge ratios, while loss and risk aversion only have an impact when probability

  14. Self-Other Decision Making and Loss Aversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polman, Evan

    2012-01-01

    In eight studies, we tested the prediction that making choices for others involves less loss aversion than making choices for the self. We found that loss aversion is significantly lessened among people choosing for others in scenarios describing riskless choice (Study 1), gambling (Studies 2 and 3), and social aspects of life, such as likeably…

  15. Schizophrenia illness severity is associated with reduced loss aversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currie, James; Buruju, Dheeraj; Perrin, Jennifer S; Reid, Ian C; Steele, J Douglas; Feltovich, Nick

    2017-06-01

    Loss aversion, whereby losses weigh more heavily than equal-sized gains, has been demonstrated in many decision-making settings. Previous research has suggested reduced loss aversion in schizophrenia, but with little evidence of a link between loss aversion and schizophrenia illness severity. In this study, 20 individuals with schizophrenia and 16 control participants, matched by age and sex, played two versions of the Iterated Prisoners' Dilemma, one version with only positive payoffs and another version in which negative payoffs were possible, with the second version being derived from the first by subtracting a constant value from all payoffs. The control group demonstrated significantly lower cooperation rates under negative payoffs, compared with the version with only positive payoffs, indicative of loss aversion. The patient group on average showed no loss aversion response. Moreover, the extent of loss aversion in patients was found to be negatively correlated with schizophrenia illness severity, with less ill patients showing loss aversion more similar to controls. Results were found to be robust to the inclusion of potential confounding factors as covariates within rigorous probit regression analyses. Reduced loss aversion is a feature of schizophrenia and related to illness severity. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. Contingent negative variation of mood disorder patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yingzhi Lu; Wenbin Zong; Qingtao Ren; Jinyu Pu; Jun Chen; Juan Li; Xingshi Chen; Yong Wang

    2011-01-01

    Studies on brain-evoked potential and contingent negative variation (CNV) in mood disorder remain controversial. To date, no CNV difference between unipolar and bipolar depression has been reported. Brain-evoked potentials were measured in the present study to analyze CNV in three subtypes of mood disorder (mania, unipolar depression, and bipolar depression), and these results were compared with normal controls. In the mania group, CNV amplitude B was greater than in controls, and the depression group exhibited lower CNV amplitude B and smaller A-S'2 area, and prolonged post-imperative negative variation latency. The CNV comparison between unipolar and bipolar depression found that the prolonged post-imperative negative variation latency was only in unipolar depression. These results suggest that prolonged post-imperative negative variation latency is a characteristic of unipolar depression, and CNV amplitude change is a state characteristic of mood disorder patients.

  17. Differences in Risk Aversion between Young and Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, Steven M; Duffy, John

    2012-01-15

    Research on decision-making strategies among younger and older adults suggests that older adults may be more risk averse than younger people in the case of potential losses. These results mostly come from experimental studies involving gambling paradigms. Since these paradigms involve substantial demands on memory and learning, differences in risk aversion or other features of decision-making attributed to age may in fact reflect age-related declines in cognitive abilities. In the current study, older and younger adults completed a simpler, paired lottery choice task used in the experimental economics literature to elicit risk aversion. A similar approach was used to elicit participants' discount rates. The older adult group was more risk averse than younger adults (p Risk aversion and implied discount rates were weakly correlated. It may be valuable to investigate developmental changes in neural correlates of decision-making across the lifespan.

  18. Children do not exhibit ambiguity aversion despite intact familiarity bias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Rosa; Brannon, Elizabeth M; Huettel, Scott A

    2014-01-01

    The phenomenon of ambiguity aversion, in which risky gambles with known probabilities are preferred over ambiguous gambles with unknown probabilities, has been thoroughly documented in adults but never measured in children. Here, we use two distinct tasks to investigate ambiguity preferences of children (8- to 9-year-olds) and a comparison group of adults (19- to 27-year-olds). Across three separate measures, we found evidence for significant ambiguity aversion in adults but not in children and for greater ambiguity aversion in adults compared to children. As ambiguity aversion in adults has been theorized to result from a preference to bet on the known and avoid the unfamiliar, we separately measured familiarity bias and found that children, like adults, are biased towards the familiar. Our findings indicate that ambiguity aversion emerges across the course of development between childhood and adolescence, while a familiarity bias is already present in childhood.

  19. Enhanced striatal sensitivity to aversive reinforcement in adolescents versus adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galván, Adriana; McGlennen, Kristine M

    2013-02-01

    Neurodevelopmental changes in mesolimbic regions are associated with adolescent risk-taking behavior. Numerous studies have shown exaggerated activation in the striatum in adolescents compared with children and adults during reward processing. However, striatal sensitivity to aversion remains elusive. Given the important role of the striatum in tracking both appetitive and aversive events, addressing this question is critical to understanding adolescent decision-making, as both positive and negative factors contribute to this behavior. In this study, human adult and adolescent participants performed a task in which they received squirts of appetitive or aversive liquid while undergoing fMRI, a novel approach in human adolescents. Compared with adults, adolescents showed greater behavioral and striatal sensitivity to both appetitive and aversive stimuli, an effect that was exaggerated in response to delivery of the aversive stimulus. Collectively, these findings contribute to understanding how neural responses to positive and negative outcomes differ between adolescents and adults and how they may influence adolescent behavior.

  20. Complexity and competition in appetitive and aversive neural circuits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crista L. Barberini

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Decision-making often involves using sensory cues to predict possible rewarding or punishing reinforcement outcomes before selecting a course of action. Recent work has revealed complexity in how the brain learns to predict rewards and punishments. Analysis of neural signaling during and after learning in the amygdala and orbitofrontal cortex, two brain areas that process appetitive and aversive stimuli, reveals a dynamic relationship between appetitive and aversive circuits. Specifically, the relationship between signaling in appetitive and aversive circuits in these areas shifts as a function of learning. Furthermore, although appetitive and aversive circuits may often drive opposite behaviors – approaching or avoiding reinforcement depending upon its valence – these circuits can also drive similar behaviors, such as enhanced arousal or attention; these processes also may influence choice behavior. These data highlight the formidable challenges ahead in dissecting how appetitive and aversive neural circuits interact to produce a complex and nuanced range of behaviors.

  1. 76 FR 510 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-05

    ..., Intergovernmental relations, Penalties, Reporting and recordkeeping requirements, Superfund, Water pollution control... and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List: Partial Deletion of the... Site is located in Albuquerque, Bernalillo County, New Mexico. After this deletion, this 62 acres will...

  2. Contingent Diversity on Anthropic Landscapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Balée

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Behaviorally modern human beings have lived in Amazonia for thousands of years. Significant dynamics in species turnovers due to human-mediated disturbance were associated with the ultimate emergence and expansion of agrarian technologies in prehistory. Such disturbances initiated primary and secondary landscape transformations in various locales of the Amazon region. Diversity in these locales can be understood by accepting the initial premise of contingency, expressed as unprecedented human agency and human history. These effects can be accessed through the archaeological record and in the study of living languages. In addition, landscape transformation can be demonstrated in the study of traditional knowledge (TK. One way of elucidating TK distinctions between anthropic and nonanthropic landscapes concerns elicitation of differential labeling of these landscapes and more significantly, elicitation of the specific contents, such as trees, occurring in these landscapes. Freelisting is a method which can be used to distinguish the differential species compositions of landscapes resulting from human-mediated disturbance vs. those which do not evince records of human agency and history. The TK of the Ka’apor Indians of Amazonian Brazil as revealed in freelisting exercises shows differentiation of anthropogenic from high forests as well as a recognition of diversity in the anthropogenic forests. This suggests that the agents of human-mediated disturbance and landscape transformation in traditional Amazonia encode diversity and contingency into their TK, which encoding reflects past cultural influence on landscape and society over time.

  3. On the genetics of loss aversion: An interaction effect of BDNF Val66Met and DRD2/ANKK1 Taq1a.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voigt, Gesine; Montag, Christian; Markett, Sebastian; Reuter, Martin

    2015-12-01

    Loss aversion is the tendency to overweight losses compared with gains in decision situations. Several studies have investigated the neurobiological background of this phenomenon and it was found that activation in the mesolimbic-mesocortical dopamine system during a gambling decision correlates with loss aversion. In a behavioral experiment with N = 143 subjects, the present study investigates the influence of 2 functional single-nucleotide polymorphisms on the BDNF gene (BDNF Val66Met polymorphism) and ANKK1 gene (DRD2 Taq1a/ANKK1 polymorphism), that are known to affect the dopamine system, on loss aversion. Additionally, associations of alexithymia, a personality construct describing the disability to consciously experience emotions in the self, with loss aversion and with the mentioned polymorphisms were assessed using the TAS-20 questionnaire, to replicate associations that have been reported before. Results revealed a significant interaction effect of the 2 polymorphisms on loss aversion. Carriers of the genetic constellation 66Met+/A1+ had the lowest loss aversion scores, compared with all other allelic groups. According to the literature this allelic configuration is characterized by a relatively low D2/3 receptor binding in the striatum and an impaired activity-dependent secretion of BDNF. This is the first study showing that loss aversion is related to naturally occurring differences in dopamine function. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. Contingency management for the treatment of methamphetamine use disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roll, John M; Petry, Nancy M; Stitzer, Maxine L; Brecht, Mary L; Peirce, Jessica M; McCann, Michael J; Blaine, Jack; MacDonald, Marilyn; DiMaria, Joan; Lucero, Leroy; Kellogg, Scott

    2006-11-01

    Theory and some preliminary evidence suggest that contingency management may be an effective treatment strategy or adjunct to psychosocial treatment for methamphetamine use disorders. An experimentally rigorous investigation on the topic was provided by a large multisite trial conducted under the auspices of the Clinical Trials Network of the National Institute on Drug Abuse. The authors report data on 113 participants who were diagnosed with methamphetamine abuse or dependence. They were randomly assigned to receive 12 weeks of either treatment as usual or treatment as usual plus contingency management. Urine samples were tested for illicit drugs, and breath samples were tested for alcohol. The reinforcers for drug-negative samples were plastic chips, some of which could be exchanged for prizes. The number of plastic chips drawn increased with each week of negative samples but was reset to one after a missed or positive sample. The participants in both groups remained in treatment for equivalent times, but those receiving contingency management in addition to usual treatment submitted significantly more negative samples, and they were abstinent for a longer period of time (5 versus 3 weeks). These results suggest that contingency management has promise as a component in treatment strategies for methamphetamine use disorder.

  5. 48 CFR 1318.201 - Contingency operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contingency operation. 1318.201 Section 1318.201 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES EMERGENCY ACQUISITIONS Emergency Acquisition Flexibilities 1318.201 Contingency...

  6. 7 CFR 457.9 - Appropriation contingency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Appropriation contingency. 457.9 Section 457.9 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FEDERAL CROP INSURANCE CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMON CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.9 Appropriation contingency...

  7. Contingent and Alternative Work Arrangements, Defined.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polivka, Anne E.

    1996-01-01

    Discusses the definitions of contingent workers and alternative work arrangements used by the Bureau of Labor Statistics to analyze data, and presents aggregate estimates of the number of workers in each group. Discusses the overlap between contingent workers and workers in alternative arrangements. (Author/JOW)

  8. Contingency management: perspectives of Australian service providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Jacqui; Ritter, Alison

    2007-03-01

    Given the very positive and extensive research evidence demonstrating efficacy and effectiveness of contingency management, it is important that Australia explore whether contingency management has a role to play in our own treatment context. Qualitative interviews were conducted with 30 experienced alcohol and drug practitioners, service managers and policy-makers in Victoria. Interviewees were selected to represent the range of drug treatment services types and included rural representation. A semi-structured interview schedule, covering their perceptions and practices of contingency management was used. All interviews were transcribed verbatim and analysed using N2 qualitative data analysis program. The majority of key informants were positively inclined toward contingency management, notwithstanding some concerns about the philosophical underpinnings. Concerns were raised in relation to the use of monetary rewards. Examples of the use of contingency management provided by key informants demonstrated an over-inclusive definition: all the examples did not adhere to the key principles of contingency management. This may create problems if a structured contingency management were to be introduced in Australia. Contingency management is an important adjunctive treatment intervention and its use in Australia has the potential to enhance treatment outcomes. No unmanageable barriers were identified in this study.

  9. Contingent Attentional Capture by Conceptually Relevant Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyble, Brad; Folk, Charles; Potter, Mary C.

    2013-01-01

    Attentional capture is an unintentional shift of visuospatial attention to the location of a distractor that is either highly salient, or relevant to the current task set. The latter situation is referred to as contingent capture, in that the effect is contingent on a match between characteristics of the stimuli and the task-defined…

  10. Deciding for Others Reduces Loss Aversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Ola; Holm, Håkan J.; Tyran, Jean-Robert Karl

    We study risk taking on behalf of others, both with and without potential losses. A large-scale incentivized experiment is conducted with subjects randomly drawn from the Danish population. On average, decision makers take the same risks for other people as for themselves when losses are excluded....... In contrast, when losses are possible, decisions on behalf of others are more risky. Using structural estimation, we show that this increase in risk stems from a decrease in loss aversion when others are affected by their choices.......We study risk taking on behalf of others, both with and without potential losses. A large-scale incentivized experiment is conducted with subjects randomly drawn from the Danish population. On average, decision makers take the same risks for other people as for themselves when losses are excluded...

  11. Thevenin Equivalent Method for Dynamic Contingency Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Jakob Glarbo; Jóhannsson, Hjörtur; Østergaard, Jacob

    2015-01-01

    A method that exploits Thevenin equivalent representation for obtaining post-contingency steady-state nodal voltages is integrated with a method of detecting post-contingency aperiodic small-signal instability. The task of integrating stability assessment with contingency assessment is challenged...... by the cases of unstable post-contingency conditions. For unstable postcontingency conditions there exists no credible steady-state which can be used for basis of a stability assessment. This paper demonstrates how Thevenin Equivalent methods can be applied in algebraic representation of such bifurcation...... points which may be used in assessment of post-contingency aperiodic small-signal stability. The assessment method is introduced with a numeric example....

  12. Loss aversion and 5HTT gene variants in adolescent anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, Monique; Plate, Rista C; Carlisi, Christina O; Gorodetsky, Elena; Goldman, David; Pine, Daniel S

    2014-04-01

    Loss aversion, a well-documented behavioral phenomenon, characterizes decisions under risk in adult populations. As such, loss aversion may provide a reliable measure of risky behavior. Surprisingly, little is known about loss aversion in adolescents, a group who manifests risk-taking behavior, or in anxiety disorders, which are associated with risk-avoidance. Finally, loss aversion is expected to be modulated by genotype, particularly the serotonin transporter (SERT) gene variant, based on its role in anxiety and impulsivity. This genetic modulation may also differ between anxious and healthy adolescents, given their distinct propensities for risk taking. The present work examines the modulation of loss aversion, an index of risk-taking, and reaction-time to decision, an index of impulsivity, by the serotonin-transporter-gene-linked polymorphisms (5HTTLPR) in healthy and clinically anxious adolescents. Findings show that loss aversion (1) does manifest in adolescents, (2) does not differ between healthy and clinically anxious participants, and (3), when stratified by SERT genotype, identifies a subset of anxious adolescents who are high SERT-expressers, and show excessively low loss-aversion and high impulsivity. This last finding may serve as preliminary evidence for 5HTTLPR as a risk factor for the development of comorbid disorders associated with risk-taking and impulsivity in clinically anxious adolescents. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  13. Coping with Loss Aversion in the Newsvendor Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianwu Sun

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We introduce loss aversion into the decision framework of the newsvendor model. By introducing the loss aversion coefficient λ, we propose a novel utility function for the loss-averse newsvendor. First, we obtain the optimal order quantity to maximize the expected utility for the loss-averse newsvendor who is risk-neutral. It is found that this optimal order quantity is smaller than the expected profit maximization order quantity in the classical newsvendor model, which may help to explain the decision bias in the classical newsvendor model. Then, to reduce the risk which originates from the fluctuation in the market demand, we achieve the optimal order quantity to maximize CVaR about utility for the loss-averse newsvendor who is risk-averse. We find that this optimal order quantity is smaller than the optimal order quantity to maximize the expected utility above and is decreasing in the confidence level α. Further, it is proved that the expected utility under this optimal order quantity is decreasing in the confidence level α, which verifies that low risk implies low return. Finally, a numerical example is given to illustrate the obtained results and some management insights are suggested for the loss-averse newsvendor model.

  14. Loss aversion and 5HTT gene variants in adolescent anxiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monique Ernst

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Loss aversion, a well-documented behavioral phenomenon, characterizes decisions under risk in adult populations. As such, loss aversion may provide a reliable measure of risky behavior. Surprisingly, little is known about loss aversion in adolescents, a group who manifests risk-taking behavior, or in anxiety disorders, which are associated with risk-avoidance. Finally, loss aversion is expected to be modulated by genotype, particularly the serotonin transporter (SERT gene variant, based on its role in anxiety and impulsivity. This genetic modulation may also differ between anxious and healthy adolescents, given their distinct propensities for risk taking. The present work examines the modulation of loss aversion, an index of risk-taking, and reaction-time to decision, an index of impulsivity, by the serotonin-transporter-gene-linked polymorphisms (5HTTLPR in healthy and clinically anxious adolescents. Findings show that loss aversion (1 does manifest in adolescents, (2 does not differ between healthy and clinically anxious participants, and (3, when stratified by SERT genotype, identifies a subset of anxious adolescents who are high SERT-expressers, and show excessively low loss-aversion and high impulsivity. This last finding may serve as preliminary evidence for 5HTTLPR as a risk factor for the development of comorbid disorders associated with risk-taking and impulsivity in clinically anxious adolescents.

  15. Contingency Contracting within the Department of Defense: A Comparative Analysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McMillion, Chester

    2000-01-01

    .... The thesis compares and contrasts the regulations governing the contingency contracting operations, the organization structure, contingency contracting support plans, and the training requirements...

  16. Historical Contingency in Controlled Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuster, Peter

    2014-12-01

    A basic question in evolution is dealing with the nature of an evolutionary memory. At thermodynamic equilibrium, at stable stationary states or other stable attractors the memory on the path leading to the long-time solution is erased, at least in part. Similar arguments hold for unique optima. Optimality in biology is discussed on the basis of microbial metabolism. Biology, on the other hand, is characterized by historical contingency, which has recently become accessible to experimental test in bacterial populations evolving under controlled conditions. Computer simulations give additional insight into the nature of the evolutionary memory, which is ultimately caused by the enormous space of possibilities that is so large that it escapes all attempts of visualization. In essence, this contribution is dealing with two questions of current evolutionary theory: (i) Are organisms operating at optimal performance? and (ii) How is the evolutionary memory built up in populations?

  17. The Neural Foundations of Reaction and Action in Aversive Motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campese, Vincent D; Sears, Robert M; Moscarello, Justin M; Diaz-Mataix, Lorenzo; Cain, Christopher K; LeDoux, Joseph E

    2016-01-01

    Much of the early research in aversive learning concerned motivation and reinforcement in avoidance conditioning and related paradigms. When the field transitioned toward the focus on Pavlovian threat conditioning in isolation, this paved the way for the clear understanding of the psychological principles and neural and molecular mechanisms responsible for this type of learning and memory that has unfolded over recent decades. Currently, avoidance conditioning is being revisited, and with what has been learned about associative aversive learning, rapid progress is being made. We review, below, the literature on the neural substrates critical for learning in instrumental active avoidance tasks and conditioned aversive motivation.

  18. Equilibria of perceptrons for simple contingency problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Michael R W; Dupuis, Brian

    2012-08-01

    The contingency between cues and outcomes is fundamentally important to theories of causal reasoning and to theories of associative learning. Researchers have computed the equilibria of Rescorla-Wagner models for a variety of contingency problems, and have used these equilibria to identify situations in which the Rescorla-Wagner model is consistent, or inconsistent, with normative models of contingency. Mathematical analyses that directly compare artificial neural networks to contingency theory have not been performed, because of the assumed equivalence between the Rescorla-Wagner learning rule and the delta rule training of artificial neural networks. However, recent results indicate that this equivalence is not as straightforward as typically assumed, suggesting a strong need for mathematical accounts of how networks deal with contingency problems. One such analysis is presented here, where it is proven that the structure of the equilibrium for a simple network trained on a basic contingency problem is quite different from the structure of the equilibrium for a Rescorla-Wagner model faced with the same problem. However, these structural differences lead to functionally equivalent behavior. The implications of this result for the relationships between associative learning, contingency theory, and connectionism are discussed.

  19. ACCOUNTING FOR CONTINGENT CONSIDERATIONS IN BUSINESS COMBINATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurgen KALASHYAN

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available According to IFRS 3 Business Combinations contingent considerations must be included in the total consideration given for the acquired entity along with cash, other assets, ordinary or preference equity instruments, options, warrants. The contingent consideration is the determined amount which acquiring entity has to pay to acquired entity provided, that certain conditions will be fulfilled in the future. In case the provisions are not satisfied, we will get the situation when the amount of contingent consideration has been included in the total consideration given in the business combination, but in fact, the acquirer has not paid that amount. In its turn, the acquired entity will recognize the contingent consideration as a financial asset according to IFRS 9 Financial Instruments. In that case, it would be appropriately to recognize the contingent consideration as a contingent asset applying IAS 37. In the Article the author will explore the challenges of contingent consideration accounting and suggest the ways of solving the above mentioned problems.

  20. The Political Man and Contingent Valuation: Motives Do Count

    OpenAIRE

    Karine Nyborg

    1996-01-01

    In addition to his role as a consumer pursuing his own interests, an individual may also regard himself as an ethical observer, judging matters from society's point of view. It is not clear which of these possibly conflicting roles respondents in contingent valuation studies take on. This leads to ambiguities in the interpretation of reported willingness to pay. I formalize this problem using a simple model of respondents' behaviour, based on the concept of subjective social welfare functions...

  1. Development of Medical Technology for Contingency Response to Marrow Toxic Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-02-28

    Program HHQ Health History Questionnaire National Marrow Donor Program® N00014-16-1-2020 Development of Medical Technology for Contingency Response to...Report 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) DEC 2015 -November 2017 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Development of Medical Technology for Contingency Response to Marrow...immunobiologic and clinical research activities promote studies to advance the science and technology of HCT to improve outcomes and quality of life for

  2. Risk Aversion and Engagement in the Sharing Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Santana

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The sharing economy is a new online community that has important implications for offline behavior. This study evaluates whether engagement in the sharing economy is associated with an actor’s aversion to risk. Using a web-based survey and a field experiment, we apply an adaptation of Holt and Laury’s (2002 risk lottery game to a representative sample of sharing economy participants. We find that frequency of activity in the sharing economy predicts risk aversion, but only in interaction with satisfaction. While greater satisfaction with sharing economy websites is associated with a decrease in risk aversion, greater frequency of usage is associated with greater risk aversion. This analysis shows the limitations of a static perspective on how risk attitudes relate to participation in the sharing economy.

  3. Ambiguity aversion and household portfolio choice puzzles: Empirical evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimmock, Stephen G; Kouwenberg, Roy; Mitchell, Olivia S; Peijnenburg, Kim

    2016-03-01

    We test the relation between ambiguity aversion and five household portfolio choice puzzles: nonparticipation in equities, low allocations to equity, home-bias, own-company stock ownership, and portfolio under-diversification. In a representative US household survey, we measure ambiguity preferences using custom-designed questions based on Ellsberg urns. As theory predicts, ambiguity aversion is negatively associated with stock market participation, the fraction of financial assets in stocks, and foreign stock ownership, but it is positively related to own-company stock ownership. Conditional on stock ownership, ambiguity aversion is related to portfolio under-diversification, and during the financial crisis, ambiguity-averse respondents were more likely to sell stocks.

  4. Ambiguity aversion and household portfolio choice puzzles: Empirical evidence*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimmock, Stephen G.; Kouwenberg, Roy; Mitchell, Olivia S.; Peijnenburg, Kim

    2017-01-01

    We test the relation between ambiguity aversion and five household portfolio choice puzzles: nonparticipation in equities, low allocations to equity, home-bias, own-company stock ownership, and portfolio under-diversification. In a representative US household survey, we measure ambiguity preferences using custom-designed questions based on Ellsberg urns. As theory predicts, ambiguity aversion is negatively associated with stock market participation, the fraction of financial assets in stocks, and foreign stock ownership, but it is positively related to own-company stock ownership. Conditional on stock ownership, ambiguity aversion is related to portfolio under-diversification, and during the financial crisis, ambiguity-averse respondents were more likely to sell stocks. PMID:28458446

  5. Extinction of Aversive Classically Conditioned Human Sexual Response

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brom, M.; Laan, E.; Everaerd, W.; Spinhoven, P.; Both, S.

    INTRODUCTION: Research has shown that acquired subjective likes and dislikes are quite resistant to extinction. Moreover, studies on female sexual response demonstrated that diminished genital arousal and positive affect toward erotic stimuli due to aversive classical conditioning did not extinguish

  6. Myopic loss aversion: Potential causes of replication failures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Klos

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents two studies on narrow bracketing and myopic loss aversion. The first study shows that the tendency to segregate multiple gambles is eliminated if subjects face a certainty equivalent or a probability equivalent task instead of a binary choice. The second study argues that the behavioral differences previously attributed entirely to myopic loss aversion are partly because long-term return properties are simply easier to grasp if the return information is already provided in the form of long-term returns rather than one-year returns. Both results may be related to recent failures to replicate myopic loss aversion. When the choice situation is structured in such a way that it draws respondents' attention to the final outcome distribution and/or if severe misestimations of long-term returns based on short-term return information are unlikely, behavioral differences consistent with myopic loss aversion are less likely to be observed.

  7. Aversive Techniques and the Doctrine of Least Restrictive Alternative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Lyle E.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Litigation and the issues surrounding the use of behavioral procedures to handicapped persons are reviewed. Attention is directed to the use of aversive techniques, e.g., corporal punishment, electric shock, timeout, and restraint. (SEW)

  8. Contingency awareness shapes acquisition and extinction of emotional responses in a conditioning model of pain-related fear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franziska eLabrenz

    2015-11-01

    CS-. Contingency accuracy predicted variance in the formation of positive responses to safety cues while no predictive value was found for danger cues following acquisition and for neither cue following extinction.Our findings underscore specific roles of learned danger and safety in pain-related acquisition and extinction. Contingency accuracy appears to distinctly impact learned emotional responses to safety and danger cues, supporting aversive learning to occur independently from CS-US awareness. The interplay of cognitive and emotional factors in shaping excitatory and inhibitory pain-related learning may contribute to altered pain processing, underscoring its clinical relevance in chronic pain.

  9. Contingency Awareness Shapes Acquisition and Extinction of Emotional Responses in a Conditioning Model of Pain-Related Fear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labrenz, Franziska; Icenhour, Adriane; Benson, Sven; Elsenbruch, Sigrid

    2015-01-01

    (-). Contingency accuracy predicted variance in the formation of positive responses to safety cues while no predictive value was found for danger cues following acquisition and for neither cue following extinction. Our findings underscore specific roles of learned danger and safety in pain-related acquisition and extinction. Contingency accuracy appears to distinctly impact learned emotional responses to safety and danger cues, supporting aversive learning to occur independently from CS-US awareness. The interplay of cognitive and emotional factors in shaping excitatory and inhibitory pain-related learning may contribute to altered pain processing, underscoring its clinical relevance in chronic pain.

  10. Visual attention and emotional memory: recall of aversive pictures is partially mediated by concurrent task performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pottage, Claire L; Schaefer, Alexandre

    2012-02-01

    The emotional enhancement of memory is often thought to be determined by attention. However, recent evidence using divided attention paradigms suggests that attention does not play a significant role in the formation of memories for aversive pictures. We report a study that investigated this question using a paradigm in which participants had to encode lists of randomly intermixed negative and neutral pictures under conditions of full attention and divided attention followed by a free recall test. Attention was divided by a highly demanding concurrent task tapping visual processing resources. Results showed that the advantage in recall for aversive pictures was still present in the DA condition. However, mediation analyses also revealed that concurrent task performance significantly mediated the emotional enhancement of memory under divided attention. This finding suggests that visual attentional processes play a significant role in the formation of emotional memories. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved

  11. The Role of Risk Aversion in Predicting Individual Behaviours

    OpenAIRE

    Guiso, Luigi; Paiella, Monica

    2004-01-01

    We use household survey data to construct a direct measure of absolute risk aversion based on the maximum price a consumer is willing to pay to buy a risky asset. We relate this measure to a set of consumers’ decisions that in theory should vary with attitude towards risk. We find that elicited risk aversion has considerable predictive power for a number of key household decisions such as choice of occupation, portfolio selection, moving decisions and exposure to chronic diseases in ways cons...

