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Sample records for reported consistent condom

  1. Consistency in reporting condom use between husbands and wives in Bangladesh.

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    Islam, Mohammad Amirul; Padmadas, Sabu S; Smith, Peter W F

    2010-07-01

    Consistency in reporting contraceptive use between spouses is little understood, especially in developing settings. This research challenges the accuracy of measuring contraceptive prevalence rate, which is traditionally calculated based on women's responses. Multinomial logistic regression techniques are employed on a couple dataset from the 1999-2000 Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) to investigate the consistency in reporting condom use between husbands and wives. The level of inconsistency in reporting condom use was about 46%, of which about 32% was explained by husbands reporting condom use while wives did not, and 14% by wives reporting condom use while husbands did not. Regression analysis showed that couple education and age difference between the spouses are significant determinants of inconsistent reporting behaviour. The findings suggest the need for alternative approaches (questions) in the DHS to ensure consistency in the collection of data related to use of family planning methods.

  2. Prevalence and Predictors of Self-Reported Consistent Condom Usage among Male Clients of Female Sex Workers in Tamil Nadu, India

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    Saumya Rastogi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Clients of female sex workers (FSWs possess a high potential of transmitting HIV and other sexually transmitted infections from high risk FSWs to the general population. Promotion of safer sex practices among the clients is essential to limit the spread of HIV/AIDS epidemic. The aim of this study is to estimate the prevalence of consistent condom use (CCU among clients of FSWs and to assess the factors associated with CCU in Tamil Nadu. 146 male respondents were recruited from the hotspots who reportedly had sex with FSWs in exchange for cash at least once in the past one month. Data were analyzed using bivariate and multivariate methods. Overall, 48.6 and 0.8 percent clients consistently used condoms in the past 12 months with FSWs and regular partners, respectively. Logistic regression showed that factors such as education, peers’ use of condoms, and alcohol consumption significantly influenced clients’ CCU with FSWs. Strategies for safe sex-behaviour are needed among clients of FSWs in order to limit the spread of HIV/AIDS epidemic in the general population. The role of peer-educators in experience sharing and awareness generation must also be emphasized.

  3. The Impact of Condom Use Negotiation Self-Efficacy and Partnership Patterns on Consistent Condom Use Among College-Educated Women.

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    Nesoff, Elizabeth D; Dunkle, Kristin; Lang, Delia

    2016-02-01

    This study sought to explore the impact of condom negotiation self-efficacy, interpersonal factors, and sensational factors on condom use behavior among a population of college-educated women with different patterns and types of sexual partner. We administered an online questionnaire capturing sexual behavior, partnership patterns, perceived benefits of and barriers to condom use, and condom use negotiation self-efficacy. A total of 433 women completed the online survey. Perceived sensual, erotic, and interpersonal benefits and barriers to condom use, along with negotiation self-efficacy, were found to be significantly associated with consistent condom use. When compared to respondents reporting only main partners, respondents reporting only casual partners were more likely to use condoms while respondents reporting both main and casual partners were least likely to use condoms. Previous negative experiences with condoms were significantly associated with decreased condom use, while history of sexually transmitted infection diagnosis was not consistently associated with condom use. This study supports the importance of negotiation self-efficacy in promoting condom use; however, building women's self-efficacy is not enough for effective condom use promotion among women. The impact of interpersonal, sensual and erotic factors, as well as the context of different partnership patterns, must be considered in future interventions.

  4. Factors associated with not testing for HIV and consistent condom use among men in Soweto, South Africa.

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    Sakhile Mhlongo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Besides access to medical male circumcision, HIV testing, access to condoms and consistent condom use are additional strategies men can use to prevent HIV acquisition. We examine male behavior toward testing and condom use. OBJECTIVE: To determine factors associated with never testing for HIV and consistent condom use among men who never test in Soweto. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey in Soweto was conducted in 1539 men aged 18-32 years in 2007. Data were collected on socio-demographic and behavioral characteristics to determine factors associated with not testing and consistent condom use. RESULTS: Over two thirds (71% of men had not had an HIV test and the majority (55%, n = 602 were young (18-23. Of those not testing, condom use was poor (44%, n = 304. Men who were 18-23 years (aOR: 2.261, CI: 1.534-3.331, with primary (aOR: 2.096, CI: 1.058-4.153 or high school (aOR: 1.622, CI: 1.078-2.439 education, had sex in the last 6 months (aOR: 1.703, CI: 1.055-2.751, and had ≥1 sexual partner (aOR: 1.749, CI: 1.196-2.557 were more likely not to test. Of those reporting condom use (n = 1036, 67%, consistent condom use was 43% (n = 451. HIV testing did not correlate with condom use. CONCLUSION: Low rates of both condom use and HIV testing among men in a high HIV prevalence setting are worrisome and indicate an urgent need to develop innovative behavioral strategies to address this shortfall. Condom use is poor in this population whether tested or not tested for HIV, indicating no association between condom use and HIV testing.

  5. Social and behavioural determinants of consistent condom use among hotel and bar workers in Northern Tanzania.

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    Ao, T; Sam, N; Manongi, R; Seage, G; Kapiga, S

    2003-10-01

    Bar and hotel workers (n=519) in Moshi, Tanzania were interviewed to obtain information about potential predictors of condom use. Samples were collected for the diagnosis of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), including HIV. Consistent condom use was defined as always using condoms with sexual partners in the past five years. Overall consistent condom use in this population was 14.1%. In multivariate analyses, consistent condom use was inversely associated with low condom self-efficacy (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 0.20; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.06-0.71), low condom knowledge (AOR, 0.11; CI, 0.01-0.80), and having more than three children (AOR, 0.23; 95% CI, 0.09-0.54). Other significant predictors included perceived condom acceptability and using condoms when last exchanged sex for money or gift. These results indicate that increased specific condom knowledge, improved self-efficacy, and reduced social stigma could be effective strategies in the promotion of condom use in this population.

  6. Knowledge of correct condom use and consistency of use among adolescents in four countries in sub-Saharan Africa.

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    Bankole, Akinrinola; Ahmed, Fatima H; Neema, Stella; Ouedraogo, Christine; Konyani, Sidon

    2007-12-01

    Using data from the 2004 National Adolescent Surveys, this paper undertook a detail analysis of knowledge of correct condom use and consistency of use, as well as their covariates, among adolescents in Burkina Faso, Ghana, Malawi and Uganda. The strongest predictor of knowledge of correct condom use among both male and female adolescents is exposure to a condom use demonstration. In Burkina Faso, Ghana and Uganda, adolescents who have seen a condom demonstration are 2 to 5 times as likely as those who have not to have good knowledge of correct condom use. Age, ever received sex education in school, ever attended school and exposure to the radio are also significant predictors of knowledge of correct use, particularly among men. As indicated by behavior among young men, the extent to which adolescents use the condom consistently varies across countries. Yet, it is nowhere near the required 100% level. The proportion reporting consistent use of the method in the 3 months preceding the survey is 38% in Burkina Faso, 47% in Ghana, 20% in Malawi and 36% in Uganda. Age difference between partners is a major determinant of consistent use of condoms: young men whose partner is 0-4 years younger are about two and a half times more likely to use condoms consistently than those who whose partner is 5-9 years younger. Other important predictors of consistent condom use are residence, education, living arrangement and exposure to mass media, specifically the radio and newspaper. Findings from this study point to areas that policy and program can address to provide adolescents access to the kinds of information and service they need to achieve healthy sexual and reproductive lives.

  7. Prostate-specific antigen as a biomarker of condom failure: comparison of three laboratory assays and self-reported condom use problems in a randomized trial of female condom performance.

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    Walsh, Terri; Warner, Lee; Macaluso, Maurizio; Frezieres, Ron; Snead, Margaret; Wraxall, Brian

    2012-07-01

    Prostate-specific antigen (PSA), a biomarker for semen exposure, may provide a more objective measure of condom failure than subject self-reports. Methods for measuring PSA vary and their comparability with respect to assessing condom performance has not been adequately evaluated. This study compared results from three different PSA assays of vaginal samples collected by subjects in a randomized clinical trial which compared the performance of female condoms. We selected 30 pairs of pre- and post-coital vaginal samples from subjects who reported condom functionality problems or whose original PSA assay was positive. Samples were retested using three different PSA assays [quantitative enzyme-linked immunoassay (EIA), rocket immune-electrophoresis (RIE) and chromatographic immunoassay (CIA)]. We compared the proportion of condom uses where the post-coital PSA result indicated semen exposure for each of the three assays. Despite varying levels of sensitivity, the results from all three assays were remarkably consistent. Self-reported condom failures did not correlate well with positive PSA results, suggesting that exclusive reliance on either PSA or user self-report may be inadequate for assessing condom functionality. In combination with user self-report of condom failure, PSA testing provides a reliable, objective marker of condom functionality. Studies based on PSA testing may improve on conventional contraceptive clinical trials by offering a more direct assessment of a condom product's ability to prevent semen exposure. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Prostate-specific antigen as a biomarker of condom failure: comparison of three laboratory assays and self-reported condom use problems in a randomized trial of female condom performance☆, ☆☆

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    Walsh, Terri; Warner, Lee; Macaluso, Maurizio; Frezieres, Ron; Snead, Margaret; Wraxall, Brian

    2015-01-01

    Background Prostate-specific antigen (PSA), a biomarker for semen exposure, may provide a more objective measure of condom failure than subject self-reports. Methods for measuring PSA vary and their comparability with respect to assessing condom performance has not been adequately evaluated. This study compared results from three different PSA assays of vaginal samples collected by subjects in a randomized clinical trial which compared the performance of female condoms. Study Design We selected 30 pairs of pre- and post-coital vaginal samples from subjects who reported condom functionality problems or whose original PSA assay was positive. Samples were retested using three different PSA assays [quantitative enzyme-linked immunoassay (EIA), rocket immune-electrophoresis (RIE) and chromatographic immunoassay (CIA)]. We compared the proportion of condom uses where the post-coital PSA result indicated semen exposure for each of the three assays. Results Despite varying levels of sensitivity, the results from all three assays were remarkably consistent. Self-reported condom failures did not correlate well with positive PSA results, suggesting that exclusive reliance on either PSA or user self-report may be inadequate for assessing condom functionality. Conclusion In combination with user self-report of condom failure, PSA testing provides a reliable, objective marker of condom functionality. Studies based on PSA testing may improve on conventional contraceptive clinical trials by offering a more direct assessment of a condom product's ability to prevent semen exposure. PMID:22386229

  9. Individual, interpersonal, and community predictors of consistent condom use among Taiwanese university students.

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    Wang, Ya-Chien

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the predictive value of individual, interpersonal, and community factors for consistent condom use among university students in Taiwan. The analytic sample for this cross-sectional study comprised 105 sexually active students, a subgroup of the respondents in a survey on university students in mid-Taiwan, with a mean age of 21, and 51.4% being female. The outcome variable was assessed as the proportion of times a condom was used in sex with steady sex partners. Risky sex appeared less related to having multiple sex partners (8.57%) than with inconsistent condom use (71.4%). Hierarchical regression analysis showed that 47.4% of variance in the outcome variable could be explained by AIDS knowledge, class adjustment, perception of good friends' condom use, and discussion of condom use with good friends. This study found that predictors across different levels may work in combination to influence students' condom use. Enhancing HIV/AIDS knowledge, improving class adjustment, facilitating peer norm of condom use may work in combination to increase students' condom use.

  10. Validating the effects of social desirability on self-reported condom use behavior among commercial sex workers.

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    Morisky, Donald E; Ang, Alfonso; Sneed, Carl D

    2002-10-01

    Most studies on the transmission of HIV depend upon self-reports of risky behaviors. This study examines if there is social desirability bias with respect to self-reported condom use behavior, assesses the reliability of a self-reported condom use scale, and validates the self-reported findings with clinical sexually transmitted infection (STI) diagnosis for commercial sex workers (N = 1,383) in the Philippines. The reliability of the condom use scale is .81, and results from confirmatory factor analysis indicate that the data fit the model well. Sex workers who reported using condoms consistently had significantly lower rates of sexually transmitted infections compared to those who never used a condom (t = 7.79, p social desirability bias existed with the self-reported condom use scale. Furthermore, the condom use measure was found to have a high level of concurrent validity with STI outcomes.

  11. Predictors of consistent condom use among Chinese female sex workers: an application of the protection motivation theory.

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    Zhang, Liying; Li, Xiaoming; Zhou, Yuejiao; Lin, Danhua; Su, Shaobing; Zhang, Chen; Stanton, Bonita

    2015-01-01

    We utilized Protection Motivation Theory to assess predictors of intention and behavior of consistent condom use among Chinese female sex workers (FSWs). A self-administered questionnaire was used in a cross-sectional survey among 700 FSWs in Guangxi, China. Multivariate logistic regression analysis indicated that extrinsic and intrinsic rewards, self-efficacy, and response costs predicted consistent condom use intention and behavior among FSWs. Sexually transmitted infection/ HIV prevention programs need to reduce FSWs' perceptions of positive extrinsic rewards and intrinsic rewards for engaging in consistent condom use, reduce FSWs' perception of response costs for using a condom, and increase condom use self-efficacy among FSWs.

  12. Association of negotiation strategies with consistent use of male condoms by women receiving an HIV prevention intervention in Zimbabwe.

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    O'Leary, Ann; Moore, Janet S; Khumalo-Sakutukwa, Gertrude; Loeb, Lisa; Cobb, Daphne; Hruschka, Dan; Khan, Rizwana; Padian, Nancy

    2003-07-25

    One of the fundamental aspects of HIV counselling for women is condom negotiation strategy development. The present research sought to identify condom request strategies used by Zimbabwean women and to determine which were most effective in persuading male partners to use condoms. Of six types of strategies used by women after a prevention intervention, one was significantly associated with consistent condom use 2 months later. Implications for the development of counselling and testing protocols are discussed.

  13. Condom Use and Consistency among Teen Males. Fact Sheet. Publication #2008-37

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    Ikramullah, Erum; Manlove, Jennifer

    2008-01-01

    Teens in the United States have high rates of unintended pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections (STIs), and recent data indicate that U.S. teens are engaging in riskier sexual behaviors. Male adolescents can help to lower these rates and risks by using condoms consistently with their sexual partners. Child Trends drew on national survey…

  14. Consistent Condom Use Reduces the Genital Human Papillomavirus Burden Among High-Risk Men: The HPV Infection in Men Study

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    Pierce Campbell, Christine M.; Lin, Hui-Yi; Fulp, William; Papenfuss, Mary R.; Salmerón, Jorge J.; Quiterio, Manuel M.; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo; Villa, Luisa L.; Giuliano, Anna R.

    2013-01-01

    Background. Data supporting the efficacy of condoms against human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in males are limited. Therefore, we examined the effect of consistent condom use on genital HPV acquisition and duration of infection. Methods. A prospective analysis was conducted within the HPV Infection in Men Study, a multinational HPV cohort study. Men who were recently sexually active (n = 3323) were stratified on the basis of sexual risk behaviors and partnerships. Using Cox proportional hazards regression, type-specific incidence of HPV infection and clearance were modeled for each risk group to assess independent associations with condom use. Results. The risk of HPV acquisition was 2-fold lower among men with no steady sex partner who always used condoms, compared with those who never used condoms (hazard ratio, 0.54), after adjustment for country, age, race, education duration, smoking, alcohol, and number of recent sex partners. The probability of clearing an oncogenic HPV infection was 30% higher among nonmonogamous men who always used condoms with nonsteady sex partners, compared with men who never used condoms (hazard ratio, 1.29), after adjustment for country, age, race, education duration, marital status, smoking, alcohol, and number of recent sex partners. No protective effects of condom use were observed among monogamous men. Conclusions. Condoms should be promoted in combination with HPV vaccination to prevent HPV infection in men. PMID:23644283

  15. HBV infection in relation to consistent condom use: a population-based study in Peru.

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    Antonio Bernabe-Ortiz

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Data on hepatitis B virus (HBV prevalence are limited in developing countries. There is also limited information of consistent condom use efficacy for reducing HBV transmission at the population level. The study goal was to evaluate the prevalence and factors associated with HBV infection in Peru, and the relationship between anti-HBc positivity and consistent condom use. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Data from two different surveys performed in 28 mid-sized Peruvian cities were analyzed. Participants aged 18-29 years were selected using a multistage cluster sampling. Information was collected through a validated two-part questionnaire. The first part (face-to-face concerned demographic data, while the second part (self-administered using handheld computers concerned sexual behavior. Hepatitis B core antibody (anti-HBc was tested in 7,000 blood samples. Prevalences and associations were adjusted for sample strata, primary sampling units and population weights. Anti-HBc prevalence was 5.0% (95%CI 4.1%-5.9%, with the highest prevalence among jungle cities: 16.3% (95%CI 13.8%-19.1%. In the multivariable analysis, Anti-HBc positivity was directly associated with geographic region (highlands OR = 2.05; 95%CI 1.28-3.27, and jungle OR = 4.86; 95%CI 3.05-7.74; compared to coastal region; and inversely associated with age at sexual debut (OR = 0.90; 95%CI 0.85-0.97. Consistent condom use, evaluated in about 40% of participants, was associated with reduced prevalence (OR = 0.34; 95%CI 0.15-0.79 after adjusting for gender, geographic region, education level, lifetime number of sex partners, age at sexual debut and year of survey. CONCLUSION: Residence in highlands or jungle cities is associated with higher anti-HBc prevalences, whereas increasing age at sexual debut were associated with lower prevalences. Consistent condom use was associated with decreased risk of anti-HBc. Findings from this study emphasize the need of primary

  16. Where does treatment optimism fit in? Examining factors associated with consistent condom use among people receiving antiretroviral treatment in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

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    Hanif, Homaira; Bastos, Francisco I; Malta, Monica; Bertoni, Neilane; Winch, Peter J; Kerrigan, Deanna

    2014-10-01

    In the era of highly active antiretrovirals, people living with HIV (PLWH) have resumed sexual activity in the context of longer and healthier lives, and thus the chances of transmitting the HIV virus, as well as the potential to be re-infected also increase. HIV treatment optimism has been found to be associated with sexual risk behaviors among PLWH in different settings. A cross sectional survey was conducted to examine the relationship between treatment optimism, safer sex burnout and consistent condom use as well as variables associated with treatment optimism in a sample of PLWH on antiretrovirals (ARVs) in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil (n = 604). Seventy-two percent of participants always used a condom in the last 6 months. Homosexual, bisexual, transexual persons were less likely to use condoms consistently than heterosexuals (AOR .58 CI .42-.78). Those who were treatment optimistic (AOR .46 CI .25-.88) were more likely not use a condom consistently in the past 6 months, as were participants who reported safer sex burnout (AOR .58 CI .36-.90). Sexual orientation, safer sex burnout, and lower education levels were significantly associated with higher treatment optimism in multivariate analysis. Study findings highlight the need to address psychosocial factors such as treatment optimism and safer sex burnout associated with lower consistent condom use among PLWH in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

  17. Predictors of Consistent Condom Use Among Chinese Female Sex Workers: An Application of the Protection Motivation Theory

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    Zhang, Liying; Li, Xiaoming; Zhou, Yuejiao; Lin, Danhua; Su, Shaobing; Zhang, Chen; Stanton, Bonita

    2014-01-01

    We utilized the Protection Motivation Theory (PMT) to assess predictors of intention and behavior of consistent condom use among Chinese female sex workers (FSWs). A self-administered questionnaire was used in a cross-sectional survey among 700 FSWs in Guangxi, China. Multivariate logistic regression analysis indicated that extrinsic and intrinsic rewards, self-efficacy and response costs predicted consistent condom use intention and behavior among FSWs. STI/HIV prevention programs need to re...

  18. Reporting consistently on CSR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Christa; Nielsen, Anne Ellerup

    2006-01-01

    of a case study showing that companies use different and not necessarily consistent strategies for reporting on CSR. Finally, the implications for managerial practice are discussed. The chapter concludes by highlighting the value and awareness of the discourse and the discourse types adopted......This chapter first outlines theory and literature on CSR and Stakeholder Relations focusing on the different perspectives and the contextual and dynamic character of the CSR concept. CSR reporting challenges are discussed and a model of analysis is proposed. Next, our paper presents the results...... in the reporting material. By implementing consistent discourse strategies that interact according to a well-defined pattern or order, it is possible to communicate a strong social commitment on the one hand, and to take into consideration the expectations of the shareholders and the other stakeholders...

  19. Measuring the adoption of consistent use of condoms using the stages of change model. AIDS Community Demonstration Projects.

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    Schnell, D J; Galavotti, C; Fishbein, M; Chan, D K

    1996-01-01

    The stages of behavior change model has been used to understand a variety of health behaviors. Since consistent condom use has been promoted as a risk-reduction behavior for prevention of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, an algorithm for staging the adoption of consistent condom use during vaginal sex was empirically developed using three considerations: HIV prevention efficacy, analogy with work on staging other health-related behaviors, and condom use data from groups at high risk for HIV infection. This algorithm suggests that the adoption of consistent condom use among persons at high risk can be meaningfully measured with the model. However, variations in the algorithm details affect both the interpretation of stages and apportionment of persons across stages.

  20. Consistent Condom Use during Casual Sex among Long-Truck Drivers in Togo

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    Yaya, Issifou; Landoh, Dadja Essoya; Saka, Bayaki; Vignikin, Kokou; Aboubakari, Abdoul-Samadou; N’dri, Kouamé Mathias; Gbetoglo, Kodjo Dodji; Edorh, Atavi-Mensah; Ahlegnan, Komla; Yenkey, Holali Comlan; Toudeka, Ayawavi Sitsopé; Pitché, Palokinam

    2016-01-01

    Background In 2008, the proportion of truck drivers who were not systematically protected during sex was 63% with casual partners and 60% with sex workers. Despite the high level of knowledge on HIV/AIDS and the growing awareness of the existence of the risk of HIV infection, condom use always encounters resistance among truck drivers in Togo. We sought to document the factors associated with condom use during casual sex among trucks’ drivers in Togo. Methods This was an analytical cross-sectional study conducted in 2010 and targeted truckers at truck station on the two main roads of Togo, Lomé-Cinkassé and Kodjoviakopé-Sanvee Condji. Results In this study, 1,782 trucks’ drivers and their helpers were interviewed. All were men, and their mean age was 28.8 ± 8.8 years. Trucks’ drivers were doing an average of 3 stops on their journeys and 1,229 (69%) of them had at least two years of experience in the work. Of the 1,782 trucks’ drivers, only 620 (34.8%) had consistently used condoms during casual sex in the last three months. In multivariate analysis, predictors were: education level (primary schooling: OR = 1.54; p = 0.002; Secondary schooling and higher OR = 1.38; p = 0.036), good knowledge of ways of HIV transmission (OR = 1.53; p = 0.000), tested for HIV (OR = 1.67, p = 0.000), duration in the profession (2–5 years: OR = 1.43, p = 0.008; more than 5 years: OR = 1.38, p = 0.027), and HIV risk’s perception (OR = 1.44, p = 0.000). Conclusion These results highlight factors associated with consistent condom use during casual sex by truck drivers in Togo. This is a key population group at high risk of HIV transmission toward which the national HIV/AIDS control program should strengthen the HIV prevention strategies. PMID:27071059

  1. Social and structural factors associated with consistent condom use among female entertainment workers trading sex in the Philippines.

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    Urada, Lianne A; Morisky, Donald E; Hernandez, Laufred I; Strathdee, Steffanie A

    2013-02-01

    This paper examined socio-structural factors of consistent condom use among female entertainment workers at high risk for acquiring HIV in Metro Manila, Quezon City, Philippines. Entertainers, aged 18 and over, from 25 establishments (spa/saunas, night clubs, karaoke bars), who traded sex during the previous 6 months, underwent cross-sectional surveys. The 143 entertainers (42% not always using condoms, 58% always using condoms) had median age (23), duration in sex work (7 months), education (9 years), and 29% were married/had live-in boyfriends. In a logistic multiple regression model, social-structural vs. individual factors were associated with inconsistent condom use: being forced/deceived into sex work, less manager contact, less STI/HIV prevention knowledge acquired from medical personnel/professionals, not following a co-workers' condom use advice, and an interaction between establishment type and alcohol use with establishment guests. Interventions should consider the effects of physical (force/deception into work), social (peer, manager influence), and policy (STI/HIV prevention knowledge acquired from medical personnel/professionals) environments on consistent condom use.

  2. Condom leukoderma

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    Banerjee Raghubir

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Contact dermatitis from natural latex of condom has been reported and is attributed to latex sensitivity. Chemical leukoderma from rubber condom is probably not reported. Here we present a case of chemical leukoderma in a 32-year-old male who developed depigmentation around the shaft of the penis in a circumferential pattern. Since the lesion was solitary and the site corresponded to the point of maximum contact of the condom, a diagnosis of contact leukoderma due to latex condom was thought of. Patch testing was done with mercaptobenzothiazole (MBT, dusting powder present in the condom, and condom latex as such. The patient tested positive (3+ with mercaptobenzothiazole and the condom latex. On discontinuation of condom use and with UVB phototherapy, lesions repigmented in eight weeks.

  3. Barriers to condom purchasing: Effects of product positioning on reactions to condoms.

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    Scott-Sheldon, Lori A J; Glasford, Demis E; Marsh, Kerry L; Lust, Sarah A

    2006-12-01

    Correct and consistent condom use has been promoted as a method to prevent sexually transmitted infections including HIV. Yet research has repeatedly shown that people fail to use condoms consistently. One influence on the pervasive lack of condom use that has received relatively little attention is the context in which consumers are exposed to condoms (i.e., how condoms are displayed in retail settings). In this paper we present two studies explored variations in condom shelf placement and its effects on people's condom attitudes and acquisition. Study 1 explored the shelf placement of condoms in 59 retail outlets in Connecticut, USA and found that condoms were typically located in areas of high visibility (e.g., next to the pharmacy counter) and on shelves adjacent to feminine hygiene and disease treatment products. In Study 2, 120 heterosexual undergraduate students at the University of Connecticut were randomly assigned to evaluate condoms adjacent to sensual, positive, neutral, or negative products and found that overall men reported more positive attitudes and acquired more condoms when exposed to condoms in a sensual context compared to women in the same condition. Among women, condom attitudes were more positive in the context of neutral products; condom acquisition was strongest for women exposed to condoms in the positive aisles. These results suggest a gender-specific approach to condom promotion. Implications of these studies for HIV prevention, public health, and condom marketing strategies are discussed.

  4. Self-reported penis size and experiences with condoms among gay and bisexual men.

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    Grov, Christian; Wells, Brooke E; Parsons, Jeffrey T

    2013-02-01

    As researchers and community-based providers continue to encourage latex condom use as a chief strategy to prevent HIV transmission among men who have sex with men, research is needed to better explore the intersecting associations among penis size (length and circumference), condom feel, ease of finding condoms, recent experience of condom failure (breakage and slippage), and unprotected anal sex. Data were taken from a 2010 community-based survey of self-identified gay and bisexual men in New York City (n = 463). More than half (51.4 %) reported penile length as 6-8 in. long (15-20 cm) and 31.5 % reported penile circumference as 4-6 in. around (10-15 cm). Variation in self-reported penile dimensions was significantly associated with men's attitudes toward the typical/average condom, difficulty finding condoms that fit, and the experience of condom breakage. Men who had engaged in recent unprotected insertive anal intercourse reported significantly higher values for both penile length and circumference, and these men were significantly more likely to report that the average/typical condom was "too tight." Most men had measured their length (86.2 %) and/or circumference (68.9 %), suggesting that penile measurement might be a common and acceptable practice among gay and bisexual men. As HIV and STI prevention providers continue to serve as leading distributers of free condoms, these findings further highlight the need for condom availability to be in a variety of sizes. Improving condom fit and attitudes toward condoms may also improve condom use and minimize condom slippage and breakage.

  5. The Impact of Condom Use Negotiation Self-Efficacy and Partnership Patterns on Consistent Condom Use among College-Educated Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesoff, Elizabeth D.; Dunkle, Kristin; Lang, Delia

    2016-01-01

    This study sought to explore the impact of condom negotiation self-efficacy, interpersonal factors, and sensational factors on condom use behavior among a population of college-educated women with different patterns and types of sexual partner. We administered an online questionnaire capturing sexual behavior, partnership patterns, perceived…

  6. Social, psychological, and environmental-structural factors determine consistent condom use among rural-to-urban migrant female sex workers in Shanghai China

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    Ye Xiuxia

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To determine potential social, psychological, and environmental-structural factors that may result in motivating female sex workers (FSWs, who are rural-to-urban migrants, and their paying partners in Shanghai, China to promote consistent condom use (CCU. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in five districts of Shanghai, including three suburbs and two downtown locales. We adopted a cluster randomized sampling method to obtain 20 geographic sites, which consisted of 1 or more communities/villages proximal to a location where FSWs were accessible. Five hundred four FSWs from 132 Xitou Fang (shampoo wash rooms, massage parlors, and hair salons who explicitly provided sexual services were enrolled in the study. Each participant completed a questionnaire survey and interview aimed to collect information on the perceptions and behaviors of individuals associated with a risk for human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome(HIV/AIDS,self-efficacy at negotiating safe sex,and the physical, social, and policy environment of the establishments where they worked. Results The percentage of FSWs who reported consistent condom use with their paying partners was 63.3%. Controlling for socio-demographic characteristics in multivariate analyses, environmental-structural support (OR, 3.96; CI, 2.52–6.22 for condom use was the most significant positive predictor of CCU among FSWs and their regular paying partners. A high perception of susceptibility and risk of HIV/AIDS (OR, 1.96; CI, 1.25–3.01, a high perception of benefits on condom use to protect themselves (OR, 2.06; CI, 1.32–3.22, and high safe sex self-efficacy (OR, 2.52; CI, 1.64–3.85 also play important roles on CCU based on multivariate analyses. Conclusions Environmental-structural factor support for condom use, in addition to social, psychological, and individual cognitive factors are significant predictors of CCU among FSWs, which should be

  7. Plastic condoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1968-01-01

    Only simple equipment, simple technology and low initial capital investment are needed in their manufacture. The condoms can be made by people who were previously unskilled or only semi-skilled workers. Plastic condoms differ from those made of latex rubber in that the nature of the plastic film allows unlimited shelf-life. Also, the plastic has a higher degree of lubricity than latex rubber; if there is a demand for extra lubrication in a particular market, this can be provided. Because the plastic is inert, these condoms need not be packaged in hermetically sealed containers. All these attributes make it possible to put these condoms on the distributors' shelves in developing countries competitively with rubber condoms. The shape of the plastic condom is based on that of the lamb caecum, which has long been used as luxury-type condom. The plastic condom is made from plastic film (ethylene ethyl acrilate) of 0.001 inch (0.0254 mm.) thickness. In addition, a rubber ring is provided and sealed into the base of the condom for retention during coitus. The advantage of the plastic condom design and the equipment on which it is made is that production can be carried out either in labour-intensive economy or with varying degrees of mechanization and automation. The uniform, finished condom if made using previously untrained workers. Training of workers can be done in a matter of hours on the two machines which are needed to produce and test the condoms. The plastic film is provided on a double wound roll, and condom blanks are prepared by means of a heat-sealing die on the stamping machine. The rubber rings are united to the condom blanks on an assembly machine, which consists of a mandrel and heat-sealing equipment to seal the rubber ring to the base of the condom. Built into the assembly machine is a simple air-testing apparatus that can detect the smallest pinhole flaw in a condom. The manufacturing process is completed by unravelling the condom from the assembly

  8. Condom Tamponade in the Management of Primary Postpartum Haemorrhage: A Report of three cases in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maya, Ernest T; Buntugu, Kennedy A; Aki, Lovelace; Srofenyoh, Emmanuel K

    2015-09-01

    Postpartum haemorrhage is one of the major causes of maternal mortality worldwide. The leading cause of primary postpartum haemorrhage is uterine atony and active management of the third stage of labour with oxytocin is recommended for preventing primary postpartum haemorrhage. Parenteral oxytocin is also the drug of choice for medical management of postpartum haemorrhage secondary to uterine atony. Condom uterine balloon tamponade is .a low cost technique that can be used as a second-line option for treatment. We report retrospectively three cases of primary PPH secondary to uterine atony which were managed successfully with condom tamponade. Condom tamponade is effective in managing post partum haemorrhage secondary to uterine atony and we advocate for the training of all skilled attendants on how to insert the condom tamponade.

  9. Use of the "NYC Condom" among people who use drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Des Jarlais, Don C; McKnight, Courtney; Arasteh, Kamyar; Feelemyer, Jonathan; Perlman, David; Hagan, Holly; Cooper, Hannah L F

    2014-06-01

    We assessed awareness and use of the "NYC Condom" among persons who use heroin and cocaine in New York City. The NYC Condom distribution program is the largest free condom distribution program in the USA, with over 30 million condoms distributed per year. It includes a condom social marketing program for a specific brand, the NYC Condom with its own packaging and advertising. People who use heroin and cocaine are at relatively high risk for HIV infection and are an important target population for the program. In order to assess awareness of the NYC Condom, structured interviews and blood testing for HIV, HSV-2, and sexually transmitted infections (STI) were conducted among entrants to the Beth Israel Medical Center drug detoxification and methadone treatment programs. Participants were asked about drug use, sexual risk behaviors, and awareness and use of the NYC Condom. Univariate and multivariable regression analyses were conducted to examine the associations between use of NYC Condoms and consistent condom use with primary and casual sexual partners. A total of 970 subjects were recruited between February 2011 and December 2012. Subjects were primarily African-American and Hispanic, with a mean age of 43. Fifty-five percent of subjects reported being sexually active with primary sexual partners, and 25 % reported being sexually active with a casual partner for the 6 months prior to the interview. Sixty-five percent of subjects had heard of the NYC Condom, 48 % of those who had heard of the condom had used it, and 58 % of those who had ever used it were currently using it (in the previous 6 months). In multivariable regression analyses, current use of NYC Condoms was strongly associated with consistent condom use with primary sexual partners (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 3.99, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.85-8.58) and consistent condom use with casual sexual partners (AOR = 4.48, 95 % CI 1.49-13.42). In terms of market share, 38 % of subjects consistently using

  10. Condom practices of urban teens using Norplant contraceptive implants, oral contraceptives, and condoms for contraception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darney, P D; Callegari, L S; Swift, A; Atkinson, E S; Robert, A M

    1999-04-01

    The availability of long-acting hormonal birth control methods has created new contraceptive options for adolescents. The purpose of this study was to determine whether teens initiating these methods use condoms less frequently than teens using oral contraceptive pills or condoms alone and may therefore be at an increased risk of acquiring sexually transmitted infections. To investigate ongoing condom behavior in teens using levonorgestrel (Norplant) contraceptive implants, oral contraceptives, and condoms alone, we examined data from a 2-year prospective cohort study of 399 urban teens. The study consisted of 3 clinic-based cohorts of adolescent female contraceptive users: Norplant contraceptive implants (n = 200), oral contraceptives (n = 100), and condoms alone (n = 99). Data were collected at an admission interview and at 1- and 2-year follow-up from method continuers. Norplant contraceptive implant users were less likely than oral contraceptive or condom users to report condom use at last sex or consistent condom use at 1- and 2-year follow-up. The implant group showed a significant decrease in condom use from admission to 2 years after method initiation. The proportion of implant users self-reporting new sexually transmitted infections at 2-year follow-up, however, was not significantly greater than that of oral contraceptive or condom users. Our findings indicate that teen users of Norplant contraceptive implants are less likely to use condoms than teens who choose oral contraceptives but, probably because of differences in sexual behavior, are no more likely to self-report sexually transmitted infections. Our findings also indicate that teens who choose oral contraceptives and condoms do not use them consistently enough to avoid pregnancies or sexually transmitted infections.