  12. The Role of Risk Aversion in Predicting Individual Behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Monica Paiella; Luigi Guiso

    2004-01-01

    We use household survey data to construct a direct measure of absolute risk aversion based on the maximum price a consumer is willing to pay to buy a risky asset. We relate this measure to a set of consumers' decisions that in theory should vary with attitude towards risk. We find that elicited risk aversion has considerable predictive power for a number of key household decisions such as choice of occupation, portfolio selection, moving decisions and exposure to chronic diseases in ways cons...

  13. Loss Aversion, Team Relocations, and Major League Expansion

    OpenAIRE

    Humphreys, Brad; Zhou, Li

    2014-01-01

    Professional sports teams receive large public subsidies for new facility construction. Empirical research suggests that these subsidies cannot be justified by tangible or intangible economic benefits. We develop a model of bargaining between local governments and teams over subsidies that includes league expansion decisions. The model features loss aversion by fans that captures lost utility when a team leaves a city. The model predicts that teams exploit this loss aversion to extract larger...

  14. Risk Aversion and Sorting into Public Sector Employment

    OpenAIRE

    Pfeifer, Christian

    2008-01-01

    This research note uses two German data sets – the large-scale German Socio-Economic Panel and unique data from own student questionnaires – to analyse the relationship between risk aversion and the choice for public sector employment. Main results are: (1) more risk averse individuals sort into public sector employment, (2) the impact of career specific and unemployment risk attitudes is larger than the impact of general risk attitudes, and (3) risk taking is rewarded with higher wages in th...

  15. On Loss Aversion, Level-1 Reasoning, and Betting

    OpenAIRE

    Ido Erev; Sharon Gilat-Yihyie; Davide Marchiori; Doron Sonsino

    2013-01-01

    Previous research suggests that human reaction to risky opportunities reflects two contradicting biases: Òloss aversion", and Òlimited level of reasoning" that leads to overconfidence. Rejection of attractive gambles is explained by loss aversion, while counterproductive risk seeking is attributed to limited level of reasoning. The current research highlights a shortcoming of this popular (but often implicit) "contradicting biases" assertion. Studies of "negative-sum betting games" reveal hig...

  16. Roles of dopamine neurons in mediating the prediction error in aversive learning in insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terao, Kanta; Mizunami, Makoto

    2017-10-31

    In associative learning in mammals, it is widely accepted that the discrepancy, or error, between actual and predicted reward determines whether learning occurs. The prediction error theory has been proposed to account for the finding of a blocking phenomenon, in which pairing of a stimulus X with an unconditioned stimulus (US) could block subsequent association of a second stimulus Y to the US when the two stimuli were paired in compound with the same US. Evidence for this theory, however, has been imperfect since blocking can also be accounted for by competitive theories. We recently reported blocking in classical conditioning of an odor with water reward in crickets. We also reported an "auto-blocking" phenomenon in appetitive learning, which supported the prediction error theory and rejected alternative theories. The presence of auto-blocking also suggested that octopamine neurons mediate reward prediction error signals. Here we show that blocking and auto-blocking occur in aversive learning to associate an odor with salt water (US) in crickets, and our results suggest that dopamine neurons mediate aversive prediction error signals. We conclude that the prediction error theory is applicable to both appetitive learning and aversive learning in insects.

  17. Lossed in Translation: An Off-the-Shelf Method to Recover Probabilistic Beliefs from Loss-Averse Agents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Offerman, T.; Palley, A.

    2013-01-01

    Although strictly proper rules are designed to truthfully elicit subjective probabilistic beliefs, experimental results have shown that risk aversion causes agents to bias their reports towards the rule's baseline probability of 1/2, and a conservative preference for certain outcomes leads agents

  18. Lossed in translation: an off-the-shelf method to recover probablistic beliefs from loss-averse agents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Offerman, T.; Palley, A.B.

    2016-01-01

    Strictly proper scoring rules are designed to truthfully elicit subjective probabilistic beliefs from risk neutral agents. Previous experimental studies have identified two problems with this method: (i) risk aversion causes agents to bias their reports toward the probability of 1/2 , and (ii) for

  19. Neurocognitive development of risk aversion from early childhood to adulthood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David ePaulsen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Human adults tend to avoid risk. In behavioral economic studies, risk aversion is manifest as a preference for sure gains over uncertain gains. However, children tend to be less averse to risk than adults. Given that many of the brain regions supporting decision making under risk do not reach maturity until late adolescence or beyond it is possible that mature risk-averse behavior may emerge from the development of decision-making circuitry. To explore this hypothesis, we tested 6- to 8-year-old children, 14- to 16-year-old adolescents, and young adults in a risky-decision task during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI data acquisition. We found a number of decision-related brain regions to increase in activation with age during decision making, including areas associated with contextual memory retrieval and the incorporation of prior outcomes into the current decision-making strategy, e.g. insula, hippocampus and amygdala. Further, children who were more risk averse showed increased activation during decision making in vmPFC and ventral striatum. Our findings indicate that the emergence of adult levels of risk aversion co-occurs with the recruitment of regions supporting decision making under risk, including the integration of prior outcomes into current decision-making behavior. This pattern of results suggests that individual differences in the development of risk aversion may reflect differences in the maturation of these neural processes.

  20. Combined Effects of Glucocorticoid and Noradrenergic Activity on Loss Aversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margittai, Zsofia; Nave, Gideon; Van Wingerden, Marijn; Schnitzler, Alfons; Schwabe, Lars; Kalenscher, Tobias

    2018-01-01

    Loss aversion is a well-known behavioral regularity in financial decision making, describing humans' tendency to overweigh losses compared to gains of the same amount. Recent research indicates that stress and associated hormonal changes affect loss aversion, yet the underlying neuroendocrine mechanisms are still poorly understood. Here, we investigated the causal influence of two major stress neuromodulators, cortisol and noradrenaline, on loss aversion during financial decision making. In a double-blind, placebo-controlled between-subject design, we orally administered either the α2-adrenergic antagonist yohimbine (increasing noradrenergic stimulation), hydrocortisone, both substances, or a placebo to healthy young men. We tested the treatments' influence on a financial decision-making task measuring loss aversion and risk attitude. We found that both drugs combined, relative to either drug by itself, reduced loss aversion in the absence of an effect on risk attitude or choice consistency. Our data suggest that concurrent glucocorticoid and noradrenergic activity prompts an alignment of reward- with loss-sensitivity, and thus diminishes loss aversion. Our results have implications for the understanding of the susceptibility to biases in decision making.

  1. Narrative Aversion: Challenges for the Illness Narrative Advocate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrendt, Kathy

    2017-02-01

    Engaging in self-narrative is often touted as a powerful antidote to the bad effects of illness. However, there are various examples of what may broadly be termed "aversion" to illness narrative. I group these into three kinds: aversion to certain types of illness narrative; aversion to illness narrative as a whole; and aversion to illness narrative as an essentially therapeutic endeavor. These aversions can throw into doubt the advantages claimed for the illness narrator, including the key benefits of repair to the damage illness does to identity and life-trajectory. Underlying these alleged benefits are two key presuppositions: that it is the whole of one's life that is narratively unified, and that one's identity is inextricably bound up with narrative. By letting go of these assumptions, illness narrative advocates can respond to the challenges of narrative aversions. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press, on behalf of The Journal of Medicine and Philosophy Inc. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Thinking like a trader selectively reduces individuals' loss aversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokol-Hessner, Peter; Hsu, Ming; Curley, Nina G; Delgado, Mauricio R; Camerer, Colin F; Phelps, Elizabeth A

    2009-03-31

    Research on emotion regulation has focused upon observers' ability to regulate their emotional reaction to stimuli such as affective pictures, but many other aspects of our affective experience are also potentially amenable to intentional cognitive regulation. In the domain of decision-making, recent work has demonstrated a role for emotions in choice, although such work has generally remained agnostic about the specific role of emotion. Combining psychologically-derived cognitive strategies, physiological measurements of arousal, and an economic model of behavior, this study examined changes in choices (specifically, loss aversion) and physiological correlates of behavior as the result of an intentional cognitive regulation strategy. Participants were on average more aroused per dollar to losses relative to gains, as measured with skin conductance response, and the difference in arousal to losses versus gains correlated with behavioral loss aversion across subjects. These results suggest a specific role for arousal responses in loss aversion. Most importantly, the intentional cognitive regulation strategy, which emphasized "perspective-taking," uniquely reduced both behavioral loss aversion and arousal to losses relative to gains, largely by influencing arousal to losses. Our results confirm previous research demonstrating loss aversion while providing new evidence characterizing individual differences and arousal correlates and illustrating the effectiveness of intentional regulation strategies in reducing loss aversion both behaviorally and physiologically.

  3. 40 CFR 265.54 - Amendment of contingency plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Amendment of contingency plan. 265.54... DISPOSAL FACILITIES Contingency Plan and Emergency Procedures § 265.54 Amendment of contingency plan. The contingency plan must be reviewed, and immediately amended, if necessary, whenever: (a) Applicable regulations...

  4. 40 CFR 265.53 - Copies of contingency plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Copies of contingency plan. 265.53... DISPOSAL FACILITIES Contingency Plan and Emergency Procedures § 265.53 Copies of contingency plan. A copy of the contingency plan and all revisions to the plan must be: (a) Maintained at the facility; and (b...

  5. 40 CFR 264.54 - Amendment of contingency plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Amendment of contingency plan. 264.54 Section 264.54 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES... Contingency Plan and Emergency Procedures § 264.54 Amendment of contingency plan. The contingency plan must be...

  6. A methodology to assist in contingency planning for protection of nuclear power plants against land vehicle bombs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    James, J.W.; Goldman, L.A.; Lobner, P.R.; Finn, S.P.; Koch, T.H.; Veatch, J.D.

    1989-04-01

    This report provides a methodology which could be used by operators of licensed nuclear power reactors to address issues related to contingency planning for a land vehicle bomb, should such a threat arise. The methodology presented in this report provides a structured framework for understanding factors to be considered in contingency planning for a land vehicle bomb including: (1) system options available to maintain a safe condition, (2) associated components and equipment, (3) preferred system options for establishing and maintaining a safe shutdown condition, and (4) contingency measures to preserve the preferred system options. Example applications of the methodology for a Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) and Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) are provided along with an example of contingency plan changes necessary for implementation of this methodology, a discussion of some contingency measures that can be used to limit land vehicle access, and a bibliography. 2 refs., 11 figs., 6 tabs

  7. Integrating Structural Health Management with Contingency Control for Wind Turbines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Goebel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Maximizing turbine up-time and reducing maintenance costs are key technology drivers for wind turbine operators. Components within wind turbines are subject to considerable stresses due to unpredictable environmental conditions resulting from rapidly changing local dynamics. In that context, systems health management has the aim to assess the state-of-health of components within a wind turbine, to estimate remaining life, and to aid in autonomous decision-making to minimize damage to the turbine. Advanced contingency control is one way to enable autonomous decision-making by providing the mechanism to enable safe and efficient turbine operation. The work reported herein explores the integration of condition monitoring of wind turbine blades with contingency control to balance the trade-offs between maintaining system health and energy capture. Results are demonstrated using a high fidelity simulator of a utility-scale wind turbine.

  8. The Corps Engineer Battalion in Contingency Operations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Raymer, James

    2001-01-01

    .... The central research question asks: Is the proposed echelons above division engineer battalion design a better one for active and reserve component corps engineer forces to respond in a contingency...

  9. Fractional-moment CAPM with loss aversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Yahao; Wang Xiaotian; Wu Min

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we present a new fractional-order value function which generalizes the value function of Kahneman and Tversky [Kahneman D, Tversky A. Prospect theory: an analysis of decision under risk. Econometrica 1979;47:263-91; Tversky A, Kahneman D. Advances in prospect theory: cumulative representation of uncertainty. J. Risk Uncertainty 1992;4:297-323], and give the corresponding fractional-moment versions of CAPM in the cases of both the prospect theory [Kahneman D, Tversky A. Prospect theory: an analysis of decision under risk. Econometrica 1979;47:263-91; Tversky A, Kahneman D. Advances in prospect theory: cumulative representation of uncertainty. J. Risk Uncertainty 1992;4:297-323] and the expected utility model. The models that we obtain can be used to price assets when asset return distributions are likely to be asymmetric stable Levy distribution during panics and stampedes in worldwide security markets in 2008. In particular, from the prospect theory we get the following fractional-moment CAPM with loss aversion: E(R i -R 0 )=(E[(W-W 0 ) + -0.12 (R i -R 0 )]+2.25E[(W 0 -W) + -0.12 (R i -R 0 )])/ (E[(W-W 0 ) + -0.12 (W-R 0 )]+2.25E[(W 0 -W) + -0.12 (W-R 0 )]) .E(W-R 0 ), where W 0 is a fixed reference point distinguishing between losses and gains.

  10. Motivation versus aversive processing during perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padmala, Srikanth; Pessoa, Luiz

    2014-06-01

    Reward facilitates performance and boosts cognitive performance across many tasks. At the same time, negative affective stimuli interfere with performance when they are not relevant to the task at hand. Yet, the investigation of how reward and negative stimuli impact perception and cognition has taken place in a manner that is largely independent of each other. How reward and negative emotion simultaneously contribute to behavioral performance is currently poorly understood. The aim of the present study was to investigate how the simultaneous manipulation of positive motivational processing (here manipulated via reward) and aversive processing (here manipulated via negative picture viewing) influence behavior during a perceptual task. We tested 2 competing hypotheses about the impact of reward on negative picture viewing. On the one hand, suggestions about the automaticity of emotional processing predict that negative picture interference would be relatively immune to reward. On the other, if affective visual processing is not obligatory, as we have argued in the past, reward may counteract the deleterious effect of more potent negative pictures. We found that reward counteracted the effect of potent, negative distracters during a visual discrimination task. Thus, when sufficiently motivated, participants were able to reduce the deleterious impact of bodily mutilation stimuli.

  11. Using contingency management procedures to reduce at-risk drinking in heavy drinkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dougherty, Donald M; Lake, Sarah L; Hill-Kapturczak, Nathalie; Liang, Yuanyuan; Karns, Tara E; Mullen, Jillian; Roache, John D

    2015-04-01

    Treatments for alcohol use disorders typically have been abstinence based, but harm reduction approaches that encourage drinkers to alter their drinking behavior to reduce the probability of alcohol-related consequences, have gained in popularity. This study used a contingency management procedure to determine its effectiveness in reducing alcohol consumption among heavy drinkers. Eighty-two nontreatment-seeking heavy drinkers (ages 21 to 54, M = 30.20) who did not meet diagnostic criteria for alcohol dependence participated in the study. The study had 3 phases: (i) an Observation phase (4 weeks) where participants drank normally; (ii) a Contingency Management phase (12 weeks) where participants were paid $50 weekly for not exceeding low levels of alcohol consumption as measured by transdermal alcohol concentrations, contingencies were removed. Transdermal alcohol monitors were used to verify meeting contingency requirements; all other analyses were conducted on self-reported alcohol use. On average 42.3% of participants met the contingency criteria and were paid an average of $222 during the Contingency Management phase, with an average $1,998 in total compensation throughout the study. Compared to the Observation phase, the percent of any self-reported drinking days significantly decreased from 59.9 to 40.0% in the Contingency Management and 32.0% in the Follow-up phases. The percent of self-reported heavy drinking days reported also significantly decreased from 42.4% in the Observation phase to 19.7% in the Contingency Management phase, which was accompanied by a significant increase in percent days of self-reported no (from 40.1 to 60.0%) and low-level drinking (from 9.9 to 15.4%). Self-reported reductions in drinking either persisted, or became more pronounced, during the Follow-up phase. Contingency management was associated with a reduction in self-reported episodes of heavy drinking among nontreatment-seeking heavy drinkers. These effects persisted even

  12. Strategy as Mutually Contingent Choice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil Martin

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Thomas Schelling’s The Strategy of Conflict carries significant behavioral implications which have been overlooked by economic readers. I argue that these implications are central to Schelling’s vision of game theory, that they fit well with recent advances in experimental psychology and behavioral economics, and provide a comprehensive framework that can inform research on strategy. In my view, Schelling develops a non-mathematical approach to strategy which anticipates on Gigerenzer and Selten’s “ecological rationality” program. This approach maps the processes involved in strategic reasoning and highlights their reliance on the particular information structure of interactive social environments. Building on this approach, I model strategy as a heuristic form of reasoning that governs the way in which individuals search for and provide cues in situations of mutually contingent choice. I conclude by examining how the reference to ecological rationality can help clarify Schelling’s contribution to game theory and outline potential avenues of research into strategic reasoning and interaction.

  13. Effects of contingent self-esteem on depressive symptoms and suicidal behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakey, Chad E; Hirsch, Jameson K; Nelson, Lyndsay A; Nsamenang, Sheri A

    2014-01-01

    Contingent self-esteem, or self-worth hinged upon successfully meeting standards or attaining goals, requires continual maintenance and validation. Despite the inherent instability that accompanies contingent self-esteem, relatively little is known about how it relates to markers of mental health. A sample of 371 college students completed measures of self-esteem, contingent self-esteem, suicidal behaviors, and depression. Individuals with fragile low self-esteem, described as highly contingent, reported greater depressive symptoms and suicidal behavior. Among those with secure high self-esteem, or high yet noncontingent, depression and suicide risk were markedly lower. Therapeutically promoting positive but noncontingent self-worth may reduce poor mental health outcomes.

  14. Probabilistic real-time contingency ranking method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mijuskovic, N.A.; Stojnic, D.

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes a real-time contingency method based on a probabilistic index-expected energy not supplied. This way it is possible to take into account the stochastic nature of the electric power system equipment outages. This approach enables more comprehensive ranking of contingencies and it is possible to form reliability cost values that can form the basis for hourly spot price calculations. The electric power system of Serbia is used as an example for the method proposed. (author)

  15. ACCOUNTING FOR CONTINGENT CONSIDERATIONS IN BUSINESS COMBINATIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Gurgen KALASHYAN

    2017-01-01

    According to IFRS 3 Business Combinations contingent considerations must be included in the total consideration given for the acquired entity along with cash, other assets, ordinary or preference equity instruments, options, warrants. The contingent consideration is the determined amount which acquiring entity has to pay to acquired entity provided, that certain conditions will be fulfilled in the future. In case the provisions are not satisfied, we will get the situation when the amount of c...

  16. The Contingent Value of Organizational Integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virpi Turkulainen

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available We elaborate the link between organizational design and effectiveness by examining organizational integration and performance in the context of modern manufacturing. Through careful contextualization and empirical analysis of 266 manufacturing organizations in three industries and nine countries, we uncover a joint effect of integration and complexity on organizational effectiveness. The results extend structural contingency theory, in particular the mechanisms that link organizational integration to organizational effectiveness. We conclude by discussing the continuing relevance of structural contingency theory.

  17. Gaze-Contingent Music Reward Therapy for Social Anxiety Disorder: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazarov, Amit; Pine, Daniel S; Bar-Haim, Yair

    2017-07-01

    Patients with social anxiety disorder exhibit increased attentional dwelling on social threats, providing a viable target for therapeutics. This randomized controlled trial examined the efficacy of a novel gaze-contingent music reward therapy for social anxiety disorder designed to reduce attention dwelling on threats. Forty patients with social anxiety disorder were randomly assigned to eight sessions of either gaze-contingent music reward therapy, designed to divert patients' gaze toward neutral stimuli rather than threat stimuli, or to a control condition. Clinician and self-report measures of social anxiety were acquired pretreatment, posttreatment, and at 3-month follow-up. Dwell time on socially threatening faces was assessed during the training sessions and at pre- and posttreatment. Gaze-contingent music reward therapy yielded greater reductions of symptoms of social anxiety disorder than the control condition on both clinician-rated and self-reported measures. Therapeutic effects were maintained at follow-up. Gaze-contingent music reward therapy, but not the control condition, also reduced dwell time on threat, which partially mediated clinical effects. Finally, gaze-contingent music reward therapy, but not the control condition, also altered dwell time on socially threatening faces not used in training, reflecting near-transfer training generalization. This is the first randomized controlled trial to examine a gaze-contingent intervention in social anxiety disorder. The results demonstrate target engagement and clinical effects. This study sets the stage for larger randomized controlled trials and testing in other emotional disorders.

  18. Loss aversion and hypoxia: less loss aversion in oxygen-depleted environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pighin, Stefania; Bonini, Nicolao; Savadori, Lucia; Hadjichristidis, Constantinos; Schena, Federico

    2014-03-01

    Hypoxia, the deprivation of adequate oxygen supply, constitutes a direct threat to survival by disrupting cardiovascular or respiratory homeostasis and eliciting a respiratory distress. Although hypoxia has been shown to increase brain vulnerability and impair basic cognitive functions, only one study has examined its effect on decision-making. The present study examined the effect of mild hypoxia on individual's loss aversion, that is, the tendency to be more affected by losses than equal sized gains. A sample of 26 participants were asked to either accept or reject a series of mixed gambles once in an oxygen-depleted environment (14.1% oxygen concentration) and once in a normoxic environment (20.9% oxygen concentration). Each gamble involved a 50-50 chance of winning or losing specified amounts of money. Mild hypoxia decreased loss aversion: on average in the normoxic condition participants accepted gambles if the gain was at least 2.4 times as large as the loss, whereas in the oxygen-depleted condition participants accepted gambles if the gain was at least 1.7 times as large as the loss. Mild hypoxia may push individuals to be less cautious in daily decisions that involve a trade-off between a gain and a loss.

  19. Long-term aversive taste memory requires insular and amygdala protein degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Ortiz, Carlos J; Balderas, Israela; Saucedo-Alquicira, Fernando; Cruz-Castañeda, Paulina; Bermudez-Rattoni, Federico

    2011-03-01

    Some reports have shown that the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) is necessary to degrade repressor factors to produce new proteins essential to memory consolidation. Furthermore, recent evidence suggests that memory updating also relies on protein degradation through the UPS. To evaluate whether degradation of proteins is part of the cellular events needed for long-term storage of taste aversion, we injected lactacystin--an UPS inhibitor--into the amygdala and/or insular cortex 30 min before the first or second training trials. The results revealed that degradation of proteins in either the amygdala or insular cortex suffices for long-term stabilization of first-time encounter taste aversion. On the other hand, lactacystin applied in the insula, but not in the amygdala, before the second training prevented long-term storage of updated information. Our results support that degradation of proteins by means of the UPS is required every time taste aversion is to be stored in long-term memory. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. The strength of aversive and appetitive associations and maladaptive behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itzhak, Yossef; Perez-Lanza, Daniel; Liddie, Shervin

    2014-08-01

    Certain maladaptive behaviors are thought to be acquired through classical Pavlovian conditioning. Exaggerated fear response, which can develop through Pavlovian conditioning, is associated with acquired anxiety disorders such as post-traumatic stress disorders (PTSDs). Inflated reward-seeking behavior, which develops through Pavlovian conditioning, underlies some types of addictive behavior (e.g., addiction to drugs, food, and gambling). These maladaptive behaviors are dependent on associative learning and the development of long-term memory (LTM). In animal models, an aversive reinforcer (fear conditioning) encodes an aversive contextual and cued LTM. On the other hand, an appetitive reinforcer results in conditioned place preference (CPP) that encodes an appetitive contextual LTM. The literature on weak and strong associative learning pertaining to the development of aversive and appetitive LTM is relatively scarce; thus, this review is particularly focused on the strength of associative learning. The strength of associative learning is dependent on the valence of the reinforcer and the salience of the conditioned stimulus that ultimately sways the strength of the memory trace. Our studies suggest that labile (weak) aversive and appetitive LTM may share similar signaling pathways, whereas stable (strong) aversive and appetitive LTM is mediated through different pathways. In addition, we provide some evidence suggesting that extinction of aversive fear memory and appetitive drug memory is likely to be mediated through different signaling molecules. We put forward the importance of studies aimed to investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying the development of weak and strong memories (aversive and appetitive), which would ultimately help in the development of targeted pharmacotherapies for the management of maladaptive behaviors that arise from classical Pavlovian conditioning. © 2014 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  1. ACCRUAL OF LIABILITIES AND CONTINGENT ASSETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Ilie

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available International Financial Reporting Standards together with Public Sector Accounting Standards are based on professional reasoning by appealing to principles that can lead to several solutions for a certain problem. In this respect Romanian economic mechanisms have a high level of rigidity in the implementation of accounting concepts and principles so that it is important to highlight the aspects that generate added value in the current economic climate. Even since 2005 the harmonization of Romanian accounting with the directives of International Accounting Standards, which came to support the harmonization of rules and principles concerning the development of annual financial statements of public institutions, is the most important and essential challenge for administrative environment. Assets and contingent liabilities are elements which in terms of the law cannot be included in the assets of a public institution that is why accounting of these elements must be performed using special off-balance sheet accounts. The purpose of this work emphasizes the opportunity and the recognition of economic events whose elements should be reflected in balance sheet, but also the appropriate and necessary moment of making entries over special accounts off the balance sheet in accordance with IPSAS 19.

  2. The influence of loss aversion on mountain bikers' behavioral intentions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purrington, Andrew; Zinn, Harry

    2011-09-01

    Public involvement in management decision making has received increased attention from researchers in recent years. These studies, however, have rarely considered differences in behavior resulting from gains and losses, despite ample evidence that individuals' behavior is not the same across situations. Individuals are often more sensitive to losses than gains, which research suggests is related to ownership (real or perceived) of the item lost. We present evidence from a within-subjects quasi-experimental design to test whether mountain bikers' reported intentions differ between gain based and loss based conditions. These data were analyzed using a multi-step repeated measures analysis of variance and repeated measures analysis of covariance. The results suggest that losses are more powerful than gains in motivating public engagement in management decision making. Further, the type of action was also shown to influence behavioral intentions. Additional analyses provide support to the claim that, centrality, used as a proximate measure of ownership, moderates the contextual effects on behavioral intentions. Thus, loss aversion, moderated by ownership, is a plausible explanation of stakeholder involvement.

  3. Fractional-moment CAPM with loss aversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu Yahao [Dep. of Math., South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Wang Xiaotian [Dep. of Math., South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640 (China)], E-mail: swa001@126.com; Wu Min [Dep. of Math., South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640 (China)

    2009-11-15

    In this paper, we present a new fractional-order value function which generalizes the value function of Kahneman and Tversky [Kahneman D, Tversky A. Prospect theory: an analysis of decision under risk. Econometrica 1979;47:263-91; Tversky A, Kahneman D. Advances in prospect theory: cumulative representation of uncertainty. J. Risk Uncertainty 1992;4:297-323], and give the corresponding fractional-moment versions of CAPM in the cases of both the prospect theory [Kahneman D, Tversky A. Prospect theory: an analysis of decision under risk. Econometrica 1979;47:263-91; Tversky A, Kahneman D. Advances in prospect theory: cumulative representation of uncertainty. J. Risk Uncertainty 1992;4:297-323] and the expected utility model. The models that we obtain can be used to price assets when asset return distributions are likely to be asymmetric stable Levy distribution during panics and stampedes in worldwide security markets in 2008. In particular, from the prospect theory we get the following fractional-moment CAPM with loss aversion: E(R{sub i}-R{sub 0})=(E[(W-W{sub 0}){sub +}{sup -0.12}(R{sub i}-R{sub 0})]+2.25E[(W{sub 0}-W){sub +}{sup -0.12}(R{sub i}-R{sub 0})])/ (E[(W-W{sub 0}){sub +}{sup -0.12} (W-R{sub 0})]+2.25E[(W{sub 0}-W){sub +}{sup -0.12}(W-R{sub 0})]) .E(W-R{sub 0}), where W{sub 0} is a fixed reference point distinguishing between losses and gains.

  4. The Neurobiological Mechanism of Chemical Aversion (Emetic Therapy for Alcohol Use Disorder: An fMRI Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralph L. Elkins

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available A recent NIH epidemiology study found the lifetime prevalence of alcohol use disorder in the United States to be 29%. Alcohol drinking behavior is strongly “learned” via pleasure center activation/reinforcement. Alcohol craving is a powerful desire to drink alcoholic beverages. Craving was added as one of the defining criteria for alcohol use disorder in DSM5, and craving reduction is becoming an increasingly important treatment goal. In the current study, patients with alcohol use disorder received 10 days of inpatient multi-modal treatments at Schick Shadel Hospital (SSH of Seattle. The treatments included five chemical aversion conditioning sessions that associated alcohol cues (and alcohol with nausea and emesis. All patients met DSM4 criteria for alcohol use disorder, were heavy drinkers, and reported craving alcohol pre-treatment. Craving reduction was one of the primary treatment goals. This is the first fMRI study to measure the effects of chemical aversion therapy on alcohol craving-related brain activity. Patients were recruited as subjects for the University of Washington (UW brain scan study following SSH admission but before treatment onset. Prior to treatment, patients reported craving/desire for alcohol. After treatment (after four SSH chemical aversion treatments, again after five SSH chemical treatments, 30 and 90-days post-discharge, these same patients reported avoidance/aversion to alcohol. Most of the participants (69% reported being still sober 12 months post-treatment. Consistent with a craving reduction mechanism of how chemical aversion therapy facilitates sobriety, results of the UW fMRI brain scans showed significant pre- to post-treatment reductions in craving-related brain activity in the occipital cortex. Additional fMRI brain scan studies are needed to further explore the neurobiological mechanism of chemical aversion therapy treatment for alcohol use disorder, and other substance use disorders for which

  5. Problems with Contingency Theory: Testing Assumptions Hidden within the Language of Contingency "Theory".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoonhoven, Clausia Bird

    1981-01-01

    Discusses problems in contingency theory, which relates organizational structure to the tasks performed and the information needed. Analysis of data from 17 hospitals suggests that traditional contingency theory underrepresents the complexity of relations among technological uncertainty, structure, and organizational effectiveness. (Author/RW)

  6. Optimal self-esteem is contingent: Intrinsic versus extrinsic and upward versus downward contingencies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vonk, R.; Smit, H.M.M.

    2012-01-01

    We argue that noncontingent, unconditional self-esteem is not optimal but defensive. We introduce the concept of intrinsic contingency, where self-esteem is affected by whether one's actions are self-congruent and conducive to personal growth. Whereas external contingencies, especially social and

  7. Contingency Contractor Optimization Phase 3 Sustainment Software Design Document - Contingency Contractor Optimization Tool - Prototype

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durfee, Justin David; Frazier, Christopher Rawls; Bandlow, Alisa; Jones, Katherine A

    2016-05-01

    This document describes the final software design of the Contingency Contractor Optimization Tool - Prototype. Its purpose is to provide the overall architecture of the software and the logic behind this architecture. Documentation for the individual classes is provided in the application Javadoc. The Contingency Contractor Optimization project is intended to address Department of Defense mandates by delivering a centralized strategic planning tool that allows senior decision makers to quickly and accurately assess the impacts, risks, and mitigation strategies associated with utilizing contract support. The Contingency Contractor Optimization Tool - Prototype was developed in Phase 3 of the OSD ATL Contingency Contractor Optimization project to support strategic planning for contingency contractors. The planning tool uses a model to optimize the Total Force mix by minimizing the combined total costs for selected mission scenarios. The model optimizes the match of personnel types (military, DoD civilian, and contractors) and capabilities to meet mission requirements as effectively as possible, based on risk, cost, and other requirements.

  8. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE TASK AVERSIVENESS AND ACADEMIC PROCRASTINATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magvirasari Lestari Linra

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Academic procrastination occurs when certain tasks are considered unpleasant, an unpleasant task and the usual delayed them is the task of writing, reading, studying for the exam, meetings, and administrative. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship of the task aversiveness with academic procrastination. Subject of the study were 100 students out of a population of 516 students of the Faculty of Psychology class of 2012-2014. The method used in this research is quantitative by using Spearman rho as data analysis techniques. The research instrument consists of academic procrastination scale and the scale of the task aversiveness. Based on the results of correlation is known that there is a positive relationship between task aversiveness with academic procrastination with a correlation coefficient r = 0.508; p = 0.000. The results showed that of the 100 students of the Faculty of Psychology University of Makassar has a degree of relationship between task aversiveness with academic procrastination is on the very low category (25, 8%. Area / types of tasks delayed is not necessarily an unpleasant task and otherwise unpleasant task may not be postponed. Area task the highest level of aversive and delays are areas the task of writing and reading. This study illustrates that academic procrastination can be lowered by a change in the mindset of an unpleasant task.

  9. Aversive counterconditioning attenuates reward signalling in the ventral striatum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Marije Kaag

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Appetitive conditioning refers to the process of learning cue-reward associations and is mediated by the mesocorticolimbic system. Appetitive conditioned responses are difficult to extinguish, especially for highly salient rewards such as food and drugs. We investigate whether aversive counterconditioning can alter reward reinstatement in the ventral striatum in healthy volunteers using functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI. In the initial conditioning phase, two different stimuli were reinforced with a monetary reward. In the subsequent counterconditioning phase, one of these stimuli was paired with an aversive shock to the wrist. In the following extinction phase, none of the stimuli were reinforced. In the final reinstatement phase, reward was reinstated by informing the participants that the monetary gain could be doubled. Our fMRI data revealed that reward signalling in the ventral striatum and ventral tegmental area following reinstatement was smaller for the stimulus that was counterconditioned with an electrical shock, compared to the non-counterconditioned stimulus. A functional connectivity analysis showed that aversive counterconditioning strengthened striatal connectivity with the hippocampus and insula. These results suggest that reward signalling in the ventral striatum can be attenuated through aversive counterconditioning, possibly by concurrent retrieval of the aversive association through enhanced connectivity with hippocampus and insula.

  10. Narp regulates long-term aversive effects of morphine withdrawal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reti, Irving M.; Crombag, Hans S.; Takamiya, Kogo; Sutton, Jeffrey M.; Guo, Ning; Dinenna, Megan L.; Huganir, Richard L.; Holland, Peter C.; Baraban, Jay M.

    2008-01-01

    Although long-lasting effects of drug withdrawal are thought to play a key role in motivating continued drug use, the mechanisms mediating this type of drug-induced plasticity are unclear. As Narp is an immediate early gene product that is secreted at synaptic sites and binds to AMPA receptors, it has been implicated in mediating enduring forms of synaptic plasticity. In previous studies, we found that Narp is selectively induced by morphine withdrawal in the extended amygdala, a group of limbic nuclei that mediate aversive behavioral responses. Accordingly, in this study, we evaluated whether long-term aversive effects of morphine withdrawal are altered in Narp KO mice. We found that acute physical signs of morphine withdrawal are unaffected by Narp deletion. However, Narp KO mice acquire and sustain more aversive responses to the environment conditioned with morphine withdrawal than WT controls. Paradoxically, Narp KO mice undergo accelerated extinction of this heightened aversive response. Taken together, these studies suggest that Narp modulates both acquisition and extinction of aversive responses to morphine withdrawal and, therefore, may regulate plasticity processes underlying drug addiction. PMID:18729628

  11. Risk-Averse Newsvendor Model with Strategic Consumer Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tie Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The classic newsvendor problem focuses on maximizing the expected profit or minimizing the expected cost when the newsvendor faces myopic customers. However, it ignores the customer’s bargain-hunting behavior and risk preference measure of the newsvendor. As a result, we carry out the rational expectation (RE equilibrium analysis for risk-averse newsvendor facing forward-looking customers who anticipate future sales and choose purchasing timing to maximize their expected surplus. We propose the equations satisfied by the RE equilibrium price and quantity for the risk-averse retailer in general setting and the explicit equilibrium decisions for the case where demand follows the uniform distribution and utility is a general power function. We identify the impacts of the system parameters on the RE equilibrium for this specific situation. In particular, we show that the RE equilibrium price for some risk-averse newsvendors is lower than for a risk-neutral retailer and the RE equilibrium stocking quantity for some risk-averse newsvendors is higher than for a risk-neutral retailer. We also find that the RE equilibrium sale price for a risk-averse newsvendor is decreasing in salvage price in some situations.

  12. Differences in risk aversion between young and older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert SM

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Steven M Albert1, John Duffy21Department of Behavioral and Community Health Sciences, 2Department of Economics, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, USAAbstract: Research on decision-making strategies among younger and older adults suggests that older adults may be more risk averse than younger people in the case of potential losses. These results mostly come from experimental studies involving gambling paradigms. Since these paradigms involve substantial demands on memory and learning, differences in risk aversion or other features of decision making attributed to age may in fact reflect age-related declines in cognitive abilities. In the current study, older and younger adults completed a simpler, paired lottery choice task used in the experimental economics literature to elicit risk aversion. A similar approach was used to elicit participants' discount rates. The older adult group was more risk averse than the younger (P < 0.05 and had a higher discount rate (15.6%–21.0% versus 10.3%–15.5%, P < 0.01, indicating lower expected utility from future income. Risk aversion and implied discount rates were weakly correlated. It may be valuable to investigate developmental changes in neural correlates of decision making across the lifespan.Keywords: aging, decision making, risk, time preference, behavioral economics

  13. Searching for Plausible N-k Contingencies Endangering Voltage Stability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weckesser, Johannes Tilman Gabriel; Van Cutsem, Thierry

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a novel search algorithm using time-domain simulations to identify plausible N − k contingencies endangering voltage stability. Starting from an initial list of disturbances, progressively more severe contingencies are investigated. After simulation of a N − k contingency......, the simulation results are assessed. If the system response is unstable, a plausible harmful contingency sequence has been found. Otherwise, components affected by the contingencies are considered as candidate next event leading to N − (k + 1) contingencies. This implicitly takes into account hidden failures...

  14. Increased dopaminergic signaling impairs aversive olfactory memory retention in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shixing; Yin, Yan; Lu, Huimin; Guo, Aike

    2008-05-23

    Dopamine is necessary for the aversive olfactory associative memory formation in Drosophila, but its effect on other stages of memory is not known. Herein, we studied the effect of enhanced dopaminergic signaling on aversive olfactory memory retention in flies. We used l-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (l-DOPA) to elevate dopamine levels: l-DOPA-treated flies exhibited a normal learning performance, but a decrease in 1-h memory. Dopamine transporter (DAT) mutant flies or flies treated with the DAT inhibitor desipramine exhibited poor memory retention. Flies subjected to heat stress after training exhibited a decrease in memory. Memory was restored by blocking dopaminergic neuronal output during heat stress, suggesting that dopamine is involved in heat stress-induced memory impairment in flies. Taken together, our findings suggest that increased dopaminergic signaling impairs aversive olfactory memory retention in flies.

  15. Gender Differences in Risk Aversion Among Chinese University Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Desmond

    2015-12-01

    This paper examines gender differences in risk aversion among Chinese university students. Chinese females are proposed to be more risk averse and require a higher risk premium when faced with a gamble option in the gain-domain frame as compared to Chinese males. Two groups of 100 participants each (male = 100 and female = 100 in total) were recruited to fill up questionnaires that included items relating to objective probability lotteries. Within each group, it was found that Chinese males and females did not differ in their risk aversion. However, results show that Chinese males tend to react more readily to rising risk premium by taking up options with higher expected values when compared to Chinese females. Current findings will have useful implications to marketers (particularly, promoters of gambling products) and problem gambling counselors.

  16. Human capital and risk aversion in relational incentive contracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kvaloey, Ola

    2003-01-01

    This paper examines a self-enforced relational incentive contract between a risk neutral principal and a risk averse agent where the agent's human capital is essential in ex post realization of values. I analyse the effect of outside options on the optimal bonus level, showing how the presence of ex post outside options may impede desirable degrees of performance pay. The effect of risk aversion and incentive responsiveness is analysed by allowing for linear contracts. I show that the first order effect of these parameters are the same as in verifiable contracts, but second order effects show that the optimal bonus level's sensitivity to risk aversion and incentive responsiveness increases with the discount factor. The analysis has interesting implications on firm boundaries and specificity choices. (author)

  17. The risks of risk aversion in drug regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichler, Hans-Georg; Bloechl-Daum, Brigitte; Brasseur, Daniel; Breckenridge, Alasdair; Leufkens, Hubert; Raine, June; Salmonson, Tomas; Schneider, Christian K; Rasi, Guido

    2013-12-01

    Drugs are approved by regulatory agencies on the basis of their assessment of whether the available evidence indicates that the benefits of the drug outweigh its risks. In recent years, regulatory agencies have been criticized both for being overly tolerant of risks or being excessively risk-averse, which reflects the challenge in determining an appropriate balance between benefit and risk with the limited data that is typically available before drug approval. The negative consequences of regulatory tolerance in allowing drugs onto the market that turn out to be unsafe are obvious, but the potential for adverse effects on public health owing to the absence of new drugs because of regulatory risk-aversion is less apparent. Here, we discuss the consequences of regulatory risk-aversion for public health and suggest what might be done to best align acceptance of risk and uncertainty by regulators with the interests of public health.

  18. Endogenous time-varying risk aversion and asset returns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berardi, Michele

    2016-01-01

    Stylized facts about statistical properties for short horizon returns in financial markets have been identified in the literature, but a satisfactory understanding for their manifestation is yet to be achieved. In this work, we show that a simple asset pricing model with representative agent is able to generate time series of returns that replicate such stylized facts if the risk aversion coefficient is allowed to change endogenously over time in response to unexpected excess returns under evolutionary forces. The same model, under constant risk aversion, would instead generate returns that are essentially Gaussian. We conclude that an endogenous time-varying risk aversion represents a very parsimonious way to make the model match real data on key statistical properties, and therefore deserves careful consideration from economists and practitioners alike.

  19. Amygdala signals subjective appetitiveness and aversiveness of mixed gambles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gelskov, Sofie V.; Henningsson, Susanne; Madsen, Kristoffer Hougaard

    2015-01-01

    People are more sensitive to losses than to equivalent gains when making financial decisions. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to illuminate how the amygdala contributes to loss aversion. The blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) response of the amygdala was mapped while healthy...... individuals were responding to 50/50 gambles with varying potential gain and loss amounts. Overall, subjects demanded twice as high potential gain as loss to accept a gamble. The individual level of loss aversion was expressed by the decision boundary, i.e., the gain-loss ratio at which subjects accepted...... and rejected gambles with equal probability. Amygdala activity increased the more the gain-loss ratio deviated from the individual decision boundary showing that the amygdala codes action value. This response pattern was more strongly expressed in loss aversive individuals, linking amygdala activity...

  20. Taste aversion memory reconsolidation is independent of its retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Ortiz, Carlos J; Balderas, Israela; Garcia-DeLaTorre, Paola; Bermudez-Rattoni, Federico

    2012-10-01

    Reconsolidation refers to the destabilization/re-stabilization memory process upon its activation. However, the conditions needed to undergo reconsolidation, as well as its functional significance is quite unclear and a matter of intense investigation. Even so, memory retrieval is held as requisite to initiate reconsolidation. Therefore, in the present work we examined whether transient pharmacological disruption of memory retrieval impedes reconsolidation of stored memory in the widely used associative conditioning task, taste aversion. We found that AMPA receptors inhibition in the amygdala impaired retrieval of taste aversion memory. Furthermore, AMPA receptors blockade impeded retrieval regardless of memory strength. However, inhibition of retrieval did not affect anisomycin-mediated disruption of reconsolidation. These results indicate that retrieval is a dispensable condition to undergo reconsolidation and provide evidence of molecular dissociation between retrieval and activation of memory in the non-declarative memory model taste aversion. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Repeatable aversion across threat types is linked with life-history traits but is dependent on how aversion is measured.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Gabrielle L; Reichert, Michael S; Crane, Jodie M S; O'Shea, William; Quinn, John L

    2018-02-01

    Personality research suggests that individual differences in risk aversion may be explained by links with life-history variation. However, few empirical studies examine whether repeatable differences in risk avoidance behaviour covary with life-history traits among individuals in natural populations, or how these links vary depending on the context and the way risk aversion is measured. We measured two different risk avoidance behaviours (latency to enter the nest and inspection time) in wild great tits ( Parus major ) in two different contexts-response to a novel object and to a predator cue placed at the nest-box during incubation---and related these behaviours to female reproductive success and condition. Females responded equally strongly to both stimuli, and although both behaviours were repeatable, they did not correlate. Latency to enter was negatively related to body condition and the number of offspring fledged. By contrast, inspection time was directly explained by whether incubating females had been flushed from the nest before the trial began. Thus, our inferences on the relationship between risk aversion and fitness depend on how risk aversion was measured. Our results highlight the limitations of drawing conclusions about the relevance of single measures of a personality trait such as risk aversion.

  2. Studies on the role of central histamine in the acquisition of a radiation-induced conditioned taste aversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabin, B.M.; Hunt, W.A.; Lee, J.

    1982-01-01

    The experiments described in this report were designed to test two hypotheses about how exposure to low-level radiation can affect the behavior of an organism: first, tht radiation effects on behavior are mediated by a radiation-induced release of histamine; and second, that this radiation-induced histamine release can exert relatively direct effects on the central nervous system. The results of the first experiment showed that microinjection of histamine directly into the fourth ventricle of rats produced a taste aversion to a novel sucrose solution. Pretreating rats with intraventricular H 1 or H 2 blockers was not effective in preventing the acquisition of the radiation-induced aversion, although the H 1 blocker did prevent the acquisition of a histamine-induced taste aversion. It also was not possible to establish a cross-tolerance between centrally administered histamine and radiation. The results are interpreted as not supporting the hypothesis that a radiation-induced release of central histamine mediates the acquisition of a conditioned taste aversion following exposure to low-level radiation

  3. Color and Contingency in Robert Boyle's Works.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Tawrin

    2015-01-01

    This essay investigates the relationship between color and contingency in Robert Boyle's Experiments and Considerations Touching Colours (1664) and his essays on the unsuccessfulness of experiments in Certain Physiological Essays (1661). In these two works Boyle wrestles with a difficult practical and philosophical problem with experiments, which he calls the problem of contingency. In Touching Colours, the problem of contingency is magnified by the much-debated issue of whether color had any deep epistemic importance. His limited theoretical principle guiding him in Touching Colours, that color is but modified light, further exacerbated the problem. Rather than theory, Boyle often relied on craftsmen, whose mastery of color phenomena was, Boyle mentions, brought about by economic forces, to determine when colors were indicators of important 'inward' properties of substances, and thus to secure a solid foundation for his experimental history of color.

  4. Equivalence relations and the reinforcement contingency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidman, M

    2000-07-01

    Where do equivalence relations come from? One possible answer is that they arise directly from the reinforcement contingency. That is to say, a reinforcement contingency produces two types of outcome: (a) 2-, 3-, 4-, 5-, or n-term units of analysis that are known, respectively, as operant reinforcement, simple discrimination, conditional discrimination, second-order conditional discrimination, and so on; and (b) equivalence relations that consist of ordered pairs of all positive elements that participate in the contingency. This conception of the origin of equivalence relations leads to a number of new and verifiable ways of conceptualizing equivalence relations and, more generally, the stimulus control of operant behavior. The theory is also capable of experimental disproof.

  5. Neurocognitive development of risk aversion from early childhood to adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulsen, David J; Carter, R McKell; Platt, Michael L; Huettel, Scott A; Brannon, Elizabeth M

    2011-01-01

    Human adults tend to avoid risk. In behavioral economic studies, risk aversion is manifest as a preference for sure gains over uncertain gains. However, children tend to be less averse to risk than adults. Given that many of the brain regions supporting decision-making under risk do not reach maturity until late adolescence or beyond it is possible that mature risk-averse behavior may emerge from the development of decision-making circuitry. To explore this hypothesis, we tested 5- to 8-year-old children, 14- to 16-year-old adolescents, and young adults in a risky-decision task during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data acquisition. To our knowledge, this is the youngest sample of children in an fMRI decision-making task. We found a number of decision-related brain regions to increase in activation with age during decision-making, including areas associated with contextual memory retrieval and the incorporation of prior outcomes into the current decision-making strategy, e.g., insula, hippocampus, and amygdala. Further, children who were more risk-averse showed increased activation during decision-making in ventromedial prefrontal cortex and ventral striatum. Our findings indicate that the emergence of adult levels of risk aversion co-occurs with the recruitment of regions supporting decision-making under risk, including the integration of prior outcomes into current decision-making behavior. This pattern of results suggests that individual differences in the development of risk aversion may reflect differences in the maturation of these neural processes.

  6. THE ROLE OF RISK AVERSION IN PREDICTING INDIVIDUAL BEHAVIOR

    OpenAIRE

    Luigi Guiso; Monica Paiella

    2005-01-01

    We use household survey data to construct a direct measure of absolute risk aversion based on the maximum price a consumer is willing to pay to buy a risky asset. We relate this measure to a set of consumers� decisions that in theory should vary with attitude towards risk. We find that elicited risk aversion has considerable predictive power for a number of key household decisions such as choice of occupation, portfolio selection, moving decisions and exposure to chronic diseases in ways co...

  7. Heterogenous Intertemporal Elasticity of Substitution and Relative Risk Aversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khorunzhina, Natalia; Gayle, Wayne-Roy

    This paper investigates the existence and degree of variation across house holds and over time in the intertemporal elasticity of substitution (IES) and the coefficient of relative risk aversion (RRA) that is generated by habit forming preferences. To do so, we develop a new nonlinear GMM estimator...... in food consumption. Using these estimates, we develop bounds for the expectation of the implied heterogenous intertemporal elasticity of substitution and relative risk aversion that account for measurement errors and compute asymptotically valid confidence intervals on these bounds. We find...

  8. Conditioned taste aversion, drugs of abuse and palatability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jian-You; Arthurs, Joe; Reilly, Steve

    2014-09-01

    We consider conditioned taste aversion to involve a learned reduction in the palatability of a taste (and hence in amount consumed) based on the association that develops when a taste experience is followed by gastrointestinal malaise. The present article evaluates the well-established finding that drugs of abuse, at doses that are otherwise considered rewarding and self-administered, cause intake suppression. Our recent work using lick pattern analysis shows that drugs of abuse also cause a palatability downshift and, therefore, support conditioned taste aversion learning. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Loss Aversion and Time-Differentiated Electricity Pricing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spurlock, C. Anna [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2015-06-01

    I develop a model of loss aversion over electricity expenditure, from which I derive testable predictions for household electricity consumption while on combination time-of-use (TOU) and critical peak pricing (CPP) plans. Testing these predictions results in evidence consistent with loss aversion: (1) spillover effects - positive expenditure shocks resulted in significantly more peak consumption reduction for several weeks thereafter; and (2) clustering - disproportionate probability of consuming such that expenditure would be equal between the TOUCPP or standard flat-rate pricing structures. This behavior is inconsistent with a purely neoclassical utility model, and has important implications for application of time-differentiated electricity pricing.

  10. On Loss Aversion, Level-1 Reasoning, and Betting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erev, Ido; Gilat-Yihyie, Sharon; Marchiori, Davide

    2014-01-01

    Previous research suggests that human reaction to risky opportunities reflects two contradicting biases: “loss aversion”, and “limited level of reasoning” that leads to overconfidence. Rejection of attractive gambles is explained by loss aversion, while counterproductive risk seeking is attributed...... to limited level of reasoning. The current research highlights a shortcoming of this popular (but often implicit) “contradicting biases” assertion. Studies of “negative-sum betting games” reveal high rate of counterproductive betting even when limited level of reasoning and loss aversion imply no betting...

  11. Gender differences in financial risk aversion and career choices are affected by testosterone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapienza, Paola; Zingales, Luigi; Maestripieri, Dario

    2009-09-08

    Women are generally more risk averse than men. We investigated whether between- and within-gender variation in financial risk aversion was accounted for by variation in salivary concentrations of testosterone and in markers of prenatal testosterone exposure in a sample of >500 MBA students. Higher levels of circulating testosterone were associated with lower risk aversion among women, but not among men. At comparably low concentrations of salivary testosterone, however, the gender difference in risk aversion disappeared, suggesting that testosterone has nonlinear effects on risk aversion regardless of gender. A similar relationship between risk aversion and testosterone was also found using markers of prenatal testosterone exposure. Finally, both testosterone levels and risk aversion predicted career choices after graduation: Individuals high in testosterone and low in risk aversion were more likely to choose risky careers in finance. These results suggest that testosterone has both organizational and activational effects on risk-sensitive financial decisions and long-term career choices.

  12. Contingency learning in human fear conditioning involves the ventral striatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klucken, Tim; Tabbert, Katharina; Schweckendiek, Jan; Merz, Christian Josef; Kagerer, Sabine; Vaitl, Dieter; Stark, Rudolf

    2009-11-01

    The ability to detect and learn contingencies between fearful stimuli and their predictive cues is an important capacity to cope with the environment. Contingency awareness refers to the ability to verbalize the relationships between conditioned and unconditioned stimuli. Although there is a heated debate about the influence of contingency awareness on conditioned fear responses, neural correlates behind the formation process of contingency awareness have gained only little attention in human fear conditioning. Recent animal studies indicate that the ventral striatum (VS) could be involved in this process, but in human studies the VS is mostly associated with positive emotions. To examine this question, we reanalyzed four recently published classical fear conditioning studies (n = 117) with respect to the VS at three distinct levels of contingency awareness: subjects, who did not learn the contingencies (unaware), subjects, who learned the contingencies during the experiment (learned aware) and subjects, who were informed about the contingencies in advance (instructed aware). The results showed significantly increased activations in the left and right VS in learned aware compared to unaware subjects. Interestingly, this activation pattern was only found in learned but not in instructed aware subjects. We assume that the VS is not involved when contingency awareness does not develop during conditioning or when contingency awareness is unambiguously induced already prior to conditioning. VS involvement seems to be important for the transition from a contingency unaware to a contingency aware state. Implications for fear conditioning models as well as for the contingency awareness debate are discussed.

  13. A contingency table approach to nonparametric testing

    CERN Document Server

    Rayner, JCW

    2000-01-01

    Most texts on nonparametric techniques concentrate on location and linear-linear (correlation) tests, with less emphasis on dispersion effects and linear-quadratic tests. Tests for higher moment effects are virtually ignored. Using a fresh approach, A Contingency Table Approach to Nonparametric Testing unifies and extends the popular, standard tests by linking them to tests based on models for data that can be presented in contingency tables.This approach unifies popular nonparametric statistical inference and makes the traditional, most commonly performed nonparametric analyses much more comp

  14. Estimating state-contingent production functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Svend; Karantininis, Kostas

    The paper reviews the empirical problem of estimating state-contingent production functions. The major problem is that states of nature may not be registered and/or that the number of observation per state is low. Monte Carlo simulation is used to generate an artificial, uncertain production...... environment based on Cobb Douglas production functions with state-contingent parameters. The pa-rameters are subsequently estimated based on different sizes of samples using Generalized Least Squares and Generalized Maximum Entropy and the results are compared. It is concluded that Maximum Entropy may...

  15. The contingent valuation method: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venkatachalam, L.

    2004-01-01

    The contingent valuation method (CVM) is a simple, flexible nonmarket valuation method that is widely used in cost-benefit analysis and environmental impact assessment. However, this method is subject to severe criticism. The criticism revolves mainly around two aspects, namely, the validity and the reliability of the results, and the effects of various biases and errors. The major objective of this paper is to review the recent developments on measures to address the validity and reliability issues arising out of different kinds of biases/errors and other related empirical and methodological issues concerning contingent valuation method

  16. Infection of male rats with Toxoplasma gondii induces effort-aversion in a T-maze decision-making task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Donna; Vyas, Ajai

    2016-03-01

    Rats chronically infected with protozoan Toxoplasma gondii exhibit greater delay aversion in an inter-temporal task. Moreover T. gondii infection also results in dendritic atrophy of basolateral amygdala neurons. Basolateral amygdala is reported to bias decision making towards greater effortful alternatives. In this context, we report that T. gondii increases effort aversion in infected male rats. This host-parasite association has been widely studied in the context of loss of innate fear in the infected males. It is suggested that reduced fear towards predators reflects a parasitic behavioral manipulation to enhance trophic transmission of T. gondii. Observations reported here extend this paradigm away from a monolithic change in fear and towards a multi-dimensional change in decision making. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Analyzing Contingency Contracting Purchases for Operation Iraqi Freedom (Unrestricted Version)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Baldwin, Laura H; Ausink, John A; Campbell, Nancy F; Drew, John G; Roll, Jr, Charles R

    2008-01-01

    ...) in an effort to determine the size and extent of contractor support, and how plans for and the organization and execution of contingency contracting activities might be improved so that Contingency...

  18. Effectiveness evaluation of contingency sum as a risk management ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ethiopian Journal of Environmental Studies and Management ... manage risks prone projects have adopted several methods, one of which is contingency sum. ... initial project cost, cost overrun and percentage allowed for contingency.