  11. Women's beliefs concerning condom acquisition and use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libbus, K

    1995-10-01

    Condoms are a time-honored and reliable method of protection against pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections. However, their use, and thus their effectiveness, is determined by individual behavior. The purpose of this paper is to report attitudes and salient beliefs related to condom use in a sample of adult women. The study used Ajzen and Fishbein's Theory of Planned Behavior to identify modal, salient beliefs regarding condom acquisition and use as intentional behaviors. The study sample consisted of 58 community women who reported using condoms for contraceptive purposes within the last five years. In face-to-face, audiotaped interviews, open-ended questions were used to solicit beliefs regarding condom acquisition and use. All subject narratives were content-analyzed for recurrent themes. Women cited accessibility and effectiveness in preventing pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases as both advantages and as factors contributing to the ease of acquisition and use. Disadvantages and factors that might deter condom acquisition and use included embarrassment, objections by male partner, and effect on spontaneity. Overall, subjects exhibited accurate knowledge regarding the benefits of condom acquisition and use. However, it is possible that expressed negative beliefs could take precedence in decision-making and reduce the probability of consistent condom use.

  12. Consistent Condom Use by Female Sex Workers in Kolkata, India: Testing Theories of Economic Insecurity, Behavior Change, Life Course Vulnerability and Empowerment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fehrenbacher, Anne E; Chowdhury, Debasish; Ghose, Toorjo; Swendeman, Dallas

    2016-10-01

    Consistent condom use (CCU) is the primary HIV/STI prevention option available to sex workers globally but may be undermined by economic insecurity, life-course vulnerabilities, behavioral factors, disempowerment, or lack of effective interventions. This study examines predictors of CCU in a random household survey of brothel-based female sex workers (n = 200) in two neighborhoods served by Durbar (the Sonagachi Project) in Kolkata, India. Multivariate logistic regression analyses indicated that CCU was significantly associated with perceived HIV risk, community mobilization participation, working more days in sex work, and higher proportion of occasional clients to regular clients. Exploratory analyses stratifying by economic insecurity indicators (i.e., debt, savings, income, housing security) indicate that perceived HIV risk and community mobilization were only associated with CCU for economically secure FSW. Interventions with FSW must prioritize economic security and access to social protections as economic insecurity may undermine the efficacy of more direct condom use intervention strategies.

  13. Objective Measurement of Inaccurate Condom Use Reporting Among Women Using Depot Medroxyprogesterone Acetate for Contraception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heffron, Renee; Parikh, Urvi M; Penrose, Kerri J; Mugo, Nelly; Donnell, Deborah; Celum, Connie; Mellors, John W; Baeten, Jared M

    2017-07-01

    Observational analyses have suggested that women using the injectable contraceptive depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA) may have heightened risk of acquiring HIV. However, those analyses were potentially confounded by sexual behavior, with possible differential condom use and reporting by women using DMPA versus no contraception. In a cross-sectional study, we measured the presence of a biomarker of recent condomless sex (Y chromosomal [Yc] DNA) in vaginal swabs from HIV-uninfected African women who had an HIV-infected partner and reported 100 % condom use. Half of the samples tested were from women reporting DMPA and half were from women using no contraception. Among 428 specimens tested (213 from DMPA users and 215 from women using no contraception), 32.0 % had Yc DNA detected, with a mean of 193 copies/10,000 human cells (range 0.1-8201). The frequency of detection did not differ by contraceptive use: 34.2 % of DMPA users versus 29.8 % of women using no contraception, adjusted odds ratio 1.3 (95 % confidence interval 0.9-2.0). These results suggest that inaccurate reporting of condom use by DMPA users may not account for the heightened risk of HIV acquisition among DMPA users in some observational studies.

  14. Does it fit okay? Problems with condom use as a function of self-reported poor fit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosby, R A; Yarber, W L; Graham, C A; Sanders, S A

    2010-02-01

    To identify associations between men's self-reports of ill-fitting condoms and selected condom use problems, using an event-specific analysis. A convenience sample of men was recruited via advertisements in newspapers (two urban and one small town) and a blog on the website of a condom sales company. Men completed a questionnaire posted on the website of The Kinsey Institute for Research in Sex, Gender, and Reproduction. Inclusion criteria were: at least 18 years old, used condoms for penile-vaginal intercourse in the past 3 months and the ability to read English. In controlled, event-specific, analyses of 436 men, those reporting ill-fitting condoms (44.7%) were significantly more likely to report breakage (adjusted odds ratio (AOR 2.6), slippage (AOR 2.7), difficulty reaching orgasm, both for their female partners (AOR 1.9) and for themselves (AOR 2.3). In addition, they were more likely to report irritation of the penis (AOR 5.0) and reduced sexual pleasure, both for their female partner (AOR 1.6) and for themselves (AOR 2.4). Furthermore, they were more likely to report that condoms interfered with erection (AOR 2.0), caused erection loss (AOR 2.3), or became dry during sex (AOR 1.9). Finally, they were more likely to report removing condoms before penile-vaginal sex ended (AOR 2.0). Men and their female sex partners may benefit from public health efforts designed to promote the improved fit of condoms.

  15. Condoms: Past, present, and future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y S Marfatia

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Though many methods of prevention of STI/HIV are available, condoms remain of utmost importance. They have gone a long way from the oiled silk paper used by the Chinese and the hard sheaths made of tortoise- shell used by the Japanese to the latex condoms of today. The breakthrough came when the rubber vulcanization process was invented by Charles Goodyear and eventually the first rubber condom was made. The condom offers maximum protection( more than 90% against HIV, Hepatitis B virus and N.Gonorrhoea. They also offer protection in scenarios when alternate sexual practices are adapted. The female condom in the only female driven contraceptive method available today. Graphene and Nano lubricated condoms are new in the market and others in futuristic approach may include wearable technology/Technology driven condom and invisible Condoms.Both Correct and Consistent use of condoms needs to be promoted for HIV/STI prevention.

  16. Time to talk condoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piotrow, P T; Rinehart, W

    1991-09-01

    A great deal of avoided if political and religious leaders, educators, health care providers and the mass media would band together in an effort to promote condom use. Condoms use protects against unwanted pregnancies, STDs and AIDS. Yet, public discussions on condom use are rate. In the US, political leaders avoid mentioning the topic, and television networks severely restrict the airing of public service announcements for condoms. Worldwide, an estimated 100 billion acts of sexual intercourse take place every year. A recent report indicates that it would take a modest 13 billion condoms a year to protect everyone who is at risk of contracting AIDS and other STDs, and risk of having an unwanted pregnancy. Currently, worldwide production of condoms stands at about 6 billion a year. Furthermore, condom makers have the capacity to increase production by some 2 billion, and could add new capacity in about 2 years. Many believe that marketing condoms is a difficult enterprise, since men often report that condoms reduce pleasure, cause embarrassment, or are not available when needed. The challenge for markets, then, is to create demand. This is especially true in the US, where prime-time advertising and the use of popular entertainment, such as soap operas, could promote condoms as both safe and satisfying. In the developing world, the challenge is to make condoms widely available and affordable. Some changes have taken place since 1981, when AIDS first came into the spotlight. In the US, people now discuss the topic of STDs more openly. But an all-out effort to promote condom use has not yet begun.

  17. Female condoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... condom are spilled as it is being removed. CONVENIENCE Condoms are available without a prescription They are ... ADAM Health Solutions. About MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs Customer Support Get email updates Subscribe to RSS Follow ...

  18. Errors and Predictors of Confidence in Condom Use amongst Young Australians Attending a Music Festival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina M. Hall

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To determine the confidence and ability to use condoms correctly and consistently and the predictors of confidence in young Australians attending a festival. Methods. 288 young people aged 18 to 29 attending a mixed-genre music festival completed a survey measuring demographics, self-reported confidence using condoms, ability to use condoms, and issues experienced when using condoms in the past 12 months. Results. Self-reported confidence using condoms was high (77%. Multivariate analyses showed confidence was associated with being male (P<0.001 and having had five or more lifetime sexual partners (P=0.038. Reading packet instructions was associated with increased condom use confidence (P=0.011. Amongst participants who had used a condom in the last year, 37% had experienced the condom breaking and 48% had experienced the condom slipping off during intercourse and 51% when withdrawing the penis after sex. Conclusion. This population of young people are experiencing high rates of condom failures and are using them inconsistently or incorrectly, demonstrating the need to improve attitudes, behaviour, and knowledge about correct and consistent condom usage. There is a need to empower young Australians, particularly females, with knowledge and confidence in order to improve condom use self-efficacy.

  19. Male condom use and condom problems among women in Shanghai

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun-Qing Wu; Yu-Yan Li; Jing-Chao Ren; Na Li; Yin Zhou; Rui Zhao; Yu-Feng Zhang

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To explore the male condom use and the using problems as well as the influencing factors amongShanghai women.Methods:A prospective follow-up was conducted among1 562 subjects who used either the condom or the combined regimen as their method for fertility regulation in nine districts inShanghai.The study began in theOctober,2003 with a baseline survey, and finished in theDecember,2007.There were two groups, groupI with condom use combined regimen(condom+ECP) and groupII with condom use only.Totally812 eligible subjects were assigned to groupI, and750 to groupII.Data was collected with a daily diary card, on which menses, acts of intercourse, information on condom andECP use, and condom using problems were recorded.Data were analyzed with binary logistic regression modelsadjusting the potential confounding factors.Results:During the whole study years, in groupI the mean condom using frequency was(59.5±17.9) times and the whole course condom using frequency was (58.1±18.5).In groupII, the mean condom using frequency and the whole course condom using frequency are(57.4±19.0) and(56.4±19.7), respectively.The condom using problem rate(CUPR) in groupI and groupIIin the first month were5.05 and9.64 per100 condoms.With the progress of the study, theCUPR in both groups were decreasing.The total year’sCUPR in groupI and group II were0.82% and1.45%(P=0.002).The study showed that the common condom using problems during the1st year were too loose(41.9% in groupI and27.1% in groupII), too long(15.6% in group I and25.6% in groupII), and too slippery(21.2% in groupI and20.2% in groupII) among those reported condom using problems.Condom problems were more common in the inexperienced and in those who had not experienced problems previously.Subject’s age, education and occupation might influence condom using problem rate.Conclusions:The condom using problems indicated that condom manufacturers should continue to refine the products so as toincrease the condom

  20. Condom Use in Commercial Sex Workers and Clients Among Incarcerated Sexworkers and STD Clinic Attendees in Jinan, Shandong Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈树民; 李冰; 刘殿昌; 李长玲; 裴振环

    2003-01-01

    Background: Commercial sex workers and clients are important core populations in the transmission of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) and human im-munodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Research on the frequency and determinants of condom use in com-mercial sex workers and their clients is important in increasing condom use and reduction of the STD/HIV.Burden. Objectives: To establish the frequency of and fac-tors related to intention to use condoms and actual condom use in commercial sex contacts and to deter-mine the differences in condom use between sex work-ers and clients.Methods: Incarcerated commercial sex workers (ICSW) and male STD clinic attendees were recruited into a cross-sectional study to obtain data on the fre-quency and factors associated with intention to use condoms and condom use in commercial sexual con-tacts with an interviewer-administered questionnaire.Consistent condom use in ICSWs and never using condoms in male STD clinic attendees were analyzed using univariate and multivariate logistic regression models.Results: The frequency of reported consistent in-tention to use condoms and reported actual condom use was 62% and 50.6%, respectively among 158 ICSWs. For male STD clinic attendees, the propor-tion of reported consistent intention to use condoms and reported actual condom use was 10% and 20.7%,respectively. The factors positively influencing the consistent intention to use condoms were pregnancy preventing measures and the belief of condom efficacy in the prevention of STD/HIV, whereas the factor as-sociated with actually consistent condom use was preg-nancy-preventing measure in ICSWs. Factors associ-ated with no intention to use condoms were low income,low STD/HIV knowledge level and the frequency of visiting CSW. The latter factor was also associated with never using condoms in male STD clinic attendees. Conclusions: Consistent condom use during com-mercial sex contacts was low, especially in clients.Greater effort is needed in

  1. El estrato socioeconómico como factor predictor del uso constante de condón en adolescentes Socioeconomic strata as a predictor factor for consistent condom use among adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramiro Caballero Hoyos

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: El estrato socioeconómico juega un rol importante en las desigualdades en salud. En México, la prevalencia más alta de casos de SIDA se encuentra en población de estratos más bajos. El propósito de lo estudio fue describir el estrato socioeconómico (ajustado por variables psicosociales, situacionales y demográficas como un factor predictor del uso consistente del condón, en adolescentes. MÉTODOS: Se incluyó en el estudio una muestra de una encuesta previa aplicada a 1.410 adolescentes de 15 a 19 años y estratificada por edad, género y estrato socioeconómico de Guadalajara, México. El análisis fue aplicado sobre los 251 adolescentes que reportaron actividad sexual. El análisis estadístico se realizó mediante Ji Cuadrada, t-test, ANOVA y regresión logística. RESULTADOS: La frecuencia de uso consistente de condón fue 30,7% y hubo una prevalencia de uso irregular. El estrato socioeconómico alto fue el principal predictor (OR= 11,1, CI95%= 2,6-47,6. Otros predictores significativos fueron el género masculino, el soporte de los pares y el nivel alto de conocimientos sobre VIH/SIDA. CONCLUSIÓN: El estrato socioeconómico es un importante factor predictor del uso consistente del condón.INTRODUCTION: Socioeconomic level plays an important role in health inequalities. In Mexico, the highest prevalence of AIDS cases is among individuals of lower socioeconomic level. The purpose of the study was to describe the socioeconomic level (adjusted for psychosocial, situational and demographic variables as a predictor factor for the consistent condom use among adolescents of Guadalajara, Mexico. METHODS: A sample of 1,410 adolescents, aged 15 to 19 years, drawn from a previous survey stratified by age, gender and socioeconomic strata was included in the study. Analysis was performed in 251 adolescents who reported sexual activity. Statistical analysis was performed using Chi-square, t-test, ANOVA, and logistic regression. RESULTS

  2. Proficiency in condom use among migrant workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubens, Muni; McCoy, H Virginia; Shehadeh, Nancy

    2014-01-01

    Consistent and correct use of condoms is important to prevent the transmission of HIV and other sexually transmitted diseases. We evaluated condom use skills on an 11-point scale in which participants were observed placing a condom on a penile model. Participants were 375 sexually active African American and Hispanic migrant workers. For analysis, subjects were divided into skilled and unskilled groups by a median split of the condom use skills score. Sexual risk behaviors were analyzed between condom use skilled and unskilled groups and level of condom use skills between African Americans and Hispanics. African Americans showed better skills in using condoms, and participants in the condom-use skilled group used condoms more frequently. Finally, a logistic regression was conducted to find predictors of condom use skills. Significant predictors were ethnicity, language, and assistance-related social support (obtaining advice from people who could provide tangible assistance).

  3. Minority College Women's Views on Condom Negotiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaurin-Jones, TyWanda; Lashley, Maudry-Beverly; Marshall, Vanessa

    2015-12-22

    This study utilized quantitative and qualitative methods to (1) investigate the relationship between frequency of condom use and negotiation strategies and (2) evaluate experiences with condom negotiations among sexually active, heterosexual, African American college women. One hundred female students from a Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCU) completed a questionnaire that included the Condom Influence Strategies Scale (CIS) and participated in a focus group. An ANOVA was conducted to compare differences between never, inconsistent, and consistent condom users. Consistent condom users scored higher than never users on the "withholding sex" subscale of the CIS (4.88 vs. 3.55; p negotiation included deciding the "right timing" of discussion and having a previous history of sexual intercourse without a condom with their partner. Other key concepts that contribute to condom negotiation are the views that condoms are a male's responsibility and stigma of women who carry condoms.

  4. Egocentric Network and Condom Use Among Mid-Age Female Sex Workers in China: A Multilevel Modeling Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hongjie

    2016-04-01

    The epidemics of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) have spread among older adults in the world, including China. This study addresses the deficiency of studies about the multiple contextual influences on condom use among mid-age female sex workers (FSWs) over 35 years old. A combination of an egocentric network design and multilevel modeling was used to investigate factors of condom use over mid-age FSWs (egos) particular relationships with sexual partners (alters). Of the 1245 mid-age FSWs interviewed, 73% (907) reported having at least one sexual partner who would provide social support to egos. This generated a total of 1300 ego-alter sex ties in egos' support networks. Condoms were consistently used among one-third of sex ties. At the ego level, condoms were more likely to be used consistently if egos received a middle school education or above, had stronger perceived behavioral control for condom use, or consistently used condoms with other sex clients who were not in their support networks. At the alter level, condoms were not consistently used over spousal ties compared to other ties. Condoms were less likely to be used among alters whom ego trusted and provided emotional support. Cross-level factors (egos' attitudes toward condom use and emotional support from alters) documented a significant positive interaction on consistent condom use. Given the low frequency of condom use, future interventions should focus on mid-age FSWs and their partners within and beyond their support networks.

  5. The longitudinal association of venue stability with consistent condom use among female sex workers in two Mexico-USA border cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaines, T L; Rudolph, A E; Brouwer, K C; Strathdee, S A; Lozada, R; Martinez, G; Goldenberg, S M; Rusch, M L A

    2013-07-01

    We examined the relationship between venue stability and consistent condom use (CCU) among female sex workers who inject drugs (FSW-IDUs; n = 584) and were enrolled in a behavioural intervention in two Mexico-USA border cities. Using a generalized estimating equation approach stratified by client type and city, we found venue stability affected CCU. In Tijuana, operating primarily indoors was significantly associated with a four-fold increase in the odds of CCU among regular clients (odds ratio [OR]: 3.77, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.44, 9.89), and a seven-fold increase among casual clients (OR: 7.18, 95% CI: 2.32, 22.21), relative to FSW-IDUs spending equal time between indoor and outdoor sex work venues. In Ciudad Juarez, the trajectory of CCU increased over time and was highest among those operating primarily indoors. Results from this analysis highlight the importance of considering local mobility, including venue type and venue stability, as these characteristics jointly influence HIV risk behaviours.

  6. The longitudinal association of venue stability with consistent condom use among female sex workers in two Mexico–USA border cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaines, T L; Rudolph, A E; Brouwer, K C; Strathdee, S A; Lozada, R; Martinez, G; Goldenberg, S M; Rusch, M L A

    2014-01-01

    Summary We examined the relationship between venue stability and consistent condom use (CCU) among female sex workers who inject drugs (FSW-IDUs; n = 584) and were enrolled in a behavioural intervention in two Mexico–USA border cities. Using a generalized estimating equation approach stratified by client type and city, we found venue stability affected CCU. In Tijuana, operating primarily indoors was significantly associated with a four-fold increase in the odds of CCU among regular clients (odds ratio [OR]: 3.77, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.44, 9.89), and a seven-fold increase among casual clients (OR: 7.18, 95% CI: 2.32, 22.21), relative to FSW-IDUs spending equal time between indoor and outdoor sex work venues. In Ciudad Juarez, the trajectory of CCU increased over time and was highest among those operating primarily indoors. Results from this analysis highlight the importance of considering local mobility, including venue type and venue stability, as these characteristics jointly influence HIV risk behaviours. PMID:23970766

  7. Main partner's resistance to condoms and HIV protection among disadvantaged, minority women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrino, Tatiana; Fernandez, M Isabel; Bowen, G Stephen; Arheart, Kristopher

    2005-01-01

    From a study of high-risk minority women, we examined data for a subgroup of 201 women who participated in a "male condom- focused" HIV prevention intervention, and who reported having attempted to convince their main partner to use condoms in the 3 months following intervention. Factors related to consistent condom use with a main partner post-intervention were not living with the partner, fewer sexual encounters, and no recent sexual encounter in which either partner was under the influence of drugs. At 3 months following intervention, factors related to women's future intentions to use condoms consistently with a main partner were no recent sex while either partner was under the influence of drugs, and the woman's desire to use condoms consistently with the partner. Main partner's resistance to condoms was unrelated to consistent condom use or future intentions to use condoms consistently. Findings identify barriers to consistent condom use within primary relationships, a critical yet challenging focal point for HIV prevention interventions.

  8. Correlates of condom use among female sex workers in The Gambia: results of a cross-sectional survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashley L. Grosso

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. This study examined correlates of condom use among 248 female sex workers (FSW in The Gambia.Methods. Between July and August 2011, FSW in The Gambia who were older than 16 years of age, the age of consent in The Gambia, were recruited for the study using venue-based sampling and snowball sampling, beginning with seeds who were established clients with the Network of AIDS Services Organizations. To be eligible, FSW must have reported selling sex for money, favors, or goods in the past 12 months. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regressions were used to determine associations and the relative odds of the independent variables with condom use. Four different condom use dependent variables were used: consistent condom use in the past six months during vaginal or anal sex with all clients and partners; consistent condom use in the past month during vaginal sex with new clients; consistent condom use in the past month during vaginal sex with nonpaying partners (including boyfriends, husbands, or casual sexual partners; and condom use at last vaginal or anal sex with a nonpaying partner.Results. Many FSW (67.34%, n = 167 reported it was not at all difficult to negotiate condom use with clients in all applicable situations, and these FSW were more likely to report consistent condom use with all clients and partners in the past 6 months (aOR 3.47, 95% CI [1.70–7.07] compared to those perceiving any difficulty in condom negotiation. In addition, FSW were more likely to report using condoms in the past month with new clients (aOR 8.04, 95% CI [2.11–30.65] and in the past month with nonpaying partners (aOR 2.93, 95% CI [1.09–7.89] if they had been tested for HIV in the past year. Women who bought all their condoms were less likely than those who received all of their condoms for free (aOR 0.38, 95% CI [0.15–0.97] to have used a condom at last vaginal or anal sex with a nonpaying partner.Conclusions. HIV and sexually transmitted

  9. Condom-use errors and problems: a neglected aspect of studies assessing condom effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosby, Richard; Sanders, Stephanie; Yarber, William L; Graham, Cynthia A

    2003-05-01

    To assess and compare condom-use errors and problems among condom-using university males and females. A convenience sample of 260 undergraduates was utilized. Males (n=118) and females (n=142) reported using condoms in the past 3 months for at least one episode of sex (penis in the mouth, vagina, or rectum) with a partner of the other sex. A questionnaire assessed 15 errors and problems associated with condom use that could be observed or experienced by females as well as males. About 44% reported lack of condom availability. Errors that could contribute to failure included using sharp instruments to open condom packages (11%), storing condoms in wallets (19%), and not using a new condom when switching from one form of sex to another (83%). Thirty-eight percent reported that condoms were applied after sex had begun, and nearly 14% indicated they removed condoms before sex was concluded. Problems included loss of erection during condom application (15%) or during sex (10%). About 28% reported that condoms had either slipped off or broken. Nearly 19% perceived, at least once, that their condom problems necessitated the use of a new condom. Few differences were observed in errors and problems between males and females. Findings suggest that condom-use errors and problems may be quite common and that assessment of errors and problems do not necessarily need to be gender specific. Findings also suggest that correcting "user failure" may represent an important challenge in the practice of preventive medicine.

  10. Improving Grading Consistency through Grade Lift Reporting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millet, Ido

    2010-01-01

    We define Grade Lift as the difference between average class grade and average cumulative class GPA. This metric provides an assessment of how lenient the grading was for a given course. In 2006, we started providing faculty members individualized Grade Lift reports reflecting their position relative to an anonymously plotted school-wide…

  11. Factors associated with condom use among male college students in Wuhan, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Long

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Using condoms consistently could prevent unintended pregnancy among young people. This study highlights multiple domains of influence on condom use among male college students in China, including knowledge, attitudes, health services utility on condom use and reproductive health information sources. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To identify factors associated with condom use in Chinese male college students, we examined a sample of 870 sexually experienced male students in seven colleges in Wuhan, China, 2009. 535 (61.5% of 870 male students reported condom use during their most recent sexual encounter. Male students with steady partners were more likely to use condoms than students with casual partners (adjusted OR = 3.11, 95%CI 2.30-4.20. And positive attitudes toward contraceptive responsibility were associated with greater odds of condom use (adjusted OR = 1.40, 95%CI 1.02-1.92. Only 54(6.2% and 83(9.5% of respondents reported that free condoms and reproductive health counseling were available at the student health center. Providing free condoms and reproductive health counseling at the student health central were associated with increased condom use among college students (both P<0.05. In addition, students who gained reproductive health information mainly through websites, television and radio programs were more likely to use condoms than through school education (all P<0.05. CONCLUSIONS: Improving attitudes of male students toward contraceptive responsibility, providing proper reproductive health information through mass media and making free condoms and reproductive health counseling available in school may help increase condom use among college students in China.

  12. Changes in Condom Use Over Time Among Female Sex Workers and Their Male Noncommercial Partners and Clients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tracas, Ashley; Bazzi, Angela Robertson; Artamonova, Irina; Rangel, M Gudelia; Staines, Hugo; Ulibarri, Monica D

    2016-08-01

    Female sex workers (FSWs) often report inconsistent condom use with clients and noncommercial male partners, yet changes in condom use with various partner types during participation in observation studies remains underexplored. This longitudinal study of 214 FSWs and their male, noncommercial partners in the Mexico-U.S. border region, where HIV prevalence among FSWs continues to be high, utilized negative binomial regressions to examine changes in condom use with intimate partners and clients (regular and nonregular) over 24 months. Condom use decreased over time among couples in Ciudad Juarez, but there was no change in condom use among couples in Tijuana. FSWs' condom use with regular and nonregular clients significantly increased over time, which is consistent with previous research finding behavioral changes when participating in observational studies. Findings suggest the need for continued efforts to promote condom use among FSWs and their noncommercial male partners in addition to clients.

  13. CHANGES IN CONDOM USE OVER TIME AMONG FEMALE SEX WORKERS AND THEIR MALE NONCOMMERCIAL PARTNERS AND CLIENTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tracas, Ashley; Bazzi, Angela Robertson; Artamonova, Irina; Rangel, M. Gudelia; Staines, Hugo; Ulibarri, Monica D.

    2017-01-01

    Female sex workers (FSWs) often report inconsistent condom use with clients and noncommercial male partners, yet changes in condom use with various partner types during participation in observation studies remains underexplored. This longitudinal study of 214 FSWs and their male, noncommercial partners in the Mexico-U.S. border region, where HIV prevalence among FSWs continues to be high, utilized negative binomial regressions to examine changes in condom use with intimate partners and clients (regular and nonregular) over 24 months. Condom use decreased over time among couples in Ciudad Juarez, but there was no change in condom use among couples in Tijuana. FSWs’ condom use with regular and nonregular clients significantly increased over time, which is consistent with previous research finding behavioral changes when participating in observational studies. Findings suggest the need for continued efforts to promote condom use among FSWs and their noncommercial male partners in addition to clients. PMID:27427926

  14. Condom availability in high risk places and condom use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandøy, Ingvild Fossgard; Blystad, Astrid; Shayo, Elizabeth H.;

    2012-01-01

    and one in Zambia. The study was based on a triangulation of data collection methods in the three study districts: surveys in venues where people meet new sexual partners, population-based surveys and focus group discussions. The data was collected within an overall study on priority setting in health......Background A number of studies from countries with severe HIV epidemics have found gaps in condom availability, even in places where there is a substantial potential for HIV transmission. Although reported condom use has increased in many African countries, there are often big differences...... by socioeconomic background. The aim of this study was to assess equity aspects of condom availability and uptake in three African districts to evaluate whether condom programmes are given sufficient priority. Methods Data on condom availability and use was examined in one district in Kenya, one in Tanzania...

  15. Knowledge and practice of condom use among first year students at University of the North, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Peltzer

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study is to investigate knowledge and sexual practices with reference to correct use of condoms among first year South African University students. The sample consisted of 206 participants, 146 female and 60 male, the mean age was 20.9 years (SD=3.4, with a range from 17 to 34 years. Results indicated that one third (29.2% of the sample reported never using condoms, 35.4% always, 19.8% regularly and 8.5% irregularly in the past three months. About 90% levels of correct answers for condom use were found for the items of ‘condoms as protection against STD and AIDS’, ‘expiry date of condoms’, and ‘re-using condoms’. More than 15% were not aware that a condom should be put on before any contact with the vagina. The most common mistakes with respect to condom use were ignorance about the correct moment to put on a condom (56%, and when to take off a condom (55%. Male sex and especially increasing recent sexual encounters was associated with correct condom knowledge. The most common reasons for not using a condom were ‘I do not have the AIDS virus’ and ‘I thought I was safe’ seems to indicate a low perceived susceptibility. Findings are discussed in view of condom promotion programmes.

  16. Condom Use During Commercial Sex Among Male Clients of Female Sex Workers in Sichuan China: A Social Cognitive Theory Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yi; Yang, Cui; Latkin, Carl A; Luan, Rongsheng; Nelson, Kenrad E

    2016-10-01

    There has been little theory-based research focusing on condom use among male clients of female sex workers (CFSW) in China. The current study applied social cognitive theory to condom use behaviors of CFSW in China. Face-to-face structured interviews were conducted among 584 CFSW recruited through snowball sampling. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression models were applied to examine factors associated with consistent condom use. A minority (30.65 %) of respondents reported using condoms consistently with FSW, and 7 of 12 social cognitive dimensions/subdimensions were found to be significantly influential. The most significant factors were self-efficacy [adjusted prevalence ratio (APR) = 2.11, 95 %, CI = 1.74-2.43] and personal pleasure reduction (APR = 0.3, 95 % CI = 0.15-0.6). HIV-related knowledge, perceived HIV susceptibility, condom cost, condom efficacy, and embarrassment of carrying condoms were not associated with consistent condom uses with FSW. Findings from the current study suggest future prevention programs should target sex venues, and condom access should ensure both quantity and quality. Peer education should focus on knowledge education and peer norms, and knowledge education should include information on HIV infection severity and how to increase pleasure with condom use.

  17. Acceptability of male condom: An Indian scenario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balaiah Donta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The National Family Planning Programme of India had introduced condom as one of the family planning methods in the late1960s. Condom was promoted as a family planning method through social marketing since its inception. With the increasing prevalence and incidence of sexually transmitted infections (STIs including HIV/AIDS, condom was also promoted as a dual method for protection against both unintended pregnancies as well as sexually transmitted infections. Despite efforts at various levels, the overall use of condom among couples in India is low. Here we present literature review of studies to understand the condom acceptability among couples in India. Specifically, the paper assesses research and programmes that have been carried out to increase the use of condom among couples; determinants of condom use; reason for not using condom; and perception versus experience of condom failure. The reported problems related to condom use included non acceptance by partner, perceived ineffectiveness, less comfort, lack of sexual satisfaction, husband′s alcohol use, depression, and anxiety, and not available at that instant. The role of media in the promotion of condom use was indicated as an important way to increase awareness and use. Multiple strategies would help in acceptance of male condom.

  18. Acceptability of male condom: an Indian scenario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donta, Balaiah; Begum, Shahina; Naik, D D

    2014-11-01

    The National Family Planning Programme of India had introduced condom as one of the family planning methods in the late 1960s. Condom was promoted as a family planning method through social marketing since its inception. With the increasing prevalence and incidence of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) including HIV/AIDS, condom was also promoted as a dual method for protection against both unintended pregnancies as well as sexually transmitted infections. Despite efforts at various levels, the overall use of condom among couples in India is low. Here we present literature review of studies to understand the condom acceptability among couples in India. Specifically, the paper assesses research and programmes that have been carried out to increase the use of condom among couples; determinants of condom use; reason for not using condom; and perception versus experience of condom failure. The reported problems related to condom use included non acceptance by partner, perceived ineffectiveness, less comfort, lack of sexual satisfaction, husband's alcohol use, depression, and anxiety, and not available at that instant. The role of media in the promotion of condom use was indicated as an important way to increase awareness and use. Multiple strategies would help in acceptance of male condom.

  19. Factors associated with condom use negotiation by female sex workers in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Nazmul; Chowdhury, Mahbub Elahi; Mridha, Malay K; Ahmed, Anisuddin; Reichenbach, Laura J; Streatfield, Peter Kim; Azim, Tasnim

    2013-10-01

    Negotiation for condom use by female sex workers with their male clients can enhance condom use. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 1395 female sex workers; 439 from two brothels, 442 from 30 hotels, and 514 from streets of two cities in Bangladesh to determine the predictors of condom use negotiation. Consistent condom use rates in the 7 days prior to interview were reported to be 16.2%, 21.7%, and 4.5% among the brothel, hotel, and street-based female sex workers, respectively. Overall, 28.1% of female sex workers negotiated for condom use with their clients. Participation in behaviour change communication (BCC) programmes (AOR, 1.5; 95% CI, 1.2-2.0) and self-perceived risk of human immunodeficiency virus infection (AOR, 1.8 95% CI, 1.6-2.1) were positive predictors for condom negotiation. Compared to the hotel-based female sex workers, street (AOR, 0.6; 95% CI, 0.4-0.9) and brothel-based female sex workers (AOR, 0.7; 95% CI, 0.5-0.9) were less likely to negotiate for condom use. Female sex workers in Bangladesh are at high risk for sexually transmitted infection / human immunodeficiency virus infection because of low overall negotiation for condom use. Participation in BCC programmes had positive effect on condom negotiation by female sex workers, and should be strengthened in commercial sex venues.

  20. Patterns of condom use among students at historically Black colleges and universities: implications for HIV prevention efforts among college-age young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Bcheraoui, Charbel; Sutton, Madeline Y; Hardnett, Felicia P; Jones, Sandra B

    2013-01-01

    Over 1.1 million Americans are living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and African-American youth and young adults are disproportionately affected. Condoms are the most effective prevention tool, yet data regarding condom use patterns for African-American college youth are lacking. To inform and strengthen HIV prevention strategies with African-American college-age youth, we surveyed students attending 24 historically Black colleges and universities regarding condom use patterns. Students were administered anonymous questionnaires online to explore knowledge, attitudes, and practices related to condom use during last sexual intercourse (LSI). Among 824 sexually active respondents (51.8% female, median age 20 years, 90.6% heterosexuals), 526 (63.8%) reported condom use during LSI. Students who used condoms for disease prevention, whose mothers completed high school or had some college education or completed college were more likely to have used a condom during LSI. Spontaneity of sexual encounters, not feeling at risk of HIV, and partner-related perceptions were associated with condom non-use during LSI (pcollege youth sample did not use a condom during LSI and may benefit from increased condom education efforts. These efforts should highlight condoms' effectiveness in protection from HIV. Future HIV education and prevention strategies with similar groups of young adults should explore the implications of maternal education, clarify perceptions of HIV risk, and consider strategies that increase consistent condom use to interrupt sexual transmission of HIV.