  19. 48 CFR 1632.770 - Contingency reserve payments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... FINANCING Contract Funding 1632.770 Contingency reserve payments. (a) Payments from the contingency reserve... advise the carrier of its decision. However, OPM shall not unreasonably withhold approval for amounts...

  20. Onset and Offset of Aversive Events Establish Distinct Memories Requiring Fear and Reward Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreatta, Marta; Fendt, Markus; Muhlberger, Andreas; Wieser, Matthias J.; Imobersteg, Stefan; Yarali, Ayse; Gerber, Bertram; Pauli, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Two things are worth remembering about an aversive event: What made it happen? What made it cease? If a stimulus precedes an aversive event, it becomes a signal for threat and will later elicit behavior indicating conditioned fear. However, if the stimulus is presented upon cessation of the aversive event, it elicits behavior indicating…

  1. A Survey Data Response to the Teaching of Utility Curves and Risk Aversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobbs, Jeffrey; Sharma, Vivek

    2011-01-01

    In many finance and economics courses as well as in practice, the concept of risk aversion is reduced to the standard deviation of returns, whereby risk-averse investors prefer to minimize their portfolios' standard deviations. In reality, the concept of risk aversion is richer and more interesting than this, and can easily be conveyed through…

  2. Memory of conditioned taste aversion is erased by inhibition of PI3K in the insular cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slouzkey, Ilana; Rosenblum, Kobi; Maroun, Mouna

    2013-06-01

    The conditioned taste aversion (CTA) paradigm, in which association between a novel taste and visceral malaise is formed, gives a unique experimental setting to examine the mechanisms underlying memory acquisition and extinction processes. AKT is a main kinase of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase cascade (PI3K) and has been implicated in long-term memory. We have recently reported that blockade of PI3K in the basolateral amygdala (BLA) before retrieval of fear memory was associated with long-term reduction in fear responses, suggesting a possible role of PI3K inhibition in fear erasure. In this study, we aimed to elucidate whether PI3K has a similar role in the insular cortex (IC), which has a crucial role in CTA acquisition, consolidation, maintenance, and extinction. To that end, we (1) monitored AKT phosphorylation in the IC following CTA acquisition and extinction and (2) inhibited PI3K by local microinjection of the PI3K inhibitor LY294002 at different stages of CTA acquisition and extinction. Our results show that while AKT phosphorylation is increased following CTA learning, it is decreased following CTA extinction. Inhibition of AKT phosphorylation in the IC before or after the first CTA retrieval test resulted in reduction in the aversion index. This reduction in aversion is due to the erasure of the original CTA trace memory, as re-application of the unconditioned stimulus (lithium chloride) did not induce the recovery of aversion in LY294002-treated animals. Our present data add new evidence to suggest that PI3K is engaged in consolidation of aversive memories, as its inhibition is associated with erasure of CTA memory.

  3. Contingency Management with Human Autonomy Teaming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shively, Robert J.; Lachter, Joel B.

    2018-01-01

    Automation is playing an increasingly important role in many operations. It is often cheaper faster and more precise than human operators. However, automation is not perfect. There are many situations in which a human operator must step in. We refer to these instances as contingencies and the act of stepping in contingency management. Here we propose coupling Human Autonomy Teaming (HAT) with contingency management. We describe two aspects to HAT, bi-directional communication, and working agreements (or plays). Bi-directional communication like Crew Resource Management in traditional aviation, allows all parties to contribute to a decision. Working agreements specify roles and responsibilities. Importantly working agreements allow for the possibility of roles and responsibilities changing depending on environmental factors (e.g., situations the automation was not designed for, workload, risk, or trust). This allows for the automation to "automatically" become more autonomous as it becomes more trusted and/or it is updated to deal with a more complete set of possible situations. We present a concrete example using a prototype contingency management station one might find in a future airline operations center. Automation proposes reroutes for aircraft that encounter bad weather or are forced to divert for environmental or systems reasons. If specific conditions are met, these recommendations may be autonomously datalinked to the affected aircraft.

  4. Thomas Aquinas on Contingency of Nature

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dvořák, Petr

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 5, č. 2 (2008), s. 185-196 ISSN 1214-8407 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA900090602 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z90090514 Keywords : Thomas Aquinas * determinism * contingency Subject RIV: AA - Philosophy ; Religion

  5. Two psychologies: Cognitive versus contingency-oriented

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mey, H.R.A. De

    2003-01-01

    Cognitive psychology and contingency-based behavior analysis are contrasted to each other with respect to their philosophical and theoretical underpinnings as well as to theirpractical goals. Whereas the former focuses on intra-organismic structure and function in explaining minds, the latter

  6. The dependency and contingency of politics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Triantafillou, Peter

    2016-01-01

    differences which make any analytical synthesis both a difficult and a questionable endeavour. In particular, whereas historical institutionalism seeks to explain the present in terms of its dependence on past events, genealogy seeks to provoke the present by demonstrating its historical contingency. In spite...

  7. Management issues regarding the contingent workforce

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowen-Smed, S. [Bowen Workforce Solutions, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2004-07-01

    Fifty per cent of corporate leaders in Calgary today will be eligible for retirement over the next 5 years. In addition, 53 per cent of the entire Calgary workforce is 45 years or older. This paper suggests that only companies that seek aggressive programs to engage immigrants and contractors will weather the skills shortages anticipated in the future. It was noted that contractors care about aligning values to organizations, regardless of the project length, and that professional development is a key consideration when it comes to selecting their next project. Contingent workforce issues include: effectiveness; classification; risk; and cost. It was stated that effectiveness of the contingent workforce is an employer's responsibility. Factors that would strengthen the relationship between corporations and contractors include: proper orientation to manage expectations; training to improve productivity; tracking to enhance the quality of the workforce; and a management process to ensure adherence to protocol. It was concluded that the contingent workforce is an essential component to human capital management strategy, but that key issues must be managed to avoid unnecessary costs. In addition, effectiveness improves when processes are implemented. It was also suggested that technology is an essential component of the solution. Outsourcing is an effective approach to managing the contingent workforce. tabs., figs.

  8. Absolute Risk Aversion and the Returns to Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunello, Giorgio

    2002-01-01

    Uses 1995 Italian household income and wealth survey to measure individual absolute risk aversion of 1,583 married Italian male household heads. Uses this measure as an instrument for attained education in a standard-log earnings equation. Finds that the IV estimate of the marginal return to schooling is much higher than the ordinary least squares…

  9. Overcoming Learning Aversion in Evaluating and Managing Uncertain Risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Louis Anthony Tony

    2015-10-01

    Decision biases can distort cost-benefit evaluations of uncertain risks, leading to risk management policy decisions with predictably high retrospective regret. We argue that well-documented decision biases encourage learning aversion, or predictably suboptimal learning and premature decision making in the face of high uncertainty about the costs, risks, and benefits of proposed changes. Biases such as narrow framing, overconfidence, confirmation bias, optimism bias, ambiguity aversion, and hyperbolic discounting of the immediate costs and delayed benefits of learning, contribute to deficient individual and group learning, avoidance of information seeking, underestimation of the value of further information, and hence needlessly inaccurate risk-cost-benefit estimates and suboptimal risk management decisions. In practice, such biases can create predictable regret in selection of potential risk-reducing regulations. Low-regret learning strategies based on computational reinforcement learning models can potentially overcome some of these suboptimal decision processes by replacing aversion to uncertain probabilities with actions calculated to balance exploration (deliberate experimentation and uncertainty reduction) and exploitation (taking actions to maximize the sum of expected immediate reward, expected discounted future reward, and value of information). We discuss the proposed framework for understanding and overcoming learning aversion and for implementing low-regret learning strategies using regulation of air pollutants with uncertain health effects as an example. © 2015 Society for Risk Analysis.

  10. Joint measurement of risk aversion, prudence, and temperance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ebert, S.; Wiesen, D.

    Risk aversion—but also the higher-order risk preferences of prudence and temperance—are fundamental concepts in the study of economic decision making. We propose a method to jointly measure the intensity of risk aversion, prudence, and temperance. Our theoretical approach is to define risk

  11. Subjective expected utility with non-increasing risk aversion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wakker, P.P.

    1989-01-01

    It is shown that assumptions about risk aversion, usually studied under the presupposition of expected utility maximization, have a surprising extra merit at an earlier stage of the measurement work: together with the sure-thing principle, these assumptions imply subjective expected utility

  12. On the robustness and possible accounts of ambiguity aversion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keren, G.; Gerritsen, L.E.M.

    1999-01-01

    Ambiguity aversion is one of the most robust phenomena documented in the decision making literature, though there are still disagreements concerning what constitutes an adequate account for its occurrence. We describe six experiments that shed additional light on the enigmatic phenomenon of

  13. Static vs Dynamic Auctions with Ambiguity Averse Bidders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carvalho, M.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract: This paper presents the outcome of a dynamic price-descending auction when the distribution of the private values is uncertain and bidders exhibit ambiguity aversion. In contrast to sealed-bid auctions, in open auctions the bidders get information about the other bidders' private values

  14. Appetitive and aversive visual learning in freely moving Drosophila

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Schnaitmann

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available To compare appetitive and aversive visual memories of the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster, we developed a new paradigm for classical conditioning. Adult flies are trained en masse to differentially associate one of two visual conditioned stimuli (blue and green light as conditioned stimuli or CS with an appetitive or aversive chemical substance (unconditioned stimulus or US. In a test phase, flies are given a choice between the paired and the unpaired visual stimuli. Associative memory is measured based on altered visual preference in the test. If a group of flies has, for example, received a sugar reward with green light, they show a significantly higher preference for the green stimulus during the test than another group of flies having received the same reward with blue light. We demonstrate critical parameters for the formation of visual appetitive memory, such as training repetition, order of reinforcement, starvation, and individual conditioning. Furthermore, we show that formic acid can act as an aversive chemical reinforcer, yielding weak, yet significant, aversive memory. These results provide a basis for future investigations into the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying visual memory and perception in Drosophila.

  15. Extinction of aversive classically conditioned human sexual response

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brom, Mirte; Laan, Ellen; Everaerd, Walter; Spinhoven, Philip; Both, Stephanie

    2015-01-01

    Research has shown that acquired subjective likes and dislikes are quite resistant to extinction. Moreover, studies on female sexual response demonstrated that diminished genital arousal and positive affect toward erotic stimuli due to aversive classical conditioning did not extinguish during an

  16. Loss Aversion and the Asymmetric Transmission of Monetary Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santoro, Emiliano; Petrella, Ivan; Pfajfar, Damjan

    2014-01-01

    depends on consumption deviations from a reference level below which loss aversion is displayed. State-dependent degrees of real rigidity and elasticity of intertemporal substitution in consumption generate competing effects on output and inflation. Contractions face the Central Bank with higher...

  17. Myopic Loss Aversion : Information Feedback vs. Investment Flexibility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bellemare, C.; Krause, M.; Kroger, S.; Zhang, C.

    2004-01-01

    We experimentally disentangle the effect of information feedback from the effect of investment flexibility on the investment behavior of a myopically loss averse investor.Our findings show that varying the information condition alone suffices to induce behavior that is in line with the hypothesis of

  18. How not to extend models of inequality aversion

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Engelmann, Dirk

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 81, č. 2 (2012), s. 599-605 ISSN 0167-2681 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : inequality aversion * efficiency * social preferences Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 1.065, year: 2012

  19. Loss Aversion and Inhibition in Dynamical Models of Multialternative Choice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usher, Marius; McClelland, James L.

    2004-01-01

    The roles of loss aversion and inhibition among alternatives are examined in models of the similarity, compromise, and attraction effects that arise in choices among 3 alternatives differing on 2 attributes. R. M. Roe, J. R. Busemeyer, and J. T. Townsend (2001) have proposed a linear model in which effects previously attributed to loss aversion…

  20. Contingency learning in alcohol dependence and pathological gambling: learning and unlearning reward contingencies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vanes, Lucy D.; van Holst, Ruth J.; Jansen, Jochem M.; van den Brink, Wim; Oosterlaan, Jaap; Goudriaan, Anna E.

    2014-01-01

    Patients with alcohol dependence (AD) and pathological gambling (PG) are characterized by dysfunctional reward processing and their ability to adapt to alterations of reward contingencies is impaired. However, most neurocognitive tasks investigating reward processing involve a complex mix of

  1. Contingency learning in alcohol dependence and pathological gambling: learning and unlearning reward contingencies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vanes, L.D.; Holst, R.J. van; Jansen, J.M.; Brink, W. van den; Oosterlaan, J.; Goudriaan, A.E.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Patients with alcohol dependence (AD) and pathological gambling (PG) are characterized by dysfunctional reward processing and their ability to adapt to alterations of reward contingencies is impaired. However, most neurocognitive tasks investigating reward processing involve a complex

  2. Contingency Learning in Alcohol Dependence and Pathological Gambling: Learning and Unlearning Reward Contingencies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vanes, L.D.; Holst, R.; Jansen, J.D.; van den Brink, W.A.; Oosterlaan, J.; Goudriaan, A.E.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Patients with alcohol dependence (AD) and pathological gambling (PG) are characterized by dysfunctional reward processing and their ability to adapt to alterations of reward contingencies is impaired. However, most neurocognitive tasks investigating reward processing involve a complex

  3. Contingency Contractor Optimization Phase 3 Sustainment Third-Party Software List - Contingency Contractor Optimization Tool - Prototype

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durfee, Justin David; Frazier, Christopher Rawls; Bandlow, Alisa

    2016-05-01

    The Contingency Contractor Optimization Tool - Prototype (CCOT-P) requires several third-party software packages. These are documented below for each of the CCOT-P elements: client, web server, database server, solver, web application and polling application.

  4. 40 CFR 51.1012 - Requirement for contingency measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Requirement for contingency measures... Implementation of PM2.5 National Ambient Air Quality Standards § 51.1012 Requirement for contingency measures... contingency measures to be undertaken if the area fails to make reasonable further progress, or fails to...

  5. 40 CFR 264.227 - Emergency repairs; contingency plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Emergency repairs; contingency plans... FACILITIES Surface Impoundments § 264.227 Emergency repairs; contingency plans. (a) A surface impoundment... days after detecting the problem. (c) As part of the contingency plan required in subpart D of this...

  6. 78 FR 46781 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Definition of Contingency Operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    ... Federal Acquisition Regulation; Definition of Contingency Operation AGENCY: Department of Defense (DoD... the Federal Acquisition Regulation (FAR) to revise the definition of ``contingency operation'' to... ``contingency operation'' at FAR 2.101 in accordance with the statutory change to the definition made by...

  7. 30 CFR 218.152 - Fishermen's Contingency Fund.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fishermen's Contingency Fund. 218.152 Section 218.152 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS REVENUE..., Offshore § 218.152 Fishermen's Contingency Fund. Upon the establishment of the Fishermen's Contingency Fund...

  8. 78 FR 13765 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Definition of Contingency Operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-28

    ... Federal Acquisition Regulation; Definition of Contingency Operation AGENCY: Department of Defense (DoD... Regulation (FAR) to revise the definition of ``contingency operation'' to address the statutory change to the... ``contingency operation'' at FAR 2.101 in accordance with the statutory change to the definition made by...

  9. 10 CFR 72.184 - Safeguards contingency plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Safeguards contingency plan. 72.184 Section 72.184 Energy... Protection § 72.184 Safeguards contingency plan. (a) The requirements of the licensee's safeguards contingency plan for responding to threats and radiological sabotage must be as defined in appendix C to part...

  10. 50 CFR 296.3 - Fishermen's contingency fund.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fishermen's contingency fund. 296.3... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CONTINENTAL SHELF FISHERMEN'S CONTINGENCY FUND § 296.3 Fishermen's contingency fund. (a) General. There is established in the Treasury of the United States the Fishermen's...

  11. Psychophysics of associative learning: Quantitative properties of subjective contingency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maia, Susana; Lefèvre, Françoise; Jozefowiez, Jérémie

    2018-01-01

    Allan and collaborators (Allan, Hannah, Crump, & Siegel, 2008; Allan, Siegel, & Tangen, 2005; Siegel, Allan, Hannah, & Crump, 2009) recently proposed to apply signal detection theory to the analysis of contingency judgment tasks. When exposed to a flow of stimuli, participants are asked to judge whether there is a contingent relation between a cue and an outcome, that is, whether the subjective cue-outcome contingency exceeds a decision threshold. In this context, we tested the following hypotheses regarding the relation between objective and subjective cue-outcome contingency: (a) The underlying distributions of subjective cue-outcome contingency are Gaussian; (b) The mean distribution of subjective contingency is a linear function of objective cue-outcome contingency; and (c) The variance in the distribution of subjective contingency is constant. The hypotheses were tested by combining a streamed-trial contingency assessment task with a confidence rating procedure. Participants were exposed to rapid flows of stimuli at the end of which they had to judge whether an outcome was more (Experiment 1) or less (Experiment 2) likely to appear following a cue and how sure they were of their judgment. We found that although Hypothesis A seems reasonable, Hypotheses B and C were not. Regarding Hypothesis B, participants were more sensitive to positive than to negative contingencies. Regarding Hypothesis C, the perceived cue-outcome contingency became more variable when the contingency became more positive or negative, but only to a slight extent. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. 48 CFR 225.7303-4 - Contingent fees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contingent fees. 225.7303....7303-4 Contingent fees. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this subsection, contingent fees are generally allowable under DoD contracts, provided— (1) The fees are paid to a bona fide employee or a bona...

  13. Sartre's Contingency of Being and Asouzu's Principle of Causality ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The position of this work is that all contingent beings have a causal agent. This position is taken as a result of trying to delve into the issue of contingency and causality of being which has been discussed by many philosophers of diverse epochs of philosophy. This work tries to participate in the debate of whether contingent ...

  14. The Neural Basis of Aversive Pavlovian Guidance during Planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lally, Níall; Huys, Quentin J M; Eshel, Neir; Faulkner, Paul; Dayan, Peter; Roiser, Jonathan P

    2017-10-18

    Important real-world decisions are often arduous as they frequently involve sequences of choices, with initial selections affecting future options. Evaluating every possible combination of choices is computationally intractable, particularly for longer multistep decisions. Therefore, humans frequently use heuristics to reduce the complexity of decisions. We recently used a goal-directed planning task to demonstrate the profound behavioral influence and ubiquity of one such shortcut, namely aversive pruning, a reflexive Pavlovian process that involves neglecting parts of the decision space residing beyond salient negative outcomes. However, how the brain implements this important decision heuristic and what underlies individual differences have hitherto remained unanswered. Therefore, we administered an adapted version of the same planning task to healthy male and female volunteers undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to determine the neural basis of aversive pruning. Through both computational and standard categorical fMRI analyses, we show that when planning was influenced by aversive pruning, the subgenual cingulate cortex was robustly recruited. This neural signature was distinct from those associated with general planning and valuation, two fundamental cognitive components elicited by our task but which are complementary to aversive pruning. Furthermore, we found that individual variation in levels of aversive pruning was associated with the responses of insula and dorsolateral prefrontal cortices to the receipt of large monetary losses, and also with subclinical levels of anxiety. In summary, our data reveal the neural signatures of an important reflexive Pavlovian process that shapes goal-directed evaluations and thereby determines the outcome of high-level sequential cognitive processes. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Multistep decisions are complex because initial choices constrain future options. Evaluating every path for long decision sequences

  15. The Neural Basis of Aversive Pavlovian Guidance during Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faulkner, Paul

    2017-01-01

    Important real-world decisions are often arduous as they frequently involve sequences of choices, with initial selections affecting future options. Evaluating every possible combination of choices is computationally intractable, particularly for longer multistep decisions. Therefore, humans frequently use heuristics to reduce the complexity of decisions. We recently used a goal-directed planning task to demonstrate the profound behavioral influence and ubiquity of one such shortcut, namely aversive pruning, a reflexive Pavlovian process that involves neglecting parts of the decision space residing beyond salient negative outcomes. However, how the brain implements this important decision heuristic and what underlies individual differences have hitherto remained unanswered. Therefore, we administered an adapted version of the same planning task to healthy male and female volunteers undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to determine the neural basis of aversive pruning. Through both computational and standard categorical fMRI analyses, we show that when planning was influenced by aversive pruning, the subgenual cingulate cortex was robustly recruited. This neural signature was distinct from those associated with general planning and valuation, two fundamental cognitive components elicited by our task but which are complementary to aversive pruning. Furthermore, we found that individual variation in levels of aversive pruning was associated with the responses of insula and dorsolateral prefrontal cortices to the receipt of large monetary losses, and also with subclinical levels of anxiety. In summary, our data reveal the neural signatures of an important reflexive Pavlovian process that shapes goal-directed evaluations and thereby determines the outcome of high-level sequential cognitive processes. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Multistep decisions are complex because initial choices constrain future options. Evaluating every path for long decision sequences

  16. Reappraising social insect behavior through aversive responsiveness and learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roussel, Edith; Carcaud, Julie; Sandoz, Jean-Christophe; Giurfa, Martin

    2009-01-01

    The success of social insects can be in part attributed to their division of labor, which has been explained by a response threshold model. This model posits that individuals differ in their response thresholds to task-associated stimuli, so that individuals with lower thresholds specialize in this task. This model is at odds with findings on honeybee behavior as nectar and pollen foragers exhibit different responsiveness to sucrose, with nectar foragers having higher response thresholds to sucrose concentration. Moreover, it has been suggested that sucrose responsiveness correlates with responsiveness to most if not all other stimuli. If this is the case, explaining task specialization and the origins of division of labor on the basis of differences in response thresholds is difficult. To compare responsiveness to stimuli presenting clear-cut differences in hedonic value and behavioral contexts, we measured appetitive and aversive responsiveness in the same bees in the laboratory. We quantified proboscis extension responses to increasing sucrose concentrations and sting extension responses to electric shocks of increasing voltage. We analyzed the relationship between aversive responsiveness and aversive olfactory conditioning of the sting extension reflex, and determined how this relationship relates to division of labor. Sucrose and shock responsiveness measured in the same bees did not correlate, thus suggesting that they correspond to independent behavioral syndromes, a foraging and a defensive one. Bees which were more responsive to shock learned and memorized better aversive associations. Finally, guards were less responsive than nectar foragers to electric shocks, exhibiting higher tolerance to low voltage shocks. Consequently, foragers, which are more sensitive, were the ones learning and memorizing better in aversive conditioning. Our results constitute the first integrative study on how aversive responsiveness affects learning, memory and social

  17. Reappraising social insect behavior through aversive responsiveness and learning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edith Roussel

    Full Text Available The success of social insects can be in part attributed to their division of labor, which has been explained by a response threshold model. This model posits that individuals differ in their response thresholds to task-associated stimuli, so that individuals with lower thresholds specialize in this task. This model is at odds with findings on honeybee behavior as nectar and pollen foragers exhibit different responsiveness to sucrose, with nectar foragers having higher response thresholds to sucrose concentration. Moreover, it has been suggested that sucrose responsiveness correlates with responsiveness to most if not all other stimuli. If this is the case, explaining task specialization and the origins of division of labor on the basis of differences in response thresholds is difficult.To compare responsiveness to stimuli presenting clear-cut differences in hedonic value and behavioral contexts, we measured appetitive and aversive responsiveness in the same bees in the laboratory. We quantified proboscis extension responses to increasing sucrose concentrations and sting extension responses to electric shocks of increasing voltage. We analyzed the relationship between aversive responsiveness and aversive olfactory conditioning of the sting extension reflex, and determined how this relationship relates to division of labor.Sucrose and shock responsiveness measured in the same bees did not correlate, thus suggesting that they correspond to independent behavioral syndromes, a foraging and a defensive one. Bees which were more responsive to shock learned and memorized better aversive associations. Finally, guards were less responsive than nectar foragers to electric shocks, exhibiting higher tolerance to low voltage shocks. Consequently, foragers, which are more sensitive, were the ones learning and memorizing better in aversive conditioning.Our results constitute the first integrative study on how aversive responsiveness affects learning, memory and

  18. Extinction of aversive classically conditioned human sexual response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brom, Mirte; Laan, Ellen; Everaerd, Walter; Spinhoven, Philip; Both, Stephanie

    2015-04-01

    Research has shown that acquired subjective likes and dislikes are quite resistant to extinction. Moreover, studies on female sexual response demonstrated that diminished genital arousal and positive affect toward erotic stimuli due to aversive classical conditioning did not extinguish during an extinction phase. Possible resistance to extinction of aversive conditioned sexual responses may have important clinical implications. However, resistance to extinction of aversive conditioned human sexual response has not been studied using extensive extinction trials. This article aims to study resistance to extinction of aversive conditioned sexual responses in sexually functional men and women. A differential conditioning experiment was conducted, with two erotic pictures as conditioned stimulus (CSs) and a painful stimulus as unconditioned stimuli (USs). Only one CS (the CS+) was followed by the US during the acquisition phase. Conditioned responses were assessed during the extinction phase. Penile circumference and vaginal pulse amplitude were assessed, and ratings of affective value and subjective sexual arousal were obtained. Also, a stimulus response compatibility task was included to assess automatic approach and avoidance tendencies. Men and women rated the CS+ more negative as compared with the CS-. During the first trials of the extinction phase, vaginal pulse amplitude was lower in response to the CS+ than in response to the CS-, and on the first extinction trial women rated the CS+ as less sexually arousing. Intriguingly, men did not demonstrate attenuated genital and subjective sexual response. Aversive conditioning, by means of painful stimuli, only affects sexual responses in women, whereas it does not in men. Although conditioned sexual likes and dislikes are relatively persistent, conditioned affect eventually does extinguish. © 2014 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  19. Sodium butyrate into the insular cortex during conditioned taste-aversion acquisition delays aversive taste memory extinction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Núñez-Jaramillo, Luis; Reyes-López, Julian; Miranda, María Isabel

    2014-04-16

    Histone acetylation is one mechanism that promotes gene expression, and it increases during learning of various tasks. Specifically, novel taste consumption produces an increased acetylation of histone lysine residues in the insular cortex (IC), where protein synthesis is crucial during memory consolidation of conditioned taste aversion (CTA). However, the role of this elevated histone acetylation during CTA learning has not been examined directly. Thus, the present study investigated the effects of sodium butyrate (NaBu), a histone deacetylase inhibitor, injected into the IC during CTA acquisition. Male Wistar rats, IC bilaterally implanted, were injected 60 min before saccharine presentation, with a total volume of 0.5 µl of NaBu solution (100, 500, and 10 µg/0.5 µl) or saline; 30 min later animals were injected intraperitoneally with lithium chloride, a malaise-inducing drug. The next day, CTA retrieval was tested. No effects of NaBu were observed during acquisition or retrieval, but during extinction trials, a significant delay in aversive memory extinction was observed in the group injected with the lowest NaBu dose. This result indicates that NaBu in the IC strengthens CTA and delays aversive memory extinction, and suggests that histone acetylation could increase long-term taste-aversive memory strength.

  20. Impact of childhood trauma and cognitive emotion regulation strategies on risk-aversive and loss-aversive patterns of decision-making in patients with depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huh, Hyu Jung; Baek, Kwangyeol; Kwon, Jae-Hyung; Jeong, Jaeseung; Chae, Jeong-Ho

    2016-11-01

    Although poor decision-making ultimately impairs quality of life in depression, few studies describe the clinical characteristics of patients suffering from dysfunctional decision-making. This study aims to delineate the effect of childhood trauma and other personality factors on risk-aversive and loss-aversive patterns of decision-making in patients with depression. A total of 50 depressive patients completed surveys for the measurement of sociodemographic factors, trauma loads and other clinical characteristics, including depression, anxiety, and strategies for emotion regulation. Risk aversion and loss aversion were quantified using probability discounting task and a 50:50 gamble on monetary decision-making task under specified risks. Stepwise multiple regression analysis was performed to determine the factors, predicting risk aversion or loss aversion in depression. Childhood trauma was the most prominent factor predicting loss aversion in patients with depressive disorders. Overall maladaptive emotion regulation strategies were associated with risk aversion. Childhood trauma and specific strategies of emotion regulation contribute to risk or loss aversion in patients with depression. These findings may provide useful insight into elaborative evaluation and interventions to improve decision-making and quality of life in patients with depression.

  1. Interactions between radiation and amphetamine in taste aversion learning and the role of the area postrema in amphetamine-induced conditioned taste aversions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabin, B.M.; Hunt, W.A.; Lee, J.

    1987-01-01

    Three experiments were run to assess the role of the area postrema in taste aversion learning resulting from combined treatment with subthreshold unconditioned stimuli and in the acquisition of an amphetamine-induced taste aversion. In the first experiment, it was shown that combined treatment with subthreshold radiation (15 rad) and subthreshold amphetamine (0.5 mg/kg, IP) resulted in the acquisition of a taste aversion. The second experiment showed that lesions of the area postrema blocked taste aversion learning produced by two subthreshold doses of amphetamine. In the third experiment, which looked at the dose-response curve for amphetamine-induced taste aversion learning in intact rats and rats with area postrema lesions, it was shown that both groups of rats acquired taste aversions following injection of amphetamine, although the rats with lesions showed a less severe aversion than the intact rats. The results are interpreted as indicating that amphetamine-induced taste aversion learning may involve area postrema-mediated mechanisms, particularly at the lower doses, but that an intact area postrema is not a necessary condition for the acquisition of an amphetamine-induced taste aversion

  2. Yampa River Valley sub-area contingency plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-08-01

    The Yampa River Valley sub-area contingency plan (Contingency Plan) has been prepared for two counties in northwestern Colorado: Moffat County and Routt County. The Contingency Plan is provided in two parts, the Contingency Plan and the Emergency Response Action Plan (ERAP). The Contingency Plan provides information that should be helpful in planning to minimize the impact of an oil spill or hazardous material incident. It contains discussions of planning and response role, hazards identification, vulnerability analysis, risk analysis, cleanup, cost recovery, training, and health and safety. It includes information on the incident command system, notifications, response capabilities, emergency response organizations, evacuation and shelter-in-place, and immediate actions.

  3. Loss Aversion Reflects Information Accumulation, Not Bias: A Drift-Diffusion Model Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clay, Summer N; Clithero, John A; Harris, Alison M; Reed, Catherine L

    2017-01-01

    Defined as increased sensitivity to losses, loss aversion is often conceptualized as a cognitive bias. However, findings that loss aversion has an attentional or emotional regulation component suggest that it may instead reflect differences in information processing. To distinguish these alternatives, we applied the drift-diffusion model (DDM) to choice and response time (RT) data in a card gambling task with unknown risk distributions. Loss aversion was measured separately for each participant. Dividing the participants into terciles based on loss aversion estimates, we found that the most loss-averse group showed a significantly lower drift rate than the other two groups, indicating overall slower uptake of information. In contrast, neither the starting bias nor the threshold separation (barrier) varied by group, suggesting that decision thresholds are not affected by loss aversion. These results shed new light on the cognitive mechanisms underlying loss aversion, consistent with an account based on information accumulation.

  4. Loss-Averse Retailer’s Optimal Ordering Policies for Perishable Products with Customer Returns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the loss-averse retailer’s ordering policies for perishable product with customer returns. With the introduction of the segmental loss utility function, we depict the retailer’s loss aversion decision bias and establish the loss-averse retailer’s ordering policy model. We derive that the loss-averse retailer’s optimal order quantity with customer returns exists and is unique. By comparison, we obtain that both the risk-neutral and the loss-averse retailer’s optimal order quantities depend on the inventory holding cost and the marginal shortage cost. Through the sensitivity analysis, we also discuss the effect of loss-averse coefficient and the ratio of return on the loss-averse retailer’s optimal order quantity with customer returns.

  5. Loss Aversion Reflects Information Accumulation, Not Bias: A Drift-Diffusion Model Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Summer N. Clay

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Defined as increased sensitivity to losses, loss aversion is often conceptualized as a cognitive bias. However, findings that loss aversion has an attentional or emotional regulation component suggest that it may instead reflect differences in information processing. To distinguish these alternatives, we applied the drift-diffusion model (DDM to choice and response time (RT data in a card gambling task with unknown risk distributions. Loss aversion was measured separately for each participant. Dividing the participants into terciles based on loss aversion estimates, we found that the most loss-averse group showed a significantly lower drift rate than the other two groups, indicating overall slower uptake of information. In contrast, neither the starting bias nor the threshold separation (barrier varied by group, suggesting that decision thresholds are not affected by loss aversion. These results shed new light on the cognitive mechanisms underlying loss aversion, consistent with an account based on information accumulation.

  6. Income Levels and Response to Contingency Management for Smoking Cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Núñez, Carla; Secades-Villa, Roberto; Peña-Suárez, Elsa; Fernández-Artamendi, Sergio; Weidberg, Sara

    2017-06-07

    Contingency management (CM) has demonstrated its efficacy in treating many drug addictions, including nicotine. However, one of the most commonly perceived limitations with regard to its dissemination into community settings is whether this protocol could be equally effective for treating patients across different income levels. This study aimed to examine whether individuals' income levels affect treatment success in a cognitive behavioral treatment (CBT) that included a voucher-based CM protocol for smoking cessation. A total of 92 treatment-seeking smokers in a community setting were randomly assigned to a CBT group (N = 49) or to a CBT plus CM group (N = 43). The CM procedure included a voucher program through which smoking abstinence was reinforced on a schedule of escalating magnitude of reinforcement with a reset contingency. We analyzed the impact of self-reported monthly income, alone and in combination with treatment condition, on short-term (treatment retention) and long-term (self-reported number of days of continuous smoking abstinence at 6-month follow-up) results. Income had no effect on treatment retention and continuous abstinence outcomes at 6-month follow-up in either treatment condition. Treatment modality emerged as the only significant predictor of treatment success. Our findings suggest that treatment-seeking smokers from the general population respond equally well to CM regardless of their income levels. The results of this randomized controlled trial support the generalizability of this evidenced-based program into community settings.

  7. Variant BDNF Val66Met polymorphism affects extinction of conditioned aversive memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hui; Wang, Yue; Pattwell, Siobhan; Jing, Deqiang; Liu, Ting; Zhang, Yun; Bath, Kevin G; Lee, Francis S; Chen, Zhe-Yu

    2009-04-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) plays important roles in activity-dependent plasticity processes, such as long-term potentiation, learning, and memory. The recently reported human BDNF Val66Met (BDNF(Met)) polymorphism has been shown to lead to altered hippocampal volume and impaired hippocampal-dependent memory and is associated with a variety of neuropsychiatric disorders. There are few studies, however, that investigate the effect of the BDNF(Met) polymorphism on hippocampal-independent memory processes. A conditioned taste aversion (CTA) task was used for studying the mechanisms of long-term, hippocampal-independent, nondeclarative memory in the mammalian brain. Using the CTA paradigm, we found a novel impairment in extinction learning, but not acquisition or retention, of aversive memories resulting from the variant BDNF(Met). BDNF(Met) mice were slower to extinguish an aversive CTA memory compared with wild-type counterparts. Moreover, the BDNF(Met) was associated with smaller volume and decreased neuronal dendritic complexity in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC), which plays a significant role in extinction of CTA. Finally, this delay in extinction learning could be rescued pharmacologically with a cognitive enhancer, d-cycloserine (DCS). To our knowledge, this is the first evidence that the BDNF(Met) polymorphism contributes to abnormalities in memory extinction. This abnormality in extinction learning may be explained by alterations in neuronal morphology, as well as decreased neural activity in the vmPFC. Importantly, DCS was effective in rescuing this delay in extinction, suggesting that when coupled with behavior therapy, DCS may be an effective treatment option for anxiety disorders in humans with this genetic variant BDNF.

  8. Transdiagnostic Psychiatric Symptoms and Event-Related Potentials following Rewarding and Aversive Outcomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey S Bedwell

    Full Text Available There is a need for a better understanding of transdiagnostic psychiatric symptoms that relate to neurophysiological abnormalities following rewarding and aversive feedback in order to inform development of novel targeted treatments. To address this need, we examined a transdiagnostic sample of 44 adults (mean age: 35.52; 57% female, which consisted of individuals with broadly-defined schizophrenia-spectrum disorders (n = 16, bipolar disorders (n = 10, other mood and anxiety disorders (n = 5, and no history of a psychiatric disorder (n = 13. Participants completed a Pavlovian monetary reward prediction task during 32-channel electroencephalogram recording. We assessed the event-related potentials (ERPs of feedback-related negativity (FRN, feedback-related positivity (FRP, and the late positive potential (LPP, following better and worse than expected outcomes. Examination of symptom relationships using stepwise regressions across the entire sample revealed that an increase in the clinician-rated Negative Symptoms factor score from the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale, was related to a decreased LPP amplitude during better than expected (i.e., rewarding outcomes. We also found that increased self-reported scores on the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire (Brief-Revised Disorganized factor related to an increased FRN amplitude during worse than expected (i.e., aversive outcomes. Across the entire sample, the FRP component amplitudes did not show significant relationships to any of the symptoms examined. Analyses of the three diagnostic groups of schizophrenia-spectrum disorders, bipolar disorders, and nonpsychiatric controls did not reveal any statistically significant differences across the ERP amplitudes and conditions. These findings suggest relationships between specific neurophysiological abnormalities following rewarding and aversive outcomes and particular transdiagnostic psychiatric symptoms.

  9. Age-related striatal BOLD changes without changes in behavioral loss aversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viswanathan, Vijay; Lee, Sang; Gilman, Jodi M.; Kim, Byoung Woo; Lee, Nick; Chamberlain, Laura; Livengood, Sherri L.; Raman, Kalyan; Lee, Myung Joo; Kuster, Jake; Stern, Daniel B.; Calder, Bobby; Mulhern, Frank J.; Blood, Anne J.; Breiter, Hans C.

    2015-01-01

    Loss aversion (LA), the idea that negative valuations have a higher psychological impact than positive ones, is considered an important variable in consumer research. The literature on aging and behavior suggests older individuals may show more LA, although it is not clear if this is an effect of aging in general (as in the continuum from age 20 and 50 years), or of the state of older age (e.g., past age 65 years). We also have not yet identified the potential biological effects of aging on the neural processing of LA. In the current study we used a cohort of subjects with a 30 year range of ages, and performed whole brain functional MRI (fMRI) to examine the ventral striatum/nucleus accumbens (VS/NAc) response during a passive viewing of affective faces with model-based fMRI analysis incorporating behavioral data from a validated approach/avoidance task with the same stimuli. Our a priori focus on the VS/NAc was based on (1) the VS/NAc being a central region for reward/aversion processing; (2) its activation to both positive and negative stimuli; (3) its reported involvement with tracking LA. LA from approach/avoidance to affective faces showed excellent fidelity to published measures of LA. Imaging results were then compared to the behavioral measure of LA using the same affective faces. Although there was no relationship between age and LA, we observed increasing neural differential sensitivity (NDS) of the VS/NAc to avoidance responses (negative valuations) relative to approach responses (positive valuations) with increasing age. These findings suggest that a central region for reward/aversion processing changes with age, and may require more activation to produce the same LA behavior as in younger individuals, consistent with the idea of neural efficiency observed with high IQ individuals showing less brain activation to complete the same task. PMID:25983682

  10. Age-related striatal BOLD changes without changes in behavioral loss aversion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans C Breiter

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Loss aversion (LA, the idea that negative valuations have a higher psychological impact than positive ones, is considered an important variable in consumer research. The literature on aging and behavior suggests older individuals may show more LA, although it is not clear if this is an effect of aging in general (as in the continuum from age 20 and 50 years, or of the state of older age (e.g., past age 65 years. We also have not yet identified the potential biological effects of aging on the neural processing of LA. In the current study we used a cohort of subjects with a 30 year range of ages, and performed whole brain functional MRI (fMRI to examine the ventral striatum/nucleus accumbens (VS/NAc response during a passive viewing of affective faces with model-based fMRI analysis incorporating behavioral data from a validated approach/avoidance task with the same stimuli. Our a priori focus on the VS/NAc was based on (1 the VS/NAc being a central region for reward/aversion processing, (2 its activation to both positive and negative stimuli, (3 its reported involvement with tracking LA. LA from approach/avoidance to affective faces showed excellent fidelity to published measures of LA. Imaging results were then compared to the behavioral measure of LA using the same affective faces. Although there was no relationship between age and LA, we observed increasing neural differential sensitivity (NDS of the VS/NAc to avoidance responses (negative valuations relative to approach responses (positive valuations with increasing age. These findings suggest that a central region for reward/aversion processing changes with age, and may require more activation to produce the same LA behavior as in younger individuals, consistent with the idea of neural efficiency observed with high IQ individuals showing less brain activation to complete the same task.

  11. Age-related striatal BOLD changes without changes in behavioral loss aversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viswanathan, Vijay; Lee, Sang; Gilman, Jodi M; Kim, Byoung Woo; Lee, Nick; Chamberlain, Laura; Livengood, Sherri L; Raman, Kalyan; Lee, Myung Joo; Kuster, Jake; Stern, Daniel B; Calder, Bobby; Mulhern, Frank J; Blood, Anne J; Breiter, Hans C

    2015-01-01

    Loss aversion (LA), the idea that negative valuations have a higher psychological impact than positive ones, is considered an important variable in consumer research. The literature on aging and behavior suggests older individuals may show more LA, although it is not clear if this is an effect of aging in general (as in the continuum from age 20 and 50 years), or of the state of older age (e.g., past age 65 years). We also have not yet identified the potential biological effects of aging on the neural processing of LA. In the current study we used a cohort of subjects with a 30 year range of ages, and performed whole brain functional MRI (fMRI) to examine the ventral striatum/nucleus accumbens (VS/NAc) response during a passive viewing of affective faces with model-based fMRI analysis incorporating behavioral data from a validated approach/avoidance task with the same stimuli. Our a priori focus on the VS/NAc was based on (1) the VS/NAc being a central region for reward/aversion processing; (2) its activation to both positive and negative stimuli; (3) its reported involvement with tracking LA. LA from approach/avoidance to affective faces showed excellent fidelity to published measures of LA. Imaging results were then compared to the behavioral measure of LA using the same affective faces. Although there was no relationship between age and LA, we observed increasing neural differential sensitivity (NDS) of the VS/NAc to avoidance responses (negative valuations) relative to approach responses (positive valuations) with increasing age. These findings suggest that a central region for reward/aversion processing changes with age, and may require more activation to produce the same LA behavior as in younger individuals, consistent with the idea of neural efficiency observed with high IQ individuals showing less brain activation to complete the same task.

  12. Rapid, labile, and protein synthesis-independent short-term memory in conditioned taste aversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houpt, T A; Berlin, R

    1999-01-01

    Short-term memory is a rapid, labile, and protein-synthesis-independent phase of memory. The existence of short-term memory in conditioned taste aversion (CTA) learning has not been demonstrated formally. To determine the earliest time at which a CTA is expressed, we measured intraoral intake of sucrose at 15 min, 1 hr, 6 hr, or 48 h after contingent pairing of an intraoral infusion of 5% sucrose (6.6 ml over 6 min) and toxic lithium chloride injection (76 mg/kg). Rats were implanted with intraoral catheters to allow presentation of taste solutions at arbitrary times. Intraoral intake was measured under conditions of long-delay, single-trial learning typical of CTA. Rats decreased intraoral intake of sucrose at 15 min after contingent pairing of sucrose and LiCl, but not after noncontingent LiCl or sucrose. Thus CTA learning can be expressed rapidly. To determine if short-term CTA memory is labile and decays in the absence of long-term memory, we measured intraoral intake of sucrose after pairing sucrose with low doses of LiCl. Rats received an intraoral infusion of 5% sucrose (6 ml/6 min); 30 min later LiCl was injected at three different doses (19, 38, or 76 mg/kg). A second intraoral infusion of sucrose was administered 15 min, 1 hr, 3 hr, 4.5 hr, 6 hr, or 48 hr later. The formation of long-term CTA memory was dependent on the dose of LiCl paired with sucrose during acquisition. Low doses of LiCl induced a CTA that decayed within 6 hr after pairing. Central administration of the protein synthesis inhibitor cycloheximide prior to LiCl injection blocked long-term CTA expression at 6 and 48 hr, but not short-term CTA expression at 1 hr. Thus, short-term memory for CTA learning exists that is acquired rapidly and independent of protein synthesis, but labile in the absence of long-term memory formation.

  13. Causal judgment from contingency information: a systematic test of the pCI rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Peter A

    2004-04-01

    Contingency information is information about the occurrence or nonoccurrence of an effect when a possible cause is present or absent. Under the evidential evaluation model, instances of contingency information are transformed into evidence and causal judgment is based on the proportion of relevant instances evaluated as confirmatory for the candidate cause. In this article, two experiments are reported that were designed to test systematic manipulations of the proportion of confirming instances in relation to other variables: the proportion of instances on which the candidate cause is present, the proportion of instances in which the effect occurs when the cause is present, and the objective contingency. Results showed that both unweighted and weighted versions of the proportion-of-confirmatory-instances rule successfully predicted the main features of the results, with the weighted version proving more successful. Other models, including the power PC theory, failed to predict the results.

  14. [Contingency management in opioid substitution treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Specka, M; Böning, A; Scherbaum, N

    2011-07-01

    The majority of opiate-dependent patients in substitution treatment show additional substance-related disorders. Concomitant use of heroin, alcohol, benzodiazepines or cocaine compromises treatment success. Concomitant drug use may be treated by using contingency management (CM) which is based on learning theory. In CM, abstinence from drugs, as verified by drug screenings, is reinforced directly and contingently. Reinforcers used in CM studies with substituted patients were, amongst others, vouchers and take-home privileges. Studies in the USA show a medium average effect of CM on drug consumption rates and abstinence. The effects decrease markedly after the end of the intervention. We discuss whether CM is applicable within the German substitution treatment system and how it can be combined with other interventions such as selective detoxification treatments or cognitive-behavioural programmes. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  15. Contingency and similarity in response selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prinz, Wolfgang

    2018-05-09

    This paper explores issues of task representation in choice reaction time tasks. How is it possible, and what does it take, to represent such a task in a way that enables a performer to do the task in line with the prescriptions entailed in the instructions? First, a framework for task representation is outlined which combines the implementation of task sets and their use for performance with different kinds of representational operations (pertaining to feature compounds for event codes and code assemblies for task sets, respectively). Then, in a second step, the framework is itself embedded in the bigger picture of the classical debate on the roles of contingency and similarity for the formation of associations. The final conclusion is that both principles are needed and that the operation of similarity at the level of task sets requires and presupposes the operation of contingency at the level of event codes. Copyright © 2018 The Author. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. A randomized study of contingency management and spirometric lung age for motivating smoking cessation among injection drug users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drummond, Michael B; Astemborski, Jacquie; Lambert, Allison A; Goldberg, Scott; Stitzer, Maxine L; Merlo, Christian A; Rand, Cynthia S; Wise, Robert A; Kirk, Gregory D

    2014-07-28

    Even after quitting illicit drugs, tobacco abuse remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality in former injection drug users. An important unmet need in this population is to have effective interventions that can be used in the context of community based care. Contingency management, where a patient receives a monetary incentive for healthy behavior choices, and incorporation of individual counseling regarding spirometric "lung age" (the age of an average healthy individual with similar spirometry) have been shown to improve cessation rates in some populations. The efficacy of these interventions on improving smoking cessation rates has not been studied among current and former injection drug users. In a randomized, factorial design study, we recruited 100 active smokers from an ongoing cohort study of current and former injection drug users to assess the impact of contingency management and spirometric lung age on smoking cessation. The primary outcome was 6-month biologically-confirmed smoking cessation comparing contingency management, spirometric lung age or both to usual care. Secondary outcomes included differences in self-reported and biologically-confirmed cessation at interim visits, number of visits attended and quit attempts, smoking rates at interim visits, and changes in Fagerstrom score and self-efficacy. Six-month biologically-confirmed smoking cessations rates were 4% usual care, 0% lung age, 14% contingency management and 0% for combined lung age and contingency management (p = 0.13). There were no differences in secondary endpoints comparing the four interventions or when pooling the lung age groups. Comparing contingency management to non-contingency management, 6-month cessation rates were not different (7% vs. 2%; p = 0.36), but total number of visits with exhaled carbon monoxide-confirmed abstinence were higher for contingency management than non-contingency management participants (0.38 vs. 0.06; p = 0.03), and more contingency management

  17. Assessing the Warm Glow Effect in Contingent Valuations for Public Libraries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Soon-Jae; Chung, Hye-Kyung; Jung, Eun-Joo

    2010-01-01

    This article aims to present evidence of the warm glow effect in a public library setting. More specifically, it tests whether individual respondents with different values for the warm glow component report different values for their willingness to pay (WTP). The data come from a contingent valuation survey conducted on randomly selected citizens…

  18. 76 FR 11350 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-02

    ..., Reporting and recordkeeping requirements, Superfund, Water pollution control, Water supply. Dated: February... and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List: Partial Deletion of the... Mexico, from the National Priorities List (NPL). The NPL, promulgated pursuant to section 105 of the...

  19. Food Marketing Technology and Contingency Market Valuation

    OpenAIRE

    Garth J. Holloway; Anthony C. Zwart

    1993-01-01

    Marketing activities are introduced into a rational expectations model of the food marketing system. The model is used to evaluate effects of alternative marketing technologies on the distribution of the benefits of contingency markets in agriculture. Benefits depend on two parameters: the cost share of farm inputs and the elasticity of substitution between farm and nonfarm inputs in food marketing. Over a broad spectrum of technologies, consumers are likely to be the net beneficiaries and fa...

  20. Capacity Adjustment through Contingent Staffing Outsourcing

    OpenAIRE

    Neubert , Gilles; Adjadj , Philippe

    2009-01-01

    International audience; For a long time, contingent staffing was considered as the responsability of the Human Resource department. The high needs of workforce flexibility combined with disseminated agencies have led some companies to a great number of labor suppliers. This situation has produced important cost variation, poor quality of service, and important risk due to the mistunderstanding by local managers of legal considerations. To face this situation, companies have started to move fr...

  1. Contingency Cost estimation for Research reactor Decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin, Hyung Gon; Hong, Yun Jeong

    2016-01-01

    There are many types of cost items in decommissioning cost estimation, however, contingencies are for unforeseen elements of cost within the defined project scope. Regulatory body wants to reasonable quantification for this issue. Many countries have adopted the breakdown of activity dependent and period-dependent costs to structure their estimates. Period-dependent costs could be broken down into defined time frames to reduce overall uncertainties. Several countries apply this notion by having different contingency factors for different phases of the project. This study is a compilation of contingency cost of research reactor and for each country. Simulation techniques using TRIM, MATLAB, and PSpice can be useful tools for designing detector channels. Thus far TRIM, MATLAB and PSpice have been used to calculate the detector current output pulse for SiC semiconductor detectors and to model the pulses that propagate through potential detector channels. This model is useful for optimizing the detector and the resolution for application to neutron monitoring in the Generation IV power reactors

  2. Contingency Cost estimation for Research reactor Decommissioning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, Hyung Gon; Hong, Yun Jeong [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    There are many types of cost items in decommissioning cost estimation, however, contingencies are for unforeseen elements of cost within the defined project scope. Regulatory body wants to reasonable quantification for this issue. Many countries have adopted the breakdown of activity dependent and period-dependent costs to structure their estimates. Period-dependent costs could be broken down into defined time frames to reduce overall uncertainties. Several countries apply this notion by having different contingency factors for different phases of the project. This study is a compilation of contingency cost of research reactor and for each country. Simulation techniques using TRIM, MATLAB, and PSpice can be useful tools for designing detector channels. Thus far TRIM, MATLAB and PSpice have been used to calculate the detector current output pulse for SiC semiconductor detectors and to model the pulses that propagate through potential detector channels. This model is useful for optimizing the detector and the resolution for application to neutron monitoring in the Generation IV power reactors.

  3. Contingency Valuation of Croatian Arboretum Opeka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stjepan Posavec

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: Social aspects of forestry have always been an important factor of forest usage and management, and therefore have significant influence on its sustainability. Non-wood forest functions such as recreation, tourism, aesthetic and educational factors influence development of rural areas. Contingent valuation method has rarely been used for evaluation of protected forest areas. The aim of the article is to estimate the amount of money visitors are willing to pay for nature’s resources preservation in the arboretum Opeka in the North-West Croatia. Material and Methods: Opeka Arboretum is situated in the Vinica municipality in northern Croatia. Located in a large park surrounding a manor, Opeka arboretum, with its 65 hectares is the largest of the three arboretums existing in Croatia today. The arboretum was founded in 1860 by the Count Marko Bombelles. Contingent valuation is a survey-based economic technique for the non-market valuation of resources, such as environmental preservation or the impact of contamination. It is also the approach that can generally be used to include what is usually referred to as the passive use component of the economic value of environmental goods. Results and Conclusion: Willingness to pay for visitor’s use of the arboretum has been investigated using the survey and contingency valuation method on a sample of 53 respondents. Research results present high preference for arboretum benefits such as beauty of landscape, cultural and historical significance, recreation and health but low willingness to pay.

  4. Reward and aversion in a heterogeneous midbrain dopamine system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lammel, Stephan; Lim, Byung Kook; Malenka, Robert C

    2014-01-01

    The ventral tegmental area (VTA) is a heterogeneous brain structure that serves a central role in motivation and reward processing. Abnormalities in the function of VTA dopamine (DA) neurons and the targets they influence are implicated in several prominent neuropsychiatric disorders including addiction and depression. Recent studies suggest that the midbrain DA system is composed of anatomically and functionally heterogeneous DA subpopulations with different axonal projections. These findings may explain a number of previously confusing observations that suggested a role for DA in processing both rewarding as well as aversive events. Here we will focus on recent advances in understanding the neural circuits mediating reward and aversion in the VTA and how stress as well as drugs of abuse, in particular cocaine, alter circuit function within a heterogeneous midbrain DA system. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'NIDA 40th Anniversary Issue'. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Does ambiguity aversion influence the framing effect during decision making?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osmont, Anaïs; Cassotti, Mathieu; Agogué, Marine; Houdé, Olivier; Moutier, Sylvain

    2015-04-01

    Decision-makers present a systematic tendency to avoid ambiguous options for which the level of risk is unknown. This ambiguity aversion is one of the most striking decision-making biases. Given that human choices strongly depend on the options' presentation, the purpose of the present study was to examine whether ambiguity aversion influences the framing effect during decision making. We designed a new financial decision-making task involving the manipulation of both frame and uncertainty levels. Thirty-seven participants had to choose between a sure option and a gamble depicting either clear or ambiguous probabilities. The results revealed a clear preference for the sure option in the ambiguity condition regardless of frame. However, participants presented a framing effect in both the risk and ambiguity conditions. Indeed, the framing effect was bidirectional in the risk condition and unidirectional in the ambiguity condition given that it did not involve preference reversal but only a more extreme choice tendency.

  6. Eliciting and Measuring Betrayal Aversion using the BDM Mechanism*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quercia, Simone

    2016-01-01

    Betrayal aversion has been operationalized as the evidence that subjects demand a higher risk premium to take social risks compared to natural risks. This evidence has been first shown by Bohnet and Zeckhauser (2004) using an adaptation of the Becker – DeGroot – Marschak mechanism (BDM, Becker et al. (1964)). We compare their implementation of the BDM mechanism with a new version designed to facilitate subjects’ comprehension. We find that, although the two versions produce different distributions of values, the size of betrayal aversion, measured as an average treatment difference between social and natural risk settings, is not different across the two versions. We further show that our implementation is preferable to use in practice as it reduces substantially subjects’ mistakes and the likelihood of noisy valuations. PMID:27366658

  7. Modeling Inequity Aversion in a Dictator Game with Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismael Rodriguez-Lara

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available We expand upon the previous models of inequity aversion of Fehr and Schmidt [1], and Frohlich et al. [2], which assume that dictators get disutility if the final allocation of surplus deviates from the equal split (egalitarian principle or from the subjects' production (libertarian principle. In our model, dictators may also account for the way in which the surplus was generated. More precisely, our model incorporates the idea of liberal egalitarian ethics into the analysis, making it possible for dictators to divide the surplus according to the accountability principle, which states that subjects should only be rewarded for factors under their control. This fairness ideal does not hold subjects responsible for factors beyond their control in the production of the surplus, an idea that is absent in the models of inequity aversion cited above (JEL Codes: D3, D6, D63.

  8. Lateral Habenula determines long-term storage of aversive memories.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Micol eTomaiuolo

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The Lateral Habenula (LHb is a small brain structure that codifies negative motivational value and has been related to major depression. It has been shown recently that LHb activation is sufficient to induce aversive associative learning; however the key question about whether LHb activation is required for an aversive memory to be formed has not been addressed. In this article we studied the function of the LHb in memory formation using the Inhibitory Avoidance task (IA. We found that LHb inactivation during IA training does not disrupt memory when assessed 24 hours after, but abolishes it 7 days later, indicating that LHb activity during memory acquisition is not necessary for memory formation, but regulates its temporal stability. These effects suggest that LHb inactivation modifies subjective perception of the training experience.