  1. Development and psychometric evaluation of a condom use self-efficacy measure in Spanish and English.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCabe, Brian E; Schaefer Solle, Natasha; Gattamorta, Karina; Villegas, Natalia; Cianelli, Rosina; Mitrani, Victoria B; Peragallo, Nilda

    2016-09-01

    Condom self-efficacy is an important construct for HIV/STI prevention and intervention. A psychometrically sound measure of the self-efficacy for using condoms that has been designed for Hispanic women to respond in Spanish or English is needed. The goal of this study was to develop and evaluate a brief self-report measure of condom use self-efficacy. We developed a 15-item measure of condom use self-efficacy based on expert knowledge of measurement and HIV/STI prevention with Hispanic women using a translation-back translation approach. Participants were 320 Hispanic women from the Southeastern US. Internal consistency of the full measure was 92. A short form of the instrument with a subset of five items also had acceptable internal consistency, alpha = .80, and was significantly correlated with the full scale, rs = .93, p Evidence of construct validity of the short form was provided by correlations of the scale with two self-report measures of condom use: rs = .34** with condom use, rs = .37** with condom use during vaginal sex. Either the full measure or the five-item measure could be used in studies where condom use is an important behavioral outcome, such as evaluating prevention interventions, with Hispanic women. Future studies should examine the performance of this measure with other groups, including Hispanic men and members of other ethnic and language groups.

  2. Talking the talk, walking the walk: social network norms, communication patterns, and condom use among the male partners of female sex workers in La Romana, Dominican Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrington, Clare; Latkin, Carl; Sweat, Michael D; Moreno, Luis; Ellen, Jonathan; Kerrigan, Deanna

    2009-06-01

    Male partners of female sex workers are rarely targeted by HIV prevention interventions in the commercial sex industry, despite recognition of their central role and power in condom use negotiation. Social networks offer a naturally existing social structure to increase male participation in preventing HIV. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between social network norms and condom use among male partners of female sex workers in La Romana, Dominican Republic. Male partners (N =318) were recruited from 36 sex establishments to participate in a personal network survey. Measures of social network norms included 1) perceived condom use by male social network members and 2) encouragement to use condoms from social network members. Other social network characteristics included composition, density, social support, and communication. The primary behavioral outcome was consistent condom use by male partners with their most recent female sex worker partner during the last 3 months. In general, men reported small, dense networks with high levels of communication about condoms and consistent condom use. Multivariate logistic regression revealed consistent condom use was significantly more likely among male partners who perceived that some or all of their male social network members used condoms consistently. Perceived condom use was, in turn, significantly associated with dense networks, expressing dislike for condoms, and encouragement to use condoms from social network members. Findings suggest that the tight social networks of male partners may help to explain the high level of condom use and could provide an entry point for HIV prevention efforts with men. Such efforts should tap into existing social dynamics and patterns of communication to promote pro-condom norms and reduce HIV-related vulnerability among men and their sexual partners.

  3. Predictors of frequency of condom use and attitudes among sexually active female military personnel in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E James Essien

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available E James Essien1, Osaro Mgbere2, Emmanuel Monjok1, Ernest Ekong3, Susan Abughosh1, Marcia M Holstad41Institute of Community Health, University of Houston, Texas Medical Center, Houston, TX, USA; 2Houston Department of Health and Human Services, Houston, TX, USA; 3Institute for Health Research and Development, Yaba, Lagos, Nigeria; 4Nell Hodgson School of Nursing, Emory University, Atlanta, GA, USABackground: Despite awareness of condom efficacy, in protecting against both human immunodeficiency virus/sexually transmitted diseases (HIV/STDs and unintended pregnancy; some females find it difficult to use or permit condom use consistently because of the power imbalances or other dynamics operating in their relationships with males. The purpose of this study was to determine the factors that predict the frequency of condom use and attitudes among sexually active female military personnel in Nigeria.Methods: This study used a cross-sectional design in which a total of 346 responses were obtained from consenting female military personnel in two cantonments in Southwestern Nigeria between 2006 and 2008. The study instrument was designed to assess HIV/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS knowledge (HAK, HIV risk behaviors (HRB, alcohol and drug use, condom attitudes and barriers (CAS condom use self-efficacy (CUS and social support to condom use (SSC. The sociodemographic characteristics of participants were also captured. Univariate analysis and multivariable logistic regression were used for modeling the predictors of condom use.Results: The results showed that 63% of the respondents reported using condoms always, 26% sometimes used condoms and 11% never used condoms during a sexual encounter in the past three months. Univariate analysis revealed that significant associations existed between CAB (P < 0.05, HRB (P < 0.01 and SSC (P < 0.01 with the frequency of condom use. The following sociodemographic variables: age, marital status, number of

  4. Sri Lanka drops leading condom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    Sri Lanka's Family Planning Association has stopped selling its Preethi Regular condom, the backbone of its social marketing program for nearly a decade. Last year nearly 7 times as many Preethi condoms were sold as all other brands combined. The decision was reported to be caused by budget constraints following the International Planned Parenthood Federation's (IPPF) new policy of limiting the number of Preethi Regular condoms supplied to Sri Lanka. IPPF's Asian Regional Officer reported that the Preethi condom is a costly product, and that as many as needed of a US Agency for International Development (USAID) supplied product will be sent to Sri Lanka. The Contraceptive Retail Sales (CRS) program has devised a new sales strategy, based partly on the introduction of a high-priced condom to fill the gap left by the discontinuation of the Preethi Regular. The new Preethi Gold condom is expected to help the project become more financially self-reliant while taing advantage of Preethi's marketplace popularity. Preethi Gold is manufactured by the Malaysia Rubber Company and costs the project US $4.85/gross. It is sold for US $.14 for 3, about 3 times the price of a Preethi Regular. The project is also pushing the Panther condom, donated to IPPF by USAID. 2 Panther condoms sell for about 3.6U, about the cost of Preethi Regulars. The project also sells Moonbeam, Rough Rider, and Stimula condoms, the latter 2 at full commercial prices. A smooth transfer of demand from Preethi to Panther had been desired, but by the end of 1983 some retailers were hesitating to make the product switch because some Preethi Regulars were still available. Total condom sales in 1983 were down by nearly 590,000 from the approximately 6,860,000 sold in 1982. Total condom sales for the 1st quarter of 1984 were slightly over 1,218,000 pieces, compared to about 1,547,000 for the same quarter in 1983, a decline of 21%. The Family Planning Association is gearing up to reverse the downward trend

  5. Condom availability in high risk places and condom use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandøy, Ingvild Fossgard; Blystad, Astrid; Shayo, Elizabeth H.

    2012-01-01

    study findings indicate that substantial further efforts should be made to secure that condoms are easily accessible in places where sexual relationships are initiated. Although condom distribution in drinking places has been pinpointed in the HIV/AIDS prevention strategies of all the three countries......Background A number of studies from countries with severe HIV epidemics have found gaps in condom availability, even in places where there is a substantial potential for HIV transmission. Although reported condom use has increased in many African countries, there are often big differences...... and one in Zambia. The study was based on a triangulation of data collection methods in the three study districts: surveys in venues where people meet new sexual partners, population-based surveys and focus group discussions. The data was collected within an overall study on priority setting in health...

  6. Minority College Women’s Views on Condom Negotiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaurin-Jones, TyWanda; Lashley, Maudry-Beverly; Marshall, Vanessa

    2015-01-01

    This study utilized quantitative and qualitative methods to (1) investigate the relationship between frequency of condom use and negotiation strategies and (2) evaluate experiences with condom negotiations among sexually active, heterosexual, African American college women. One hundred female students from a Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCU) completed a questionnaire that included the Condom Influence Strategies Scale (CIS) and participated in a focus group. An ANOVA was conducted to compare differences between never, inconsistent, and consistent condom users. Consistent condom users scored higher than never users on the “withholding sex” subscale of the CIS (4.88 vs. 3.55; p negotiation included deciding the “right timing” of discussion and having a previous history of sexual intercourse without a condom with their partner. Other key concepts that contribute to condom negotiation are the views that condoms are a male’s responsibility and stigma of women who carry condoms. PMID:26703642

  7. Presenting the female condom to men: a dyadic analysis of effect of the woman's approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penman-Aguilar, Ana; Hall, Jeffrey; Artz, Lynn; Crawford, Myra A; Peacock, Nadine; van Olphen, Juliana; Parker, Lutissa; Macaluso, Maurizio

    2002-01-01

    Although male partner resistance to female condom use has been reported, little is understood about circumstances under which partners will agree to female condom use. This study documents the experiences of couples who have worked together to achieve female condom use. As part of a prospective female condom efficacy study, female participants (age 18-34) received a behavioral intervention and an assortment of take-home items. Selected women and their partners were recruited for a qualitative interview focusing on their experience with the female condom. Interviews were transcribed, double-coded, and verified using a standard retrieval coding system. Twenty-six pairs of linked interviews were analyzed dyadically: 9 couples who used the female condom "consistently," 12 "experimenters," and 5 "non-users." Women who successfully promoted the female condom to their partners used multiple presentation strategies. Initial male partner reaction did not predict continued use beyond the first trial. In conclusion, employment of multiple strategies facilitates successful introduction of the female condom into a sexual partnership.

  8. Usability problem reports for comparative studies: consistency and inspectability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeeren, A.P.O.S.; Attema, J.; Akar, E.; De Ridder, H.; Van Doorn, A.J.; Erburg, Ç.; Berkman, A.E.; Maguire, M.

    2008-01-01

    This study explores issues of consistency and inspectability in usability test data analysis processes and reports. Problem reports resulting from usability tests performed by three professional usability labs in three different countries are compared. Each of the labs conducted a usability test on

  9. Only about One-Third of Americans Use Condoms: CDC

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Programs-PCAP Services at Northwell Health in New Hyde Park, N.Y. But condoms do have a ... Women's Health Programs-PCAP Services, Northwell Health, New Hyde Park, N.Y.; Aug. 10, 2017, report, Condom ...

  10. Condom use, frequency of sex, and number of partners: multidimensional characterization of adolescent sexual risk-taking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beadnell, Blair; Morrison, Diane M; Wilsdon, Anthony; Wells, Elizabeth A; Murowchick, Elise; Hoppe, Marilyn; Gillmore, Mary Rogers; Nahom, Deborah

    2005-08-01

    Sexual health research often relies on single risk indicators. However multi-variable composites may better capture the underlying construct of risk-taking. Latent Profile Analysis identified subgroups based on condom use consistency, partner numbers, and sex frequency among 605 adolescents. Three profiles were identified for each of grades 8 to 10 (Condom Users, Few Partners, and Risk-Takers) and 4 in grades 11 and 12 (Condom Users, One Partner Two Partners, and Risk-Takers). Inconsistent condom use groups reported more non-condom (and often less effective) birth control use and STD and pregnancy histories. Females had greater representation in the Few Partners, One Partners, and Two Partners groups, which also contained increasing proportions of participants in each subsequent year. Males had greater representation in the Risk-Takers group. A profile approach to measurement has methodological advantages, can add to substantive knowledge, and can inform content, timing, and targets of sexual health interventions.

  11. Condom negotiation and use among female sex workers in Phnom Penh, Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bui, Thanh Cong; Markham, Christine M; Tran, Ly T H; Beasley, R Palmer; Ross, Michael W

    2013-02-01

    We examined condom-use negotiation strategies and condom use among 81 female sex workers (FSWs) in Phnom Penh, Cambodia. Percentages of FSWs who did not negotiate condom use or could not describe a negotiation strategy with native clients, foreign clients, and non-paying partners were 15.0, 29.0 and 67.6 %, respectively. The most common negotiation strategy used was "provision of risk information" for native clients (43.8 %) and non-paying partners (26.5 %), and "direct request" for foreign clients (39.5 %). About half could not describe more than one negotiation strategy. Consistent condom use was high with native clients (98.8 %), yet comparatively lower with foreign clients (86.9 %) and non-paying partners (26.5 %). FSWs who did not negotiate or did not know how to negotiate condom use were less likely to report condom use with non-paying regular partners. Future interventions should enhance condom negotiation strategies between FSWs and all partner types.

  12. Consistency in performance evaluation reports and medical records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Mingshan; Ma, Ching-to Albert

    2002-12-01

    In the health care market managed care has become the latest innovation for the delivery of services. For efficient implementation, the managed care organization relies on accurate information. So clinicians are often asked to report on patients before referrals are approved, treatments authorized, or insurance claims processed. What are clinicians responses to solicitation for information by managed care organizations? The existing health literature has already pointed out the importance of provider gaming, sincere reporting, nudging, and dodging the rules. We assess the consistency of clinicians reports on clients across administrative data and clinical records. For about 1,000 alcohol abuse treatment episodes, we compare clinicians reports across two data sets. The first one, the Maine Addiction Treatment System (MATS), was an administrative data set; the state government used it for program performance monitoring and evaluation. The second was a set of medical record abstracts, taken directly from the clinical records of treatment episodes. A clinician s reporting practice exhibits an inconsistency if the information reported in MATS differs from the information reported in the medical record in a statistically significant way. We look for evidence of inconsistencies in five categories: admission alcohol use frequency, discharge alcohol use frequency, termination status, admission employment status, and discharge employment status. Chi-square tests, Kappa statistics, and sensitivity and specificity tests are used for hypothesis testing. Multiple imputation methods are employed to address the problem of missing values in the record abstract data set. For admission and discharge alcohol use frequency measures, we find, respectively, strong and supporting evidence for inconsistencies. We find equally strong evidence for consistency in reports of admission and discharge employment status, and mixed evidence on report consistency on termination status. Patterns of

  13. The relational determinants of condom use with commercial sex partners in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, M; Pramualratana, A; Podhisita, C; Wawer, M J

    1995-05-01

    To analyze the extent and determinants of condom use with commercial sex partners among lower socioeconomic status groups in the Thai population. Respondents were sampled in Udon Thani, Saraburi and Bangkok in 1992. Completed sample size was 678 women in brothels, 330 male truck drivers and 1,075 men aged 17-45 years. Behavioral data and local sexual network information were collected using structured questionnaires (face-to-face interviews), focus groups and in-depth unstructured interviews. Data were analyzed using univariate and multivariate logistic regression. Condom use with commercial partners remains inconsistent. Consistent use was reported by 61% of women in brothels, 25% of truck drivers, and 29% of men in the low-income population. The single strongest predictor of consistent condom use for all groups is type of partnership. Consistent use drops significantly with regular (multivisit) commercial sex partners compared with casual (single visit) commercial partners; adjusted odds of consistent use are 0.22 for women and 0.25 for men. Brothel women report that one in five of their commercial partners is a 'regular', and 20% of the young men who report a commercial partner report a 'regular'. The strongest determinant of consistent condom use is the nature of the relational bond between the partners, rather than their individual characteristics, knowledge or attitudes. To raise condom use further, programs will have to move beyond the standard knowledge-attitudes-practices paradigm focus on individual attributes to address the contextual determinants of behavior.

  14. Sex with sweethearts: Exploring factors associated with inconsistent condom use among unmarried female entertainment workers in Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Siyan; Tuot, Sovannary; Chhoun, Pheak; Pal, Khuondyla; Ngin, Chanrith; Chhim, Kolab; Brody, Carinne

    2017-01-05

    Despite the success in promoting condom use in commercial relationships, condom use with regular, noncommercial partners remains low among key populations in Cambodia. This study explores factors associated inconsistent condom use with sweethearts among unmarried sexually active female entertainment workers (FEWs). In 2014, the probability proportional to size sampling method was used to randomly select 204 FEWs from entertainment venues in Phnom Penh and Siem Reap for face-to-face interviews. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was conducted to examine independent determinants of inconsistent condom use. Of total, 31.4% of the respondents reported consistent condom use with sweethearts in the past three months. After adjustment, respondents who reported inconsistent condom use with sweethearts remained significantly less likely to report having received any form of sexual and reproductive health education (AOR = 0.49, 95% CI = 0.22-0.99), but more likely to report having been tested for HIV in the past six months (AOR = 2.19, 95% CI = 1.03-4.65). They were significantly more likely to report having used higher amount of alcohol in the past three months (AOR = 1.29, 95% CI = 1.01-1.99) and currently using a contraceptive method other than condoms such as pills (AOR = 4.46, 95% CI = 1.34-10.52) or other methods (AOR = 9.75, 95% CI = 2.07-9.86). The rate of consistent condom use in romantic relationships among unmarried FEWs in this study is considerably low. The importance of consistent condom use with regular, non-commercial partners should be emphasized in the education sessions and materials, particularly for FEWs who use non-barrier contraceptive methods.

  15. When ideal and real culture clash--trust, infidelity and condom use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackermann, L; de Klerk, G W

    2003-08-01

    With high rates of HIV transmission in South Africa, the correct and consistent use of condoms has become critically important. The findings reported in this article form part of a larger study that investigated the vulnerability of women to HIV infection. This article concentrates on one dimension of the study: how a clash between real and ideal culture negatively impacts upon condom use. This study, conducted in Bloemfontein, revealed that an ideal culture of trust, resulted in non condom use. On the other hand, this study also revealed that despite the emphasis on an ideal culture of trust, a real culture of infidelity exists. This places individuals at risk of contracting HIV, as condom use is guided by ideal rather than real culture.

  16. Women and postfertilization effects of birth control: consistency of beliefs, intentions and reported use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Han S

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study assesses the consistency of responses among women regarding their beliefs about the mechanisms of actions of birth control methods, beliefs about when human life begins, the intention to use or not use birth control methods that they believe may act after fertilization or implantation, and their reported use of specific methods. Methods A questionnaire was administered in family practice and obstetrics and gynecology clinics in Salt Lake City, Utah, and Tulsa, Oklahoma. Participants included women ages 18–50 presenting for any reason and women under age 18 presenting for family planning or pregnancy care. Analyses were based on key questions addressing beliefs about whether specific birth control methods may act after fertilization, beliefs about when human life begins, intention to use a method that may act after fertilization, and reported use of specific methods. The questionnaire contained no information about the mechanism of action of any method of birth control. Responses were considered inconsistent if actual use contradicted intentions, if one intention contradicted another, or if intentions contradicted beliefs. Results Of all respondents, 38% gave consistent responses about intention to not use or to stop use of any birth control method that acted after fertilization, while 4% gave inconsistent responses. The corresponding percentages for birth control methods that work after implantation were 64% consistent and 2% inconsistent. Of all respondents, 34% reported they believed that life begins at fertilization and would not use any birth control method that acts after fertilization (a consistent response, while 3% reported they believed that life begins at fertilization but would use a birth control method that acts after fertilization (inconsistent. For specific methods of birth control, less than 1% of women gave inconsistent responses. A majority of women (68% or greater responded accurately about the

  17. Relationship-Specific Condom Attitudes Predict Condom Use among STD Clinic Patients with both Primary and Non-Primary Partners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senn, Theresa E.; Scott-Sheldon, Lori A. J.; Carey, Michael P.

    2014-01-01

    Although condom use differs by partner type (i.e., primary vs. non-primary partner), attitudes towards condom use are typically measured without consideration of partner type. This study investigated the predictive utility of condom attitudes measured separately by partner type. Participants were 270 patients (37% women, 72% Black) recruited from a publicly-funded STD clinic who reported having both primary and non-primary partners. They completed a computerized survey assessing relationship-specific condom attitudes by partner type, condom attitudes related to pleasure and respect, and condom use with primary and non-primary partners. Participants reported more positive relationship-specific condom attitudes with a non-primary vs. primary partner. When considering pleasure-related, respect-related, and relationship-specific condom attitudes simultaneously, only relationship-specific condom attitudes predicted unprotected sex, with both primary and non-primary partners. In general, pleasure and respect-related condom attitudes did not predict unprotected sex; however, pleasure-related attitudes predicted unprotected sex with a non-primary partner for men. Future research should assess relationship-specific condom attitudes. Sexual risk reduction interventions that address interpersonal consequences of condom use in both primary and non-primary relationships should be a priority. PMID:24567031

  18. Condom use in prevention of Human Papillomavirus infections and cervical neoplasia: systematic review of longitudinal studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Janni Uyen Hoa; Rebolj, Matejka; Dugué, Pierre-Antoine; Bonde, Jesper; von Euler-Chelpin, My; Lynge, Elsebeth

    2014-03-01

    Based on cross-sectional studies, the data on protection from Human Papillomavirus (HPV) infections related to using male condoms appear inconsistent. Longitudinal studies are more informative for this purpose. We undertook a systematic review of longitudinal studies on the effectiveness of male condoms in preventing HPV infection and cervical neoplasia. We searched PubMed using MeSH terms for articles published until May 2013. Articles were included if they studied a change in non-immunocompromized women's cervical HPV infection or cervical lesion status along with the frequency of condom use. In total, 384 abstracts were retrieved. Eight studies reported in 10 articles met the inclusion criteria for the final review. Four studies showed a statistically significantly protective effect of consistent condom use on HPV infection and on regression of cervical neoplasia. In the remaining four studies, a protective effect was also observed for these outcomes, although it was not statistically significant. Consistent condom use appears to offer a relatively good protection from HPV infections and associated cervical neoplasia. Advice to use condoms might be used as an additional instrument to prevent unnecessary colposcopies and neoplasia treatments in cervical screening, and to reduce the risk of cervical cancer.

  19. The effects of safer-sex stories on college students' attitudes toward condoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, S S; Kyes, K B

    1996-01-01

    Social learning theory predicts that reading non-erotic stories involving condom use will be as effective as reading erotic stories with condom use in producing positive attitudes toward condoms. Werner's orthogenetic principle, however, predicts that reading erotic condom stories will be most effective because of the link created between sexual arousal and cognitive information about condoms. 168 male and 149 female undergraduates enrolled in Introductory Psychology at a small, private, southern university participated in a study to test the validity of these two theories. The students read one of the following types of stories: erotic with condom placement described, erotic without condom use, or non-erotic with a model for discussing condoms. The men and women who read the non-erotic stories were most positive about condoms and reported the strongest intentions to use condoms in the future. These findings suggest that erotica is not necessary to produce positive attitudes toward condoms.

  20. Condom Use and the Risk of Recurrent Pelvic Inflammatory Disease, Chronic Pelvic Pain, or Infertility Following an Episode of Pelvic Inflammatory Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ness, Roberta B.; Randall, Hugh; Richter, Holly E.; Peipert, Jeffrey F.; Montagno, Andrea; Soper, David E.; Sweet, Richard L.; Nelson, Deborah B.; Schubeck, Diane; Hendrix, Susan L.; Bass, Debra C.; Kip, Kevin E.

    2004-01-01

    Among 684 sexually active women with pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) followed up for a mean of 35 months, we related contraceptive use to self-reported PID recurrence, chronic pelvic pain, and infertility. Persistent use of condoms during the study reduced the risk of recurrent PID, chronic pelvic pain, and infertility. Consistent condom use (about 60% of encounters) at baseline also reduced these risks, after adjustment for confounders, by 30% to 60%. Self-reported persistent and consistent condom use was associated with lower rates of PID sequelae. PMID:15284036

  1. Applying the theory of reasoned action to AIDS risk behavior: condom use among black women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jemmott, L S; Jemmott, J B

    1991-01-01

    This study tested hypotheses regarding attitudinal and normative influences on intentions to use condoms, a practice that would reduce women's risk of sexually transmitted HIV infection. Participants were 103 sexually active unmarried black women undergraduates at an inner-city commuter university, in an area with a high rate of reported AIDS cases among women. Consistent with the theory of reasoned action, multiple regression analysis on women's anonymous responses to a mailed survey revealed that those who registered more favorable attitudes toward condoms and those who perceived subjective norms more supportive of condom use reported firmer intentions to use condoms in the next three months. Key behavioral beliefs related to attitudes centered on the adverse effects of condom use on sexual enjoyment. Key normative influences were respondents' sexual partners and mothers. However, women's own attitudes were a stronger determinant of intentions to use condoms than were their perceptions of normative influences, particularly among women with above-average AIDS knowledge. The results suggest that the theory of reasoned action provides a potentially useful conceptual framework for interventions to change a key AIDS risk behavior among women.

  2. Aspects of comfort and safety of condom. A study of two thousand intercourses among volunteer couples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boldsen, J L; Jeune, B; Madsen, P C

    1992-01-01

    In nearly 2,000 intercourses 14 different types of condoms were tested by 80 heterosexual and seven homosexual volunteer couples. The test couples were generally quite experienced in the use of condoms. It appears that the condoms rarely (1.3%) ruptured or slipped off during the actual intercourse....... This means that emphasis must be put on consistency and skill in the use of condoms rather on technical improvements in the promotion of condoms as a means of preventing the spread of sexually transmitted infections like HIV. Lubricated condoms and condoms that were not too small were preferred by both users...

  3. Factors predictive of adolescents' intentions to use birth control pills, condoms, and birth control pills in combination with condoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, D M; Wade, K E; Allison, K R; Irving, H M; Williams, J I; Hlibka, C M

    2000-01-01

    Using the Theory of Planned Behaviour (Ajzen, 1988) as a conceptual framework, 705 secondary school students were surveyed to identify their intentions to use birth control pills, condoms, and birth control pills in combination with condoms. Hierarchical multiple regression revealed that the theory explained between 23.5% and 45.8% of the variance in intentions. Variables external to the model such as past use, age, and ethnicity exhibited some independent effects. Attitudes were consistently predictive of intentions to use condoms, pills, and condoms in combination with pills for both male and female students. However, there were differences by gender in the degree to which subjective norms and perceived behavioural control predicted intentions. The findings suggest that programs should focus on: creation of positive attitudes regarding birth control pills and condoms; targeting important social influences, particularly regarding males' use of condoms; and developing strategies to increase students' control over the use of condoms.

  4. Condom Use Among Men Who Have Sex With Men and Male-to-Female Transgenders in Jakarta, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safika, Iko; Johnson, Timothy P; Cho, Young Ik; Praptoraharjo, Ignatius

    2014-07-01

    This article examined differences in condom use during anal intercourse among men who have sex with men (MSM) and male-to-female transgender women in Jakarta, Indonesia. A cross-sectional design, structured interviews, and hierarchical linear modeling were used to examine condom use among MSM recruited from entertainment places (EPs; e.g., discotheques/dance clubs/karaoke bars), massage parlors (MPs), and among transgender women who congregated and/or sought sexual partners on streets/parks (S/P). The sample consisted of 91, 97, and 114 of MSM-EP, MSM-MP, and transgender-S/P, respectively. Respondents reported on 641 unique sexual partner encounters, which were "nested" within 302 respondents. Reported condom use was high, 66%, 84%, and 83% for MSM-EP, MSM-MP, and transgender-S/P, respectively, and varied across type of respondent. At the individual level, depressive symptoms and history of physical abuse during childhood and adulthood were associated with lower condom use (p < .05). By contrast, having a higher level of education was associated with more condom use (p < .05). At the partner level, condom use was associated with type of partners and the use of club drugs before sex. HIV-prevention efforts should take into account the multilevel determinants of condom use within these populations.

  5. NYC condom use and satisfaction and demand for alternative condom products in New York City sexually transmitted disease clinics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Ryan C; Wilson, Juliet; Kowalski, Alexis; Murrill, Christopher; Cutler, Blayne; Sweeney, Monica; Begier, Elizabeth M

    2011-08-01

    In 2007, via a high-profile media campaign, the New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene (NYC DOHMH) introduced the "NYC Condom," the first specially packaged condom unique to a municipality. We conducted a survey to measure NYC Condom awareness of and experience with NYC Condoms and demand for alternative male condoms to be distributed by the DOHMH. Trained interviewers administered short, in-person surveys at five DOHMH-operated sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinics in Spring 2008. We systematically sampled eligible patients: NYC residents aged ≥18 years waiting to see a physician. We approached 539; 532 agreed to be screened (98.7% response rate); 462 completed the survey and provided NYC zip codes. Most respondents were male (56%), non-Hispanic black (64%), aged 18-24 years (43%) or 25-44 years (45%), employed (65%), and had a high school degree/general equivalency diploma or less (53%). Of those surveyed, 86% were aware of the NYC Condom, and 81% of those who obtained the condoms used them. NYC Condom users were more likely to have four or more sexual partners in the past 12 months (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 2.0, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.0-3.8), use condoms frequently (AOR = 2.1, 95% CI = 1.3-3.6), and name an alternative condom for distribution (AOR = 2.2, 95% CI = 1.3-3.9). The most frequently requested condom types respondents wanted DOHMH to provide were larger size (28%), ultra thin/extra sensitive (21%), and extra strength (16%). We found high rates of NYC Condom use. NYC Condom users reported more sexual partners than others, suggesting the condom initiative successfully reached higher-risk persons within the STD clinic population. Study results document the condom social marketing campaign's success.

  6. INTERNATIONAL FINANCIAL REPORTING STANDARDS: A WAY FOR GLOBAL CONSISTENCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravindra Tripathi

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The reverberations of Wall Street had to be felt across the global banking system. Last September, the world economy seemed to be hurtling down in a way that had initially raised the spectre of the Great Depression in America of the late 1920s. This is based largely on the performance of stock markets which are supposed to reflect future trends in the real economy. However, such knowledge embedded in the markets can be imperfect, as we have learnt by now. In some ways, the global financial crisis and its fallout are forcing economic agents to acquire new knowledge in regard to what might happen in the future. It was difficult to explain rationally why the stock markets were furiously running up even as company balance sheets were still bleeding. A few years ago, International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS were a distant possibility. Today, the reality is far different. We are in a dramatic shift that is fast making IFRS the most widely accepted accounting model in the world. As the business environment becomes increasingly global and companies routinely list on stock exchanges in many countries, the need for consistent worldwide reporting standards intensifies. IFRS clearly addresses this issue; its goal is to create comparable, reliable, and transparent financial statements that will facilitate greater cross-border capital raising, trade and better corporate governance practices. Thus acceptance of IFRS is gaining momentum across the globe. IFRS transition program for any organization will have multi –dimensional effect because of differences which exist between IFRS and Local GAAPs. The objectives of the paper is to highlight the nature of such differences with examples along with analysing the provisions of IFRS, comparative analysis of IFRS with Indian GAAP system, benefits, and major issues in first time adoption of IFRS in Indian companies with the help of case study of Indian corporate.

  7. Brief Report: Sexual Violence Against HIV-Positive Women in the Nyanza Region of Kenya: Is Condom Negotiation an Instigator?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onu, Chinwe C.; Dworkin, Shari L.; Ongeri, Linnet G.; Oyaro, Patrick; Neylan, Thomas C.; Cohen, Craig R.; Bukusi, Elizabeth A.; Rota, Grace

    2017-01-01

    Abstract: For people living with HIV, exposure to sexual violence (SV) is associated with decreased adherence to antiretroviral medication, a primary predictor of their survival. Identification of risk factors for SV is a pressing issue in sub-Saharan Africa, where the global majority of HIV-positive women live and the prevalence of SV against women is high. We used qualitative data to examine SV against HIV-positive women enrolled in HIV care in Kenya. Respondents identified husbands as perpetrators of SV in the context of women's efforts to use condoms as directed by HIV care providers. PMID:27509254

  8. Brief Report: Sexual Violence Against HIV-Positive Women in the Nyanza Region of Kenya: Is Condom Negotiation an Instigator?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onu, Chinwe C; Dworkin, Shari L; Ongeri, Linnet G; Oyaro, Patrick; Neylan, Thomas C; Cohen, Craig R; Bukusi, Elizabeth A; Rota, Grace; Meffert, Susan M

    2017-01-01

    For people living with HIV, exposure to sexual violence (SV) is associated with decreased adherence to antiretroviral medication, a primary predictor of their survival. Identification of risk factors for SV is a pressing issue in sub-Saharan Africa, where the global majority of HIV-positive women live and the prevalence of SV against women is high. We used qualitative data to examine SV against HIV-positive women enrolled in HIV care in Kenya. Respondents identified husbands as perpetrators of SV in the context of women's efforts to use condoms as directed by HIV care providers.

  9. Role of condom negotiation on condom use among women of reproductive age in three districts in Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Exavery Amon

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background HIV/AIDS remains being a disease of great public health concern worldwide. In regions such as sub-Saharan Africa (SSA where women are disproportionately infected with HIV, women are reportedly less likely capable of negotiating condom use. However, while knowledge of condom use for HIV prevention is extensive among men and women in many countries including Tanzania, evidence is limited about the role of condom negotiation on condom use among women in rural Tanzania. Methods Data originate from a cross-sectional survey of random households conducted in 2011 in Rufiji, Kilombero and Ulanga districts in Tanzania. The survey assessed health-seeking behaviour among women and children using a structured interviewer-administered questionnaire. A total of 2,614 women who were sexually experienced and aged 15-49 years were extracted from the main database for the current analysis. Linkage between condom negotiation and condom use at the last sexual intercourse was assessed using multivariate logistic regression. Results Prevalence of condom use at the last sexual intercourse was 22.2% overall, ranging from12.2% among married women to 54.9% among unmarried (single women. Majority of the women (73.4% reported being confident to negotiate condom use, and these women were significantly more likely than those who were not confident to have used a condom at the last sexual intercourse (OR = 3.13, 95% CI 2.22-4.41. This effect was controlled for marital status, age, education, religion, number of sexual partners, household wealth and knowledge of HIV prevention by condom use. Conclusion Confidence to negotiate condom use is a significant predictor of actual condom use among women in rural Tanzania. Women, especially unmarried ones, those in multiple partnerships or anyone needing protection should be empowered with condom negotiation skills for increased use of condoms in order to enhance their sexual and reproductive health outcomes.

  10. Condom negotiation strategy use and effectiveness among college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, Kathryn J; French, Sabine Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    College students may engage in risky sexual behaviors, such as inconsistent condom use, which increase their risk of sexually transmitted infections. This study examined the association between six condom influence strategies (CIS) and reported condom use among a diverse group of college students. Differences in CIS and condom use were examined by gender, race or ethnicity, and relationship status (casual, monogamous, or no current relationship). The study also used a cluster analysis to investigate how the CIS were used relative to one another, and how patterns of CIS use were related to condom use. Results showed interesting differences in CIS use by gender, race or ethnicity, and relationship status. Four patterns of CIS usage emerged, and results suggested that using all CIS frequently and using more assertive CIS may be particularly important for increased condom use. Men reported more condom use than women overall, but results indicated that using CIS were especially vital for increasing condom use for women. Surprisingly, there were no differences in condom use found for race or ethnicity and relationship type. Programs aimed at increasing students' condom use could benefit from promoting and practicing CIS, and recognizing potential differences among demographic groups.

  11. Building a (UN) condom manufacturing plant for social marketing projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yonese, T

    1994-12-01

    At the 10th International Conference on AIDS held in Yokohama, Japan, August 7-12, 1994, reports revealed that the social marketing of condoms has become popular and successful in developing countries. The nongovernmental organization distribution approach is very useful in providing condoms to new users, whose numbers have been increasing since the condom was identified as effective in preventing sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), including HIV. The rapid establishment of semi-commercial outlets even in remote areas enabled many people to obtain condoms more easily than from the government program and at a cheaper price. The social marketing concept has a clear advantage: condoms can be distributed with little government budget disbursement, and the project is based on self-reliance. Meanwhile, the additional free supply programs by many governments of developing countries are reportedly not functioning efficiently, since often large quantities of condoms, donated by agencies for family planning and STD programs, pile up in warehouses and do not reach those who need them. Moreover, the demand for condoms is limited because of the lack of effective campaigns to encourage their use. Quality condoms can be procured at lower costs if a special manufacturing plant could be built that produces condoms exclusively for the social marketing free supply program. Such a condom plant could be built in a developing country where good quality latex, the material used for condoms, is available. The unit production cost of condoms at the proposed plant would be lower compared to costs in developed countries because personnel expenses in latex-producing countries such as Malaysia, Thailand, Indonesia, India, and Sri Lanka, are cheaper, and the price of latex itself is lower. Mass production is possible because the demand for condoms for the social marketing projects is expected to grow even more.