  9. Internet Filtering Technology and Aversive Online Experiences in Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przybylski, Andrew K; Nash, Victoria

    2017-05-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of Internet filtering tools designed to shield adolescents from aversive experiences online. A total of 1030 in-home interviews were conducted with early adolescents aged from 12 to 15 years (M = 13.50, SD = 1.18) and their caregivers. Caregivers were asked about their use of Internet filtering and adolescent participants were interviewed about their recent online experiences. Contrary to our hypotheses, policy, and industry advice regarding the assumed benefits of filtering we found convincing evidence that Internet filters were not effective at shielding early adolescents from aversive online experiences. Preregistered prospective and randomised controlled trials are needed to determine the extent to which Internet filtering technology supports vs thwarts young people online and if their widespread use justifies their financial and informational costs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Drug-induced conditioned place preference and aversion in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Christopher L; Gremel, Christina M; Groblewski, Peter A

    2006-01-01

    This protocol describes the equipment and methods used to establish conditioned place preference (CPP) or aversion (CPA). Place conditioning is a form of Pavlovian conditioning routinely used to measure the rewarding or aversive motivational effects of objects or experiences (e.g., abused drugs). Here, we present a place conditioning procedure that has been used extensively to study the motivational effects of ethanol and other abused drugs in mice. This protocol involves three phases: (i) habituation (or a pretest), (ii) conditioning of an association between the drug and a tactile or visual stimulus and (iii) a test that offers a choice between the drug-associated cue and a neutral cue. If the drug has motivational significance, mice will spend significantly more time (CPP) or less time (CPA) in proximity to the drug-associated cue. Potential problems in the design and interpretation of place conditioning studies are discussed. A typical experiment lasts 2 weeks.

  11. Identification of risk aversion factor for radiation workers in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fadul, Abdulbagi; Na, Seong H.

    2016-01-01

    Radiation aversion factor reflects the degree of avoidance of radiation exposure which is considered a fundamental element in the optimization of radiation protection and a key factor in determining the real monetary value of the man-Sievert (Sv). This study provides an adjusted risk aversion factor, which was prescribed by the Korea Institute for Nuclear Safety (KINS), a regulatory body in Korea. Specifically, the Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co., Ltd. (KHNP) evaluated the monetary value of the man-Sv for Korean Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs) workers. This monetary value was assessed by the radiation aversion factor. Consequently, identifying the monetary value of the man-Sv in this study will enhance not only the effectiveness of optimization of radiation protection in Korea but also contribute to reduce doses to As Low As Reasonably Achievable (ALARA) when accounting for economic and societal aspects. The primary purpose of this study is to obtain the risk aversion factor for radiation workers in medical and industrial facilities in Korea. The secondary purpose is to evaluate the real monetary value of the man-Sv.These objectives will be accomplished by collecting data from surveys that consider a variety of socio-economic conditions. The value of 1.45 represents considerable avoidance of radiation risk for the majority of NDT radiographers due to familiarity and work experience with radiation hazards. On the other hand, the value 1.57 indicates that most of radiation medical practitioners, in particular, interventional radiologists have a strong will to avoid radiation risk. However, they will accept more risk with incremental salary increases. For international comparison, the concept of Purchasing Power Parity (PPP) should be adopted to obtain the alpha values in real term. Certainly, this monetary value of the man-Sv is expected to contribute effectively in optimization of radiation protection in both medical and industrial fields. The findings of this study

  12. Loss aversion, social comparison and physical abilities at younge age

    OpenAIRE

    Nakamoto, Yasuhiro; Sato, Masayuki

    2011-01-01

    We examine the relationship between competitive behavior and social comparison where in this paper competitive behavior is measured by physical ability performance. In particular, by incorporating social comparison into prospect theory, we directly estimate the degree of loss aversion with social comparison, a concept we term `ALJ' (Avoiding Loss relative to the Joneses). Our main findings are as follows: (i) the estimated value function is refracted at another's gain and the average estimate...

  13. Identification of risk aversion factor for radiation workers in Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fadul, Abdulbagi [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Na, Seong H. [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    Radiation aversion factor reflects the degree of avoidance of radiation exposure which is considered a fundamental element in the optimization of radiation protection and a key factor in determining the real monetary value of the man-Sievert (Sv). This study provides an adjusted risk aversion factor, which was prescribed by the Korea Institute for Nuclear Safety (KINS), a regulatory body in Korea. Specifically, the Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co., Ltd. (KHNP) evaluated the monetary value of the man-Sv for Korean Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs) workers. This monetary value was assessed by the radiation aversion factor. Consequently, identifying the monetary value of the man-Sv in this study will enhance not only the effectiveness of optimization of radiation protection in Korea but also contribute to reduce doses to As Low As Reasonably Achievable (ALARA) when accounting for economic and societal aspects. The primary purpose of this study is to obtain the risk aversion factor for radiation workers in medical and industrial facilities in Korea. The secondary purpose is to evaluate the real monetary value of the man-Sv.These objectives will be accomplished by collecting data from surveys that consider a variety of socio-economic conditions. The value of 1.45 represents considerable avoidance of radiation risk for the majority of NDT radiographers due to familiarity and work experience with radiation hazards. On the other hand, the value 1.57 indicates that most of radiation medical practitioners, in particular, interventional radiologists have a strong will to avoid radiation risk. However, they will accept more risk with incremental salary increases. For international comparison, the concept of Purchasing Power Parity (PPP) should be adopted to obtain the alpha values in real term. Certainly, this monetary value of the man-Sv is expected to contribute effectively in optimization of radiation protection in both medical and industrial fields. The findings of this study

  14. Mean-Preserving-Spread Risk Aversion and The CAPM

    OpenAIRE

    Phelim P. Boyle; Chenghu Ma

    2013-01-01

    This paper establishes conditions under which the classical CAPM holds in equilibrium. Our derivation uses simple arguments to clarify and extend results available in the literature. We show that if agents are risk averse in the sense of mean-preserving-spread (MPS) the CAPM will necessarily hold, along with two-fund separation. We derive this result without imposing any distributional assumptions on asset returns. The CAPM holds even when the market contains an infinite number of securities ...

  15. Nicotine aversion: Neurobiological mechanisms and relevance to tobacco dependence vulnerability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, Christie D.; Kenny, Paul J.

    2013-01-01

    Nicotine stimulates brain reward circuitries, most prominently the mesocorticolimbic dopamine system, and this action is considered critical in establishing and maintaining the tobacco smoking habit. Compounds that attenuate nicotine reward are considered promising therapeutic candidates for tobacco dependence, but many of these agents have other actions that limit their potential utility. Nicotine is also highly noxious, particularly at higher doses, and aversive reactions to nicotine after initial exposure can decrease the likelihood of developing a tobacco habit in many first time smokers. Nevertheless, relatively little is known about the mechanisms of nicotine aversion. The purpose of this review is to present recent new insights into the neurobiological mechanisms that regulate avoidance of nicotine. First, the role of the mesocorticolimbic system, so often associated with nicotine reward, in regulating nicotine aversion is highlighted. Second, genetic variation that modifies noxious responses to nicotine and thereby influences vulnerability to tobacco dependence, in particular variation in the CHRNA5-CHRNA3-CHRNB4 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) subunit gene cluster, will be discussed. Third, the role of the habenular complex in nicotine aversion, primarily medial habenular projections to the interpeduncular nucleus (IPN) but also lateral habenular projections to rostromedial tegmental nucleus (RMTg) and ventral tegmental area (VTA) are reviewed. Forth, brain circuits that are enriched in nAChRs, but whose role in nicotine avoidance has not yet been assessed, will be proposed. Finally, the feasibility of developing novel therapeutic agents for tobacco dependence that act not by blocking nicotine reward but by enhancing nicotine avoidance will be considered. PMID:24055497

  16. Ethanol-induced conditioned taste aversion in male sprague-dawley rats: impact of age and stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Rachel I; Varlinskaya, Elena I; Spear, Linda P

    2010-12-01

    Age-specific characteristics may contribute to the elevation in ethanol intake commonly reported among adolescents compared to adults. This study was designed to examine age-related differences in sensitivity to ethanol's aversive properties using a conditioned taste aversion (CTA) procedure with sucrose serving as the conditioned stimulus (CS). Given that ontogenetic differences in responsiveness to stressors have been previously reported, the role of stressor exposure on the development of CTA was also assessed. Experiment 1 examined the influence of 5 days of prior restraint stress exposure on the expression of CTA in a 2-bottle test following 1 pairing of a sucrose solution with ethanol. In Experiment 2, the effects of 7 days of social isolation on the development of CTA were observed using a 1-bottle test following multiple sucrose-ethanol pairings. This study revealed age-related differences in the development of ethanol-induced CTA. In Experiment 1, adolescents required a higher dose of ethanol than adults to demonstrate an aversion. In Experiment 2, adolescents required not only a higher ethanol dose but also more pairings of ethanol with the sucrose CS. No effects of prior stressor exposure were observed in either experiment. Together, these experiments demonstrate an adolescent-specific insensitivity to the aversive properties of ethanol that elicit CTA, a pattern not influenced by repeated restraint stress or housing in social isolation. This age-related insensitivity to the dysphoric effects of ethanol is consistent with other work from our laboratory, adding further to the evidence that adolescent rats are less susceptible to negative consequences of ethanol that may serve as cues to curb consumption. Copyright © 2010 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  17. Risk aversion affects economic values of blue fox breeding scheme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peura, J; Kempe, R; Strandén, I; Rydhmer, L

    2016-12-01

    The profit and production of an average Finnish blue fox farm was simulated using a deterministic bio-economic farm model. Risk was included using Arrow-Prat absolute risk aversion coefficient and profit variance. Risk-rated economic values were calculated for pregnancy rate, litter loss, litter size, pelt size, pelt quality, pelt colour clarity, feed efficiency and eye infection. With high absolute risk aversion, economic values were lower than with low absolute risk aversion. Economic values were highest for litter loss (18.16 and 26.42 EUR), litter size (13.27 and 19.40 EUR), pregnancy (11.99 and 18.39 EUR) and eye infection (12.39 and 13.81 EUR). Sensitivity analysis showed that selection pressure for improved eye health depended strongly on proportion of culled animals among infected animals and much less on the proportion of infected animals. The economic value of feed efficiency was lower than expected (6.06 and 8.03 EUR). However, it was almost the same magnitude as pelt quality (7.30 and 7.30 EUR) and higher than the economic value of pelt size (3.37 and 5.26 EUR). Risk factors should be considered in blue fox breeding scheme because they change the relative importance of traits. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  18. Methods for measuring risk-aversion: problems and solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, P J

    2013-01-01

    Risk-aversion is a fundamental parameter determining how humans act when required to operate in situations of risk. Its general applicability has been discussed in a companion presentation, and this paper examines methods that have been used in the past to measure it and their attendant problems. It needs to be borne in mind that risk-aversion varies with the size of the possible loss, growing strongly as the possible loss becomes comparable with the decision maker's assets. Hence measuring risk-aversion when the potential loss or gain is small will produce values close to the risk-neutral value of zero, irrespective of who the decision maker is. It will also be shown how the generally accepted practice of basing a measurement on the results of a three-term Taylor series will estimate a limiting value, minimum or maximum, rather than the value utilised in the decision. A solution is to match the correct utility function to the results instead

  19. Methods for measuring risk-aversion: problems and solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, P. J.

    2013-09-01

    Risk-aversion is a fundamental parameter determining how humans act when required to operate in situations of risk. Its general applicability has been discussed in a companion presentation, and this paper examines methods that have been used in the past to measure it and their attendant problems. It needs to be borne in mind that risk-aversion varies with the size of the possible loss, growing strongly as the possible loss becomes comparable with the decision maker's assets. Hence measuring risk-aversion when the potential loss or gain is small will produce values close to the risk-neutral value of zero, irrespective of who the decision maker is. It will also be shown how the generally accepted practice of basing a measurement on the results of a three-term Taylor series will estimate a limiting value, minimum or maximum, rather than the value utilised in the decision. A solution is to match the correct utility function to the results instead.

  20. Determinants of Propranolol's Selective Effect on Loss Aversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokol-Hessner, Peter; Lackovic, Sandra F; Tobe, Russell H; Camerer, Colin F; Leventhal, Bennett L; Phelps, Elizabeth A

    2015-07-01

    Research on emotion and decision making has suggested that arousal mediates risky decisions, but several distinct and often confounded processes drive such choices. We used econometric modeling to separate and quantify the unique contributions of loss aversion, risk attitudes, and choice consistency to risky decision making. We administered the beta-blocker propranolol in a double-blind, placebo-controlled within-subjects study, targeting the neurohormonal basis of physiological arousal. Matching our intervention's pharmacological specificity with a quantitative model delineating decision-making components allowed us to identify the causal relationships between arousal and decision making that do and do not exist. Propranolol selectively reduced loss aversion in a baseline- and dose-dependent manner (i.e., as a function of initial loss aversion and body mass index), and did not affect risk attitudes or choice consistency. These findings provide evidence for a specific, modulatory, and causal relationship between precise components of emotion and risky decision making. © The Author(s) 2015.

  1. Model dependencies of risk aversion and working interest estimates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lerche, I.

    1996-01-01

    Working interest, W, and risk adjusted value, RAV, are evaluated using both Cozzolino's formula for exponential dependence of risk aversion and also for a hyperbolic tangent dependence. In addition, the general method is given of constructing an RAV formula for any functional choice of risk aversion dependence. Two examples are given to illustrate how the model dependencies influence choices of working interest and risk adjusted value depending on whether the expected value of the project is positive or negative. In general the Cozzolino formula provides a more conservative position for risk than does the hyperbolic tangent formula, reflecting the difference in corporate attitudes to risk aversion. The commonly used Cozzolino formula is shown to have simple exact arithmetic expressions for maximum working interest and maximum RAV; the hyperbolic tangent formula has approximate analytic expressions. Both formulae also yield approximate analytical expressions for the working interest yielding a risk neutral RAV of zero. These arithmetic results are useful for making quick estimates of working interest ranges and risk adjusted values. (Author)

  2. Aversive learning of odor-heat associations in ants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desmedt, Lucie; Baracchi, David; Devaud, Jean-Marc; Giurfa, Martin; d'Ettorre, Patrizia

    2017-12-15

    Ants have recently emerged as useful models for the study of olfactory learning. In this framework, the development of a protocol for the appetitive conditioning of the maxilla-labium extension response (MaLER) provided the possibility of studying Pavlovian odor-food learning in a controlled environment. Here we extend these studies by introducing the first Pavlovian aversive learning protocol for harnessed ants in the laboratory. We worked with carpenter ants Camponotus aethiops and first determined the capacity of different temperatures applied to the body surface to elicit the typical aversive mandible opening response (MOR). We determined that 75°C is the optimal temperature to induce MOR and chose the hind legs as the stimulated body region because of their high sensitivity. We then studied the ability of ants to learn and remember odor-heat associations using 75°C as the unconditioned stimulus. We studied learning and short-term retention after absolute (one odor paired with heat) and differential conditioning (a punished odor versus an unpunished odor). Our results show that ants successfully learn the odor-heat association under a differential-conditioning regime and thus exhibit a conditioned MOR to the punished odor. Yet, their performance under an absolute-conditioning regime is poor. These results demonstrate that ants are capable of aversive learning and confirm previous findings about the different attentional resources solicited by differential and absolute conditioning in general. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  3. Loss Aversion, Adaptive Beliefs, and Asset Pricing Dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamal Samy Selim

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We study asset pricing dynamics in artificial financial markets model. The financial market is populated with agents following two heterogeneous trading beliefs, the technical and the fundamental prediction rules. Agents switch between trading rules with respect to their past performance. The agents are loss averse over asset price fluctuations. Loss aversion behaviour depends on the past performance of the trading strategies in terms of an evolutionary fitness measure. We propose a novel application of the prospect theory to agent-based modelling, and by simulation, the effect of evolutionary fitness measure on adaptive belief system is investigated. For comparison, we study pricing dynamics of a financial market populated with chartists perceive losses and gains symmetrically. One of our contributions is validating the agent-based models using real financial data of the Egyptian Stock Exchange. We find that our framework can explain important stylized facts in financial time series, such as random walk price behaviour, bubbles and crashes, fat-tailed return distributions, power-law tails in the distribution of returns, excess volatility, volatility clustering, the absence of autocorrelation in raw returns, and the power-law autocorrelations in absolute returns. In addition to this, we find that loss aversion improves market quality and market stability.

  4. Uncertainty, loss aversion, and markets for energy efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greene, David L.

    2011-01-01

    Increasing energy efficiency is critical to mitigating greenhouse gas emissions from fossil-fuel combustion, reducing oil dependence, and achieving a sustainable global energy system. The tendency of markets to neglect apparently cost-effective energy efficiency options has been called the 'efficiency gap' or 'energy paradox.' The market for energy efficiency in new, energy-using durable goods, however, appears to have a bias that leads to undervaluation of future energy savings relative to their expected value. This paper argues that the bias is chiefly produced by the combination of substantial uncertainty about the net value of future fuel savings and the loss aversion of typical consumers. This framework relies on the theory of context-dependent preferences. The uncertainty-loss aversion bias against energy efficiency is quantifiable, making it potentially correctible by policy measures. The welfare economics of such policies remains unresolved. Data on the costs of increased fuel economy of new passenger cars, taken from a National Research Council study, illustrate how an apparently cost-effective increase in energy efficiency would be uninteresting to loss-averse consumers.

  5. Determinants of propranolol’s selective effect on loss aversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokol-Hessner, Peter; Lackovic, Sandra F.; Tobe, Russell H.; Camerer, Colin F.; Leventhal, Bennett L.; Phelps, Elizabeth A.

    2015-01-01

    Research on emotion and decision-making has suggested that arousal mediates risky decisions (e.g., Bechara et al., 1997), but several distinct and often confounded processes drive such choices. Here, we used econometric modeling to separate and quantify the unique contributions of loss aversion, risk sensitivity and choice consistency to risky decision-making. We administered the beta-blocker propranolol in a double-blind, placebo-controlled within-subjects study, targeting the neurohormonal basis of physiological arousal. Matching our intervention’s pharmacological specificity with a quantitative model delineating decision-making components allowed us to identify the causal relationships between arousal and decision-making that do and do not exist. Propranolol selectively reduced loss aversion in a baseline- and dose-dependent manner (i.e. as a function of initial loss aversion and body-mass index), and did not affect risk sensitivity or choice consistency. These findings provide evidence for a specific, modulatory, and causal relationship between precise components of both emotion and risky decision-making. PMID:26063441

  6. Glia protein aquaporin-4 regulates aversive motivation of spatial memory in Morris water maze.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ji; Li, Ying; Chen, Zhong-Guo; Dang, Hui; Ding, Jian-Hua; Fan, Yi; Hu, Gang

    2013-12-01

    Although extensive investigation has revealed that an astrocyte-specific protein aquaporin-4 (AQP4) participates in regulating synaptic plasticity and memory, a functional relationship between AQP4 and learning processing has not been clearly established. This study was designed to test our hypothesis that AQP4 modulates the aversive motivation in Morris water maze (MWM). Using hidden platform training, we observed that AQP4 KO mice significantly decreased their swimming velocity compared with wild-type (WT) mice. To test for a relationship between velocities and escape motivation, we removed the platform and subjected a new group of mice similar to the session of hidden platform training. We found that KO mice exhibited a gradual reduction in swimming velocity, while WT mice did not alter their velocity. In the subsequent probe trial, KO mice after no platform training significantly decreased their mean velocity compared with those KO mice after hide platform training. However, all of KO mice were not impaired in their ability to locate a visible, cued escape platform. Our findings, along with a previous report that AQP4 regulates memory consolidation, implicate a novel role for this glial protein in modulating the aversive motivation in spatial learning paradigm. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Opiate exposure state controls dopamine D3 receptor and cdk5/calcineurin signaling in the basolateral amygdala during reward and withdrawal aversion memory formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Laura G; Rushlow, Walter J; Laviolette, Steven R

    2017-10-03

    The dopamine (DA) D3 receptor (D3R) is highly expressed in the basolateral nucleus of the amygdala (BLA), a neural region critical for processing opiate-related reward and withdrawal aversion-related memories. Functionally, D3R transmission is linked to downstream Cdk5 and calcineurin signaling, both of which regulate D3R activity states and play critical roles in memory-related synaptic plasticity. Previous evidence links D3R transmission to opiate-related memory processing, however little is known regarding how chronic opiate exposure may alter D3R-dependent memory mechanisms. Using conditioned place preference (CPP) and withdrawal aversion (conditioned place aversion; CPA) procedures in rats, combined with molecular analyses of BLA protein expression, we examined the effects of chronic opiate exposure on the functional role of intra-BLA D3R transmission during the acquisition of opiate reward or withdrawal aversion memories. Remarkably, we report that the state of opiate exposure during behavioural conditioning (opiate-naïve/non-dependent vs. chronically exposed and in withdrawal) controlled the functional role of intra-BLA D3R transmission during the acquisition of both opiate reward memories and withdrawal-aversion associative memories. Thus, whereas intra-BLA D3R blockade had no effect on opiate reward memory formation in the non-dependent state, blockade of intra-BLA D3R transmission prevented the formation of opiate reward and withdrawal aversion memory in the chronically exposed state. This switch in the functional role of D3R transmission corresponded to significant increases in Cdk5 phosphorylation and total expression levels of calcineurin, and a corresponding decrease in intra-BLA D3R expression. Inhibition of either intra-BLA Cdk5 or calcineurin reversed these effects, switching intra-BLA associative memory formation back to a D3R-independent mechanism. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Egalitarian reward contingency in competitive games and primate prefrontal neuronal activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosokawa, Takayuki; Watanabe, Masataka

    2015-01-01

    How people work to obtain a reward depends on the context of the reward delivery, such as the presence/absence of competition and the contingency of reward delivery. Since resources are limited, winning a competition is critically important for organisms' obtaining a reward. People usually expect ordinary performance-reward contingency, with better performers obtaining better rewards. Unordinary reward contingency, such as egalitarianism (equal rewards/no-rewards to both good and poor performers), dampens people's motivation. We previously reported that monkeys were more motivated, and neurons in the lateral prefrontal cortex (LPFC) showed higher outcome-related activity in a competitive than in a noncompetitive game (Hosokawa and Watanabe, 2012). However, monkey's behavior and LPFC neuronal activity have not been examined in a competitive situation with an unordinary performance-reward contingency. Also, the fixed performance-reward contingency in the previous study did not allow us to examine effects of win/loss separately from those of reward/no-reward on prefrontal neuronal activity. Here, we employed the egalitarian competitive situation in which both the winner and loser, or neither of them, got a reward as well as the normal competitive situation in which only the winner got a reward. Monkey's behavioral performance greatly deteriorated in trials with the egalitarian outcome conditions. LPFC neurons showed activities that reflected the normal or egalitarian outcome condition while very few neurons coded win/loss independent of reward/no-reward. Importantly, we found neurons that showed reward-related activity in the normal, but not in the egalitarian outcome conditions, even though the same reward was given to the animal. These results indicate that LPFC may play an important role in monitoring the current reward contingency and integrating it with the performance outcome (win-loss) for better performing the competitive game, and thus for better survival.

  9. Industry Environment And Business Strategy: A Comparison Of Contingency Theory Expectations And Relationships Between Small Manufacturing Firm Managers Perceptions Of Environment And Strategy

    OpenAIRE

    Alfred M. Pelham; Pamela Lieb

    2011-01-01

    Contingency theory suggests that that an appropriate match must be made between strategy and industry environment conditions. This study compared contingency theory expectations with the associations between perceptions of industry environment conditions and reported firm strategy, as reported by the firms president and national sales manager. Confirming theory expectations, there were significant and positive associations between perceived industry technical/market turbulence and reported gr...

  10. Economic decision biases and fundamental motivations: how mating and self-protection alter loss aversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yexin Jessica; Kenrick, Douglas T; Griskevicius, Vladas; Neuberg, Steven L

    2012-03-01

    Much research shows that people are loss averse, meaning that they weigh losses more heavily than gains. Drawing on an evolutionary perspective, we propose that although loss aversion might have been adaptive for solving challenges in the domain of self-protection, this may not be true for men in the domain of mating. Three experiments examine how loss aversion is influenced by mating and self-protection motives. Findings reveal that mating motives selectively erased loss aversion in men. In contrast, self-protective motives led both men and women to become more loss averse. Overall, loss aversion appears to be sensitive to evolutionarily important motives, suggesting that it may be a domain-specific bias operating according to an adaptive logic of recurring threats and opportunities in different evolutionary domains.

  11. A study of the user's perception of economic value in nursing visits to primary care by the method of contingent valuation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conde-López Juan

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The identification of the attribution of economic value that users of a health system assign to a health service could be useful in planning these services. The method of contingent valuation can provide information about the user's perception of value in monetary terms, and therefore comparable between services of a very different nature. This study attempts to extract the economic value that the subject, user of primary care nursing services in a public health system, attributes to this service by the method of contingent valuation, based on the perspectives of Willingness to Pay (WTP and Willingness to Accept [Compensation] (WTA. Methods/Design This is an economic study with a transversal design. The contingent valuation method will be used to estimate the user's willingness to pay (WTP for the care received from the primary care nurse and the willingness to accept [compensation] (WTA, were this service eliminated. A survey that meets the requisites of the contingent valuation method will be constructed and pilot-tested. Subsequently, 600 interviews will be performed with subjects chosen by systematic randomized sampling from among those who visit nursing at twenty health centers with different socioeconomic characteristics in the Community of Madrid. The characteristics of the subject and of the care received that can explain the variations in WTP, WTA and in the WTP/WTA ratio expressed will be studied. A theoretical validation of contingent valuation will be performed constructing two explanatory multivariate mixed models in which the dependent variable will be WTP, and the WTP/WTA relationship, respectively. Discussion The identification of the attribution of economic value to a health service that does not have a direct price at the time of use, such as a visit to primary care nursing, and the definition of a profile of "loss aversion" in reference to the service evaluated, can be relevant elements in planning

  12. Skype me! Socially Contingent Interactions Help Toddlers Learn Language

    OpenAIRE

    Roseberry, Sarah; Hirsh-Pasek, Kathy; Golinkoff, Roberta Michnick

    2013-01-01

    Language learning takes place in the context of social interactions, yet the mechanisms that render social interactions useful for learning language remain unclear. This paper focuses on whether social contingency might support word learning. Toddlers aged 24- to 30-months (N=36) were exposed to novel verbs in one of three conditions: live interaction training, socially contingent video training over video chat, and non-contingent video training (yoked video). Results sugges...

  13. Contingency planning in southern Africa: Events rather than processes?

    OpenAIRE

    Elias Mabaso; Siambabala B. Manyena

    2013-01-01

    With the increasing frequency, magnitude and impact of disasters, there is growing focus on contingency planning as a tool for enhancing resilience. Yet, there is little empirical evidence that reflects on the practice of contingency planning systems within the context of disaster risk reduction. This article explores the practice of contingency planning in southern Africa, focussing on Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia, Zambia and Zimbabwe. A qualitative comparative analysis informed by fieldwork ...

  14. Dysphoric mood states are related to sensitivity to temporal changes in contingency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel M. eMsetfi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available A controversial finding in the field of causal learning is that mood contributes to the accuracy of perceptions of uncorrelated relationships. When asked to report the degree of control between an action and its outcome, people with dysphoria or depression are claimed to be more realistic in reporting non-contingency (e.g., Alloy & Abramson, 1979. The strongest evidence for this depressive realism (DR effect is derived from data collected with experimental procedures in which the dependent variables are verbal or written ratings of contingency or cause, and, perhaps more importantly, the independent variable in these procedures may be ambiguous and difficult to define. In order to address these possible confounds, we used a two-response free-operant causal learning task in which the dependent measures were performance based. Participants were required to respond to maximise the occurrence of a temporally contiguous outcome that was programmed with different probabilities, which also varied temporally across two responses. Dysphoric participants were more sensitive to the changing outcome contingencies than controls even though they responded at a similar rate. During probe trials, in which the outcome was masked, their performance recovered more quickly than that of the control group. These data provide unexpected support for the depressive realism hypothesis suggesting that dysphoria is associated with heightened sensitivity to temporal shifts in contingency.

  15. Dysphoric Mood States are Related to Sensitivity to Temporal Changes in Contingency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Msetfi, Rachel M; Murphy, Robin A; Kornbrot, Diana E

    2012-01-01

    A controversial finding in the field of causal learning is that mood contributes to the accuracy of perceptions of uncorrelated relationships. When asked to report the degree of control between an action and its outcome, people with dysphoria or depression are claimed to be more realistic in reporting non-contingency (e.g., Alloy and Abramson, 1979). The strongest evidence for this depressive realism (DR) effect is derived from data collected with experimental procedures in which the dependent variables are verbal or written ratings of contingency or cause, and, perhaps more importantly, the independent variable in these procedures may be ambiguous and difficult to define. In order to address these possible confounds, we used a two-response free-operant causal learning task in which the dependent measures were performance based. Participants were required to respond to maximize the occurrence of a temporally contiguous outcome that was programmed with different probabilities, which also varied temporally across two responses. Dysphoric participants were more sensitive to the changing outcome contingencies than controls even though they responded at a similar rate. During probe trials, in which the outcome was masked, their performance recovered more quickly than that of the control group. These data provide unexpected support for the DR hypothesis suggesting that dysphoria is associated with heightened sensitivity to temporal shifts in contingency.

  16. Fairness concerns and risk aversion on recycle pricing strategies: Implications for environmentally friendly supply chains

    OpenAIRE

    He, Jianhong; Zhang, Lei; Lu, Binbin; Li, Lin

    2018-01-01

    This paper studies the pricing strategy in the closed-loop supply chain with Nash bargaining when considering fairness concerns and risk aversion. Mainly, the authors argue that behavioral factors (i.e., fairness concern and risk aversion) should be introduced into pricing process. They consider three different pricing models: the first is that both manufacturer and retailer have fairness concern; the second is both manufacturer and retailer have risk aversion and the final is manufacturer ha...

  17. On the descriptive value of loss aversion in decisions under risk: Six clarifications

    OpenAIRE

    Eyal Ert; Ido Erev

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies of loss aversion in decisions under risk have led to mixed results. Losses appear to loom larger than gains in some settings, but not in others. The current paper clarifies these results by highlighting six experimental manipulations that tend to increase the likelihood of the behavior predicted by loss aversion. These manipulations include: (1) framing of the safe alternative as the status quo; (2) ensuring that the choice pattern predicted by loss aversion maximizes the pro...

  18. The Impact of the Contingency of Robot Feedback for HRI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer, Kerstin; Lohan, Katrin Solveig; Saunders, Joe

    2013-01-01

    robot iCub on a set of shapes and on a stacking task in two conditions, once with socially contingent, nonverbal feedback implemented in response to different gaze and looming behaviors of the human tutor, and once with non-contingent, saliency-based feedback. The results of the analysis of participants......’ linguistic behaviors in the two conditions show that contingency has an impact on the complexity and the pre-structuring of the task for the robot, i.e. on the participants’ tutoring behaviors. Contingency thus plays a considerable role for learning by demonstration....

  19. Motor contingency learning and infants with Spina Bifida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Heather B; Barnes, Marcia A; Landry, Susan H; Swank, Paul; Fletcher, Jack M; Huang, Furong

    2013-02-01

    Infants with Spina Bifida (SB) were compared to typically developing infants (TD) using a conjugate reinforcement paradigm at 6 months-of-age (n = 98) to evaluate learning, and retention of a sensory-motor contingency. Analyses evaluated infant arm-waving rates at baseline (wrist not tethered to mobile), during acquisition of the sensory-motor contingency (wrist tethered), and immediately after the acquisition phase and then after a delay (wrist not tethered), controlling for arm reaching ability, gestational age, and socioeconomic status. Although both groups responded to the contingency with increased arm-waving from baseline to acquisition, 15% to 29% fewer infants with SB than TD were found to learn the contingency depending on the criterion used to determine contingency learning. In addition, infants with SB who had learned the contingency had more difficulty retaining the contingency over time when sensory feedback was absent. The findings suggest that infants with SB do not learn motor contingencies as easily or at the same rate as TD infants, and are more likely to decrease motor responses when sensory feedback is absent. Results are discussed with reference to research on contingency learning in infants with and without neurodevelopmental disorders, and with reference to motor learning in school-age children with SB.

  20. Resiliency Evaluation, Assessment and Contingency Tools, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Resiliency Evaluation, Assessment and Contingency Tools (REACT) Achieving resiliency in any system requires capabilities that are beyond the boundaries of currently...

  1. The Need for a Strategic Approach to Contingency Contracting

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    D'Angelo, Anthony F; Houglan, Danny H; Ruckwardt, Edwin

    2007-01-01

    ...; however, the contingency arena is often overlooked. Corporations are finding a strategic enterprise orientation to procurement can create or enhance their own competitive position within a market...

  2. Practical application of double-contingency protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kent, N.A.; Sanders, C.F.

    1995-01-01

    The Westinghouse Commercial Fuel Fabrication Facility in Columbia, South Carolina, manufactures fuel assemblies and core components for the commercial nuclear power industry. The ammonium diurinate conversion process converts low-enriched ( 235 U) uranium hexafluoride (UF 6 ) or uranyl nitrate into ceramic-grade uranium dioxide (UO 2 ) powder. The UO 2 powder is then tumble blended in 1700-kg containers to ensure powder homogeneity and obtain necessary enrichments. The double-contingency principle is applied to all systems, processes, and components in which special nuclear material is processed, handled, or stored to ensure that an acceptable nuclear criticality margin of safety is maintained. The Nuclear Criticality Safety (NCS) Program at the Columbia plant is divided into three primary functions: analysis and evaluation, implementation, and compliance. The primary task in analysis and evaluation is to develop comprehensive criticality safety evaluations for all proposed new installations and system modifications. These evaluations involve identifying which of the nine physical process parameters directly affect neutron multiplication and establishing bounding assumptions and criticality safety limits (CSLs). The implementation function primarily consists of translating the open-quotes NCS-speakclose quotes (parameters, k eff , contingencies, barriers, controls, etc.) into operator language (procedural requirements, valve positions, flow rates, pressures, temperatures, etc.) and communicating this information clearly to the manufacturing function through procedures and training. The compliance function deals primarily with conducting criticality safety inspections, audits, and process upset investigations. This paper presents two examples of the challenges associated with the practical implementation of the double-contingency principle to the chemical manufacturing process at the Columbia plant

  3. Rethinking Reinforcement: Allocation, Induction, and Contingency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baum, William M

    2012-01-01

    The concept of reinforcement is at least incomplete and almost certainly incorrect. An alternative way of organizing our understanding of behavior may be built around three concepts: allocation, induction, and correlation. Allocation is the measure of behavior and captures the centrality of choice: All behavior entails choice and consists of choice. Allocation changes as a result of induction and correlation. The term induction covers phenomena such as adjunctive, interim, and terminal behavior—behavior induced in a situation by occurrence of food or another Phylogenetically Important Event (PIE) in that situation. Induction resembles stimulus control in that no one-to-one relation exists between induced behavior and the inducing event. If one allowed that some stimulus control were the result of phylogeny, then induction and stimulus control would be identical, and a PIE would resemble a discriminative stimulus. Much evidence supports the idea that a PIE induces all PIE-related activities. Research also supports the idea that stimuli correlated with PIEs become PIE-related conditional inducers. Contingencies create correlations between “operant” activity (e.g., lever pressing) and PIEs (e.g., food). Once an activity has become PIE-related, the PIE induces it along with other PIE-related activities. Contingencies also constrain possible performances. These constraints specify feedback functions, which explain phenomena such as the higher response rates on ratio schedules in comparison with interval schedules. Allocations that include a lot of operant activity are “selected” only in the sense that they generate more frequent occurrence of the PIE within the constraints of the situation; contingency and induction do the “selecting.” PMID:22287807

  4. Tethered Satellite System Contingency Investigation Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-11-01

    The Tethered Satellite System (TSS-1) was launched aboard the Space Shuttle Atlantis (STS-46) on July 31, 1992. During the attempted on-orbit operations, the Tethered Satellite System failed to deploy successfully beyond 256 meters. The satellite was retrieved successfully and was returned on August 6, 1992. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Associate Administrator for Space Flight formed the Tethered Satellite System (TSS-1) Contingency Investigation Board on August 12, 1992. The TSS-1 Contingency Investigation Board was asked to review the anomalies which occurred, to determine the probable cause, and to recommend corrective measures to prevent recurrence. The board was supported by the TSS Systems Working group as identified in MSFC-TSS-11-90, 'Tethered Satellite System (TSS) Contingency Plan'. The board identified five anomalies for investigation: initial failure to retract the U2 umbilical; initial failure to flyaway; unplanned tether deployment stop at 179 meters; unplanned tether deployment stop at 256 meters; and failure to move tether in either direction at 224 meters. Initial observations of the returned flight hardware revealed evidence of mechanical interference by a bolt with the level wind mechanism travel as well as a helical shaped wrap of tether which indicated that the tether had been unwound from the reel beyond the travel by the level wind mechanism. Examination of the detailed mission events from flight data and mission logs related to the initial failure to flyaway and the failure to move in either direction at 224 meters, together with known preflight concerns regarding slack tether, focused the assessment of these anomalies on the upper tether control mechanism. After the second meeting, the board requested the working group to complete and validate a detailed integrated mission sequence to focus the fault tree analysis on a stuck U2 umbilical, level wind mechanical interference, and slack tether in upper tether

  5. 40 CFR 264.51 - Purpose and implementation of contingency plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... contingency plan. 264.51 Section 264.51 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... DISPOSAL FACILITIES Contingency Plan and Emergency Procedures § 264.51 Purpose and implementation of contingency plan. (a) Each owner or operator must have a contingency plan for his facility. The contingency...

  6. Sustainability between Necessity, Contingency and Impossibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl Bruckmeier

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable use of natural resources seems necessary to maintain functions and services of eco- and social systems in the long run. Efforts in policy and science for sustainable development have shown the splintering of local, national and global strategies. Sustainability becomes contingent and insecure with the actors´ conflicting knowledge, interests and aims, and seems even impossible through the “rebound”-effect. To make short and long term requirements of sustainability coherent requires critical, comparative and theoretical analysis of the problems met. For this purpose important concepts and theories are discussed in this review of recent interdisciplinary literature about resource management.

  7. Resource Contingency Program : Draft Environmental Impact Statement.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1995-02-01

    In 1990, the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) embarked upon the Resource Contingency Program (RCP) to fulfill its statutory responsibilities to supply electrical power to its utility, industrial and other customers in the Pacific Northwest. Instead of buying or building generating plants now, BPA has purchased options to acquire power later if needed. Three option development agreements were signed in September 1993 with three proposed natural gas-fired, combined cycle combustion turbine CT projects near Chehalis and Satsop Washington and near Hermiston, Oregon. This environmental impact statement addresses the environmental consequences of purchasing power from these options. This environmental impact statement addresses the environmental consequences of purchasing power from these options.

  8. Dissociating Contingency Awareness and Conditioned Attitudes: Evidence of Contingency-Unaware Evaluative Conditioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutter, Mandy; Sweldens, Steven; Stahl, Christoph; Unkelbach, Christian; Klauer, Karl Christoph

    2012-01-01

    Whether human evaluative conditioning can occur without contingency awareness has been the subject of an intense and ongoing debate for decades, troubled by a wide array of methodological difficulties. Following recent methodological innovations, the available evidence currently points to the conclusion that evaluative conditioning effects do not…

  9. Contingency Contractor Optimization Phase 3 Sustainment Database Design Document - Contingency Contractor Optimization Tool - Prototype

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frazier, Christopher Rawls; Durfee, Justin David; Bandlow, Alisa; Gearhart, Jared Lee; Jones, Katherine A

    2016-05-01

    The Contingency Contractor Optimization Tool – Prototype (CCOT-P) database is used to store input and output data for the linear program model described in [1]. The database allows queries to retrieve this data and updating and inserting new input data.

  10. The Necessity of Contingency or Contingent Necessity: Meillassoux, Hegel, and the Subject

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Van Houdt

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This article addresses the relationship of contingency to necessity as developed by Quentin Meillassoux and G.W.F. Hegel. Meillassoux criticizes the restriction of possibility by modern philosophy to the conditions of the transcendental subject, which he calls ‘correlationism’, and opposes to this correlationism, mathematics as an absolute form of thought. The arch-figure of a metaphysical version of correlationism for Meillassoux is Hegel. This article argues that, while Meillassoux is right to criticize a version of correlationism for restricting the range of contingency, he overlooks Hegel’s unique contribution to this issue. Hegel provides us a version of necessity modeled on the mathematical proof which answers Meillassoux’s concerns about correlationist versions of necessity but does not altogether jettison the concept of the subject. Instead, the subject in Hegel is a contingent interruption which emerges from the breaks in the kinds of necessity we posit about the world. Hegel offers us a way of tying these two concepts together in what I call ‘contingent necessity’.

  11. Contingency in the Cosmos and the Contingency of the Cosmos : Two Theological Approaches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drees, W.B.

    Contingency in reality may be epistemic, due to incomplete knowledge or the intersection of unrelated causal trajectories. In quantum physics, it appears to be ontological. More fundamental and interesting is the limit-question ‘why is there something rather than nothing,’ pointing out the

  12. A pilot study of loss aversion for drug and non-drug commodities in cocaine users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strickland, Justin C; Beckmann, Joshua S; Rush, Craig R; Stoops, William W

    2017-11-01

    Numerous studies in behavioral economics have demonstrated that individuals are more sensitive to the prospect of a loss than a gain (i.e., loss aversion). Although loss aversion has been well described in "healthy" populations, little research exists in individuals with substance use disorders. This gap is notable considering the prominent role that choice and decision-making play in drug use. The purpose of this pilot study was to evaluate loss aversion in active cocaine users. Current cocaine users (N=38; 42% female) participated in this within-subjects laboratory pilot study. Subjects completed a battery of tasks designed to assess loss aversion for drug and non-drug commodities under varying risk conditions. Standardized loss aversion coefficients (λ) were compared to theoretically and empirically relevant normative values (i.e., λ=2). Compared to normative loss aversion coefficient values, a precise and consistent decrease in loss aversion was observed in cocaine users (sample λ≈1). These values were observed across drug and non-drug commodities as well as under certain and risky conditions. These data represent the first systematic study of loss aversion in cocaine-using populations and provide evidence for equal sensitivity to losses and gains or loss equivalence. Futures studies should evaluate the specificity of these effects to a history of cocaine use as well as the impact of manipulations of loss aversion on drug use to determine how this phenomenon may contribute to intervention development efforts. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Optimal Consumption and Investment under Time-Varying Relative Risk Aversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steffensen, Mogens

    2011-01-01

    We consider the continuous time consumption-investment problem originally formalized and solved by Merton in case of constant relative risk aversion. We present a complete solution for the case where relative risk aversion with respect to consumption varies with time, having in mind an investor...... with age-dependent risk aversion. This provides a new motivation for life-cycle investment rules. We study the optimal consumption and investment rules, in particular in the case where the relative risk aversion with respect to consumption is increasing with age....

  14. Learning, awareness, and instruction: subjective contingency awareness does matter in the colour-word contingency learning paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, James R; De Houwer, Jan

    2012-12-01

    In three experiments, each of a set colour-unrelated distracting words was presented most often in a particular target print colour (e.g., "month" most often in red). In Experiment 1, half of the participants were told the word-colour contingencies in advance (instructed) and half were not (control). The instructed group showed a larger learning effect. This instruction effect was fully explained by increases in subjective awareness with instruction. In Experiment 2, contingency instructions were again given, but no contingencies were actually present. Although many participants claimed to be aware of these (non-existent) contingencies, they did not produce an instructed contingency effect. In Experiment 3, half of the participants were given contingency instructions that did not correspond to the correct contingencies. Participants with these false instructions learned the actual contingencies worse than controls. Collectively, our results suggest that conscious contingency knowledge might play a moderating role in the strength of implicit learning. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Stock Prices, the Business Cycle and Contingent Change: Evidence from Bloomberg News Market Wraps

    OpenAIRE

    Nicholas Mangee

    2014-01-01

    This study provides evidence that stock market participants revise their forecasting strategies in response to macroeconomic news contingent on the state of the economy. This study utilizes Mangee (2011)'s novel dataset based on textual information contained in Bloomberg News's end-of-the-day stock market reports. A key finding is that macroeconomic news is reported to impact stock prices with a positive relation on some days and a negative one on others. The Bloomberg data show that, on aver...

  16. Learning context modulates aversive taste strength in honey bees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Brito Sanchez, Maria Gabriela; Serre, Marion; Avarguès-Weber, Aurore; Dyer, Adrian G; Giurfa, Martin

    2015-03-01

    The capacity of honey bees (Apis mellifera) to detect bitter substances is controversial because they ingest without reluctance different kinds of bitter solutions in the laboratory, whereas free-flying bees avoid them in visual discrimination tasks. Here, we asked whether the gustatory perception of bees changes with the behavioral context so that tastes that are less effective as negative reinforcements in a given context become more effective in a different context. We trained bees to discriminate an odorant paired with 1 mol l(-1) sucrose solution from another odorant paired with either distilled water, 3 mol l(-1) NaCl or 60 mmol l(-1) quinine. Training was either Pavlovian [olfactory conditioning of the proboscis extension reflex (PER) in harnessed bees], or mainly operant (olfactory conditioning of free-walking bees in a Y-maze). PER-trained and maze-trained bees were subsequently tested both in their original context and in the alternative context. Whereas PER-trained bees transferred their choice to the Y-maze situation, Y-maze-trained bees did not respond with a PER to odors when subsequently harnessed. In both conditioning protocols, NaCl and distilled water were the strongest and the weakest aversive reinforcement, respectively. A significant variation was found for quinine, which had an intermediate aversive effect in PER conditioning but a more powerful effect in the Y-maze, similar to that of NaCl. These results thus show that the aversive strength of quinine varies with the learning context, and reveal the plasticity of the bee's gustatory system. We discuss the experimental constraints of both learning contexts and focus on stress as a key modulator of taste in the honey bee. Further explorations of bee taste are proposed to understand the physiology of taste modulation in bees. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  17. Aversive olfactory associative memory loses odor specificity over time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    König, Christian; Antwi-Adjei, Emmanuel; Ganesan, Mathangi; Kilonzo, Kasyoka; Viswanathan, Vignesh; Durairaja, Archana; Voigt, Anne; Yarali, Ayse

    2017-05-01

    Avoiding associatively learned predictors of danger is crucial for survival. Aversive memories can, however, become counter-adaptive when they are overly generalized to harmless cues and contexts. In a fruit fly odor-electric shock associative memory paradigm, we found that learned avoidance lost its specificity for the trained odor and became general to novel odors within a day of training. We discuss the possible neural circuit mechanisms of this effect and highlight the parallelism to over-generalization of learned fear behavior after an incubation period in rodents and humans, with due relevance for post-traumatic stress disorder. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  18. Labor migration and risk aversion in less developed countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, E; Stark, O

    1986-01-01

    "In this paper we question the pioneering work of Todaro, which states that rural-to-urban labor migration in less developed countries (LDCs) is an individual response to a higher urban expected income. We demonstrate that rural-to-urban labor migration is perfectly rational even if urban expected income is lower than rural income. We achieve this under a set of fairly stringent conditions: an individual decision-making entity, a one-period planning horizon, and global risk aversion. We obtain the result that a small chance of reaping a high reward is sufficient to trigger rural-to-urban labor migration." excerpt

  19. Dismissing Attachment Characteristics Dynamically Modulate Brain Networks Subserving Social Aversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Anna Linda; Borchardt, Viola; Li, Meng; van Tol, Marie-José; Demenescu, Liliana Ramona; Strauss, Bernhard; Kirchmann, Helmut; Buchheim, Anna; Metzger, Coraline D; Nolte, Tobias; Walter, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Attachment patterns influence actions, thoughts and feeling through a person's "inner working model". Speech charged with attachment-dependent content was proposed to modulate the activation of cognitive-emotional schemata in listeners. We performed a 7 Tesla rest-task-rest functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)-experiment, presenting auditory narratives prototypical of dismissing attachment representations to investigate their effect on 23 healthy males. We then examined effects of participants' attachment style and childhood trauma on brain state changes using seed-based functional connectivity (FC) analyses, and finally tested whether subjective differences in responsivity to narratives could be predicted by baseline network states. In comparison to a baseline state, we observed increased FC in a previously described "social aversion network" including dorsal anterior cingulated cortex (dACC) and left anterior middle temporal gyrus (aMTG) specifically after exposure to insecure-dismissing attachment narratives. Increased dACC-seeded FC within the social aversion network was positively related to the participants' avoidant attachment style and presence of a history of childhood trauma. Anxious attachment style on the other hand was positively correlated with FC between the dACC and a region outside of the "social aversion network", namely the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, which suggests decreased network segregation as a function of anxious attachment. Finally, the extent of subjective experience of friendliness towards the dismissing narrative was predicted by low baseline FC-values between hippocampus and inferior parietal lobule (IPL). Taken together, our study demonstrates an activation of networks related to social aversion in terms of increased connectivity after listening to insecure-dismissing attachment narratives. A causal interrelation of brain state changes and subsequent changes in social reactivity was further supported by our observation of

  20. Simulating the market coefficient of relative risk aversion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samih Antoine Azar

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, expected utility, defined by a Taylor series expansion around expected wealth, is maximized. The coefficient of relative risk aversion (CRRA that is commensurate with a 100% investment in the risky asset is simulated. The following parameters are varied: the riskless return, the market standard deviation, the market stock premium, and the skewness and the kurtosis of the risky return. Both the high extremes and the low extremes are considered. With these figures, the upper bound of the market CRRA is 3.021 and the lower bound is 0.466. Log utility, which corresponds to a CRRA of 1, is not excluded.

  1. Dismissing attachment characteristics dynamically modulate brain networks subserving social aversion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Linda eKrause

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Attachment patterns influence actions, thoughts and feeling through a person’s ‘Inner Working Model’. Speech charged with attachment-dependent content was proposed to modulate the activation of cognitive-emotional schemata in listeners. We performed a 7 Tesla rest-task-rest fMRI-experiment, presenting auditory narratives prototypical of dismissing attachment representations to investigate their effect on 23 healthy males. We then examined effects of participants’ attachment style and childhood trauma on brain state changes using seed-based functional connectivity (FC analyses, and finally tested whether subjective differences in responsivity to narratives could be predicted by baseline network states. In comparison to a baseline state, we observed increased FC in a previously described ‘social aversion network’ including dorsal anterior cingulated cortex (dACC and left anterior middle temporal gyrus (aMTG specifically after exposure to insecure-dismissing attachment narratives. Increased dACC-seeded FC within the social aversion network was positively related to the participants’ avoidant attachment style and presence of a history of childhood trauma. Anxious attachment style on the other hand was positively correlated with FC between the dACC and a region outside of the ‘social aversion network’, namely the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, which suggests decreased network segregation as a function of anxious attachment. Finally, the extent of subjective experience of friendliness towards the dismissing narrative was predicted by low baseline FC-values between hippocampus and inferior parietal lobule. Taken together, our study demonstrates an activation of networks related to social aversion in terms of increased connectivity after listening to insecure-dismissing attachment narratives. A causal interrelation of brain state changes and subsequent changes in social reactivity was further supported by our observation of direct

  2. The effectiveness of contingency management in the treatment of patients with anorexia nervosa: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziser, Katrin; Resmark, Gaby; Giel, Katrin Elisabeth; Becker, Sandra; Stuber, Felicitas; Zipfel, Stephan; Junne, Florian

    2018-03-26

    Contingency management in stipulating weight gain is routinely used in the treatment of anorexia nervosa, however, empirical investigations concerning its effectiveness have been scarce. This systematic review was conducted according to the PRISMA statement. Of N = 973 hits, 42 full-texts were included in the qualitative synthesis (11 theoretical texts, 19 case reports, 12 descriptive, cohort, and controlled trials). A central topic in the included publications concerns the enhancement of patients' autonomy through participation in the contingency management process. This heightened autonomy is achieved by using contingency contracts. Positive short-term effects on weight gain were shown, whereas follow-up results were heterogeneous. Although contingency contracts are widely used in clinical practice, our systematic review shows that empirical evidence on underlying mechanisms and efficacy is still scarce. Using an explicit treatment contract can enhance patients' motivation, compliance, and autonomy. Clinical practice should see further development including innovative motivation enhancing and conflict dissolving techniques in addressing the pronounced ambivalence often shown by patients with anorexia nervosa. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.

  3. No Occasion for Pleasure: The Self-Worth Contingency of a Setback and Coping With Humor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fay Caroline Mary Geisler

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Whether or not one uses humor to cope with a setback may depend on the idiosyncratic relation of the setback to feeling of self-worth. All people pursue the higher order goal of self-validation, but people differ in what domains of life their self-worth is contingent upon and to what extent. In this article based on an incongruity theory of humor we argue that the use of humor in coping with a highly self-worth-contingent setback may be impeded by two cognitive-motivational processes: goal-driven activation and goal shielding. From the outlined theory we derived the hypothesis that the more a domain is contingent upon self-worth, the less likely a person will be to use humor to deal with a setback in that domain. We tested this hypothesis in two studies employing two forms of self-report, i.e., ratings of reaction likelihood to setbacks described at an abstract domain level (Study 1, and ranking of reaction likelihood to concrete setbacks from different domains (Study 2. The hypothesis was affirmed in different domains of self-worth contingency controlling for the influence of habitual coping with humor, coping by disengagement, and global self-esteem.

  4. A contingent payment model of smoking cessation: effects on abstinence and withdrawal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heil, Sarah H; Tidey, Jennifer W; Holmes, Heather W; Badger, Gary J; Higgins, Stephen T

    2003-04-01

    The present study was designed to characterize nicotine withdrawal during a 5-day period in which smokers who were not trying to quit were offered monetary incentives to abstain while residing in their usual environments. Participants were randomly assigned to one of three groups. In two groups, monetary payment was delivered contingent on breath carbon monoxide levels (CO< or =8 ppm) indicating recent smoking abstinence, with the amount of payment differing between the two groups. The third group was a control group in which payment was delivered independent of smoking status. Participants provided CO samples three times per day (morning, afternoon- and evening) for 5 days (Monday-Friday). At each evening visit, all participants completed a nicotine withdrawal questionnaire and other questionnaires. Contingent payment significantly decreased expired-air CO and salivary cotinine levels as compared with the control group. No significant differences in abstinence were noted as a function of the amount paid. Participants in both contingent payment groups reported significantly more withdrawal symptoms than those in the noncontingent control group, including increases in anxiety and nervousness, impatience and restlessness, hunger, and desire to smoke. Such contingent payment procedures may provide an effective method for studying nicotine withdrawal in smokers that does not require the costly and inconvenient practice of housing research participants on a closed ward to prevent smoking.

  5. Cognitive function is associated with risk aversion in community-based older persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Patricia A; Yu, Lei; Buchman, Aron S; Laibson, David I; Bennett, David A

    2011-09-11

    Emerging data from younger and middle-aged persons suggest that cognitive ability is negatively associated with risk aversion, but this association has not been studied among older persons who are at high risk of experiencing loss of cognitive function. Using data from 369 community-dwelling older persons without dementia from the Rush Memory and Aging Project, an ongoing longitudinal epidemiologic study of aging, we examined the correlates of risk aversion and tested the hypothesis that cognition is negatively associated with risk aversion. Global cognition and five specific cognitive abilities were measured via detailed cognitive testing, and risk aversion was measured using standard behavioral economics questions in which participants were asked to choose between a certain monetary payment ($15) versus a gamble in which they could gain more than $15 or gain nothing; potential gamble gains ranged from $21.79 to $151.19 with the gain amounts varied randomly over questions. We first examined the bivariate associations of age, education, sex, income and cognition with risk aversion. Next, we examined the associations between cognition and risk aversion via mixed models adjusted for age, sex, education, and income. Finally, we conducted sensitivity analyses to ensure that our results were not driven by persons with preclinical cognitive impairment. In bivariate analyses, sex, education, income and global cognition were associated with risk aversion. However, in a mixed effect model, only sex (estimate = -1.49, standard error (SE) = 0.39, p risk aversion. Thus, a lower level of global cognitive function and female sex were associated with greater risk aversion. Moreover, performance on four out of the five cognitive domains was negatively related to risk aversion (i.e., semantic memory, episodic memory, working memory, and perceptual speed); performance on visuospatial abilities was not. A lower level of cognitive ability and female sex are associated with greater

  6. INVESTIGATION OF CONTINGENCY PATTERNS OF TEACHERS’ SCAFFOLDING IN TEACHING AND LEARNING MATHEMATICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anwar Anwar

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to investigate the patterns of scaffolding contingency in teaching and learning mathematics carried out by three teachers. Contingency patterns are obtained by examining the transcription from video recording of conversation fragments between teachers and students during the provision of scaffolding. The contingency patterns are drawn in three strategies: diagnostic strategy, intervention strategy, and checking diagnosis. The result shows that the three teachers expressed different interaction contingencies in their scaffolding activities: contingent dominant, non-contingent dominant, and pseudo-contingent. It is also found that the learning interaction performed by experienced teachers tends to be contingent dominant compared to novice teachers. Keywords: Contingency, Contingent Dominant, Non-Contingent Dominant, Pseudo Contingent, Scaffolding DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.22342/jme.8.1.3410.65-76

  7. Application of the double-contingency principle within BNFL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strafford, P.I.D.