  12. Brand equity and willingness to pay for condoms in zimbabwe

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Zimbabwe suffers from one of the greatest burdens of HIV/AIDS in the world that has been compounded by social and economic instability in the past decade. However, from 2001 to 2009 HIV prevalence among 15-49 year olds declined from 26% to approximately 14%. Behavior change and condom use may in part explain this decline. PSI-Zimbabwe socially markets the Protector Plus (P+) branded line of condoms. When Zimbabwe converted to a dollar-based economy in 2009, the price of condoms was greatly increased and new marketing efforts were undertaken. This paper evaluates the role of condom marketing, a multi-dimensional scale of brand peceptions (brand equity), and price in condom use behavior. Methods We randomly sampled sexually active men age 15-49 from 3 groups - current P+ users, former users, and free condom users. We compared their brand equity and willingness to pay based on survey results. We estimated multivariable logistic regression models to compare the 3 groups. Results We found that the brand equity scale was positive correlated with willingness to pay and with condom use. Former users also indicated a high willingness to pay for condoms. We found differences in brand equity between the 3 groups, with current P+ users having the highest P+ brand equity. As observed in previous studies, higher brand equity was associated with more of the targeted health behavior, in this case and more consistent condom use. Conclusions Zimbabwe men have highly positive brand perceptions of P+. There is an opportunity to grow the total condom market in Zimbabwe by increasing brand equity across user groups. Some former users may resume using condoms through more effective marketing. Some free users may be willing to pay for condoms. Achieving these objectives will expand the total condom market and reduce HIV risk behaviors. PMID:22029874

  13. Brand equity and willingness to pay for condoms in zimbabwe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Snider Jeremy

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Zimbabwe suffers from one of the greatest burdens of HIV/AIDS in the world that has been compounded by social and economic instability in the past decade. However, from 2001 to 2009 HIV prevalence among 15-49 year olds declined from 26% to approximately 14%. Behavior change and condom use may in part explain this decline. PSI-Zimbabwe socially markets the Protector Plus (P+ branded line of condoms. When Zimbabwe converted to a dollar-based economy in 2009, the price of condoms was greatly increased and new marketing efforts were undertaken. This paper evaluates the role of condom marketing, a multi-dimensional scale of brand peceptions (brand equity, and price in condom use behavior. Methods We randomly sampled sexually active men age 15-49 from 3 groups - current P+ users, former users, and free condom users. We compared their brand equity and willingness to pay based on survey results. We estimated multivariable logistic regression models to compare the 3 groups. Results We found that the brand equity scale was positive correlated with willingness to pay and with condom use. Former users also indicated a high willingness to pay for condoms. We found differences in brand equity between the 3 groups, with current P+ users having the highest P+ brand equity. As observed in previous studies, higher brand equity was associated with more of the targeted health behavior, in this case and more consistent condom use. Conclusions Zimbabwe men have highly positive brand perceptions of P+. There is an opportunity to grow the total condom market in Zimbabwe by increasing brand equity across user groups. Some former users may resume using condoms through more effective marketing. Some free users may be willing to pay for condoms. Achieving these objectives will expand the total condom market and reduce HIV risk behaviors.

  14. Brand equity and willingness to pay for condoms in Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, W Douglas; Taruberekera, Noah; Longfield, Kim; Snider, Jeremy

    2011-10-26

    Zimbabwe suffers from one of the greatest burdens of HIV/AIDS in the world that has been compounded by social and economic instability in the past decade. However, from 2001 to 2009 HIV prevalence among 15-49 year olds declined from 26% to approximately 14%. Behavior change and condom use may in part explain this decline.PSI-Zimbabwe socially markets the Protector Plus (P+) branded line of condoms. When Zimbabwe converted to a dollar-based economy in 2009, the price of condoms was greatly increased and new marketing efforts were undertaken. This paper evaluates the role of condom marketing, a multi-dimensional scale of brand peceptions (brand equity), and price in condom use behavior. We randomly sampled sexually active men age 15-49 from 3 groups - current P+ users, former users, and free condom users. We compared their brand equity and willingness to pay based on survey results. We estimated multivariable logistic regression models to compare the 3 groups. We found that the brand equity scale was positive correlated with willingness to pay and with condom use. Former users also indicated a high willingness to pay for condoms. We found differences in brand equity between the 3 groups, with current P+ users having the highest P+ brand equity. As observed in previous studies, higher brand equity was associated with more of the targeted health behavior, in this case and more consistent condom use. Zimbabwe men have highly positive brand perceptions of P+. There is an opportunity to grow the total condom market in Zimbabwe by increasing brand equity across user groups. Some former users may resume using condoms through more effective marketing. Some free users may be willing to pay for condoms. Achieving these objectives will expand the total condom market and reduce HIV risk behaviors.

  15. How to get the best deal on condoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, S

    1995-01-01

    Reports on the testing and ranking of 6,500 samples of 37 different kinds of latex condoms are available in the 1995 issue of Consumer Reports. The magazine used the air-burst test, approved last year by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), to test for condom strength and reliability. Three types of condoms had perfect scores: Excita Extra Ultra-Ribbed Spermicidally Lubricated, Ramses Extra Ribbed Spermicidally Lubricated, and the U.S.-made version of Sheik Elite Lubricated. Seven types of condoms failed the test: Lifestyles Ultra Sensitive and six types of Trojans, including Trojans Extra Strength.

  16. Brief Report: Consistency of Search Engine Rankings for Autism Websites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichow, Brian; Naples, Adam; Steinhoff, Timothy; Halpern, Jason; Volkmar, Fred R.

    2012-01-01

    The World Wide Web is one of the most common methods used by parents to find information on autism spectrum disorders and most consumers find information through search engines such as Google or Bing. However, little is known about how the search engines operate or the consistency of the results that are returned over time. This study presents the…

  17. Minority College Women’s Views on Condom Negotiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TyWanda McLaurin-Jones

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study utilized quantitative and qualitative methods to (1 investigate the relationship between frequency of condom use and negotiation strategies and (2 evaluate experiences with condom negotiations among sexually active, heterosexual, African American college women. One hundred female students from a Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCU completed a questionnaire that included the Condom Influence Strategies Scale (CIS and participated in a focus group. An ANOVA was conducted to compare differences between never, inconsistent, and consistent condom users. Consistent condom users scored higher than never users on the “withholding sex” subscale of the CIS (4.88 vs. 3.55; p < 0.001 as well as endorsed items more strongly on the “direct request” subscale of the CIS (4.63 vs. 3.82, p < 0.05 than never users. A thematic analysis of open discussions identified overarching themes. Similarly, refusing sex and/or having direct communications with partner emerged as primary strategies. Threats to negotiation included deciding the “right timing” of discussion and having a previous history of sexual intercourse without a condom with their partner. Other key concepts that contribute to condom negotiation are the views that condoms are a male’s responsibility and stigma of women who carry condoms.

  18. Individual, Interpersonal, and Structural Power: Associations With Condom Use in a Sample of Young Adult Latinos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokes, Lynissa R; Harvey, S Marie; Warren, Jocelyn T

    2016-01-01

    Interviews were conducted with 480 sexually active Latino young adults from four rural counties in Oregon. We examined relationships between three levels of power (individual, interpersonal, and structural) and consistent condom use. Condom use self-efficacy and sexual decision-making, examples of individual and interpersonal measures of power, respectively, were associated with increased odds of consistent condom use among both men and women. Among men only, increasing relationship control, an interpersonal measure of power, was associated with lower odds of consistent condom use. Among women only, increasing medical mistrust, a structural measure of power, was associated with increased odds of consistent condom use.

  19. Condom availability in high risk places and condom use: a study at district level in Kenya, Tanzania and Zambia

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    Sandøy Ingvild

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A number of studies from countries with severe HIV epidemics have found gaps in condom availability, even in places where there is a substantial potential for HIV transmission. Although reported condom use has increased in many African countries, there are often big differences by socioeconomic background. The aim of this study was to assess equity aspects of condom availability and uptake in three African districts to evaluate whether condom programmes are given sufficient priority. Methods Data on condom availability and use was examined in one district in Kenya, one in Tanzania and one in Zambia. The study was based on a triangulation of data collection methods in the three study districts: surveys in venues where people meet new sexual partners, population-based surveys and focus group discussions. The data was collected within an overall study on priority setting in health systems. Results At the time of the survey, condoms were observed in less than half of the high risk venues in two of the three districts and in 60% in the third district. Rural respondents in the population-based surveys perceived condoms to be less available and tended to be less likely to report condom use than urban respondents. Although focus group participants reported that condoms were largely available in their district, they expressed concerns related to the accessibility of free condoms. Conclusion As late as thirty years into the HIV epidemic there are still important gaps in the availability of condoms in places where people meet new sexual partners in these three African districts. Considering that previous studies have found that improved condom availability and accessibility in high risk places have a potential to increase condom use among people with multiple partners, the present study findings indicate that substantial further efforts should be made to secure that condoms are easily accessible in places where sexual relationships are

  20. Reporting Deferred Gifts: CASE-NACUBO Guidelines Ensure Consistency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridenour, James F.; Munger, Peter L.

    1983-01-01

    Three methods for reporting the value of a deferred gift are described: the tax method, net realizable value, and fair market value. Three major categories of deferred gifts are identified: pooled income funds, charitable remainder trusts, and charitable gift annuities. (MLW)

  1. Condom Use Self-Efficacy among Younger Rural Adolescents: The Influence of Parent-Teen Communication, and Knowledge of and Attitudes toward Condoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritchwood, Tiarney D.; Penn, Dolly; Peasant, Courtney; Albritton, Tashuna; Corbie-Smith, Giselle

    2017-01-01

    This study examines the role of condom use knowledge and attitudes, and parent-teen communication about sex and relationship quality on reports of condom use self-efficacy among rural, African American youth. Participants were 465 North Carolinian youth (10-14 years). Results indicated that greater condom use self-efficacy was predicted by greater…

  2. Condom Use Self-Efficacy among Younger Rural Adolescents: The Influence of Parent-Teen Communication, and Knowledge of and Attitudes toward Condoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritchwood, Tiarney D.; Penn, Dolly; Peasant, Courtney; Albritton, Tashuna; Corbie-Smith, Giselle

    2017-01-01

    This study examines the role of condom use knowledge and attitudes, and parent-teen communication about sex and relationship quality on reports of condom use self-efficacy among rural, African American youth. Participants were 465 North Carolinian youth (10-14 years). Results indicated that greater condom use self-efficacy was predicted by greater…

  3. Coital frequency and condom use in monogamous and concurrent sexual relationships in Cape Town, South Africa

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    Wim Delva

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: A decreased frequency of unprotected sex during episodes of concurrent relationships may dramatically reduce the role of concurrency in accelerating the spread of HIV. Such a decrease could be the result of coital dilution – the reduction in per-partner coital frequency from additional partners – and/or increased condom use during concurrency. To study the effect of concurrency on the frequency of unprotected sex, we examined sexual behaviour data from three communities with high HIV prevalence around Cape Town, South Africa. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional survey from June 2011 to February 2012 using audio computer-assisted self-interviewing to reconstruct one-year sexual histories, with a focus on coital frequency and condom use. Participants were randomly sampled from a previous TB and HIV prevalence survey. Mixed effects logistic and Poisson regression models were fitted to data from 527 sexually active adults reporting on 1210 relationship episodes to evaluate the effect of concurrency status on consistent condom use and coital frequency. Results: The median of the per-partner weekly average coital frequency was 2 (IQR: 1–3, and consistent condom use was reported for 36% of the relationship episodes. Neither per-partner coital frequency nor consistent condom use changed significantly during episodes of concurrency (aIRR=1.05; 95% confidence interval (CI: 0.99–1.24 and aOR=1.01; 95% CI: 0.38–2.68, respectively. Being male, coloured, having a tertiary education, and having a relationship between 2 weeks and 9 months were associated with higher coital frequencies. Being coloured, and having a relationship lasting for more than 9 months, was associated with inconsistent condom use. Conclusions: We found no evidence for coital dilution or for increased condom use during concurrent relationship episodes in three communities around Cape Town with high HIV prevalence. Given the low levels of self-reported consistent

  4. Improving plant bioaccumulation science through consistent reporting of experimental data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fantke, Peter; Arnot, Jon A; Doucette, William J

    2016-10-01

    Experimental data and models for plant bioaccumulation of organic contaminants play a crucial role for assessing the potential human and ecological risks associated with chemical use. Plants are receptor organisms and direct or indirect vectors for chemical exposures to all other organisms. As new experimental data are generated they are used to improve our understanding of plant-chemical interactions that in turn allows for the development of better scientific knowledge and conceptual and predictive models. The interrelationship between experimental data and model development is an ongoing, never-ending process needed to advance our ability to provide reliable quality information that can be used in various contexts including regulatory risk assessment. However, relatively few standard experimental protocols for generating plant bioaccumulation data are currently available and because of inconsistent data collection and reporting requirements, the information generated is often less useful than it could be for direct applications in chemical assessments and for model development and refinement. We review existing testing guidelines, common data reporting practices, and provide recommendations for revising testing guidelines and reporting requirements to improve bioaccumulation knowledge and models. This analysis provides a list of experimental parameters that will help to develop high quality datasets and support modeling tools for assessing bioaccumulation of organic chemicals in plants and ultimately addressing uncertainty in ecological and human health risk assessments.

  5. Condom Semiotics: Meaning and Condom Use in Rural Malawi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavory, Iddo; Swidler, Ann

    2009-01-01

    This article examines the widespread resistance to condom use in sub-Saharan Africa by describing the major semiotic axes that organize how people talk about condoms and condom use. These axes include the "sweetness" of sex, trust and love between sexual partners, and assessments of risk and danger. Using data from rural Malawi, we show…

  6. Everyday exposure to benevolent sexism and condom use among college women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitz, Caroline C; Zucker, Alyssa N

    2015-01-01

    Understanding factors related to condom use is critical in reducing the spread of sexually transmitted infections (STIs), especially for women, who are disproportionately affected by many STIs. Extant work has shown that perceived sexism is one such factor associated with lower levels of condom use among women, but has yet to explore whether benevolent sexism in particular-a subtle form of sexism that often goes unnoticed and increases cognitions and behaviors consistent with traditional female gender roles (e.g., sexual submissiveness)-relates negatively to this safer-sex practice. The present research tested this possibility and, in addition, examined whether relational sex motives, which reflect a desire to engage in sex as a means to foster partners' sexual satisfaction, mediated the relation between benevolent sexism and condom use. During the spring of 2011, female college students (N = 158) reported how often they experienced benevolent sexism in their daily lives and, 2 weeks later, their relational sex motives and condom use. Supporting hypotheses results indicated that greater exposure to benevolent sexism was associated significantly with lower condom use, and that relational sex motives mediated this relationship. We discuss implications for women's well-being, including ways to promote safer sex in the face of sexism.

  7. Decision Processes about Condom Use among Shelter-Homeless LGBT Youth in Manhattan

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    Geoffrey L. Ream

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Health behavior interventions based on Theory of Planned Behavior address participants’ personally-held beliefs, perceived social norms, and control over the behavior. New data are always needed to “member check” participants’ decision processes and inform interventions. This qualitative study investigates decision processes around condom use among 81 homeless LGBT youth ages 18–26. Findings indicated considerable endorsement of the conventional policy of always using condoms, promulgated in HIV prevention education targeting this population. Although some participants reported risk behavior in contexts of sex work, survival sex, casual encounters, open relationships, and substance use, most were aware of these risks and consistently safe in those situations. Condoms use boundaries became vulnerable in states of emotional need and negative mood. The only effect participants acknowledged of homelessness on condom use was indirect, through negative mood states. The most prevalent context of condom non-use was with long-term primary partners, a potential area of vulnerability because, of 13 participants for HIV or HCV, nine mentioned how they had been infected, and all nine believed they had acquired it from a primary partner. Findings imply programs should emphasize HIV risk potential within long-term romantic partnerships and mental health services to remediate negative mood states.

  8. Decision Processes about Condom Use among Shelter-Homeless LGBT Youth in Manhattan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ream, Geoffrey L.; Barnhart, Kate F.; Lotz, Kevin V.

    2012-01-01

    Health behavior interventions based on Theory of Planned Behavior address participants' personally-held beliefs, perceived social norms, and control over the behavior. New data are always needed to “member check” participants' decision processes and inform interventions. This qualitative study investigates decision processes around condom use among 81 homeless LGBT youth ages 18–26. Findings indicated considerable endorsement of the conventional policy of always using condoms, promulgated in HIV prevention education targeting this population. Although some participants reported risk behavior in contexts of sex work, survival sex, casual encounters, open relationships, and substance use, most were aware of these risks and consistently safe in those situations. Condoms use boundaries became vulnerable in states of emotional need and negative mood. The only effect participants acknowledged of homelessness on condom use was indirect, through negative mood states. The most prevalent context of condom non-use was with long-term primary partners, a potential area of vulnerability because, of 13 participants for HIV or HCV, nine mentioned how they had been infected, and all nine believed they had acquired it from a primary partner. Findings imply programs should emphasize HIV risk potential within long-term romantic partnerships and mental health services to remediate negative mood states. PMID:22693658

  9. [Use of condoms among Mexican adolescents for the prevention of sexually transmitted diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayet, Cecilia; Juárez, Fátima; Pedrosa, Laura A; Magis, Carlos

    2003-01-01

    To investigate the current sexual behavior and condom use during the first sexual intercourse among adolescents, as well as variations and factors influencing condom use at first sexual intercourse. The data source for this study was Mexico's National Health Survey 2000. Study subjects were male and female adolescents aged 12 to 19 years (n = 16,258). Statistical analysis consisted of descriptive statistics and multivariate logistic regression, to assess the association of four types of factors (demographic, socioeconomic, cultural, and cognitive) with condom use during the first sexual intercourse. Males and residents of urban areas reported greater sexual activity and condom use. Typically, adolescents who used condoms during the first sexual intercourse were male, older, resided in urban areas, non-speakers of an indigenous language, and with higher schooling. New policies should be framed to prevent sexually transmitted infections to span the gap between knowledge and practice, targeting adolescents starting sexual activity earlier, those who speak an indigenous language, living in rural areas, with less schooling, and females. The English version of this paper is available too at:http://www.insp.mx/salud/index.html.

  10. Decision Processes about Condom Use among Shelter-Homeless LGBT Youth in Manhattan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ream, Geoffrey L; Barnhart, Kate F; Lotz, Kevin V

    2012-01-01

    Health behavior interventions based on Theory of Planned Behavior address participants' personally-held beliefs, perceived social norms, and control over the behavior. New data are always needed to "member check" participants' decision processes and inform interventions. This qualitative study investigates decision processes around condom use among 81 homeless LGBT youth ages 18-26. Findings indicated considerable endorsement of the conventional policy of always using condoms, promulgated in HIV prevention education targeting this population. Although some participants reported risk behavior in contexts of sex work, survival sex, casual encounters, open relationships, and substance use, most were aware of these risks and consistently safe in those situations. Condoms use boundaries became vulnerable in states of emotional need and negative mood. The only effect participants acknowledged of homelessness on condom use was indirect, through negative mood states. The most prevalent context of condom non-use was with long-term primary partners, a potential area of vulnerability because, of 13 participants for HIV or HCV, nine mentioned how they had been infected, and all nine believed they had acquired it from a primary partner. Findings imply programs should emphasize HIV risk potential within long-term romantic partnerships and mental health services to remediate negative mood states.

  11. Men's Alcohol Intoxication and Condom Use during Sexual Assault Perpetration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Kelly Cue; Kiekel, Preston A.; Schraufnagel, Trevor J.; Norris, Jeanette; George, William H.; Kajumulo, Kelly F.

    2012-01-01

    We assessed the association between alcohol consumption and condom use during penetrative sexual assault acts perpetrated by young adult men. Men aged 21 to 35 who reported inconsistent condom use and heavy episodic drinking (N = 225) completed a questionnaire assessing their perpetration of sexual assault since the age of 15, their consumption of…

  12. Health beliefs and teenage condom use : A prospective study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abraham, CS; Sheeran, P; Abrams, D; Spears, R

    1996-01-01

    Results from a longitudinal survey of sexual behaviour and HIV-relevant cognitions amongst 258 sexually-active adolescents are reported. Demographic characteristics, previous sexual experience, prior condom use, beliefs specified by the health belief model (I-IBM), peer norms regarding condom use an

  13. Nigeria using more condoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-09-01

    Marie Stopes International says a project it supports in Nigeria is making good progress in its efforts to promote the use of condoms to protect against STDs and for contraception. The program, which uses social marketing methods, is headed by Stewart Parkinson from the UK. His previous experience has been in the private sector; he has worked in sales, marketing, and advertising for companies like Coca Cola, Budweiser, Securicor, and Mates. "Social marketing," he says, "is simply getting people to buy a product". He sees no clash with more conventional health education practitioners, believing that the two approaches can complement each other. "Much of the work simply involves pointing out the benefits of condoms," says Parkinson. "You can convert large numbers of people to the idea in a short space of time if you get the message right]" Nevertheless, as he points out, the conversion rate usually drops after that. "At first the take-up is from middle-income people, who already have a latent demand for condoms. The poor are harder to reach." He says Nigeria is a very suitable country for a private sector approach to condom promotion, as there is no functioning public sector. He recently paid a visit to Zimbabwe, where the public sector is strong, and agrees that different approaches may be suitable there. The scheme provided 85% of the 65 million condoms used in Nigeria last year. Stewart Parkinson says, "It's working out at only US$5 to provide protection for one couple per year--a very cheap intervention]"

  14. Revisiting the use of condoms in Brazil

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    Inês Dourado

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTIntroduction:It is known that a single prevention strategy is not enough to control multiple HIV epidemics around the world and in Brazil. However, it is not only necessary to recognize the importance of condoms as part of the policy of HIV/AIDS prevention but also discuss its limits. In this article, we aim to investigate the use of condoms in Brazil, draw critical reflections, and understand how they can once again be highlighted in Brazil's prevention strategy going forward.Methods:A narrative review of literature was conducted using keywords in PubMed. Reports from national surveys that guide the epidemiological and behavioral surveillance of the Brazilian Ministry of Health were also included.Results:A total of 40 articles and 3 reports were included in the review and 11 intervention studies to promote the condom use; the main findings were as follows: 1 Despite the increase in national studies on sexual behavior, little attention is given to the role of condom use; 2 There are few studies examining the factors associated with condom use among key populations such as men who have sex with men (MSM, female sex workers (FSW, drug users (DU, and transvestites and transexuals (TT, while substantial studies focus on adolescents and women; 3 Evidence suggests that a combination of interventions is more effective.Discussion:new prevention technologies must not lose sight of the critical importance of condoms, and efforts to reintroduce them should focus on the role of pleasure in addition to their potential to minimize the risk of HIV.

  15. Penile strangulation and necrosis due to condom catheter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özkan, Heval S; İrkoren, Saime; Sivrioğlu, Nazan

    2015-06-01

    Condom catheters are often used in the management of male urinary incontinence, and are considered to be safe. As condom catheters are placed on the male genitalia, sometimes adequate care is not taken after placement owing to poor medical care of debilitated patients and feelings of embarrassment and shame. Similarly, sometimes the correct size of penile sheath is not used. Strangulation of penis due to condom catheter is a rare condition; only few such cases have been reported in the literature. Proper application and routine care of condom catheters are important in preventing this devastating complication especially in a neurologically debilitated population. We present a case of penile necrosis due to condom catheter. We will also discuss proper catheter care and treatment of possible complications.

  16. Unlocking the condoms: The effect on sales and theft

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    Ashwood D

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Community pharmacies may place condoms in locked displays or behind glass, thereby reducing access and consequent use.Objective: Quantify sales and theft of condoms when condoms were unlocked and removed from behind glass in grocery pharmaciesMethods: Design. In this pilot study, condom displays were unlocked in selected pharmacies for three months. Participants. Eight grocery pharmacies in central Iowa agreed to participate. Intervention. Stores provided inventory at baseline, sales/theft thereafter in three monthly reports and sales for the same period one-year earlier. Outcome measures. Descriptive statistics quantified condom theft and sales. Number of pharmacies leaving condoms unlocked after the intervention was determined.Results: Theft varied by pharmacy and ranged from an average of 1.33 boxes (units per month to 27.33 per month. All stores experienced some increase in sales during the intervention. Two locations decided to re-lock their displays, only one indicated theft as the reason.Conclusion: After removing condoms from locked displays, more condoms were purchased and stolen from the study pharmacies. Sales outweighed theft in all pharmacies.

  17. Inconsistent condom use among Ugandan university students from a gender perspective: a cross-sectional study

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    Devika Mehra

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Feminization of the HIV/AIDS epidemic has been a prominent phenomenon in sub-Saharan Africa. Inconsistent condom use among young people is one of the major risk factors in the continued propagation of the epidemic. Therefore, it is of importance to increase knowledge of gender aspects of condom use among young people. Objective: To investigate whether gender differences regarding individual and social factors determine the association between condom efficacy and inconsistent condom use with a new sex partner, among Ugandan university students. Design: In 2010, 1954 Ugandan students participated in a cross-sectional survey, conducted at Mbarara University of Science and Technology in southwestern Uganda. A self-administered questionnaire assessed socio-demographic factors, alcohol consumption, sexual behaviors (including condom use and condom efficacy, and peer norms. The data were stratified by sex and examined by multivariate logistic regression analysis. Results: A total of 1,179 (60.3% students reported having had their sexual debut. Of these, 231 (37.4% males and 209 (49.2% females reported inconsistent condom use with a new sex partner. Students with low condom efficacy had a higher risk of inconsistent condom use with a new sex partner, even after adjusting for the potential confounders. A synergistic effect was observed between being a female and low condom efficacy with inconsistent condom use. Conclusion: The association between inconsistent condom use and low condom efficacy was found among both males and females, but females were found to be at a higher risk of inconsistent condom use compared to their male counterparts. Therefore, gender power relations should be addressed in policies and interventions aiming at increasing condom use among young people in sub-Saharan settings. Programs could be designed with intervention strategies that focus on interactive and participatory educational activities and youth

  18. Incorporating Communication into the Theory of Planned Behavior to Predict Condom Use Among African American Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Mengfei; Coles, Valerie B; Samp, Jennifer A; Sales, Jessica McDermott; DiClemente, Ralph J; Monahan, Jennifer L

    2016-09-01

    The present research extends the theory of planned behavior (TPB) to investigate how communication-related variables influence condom use intention and behavior among African American women. According to the TPB, attitudes, subjective norms, and self-efficacy are associated with behavioral intent, which predicts behavior. For women, it was argued that condom negotiation self-efficacy was more important than condom use self-efficacy in predicting consistent condom use. Moreover, an important environmental factor that affects condom use for African American women is fear or worry when negotiating condom use because the sex partners might leave, threaten, or abuse them. Fears associated with negotiating condom use were predicted to be negatively associated with attitudes, subjective norms, and self-efficacy. African American women (N = 560; M age = 20.58) completed assessments of TPB variables at baseline and condom use 3 months later. Condom negotiation self-efficacy was a significant indicator of behavioral intent, while condom use self-efficacy was not. Fear of condom negotiation was negatively associated with all TPB components, which was in turn significantly associated with behavioral intent and condom use. Implications for the TPB, safer sex literature, and sexually transmitted infection prevention intervention design are discussed.

  19. Condom Availability in Schools: A Practical Approach to the Prevention of Sexually Transmitted Infection/HIV and Unintended Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-01

    Adolescents and young adults are highly impacted by sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and unplanned pregnancy in the United States and globally. Consistent and correct use of male latex condoms is associated with protection against both STIs and pregnancy. Providing adolescents and young adults with access to free condoms in schools may increase the use of condoms by improving condom availability, eliminating cost, and decreasing embarrassment associated with purchasing condoms. Studies demonstrate that condom availability in schools is associated with the increased use of condoms and improved overall sexual health. The Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine encourages schools to make condoms available to students as part of efforts to decrease rates of STIs and unplanned pregnancy in adolescents and young adults. The Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine also encourages health care providers to advocate for and support the availability of condoms in local schools. Copyright © 2017 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Exploring the condom gap: is supply or demand the limiting factor - condom access and use in an urban and a rural setting in Kilifi district, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papo, Jacqueline K; Bauni, Evasius K; Sanders, Eduard J; Brocklehurst, Peter; Jaffe, Harold W

    2011-01-14

    to explore the extent of the condom gap, investigating the relative roles of supply-side and demand-side factors in determining condom use. GPS mapping of condom outlets, and population-based survey. an urban and a rural site were selected within the Epidemiological and Demographic Surveillance Site in Kilifi district, Kenya. Potential condom outlets (n = 281) were mapped and surveyed, and questionnaires on condom access and use (n = 630) were administered to a random sample of men and women aged 15-49. Multivariate logistic regression was performed to assess the relative roles of supply-side and demand-side barriers on condom use. the median straight-line distance to free condoms was 18-fold higher in the rural versus urban site. Among sexually active respondents, 42% had ever used a condom, and 23% had used a condom over the past 12 months, with lower levels among rural versus urban respondents (P supply-side or demand-side barriers, compared with individuals experiencing both types of barriers. Despite low levels of usage and the presence of supply-side and demand-side barriers, reported unmet need for condoms was low. there is an urgent need for renewed condom promotion efforts aimed at building demand, in addition to improving physical access, in resource-limited settings with generalized HIV epidemics in sub-Saharan Africa. 2011 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

  1. Condoms and Coca-Cola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, S

    1992-01-01

    Social marketing entails promoting the appropriate and quality product to be sold in the right places at the right price. Even though mass media advertisement of condoms is forbid in Zaire, condoms have been effectively promoted and sold in the country using alternate approaches. 8 million units of the condom, Prudence, were sold in 1990, and Prudence has become the generic name for condoms in the Zaire. Noting that Coca-Cola, beer, and cigarettes may be purchased virtually ubiquitously, commercial outlets and local traders were enlisted to sell condoms at reduced prices on the market. Reduced price sales are possible since donor and government agencies provide the condoms to wholesalers and merchants free of charge. The successful social marketing of condoms expands condom availability to a greater segment of a country's population while recovering some public sector costs and shifting health care away from the public sector. Condoms are especially promoted to high risk groups such as commercial sex workers and their clients in Zaire. Similar programs have been inspired in 10 African countries including Cameroon and Burundi, as well as in Brazil, Haiti, and India. Prevention programs in Latin America and Asia will benefit from these program experiences in Africa. In closing, the article notes the need for an adequate and predictable commodity supply in attaining effective social marketing. Marked program success may, however, lead to sustainability problems.

  2. The Predictive Role of Self-efficacy, Outcome Expectancies, Past Behavior and Attitudes on Condom Use in a Sample of Female College Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Artistico

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the impact of self-efficacy in relation to condom use. A sample of 87 female college students completed self-report measures related to their sexual history, attitudes towards condoms and past condom use, as well as their outcome expectancy and intention to use condoms in the future. The results showed a positive correlation between self-efficacy and positive attitudes towards condom use, as well as correlations between past behavior, self-efficacy and intention to use condoms in the future. Multiple linear regression models were used to further explore the relationship between self-efficacy, past condom use, outcome expectancy and attitudes toward condoms, with the intention to use condoms in the future. The results demonstrated that both self-efficacy and past condom use are significant predictors of an individual’s intention to use condoms in the future.

  3. Determinants of condom use at sexual debut among young Vietnamese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, Trang H T; Le, Linh C; Burgess, John A; Bui, Dinh S

    2014-01-01

    Condom use at sexual debut is associated with subsequent condom use and with decreased risk of sexually transmitted infections. There is a dearth of data on determinants of condom use at first sexual intercourse. We aimed to determine factors associated with condom use at first sexual intercourse before marriage among Vietnamese adolescents and youths. The study involved the analysis of data from the Survey Assessment of Vietnamese Youth, 2003, the first nationally representative survey of young people in Vietnam. The survey included 7584 adolescents and youths aged 14-25 years. In this study, data of 605 adolescents and youths who had engaged in premarital sex were analyzed for factors associated with condom use using descriptive analyses, and regression techniques, allowing for sampling weights, clustering and stratification. Of 605 adolescents and youths who had engaged in premarital sex, 28.6% reported condom use at first sexual intercourse. Condom use at sexual debut was less common in females than males [odds ratio (OR)=0.15; 95% confidence interval (95% CI)=0.07-0.30] and less common in those who experienced peer pressure to engage in social higher risk behaviors (OR=0.57; 95% CI=0.32-0.99). Condom use was more common if a friend/acquaintance or a stranger/sex worker was the first sexual partner (OR=2.20; 95% CI=1.16-4.17 and OR=17.90; 95% CI=6.88-46.54) respectively, each compared with fiancé/boyfriend/girlfriend as first sexual partner. These data suggest that approximately one in three unmarried Vietnamese youths used a condom at first sexual intercourse. Gender, peer pressure and the nature of the relationship to the first sexual partner were independently associated with condom use. These results can inform programs directed at preventing HIV and other sexually transmitted infections among young Vietnamese.

  4. Condom use: exploring verbal and non-verbal communication strategies among Latino and African American men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zukoski, Ann P; Harvey, S Marie; Branch, Meredith

    2009-08-01

    A growing body of literature provides evidence of a link between communication with sexual partners and safer sexual practices, including condom use. More research is needed that explores the dynamics of condom communication including gender differences in initiation, and types of communication strategies. The overall objective of this study was to explore condom use and the dynamics surrounding condom communication in two distinct community-based samples of African American and Latino heterosexual couples at increased risk for HIV. Based on 122 in-depth interviews, 80% of women and 74% of men reported ever using a condom with their primary partner. Of those who reported ever using a condom with their current partner, the majority indicated that condom use was initiated jointly by men and women. In addition, about one-third of the participants reported that the female partner took the lead and let her male partner know she wanted to use a condom. A sixth of the sample reported that men initiated use. Although over half of the respondents used bilateral verbal strategies (reminding, asking and persuading) to initiate condom use, one-fourth used unilateral verbal strategies (commanding and threatening to withhold sex). A smaller number reported using non-verbal strategies involving condoms themselves (e.g. putting a condom on or getting condoms). The results suggest that interventions designed to improve condom use may need to include both members of a sexual dyad and focus on improving verbal and non-verbal communication skills of individuals and couples.

  5. Modelling condom use: Does the theory of planned behaviour explain condom use in a low risk, community sample?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Joanna; Shiels, Chris; Gabbay, Mark B

    2014-01-01

    To date, most condom research has focused on young or high-risk groups, with little evidence about influences on condom use amongst lower-risk community samples. These groups are not risk free and may still wish to negotiate safer sex; yet the considerations involved could be different from those in higher-risk groups. Our research addresses this gap: We report a cross-sectional questionnaire study enquiring about recent condom use and future use intentions in community settings. Our sample (n = 311) purposively included couples in established relationships, known to be condom users. Items included demographics, sexual history and social-cognitive variables taken from the theory of planned behaviour. The strongest association with condom use/use intentions amongst our respondents was sexual partner's perceived willingness to use them. This applied across both univariate and multivariate analyses. Whilst most social-cognitive variables (attitudes; self-efficacy and peer social norms) were significant in univariate analyses, this was not supported in multivariate regression. Of the social-cognitive variables, only "condom-related attitudes" were retained in the model explaining recent condom use, whilst none of them entered the model explaining future use intentions. Further analysis showed that attitudes concerning pleasure, identity stigma and condom effectiveness were most salient for this cohort. Our results suggest that, in community samples, the decision to use a condom involves different considerations from those highlighted in previous research. Explanatory models for established couples should embrace interpersonal perspectives, emphasising couple-factors rather than individual beliefs. Messages to this cohort could usefully focus on negotiation skills, condom advantages (other than disease prevention) and reducing the stigma associated with use.

  6. The story of the condom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahd Khan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Condoms have been a subject of curiosity throughout history. The idea of safer sex has been explored in ancient and modern history, and has been used to prevent venereal diseases. We conducted a historical and medical review of condoms using primary and secondary sources as well as using the RSM library and the internet. These resources show that the first use of a condom was that of King Minos of Crete. Pasiphae, his wife, employed a goat′s bladder in the vagina so that King Minos would not be able to harm her as his semen was said to contain "scorpions and serpents" that killed his mistresses. To Egyptians, condom-like glans caps were dyed in different colours to distinguish between different classes of people and to protect themselves against bilharzia. The Ancient Romans used the bladders of animals to protect the woman; they were worn not to prevent pregnancy but to prevent contraction of venereal diseases. Charles Goodyear, the inventor, utilized vulcanization, the process of transforming rubber into malleable structures, to produce latex condoms. The greater use of condoms all over the world in the 20 th and 21 st centuries has been related to HIV. This account of the use of condoms demonstrates how a primitive idea turned into an object that is used globally with a forecast estimated at 18 billion condoms to be used in 2015 alone.

  7. Pregnancy prevention and condom use practices among HIV-infected women on antiretroviral therapy seeking family planning in Lilongwe, Malawi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa B Haddad

    Full Text Available Programs for integration of family planning into HIV care must recognize current practices and desires among clients to appropriately target and tailor interventions. We sought to evaluate fertility intentions, unintended pregnancy, contraceptive and condom use among a cohort of HIV-infected women seeking family planning services within an antiretroviral therapy (ART clinic.200 women completed an interviewer-administered questionnaire during enrollment into a prospective contraceptive study at the Lighthouse Clinic, an HIV/ART clinic in Lilongwe, Malawi, between August and December 2010.Most women (95% did not desire future pregnancy. Prior reported unintended pregnancy rates were high (69% unplanned and 61% unhappy with timing of last pregnancy. Condom use was inconsistent, even among couples with discordant HIV status, with lack of use often attributed to partner's refusal. Higher education, older age, lower parity and having an HIV negative partner were factors associated with consistent condom usage.High rates of unintended pregnancy among these women underscore the need for integ rating family planning, sexually transmitted infection (STI prevention, and HIV services. Contraceptive access and use, including condoms, must be improved with specific efforts to enlist partner support. Messages regarding the importance of condom usage in conjunction with more effective modern contraceptive methods for both infection and pregnancy prevention must continue to be reinforced over the course of ongoing ART treatment.

  8. An Intervention Study Examining the Effects of Condom Wrapper Graphics and Scent on Condom Use in the Botswana Defence Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    tertiary/vocational school (34.2% vs. 13.2%; p < 0.001), from the Support unit (37.0% vs. 17.6%; p < 0.001), and to report a higher median number of...secondary school ]: CURBaseline = 84.0%, CURPost-intervention = 95.3% vs. More educated [i.e., completed tertiary/vocational school ]: CURBaseline = 90.3...using condoms and restored feelings of masculinity when proposing condom use to their sexual partner. Previous studies have found that condoms are

  9. Condom negotiation strategies as a mediator of the relationship between self-efficacy and condom use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Sabine Elizabeth; Holland, Kathryn J

    2013-01-01

    College students are a group at high risk of sexually transmitted infections due to inconsistent condom use and engaging in other risky sexual behaviors. This study examined whether condom use self-efficacy predicted the use of condom negotiation strategies (i.e., condom influence strategies) and whether condom influence strategies mediated the relationship between condom use self-efficacy and condom use within this population, as well as whether gender moderated the mediation model. Results showed a strong relationship between condom use self-efficacy and condom influence strategies. Additionally, condom influence strategies completely mediated the relationship between condom use self-efficacy and condom use. Although condom use self-efficacy was related to condom use, the ability to use condom negotiation strategies was the most important factor predicting condom use. The mediation model held across genders, except for the condom influence strategy withholding sex, where it was not significant for men. For women, condom use self-efficacy promoted the use of a very assertive negotiation strategy, withholding sex, and was consequently related to increased condom use. Overall, using assertive condom negotiation strategies (e.g., withholding sex and direct request) were found to be the most important aspects of increasing condom use for both women and men. Implications and suggestions for prevention programming are discussed.

  10. Condom ads promote illicit sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kippley, J F

    1994-01-01

    Written in 1987, this opinion was republished in the wake of US President Bill Clinton's AIDS prevention media campaign promoting condom use which began January 1994, targeted at young adults aged 18-25. The author staunchly opposes condom use even though he admits that people do not consider abstinence from sex to be a serious option for the prevention of HIV/STD infection. He believes that there is no moral use of sex with a condom and that condoms have always been a sign of immorality, be it prostitution, adultery, fornication, or marital contraception. Likewise, the author laments the success enjoyed by Planned Parenthood in achieving the social acceptance of marital contraception and sex outside of marriage. The complete social acceptance of homosexual activity, however, remains to be achieved. Magazines, newspapers, and television receive income in exchange for publishing or airing advertisements. Finding offensive advertisements which promote the use of condoms against HIV infection, the author recommends writing letters of complaint to the responsible media sources. If the television stations or publications in question continue to advertise condoms to the public, stop watching them or end one's subscriptions to the particular printed media. Such action taken collectively among many individuals will reduce product sales and income, and potentially sway corporate policy against condom ads.

  11. On Consistency of Self- and Proxy-reported Regular Smoking Initiation Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soulakova, Julia N; Bright, Brianna C; Crockett, Lisa J

    2013-12-16

    Early onset of smoking is associated with heavier tobacco consumption and longer smoking careers. Consequently, obtaining accurate estimates of early smoking is a priority. The purpose of this study was to examine the utility of proxy reports of the age of smoking initiation, and specifically to explore whether there are differences in the consistency of proxy-reported and self-reported smoking behaviors. Data came from the 2002-2003 Tobacco Use Supplement to the Current Population Survey, where the current smoking behaviors and smoking history of participants were reported by self-and proxy-respondents on two occasions, one year apart. Sequential multiple-testing methods were used to assess significance of the differences in reported prevalence of consistent reports among specific sub-populations defined by age, gender and survey administration mode. Results indicated that self-reports are more reliable (more consistent over time) than proxy reports or mixed reports that include self-report at one time point and proxy reports at another. The rate of perfect agreement was also highest for self-reports. The impact of respondent type on the consistency of reports also depended on the target subjects' age and the survey administration mode (phone or in-person).

  12. Incorrect condom programming in the primary health care setting: “A prescription for a disaster”?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. de Wet

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available In the effort to stem the HIV pandemic, the promotion of the correct and consistent use of condoms has to be a priority in the primary health care sector. This study, concentrating on the southern Free State, sought to identify obstacles to condom usage and to develop strategies to encourage condom usage. Both primary health care workers and their clients served as respondents in the study.

  13. Female condom launched in UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    The lone-awaited female condom, Femidom, is to be launched at the end of September by manufacturers Chartex. It is being welcomed by the FPA [Family Planning Association] and other family planning experts as a valuable addition to the existing range of contraceptive methods and as an alternative to the male condom in offering effective protection against sexually transmitted diseases including HIV. A lubricated, loose-fitting polyurethane sheath, Femidom is inserted into the vagina at any time before sex. An inner ring holds the condom in place beyond the pubic bone and an outer ring lies flat against the vulva. In addition to extending choice, it is under direct control of the woman. As FPA Director Doreen Massey puts it: "We have to face the fact that some women who want safer sex can't get their partners to use condoms. for the 1st time with Femidom, you can insist that if he won't use a condom, you'll use yours." In trails of self-selected couples, up to 2/3 of women and their partners found the product acceptable. a study at the Institute of Population Studies in Exeter showed that while some couples had initial misgivings about the condom's size and appearance, especially its visibility when in position, these often declined with repeated use. Researcher Dr. Nicholas Ford pointed out that if the female condom makes a woman feel unattractive, her partner's comments may well influence these feelings. Users' experience of insertion and the condom's comfort also improved with repeated use. While there are no large studies showing ranges of effectiveness, it is likely to be as effective as the male condom (about 85%-98%). In a study of 106 women at the margaret Pyke Center in London, there were 7 unplanned pregnancies: 4 were due to inconsistent use of the method and 3 were method failures. Breakages were rare. 1/3 of participants dropped out in the 1st month. Users should continue with their existing contraceptive method until they are sure that they are using

  14. Lubrication use in condom promotion among commercial sex workers and their clients in Ratchaburi, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojanapithayakorn, W; Goedken, J

    1995-07-01

    Condom promotion has been intensified in Thailand to prevent the spread of HIV. A water soluble lubricant (WSL) could be used to alleviate many unpleasant side effects of frequent condom use experienced by sex workers and their clients. This study was conducted to determine the efficacy of WSL use in preventing the side effects of condom use including condom breakage, and to assess the acceptance of WSLs within the sex-worker population. The results of this study showed that 83 (111) of the 134 sex workers reported use of the WSL provided during the study period and more than 95 per cent (106) expressed interest in employing the WSL regularly, saying that WSLs reduce unpleasant side-effects relating to frequent condom use. Also 70 per cent of them reported that the majority of their clients found using the WSL made condom use more enjoyable. A follow-up study showed that 57 per cent of the respondents were still using a WSL on a regular basis and all of them felt it reduced condom breakage. Therefore, WSL use should be an acceptable and useful method for alleviating problems associated with regular use of condoms within the sex-worker population. In addition, there is evidence that WSLs can reduce the incidence of condom breakage. Thus, WSLs could be valuable tools in condom promotion for AIDS control within this high risk population and their clients.

  15. [Historical reflections on health protection and the condom].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrai, J

    1991-12-01

    The condom was first mentioned in a 1564 writing by Gabriel Fallopius as a means of protection against syphilis describing his tests on 1100 people. The name itself has been ascribed to the Latin word condere, Cum Domino, the French city of Condom, and doctor Quondom, the physician of the English King Charles II. The Marquis de Sade and Casanova used it to avoid venereal diseases (VDs). In London condom manufacturing started in the 18th century. Later it became a symbol of prostitution and immorality. The material used consisted of fish bladder or animal intestines (calf, sheep). The discovery of the rubber tree and the invention of vulcanization by the American technician Goodyear in 1840 made possible large-scale production. In Hungary the 1st rubber manufacturing plant EMERGE started production in 1893 along with toys and other wares. IN 1895 the HUngarian medial association warned about the spread of syphilis facilitated by the activities of 15,400 syphilitic prostitutes in the country. 30% of hospital patients had syphilis. The use of the condom was limited, and illegitimate births increased by 10.5% during the millennium celebrations of Hungary's existence in 1896. EMERGE manufactured condoms called Nono which were mostly distributed to soldiers during World War I, yet they had little popularity. US soldiers did not use the condoms either, as 7 million active days were lost due to VDs during World War II. In the 1950's Anna Ratko was Minister of Health in Hungary who opposed promotion of condoms to increase the population. The invention of penicillin in 1942 also pushed the condom to the background, but in the 1980's the epidemic of AIDS has made its use widespread.

  16. Condom use and alcohol consumption in adolescents and youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mola, Rachel; Pitangui, Ana Carolina Rodarti; Barbosa, Sháyra Anny Moura; Almeida, Layane Sá; Sousa, Mayara Ruth Marinho de; Pio, Wellypâmela Pauliny de Lima; Araújo, Rodrigo Cappato de

    2016-01-01

    To determine the association between not using the male condom and alcohol consumption in adolescents and schoolchildren. An epidemiological study, with a cross-sectional, descriptive, and correlation design carried out from March to July 2014. The sample consisted of students in public primary and secondary education, aged between 12 and 24 years. The social and demographic survey and the Youth Risk Behavior Survey questionnaire were used. The study included 1,275 students, of these; 37.0% reported having had sexual relations. The prevalent age of sexual initiation was 14-16 years 55.7% and 65.6% used condom in the last sexual intercourse. Regarding the lack of condom use at the last intercourse, girls showed an association with drunkenness in the previous 30 days (2.19; 95%CI: 1.06-4.54). In females, the non-use of condoms was associated with drunkenness in the previous 30 days. Identificar os fatores associados ao não uso de preservativo masculino e ao consumo de bebida alcoólica em adolescentes e jovens escolares. Estudo epidemiológico, com delineamento transversal, descritivo e correlacional, desenvolvido de março a julho de 2014. A amostra foi composta por estudantes dos Ensinos Fundamental e Médio da rede pública estadual, com idades entre 12 e 24 anos. Empregaram-se o inquérito sociodemográfico e o questionário Youth Risk Behavior Survey. Foram incluídos 1.275 estudantes; 37,0% deles relataram terem tido relação sexual. A idade prevalente de iniciação sexual foi de 14 a 16 anos, com 55,7%; 65,6% usaram preservativo na última relação. Com relação ao não uso de preservativo na última relação, as meninas apresentaram associação com bebedeira nos últimos 30 dias (2,19; IC95%: 1,06-4,54). O não uso de preservativos esteve associado com bebedeira nos últimos 30 dias nas meninas.

  17. Not to stigmatize but to humanize sexual lives of the transgender (hijra) in Bangladesh: condom chat in the AIDS era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Sharful Islam; Hussain, Mohammed Iftekher; Gourab, Gorkey; Parveen, Shaila; Bhuiyan, Mahbubul Islam; Sikder, Joya

    2008-01-01

    Despite condom interventions since year 2000 with the transgender (hijra) population, condom use remains low. Consequently, hijra suffer from higher rates of active syphilis, putting them under threat of HIV transmission. In an ethnographic study, 50 in-depth interviews with diverse groups of hijra along with 20 key-informants interviews with various stakeholders, and 13 focus group discussions (FGDs) were conducted with comprehensive field observations. Findings indicate that most hijra understand the importance of condoms, but none use condoms consistently. Complex underlying reasons positioned beyond the individual's cognitive domain include: low self-confidence; economic hardships for mere survival; multiple transient partners; sexual desire, preferences, and eroticisms concerning anal sex; stigma associated with purchasing condoms; poor quality and interrupted supply of condoms and lubricants; limitation of fear-producing messages in favor of condoms; inadequate professional skills and motivational impetus of the outreach staff for condom promotion, and incompetent management with inadequate understanding about the dynamics of condom use. Imposing condoms by disregarding socio-cultural and socio-economic scripts of sexual relationships and eroticism of hijra-sexuality have challenged the effectiveness of current condom interventions. Interventions should not mechanize the process, rather they may humanize and eroticize sexual lives of the hijra. A paradigm shift is required where condoms enhance the dignity and quality of sexual lives of the hijra beyond the framework of disgrace, disease, and death.

  18. Assertive Communication in Condom Negotiation: Insights From Late Adolescent Couples' Subjective Ratings of Self and Partner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, Amy; Leonard, Noelle R; Ritchie, Amanda S; Gwadz, Marya V

    2015-07-01

    Assertive communication has been associated with higher levels of condom use among youth using self-report survey methodology. The purpose of this study was to examine the subjective ratings of assertiveness among young, romantically involved couples in the context of a condom negotiation task. Using an innovative video-recall procedure, 32 couples (64 youth) engaged in a videotaped condom negotiation task and then rated self and partners' level of assertiveness. Both individual ratings of assertiveness and couple-level assertiveness were assessed using dyadic hierarchical linear modeling. Individuals' assertiveness was positively associated with condom use. Unexpectedly, the overall level of assertiveness in couples showed a curvilinear association with condom use. Very high and very low assertiveness was associated with lower condom use, whereas moderate levels of assertiveness were associated with higher condom use. Moderate levels of assertiveness during condom negotiation may facilitate condom use in young couples. Increasing condom use among romantic partners may require developing interventions that strengthen youths' ability to engage in assertive communication strategies that balance emotional intimacy with self-advocacy. Copyright © 2015 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Assertive communication in condom negotiation: Insights from late adolescent couples’ subjective ratings of self and partner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, Amy; Leonard, Noelle R.; Ritchie, Amanda S.; Gwadz, Marya V.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Assertive communication has been associated with higher levels of condom use among youth using self-report survey methodology. The purpose of this study was to examine the subjective ratings of assertiveness among young, romantically-involved couples in the context of a condom negotiation task. Methods Using an innovative video-recall procedure, 32 couples (64 youth) engaged in a videotaped condom negotiation task and then rated self and partners’ level of assertiveness. Both individual ratings of assertiveness and couple-level assertiveness were assessed using dyadic hierarchical linear modeling. Results Individuals’ assertiveness was positively associated with condom use. Unexpectedly, the overall level of assertiveness in couples showed a curvilinear association with condom use. Very high and very low assertiveness was associated with lower condom use, while moderate levels of assertiveness were associated with higher condom use. Conclusions Moderate levels of assertiveness during condom negotiation may facilitate condom use in young couples. Increasing condom use among romantic partners may require developing interventions that strengthen youths’ ability to engage in assertive communication strategies that balance emotional intimacy with self-advocacy. PMID:25937470

  20. Condom use among female commercial sex workers in Nevada's legal brothels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, A E; Warner, D L; Hatcher, R A; Trussell, J; Bennett, C

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVES. The purpose of this study was to evaluate condom use and the incidence of breakage and slippage during vaginal intercourse among female prostitutes in legal Nevada brothels, where use of condoms is required by law. METHODS. Forty-one licensed prostitutes in three brothels were enrolled in a prospective trial in August 1993. Used condoms were collected to verify reported breaks visually. Retrospective breakage and slippage rates were obtained in a standardized interview. RESULTS. Condoms were used for every act of vaginal intercourse with a brothel client during the study period, as well as in the previous year. In the prospective study phase, condoms were used in 353 acts of vaginal intercourse with clients. No condoms broke, and none fell off the penis during intercourse. Only twice (0.6%) did condoms completely fall off during withdrawal. Twelve times (3.4%) during intercourse and 15 times (4.3%) during withdrawal, condoms slipped down the penis but did not fall off. CONCLUSIONS. These findings, among the lowest breakage and slippage rates published, suggest that regular condom use may lead to condom mastery and the development of techniques to reduce the likelihood of breakage and slippage. PMID:7485663

  1. A cross-sectional study to evaluate factors related to condom use with commercial sexual partners in workers from Ecuadorian companies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabezas, María C; Fornasini, Marco; Dardenne, Nadia; Barmettler, David; Borja, Teresa; Albert, Adelin

    2015-09-04

    Unprotected intercourse with sex workers is one of the major risk factors for HIV infection. Consistent condom use is a prerequisite to lower the incidence of HIV. We assessed the prevalence of condom use and its determinants among company workers engaged with commercial sexual partners in Ecuador. The study was based on a random sample of 115 companies and 1,732 workers stratified by province and working sector and utilized the "Behavioral Surveillance Surveys - Adult questionnaire" developed by Family Health International. Of the 1,561 sexually active workers, 311 (19.9%) reported having intercourse with sex workers. Among them 25.9% did not use a condom at the last sexual intercourse. As for condom use frequency over the last 12 months, 29/208 (13.9%) reported never, 23 (11.1%) sometimes, 24 (11.5%) almost every time and 132 (63.5%) every time. Factors adversely affecting condom use frequency over the last 12 months were female gender (OR = 4.56, 95% CI: 1.45-14.4), older age (OR = 1.07, 95% CI: 1.03-1.10), low educational level (OR = 4.69, 95% CI: 1.95-11.3) and married workers living with spouse (OR = 7.66, 95 % CI: 3.08-19.1). By contrast, factors such as age at first sexual intercourse, job category, HIV transmission and prevention measure knowledge, single workers, previous exposure to HIV intervention programs and having a casual sexual partner were not affecting condom use frequency. When considering condom use during the last sexual intercourse or during the past 12 months with commercial sexual partners, results were similar. Workers with low education, older age, female gender and those married living with their spouse should be targeted for specific educational interventions.

  2. Japan, Indonesia to investigate condom plant feasibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-04-01

    The Japanese government has begun investigations on the possibility of constructing a condom manufacturing plant in Indonesia in response to a request by the Indonesian government. Indonesia, which hopes to reduce its birthrate as of 1971 by 1/2 by 1990, asked for Japanese assistance in building a condom plant based on the expectation that demand for this contraceptive method, although quite low at present, will increase rapidly in the near future with stepped-up motivation campaigns. As a 1st step in the investigation, the Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA) sent a study team of family planning experts headed by Family Planning Federation of Japan Chairman Dr. Hidebumi Kubo and including JOICFP International Division Director MR. Tameyoshi Katagiri to Indonesia from March 15-24. During its visit, the JICA team held discussions with representatives of BKKBN (the National Family Planning Coordinating Board) including its Chairman and Minister of Health Dr. Suwardjono and reached agreement on the scope and schedule of work toward determining the feasibility of building and operating a condom plant in Indonesia. In defining the scope of work and the schedule, the JICA team and the BKKBN representatives decided on specific issues to be investigated in the feasibility study to be carried out by JICA and scheduled to be completed by the end of October of this year. To be included in the feasibility study are: estimation of future domestic demand for condoms, examination of the domestic supply of latex capacity, chemicals and packaging materials, and collection of information on infrastructure relating to water, energy, transportation, etc. Actual data collection for the study is expected to begin in late May or early June. Dr. Kubo and Mr. Katagiri, upon returning to Japan, reported great enthusiasm for the project in Indonesia and expressed the hope that the plant construction will be feasible so that the country's family planning program can be given a boost

  3. Sexual partners and condom use of migrant workers in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Kathleen; Chamrathrithirong, Aphichat

    2007-11-01

    The objectives of this paper were to identify the types of sexual partners and condom use of migrant workers. Data for the study were drawn from a survey of 3,426 migrant workers in southern coastal and northern areas of Thailand conducted in 2004. Among sexually active men, 25% reported visiting a sex worker, 57% reported a regular partner, and 6% reported another non-regular partner in the last year. Reported condom use was high with sex workers (79% reported always use), but low with regular partners (4% ever use). Factors related to visiting sex workers included marital status (more visits if not married), longer residence in Thailand, occupation of seafarer or seafood production worker, Cambodian origin, and perceived AIDS risk. Condom use with sex workers was higher for younger men, married men, men who had been in Thailand longer, men with lower perceived AIDS risk, and men who drank alcohol less frequently.

  4. Factors Associated with Inconsistent Condom Use among Men Who Have Sex with Men in Cambodia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siyan Yi

    Full Text Available Compared to the general population, men who have sex with men (MSM are at greater risk for HIV and less understood due to their more hidden and stigmatized nature. Moreover, the discrepancy in findings in the literature merits further investigations in MSM populations from different cultures and settings. We therefore conducted this study to explore factors associated with inconsistent condom use among high-risk MSM in Cambodia.This cross-sectional study was conducted in 2014 among 367 MSM randomly selected from Battembang and Siem Reap using a two-stage cluster sampling method. A structured questionnaire was used for face-to-face interviews to collect information on characteristics of respondents, HIV testing history, self-perception of HIV risk, substance use, sexual behaviors, mental disorders, and HIV knowledge. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was performed to identify factors independently associated with inconsistent condom use.On average, 62.3% of respondents reported that they always used condoms over the past three months. The rates varied with types of sexual partners; the proportion of respondents who reported always using condoms was 55.1%, 64.2%, 75.9%, 73.0%, 78.1%, and 70.3%, for sexual partners who were girlfriends, boyfriends, female sex workers, male sex workers, female clients, or male clients, respectively. After adjustment, inconsistent condom use was significantly associated with age of ≥25 (AOR = 1.77, 95% CI = 1.09-2.86, self-rated quality of life as good or very good (AOR = 4.37, 95% CI = 1.79-5.67, self-perception of higher HIV risk compared to the general population (AOR = 2.37, 95% CI = 1.35-4.17, illicit drug use in the past three months (AOR = 5.76, 95% CI = 1.65-10.09, and reported consistent lubricant use when selling anal sex to men in the past three months (AOR = 2.85, 95% CI = 1.07-8.12.We found risky sexual behaviors to be considerably high among MSM in this study, especially among those who used

  5. Sexual Relationship Power, Intimate Partner Violence, and Condom Use among Minority Urban Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teitelman, Anne M.; Ratcliffe, Sarah J.; Morales-Aleman, Mercedes M.; Sullivan, Cris M.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the association between sexual relationship power, intimate partner violence, and condom use among African American and Hispanic urban girls. In this sample of 56 sexually active girls, 50% did not use condoms consistently and therefore were at higher risk for acquiring HIV or sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). Teens who…

  6. Sexual Relationship Power, Intimate Partner Violence, and Condom Use among Minority Urban Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teitelman, Anne M.; Ratcliffe, Sarah J.; Morales-Aleman, Mercedes M.; Sullivan, Cris M.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the association between sexual relationship power, intimate partner violence, and condom use among African American and Hispanic urban girls. In this sample of 56 sexually active girls, 50% did not use condoms consistently and therefore were at higher risk for acquiring HIV or sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). Teens who…

  7. Gastric Collision Tumor Consisting of Mucinous Carcinoma and Large Cell Neuroendocrine Carcinoma: A Case Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Su Min; Lee, Ye Ri; Han, Eun Mee; Yeon, Jae Woo; Yoo, Jin Young; Choi, Jong Mun; Sim, Ji Ye [Bundang Jesaeng General Hospital, Seongnam (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-06-15

    The concurrence of two different pathological tumors of the stomach is infrequent. Even rarer is a gastric collision tumor of both tumor types. Although there have been a few reported cases of gastric collision tumors that consisted of an adenocarcinoma and neuroendocrine carcinoma, to the best of our knowledge, there is no documented case report of a gastric collision tumor consisting of a mucinous carcinoma and large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma. We report a case of gastric collision tumor, consisting of a mucinous carcinoma and large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma that presented as abdominal discomfort in a 64-year-old man. This finding draws attention to the related findings from previous studies on gastric collision tumors

  8. Sexual attitudes, norms, condom use, and adherence of Hispanic and non-Hispanic undergraduate students: a cross-sectional study of three community colleges in southwestern US

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, Yelena; Solis, Luis H; Mbonu, Chinaedu Anulika

    2016-01-01

    Objective To measure the sexual attitudes, norms, condom use, and adherence of Hispanic and non-Hispanic undergraduate students in three community colleges in the southwestern US. Methods A previously validated instrument was used in this study (sexual risk behavior beliefs and self-efficacy survey). Statistical analyses included chi-square and one-way analysis of variance with post hoc multiple comparisons using the Statistical Program for the Social Sciences. Results The study participants included 234 first and second year community college students. Nearly 91% of them were sexually active and 95% reported healthy sexual attitudes. However, only 29% reported adhering to consistent condom use. More females believed that condoms should always be used, even if the two people knew each other very well, when compared to males (P=0.04). Hispanic female participants were less confident they could abstain from sex when compared to non-Hispanics (P=0.00). Non-Hispanic females were more confident they could use or explain to their partner how to use a condom correctly and go to the store to buy condoms than their Hispanic female (P=0.01) and male counterparts (P=0.00). Conclusion Our study findings indicate that adherence to consistent condom use was low among Hispanic college students. This may help explain why they are more likely to report unwanted pregnancies and sexually transmitted infections. There is a documented need to introduce culturally sensitive health promotion programming specifically designed to meet the needs of this at-risk and understudied population. PMID:27540282

  9. Predictors of condom use and refusal among the population of Free State province in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandran Thoovakkunon

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study investigated the extent and predictors of condom use and condom refusal in the Free State province in South Africa. Methods Through a household survey conducted in the Free Sate province of South Africa, 5,837 adults were interviewed. Univariate and multivariate survey logistic regressions and classification trees (CT were used for analysing two response variables ‘ever used condom’ and ‘ever refused condom’. Results Eighty-three per cent of the respondents had ever used condoms, of which 38% always used them; 61% used them during the last sexual intercourse and 9% had ever refused to use them. The univariate logistic regression models and CT analysis indicated that a strong predictor of condom use was its perceived need. In the CT analysis, this variable was followed in importance by ‘knowledge of correct use of condom’, condom availability, young age, being single and higher education. ‘Perceived need’ for condoms did not remain significant in the multivariate analysis after controlling for other variables. The strongest predictor of condom refusal, as shown by the CT, was shame associated with condoms followed by the presence of sexual risk behaviour, knowing one’s HIV status, older age and lacking knowledge of condoms (i.e., ability to prevent sexually transmitted diseases and pregnancy, availability, correct and consistent use and existence of female condoms. In the multivariate logistic regression, age was not significant for condom refusal while affordability and perceived need were additional significant variables. Conclusions The use of complementary modelling techniques such as CT in addition to logistic regressions adds to a better understanding of condom use and refusal. Further improvement in correct and consistent use of condoms will require targeted interventions. In addition to existing social marketing campaigns, tailored approaches should focus on establishing the perceived need

  10. Silences, gestures, and words: nonverbal and verbal communication about HIV/AIDS and condom use in black heterosexual relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowleg, Lisa; Valera, Pamela; Teti, Michelle; Tschann, Jeanne M

    2010-01-01

    This qualitative study examined how 27 Black men and women, ages 22 to 50 years, in heterosexual relationships communicated verbally and nonverbally about HIV/AIDS and condom use before first time sex. Although most interviewees reported no HIV/AIDS communication, most noted communication about condom use. Verbal condom communication focused typically on requests and declarations, whereas nonverbal communication centered on the presentation of condoms. Women were more likely to communicate about condoms verbally, whereas men were more likely to do so nonverbally. Interviewees who communicated about condom use were more likely than those who did not to report first-time condom use. We discuss these findings and their implications within the context of relationship and sociocultural factors relevant to HIV/AIDS in Black communities.

  11. The availability of socially marketed condoms in urban Tanzania, 1997-99.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agha, Sohail; Meekers, Dominique

    2004-03-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate trends in the availability of socially marketed condoms in urban Tanzania, and to assess the effect of changes in the social marketing programme's strategy for distributing condoms to retail outlets. Three retail outlet surveys conducted in urban Tanzania in 1996/97, 1998 and 1999 were analysed. Multiple Classification Analysis (MCA) was used to determine changes in availability of condoms, after adjusting for differences in the composition of the samples. Consistent with the changes in the condom social marketing distribution system, the proportion of condom outlets that were supplied by wholesalers increased from 42% in 1997 to 60% in 1999. The increasing use of wholesalers allowed sales agents to devote more time to opening new outlets. Hence, the percentage of outlets that had been solicited to sell condoms by social marketing condom sales persons increased from 14% in 1997 to 25% in 1999. Following these changes in the distribution system, the percentage of outlets selling socially marketed condoms increased from 25% to 32% between 1997 and 1998, and stabilized at that level. More detailed examination showed that availability of socially marketed condoms increased significantly in most non-traditional outlets, and in all regions of the country. In conclusion, distribution survey data indicate that changes in the distribution system increased the role of wholesalers, and enabled sales teams to allocate more time to soliciting new condom outlets. Concurrent with these changes, the availability of socially marketed condoms in non-traditional retail outlets increased significantly. Regular monitoring of condom availability can ensure that any emerging supply problems are identified and remedied quickly.

  12. Knowledge and practice of condom use as well as perceived barriers among street adolescents in Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Nambile Cumber

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Street children in Cameroon are adolescents, vulnerable to sexually transmitted infections (STIs and HIV and/or AIDS. The level of knowledge and practice of condom use among this population is unknown.Objective of the study: To assess the knowledge, practice and barriers to condom use in Cameroon.Materials and methods: The study was an analytical cross-sectional survey conducted in 2015. Questionnaires were administered to street children in a quiet location. Recruitment was made using the snowball technique with the help of peers.Results: More than 90% of participants knew of condoms, but only about 6% reported to have used a condom during their last sexual encounter. Most of the participants did not know that condoms could prevent HIV; only a few (15.5% knew about this.Conclusion: Street adolescents in Cameroon seem to know about condoms, but have insufficient information on the importance of their regular use. The main barriers for the low practice of condom use reported by this population were the following: condoms hinder sexual pleasure; are costly; and it is embarrassing to buy, use or propose to use a condom.

  13. 'I think condoms are good but, aai, I hate those things': condom use among adolescents and young people in a Southern African township

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    MacPhail, C

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available are high, but perceived vulnerability and reported condom use are low. Much existing research into youth HIV in developing countries relies on survey measures which use individual knowledge, attitudes and reported behaviour as variables in seeking...

  14. FACTORS AFFECTING CONDOM USE AMONG SOUTH AFRICAN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hi-tech

    2000-01-01

    Jan 1, 2000 ... Condoms are an integral part of STD and HIV/. AIDS prevention, and .... specific disease, perceived benefits of preventive behaviour, and barriers to ..... condom use in sub-Saharan African developing countries. J. Roy. S. Hea ...

  15. Consistency of self-reported alcohol consumption on randomized and sequential alcohol purchase tasks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael eAmlung

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Behavioral economic demand for addictive substances is commonly assessed via purchase tasks that measure estimated drug consumption at a range of prices. Purchase tasks typically use escalating prices in sequential order, which may influence performance by providing explicit price reference points. This study investigated the consistency of value preferences on two alcohol purchase tasks (APTs that used either a randomized or sequential price order (price range: free to $30 per drink in a sample of ninety-one young adult monthly drinkers. Randomization of prices significantly reduced relative response consistency (p < .01, although absolute consistency was high for both versions (>95%. Self-reported alcohol consumption across prices and indices of demand were highly similar across versions, although a few notable exceptions were found. These results suggest generally high consistency and overlapping performance between randomized and sequential price assessment. Implications for the behavioral economics literature and priorities for future research are discussed.