    1995-01-01

    Historically, the double-contingency principle has been used for criticality assessment within British Nuclear Fuels plc (BNFL). This paper outlines what is understood by the double-contingency principle to illustrate how it is applied in criticality safety assessments and to highlight various problem areas that are encountered and, where possible, how they might be solved

  8. The Role of Feedback Contingency in Perceptual Category Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashby, F. Gregory; Vucovich, Lauren E.

    2016-01-01

    Feedback is highly contingent on behavior if it eventually becomes easy to predict, and weakly contingent on behavior if it remains difficult or impossible to predict even after learning is complete. Many studies have demonstrated that humans and nonhuman animals are highly sensitive to feedback contingency, but no known studies have examined how feedback contingency affects category learning, and current theories assign little or no importance to this variable. Two experiments examined the effects of contingency degradation on rule-based and information-integration category learning. In rule-based tasks, optimal accuracy is possible with a simple explicit rule, whereas optimal accuracy in information-integration tasks requires integrating information from two or more incommensurable perceptual dimensions. In both experiments, participants each learned rule-based or information-integration categories under either high or low levels of feedback contingency. The exact same stimuli were used in all four conditions and optimal accuracy was identical in every condition. Learning was good in both high-contingency conditions, but most participants showed little or no evidence of learning in either low-contingency condition. Possible causes of these effects are discussed, as well as their theoretical implications. PMID:27149393

  9. Baseline Response Levels Are a Nuisance in Infant Contingency Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millar, W. S.; Weir, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    The impact of differences in level of baseline responding on contingency learning in the first year was examined by considering the response acquisition of infants classified into baseline response quartiles. Whereas the three lower baseline groups showed the predicted increment in responding to a contingency, the highest baseline responders did…

  10. CW-FIT: Group Contingency Effects across the Day

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wills, Howard P.; Iwaszuk, Wendy M.; Kamps, Debra; Shumate, Emily

    2014-01-01

    This study explored the effects of a group-contingency intervention on student behavior across academic instructional periods. Research suggests group contingencies are evidence-based practices, yet calls for investigation to determine the best conditions and groups suited for this type of intervention. CW-FIT (Class-Wide Function-related…

  11. Roentgenologic characteristic of 7 group contingent of dispensary registration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derzhavin, V.I.; Nalivajko, N.N.; Kozlova, L.N.; Petrik, R.N.

    1984-01-01

    9694 persons of 7 group contingent of dispensary registration were examined. Roentgenologic study of posttuberculous changes of 7 group contingent of dispensary registration showed that in people of 7-A subgroup prevail processes of secondary genesis (79.4%) and in people of 7-B subgroup - of primary genesis (55.8%). Consequences of secondary tuberculosis are most recurring

  12. Relative speed of processing determines color-word contingency learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrin, Noah D; MacLeod, Colin M

    2017-10-01

    In three experiments, we tested a relative-speed-of-processing account of color-word contingency learning, a phenomenon in which color identification responses to high-contingency stimuli (words that appear most often in particular colors) are faster than those to low-contingency stimuli. Experiment 1 showed equally large contingency-learning effects whether responding was to the colors or to the words, likely due to slow responding to both dimensions because of the unfamiliar mapping required by the key press responses. For Experiment 2, participants switched to vocal responding, in which reading words is considerably faster than naming colors, and we obtained a contingency-learning effect only for color naming, the slower dimension. In Experiment 3, previewing the color information resulted in a reduced contingency-learning effect for color naming, but it enhanced the contingency-learning effect for word reading. These results are all consistent with contingency learning influencing performance only when the nominally irrelevant feature is faster to process than the relevant feature, and therefore are entirely in accord with a relative-speed-of-processing explanation.

  13. The double-contingency principle: An historical perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knief, R.A.

    1995-01-01

    Standard ANSI/ANS-8.1 states the double contingency principle as: Process designs should, in general, incorporate sufficient factors of safety to require at least two unlikely, independent, and concurrent changes in process conditions before a criticality accident is possible. This paper presents a perspective on the double contingency principle

  14. Appraisal of the Performance of Contingency Cost Provision for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper appraised performance of contingency allowance in addressing projects' cost risk. To achieve this aim, impact of contingency provision in some selected building projects were evaluated. Data for the study was collected by means of checklist from 40 completed projects' files. Furthermore, 100 questionnaires on ...

  15. Analisa Kemampuan Saluran Berdasarkan Metode Contingency N-1 Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Syukriyadin,; Susanti, Rahmi

    2010-01-01

    Sistem transmisi memegang peranan yang sangatpenting dalam proses penyaluran daya. Oleh karena itupengamanan pada saluran transmisi perlu mendapatperhatian yang serius dalam perencanaannya. Analisakemampuan saluran merupakan aplikasi untuk mempelajarikestabilan sistem. Analisa kemampuan saluran dalampenelitian ini menggunakan metode contingency N-1 analysis.Contingency N-1 analysis merupakan sebuah program untukmemperhitungkan berbagi kondisi yang mungkin terjadidalam sistem dimasa yang akan ...

  16. The Role of Relational Information in Contingent Capture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Stefanie I.; Folk, Charles L.; Remington, Roger W.

    2010-01-01

    On the contingent capture account, top-down attentional control settings restrict involuntary attentional capture to items that match the features of the search target. Attention capture is involuntary, but contingent on goals and intentions. The observation that only target-similar items can capture attention has usually been taken to show that…

  17. 40 CFR 300.210 - Federal contingency plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... contingency plans under the national response system: The National Contingency Plan, RCPs, and ACPs. These... discharge under § 300.324, and to mitigate or prevent a substantial threat of such a discharge, from a vessel, offshore facility, or onshore facility operating in or near the area. (2) The areas of...

  18. Aversive tension of adolescents with anorexia nervosa in daily course: a case-controlled and smartphone-based ambulatory monitoring trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolar, David Raphael; Bürger, Arne; Hammerle, Florian; Jenetzky, Ekkehart

    2014-04-23

    Monitoring and reduction of aversive tension is a core issue in dialectical behaviour therapy of patients. It has been shown that aversive tension is increased in adult borderline personality disorder and is linked to low emotion labelling ability. However, until now there is no documented evidence that patients with anorexia nervosa suffer from aversive tension as well. Furthermore the usability of a smartphone application for ambulatory monitoring purposes has not been sufficiently explored. We compare the mean and maximum self-reported aversive tension in 20 female adolescents (12-19 years) with anorexia nervosa in outpatient treatment with 20 healthy controls. They are required to answer hourly, over a 2-day period, that is, about 30 times, four short questions on their smartphone, which ensures prompt documentation without any recall bias. At the close out, the participants give a structured usability feedback on the application and the procedure. The achieved result of this trial has direct relevance for efficient therapy strategies and is a prerequisite for trials regarding dialectical behaviour therapy in anorexia nervosa. The results will be disseminated through peer-review publications. The ethics committee of the regional medical association in Mainz, Germany approved the study protocol under the reference number 837.177.13. The trial is registered at the German clinical trials registration under the reference number DRKS00005228.

  19. Mice infected with low-virulence strains of Toxoplasma gondii lose their innate aversion to cat urine, even after extensive parasite clearance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendy Marie Ingram

    Full Text Available Toxoplasma gondii chronic infection in rodent secondary hosts has been reported to lead to a loss of innate, hard-wired fear toward cats, its primary host. However the generality of this response across T. gondii strains and the underlying mechanism for this pathogen-mediated behavioral change remain unknown. To begin exploring these questions, we evaluated the effects of infection with two previously uninvestigated isolates from the three major North American clonal lineages of T. gondii, Type III and an attenuated strain of Type I. Using an hour-long open field activity assay optimized for this purpose, we measured mouse aversion toward predator and non-predator urines. We show that loss of innate aversion of cat urine is a general trait caused by infection with any of the three major clonal lineages of parasite. Surprisingly, we found that infection with the attenuated Type I parasite results in sustained loss of aversion at times post infection when neither parasite nor ongoing brain inflammation were detectable. This suggests that T. gondii-mediated interruption of mouse innate aversion toward cat urine may occur during early acute infection in a permanent manner, not requiring persistence of parasite cysts or continuing brain inflammation.

  20. Mice infected with low-virulence strains of Toxoplasma gondii lose their innate aversion to cat urine, even after extensive parasite clearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingram, Wendy Marie; Goodrich, Leeanne M; Robey, Ellen A; Eisen, Michael B

    2013-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii chronic infection in rodent secondary hosts has been reported to lead to a loss of innate, hard-wired fear toward cats, its primary host. However the generality of this response across T. gondii strains and the underlying mechanism for this pathogen-mediated behavioral change remain unknown. To begin exploring these questions, we evaluated the effects of infection with two previously uninvestigated isolates from the three major North American clonal lineages of T. gondii, Type III and an attenuated strain of Type I. Using an hour-long open field activity assay optimized for this purpose, we measured mouse aversion toward predator and non-predator urines. We show that loss of innate aversion of cat urine is a general trait caused by infection with any of the three major clonal lineages of parasite. Surprisingly, we found that infection with the attenuated Type I parasite results in sustained loss of aversion at times post infection when neither parasite nor ongoing brain inflammation were detectable. This suggests that T. gondii-mediated interruption of mouse innate aversion toward cat urine may occur during early acute infection in a permanent manner, not requiring persistence of parasite cysts or continuing brain inflammation.

  1. Attentional Modulation of Brain Responses to Primary Appetitive and Aversive Stimuli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, Brent A.; Buck, Cara L.; McClure, Samuel M.; Nystrom, Leigh E.; Kahneman, Daniel; Cohen, Jonathan D.

    2015-01-01

    Studies of subjective well-being have conventionally relied upon self-report, which directs subjects’ attention to their emotional experiences. This method presumes that attention itself does not influence emotional processes, which could bias sampling. We tested whether attention influences experienced utility (the moment-by-moment experience of pleasure) by using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to measure the activity of brain systems thought to represent hedonic value while manipulating attentional load. Subjects received appetitive or aversive solutions orally while alternatively executing a low or high attentional load task. Brain regions associated with hedonic processing, including the ventral striatum, showed a response to both juice and quinine. This response decreased during the high-load task relative to the low-load task. Thus, attentional allocation may influence experienced utility by modulating (either directly or indirectly) the activity of brain mechanisms thought to represent hedonic value. PMID:26158468

  2. Attentional Modulation of Brain Responses to Primary Appetitive and Aversive Stimuli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brent A Field

    Full Text Available Studies of subjective well-being have conventionally relied upon self-report, which directs subjects' attention to their emotional experiences. This method presumes that attention itself does not influence emotional processes, which could bias sampling. We tested whether attention influences experienced utility (the moment-by-moment experience of pleasure by using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI to measure the activity of brain systems thought to represent hedonic value while manipulating attentional load. Subjects received appetitive or aversive solutions orally while alternatively executing a low or high attentional load task. Brain regions associated with hedonic processing, including the ventral striatum, showed a response to both juice and quinine. This response decreased during the high-load task relative to the low-load task. Thus, attentional allocation may influence experienced utility by modulating (either directly or indirectly the activity of brain mechanisms thought to represent hedonic value.

  3. A Study on Contingency Learning in Introductory Physics Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scaife, Thomas M.

    investigation of their behavior, students were asked what rule they used when answering questions. Although the self-reported rules might not be congruent with their behavior, training with specific examples might affect how students explicitly think about physics problems. In addition to exploring the effectiveness of various training examples, the results were also compared to a cognitive theory of causality: the contingency model. Physical concepts can often be expressed in terms of causal relations (e.g., a net force causes an object to accelerate), and a large body of work has found that people make many decisions that are consistent with causal reasoning. The contingency model, in particular, explains how certain statistical regularities in the co-occurrence of two events can be interpreted by individuals as causal relations, and was chosen primarily because it of its robust results and simple, parsimonious form. The empirical results demonstrate that different categories of training examples did affect student answers differently. Furthermore, these effects were mostly consistent with the predictions made by the contingency model. When rule use was explored, the self-reported rules were consistent with contingency model predictions, but indicated that examples alone were insufficient to teach complex functional relationships between physical dimensions, such as torque.

  4. Cannabinoid transmission in the prelimbic cortex bidirectionally controls opiate reward and aversion signaling through dissociable kappa versus μ-opiate receptor dependent mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Tasha; Lauzon, Nicole M; de Jaeger, Xavier; Laviolette, Steven R

    2013-09-25

    Cannabinoid, dopamine (DA), and opiate receptor pathways play integrative roles in emotional learning, associative memory, and sensory perception. Modulation of cannabinoid CB1 receptor transmission within the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) regulates the emotional valence of both rewarding and aversive experiences. Furthermore, CB1 receptor substrates functionally interact with opiate-related motivational processing circuits, particularly in the context of reward-related learning and memory. Considerable evidence demonstrates functional interactions between CB1 and DA signaling pathways during the processing of motivationally salient information. However, the role of mPFC CB1 receptor transmission in the modulation of behavioral opiate-reward processing is not currently known. Using an unbiased conditioned place preference paradigm with rats, we examined the role of intra-mPFC CB1 transmission during opiate reward learning. We report that activation or inhibition of CB1 transmission within the prelimbic cortical (PLC) division of the mPFC bidirectionally regulates the motivational valence of opiates; whereas CB1 activation switched morphine reward signaling into an aversive stimulus, blockade of CB1 transmission potentiated the rewarding properties of normally sub-reward threshold conditioning doses of morphine. Both of these effects were dependent upon DA transmission as systemic blockade of DAergic transmission prevented CB1-dependent modulation of morphine reward and aversion behaviors. We further report that CB1-mediated intra-PLC opiate motivational signaling is mediated through a μ-opiate receptor-dependent reward pathway, or a κ-opiate receptor-dependent aversion pathway, directly within the ventral tegmental area. Our results provide evidence for a novel CB1-mediated motivational valence switching mechanism within the PLC, controlling dissociable subcortical reward and aversion pathways.

  5. Skype me! Socially Contingent Interactions Help Toddlers Learn Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roseberry, Sarah; Hirsh-Pasek, Kathy; Golinkoff, Roberta Michnick

    2013-01-01

    Language learning takes place in the context of social interactions, yet the mechanisms that render social interactions useful for learning language remain unclear. This paper focuses on whether social contingency might support word learning. Toddlers aged 24- to 30-months (N=36) were exposed to novel verbs in one of three conditions: live interaction training, socially contingent video training over video chat, and non-contingent video training (yoked video). Results suggest that children only learned novel verbs in socially contingent interactions (live interactions and video chat). The current study highlights the importance of social contingency in interactions for language learning and informs the literature on learning through screen media as the first study to examine word learning through video chat technology. PMID:24112079

  6. QV modal distance displacement - a criterion for contingency ranking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rios, M.A.; Sanchez, J.L.; Zapata, C.J. [Universidad de Los Andes (Colombia). Dept. of Electrical Engineering], Emails: mrios@uniandes.edu.co, josesan@uniandes.edu.co, cjzapata@utp.edu.co

    2009-07-01

    This paper proposes a new methodology using concepts of fast decoupled load flow, modal analysis and ranking of contingencies, where the impact of each contingency is measured hourly taking into account the influence of each contingency over the mathematical model of the system, i.e. the Jacobian Matrix. This method computes the displacement of the reduced Jacobian Matrix eigenvalues used in voltage stability analysis, as a criterion of contingency ranking, considering the fact that the lowest eigenvalue in the normal operation condition is not the same lowest eigenvalue in N-1 contingency condition. It is made using all branches in the system and specific branches according to the IBPF index. The test system used is the IEEE 118 nodes. (author)

  7. Forward conditioning with wheel running causes place aversion in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masaki, Takahisa; Nakajima, Sadahiko

    2008-09-01

    Backward pairings of a distinctive chamber as a conditioned stimulus and wheel running as an unconditioned stimulus (i.e., running-then-chamber) can produce a conditioned place preference in rats. The present study explored whether a forward conditioning procedure with these stimuli (i.e., chamber-then-running) would yield place preference or aversion. Confinement of a rat in one of two distinctive chambers was followed by a 20- or 60-min running opportunity, but confinement in the other was not. After four repetitions of this treatment (i.e., differential conditioning), a choice preference test was given in which the rat had free access to both chambers. This choice test showed that the rats given 60-min running opportunities spent less time in the running-paired chamber than in the unpaired chamber. Namely, a 60-min running opportunity after confinement in a distinctive chamber caused conditioned aversion to that chamber after four paired trials. This result was discussed with regard to the opponent-process theory of motivation.

  8. Algorithm aversion: people erroneously avoid algorithms after seeing them err.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietvorst, Berkeley J; Simmons, Joseph P; Massey, Cade

    2015-02-01

    Research shows that evidence-based algorithms more accurately predict the future than do human forecasters. Yet when forecasters are deciding whether to use a human forecaster or a statistical algorithm, they often choose the human forecaster. This phenomenon, which we call algorithm aversion, is costly, and it is important to understand its causes. We show that people are especially averse to algorithmic forecasters after seeing them perform, even when they see them outperform a human forecaster. This is because people more quickly lose confidence in algorithmic than human forecasters after seeing them make the same mistake. In 5 studies, participants either saw an algorithm make forecasts, a human make forecasts, both, or neither. They then decided whether to tie their incentives to the future predictions of the algorithm or the human. Participants who saw the algorithm perform were less confident in it, and less likely to choose it over an inferior human forecaster. This was true even among those who saw the algorithm outperform the human.

  9. The Commonality of Loss Aversion across Procedures and Stimuli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Byoung W.; Gilman, Jodi M.; Kuster, John K.; Blood, Anne J.; Kuhnen, Camelia M.

    2015-01-01

    Individuals tend to give losses approximately 2-fold the weight that they give gains. Such approximations of loss aversion (LA) are almost always measured in the stimulus domain of money, rather than objects or pictures. Recent work on preference-based decision-making with a schedule-less keypress task (relative preference theory, RPT) has provided a mathematical formulation for LA similar to that in prospect theory (PT), but makes no parametric assumptions in the computation of LA, uses a variable tied to communication theory (i.e., the Shannon entropy or information), and works readily with non-monetary stimuli. We evaluated if these distinct frameworks described similar LA in healthy subjects, and found that LA during the anticipation phase of the PT-based task correlated significantly with LA related to the RPT-based task. Given the ease with which non-monetary stimuli can be used on the Internet, or in animal studies, these findings open an extensive range of applications for the study of loss aversion. Furthermore, the emergence of methodology that can be used to measure preference for both social stimuli and money brings a common framework to the evaluation of preference in both social psychology and behavioral economics. PMID:26394306

  10. The Commonality of Loss Aversion across Procedures and Stimuli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang Lee

    Full Text Available Individuals tend to give losses approximately 2-fold the weight that they give gains. Such approximations of loss aversion (LA are almost always measured in the stimulus domain of money, rather than objects or pictures. Recent work on preference-based decision-making with a schedule-less keypress task (relative preference theory, RPT has provided a mathematical formulation for LA similar to that in prospect theory (PT, but makes no parametric assumptions in the computation of LA, uses a variable tied to communication theory (i.e., the Shannon entropy or information, and works readily with non-monetary stimuli. We evaluated if these distinct frameworks described similar LA in healthy subjects, and found that LA during the anticipation phase of the PT-based task correlated significantly with LA related to the RPT-based task. Given the ease with which non-monetary stimuli can be used on the Internet, or in animal studies, these findings open an extensive range of applications for the study of loss aversion. Furthermore, the emergence of methodology that can be used to measure preference for both social stimuli and money brings a common framework to the evaluation of preference in both social psychology and behavioral economics.

  11. Ecological origins of object salience: reward, uncertainty, aversiveness and novelty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Ghazizadeh

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Among many objects around us, some of them are more salient than others (i.e., attract our attention automatically. Some objects may be inherently salient (e.g., brighter, but others may become salient by virtue of their ecological relevance through experience. However, the importance of ecological experience in guiding attention has not been studied systematically. To address this question, we let subjects (macaque monkeys view a large number of complex objects (>300, each experienced repeatedly (>5 days with rewarding, aversive or no outcome association (mere-perceptual exposure. Test of salience was done on separate days using free viewing with no outcome. We found that gaze was biased among the objects from the outset, affecting saccades to objects or fixations within objects. When the outcome was rewarding, gaze preference was stronger (i.e. positive for objects with larger or equal but uncertain rewards. The effects of aversive outcomes were variable. Gaze preference was positive for some outcome associations (e.g. airpuff, but negative for others (e.g. time-out, possibly due to differences in threat levels. Finally, novel objects attracted gaze, but mere perceptual exposure of objects reduced their salience (learned negative salience. Our results show that, in primates, object salience is strongly influenced by previous ecological experience and is supported by a large memory capacity. Owing to such learned salience, the capacity to rapidly choose important objects can grow during the entire life to promote biological fitness.

  12. The Commonality of Loss Aversion across Procedures and Stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang; Lee, Myung J; Kim, Byoung W; Gilman, Jodi M; Kuster, John K; Blood, Anne J; Kuhnen, Camelia M; Breiter, Hans C

    2015-01-01

    Individuals tend to give losses approximately 2-fold the weight that they give gains. Such approximations of loss aversion (LA) are almost always measured in the stimulus domain of money, rather than objects or pictures. Recent work on preference-based decision-making with a schedule-less keypress task (relative preference theory, RPT) has provided a mathematical formulation for LA similar to that in prospect theory (PT), but makes no parametric assumptions in the computation of LA, uses a variable tied to communication theory (i.e., the Shannon entropy or information), and works readily with non-monetary stimuli. We evaluated if these distinct frameworks described similar LA in healthy subjects, and found that LA during the anticipation phase of the PT-based task correlated significantly with LA related to the RPT-based task. Given the ease with which non-monetary stimuli can be used on the Internet, or in animal studies, these findings open an extensive range of applications for the study of loss aversion. Furthermore, the emergence of methodology that can be used to measure preference for both social stimuli and money brings a common framework to the evaluation of preference in both social psychology and behavioral economics.

  13. Loss Aversion in the Classroom: A Nudge towards a Better Grade?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grijalva, Therese; Koford, Brandon C.; Parkhurst, Gregory

    2018-01-01

    Using data from 499 students over 12 sections, 2 courses, and 3 instructors, we estimate the effect of loss aversion on the probability of turning in extra credit assignments and the effect on the overall grade. Regression results indicate no effect of loss aversion on the probability of turning in extra credit assignments and no effect on a…

  14. Appetitive but Not Aversive Olfactory Conditioning Modifies Antennal Movements in Honeybees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cholé, Hanna; Junca, Pierre; Sandoz, Jean-Christophe

    2015-01-01

    In honeybees, two olfactory conditioning protocols allow the study of appetitive and aversive Pavlovian associations. Appetitive conditioning of the proboscis extension response (PER) involves associating an odor, the conditioned stimulus (CS) with a sucrose solution, the unconditioned stimulus (US). Conversely, aversive conditioning of the sting…

  15. The Use of Aversives in Special Education: Legal and Practice Considerations for School Principals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsiyannis, Antonis; Losinski, Mickey; Whitford, Denise K.; Counts, Jennifer

    2017-01-01

    The use of aversives as a method for behavioral intervention in U.S. public schools has been a persistent concern and often subject to litigation, particularly among students with disabilities. The use of aversives (restraint, seclusion, and corporal punishment) have been supported in some cases due to their perceived necessity to keep children…

  16. Patient risk perceptions for carotid endarterectomy: which patients are strongly averse to surgery?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosworth, Hayden B; Stechuchak, Karen M; Grambow, Steven C; Oddone, Eugene Z

    2004-07-01

    Patient risk perception for surgery may be central to their willingness to undergo surgery. This study examined potential factors associated with patient aversion of surgery. This is a secondary data analysis of a prospective cohort study that examined patients referred for evaluation of carotid artery stenosis at five Veterans Affairs Medical Centers. The study collected demographic, clinical, and psychosocial information related to surgery. This analysis focused on patient response to a question assessing their aversion to surgery. Among the 1065 individuals, at the time of evaluation for carotid endarterectomy (CEA), 66% of patients had no symptoms, 16% had a transient ischemic attack, and 18% had stroke. Twelve percent of patients referred for CEA evaluation were averse to surgery. In adjusted analyses, increased age, black race, no previous surgery, lower level of chance locus of control, less trust of physicians, and less social support were significantly related to greater likelihood of surgery aversion among individuals referred for CEA evaluation. Patient degree of medical comorbidity and a validated measure of preoperative risk score were not associated with increased aversion to surgery. In previous work, aversion to CEA was associated with lack of receipt of CEA even after accounting for patient clinical appropriateness for surgery. We identified important patient characteristics associated with aversion to CEA. Interventions designed to assist patient decision making should focus on these more complex factors related to CEA aversion rather than the simple explanation of clinical usefulness.

  17. Anticipation of high arousal aversive and positive movie clips engages common and distinct neural substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, Tsafrir; Carlson, Joshua M; Rubin, Denis; Cha, Jiook; Mujica-Parodi, Lilianne

    2015-04-01

    The neural correlates of anxious anticipation have been primarily studied with aversive and neutral stimuli. In this study, we examined the effect of valence on anticipation by using high arousal aversive and positive stimuli and a condition of uncertainty (i.e. either positive or aversive). The task consisted of predetermined cues warning participants of upcoming aversive, positive, 'uncertain' (either aversive or positive) and neutral movie clips. Anticipation of all affective clips engaged common regions including the anterior insula, dorsal anterior cingulate cortex, thalamus, caudate, inferior parietal and prefrontal cortex that are associated with emotional experience, sustained attention and appraisal. In contrast, the nucleus accumbens and medial prefrontal cortex, regions implicated in reward processing, were selectively engaged during anticipation of positive clips (depicting sexually explicit content) and the mid-insula, which has been linked to processing aversive stimuli, was selectively engaged during anticipation of aversive clips (depicting graphic medical procedures); these three areas were also activated during anticipation of 'uncertain' clips reflecting a broad preparatory response for both aversive and positive stimuli. These results suggest that a common circuitry is recruited in anticipation of affective clips regardless of valence, with additional areas preferentially engaged depending on whether expected stimuli are negative or positive. © The Author (2014). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Effects of Swim Stress on Neophobia and Reconditioning Using a Conditioned Taste Aversion Procedure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Jennifer M.; Ramsey, Ashley K.; Fowler, Stephanie W.; Schachtman, Todd R.

    2012-01-01

    Previous research has found that swim stress during a classical conditioning trial attenuates conditioned taste aversion (CTA). In the current study, rats were used to examine the effects of inescapable swim stress on the habituation of neophobia to a flavored solution and reacquisition of an extinguished conditioned taste aversion. In Experiment…

  19. Does Market Experience Attenuate Risk Aversion? Evidence from Landed Farm Households in Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Melesse, Mequanint Biset; Cecchi, Francesco

    2017-01-01

    Risk preferences are important drivers of many relevant economic decisions of farm households. High risk aversion is a well-known trigger of "poverty traps" for farm households in developing countries. This paper analyzes the effect of market experience on risk aversion for a relatively large sample

  20. Lateral, Not Medial, Prefrontal Cortex Contributes to Punishment and Aversive Instrumental Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jean-Richard-dit-Bressel , Philip; McNally, Gavan P.

    2016-01-01

    Aversive outcomes punish behaviors that cause their occurrence. The prefrontal cortex (PFC) has been implicated in punishment learning and behavior, although the exact roles for different PFC regions in instrumental aversive learning and decision-making remain poorly understood. Here, we assessed the role of the orbitofrontal (OFC), rostral…