  16. Condom negotiation across different relationship types by young women engaged in sex work in Phnom Penh, Cambodia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maher, Lisa; Mooney-Somers, Julie; Phlong, Pisith; Couture, Marie-Claude; Kien, Serey Phal; Stein, Ellen; Bates, Anna Juong; Sansothy, Neth; Page, Kimberly

    2013-01-01

    Cambodia's 100% Condom Use Programme is credited with an increase in consistent condom use in commercial sexual interactions and a decrease in HIV prevalence among female sex workers (FSWs). There has been little improvement in condom use between FSWs and non-commercial partners, prompting calls for more innovative approaches to increasing condom use in these relationships. To understand why condoms are used or not used in sexual interactions involving FSWs, we examined condom negotiation across different types of relationships. We conducted 33 in-depth interviews with young (15 to 29 years) women engaged in sex work in Phnom Penh. There was an important interplay between the meanings of condom use and the meanings of women's relationships. Commercial relationships were characterised as inherently risky and necessitated condom use. Despite a similar lack of sexual fidelity, sweetheart relationships were rarely construed as risky and typically did not involve condom use. Husbands and wives constructed their sexual interactions with each other differently, making agreement on condom use difficult. The lack of improvement in condom use in FSWs' non-commercial sexual relationships needs to be understood in relation to both sex work and the broader Cambodian sexual culture within which these relationships are embedded. PMID:23432108

  17. Early sex work initiation and condom use among alcohol-using female sex workers in Mombasa, Kenya: a cross-sectional analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parcesepe, Angela M; L'Engle, Kelly L; Martin, Sandra L; Green, Sherri; Suchindran, Chirayath; Mwarogo, Peter

    2016-12-01

    Early initiation of sex work is prevalent among female sex workers (FSWs) worldwide. The objectives of this study were to investigate if early initiation of sex work was associated with: (1) consistent condom use, (2) condom negotiation self-efficacy or (3) condom use norms among alcohol-using FSWs in Mombasa, Kenya. In-person interviews were conducted with 816 FSWs in Mombasa, Kenya. Sample participants were: recruited from HIV prevention drop-in centres, 18 years or older and moderate risk drinkers. Early initiation was defined as first engaging in sex work at 17 years or younger. Logistic regression modelled outcomes as a function of early initiation, adjusting for drop-in centre, years in sex work, supporting others and HIV status. FSWs who initiated sex work early were significantly less likely to report consistent condom use with paying sex partners compared with those who initiated sex work in adulthood. There was no significant difference between groups in consistent condom use with non-paying sex partners. FSWs who initiated sex work early endorsed less condom negotiation self-efficacy with paying sex partners compared with FSWs who did not initiate sex work early. Findings highlight a need for early intervention for at-risk youth and adolescent FSWs, particularly in relation to HIV sexual risk behaviours. Evidence-based interventions for adolescent FSWs or adult FSWs who began sex work in adolescence should be developed, implemented and evaluated. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  18. Theories of reasoned action and planned behavior as models of condom use: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albarracín, D; Johnson, B T; Fishbein, M; Muellerleile, P A

    2001-01-01

    To examine how well the theories of reasoned action and planned behavior predict condom use, the authors synthesized 96 data sets (N = 22,594) containing associations between the models' key variables. Consistent with the theory of reasoned action's predictions, (a) condom use was related to intentions (weighted mean r. = .45), (b) intentions were based on attitudes (r. = .58) and subjective norms (r. = .39), and (c) attitudes were associated with behavioral beliefs (r. = .56) and norms were associated with normative beliefs (r. = .46). Consistent with the theory of planned behavior's predictions, perceived behavioral control was related to condom use intentions (r. = .45) and condom use (r. = .25), but in contrast to the theory, it did not contribute significantly to condom use. The strength of these associations, however, was influenced by the consideration of past behavior. Implications of these results for HIV prevention efforts are discussed.

  19. Predictors of condom use among peer social networks of men who have sex with men in Ghana, West Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, LaRon E; Wilton, Leo; Agyarko-Poku, Thomas; Zhang, Nanhua; Zou, Yuanshu; Aluoch, Marilyn; Apea, Vanessa; Hanson, Samuel Owiredu; Adu-Sarkodie, Yaw

    2015-01-01

    Ghanaian men who have sex with men (MSM) have high rates of HIV infection. A first step in designing culturally relevant prevention interventions for MSM in Ghana is to understand the influence that peer social networks have on their attitudes and behaviors. We aimed to examine whether, in a sample of Ghanaian MSM, mean scores on psychosocial variables theorized to influence HIV/STI risk differed between peer social networks and to examine whether these variables were associated with condom use. We conducted a formative, cross-sectional survey with 22 peer social networks of MSM (n = 137) in Ghana. We assessed basic psychological-needs satisfaction, HIV/STI knowledge, sense of community, HIV and gender non-conformity stigmas, gender equitable norms, sexual behavior and condom use. Data were analyzed using analysis of variance, generalized estimating equations, and Wilcoxon two sample tests. All models were adjusted for age and income, ethnicity, education, housing and community of residence. Mean scores for all psychosocial variables differed significantly by social network. Men who reported experiencing more autonomy support by their healthcare providers had higher odds of condom use for anal (AOR = 3.29, pnetworks with low prevalence of consistent condom users, networks with higher prevalence of consistent condom users had higher STD and HIV knowledge, had norms that were more supportive of gender equity, and experienced more autonomy support in their healthcare encounters. Healthcare providers and peer social networks can have an important influence on safer-sex behaviors in Ghanaian MSM. More research with Ghanaian MSM is needed that considers knowledge, attitudes, and norms of their social networks in the development and implementation of culturally relevant HIV/STI prevention intervention strategies.

  20. Contraceptive Attitudes and Intention to Use Condoms in Sexually Experienced and Inexperienced Adolescent Males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pleck, Joseph H.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Assessed contraceptive attitudes and intention to use a condom at next intercourse among 1,880 adolescent males. Findings showed that about three-fifths of sexually experienced and inexperienced adolescent males intending to have sex in the next year reported an "almost certain chance" of condom use with a hypothetical future partner. (Author/PVV)

  1. Consistency of self-reported alcohol consumption on randomized and sequential alcohol purchase tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amlung, Michael; Mackillop, James

    2012-01-01

    Behavioral economic demand for addictive substances is commonly assessed via purchase tasks that measure estimated drug consumption at a range of prices. Purchase tasks typically use escalating prices in sequential order, which may influence performance by providing explicit price reference points. This study investigated the consistency of value preferences on two alcohol purchase tasks that used either a randomized or sequential price order (price range: free to $30 per drink) in a sample of 91 young adult monthly drinkers. Randomization of prices significantly reduced relative response consistency (p 95%). Self-reported alcohol consumption across prices and indices of demand were highly similar across versions, although a few notable exceptions were found. These results suggest generally high consistency and overlapping performance between randomized and sequential price assessment. Implications for the behavioral economics literature and priorities for future research are discussed.

  2. Consistency of Self-Report in School Age Children with Asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    AUTHOR(S) Barbara Jean Heiller, Major 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND AOORESS(ES) 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER AFIT Student Attending...41 0 (S F i SA’I,(’ C t.I I I QN ) ’ 7/ Abstract A-,.. : az* Consistency of Self-Report ,..., ’a in School Age Children with Asthma Barbara Jean ...1981). There’s a demon in your belly: children’s understanding of illness. Pediatrics, 0_, 841-849. Piaget , J. & Inhelder, B. (1969). The

  3. AIDS and the marketing of condoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boone, L E; Kurtz, D L

    1988-01-01

    The condom market has undergone unprecedented change in the 1980's and will continue to see its markets, advertising strategies, and sales grow and change in ways never before imagined. In the past, condoms were viewed as unmentionable products that were marketed only at men between 18 and 35 and sold only in gas station restrooms and bus stations. But today women account for and estimated 40-50% of condom sales and after a Supreme Court ruling in 1977, condoms are now sold in front of the counter, not behind it. Further, the AIDS epidemic which has afflicted 40,000 U.S. citizens between 19811 and 1988 has served as an impetus to growth and diversification of the condom market. The new legitimacy of the condom combined with new entries into the market by other manufacturers has resulted in growth and segmentation in the condom market.

  4. Sexual relationships, risk behaviour, and condom use in the spread of sexually transmitted infections to heterosexual men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, B A; Bond, R A; MacRae, K D

    1997-10-01

    To examine the effect of patient defined non-regular sexual relationships and other risk behaviours on the incidence of sexually transmitted infections in heterosexual men and the role of condom use in the prevention of their spread. A prospective cross sectional study of sexual behaviour reported by a standardised self administered questionnaire in new patients who presented for screening and diagnosis. A genitourinary medicine clinic in west London. 957 consecutive newly attending heterosexual men who completed a sexual behaviour questionnaire in 1993/94. Variables relating to sociodemographic status, sexual behaviour, condom use, sexually transmitted infections and testing for HIV infection, stratified by the reporting of non-regular partners. We found that the 65% of men who reported non-regular sexual partners were more likely to be white collar class (d = 7.5%, 95% CI = 1.3, 13.7) and to have had sexual intercourse with non-United Kingdom born women (d = 7.8%, 95% CI = 3.5, 12.2). They also reported coitarche before 16 years of age (d = 13.4%, 95% CI = 8.0, 18.8) and many more sexual partners both in the last year (d = 13.1%, 95% CI = 10.2, 16.0) and in their lifetime (d = 27.9%, 95% CI = 21.6, 34.2). They were significantly more likely to practise anal intercourse (d = 8.7%, 95% CI = 3.3, 14.1), to smoke (d = 16.3%, 95% CI = 9.8, 22.6), to drink alcohol (d = 4.9%, 95% CI = 1.2, 8.6), and to have chlamydial infection (d = 5.7%, 95% CI = 2.2, 9.2), of which 30% was subclinical. Increasing condom use with regular partners correlated with decreasing incidence of urethral infection (gonorrhoeal and/or chlamydial infection) (p transmission of urethral gonorrhoea and chlamydial infection among men who reported always using condoms. HIV infection was found in only two men (0.2%), both of whom reported intercourse with non-United Kingdom born women. Heterosexual men who reported non-regular sexual relationships compensated for their increased risk lifestyle by using

  5. Crack smokers' intention to use condoms with loved partners: intervention development using the theory of reasoned action, condom beliefs, and processes of change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, A M; Williams, M; McCoy, H V; McCoy, C B

    2001-10-01

    Prevalence rates of HIV infection acquired through heterosexual contacts have risen steadily since 1982. Crack cocaine smokers are at particular risk of HIV infection due to heterosexual exposure. HIV risk reduction interventions seeking to increase condom use among drug users have met with minimal success, and there is a need for interventions to be strongly grounded in psychosocial models of behaviour change. This study presents the results of an investigation of predictors of intention to use condoms and related therapy processes among heterosexual drug users. Data were analyzed from 586 crack smokers recruited in Washington, DC, Miami, Florida, and Collier County, Florida who reported having both primary and casual sex partners. Participants responded to items derived from the theory of reasoned action, the theory of planned behaviour and the transtheoretical model of change. Condom use beliefs and therapy processes used to initiate and maintain condom use were assessed. Outcome expectancies and normative beliefs were the strongest predictors of intention to use condoms with a primary sexual partner. In turn, beliefs that condoms inhibit sexual romance and decrease sexual pleasure strongly predicted outcome expectancies. Therapy processes found to be associated with these constructs included: self-liberation, counter conditioning and stimulus control/reinforcement. Results suggest that HIV risk reduction interventions using a group format and targeting condom beliefs related to sexual romance and pleasure will decrease negative outcome expectancies about condom use. Also, reinforcing attempts to use condoms with intimate partners should increase positive outcome expectancies and intention to initiate or maintain condoms with a primary sexual partner.

  6. Adolescent relationships and condom use: trust, love and commitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauman, Laurie J; Berman, Rebecca

    2005-06-01

    Research indicates that people use condoms less often with a regular sexual partner than with a casual partner because they believe condoms are not needed. This article reports qualitative findings from four group meetings and 11 in-depth interviews in which sexually experienced inner-city adolescents aged 14-17 talked about their sexual relationships. Three types of relationships were described: messing, for sex only; boy-girlfriend, a more intense relationship, and "hubby-wifey," which mimics marriage. The four types of relationships differ along four analytic dimensions, which give them meaning: future commitment; public vs. secret; expectation of monogamy; and degree of affection and love. Decisions about condom use are influenced by these dimensions which may be underestimated in theoretical models that focus on individuals, not couples.

  7. Adolescent sexuality in the limelight. Study and predictability of condom use through the theory of planned behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eufrosini Barmpagianni

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Adolescents' sexual behavior is the focus of attention since increased levels of unintended pregnancy, abortions and sexually transmitted diseases are detected. Psychological, family and social factors contribute to the above mentioned situations. The aim of the present research was to examine the intention of condom use in adolescents of both sexes using the Theory of Planned Behavior. Material- Method: The study population consisted of 378 adolescents, aged 15 to 18. Data was collected by the completion of a questionnaire based on the Theory of Planned Behavior. The statistical method used was x2, t-test, one-way ANOVA. The data statistical analysis was carried out using the SPSS 13.0 program. Results: From the participants, 94.9% reported that they had sufficient knowledge on contraception issues. Friends were the main source of information (20.2%. The majority of adolescents (58.2% had full sexual intercourse at age 15 (30%. Proportionally, adolescents with higher self-efficacy were found to have greater intention to the condom use. The more increased was the degree of the convenience in using condom with a new partner, the more positive was the adolescents' attitude towards the use of condom with a steady partner and the greater was the degree of awareness about sexual issues, the greater the behavioral intention. Conclusions: The degree of the adolescents' self-efficacy, in other words, the more confident they are in their abilities and skills of overcoming possible obstacles, the greater their intention to use condom. According to the results, the factors which strongly predict the intention, in order of importance, were: self – efficacy, degree of control, degree of awareness and the descriptive regularity. The findings are of great importance for the Hellenic science, since there is insufficient and little data on this subject.

  8. Iraq and Afghanistan Veterans report symptoms consistent with chronic multisymptom illness one year after deployment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa M. McAndrew, PhD

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Many Veterans returning from service in Operation Iraqi Freedom/Operation Enduring Freedom (OIF/OEF experience chronic pain. What is not known is whether for some OIF/OEF Veterans this pain is part of a larger condition of diffuse multisystem symptoms consistent with chronic multisymptom illness (CMI. We use data from a prospective longitudinal study of OIF/OEF Veterans to determine the frequency of CMI. We found that 1 yr after deployment, 49.5% of OIF/OEF Veterans met criteria for mild to moderate CMI and 10.8% met criteria for severe CMI. Over 90% of Veterans with chronic pain met criteria for CMI. CMI was not completely accounted for either by posttraumatic stress disorder or by predeployment levels of physical symptoms. Veterans with symptoms consistent with CMI reported significantly worse physical health function than Veterans who did not report symptoms consistent with CMI. This study suggests that the presence of CMI should be considered in the evaluation of OIF/OEF Veterans. Further, it suggests that the pain management for these Veterans may need to be tailored to take CMI into consideration.

  9. The impact on condom use of the "100% Jeune" social marketing program in Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meekers, Dominique; Agha, Sohail; Klein, Megan

    2005-06-01

    To measure the reach of the "100% Jeune" social marketing campaign and to assess its impact on condom use and on the predictors of condom use. The campaign aims to improve condom use through intensive youth-oriented mass media and interpersonal communications and widespread distribution of subsidized condoms. We analyzed data from the 2000 and 2002 waves of a reproductive health survey of youth aged 15-24 years, with sample sizes of 2097 and 3536, respectively. Exposure to campaign activities was high. During the course of the intervention, there were significant changes in perceived condom attributes and access, self-efficacy, and perceived social support. Consistent with these changes, the percentage of youth who used a condom in last sex with their regular partner increased from 32% to 45% for females (p trends. The multi-faceted mass media and interpersonal communication campaign was effective for reaching youth. During the first 18 months of the campaign, significant changes occurred in perceived social support and condom use self-efficacy. Significant increases in levels of condom use also were achieved. However, the program was more effective among males than females. This indicates a need for more and possibly different campaign activities to focus specifically on risk perception and self-efficacy among females. The results also show that repeated program exposure is needed to achieve behavior change. Hence, future programs can enhance their effectiveness by using a mix of mass media and interpersonal communications to repeatedly expose youth to key campaign messages.

  10. A call for parental monitoring to improve condom use among secondary school students in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mlunde Linda B

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The number of people newly infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV has been decreasing in sub-Saharan Africa, but prevalence of the infection remains unacceptably high among young people. Despite the alarming pervasiveness of the virus, young people in this region continue to engage in risky sexual behaviors including unprotected sexual intercourse. In developed countries, parents can play important roles in protecting young people from such behaviors, but evidence regarding the impact of parental involvement is still limited in sub-Saharan Africa. Therefore, we conducted this study to examine the magnitude of risky sexual behaviors and the association of parental monitoring and parental communication with condom use at last sexual intercourse among secondary school students in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Methods We conducted this cross-sectional study among 2,217 male and female students aged 15 to 24 years from 12 secondary schools in Dar es Salaam. From October to November 2011, we collected data using a self-administered questionnaire. Multiple logistic regression analyses were conducted to examine the association of parental monitoring and parental communication with condom use at last sexual intercourse, adjusting for potential confounders. Results A total of 665 (30.3% secondary school students reported being sexually active within the year prior to data collection. Among them, 41.7% had multiple sexual partners, 10.5% had concurrent sexual partners, and 41.1% did not use a condom at last sexual intercourse. A higher level of parental monitoring was associated with increased likelihood of condom use at last sexual intercourse among male students (AOR: 1.56, 95% CI: 1.05-2.32; p = 0.03 but not among female students (AOR: 1.54, 95% CI: 0.71-3.37; p = 0.28. The association between parental communication and condom use at last sexual intercourse among both male and female students was not statistically

  11. [In vitro studies of factors possibly influencing the performance of latex condoms].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guigon, P; Breton, D; Mendes-Oustric, A C; Pech, A; Clair, P

    2005-11-01

    Male condoms are undoubtedly the best protection against sexually transmitted diseases. The French Military Health Service buys condoms from civilian manufacturers using a public purchasing process. This process includes strict technical analysis that allows selection of the best supplier. In addition each batch of condoms delivered to French armed forces undergoes quality testing in the laboratory of the Armed Services Central Pharmacy before being distributed to troops. Despite these strict control measures, several isss remain unclear. One issue involves the shelf life of condoms stored in warm humid tropical conditions. Another issue involves the effect of lubricants on condom quality. The purpose of this report is to describe a study designed to gain insight into these two issues. This study was conducted by the Armed Services Central Pharmacy in colaboration with the Procuremnt and Central Establishment Directorate. Findings showed that stage conditions have no negative effects on the intrinsic physico-chemial properties of condoms supplied by two different manufacturers. Conversely use of inadequate lubricants (alimentary or cosmetic compounds) appeared to have extremely deleterious effects on condom quality. Laboratory tests showed that lubricants composed mainly of fatty acids dramatically decreased the effectiveness of condoms.

  12. 安全套在妓女和嫖客中使用情况的调查%Condom Use in Commercial Sex Workers and Clients Among Incarcerated Sexworkers and STD Clinic Attendees in Jinan, Shandong Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈树民; 李冰; 刘殿昌; 李长玲; 裴振环

    2003-01-01

    Background: Commercial sex workers and clients are important core populations in the transmission of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Research on the frequency and determinants of condom use in commercial sex workers and their clients is important in increasing condom use and reduction of the STD/HIV.Burden.Objectives: To establish the frequency of and factors related to intention to use condoms and actual condom use in commercial sex contacts and to determine the differences in condom use between sex workers and clients.Methods: Incarcerated commercial sex workers (ICSW) and male STD clinic attendees were recruited into a cross-sectional study to obtain data on the frequency and factors associated with intention to use condoms and condom use in commercial sexual contacts with an interviewer-administered questionnaire.Consistent condom use in ICSWs and never using condoms in male STD clinic attendees were analyzed using univariate and multivariate logistic regression models.Results: The frequency of reported consistent in tention to use condoms and reported actual condom use was 62% and 50.6%, respectively among 158 ICSWs. For male STD clinic attendees, the proportion of reported consistent intention to use condoms and reported actual condom use was 10% and 20.7%,respectively. The factors positively influencing the consistent intention to use condoms were pregnancy preventing measures and the belief of condom efficacy in the prevention of STD/HIV, whereas the factor associated with actually consistent condom use was pregnancy-preventing measure in ICSWs. Factors associated with no intention to use condoms were low income,low STD/HIV knowledge level and the frequency of visiting CSW. The latter factor was also associated with never using condoms in male STD clinic attendees.Conclusions: Consistent condom use during com mercial sex contacts was low, especially in clients.Greater effort is needed in condom

  13. Condom negotiation: findings and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peasant, Courtney; Parra, Gilbert R; Okwumabua, Theresa M

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this review was to summarize factors associated with condom negotiation among heterosexual men. Literature searches were conducted using multiple databases spanning several disciplines. Studies examining psychological, demographic, relational, communication, and environmental factors related to condom negotiation are described, and a three-dimensional framework of condom negotiation is proposed. This framework of condom negotiation may aid researchers in operationalizing this construct, organizing this literature, and facilitating measurement development. We used this three-dimensional framework to articulate the influence of gender, ethnicity, relationship type, partner characteristics, trauma history, post-traumatic stress, and alcohol use on condom negotiation. Areas for future research are outlined. More research is needed to understand how these factors interact to influence condom negotiation, as well as the interaction between gender and the identified factors.

  14. The effect of condoms on penile vibrotactile sensitivity thresholds in young, heterosexual men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Brandon J; Janssen, Erick; Kvam, Peter; Amick, Erick E; Sanders, Stephanie A

    2014-01-01

    Investigating the ways in which barrier methods such as condoms may affect penile sensory thresholds has potential relevance to the development of interventions in men who experience negative effects of condoms on sexual response and sensation. A quantitative, psychophysiological investigation examining the degree to which sensations are altered by condoms has, to date, not been conducted. The objective of this study was to examine penile vibrotactile sensitivity thresholds in both flaccid and erect penises with and without a condom while comparing men who do and those who do not report condom-associated erection problems (CAEP). Penile vibrotactile sensitivity thresholds were assessed among a total of 141 young, heterosexual men using biothesiometry. An incremental two-step staircase method was used and repeated three times for each of four conditions. Intra-class correlation coefficients (ICCs) were calculated for all vibratory assessments. Penile vibratory thresholds were compared using a mixed-model analysis of variance. Penile vibrotactile sensitivity thresholds with and without a condom, erectile function measured by International Index of Erectile Function Questionnaire, and self-reported degree of erection. Significant main effects of condoms (yes/no) and erection (yes/no) were found. No main or interaction effects of CAEP were found. Condoms were associated with higher penile vibrotactile sensitivity thresholds (F[1,124] = 17.11, P erect penis than with a flaccid penis (F[1,124] = 4.21, P = 0.042). The current study demonstrates the feasibility of measuring penile vibratory thresholds with and without a condom in both erect and flaccid experimental conditions. As might be expected, condoms increased penile vibrotactile sensitivity thresholds. Interestingly, erections were associated with the highest thresholds. Thus, this study was the first to document that erect penises are less sensitive to vibrotactile stimulation than flaccid penises.

  15. Does condom social marketing improve health outcomes and increase usage and equitable access?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knerr, Wendy

    2011-05-01

    Condom social marketing (CSM) has increased condom supplies, broadened commercial markets for condoms and introduced marketing innovations in developing countries. Yet rigorous and reliable evidence of the impact on condom usage and disease prevention is limited, as is evidence of the impact on equity of access to condoms for poor populations, women and people living with HIV. One strand of research on CSM reports mostly on output (e.g. sales and processes) and market growth; but these have been found to be highly unreliable measures of condom usage. Another strand of research reports primarily on changes in sexual behaviour, attitude or condom usage, using survey data. While random sampling is rare, these studies often use representative samples, which provide some measure of validity. There have been attempts to improve the reliability or results to good effect, but challenges remain for researchers, scholars and donors, including the need to supplement output data with measures of behaviour change, use rigorous designs which are built into programmes a priori, report on equity measures, report on potential harms of CSM programmes, and encourage external and systematic reviews. Copyright © 2011 Reproductive Health Matters. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Remarks on reporting and recording consistent with the ICRU Reference Dose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gainey Mark

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background ICRU 50/62 provides a framework to facilitate the reporting of external beam radiotherapy treatments from different institutions. A predominant role is played by points that represent "the PTV dose". However, for new techniques like Intensity Modulated Radiotherapy (IMRT - especially step and shoot IMRT - it is difficult to define a point whose dose can be called "characteristic" of the PTV dose distribution. Therefore different volume based methods of reporting of the prescribed dose are in use worldwide. Several of them were compared regarding their usability for IMRT and compatibility with the ICRU Reference Point dose for conformal radiotherapy (CRT in this study. Methods The dose distributions of 45 arbitrarily chosen volumes treated by CRT plans and 57 volumes treated by IMRT plans were used for comparison. Some of the IMRT methods distinguish the planning target volume (PTV and its central part PTVx (PTV minus a margin region of × mm. The reporting of dose prescriptions based on mean and median doses together with the dose to 95% of the considered volume (D95 were compared with each other and in respect of a prescription report with the aid of one or several possible ICRU Reference Points. The correlation between all methods was determined using the standard deviation of the ratio of all possible pairs of prescription reports. In addition the effects of boluses and the characteristics of simultaneous integrated boosts (SIB were examined. Results Two types of methods result in a high degree of consistency with the hitherto valid ICRU dose reporting concept: the median dose of the PTV and the mean dose to the central part of the PTV (PTVx. The latter is similar to the CTV, if no nested PTVs are used and no patient model surfaces are involved. A reporting of dose prescription using the CTV mean dose tends to overestimate the plateau doses of the lower dose plateaus of SIB plans. PTVx provides the possibility to approach

  17. When are declines in condom use while using PrEP a concern? Modelling insights from a Hillbrow, South Africa case study

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    Hannah Grant

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Oral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP is a promising new prevention approach for those most at risk of HIV infection. However, there are concerns that behavioural disinhibition, specifically reductions in condom use, might limit PrEP’s protective effect. This study uses the case of female sex workers (FSWs in Johannesburg, South Africa, to assess whether decreased levels of condom use following the introduction of PrEP may limit HIV risk reduction.Methods: We developed a static model of HIV risk and compared HIV-risk estimates before and after the introduction of PrEP to determine the maximum tolerated reductions in condom use with regular partners and clients for HIV risk not to change. The model incorporated the effects of increased STI exposure owing to decreased condom use. Noting that condom use with regular partners is generally low, we also estimated the change in condom use tolerated with clients only, to still achieve 50 and 90% risk reduction on PrEP. The model was parameterized using data from Hillbrow, Johannesburg. Sensitivity analyses were performed to ascertain the robustness of our results.Results: Reductions in condom use could be tolerated by FSWs with lower baseline condom use (65%. For scenarios where 75% PrEP effectiveness is attained, 50% HIV-risk reduction on PrEP would be possible even with 100% reduction in condom use from consistent condom use as high as 70% with clients. Increased exposure to STIs through reductions in condom use had limited effect on the reductions in condom use tolerated for HIV risk not to increase on PrEP.Conclusions: PrEP is likely to be of benefit in reducing HIV risk, even if reductions in condom use do occur. Efforts to promote consistent condom use will be critical for FSWs with high initial levels of condom use, but with challenges in adhering to PrEP.

  18. Perceived social approval and condom use with casual partners among youth in urban Cameroon

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    Meekers Dominique

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background HIV prevention programs targeting youth often emphasize the role of peers, and assume that youths will model their behavior after their peers'. We challenge this view; we argue that adopting a given behavior requires social approval, and that youths do not necessarily turn to peers for such approval. This study analyzes survey data on youths in urban Cameroon to 1 identify which type of persons youths look to for social approval, and 2 establish how important social approval by these persons is for condom use among youths. Methods We analyzed data from three survey waves (2000, 2002, and 2003 of a reproductive health survey conducted among urban Cameroonian youth (aged 15-24. Only respondents who reported having at least one casual partner in the past year were retained for the analysis. Bivariate analyses and structural equation modeling were used to examine relationships among perceived social approval, attitudes towards condoms and condom use. Results The data show that only 3% of youths named their friends as people whose opinion they valued, while 93% mentioned family members. The perceived approval of condom use by these persons had a significant positive effect on the frequency of condom use among youths. The frequency of condom use was also affected by the respondents' attitudes toward condom use, the range of persons with whom they discussed reproductive health matters, whether they were enrolled in school, socioeconomic status, their self-efficacy, perceived severity of AIDS, risk perception and sexual risk behavior. The perceived social approval of condom use and the respondents' own condom attitudes were correlated. Conclusions Our analysis demonstrates that perceived social approval facilitates the adoption of condom use among urban Cameroonian youth. However, youths tend to value the opinions of family members much more than the opinions of their peers. These results suggest that interventions targeting youths

  19. Putting the C back into the ABCs: a multi-year, multi-region investigation of condom use by Ugandan youths 2003-2010.

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    Joseph J Valadez

    Full Text Available A major strategy for preventing transmission of HIV and other STIs is the consistent use of condoms during sexual intercourse. Condom use among youths is particularly important to reduce the number of new cases and the national prevalence. Condom use has been often promoted by the Uganda National AIDS Commission. Although a number of studies have established an association between condom use at one's sexual debut and future condom use, few studies have explored this association over time, and whether the results are generalizable across multiple locations. This multi time point, multi district study assesses the relationship between sexual debut and condom use and consistent use of condoms thereafter. Uganda has used Lot Quality Assurance Sampling surveys since 2003 to monitor district level HIV programs and improve access to HIV health services. This study includes 4518 sexually active youths interviewed at five time points (2003-2010 in up to 23 districts located across Uganda. Using logistic regression, we measured the association of condom use at first sexual intercourse on recent condom usage, controlling for several factors including: age, sex, education, marital status, age at first intercourse, geographical location, and survey year. The odds of condom use at last intercourse, using a condom at last intercourse with a non-regular partner, and consistently using a condom are, respectively, 9.63 (95%WaldCI = 8.03-11.56, 3.48 (95%WaldCI = 2.27-5.33, and 11.12 (95%WaldCI = 8.95-13.81 times more likely for those individuals using condoms during their sexual debut. These values did not decrease by more than 20% when controlling for potential confounders. The results suggest that HIV prevention programs should encourage condom use among youth during sexual debut. Success with this outcome may have a lasting influence on preventing HIV and other STIs later in life.

  20. Sex Trafficking, Violence Victimization, and Condom Non-Use Among Prostituted Women in Nicaragua

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decker, Michele R.; Mack, Katelyn P.; Barrows, Jeffery J.; Silverman, Jay G.

    2013-01-01

    Synopsis Prostituted women report disempowerment-related barriers to condom use, extensive violence victimization and trafficking experiences; findings indicate that disempowerment must be addressed within STI/HIV prevention efforts. PMID:19577234

  1. Condom use and its association with bacterial vaginosis and bacterial vaginosis-associated vaginal microflora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchinson, Katherine B; Kip, Kevin E; Ness, Roberta B

    2007-11-01

    Previous studies have been inconsistent with regard to whether condom use is associated with bacterial vaginosis. We evaluated this association using case-crossover analyses. A total of 871 women at high risk for sexually transmitted diseases were followed for a median of 3 years. At baseline and at 6, 12, 24, and 36 months thereafter, vaginal swabs were obtained for gram stain diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis, culture of microflora, and DNA amplification of Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia trachomatis. Case-crossover analyses using incident and recurrent incident case periods were used to assess the associations among condom use, bacterial vaginosis, and vaginal microflora. Consistent condom use (10 out of 10 sexual encounters) was associated with a decreased frequency of bacterial vaginosis (adjusted odds ratio = 0.55 [95% confidence interval 0.35-0.88]). When we excluded women with intermediate flora, consistent condom use was even more strongly protective against bacterial vaginosis (0.37 [0.20-0.70]). Consistent condom use was similarly protective against carriage of anaerobic gram-negative pigmented rods (0.58 [0.36-0.94]). Results were similar when analyses were repeated to capture only first occurrences of outcomes among women without bacterial vaginosis at baseline, suggesting a protective effect against the acquisition of bacterial vaginosis. Consistent condom use was associated with a decrease in the risk for bacterial vaginosis and associated vaginal microflora.

  2. Sex Work Venue and Condom Use among Female Sex Workers in Senggigi, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safika, Iko; Levy, Judith A.; Johnson, Timothy P.

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the structural influence of sex work venues on condom use among female sex workers in the Senggigi area of Lombok, Indonesia. A cross-sectional design employing ethnographic observation, structured interviews and hierarchical linear modeling was used to examine condom use among female sex workers who solicited clients at three types of sex work venues: freelance, brothels, and entertainment places (karaoke bars and massage parlours). The sample consisted of 115 women “nested” within 16 sex work venues drawn from the three venue types. Rate (39%) of condom use varied across sex work venues. Perceived management style, HIV/AIDS-related policies, and risk-reduction services differed by venue, but this variation did not explain differences in condom use. At the individual level, higher condom use was associated with female sex workers having ever been married. At the client level, condoms were more likely to be used with foreign rather than domestic/local Indonesian clients. Low rates of condom use among Indonesian female sex workers during commercial sex suggests the need for increased HIV prevention efforts that acknowledge sex worker characteristics and relationships with clients that place them at risk. Future research into the effects of social context on HIV risk should also be considered. PMID:23472595

  3. Sex work venue and condom use among female sex workers in Senggigi, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safika, Iko; Levy, Judith A; Johnson, Timothy P

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the structural influence of sex work venues on condom use among female sex workers in the Senggigi area of Lombok, Indonesia. A cross-sectional design employing ethnographic observation, structured interviews and hierarchical linear modelling was used to examine condom use among female sex workers who solicited clients at three types of sex work venues: (1) freelance locations, (2) brothels and (3) entertainment places (karaoke bars and massage parlours). The sample consisted of 115 women 'nested' within 16 sex work venues drawn from the three venue types. Rate (39%) of condom use varied across sex work venues. Perceived management style, HIV/AIDS-related policies and risk-reduction services differed by venue, but this variation did not explain differences in condom use. At the individual level, higher condom use was associated with female sex workers having ever been married. At the client level, condoms were more likely to be used with foreign rather than domestic/local Indonesian clients. Low rates of condom use among Indonesian female sex workers during commercial sex suggests the need for increased HIV-prevention efforts that acknowledge sex worker characteristics and relationships with clients that place them at risk. Future research into the effects of social context on HIV risk should also be considered.

  4. Condom

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... without a prescription and are sold in drugstores, supermarkets, and even vending machines (in some stores, they' ... STDs) Gyn Checkups About Birth Control Female Reproductive System Male Reproductive System Contact Us Print Resources Send ...

  5. Promoting the female condom to refugees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline Papo

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available UNHCR and its partners have been providing male condoms since the late 1990s. However, uptake remains alarmingly low. Will the agency be more successful in promoting the female condom, a female-initiated barrier method of contraception and disease prevention?

  6. Condom use by Hispanic and African-American adolescent girls who use hormonal contraception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roye, C F

    1998-10-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine condom use by teens who use hormonal contraceptives [i.e., Depo-Provera, Norplant, or oral contraceptives (OCs)]. This is a cross-sectional study of 578 Hispanic and African-American female adolescents between the ages of 12 and 21 years who came to a reproductive health care clinic. A paper-and-pencil questionnaire which addressed sexual behaviors, sexual history, and communication about sexuality was distributed to adolescent girls attending the clinic. Several important analyses included only those who had been sexually active in the last 4 weeks (n = 452). Adolescents who used OCs [odds ratio (OR) 1.7], long-acting agents (i.e., Depo-Provera or Norplant) (OR 1.6), were less likely to have used a condom in the last 4 weeks than teens whose only method of birth control was condoms. Only those teens who had previously been diagnosed with a sexually transmitted disease (STD) were more likely to have used a condom (OR .67 for not using a condom). Overall, condom use by teens in this sample was low, with only 19% reporting that they "always" use a condom, and 47% of the teens who had been sexually active in the last 4 weeks reporting that they had not used a condom at least once during that time. This study provides data which suggest that adolescent girls who use hormonal contraceptives are less likely to use condoms than other sexually active teens. Therefore, when prescribing hormonal contraception to prevent pregnancy, clinicians must provide appropriate counseling to mitigate against the potential to increase the risk of STDs.

  7. Relationship Ambiance and Condom Use in Greek Young Adults’ Dating Relationships

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    Panos S. Kordoutis

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available We examined whether ambiance, a qualitative relationship characteristic, predicted condom use in Greek young adults’ dating relationships, along with other objective relationship characteristics, such as relationship duration and coital sex frequency. Ambiance definition was based on the fundamental companionate-passionate love distinction. Participants were 277 Greek university students, 18-25 years old, having an ongoing relationship; they provided their basic demographics and information on their relationship, such as duration and coital sex frequency. They also described their relationship, in terms of passionate and companionate ambiance, using the rating scales of an 11-item ambiance measure. Finally, they indicated whether they had used or not used a condom at first, last intercourse and consistently during the last month. We hypothesized that condoms would be used more frequently at first and last intercourse, and more consistently in relationships with predominantly companionate rather that passionate ambiance. Three logistic regression analyses revealed that ambiance predicted condom use and that condoms were used more frequently at last intercourse and more consistently in relationships of companionate rather than passionate ambiance. Further analyses indicated that ambiance qualified condom use effects of relationship duration and coital sex frequency. It is suggested that companionate ambiance focuses partners on the normative aspect of the relationship, increasing protective behavior, while passionate, on the sexual and intimate, undermining it.

  8. To use or not to use: a stage-based approach to understanding condom use among homeless youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Joan S; Ober, Allison; Ryan, Gery; Golinelli, Daniela; Ewing, Brett; Wenzel, Suzanne L

    2014-01-01

    This study used a stage-based approach to understand condom use behavior in a representative sample of 309 sexually active homeless youth recruited from shelters, drop-in centers, and street sites in Los Angeles County. Focusing on the youth's most recent sexual event, the three stages of condom use examined were: (1) whether the partners decided prior to the event about using condoms; (2) whether a condom was available at the event; and (3) whether a condom was used at the event. Logistic regression analysis was used to identify attitudinal, relationship, and contextual correlates of each of these three stages. Deciding ahead of time about condom use was associated with being Hispanic, level of education, condom attitudes, and various relationship characteristics (e.g., partner type, monogamy, relationship abuse), with the nature of these associations varying depending on the type of decision (i.e., deciding to use, deciding to not use). Condom availability was more likely to be reported by males, if the event was described as being special in some way, or if the event lacked privacy. Condom use was more likely among youth with more positive condom attitudes and among youth who decide ahead of time to use a condom, but less likely among those in monogamous relationships or when hard drugs were used prior to sex. Whether sexual intercourse is protected or unprotected is the end result of a series of decisions and actions by sexual partners. Results from this study illustrate how condom use can be better understood by unpacking the stages and identifying influential factors at each stage. Each stage may, in and of itself, be an important target for intervention with homeless youth.

  9. The dynamics of condom use with regular and casual partners: analysis of the 2006 National Sexual Behavior Survey of Thailand.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aphichat Chamratrithirong

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This study aims to determine factors associated with levels of condom use among heterosexual Thai males in sex with regular partners and in sex with casual partners. METHODS: The data used in this study are from the national probability sample of the 2006 National Sexual Behavior Study, the third nationally representative cross-sectional survey in Thailand. A subtotal of 2,281 men were analyzed in the study, including young (18-24 and older (25-59 adults who were residents of rural areas of Thailand, non-Bangkok urban areas, and Bangkok. Two outcomes of interest for this analysis are reported condom use in the past 12 months by males in relationships with the most recent regular and casual partners who were not sex workers. Chi-square statistics, bivariate regressions and the proportional odds regression models are used in the analysis. RESULTS: Condom use for men with their regular partner is revealed to be positively related to education, knowledge of condom effectiveness, and pro-condom strategy, and negatively related to non-professional employment, status of registered marriage, and short relationship duration. Condom use with casual partner is positively determined by education, condom knowledge, non-professional occupation, short relationship duration, and lack of history of paid sex. CONCLUSION: The national survey emphasized the importance of risk perceptions and condom motivations variables in explaining condom use among men in Thailand. These factors include not only education and knowledge of condom effectiveness and pro-condom strategy but also types of partners and their relationship context and characteristics. Program intervention to promote condom use in Thailand in this new era of predominant casual sex rather than sex with sex workers has to take into account more dynamic partner-based strategies than in the past history of the epidemics in Thailand.

  10. Inconsistent Condom Use among Iranian Male Drug Injectors

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    Hooman eNarenjiha

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and associated factors of inconsistent condom use among Iranian male injection drug users (IDUs.Materials and methods: Data came from the national Iranian behavioral survey of drug dependence, which sampled 7,743 individuals with drug dependence, from medical centers, prisons and streets in 29 provinces in Iran, 2007. This study included all individuals who were male, IDUs, and were sexually active (n = 1,131. The main outcome was inconsistent condom use which was assessed using a single item. A logistic regression was used to determine the association between socio-economic data, drug use data, and high risk injection behaviors with inconsistent condom use.Result: 83.3% of sexually active IDUs (n=965 reported inconsistent condom use. Based on the logistic regression, likelihood of inconsistent condom use was higher among those with a history of syringe sharing (Odds Ratio [OR]; 1.63, 95% Confidence Interval CI; 1.13- 2.34, but lower among those with higher education levels (OR; 0.34, 95% CI; 0.14- 0.82, those who mostly inject at home (OR; 0.09, 95% CI; 0.02- 0.47 and those with a history of treatment (OR; 0.54, 95% CI; 0.31- 0.94.Conclusion: Because of the link between unsafe sex and risky injecting behaviors among Iranian IDUs, combined programs targeting both sexual and injection behavior may be more appropriate than the programs which target sexual or injection behavior. The efficacy of combined programs should be, however, compared with traditional programs that only target sexual or injection behavior of IDUs.

  11. Council-supported condom vending machines: are they acceptable to rural communities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomnay, Jane E; Hatch, Beth

    2013-11-01

    Twenty-four hour access to condoms for young people living in rural Victoria is problematic for many reasons, including the fact that condom vending machines are often located in venues and places they cannot access. We partnered with three rural councils to install condom vending machines in locations that provided improved access to condoms for local young people. Councils regularly checked the machines, refilled the condoms and retrieved the money. They also managed the maintenance of the machine and provided monthly data. In total, 1153 condoms were purchased over 12 months, with 924 (80%) obtained from male toilets and 69% (801 out of 1153) purchased in the second half of the study. Revenue of $2626.10 (AUD) was generated and no negative feedback from residents was received by any council nor was there any negative reporting by local media. Vandalism, tampering or damage occurred at all sites; however, only two significant episodes of damage required a machine to be sent away for repairs. Condom vending machines installed in rural towns in north-east Victoria are accessible to young people after business hours, are cost-effective for councils and have not generated any complaints from residents. The machines have not suffered unrepairable damage and were used more frequently as the study progressed.

  12. Social-cognitive determinants of condom use in a cohort of young gay and bisexual men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franssens, Dirk; Hospers, Harm J; Kok, Gerjo

    2009-11-01

    The aim of this prospective study was to identify relevant determinants of young gay and bisexual men's (YGBM) condom use when having anal sex with casual partners. Respondents (185 YGBM in the midst of their coming-out; mean age 18.9 years) completed an online questionnaire on social-cognitive determinants of condoms use derived from the theory of planned behavior (Ajzen, 1991) at Wave 1. At six months follow-up (Wave 2) sexual behavior with casual partners was assessed. A total of 63 YGBM reported sex with a casual partner in the six months between Waves 1 and 2, of whom 49% (N=31) had anal sex. Of the YGBM who had anal sex, 42% (N=13) had unprotected anal sex. Condom use with casual partners was best predicted by the intention to always use condoms. Furthermore, attitude, descriptive and personal norms, and perceived control significantly predicted intention to always use condoms. Interventions, targeting YGBM, aiming to promote condom use with casual partners should focus on increasing attitudes and strengthening skills to negotiate and use condoms.

  13. The utility of theory of planned behavior in predicting consistent ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    admin

    outcomes of the behavior and the evaluations of these outcomes (behavioral beliefs) ... belief towards consistent condom use and motivation for compliance with .... consistency of the items used before constructing a scale. Results. All of the ...

  14. Short-Term Acceptability of the Woman’s Condom among Married Couples in Shanghai

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    Junqing Wu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The Woman’s Condom, a second-generation female condom designed for acceptability, is poised for introduction in China. Method. This single-arm study was conducted among 60 couples in China in 2010 to assess acceptability of the Woman’s Condom. Results. Male participants reported that ease of handling, inserting, and removing the device improved significantly from first to fourth use. Female and male participants reported that comfort during insertion, feel of lubricant during insertion, comfort/fit of outer ring during use, and overall comfort improved significantly from first to fourth use. Further, at fourth use, female participants reported significant improvement in the comfort of the feel of the condom material and lubricant. Female and male participants reported that satisfaction with stability and sensation during sex and ability to achieve orgasm improved significantly from first to fourth use. At fourth use, female participants reported statistically significant improvement in sensation compared to using nothing. A majority of participants (78% stated that they would use the Woman’s Condom in the future, primarily due to its dual protection profile. Conclusion. This study has shown that, in China, the Woman’s Condom appears to be acceptable to married couples. User experience contributes to improvement in many aspects of device acceptability.

  15. Comparisons of Reported Sexual and Condom Use Behaviors From a Retrospective Survey Versus a Prospective Diary in the Botswana Defence Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    questions regarding social and cultural norms influencing reports of sexual practices should be explored among military personnel. Additionally, studies...needed to gain a better understand- ing of reporting behaviors and cultural and social norms that may affect reporting, and to evaluate other data...collection methods that may increase reporting accuracy. REFERENCES Allen, S., Meinzen-Derr, J., Kautzman, M., Zulu , I., Trask, S., Fideli, U., et al. (2003

  16. Cross-cultural adaptation of the short-form condom attitude scale: validity assessment in a sub-sample of rural-to-urban migrant workers in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Tapash; Anderson, Claire; Evans, Catrin; Rahman, Mohammad Shafiqur; Rahman, Mosiur

    2013-03-19

    The reliable and valid measurement of attitudes towards condom use are essential to assist efforts to design population specific interventions aimed at promoting positive attitude towards, and increased use of condoms. Although several studies, mostly in English speaking western world, have demonstrated the utility of condom attitude scales, very limited culturally relevant condom attitude measures have been developed till to date. We have developed a scale and evaluated its psychometric properties in a sub-sample of rural-to-urban migrant workers in Bangladesh. This paper reports mostly on cross-sectional survey components of a mixed methods sexual health research in Bangladesh. The survey sample (n = 878) comprised rural-to-urban migrant taxi drivers (n = 437) and restaurant workers (n = 441) in Dhaka (aged 18-35 years). The study also involved focus group sessions with same populations to establish the content validity and cultural equivalency of the scale. The current scale was administered with a large sexual health survey questionnaire and consisted of 10 items. Quantitative and qualitative data were assessed with statistical and thematic analysis, respectively, and then presented. The participants found the scale simple and easy to understand and use. The internal consistency (α) of the scale was 0.89 with high construct validity (the first component accounted for about 52% of variance and second component about 20% of the total variance with an Eigen-value for both factors greater than one). The test-retest reliability (repeatability) was also found satisfactory with high inter-item correlations (the majority of the intra-class correlation coefficient values was above 2 and was significant for all items on the scale, p scale have good metric properties for assessing attitudes toward condom use. Validated scale is a short, simple and reliable instrument for measuring attitudes towards condom use in vulnerable populations like current study

  17. Social representations of adolescents on sexual relations and the use of condoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elys de Oliveira Bezerra

    Full Text Available The objective of this investigation was to identify how adolescents structure the social representations of sexual intercourse and use of condoms. Exploratory and descriptive research was conducted with a convenience sample consisting of 234 students of a public secondary school in Fortaleza-CE, Brazil, between July 2009 and April 2010. Data were collected using a questionnaire with variables on socioeconomic status and sexual behaviour, and Free Association test with three terms: 'sex', 'unprotected sex' and 'sex with a condom'. Sexual intercourse was represented by love and affection among the women, while men associated sex to pleasure, desire and attraction toward the female body. The condom was considered important by both groups, but men represented condoms as being something bad that restricts pleasure. Health professionals are granted the opportunity to identify vulnerabilities of this population to DST/HIV/AIDS and work with these vulnerabilities in the most appropriate way.

  18. 21 CFR 801.435 - User labeling for latex condoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false User labeling for latex condoms. 801.435 Section... latex condoms. (a) This section applies to the subset of condoms as identified in § 884.5300 of this... products are formed from latex films. (b) Data show that the material integrity of latex condoms...

  19. Condom Use Behaviors and Correlates of Condom Use in the Botswana Defence Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-10

    militaries. HIV prevention research is needed to monitor existing programme, identify areas for modification, and develop new interventions . Correct and...circumcised were protective against lower condom use. HIV interventions aimed at increasing condom use in the BDF should address condom perceptions, alcohol...Bahamon RE, et al. HIV / AIDS behavioral surveillance among Angolan military men. AIDS Behav 2008; 12: 578 584. 7. Okulate GT, Jones OB and Olorunda MB

  20. Quality and consistency of outcome reporting in clinical trials of immunosuppression in renal transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Samia; Knight, Simon R

    2016-11-01

    Interpretation, comparison, and combination of results of clinical trials are reliant on accurate and complete reporting of outcomes. This study aimed to assess the quality and variability in outcome reporting in immunosuppression trials following renal transplantation. All randomized controlled trials comparing immunosuppressive interventions in renal transplant recipients published over a 5-year period were included. Outcomes reported in these studies were extracted, along with data regarding completeness of reporting and whether a clear definition of the method used to measure the outcome was provided. A total of 4760 outcomes were identified from 182 studies. Overall, 90.3% outcomes were completely reported; the remainder had missing data that would preclude use in meta-analysis; 31.5% manuscripts did not define a primary endpoint. Efficacy outcomes were more likely to be clearly defined than safety outcomes (OR: 0.022, P<.001) or patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) (OR: 0.014, P<.001). PROMs were reported in less than half of manuscripts, and only five reported quality-of-life data using a validated tool. There was significant variability in the way that common efficacy and safety outcomes were defined. Variability in the way that endpoints are selected and reported in trials in renal transplantation makes interpretation and comparison between studies difficult.

  1. Study on Perception of Potential Condom Use among Unmarried Migrants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan SHEN; Chao-hua LOU; Er-sheng GAO; Ye-lin XU; Ling ZHANG

    2003-01-01

    Objective To understand the perception of potential condom use and its influencing factors so as to promote condom use among unmarried migrantsMethod A survey, using self-administered structured anonymous questionnaire, was conducted among 1 092 unmarried migrants aged 15~24 years old in urban area of Shanghai.Results The unmarried migrants had some knowledge of condom. However, their knowledge level and their attitude towards condom use were not so optimistic. Subjects' knowledge of contraceptives and STD/AIDS had a positive influe, nce on their attitude toward condom use. Subjects with positive attitude to condom use were more likely to use condom in sexual activity (OR=l.61).Conclusion Unmarried migrants have lower rate of condom use if they have insufficient knowledge of condom. Therefore, it is essential to strengthen the sexual health education among unmarried sex-active migrants in order to encourage contraceptive use, especially condom use.

  2. Does penis size influence condom slippage and breakage?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, A M; Jolley, D; Hocking, J; Benton, K; Gerofi, J

    1998-08-01

    This study examined the effect of penis dimensions on the probability of complete condom slippage and condom breakage in actual use. Men were recruited through advertising, used the condoms supplied and completed a diary sheet for each condom used. A total of 3658 condoms were used by 184 men of which 1.34% broke and 2.05% slipped off. No significant effect was demonstrated for penile dimensions on the probability of complete condom slippage. However, condom breakage was strongly associated with penile circumference. These findings suggest that condom manufacturers may need to increase the range of condom sizes available, or some aspects of their performance, in order to ensure that condoms meet the needs of all men without unduly exposing them to risk.

  3. Consistency of Report Card Grades and External Assessments in a Canadian Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, John A.; Kostuch, Lynn

    2011-01-01

    The study investigated how well report card grades communicate to students and parents that state educational standards are being met, standards that are objectively measured by infrequently administered mandated assessments. Data sources were report card grades and external assessment scores for 2006-09 for Ontario Canada. The information that…

  4. Consistency and validity of self-reporting scores in stress measurement surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masood, Khalid; Ahmed, Beena; Choi, Jongyong; Gutierrez-Osuna, Ricardo

    2012-01-01

    Stress has been attributed to physiological and psychological demands that exceed the natural regulatory capacity of a person. Chronic stress is not only a catalyst for diseases such as hypertension, diabetes, insomnia but may also lead to social problems such as marriage breakups, suicide and violence. Objective assessment of stress is difficult so self-reports are commonly used to indicate the severity of stress. However, empirical information on the validity of self-reports is limited. The present study investigated the authenticity and validity of different self-report surveys. An analysis, based on a three-pronged strategy, was performed on these surveys. It was concluded that although subjects are prone to systematic error in reporting, self-reports can provide a useful substitute for data modeling specifically in stress evaluation where other objective assessments such as determination of stress using only physiological response are difficult.

  5. Teaching Teens To Use Condoms Faithfully

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Pediatrician Ages & Stages Prenatal Baby Toddler Preschool Gradeschool Teen Dating & Sex Fitness Nutrition Driving Safety School Substance Abuse Young Adult Healthy Children > Ages & Stages > Teen > Dating & Sex > Teaching Teens To Use Condoms Faithfully Ages & Stages ...

  6. factors influencing condom use among nigerian undergraduates

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-12-01

    Dec 1, 2012 ... risk by condom use often conflict with gender roles of modesty and ... The data were analyzed manually using Graneheim and Lundman's method of Qualitative ..... Current Directions in Psychological. Science 2003; 12:37–40.

  7. Are female sex workers able to negotiate condom use with male clients? The case of mobile FSWs in four high HIV prevalence states of India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shalini Bharat

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Condom promotion among female sex workers (FSWs is a key intervention in India's National AIDS Control Program. However, there is limited understanding of how FSWs negotiate condom use with male clients, particularly in the context of their mobility for sex work. The objective of this study is to examine the factors associated with the mobile FSWs' ability to refuse unsafe sex and successfully negotiate condom use with unwilling male clients. METHODS: Data for 5498 mobile FSWs from a cross-sectional survey conducted in 22 districts of four states in southern India were analyzed. Questions assessed FSWs' ability to refuse clients unprotected sex, convince unwilling clients for condom use and negotiate condom use in a new location. Logistic regression models were constructed to examine the association between socio-demographics, economic vulnerability, sex work practice, and program exposure and condom negotiation ability. RESULTS: A majority of FSWs (60% reported the ability to refuse clients for unprotected sex, but less than one-fifth reported the ability to successfully convince an unwilling client to use a condom or to negotiate condom use in a new site. Younger and older mobile FSWs compared to those who were in the middle age group, those with longer sex work experience, with an income source other than sex work, with program exposure and who purchased condoms for use, reported the ability to refuse unprotected sex, to successfully negotiate condom use with unwilling clients and to do so at new sites. CONCLUSION: FSWs need to be empowered to not only refuse unprotected sex but also to be able to motivate and convince unwilling clients for condom use, including those in new locations. In addition to focusing on condom promotion, interventions must address the factors that impact FSWs' ability to negotiate condom use.

  8. Preventing AIDS and other STDs through condom promotion: a patient education intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, M Z; DeJong, W

    1989-04-01

    We report on two studies that assessed the impact of a soap-opera style videotape on inner-city STD (sexually transmitted disease) patients' knowledge about and attitudes toward condom use, and willingness to redeem coupons for free condoms. Subjects in the first study who viewed the videotape (and participated in a brief oral recall session) had higher knowledge scores and more accepting attitudes than subjects who did not (knowledge test means of 11.1 versus 7.9, attitude index means of 13.0 versus 11.3). The intervention was most effective among those who were relatively poorly educated and, to a lesser extent, among those who reported less frequent use of condoms and fewer sex partners. In the second study, intervention group subjects were more likely than control group subjects to redeem coupons. Both groups exhibited a high level of interest in the free condoms. We argue that education and accessibility to free condoms can increase condom use and that health care providers have a vital role in promoting this form of STD prevention.

  9. Correlates of Delayed Sexual Intercourse and Condom Use among Adolescents in Uganda: a cross-sectional study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijsdijk, L.E.; Bos, A.E.R.; Lie, R.; Ruiter, R.A.C.; Leerlooijer, J.N.; Kok, G.

    2012-01-01

    Background - Comprehensive sex education, including the promotion of consistent condom use, is still an important intervention strategy in tackling unplanned pregnancies, HIV/AIDS and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) among Ugandan adolescents. This study examines predictors of the intention to

  10. Feasibility of local condom production examined.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    Despite Africa being the world region worst affected by the HIV/AIDS pandemic, there is only 1 condom manufacturer on the continent, in Johannesburg. Hundreds of millions of condoms are donated and imported annually. For example, 500 million units were donated in 1996, of which 212 million came from the US Agency for International Development. A recently released study commissioned by the European Union's HIV/AIDS Program for Developing Countries determined that it would be technically viable to manufacture condoms in not only South Africa, but also in Mauritius, Cote d'Ivoire, and Kenya. All that is required is a factory, work force, water, and electricity, with the raw materials to be imported from Malaysia or Thailand regardless of where the factory is located. The financial returns of such an operation would depend upon the cost of labor, the type of factory and its output, and market demand. Benefits would include employment creation, potential exports, and foreign exchange savings. A typical condom plant, operating 24 hours a day with 2 production lines, can produce 160 million condom units per year. However, should such a factory be built and put into operation, managers must ensure that any condoms produced are of high quality.

  11. Land-Use Scenarios: National-Scale Housing-Density Scenarios Consistent with Climate Change Storylines (Final Report)

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA announced the availability of the final report, Land-Use Scenarios: National-Scale Housing-Density Scenarios Consistent with Climate Change Storylines. This report describes the scenarios and models used to generate national-scale housing density scenarios for the con...

  12. Report of the State-of-the-Science Workshop: Evaluation of Epidemiological Data Consistency for Application in Regulatory Risk Assessment (Final Report)

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA announced the availability of the independent workshop proceedings, Report of the State-of-the-Science Workshop: Evaluation of Epidemiological Data Consistency for Application in Regulatory Risk Assessment. This report provides a summary of selected epidemiology meth...

  13. Uso de condom feminino por mulheres infectadas pelo HIV Female condom use among HIV-infected women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarbas Magalhães

    2003-07-01

    -infected women under care at CAISM/UNICAMP and Centro Corsini, both in Campinas. After a screening interview and agreeing to participate, the volunteers received a diary to register their intercourses and correspondent use of male condom (MC. After 30 days, they returned to a training visit when the FC was inserted in a pelvic model, also bringing their diary related to the previous cycle, considered a control cycle. A structured questionnaire was used at 30, 60 and 90 days, also with the respective diary on sexual intercourse and use of MC and FC kept for posterior data entry. c², Fisher's exact, McNemar and Friedman tests were applied statistical analysis of paired samples. RESULTS: there was a predominance of young women, with low schooling, living with their partner. Rate of continuity was 52% after 90 days. The use of FC in half the intercourses for each time period remained stable over the 90-day interval. There was a significant reduction in unprotected intercourses (from 14 to 6%, without use of FC or MC, at the end of the period. The initial difficulties in handling the device were overcome. Serodiscordant couples had more protected intercourses than concordant couples, but the difference did not reach statistical significance. Women reporting consistent previous use of MC had more protected sex using FC. CONCLUSIONS: the offer of the female condom was able to reduce unprotected intercourses in HIV-infected women, which were highly motivated and receptive for the new method.

  14. Preliminary findings of an adapted evidence-based woman-focused HIV intervention on condom use and negotiation among at-risk women in Pretoria, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wechsberg, Wendee M; Luseno, Winnie K; Kline, Tracy L; Browne, Felicia A; Zule, William A

    2010-01-01

    This article presents the results of a randomized trial in South Africa of an adapted evidence-based Woman-Focused intervention on condom use with primary sex partners. The preliminary findings show that regardless of HIV status, condom negotiation was significantly associated with condom use at the 3- and 6-month follow-ups. By intervention group, significant intervention effects were found at 6-month follow-up for HIV-positive and HIV-unknown status women in the Woman-Focused intervention who were more likely than women in the Standard intervention to report condom use with a primary male partner. Among HIV-positive women, those in the Woman-Focused group and those with greater sexual control were more likely to report condom use at the 6-month follow-up. The findings indicate that gender-based interventions for women may result in increased condom negotiation skills.

  15. Was HIV knowledge associated with condom use at first sex among Ukrainian teenagers in 2007?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yavorska, Valentyna

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND. Condoms offer the best protection against sexually transmitted infections including HIV. In Ukraine, little research has been conducted to explore possible predictors of condom use at sexual debut. It was hypothesized that the more youth know about possible ways of HIV transmission, the more they are likely to use condoms during the first sexual intercourse.METHODS: Data analyzed in this paper comes from a cross-sectional European School Survey Project on Alcohol and other Drugs conducted among Ukrainian school youth in 2007. The survey involved a total of 5122 students (15–17 year old from all types of secondary schools in 24 oblasts and AR Crimea. Analysis was confined to 1077 students (715 males and 362 females who reported that they have ever had sexual intercourse. Associations were assessed in bivariate analysis using Chi-square test and later using binary logistic regression analysis in order to identify the significant predictors after controlling for other variables.RESULTS: Among the sexually experienced students, more than 70% had used condoms during first sexual intercourse. The results from the logistic regression analysis revealed that the age at first sexual intercourse, HIV awareness, alcohol consumption and family characteristics were significant predictors of condom use at first sexual intercourse among the Ukrainian schoolchildren. Students who had first sex at the age from 14 to 16 years were more likely to use condom at their first sexual intercourse than those with sexual debut before 14 years old (odds ratios 2,4; 2,1; and 3,3, respectively. Moreover, those students who were aware that using condom may protect against getting HIV were more likely (OR 2,1 to use condom at first sex.CONCLUSIONS: The results indicate the necessity of providing educational programs which aim to raise the level of awareness about HIV among Ukrainian youth.

  16. Bringing up condom use and using condoms with new sexual partners : Intentional or habitual?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yzer, MC; Siero, FW; Buunk, BP

    2001-01-01

    A prospective study of 94 Dutch adults who have casual sexual partners examined whether two important aspects of safe sex. namely bringing up condom use (BCU) and actual condom use (ACU) are intentional or habitual. For each of these aspects, a model based on the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB: Aj

  17. Bringing up condom use and using condoms with new sexual partners : Intentional or habitual?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yzer, M.C; Siero, F.W.; Buunk, Abraham (Bram)

    2001-01-01

    A prospective study of 94 Dutch adults who have casual sexual partners examined whether two important aspects of safe sex. namely bringing up condom use (BCU) and actual condom use (ACU) are intentional or habitual. For each of these aspects, a model based on the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB:

  18. AIDS-related Knowledge, Condom Usage Among Medical Postgraduates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Objective To investigate the knowledge about safety/unsafty of sexual acts relating to HIV transmission, levels of embarrassment related to condom and condom usage among medical postgraduates. Methods From August to December, 1998, a self-administered anonymous questionnaire was given to 271 new medical postgraduates from two medical colleges of Beijing and Hebei Province. Results There was a hazy understanding of the protective function of condom from AIDS among medical postgraduates. Only 14.4% medical postgraduates persisted in using condom, and 27.94% had never or almost never used it. The levels of embarrassment about condom were high. The median score was 3.55+0.98. Whether to use condom was related with the attitudes to condom, but not to AIDS. Conclusion There was some misunderstanding about condom and inconsistent condom usage in medical postgraduates. So it is essential to strengthen the sexual health education among them.

  19. Biomedical journals lack a consistent method to detect outcome reporting bias: a cross-sectional analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huan, L N; Tejani, A M; Egan, G

    2014-10-01

    An increasing amount of recently published literature has implicated outcome reporting bias (ORB) as a major contributor to skewing data in both randomized controlled trials and systematic reviews; however, little is known about the current methods in place to detect ORB. This study aims to gain insight into the detection and management of ORB by biomedical journals. This was a cross-sectional analysis involving standardized questions via email or telephone with the top 30 biomedical journals (2012) ranked by impact factor. The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews was excluded leaving 29 journals in the sample. Of 29 journals, 24 (83%) responded to our initial inquiry of which 14 (58%) answered our questions and 10 (42%) declined participation. Five (36%) of the responding journals indicated they had a specific method to detect ORB, whereas 9 (64%) did not have a specific method in place. The prevalence of ORB in the review process seemed to differ with 4 (29%) journals indicating ORB was found commonly, whereas 7 (50%) indicated ORB was uncommon or never detected by their journal previously. The majority (n = 10/14, 72%) of journals were unwilling to report or make discrepancies found in manuscripts available to the public. Although the minority, there were some journals (n = 4/14, 29%) which described thorough methods to detect ORB. Many journals seemed to lack a method with which to detect ORB and its estimated prevalence was much lower than that reported in literature suggesting inadequate detection. There exists a potential for overestimation of treatment effects of interventions and unclear risks. Fortunately, there are journals within this sample which appear to utilize comprehensive methods for detection of ORB, but overall, the data suggest improvements at the biomedical journal level for detecting and minimizing the effect of this bias are needed. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Determinants of condom use intentions of university students in Ghana: an application of the theory of reasoned action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosompra, K

    2001-04-01

    The study examined the applicability of the Theory of Reasoned Action to the study of condom use intentions of students at a university in southern Ghana. The data supported the model, explaining 33% of the variance in students' condom use intentions. Subjective norms and the perceived disadvantages of condom use were significant determinants of intention, with the former being more important. Respondents who intended to use condoms consistently ("intenders") and those with no such intentions ("non-intenders") were equally motivated to comply with the wishes of their significant referents (sexual partners, close friends, parents and medical doctors). The critical difference was that "intenders" consistently held a stronger belief than "non-intenders" that their significant referents approved of condom use. Significantly, whereas "intenders" believed that their sexual partners would approve of condom use, the "non-intenders" held the contrary belief that their partners would disapprove of such behavior. This suggests that AIDS education interventions targeting a similar audience like the university students in this study should shift their foci away from individuals alone and instead, focus simultaneously on individuals, their sexual partners and their broader social networks in order to enhance perceptions of peer acceptance of condom use.

  1. Pattern, challenges and correlates of condom use among Nigerians living with HIV infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Oladele David Ayoola; Ohwodo Harry; Odubela Oluwatosin; Odunukwe Nkiru Nonyelum; David Nkiruka; Ezechi Oliver Chukwujekwu; Gab-Okafor Chidinma Victoria; Oke Bamidele; Kalejaiye Olufunto Olufela; Somefun Esther Oluwatosin; Ezeobi Paschal Mbaneifo; Gbajabiamila Titilola; Adu Rosemary Adagu; Onwujekwe Dan Ifeanyi

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine the pattern, challenges and correlates of condom use among Nigerians living with HIV Infection. Methods: A cross sectional questionnaire study among HIV positive adults attending an HIV treatment centre in Lagos, Nigeria. Data entry and analysis were done with Epi-info version 3.5.1. Results: The mean age of respondents was 35 (SD=7.7; range: 17-58 years) and mean age at sexual debut was 20 years old (range: 7-37 years). Majority were women (66.6%), had at least secondary school education(91.1%), married (68.2%) , on ART (50.7%) and knew their partners HIV status(60.9%). The rate of condom use at last sex act was 65.9%, but only 48.8% used condom consistently. Factors associated with condom use were male gender (OR=2.43, CI=1.35-4.33, P=0.002), less than secondary school education (OR=3.12, CI=1.04-9.28, P=0.05) and Not knowing partner’s HIV status (OR=1.90, CI=1.04-3.80, P=0.04). Refusal to use condom (28.4%) were as a result of pregnancy intention, undesirability of condom in marriage and decreased sexual pleasure.Conclusion:There is low consistent condom use rate of 48.8% among this cohort despite their exposure to behavioural change messages. A review of the present counselling strategy and combination prevention is therefore advocated.

  2. Condom as a professional symbol among the persons engaged in sex work in Belgrade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baroš Slađana

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on qualitative research data, this article exams the meaning of condom among persons engaged in sex work. Sex-work is a specific activity, with a sex service being an object of economic transaction. In order to delineate private sexual relationship and business sexual relationship sex workers rely on a professional code. Abiding to this code is valued positively by the professional group whereas disrespecting it leads to stigmatization of the offender within the group. The basic markers separating professional and private life in a continuum of sexuality are money as a sign and condom as a symbol. Use of condom during the sex-work relation is a symbol of correct approach to work and as such marks the border between professional and unprofessional way for doing the job in addition to marking the border between work and private life. The data show that within this borderline area in real-life situations, complex interactive relationship between sex-workers and their immediate environment leads to discrepancies in the consistency of condom use. The lack of consistent condom is present when a client or type of service is perceived as safe, i.e. carries the meaning of the category "with condom", or when some ambiguous environmental circumstances are present such as influence of the police or pimps, protectors and people related to private life of sex-worker. In the field of sex-work, condom grows from an object of infection prevention into an object that symbolizes professional ethics within sex-work and, in that way, it keeps an atmosphere of a healthy and clean private life for sex-workers.

  3. Why don’t urban youth in Zambia use condoms? The influence of gender and marriage on non-use of male condoms among young adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinchoff, Jessie; Boyer, Christopher B.; Mutombo, Namuunda; Chowdhuri, Rachna Nag; Ngo, Thoai D.

    2017-01-01

    Background Zambia experiences high unmet need for family planning and high rates of HIV, particularly among youth. While male condoms are widely available and 95% of adults have heard of them, self-reported use in the past 12 months is low among young adults (45%). This study describes factors associated with non-use of male condoms among urban young adults in Zambia. Methods A household cross-sectional survey in four urban districts was conducted from November 2015 to January 2016 among sexually active young adults ages 18–24 years. A random walk strategy was implemented in urban areas; eligible, enrolled participants were administered a survey on household characteristics, health access, and knowledge, attitudes and practices related to contraception. Relative risk regression models were built to determine factors associated with the decision to not use a male condom (non-use) at most recent sexual intercourse. Results A total of 2,388 individuals were interviewed; 69% were female, 35% were married, and average lifetime sex partners was 3.45 (SD±6.15). Non-use of male condoms was 59% at most recent sexual intercourse. In a multivariate model, women were more likely to report non-use of a male condom compared with men (aRR = 1.24 [95% CI: 1.11, 1.38]), married individuals were more likely to report non-use compared with unmarried individuals (aRR = 1.59 [1.46, 1.73]), and those residing in the highest poverty wards were more likely to report non-use compared with those in the lowest poverty wards (aRR = 1.31 [1.16, 1.48]). Those with more negative perceptions of male condom use were 6% more likely to report non-use (aRR = 1.06 [1.03, 1.09]). Discussion regarding contraception with a partner decreased non-use 13% (aRR = 0.87 [0.80, 0.95]) and agreement regarding male condom use with a partner decreased non-use 16% (aRR = 0.84 [0.77, 0.91)]). Discussion Non-use of male condoms is high among young, married adults, particularly women, who may be interested in

  4. Internal Consistency of the easyCBM© CCSS Reading Measures: Grades 3-8. Technical Report #1407

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerreiro, Meg; Alonzo, Julie; Tindal, Gerald

    2014-01-01

    This technical report documents findings from a study of the internal consistency and split-half reliability of the easyCBM© CCSS Reading measures, grades 3-8. Data, drawn from an extant data set gathered in school year 2013-2014, include scores from over 150,000 students' fall and winter benchmark assessments. Findings suggest that the easyCBM©…

  5. The influence of international and domestic events in the evolution of forest inventory and reporting consistency in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    W. Brad Smith

    2009-01-01

    This article takes a brief chronological look at resource inventory and reporting and links to international influences. It explores events as drivers of more consistent data within the United States and highlights key dates and events in the evolution of inventory policy and practice. From King George to L?Ecole nationale forestiere to the Food and Agriculture...

  6. Can women 'refuse' condoms? Dilemmas of condom negotiation among men living with HIV in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mfecane, Sakhumzi

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes challenges that men living with HIV experience in negotiating condom use with sexual partners. After testing HIV-positive, the men in this study attended support groups of people living with HIV. Here they were taught to behave 'responsibly' by adopting safer sex measures. However, some men faced strong resistance from women concerning condom use, particularly from women with whom they had been sexually involved prior to testing HIV-positive. This paper explores the reasoning behind the rejection of condoms by women, focusing specifically on the nature of relationships, disclosure of HIV status and gender power dynamics. Analysis of the findings, which are taken from an ethnographic study conducted over 14 months, indicates that efforts to initiate condom use allowed women to challenge men's authority in sexual affairs and assert their own (limited) agency - albeit by demanding unprotected sex. However, women's rejection of condoms occurred in a knowledge vacuum about their own HIV risk because male partners had failed to disclose their HIV status prior to initiating condoms. Interventions need to encourage men to disclose their HIV status before they initiate condom use with their sexual partners. Furthermore men need to encourage their partners to be open about their sexual needs.

  7. ‘Why don’t you just use a condom?’: Understanding the motivational tensions in the minds of South African women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Mash

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: HIV/AIDS makes the largest contribution to the burden of disease in South Africa and consistent condom use is considered a key component of HIV-prevention efforts. Health workers see condoms as a straightforward technical solution to prevent transmission of the disease and are often frustrated when their simple advice is not followed.Objectives: To better understand the complexity of the decision that women must make when they are asked to negotiate condom use with their partner.Method: A literature review.Results: A key theme that emerged included unequal power in sexual decision making, with men dominating and women being disempowered. Women may want to please their partner, who might believe that condoms will reduce sexual pleasure. The use of condoms was associated with a perceived lack of ‘real’ love, intimacy and trust. Other factors included the fear of losing one’s reputation, being seen as ‘loose’ and of violence or rejection by one’s partner. For many women, condom usage was forbidden by their religious beliefs. The article presents a conceptual framework to make sense of the motivational dilemma in the mind of a woman who is asked to use a condom.Conclusion: Understanding this ambivalence, respecting it and helping women to resolve it may be more helpful than simply telling women to use a condom. A prevention worker who fails to recognise this dilemma and instructs women to ‘simply’ use a condom, may well encounter resistance.

  8. Using Qualitative Methods to Understand Perceptions of Risk and Condom Use in African American College Women: Implications for Sexual Health Promotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaurin-Jones, TyWanda L; Lashley, Maudry-Beverley; Marshall, Vanessa J

    2017-09-01

    Young African American women are disproportionately affected with sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and unintentional pregnancies. Despite adequate knowledge, assertiveness, and negotiation skills, consistent condom use remains low. We sought to assess the role of pregnancy and STI risk perception in condom decision making among African American women. We conducted a phenomenological qualitative study. Utilizing a purposive sampling strategy, 100 African American women (18-24 years) were recruited from a historically Black college and university for an open discussion of condom use. Thirteen focus groups were conducted via a semistructured interview guide and analyzed with an inductive thematic approach. Uniformly women perceived pregnancy as a greater threat than STIs which appears to be maintained by (a) their sense of fertility, (b) self-care concept, and (c) experiences with condom failure. Thus, women were skeptical about using condoms as a form of contraception. Women perceived casual sex as having the greatest HIV/STI risk and emphasized the importance of assertiveness and self-respect to negotiate condom use. However, condom use in monogamous relationships is less likely due to (a) testing/knowing partner's status, (b) relationship trust, and (c) the use of hormonal contraception for pregnancy prevention. Perceived threat of infidelity increases condom use. The implications of these findings suggest sexual health promotion programs may focus on improving women's estimate of the effectiveness of condoms to prevent pregnancy and addressing women's reliance on testing for STI prevention.

  9. Condoms Prevent More Than Pregnancy, HIV

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Randy; Dotinga; 费国飞

    2004-01-01

    避孕套在安全性行为中起到至关重要的作用,它既可避孕,又可预防艾滋病。但最近一项研究表明,它的功效远远不止如此:People who consistentlyused condoms got fewer cases of gonorrhea and chlamydia than those who usedthem only occasionally.Condoms also prevented transmission of genital herpes inmen and possibly in women,too.

  10. Vulvovaginitis: promotion of condom use to prevent sexually transmitted disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeVasseur, J J

    1992-09-01

    Many studies have suggested that merely warning people about the dangers of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) and urging the use of condoms as protection will not result in widespread use of condoms. Regular condom use appears to be grounded in knowledge of its effectiveness, perception of STD risk, and belief in a partner's acceptance. But these are not the only barriers to condom use. Negotiating condom use often comes at a sensitive stage in intimate relationships, when individuals prefer to avoid such discussions and simply to trust the powerful and compelling feelings of mutual attraction. This review will consider (1) the effectiveness of condoms in preventing STD transmission, (2) barriers to the use of condoms, and (3) recommended strategies to promote acceptance and use of condoms by heterosexual women.

  11. Factors Associated with Parent Support for Condom Education and Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    AugsJoost, Brett; Jerman, Petra; Deardorff, Julianna; Harley, Kim; Constantine, Norman A.

    2014-01-01

    Expanding condom-related knowledge and skills and reducing barriers to condom use have the potential to help reduce pregnancies and sexually transmitted infections among youth. These goals are sometimes addressed through condom education and availability (CEA) programs as part of sexuality education in school. Parents are a key constituency in…

  12. Broadcast Condom Advertising: A Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Herb; Houlberg, Rick

    1990-01-01

    Examines a San Francisco television station's decision to accept paid condom advertising. Notes that station leaders debated questions of public interest and public tastes in a city hard hit by AIDS. Finds that the station devised careful guidelines and began broadcasting the commercials on a trial basis. Notes that nearly all public and media…

  13. Condom use and migration in a sample of Mexican migrants: potential for HIV/STI transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fosados Raquel

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To analyze the association between condom use and migration to the United States (US in two Mexican municipalities. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A cross-sectional, non-probabilistic study of egocentric social networks was conducted in Cuauhtémoc, Colima and Tonalá, Jalisco during the months of December 2003 and January 2004, in 354 migrant subjects. Migration, sexual network, history and risk for sexually transmitted infections (STIs characteristics were surveyed. Statistical analyses was conducted using logistic regression. RESULTS: Increased migration travel to the US was significantly associated with consistent condom use for Cuauhtémoc (OR: 3.87; p< 0.05 and Tonalá (OR: 4.12; p< 0.05 municipalities. Other significant predictors included: age, type of sex partner, and perceived monogamy. CONCLUSIONS: Our data support the hypothesis that migration to the US is associated with condom use.

  14. Depression, Abuse, Relationship Power and Condom Use by Pregnant and Postpartum Women with Substance Abuse History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dévieux, Jessy G; Jean-Gilles, Michèle; Rosenberg, Rhonda; Beck-Sagué, Consuelo; Attonito, Jennifer M; Saxena, Anshul; Stein, Judith A

    2016-02-01

    Substance-abusing pregnant and postpartum women are less likely to maintain consistent condom use and drug and alcohol abstinence, which is particularly concerning in high HIV-prevalence areas. Data from 224 pregnant and postpartum women in substance abuse treatment were analyzed to examine effects of history of substance use, child abuse, and mental health problems on current substance use and condom-use barriers. Mediators were depression, relationship power and social support. Most participants (72.9 %) evidenced current depression. Less social support (-0.17, p relationship power (-0.48, p relationship power (0.15, p relationship power limit highest-risk women's ability to negotiate condom use and abstain from substance use, increasing their risk of acute HIV infection and vertical transmission.

  15. Impact of an HIV prevention intervention on condom use among long distance truckers in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juneja, Sachin; Rao Tirumalasetti, Vasudha; Mishra, Ram Manohar; Sethu, Shekhar; Singh, Indra Ramyash

    2013-03-01

    This paper examines the impact of three components of an HIV prevention program (mid-media, interpersonal communication, and project-run clinics) on consistent condom use by long distance truckers with paid and non-paid female partners in India. Data from 2,723 long distance truckers were analyzed using the propensity score matching approach. Based on utilization of services, the following categories of intervention exposure were derived: no exposure, exposure only to mid-media, exposure only to mid-media and interpersonal communication, exposure only to mid-media and project-run clinics, and exposure to all three intervention components. Compared to those who were not exposed to any intervention, exposure to mid-media alone increased consistent condom use with paid female partners by about ten percent. Exposure to mid-media and visits to project-run clinics increased consistent condom use with non-paid female partners by 26 %. These findings suggest that mid-media events and clinics were the most effective package of services to increase consistent condom use among the long distance truckers.

  16. Demographic Correlates of Constant Condom Use among Sex Workers in Tangail, Dhaka, Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eva, Nilufar Akter; Munakata, Tsunetsugu; Onuoha, Francis N.

    2007-01-01

    Consistent condom use, particularly by promiscuous individuals, is a major safeguard against sexually transmitted diseases, including HIV/AIDS. This study examines some demographic factors that may affect such use among Bangladeshi female commercial sex workers at a brothel in Tangail (n = 196; mean age = 23.44 years), and the streets of Dhaka (n…

  17. Risk Assessment Heuristics: Cues and Intention to Use a Condom in Casual Sex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinaldi-Miles, Anna; Quick, Brian L.; McCloskey, Laura

    2017-01-01

    Objective: This study examined the relationship between three heuristic cues (consistency, liking and social proof) and condom use in casual sex relationships utilising the theory of planned behaviour. Participants: Totally, 388 US college students were surveyed. Method: Three vignettes for each cue primed students to project their willingness to…

  18. [Consistency analysis on acute hepatitis B inpatients reported by hepatitis B surveillance pilot spots in six provinces of China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, N; Zhang, G M; Wang, F Z; Zheng, H; Sun, X J; Ma, X J; Cui, F Q

    2017-02-10

    Objective: To understand the characteristics of acute hepatitis B inpatients reported by the hepatitis B surveillance pilot points and to estimate the consistency between the diagnosed and reported types of hepatitis B by the clinicians involved. Methods: Data related to acute hepatitis B was from the NNDRS and the characteristics of acute hepatitis B were classified by querying Hospital Information System. We recorded the results based on clinical diagnosis and analyzed the consistency between the reported and diagnosed types that the clinicians made, on hepatitis B. Results: A total of 179 patients were included in this study with all of them as acute hepatitis B reported through NNDRS in 2015-2016. In terms of the durations of disease, among the 179 cases who were HBsAg positive, 32.40% (58/179) of them exceeding 6 months, 2.79% (5/179) within 6 months and 64.80% (116/179) tested the first time or never. Among the 179 cases who claimed having the history of hepatitis, 33.52% (60/179) of them identified as having hepatitis B, 1.12% (2/179) were hepatitis A, C or E, 41.34% (74/179) did not have the signs on hepatitis, while the rest 24.02% (43/179) did not know the situation. Only 79.89% (143/179) of the patients showed the symptoms or signs of hepatitis, but the rest 20.11% (36/179) did not. Among the 179 reported acute hepatitis patients, 67 of them were diagnosed as acute hepatitis B while 112 cases were as non-acute hepatitis B. The consistent rate of acute hepatitis B was 37.43% (67/179). Among the 112 cases that were diagnosed as non-acute hepatitis B, proportions of chronic hepatitis B and cirrhosis were 49.11%(55/112) and 16.07%(18/112) respectively. Conclusion: Consistency between the reported type of acute hepatitis B inpatients and the types diagnosed by clinicians was poor. Our results suggested that clinicians should make the accurate diagnosis at first place and then report to the Network in accordance with the clinical diagnosis classification

  19. Dispelling the myth: Exploring associations between the HPV vaccine and inconsistent condom use among college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez-Otero, Coralia; Thompson, Erika L; Daley, Ellen M; Griner, Stacey B; Logan, Rachel; Vamos, Cheryl A

    2016-12-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination is safe and effective in preventing anogenital cancers and warts. However, myths have surrounded the HPV vaccine since its approval, including the possibility that HPV vaccinated young people are more likely to engage in risky sexual behaviors. The purpose of this study was to assess the association between HPV vaccination and engaging in inconsistent condom use in a sample of U.S. college students. A secondary data analysis of the National College Health Assessment-II (Fall 2013) was conducted in 2015. Risky sexual activity was operationalized as inconsistent condom use for oral, vaginal or anal sexual activity. Logistic regression models were stratified by sexual activity and gender, and controlled for socio-demographics and history of STIs. Inconsistent condom use was reported among females for vaginal (47%), oral (94%), and anal sex (75%); while males reported levels of inconsistency for vaginal (38%), oral (94%), and anal sex (58%). Sixty-nine percent of females reported receiving the HPV vaccine compared to 43% of males. Among females, there was no significant association between HPV vaccination and inconsistent condom use in any of the sexual activities. Among males, there was no significant association between HPV vaccination and inconsistent condom use in oral or vaginal sex. HPV-vaccinated males were less likely to report inconsistent condom use during anal sexual activity. This study contributes to the increasing evidence that HPV vaccination is not associated with risky sexual behavior. Dispelling this myth is important to facilitate uptake and completion of the HPV vaccine in the U.S.

  20. Can language prime culture in Hispanics? The differential impact of self-construals in predicting intention to use a condom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lechuga, Julia; Wiebe, John S

    2009-12-01

    The highly influential theory of planned behavior suggests that norms and attitudes predict an important antecedent of behavior: intention. Cross-cultural research suggests that culturally influenced self-construals can be primed and differentially affect behaviors that are influenced by norms and attitudes. The purpose of this experiment was twofold: (1) To investigate whether language functions as a prime for culture in Hispanics, and (2) if so, if norms and attitudes differentially predict condom use intention. Fluent English-Spanish bilingual participants (N = 145) of Mexican descent were randomly assigned to answer questionnaires in English and Spanish. Subjective norms and private evaluations towards condom use were assessed and their relative strength in predicting condom use intention was evaluated. Results suggest that language can prime culture and affect the relative accessibility of culture-relevant norms and self-construals in Hispanics. Moreover, consistent with our expectations, norms and attitudes differentially predicted condom use intention.

  1. Women's condom use assertiveness and sexual risk-taking: effects of alcohol intoxication and adult victimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoner, Susan A; Norris, Jeanette; George, William H; Morrison, Diane M; Zawacki, Tina; Davis, Kelly Cue; Hessler, Danielle M

    2008-09-01

    This experiment examined relationships among adulthood victimization, sexual assertiveness, alcohol intoxication, and sexual risk-taking in female social drinkers (N=161). Women completed measures of sexual assault and intimate partner violence history and sexual assertiveness before random assignment to 1 of 4 beverage conditions: control, placebo, low dose (.04%), or high dose (.08%). After drinking, women read a second-person story involving a sexual encounter with a new partner. As protagonist of the story, each woman rated her likelihood of condom insistence and unprotected sex. Victimization history and self-reported sexual assertiveness were negatively related. The less sexually assertive a woman was, the less she intended to insist on condom use, regardless of intoxication. By reducing the perceived health consequences of unprotected sex, intoxication indirectly decreased condom insistence and increased unprotected sex. Findings extend previous work by elucidating possible mechanisms of the relationship between alcohol and unprotected sex - perceived health consequences and situational condom insistence - and support the value of sexual assertiveness training to enhance condom insistence, especially since the latter relationship was robust to intoxication.

  2. Social marketing campaigns that promote condom use among MSM: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neville, Stephen; Adams, Jeffery; Holdershaw, Judith

    2014-03-01

    The turn of the century has seen an increase in reported cases of sexually transmitted infections including the human immunodeficiency virus, particularly in groups of men who have sex with men. Both internationally and in New Zealand the implementation of social marketing human immunodeficiency virus prevention programmes are identified as appropriate mechanisms to promote condom use in men who have sex with men. This paper presents a review of the literature on research-based social marketing initiatives designed to decrease sexually transmitted infections, including the human immunodeficiency virus, through an increase in condom use by men who have sex with men. Eleven quality assured articles met the inclusion criteria and were consequently included in the review. The review presented here strongly supports the utilisation of behaviourally based social marketing campaigns to increase condom use in men who have sex with men. Nurses are frequently first point of contact for consumers of health services. As such they need to have a sound understanding of not only Get it On!, a New Zealand social marketing campaign designed to promote condom use, but also about existing international campaigns. Nurses should also know about social marketing principles if they are to effect positive changes in condom use and address the complex challenges inherent in tackling increased rates of sexually transmitted infections, including the human immunodeficiency virus.

  3. Cultural adaptation of the Condom Use Self Efficacy Scale (CUSES in Ghana

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    Doku Paul N

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Accurate assessment of self-reports of sexual behaviours is vital to the evaluation of HIV prevention and family planning interventions. This investigation was to determine the cross-cultural suitability of the Condom Use Self Efficacy Scale (CUSES originally developed for American adolescents and young adults by examining the structure and psychometric properties. Method A self-administered cross-sectional survey of a convenient sample of 511 participants from a private university in Ghana with mean age 21.59 years. Result A Principal Component Analysis with varimax rotation identified a 14 item scale with four reliable factors labelled Appropriation (Cronbach alpha = .85, Assertive (Cronbach alpha = .90, Pleasure and Intoxicant (Cronbach alpha = .83, and STDs (Cronbach alpha = .81 that altogether explained 73.72% of the total variance. The scale correlated well with a measure of condom use at past sexual encounter (r = .73, indicating evidence of construct and discriminatory validity. The factor loadings were similar to the original CUSES scale but not identical suggesting relevant cultural variations. Conclusion The 14 item scale (CUSES-G is a reliable and valid instrument for assessing condom use self efficacy. It is culturally appropriate for use among Ghanaian youth to gauge actual condom use and to evaluate interventions meant to increase condom use. Finally, the study cautioned researchers against the use of the original CUSES without validation in African settings and contexts.

  4. Predictors of inconsistent condom use among a hard to reach population of young women with multiple sexual partners in peri-urban South Africa.

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    Yanga Z Zembe

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Evidence suggests that multiple concurrent sexual partnering may be a key driver of the high HIV prevalence among young women in South Africa. However, little is known about whether and to what extent women who have multiple sexual partners also engage in other high risk sexual behaviors such as inconsistent condom use. And yet, multiple concurrent sexual partnering is of little epidemiological relevance if all partners in these sexual networks use condoms consistently. This study assesses the prevalence of sexual risk behaviors and HIV, and predictors of inconsistent condom use among women aged 16-24 with multiple sexual partners in a peri-urban setting in South Africa. METHODS: We used Respondent Driven Sampling, a sampling strategy for hard-to-reach populations to recruit 259 women aged 16-24 in a bio-behavioral cross-sectional survey in the Western Cape province. Estimates of population proportions and 95% confidence intervals (CIs were calculated using the Respondent-Driven Sampling Analysis Tool 5.6 (RDSAT. The primary outcome was inconsistent condom use in the past three months. RESULTS: Young women reported an average of 7 partners in the past 3 months and a high prevalence of sexual risk behaviors: concurrency (87%, transactional sex (91% and age mixing (59%. Having >5 sexual partners in the last 3 months doubled the risk of unprotected sex (OR 2.43, CI 1.39-4.25. HIV prevalence was 4% among 16-19 year olds, increasing threefold (12% at age 20-24. DISCUSSION: Multiple sexual partnering, where a high number of partners are acquired in a short space of time, is a fertile context for unprotected and risky sexual behavior. The young women featured in this survey present with a constellation of high-risk sexual behaviors that cluster to form a risk syndrome. Carefully tailored repeat bio-behavioral surveillance surveys are recommended for this sub-population.

  5. Male condom use, multiple sexual partners and HIV: a prospective case-control study in Kinshasa (DRC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlos, Silvia; Lopez-Del Burgo, Cristina; Burgueño, Eduardo; Martinez-Gonzalez, Miguel Angel; Osorio, Alfonso; Ndarabu, Adolphe; Passabosc, Clément; de Irala, Jokin

    2016-11-16

    In the Democratic Republic of Congo no previous studies have assessed the factors associated with different patterns of condom use and with multiple sexual partners, and the association between condom use simultaneously taking into account multiple sexual partnerships, and HIV infection. We carried out a prospective case-control study. From December 2010 until June 2012, 1630 participants aged 15-49 getting HIV Voluntary Counseling and Testing in a hospital in Kinshasa were selected. Cases were new HIV diagnosis and controls were HIV-negative participants detected along the study period. We recruited 274 cases and 1340 controls that were interviewed about HIV-related knowledge, attitudes and behaviours. Among cases there was a high prevalence of multiple lifetime and concurrent sexual partnerships (89.8% and 20.4%, respectively) and most cases never used condoms with only 1.5% using them consistently. Condom use and multiple partnerships were associated with male, single and high-educated participants. An association was found between multiple lifetime partners and 'any condom use' (OR = 2.99; 95%CI: 2.14-4.19) but not with consistent use. Both having two or more multiple concurrent sexual partners or not using condoms were variables similarly and highly associated to HIV risk. The association found between having two or more concurrent sexual partners and HIV was slightly higher (OR = 3.58, 95%CI:2.31-5.56) than the association found between never condom use and HIV (OR = 3.38, 95%CI:1.15-9.93). We found a high prevalence of multiple lifetime sexual partners and an extremely high prevalence of inconsistent condom use, both strongly associated with HIV seropositivity. Local programmes would benefit from comprehensive interventions targeting all behavioural and sociocultural determinants.

  6. Hispanic adults' beliefs, attitudes, and intentions regarding the female condom.

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    Bogart, L M; Cecil, H; Pinkerton, S D

    2000-04-01

    The present study used the theory of planned behavior (TPB) (Ajzen, 1985) augmented by AIDS knowledge to investigate factors influencing intentions of Hispanic adults to use the female condom. A total of 146 persons (75 women and 71 men; mean age, 27 years) recruited from community-based organizations completed an anonymous survey regarding intentions to use the female condom with their main sex partner. The TPB model had greater predictive utility for women's, than for men's, female condom use intentions. For men, attitudes and norms did not predict female condom use intentions, but greater AIDS knowledge was related to lower intentions to use the female condom, above and beyond the TPB constructs. Perceived behavioral control, operationalized as self-efficacy, significantly increased the predictive utility of the TPB model for women's female condom use intentions but not for men's. Behavior change strategies to increase female condom use are discussed in light of these findings.

  7. Consistency of self-reported drug use events in a mixed methods study of people who inject drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyal, Stephanie R; Kral, Alex H; Dominguez Gonzalez, Karina; Wenger, Lynn D; Bluthenthal, Ricky N

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about the consistency of information provided by people who inject drugs (PWID) during quantitative and qualitative interviews in mixed methods studies. We illustrate the use of the intraclass correlation coefficient, descriptive statistics, and regression to assess the consistency of information provided during a mixed methods study of PWID living in Los Angeles and San Francisco, California, USA. Age of first use of heroin, methamphetamine, marijuana, powder cocaine, and crack cocaine and first injection of heroin, methamphetamine, and powder cocaine were collected during an interviewer administered computer-assisted personal interview followed by an in-depth qualitative interview (n = 102). Participants were 63% male, racially/ethnically diverse. 80.4% between the ages of 40 and 60 years old, 89% US-born, and 57% homeless. Consistency of self-reported data was adequate for most drug use events. Exact concordance between quantitative and qualitative measures of age of onset ranged from 18.2-50%. Event ordering was consistent across qualitative and quantitative results for 90.2% of participants. Analyses indicated that age of onset for heroin use, heroin injection, and injection of any drug was significantly lower when assessed by qualitative methods as compared to quantitative methods. While inconsistency will emerge during mixed method studies, confidence in the timing and ordering of major types of events such as drug initiation episodes appear to be warranted.

  8. Knowledge of HIV transmission and condom use among HIV-positive heterosexual men and women in Guatemala

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    Delgado Hurtado Juan J

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevalence of HIV/AIDS in Guatemala among the general population is 0.79%, and 94% of transmission is directly related to sexual contact. Studies have been conducted on high- prevalence HIV-positive populations (men who have sex with men, commercial sex workers and prisoners. Heterosexual transmission has gained importance in the epidemic in Central America. To our knowledge, no study addressing knowledge of mechanisms of HIV transmission and condom use has been done on HIV-positive heterosexual men and women. Methods A closed-ended structured interview that addressed knowledge of mechanisms of HIV transmission and condom use was conducted on 283 heterosexual HIV-positive men (54.8% and women (45.2% outpatients who attend the Roosevelt Hospital's Clinic of Infectious Diseases in Guatemala City. Differences between selected characteristics were examined for significance using the Chi-square test. A multiple logistic regression was done to determine socio-demographic variables associated with inconsistent condom use. Results Of the interviewed persons, 68.5% were either living with a partner or married, and 94.3% were currently using antiretroviral therapy. Most respondents knew the mechanisms of transmission of HIV. 81.7% and 87.3% reported always using a condom with their regular and casual sexual partner in the past year, respectively. There was no statistically difference in condom use according to the patient's formal education, gender, type of partner (regular or casualor number of sexual partners. According to the interviewees, 72% of sexual partners in the past year were either HIV negative or of an unknown serostatus. Potentially, these HIV-negative persons are at risk of contracting the virus. Among the main reasons given for not using a condom were: "my partner did not want to use a condom"; and "the condom irritates or makes my partner uncomfortable". Conclusions Since no socio-demographic or sexual behavior

  9. Condoms, Culture, and Conviction: The Effect of Acculturation and Religiosity on Latina Condom Use during First Sex with New Partners.

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    Smith, Scott James

    2017-04-03

    Latinas in the United States are less likely than their non-Hispanic peers to use condoms. Previous research has identified acculturation and religiosity as two key determinants of Latina condom use, but results are inconsistent, impairing the translation of findings to practice. The current study examines these constructs together and addresses methodological concerns noted in the literature. Structural equation modeling performed on a nationally representative sample of Latinas indicated that intrinsic religiosity increased condom use whereas acculturation decreased condom use. Extrinsic religiosity indirectly increased condom use via intrinsic religiosity. Implications for practice and policy are discussed.

  10. Collision tumor consisting of primary follicular lymphoma and adenocarcinoma in the cecum: A case report and literature review

    Science.gov (United States)

    KUS, TULAY; AKTAS, GOKMEN; KALENDER, MEHMET EMIN; SARI, IBRAHIM; ULKER, ESRA; CAMCI, CELALETDIN

    2016-01-01

    The present study reports the case of a collision tumor consisting of follicular lymphoma (FL) and adenocarcinoma in the cecum of a 73-year-old man. To the best of our knowledge, the present study is the 11th case of a collision tumor consisting of colon adenocarcinoma and lymphoma to be reported in the literature, and the first case of cecum adenocarcinoma with low grade FL in the same segment of the cecum and the same regional lymph node to be reported. The present study reviewed the literature to determine treatment options for patients with collision tumors. The present patient was administered with adjuvant chemotherapy for T3N1M0 colon cancer following surgery, due to the dominance of colon adenocarcinoma in the collision tumor. Following the completion of treatment, progression of the untreated FL was observed. In the literature, patients with collision tumors are administered with chemotherapy for stage IV FL, and following the completion of treatment patients have presented with a recurrence of early stage colon adenocarcinoma. The recommended treatment for collision tumors is dependent on the dominant tumor; however, the treatment options for collision tumors in the literature appeared to exacerbate the other tumor. The characteristics of the tumors altered following chemotherapy, and immunological alterations in the tumors due to chemotherapy appear to have contributed to the exacerbation of the tumors. Therefore, patients with early-stage tumors should be considered at risk of recurrence of other malignancies, which are present in collision tumors. PMID:27073555

  11. Malaysian made condoms sold locally as well as exported.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    Malaysia, famous for its natural rubber, is also producing condoms made from local rubber. About 40,000 gross of condoms a month are being produced by a factory with about 30 female workers. 30-40% of the production is exported to Europe, Middle East, Asia, Japan, Singapore and South America. The size of the condoms conform to international standards, 49 mm and 52 mm. As there is a greater demand for the 52 mm. condoms overseas, the company produces more of this than the 49 mm. condoms. In April 1975, the Standard Institution and Industrial Research of Malaysia gave its quality control approval to a condom which can hold 5 gallons of water and with thickness varying from 0.03 mm, 0.06 mm. and 0.05-0.07 mm. A 10% tax/piece and a 5% surtax are imposed on imported condoms to protect the local industry from foreign competition. Local condoms are sold tax-free. Pink and black colored condoms appear to be popular among consumers. Although complaints are few, 1 in 10,000 users may suffer from allergic problems because of the silicone oil treatment of the condoms. Another local condom factory which uses Malaysian rubber for condom manufacture is located in Klang, approximately 24 miles from Kuala Lumpur; the factory has 25 workers producing 12,000 gross of lubricated and non-lubricated condoms for local consumption only. There is increasing evidence that condoms are increasing in popularity in Malaysia and that the average consumer is now being more selective in choosing contraceptive methods.

  12. Attitudes Toward Intimate Partner Violence and Associations With Condom Use Among Men in Haiti: An Analysis of the Nationally Representative Demographic Health Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conserve, Donaldson F; Whembolua, Guy-Lucien S; Surkan, Pamela J

    2016-03-01

    Although men have substantial decision-making power regarding condom use, the majority of HIV knowledge and prevention studies in the general Haitian population have been conducted among youth and women. We investigated attitudes toward intimate partner violence, knowledge of, and use of condoms among 9493 men in Haiti using data from the 2012 nationally representative Demographic and Health Survey. Only 36% of HIV-negative and 44% of HIV-positive men reported using a condom the last time they had had sex. Logistic regression revealed that believing it was justified for a man to hit or beat his wife if she refuses to have sex with him was associated with a lower odds of condom use. The odds of using a condom during last sex was higher among men who reported knowing condoms can prevent HIV and who had been tested for HIV. Given the low rate of condom use among men in Haiti, these findings suggest that interventions promoting HIV knowledge, HIV testing, and gender-violence prevention among men may also increase condom use.

  13. Masculinities and condom use patterns among young rural South Africa men: a cross-sectional baseline survey

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    Shai N

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Notions of ideal manhood in South Africa are potentially prescriptive of male sexuality thus accounting for the behaviors which may lead to men being at greater HIV risk. We tested the hypothesis that gender and relationship constructs are associated with condom use among young men living in rural South Africa. Methods 1219 men aged 15–26 years completed a cross-sectional baseline survey from an IsiXhosa questionnaire asking about sexual behaviour and relationships. Univariate and bivariate analyses described condom use patterns and explanatory variables, and multinomial regression modeling assessed the factors associated with inconsistent versus consistent and non-condom use. Results 47.7% of men never used condoms, when 36.9% were inconsistent and 15.4% were consistent with any partner in the past year. Condom use patterns differed in association with gender relations attitudes: never users were significantly more conservative than inconsistent or consistent users. Three gender positions emerged indicating that inconsistent users were most physically/sexually violent and sexually risky; never users had more conservative gender attitudes but were less violent and sexually risky; and consistent users were less conservative, less violent and sexually risky with notably fewer sexual partners than inconsistent users. Conclusions The confluence of conservative gender attitudes, perpetration of violence against women and sexual risk taking distinguished inconsistent condom users as the most risky compared to never condom users, and rendered inconsistent use one of the basic negative attributes of dominant masculinities in the Eastern Cape, South Africa. This finding is important for the design of HIV prevention and gender equity interventions and emphasizes the need for a wider roll-out of interventions that promote progressive and healthy masculine practices in the country.

  14. Reporting of consistency of blood pressure control in randomized controlled trials of antihypertensive drugs: a systematic review of 1372 trial reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Urs; Webb, Alastair J S; Howard, Sally C; Rothwell, Peter M

    2012-07-01

    Hypertension is a powerful treatable risk factor for stroke. Reports of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of antihypertensive drugs rightly concentrate on clinical outcomes, but control of blood pressure (BP) during follow-up is also important, particularly given that inconsistent control is associated with a high risk of stroke and that antihypertensive drug classes differ in this regard. We performed a systematic review of reporting of BP control in RCTs of antihypertensive drugs. We searched bibliographic databases (1950-2009) for systematic reviews of RCTs of BP-lowering and identified the main report of all trials. We identified 94 larger trials (>100 participants/arm, >1-year follow-up) and 1278 smaller/shorter trials. Ninety-one (96.8%) larger trials reported some data on mean BP during follow-up, but none reported effects on the consistency of control of BP over time. Although 81 (86.2%) larger trials reported group distribution of BP at baseline (usually SD), only 22 (23.4%) reported such data at any follow-up visit. Eleven (11.7%) larger trials reported group distribution of the change in BP from baseline to follow-up, but 61 (64.9%) reported no data at all on group distribution of BP at follow-up. Thirty-nine (41.5%) trials reported the proportion of patients reaching some BP target during follow-up, but no trial reported data on the consistency of control to target within individuals over time. Similar proportions were observed in the 1278 smaller/short trials. Reporting of BP control is limited in RCTs of BP-lowering drugs. We suggest reporting guidelines.

  15. A rapid situation and response assessment of the female regular sex partners of male drug users in South Asia: factors associated with condom use during the last sexual intercourse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, M Suresh; Virk, Harsheth Kaur; Chaudhuri, Anand; Mittal, Ashita; Lewis, Gary

    2008-04-01

    We carried out a rapid assessment among the female regular sex partners of drug users/injecting drug users recruited from Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Nepal and Sri Lanka with the objective of designing appropriate responses targeting them. We examined the correlates of condom use among them. Data was collected from 4612 female regular sex partners recruited by different NGO partners spread across the five countries in the region. We carried out univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis to determine variables associated with condom use during their last sexual intercourse. Of the total sample, 22% admitted to using drugs ever in their life and 21% reported condom use during the last sexual act. A fourth of the participants have not heard of HIV/AIDS and only 17% have been tested for HIV. In a multivariate model, women engaged in sex work, from Nepal, used drugs before last sexual intercourse, heard of HIV/AIDS, ever used drugs and approached by someone with information on HIV were likely to have used condoms during the last sexual intercourse about twice or more: (AOR=4, 95% CI: 3, 5.3; AOR=3.4, 95% CI: 2.4, 4.9; AOR=2.5, 95% CI: 1.9, 3.3; AOR=2.1, 95% CI: 1.5, 3; AOR=2, 95% CI: 1.5, 2.6; AOR=1.7, 95% CI: 1.4, 2 respectively). Condom use was negatively associated with women with a single sex partner (AOR=0.6, 95% CI: 0.5, 0.7). Condom use is low among the female regular sex partners and is primarily associated with women exhibiting risky practices. Apart from sustaining and expanding HIV prevention programmes that aim to increase the HIV/AIDS related knowledge and scale-up HIV testing among the drug users and their regular sex partners, there is an urgent need to reach out to the women in stable marital relationship with drug users. This study has demonstrated that it is feasible to access this population and the priority is to design and implement individual, couple and group level interventions that ensure consistent condom use with their primary

  16. The influence of power, poverty and agency in the negotiation of condom use for female sex workers in mainland China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Susanne Y P; Holroyd, Eleanor

    2007-01-01

    This paper analyses barriers to consistent condom use in the context of transactional sex among female sex workers in mainland China. It reveals how differences in socioeconomic profile and organisational hierarchies amongst different groups of sex workers create different barriers to condom use. Data was collected by means of field observation of entertainment venues and in-depth interviews. Findings suggest that, compared with other sex workers, street-walkers are less likely to use condoms with their clients, hold highly disadvantaged socioeconomic profiles and work in isolation. Major barriers to condom use link to economic deprivation and threats of violence from clients. For the women working in entertainment venues, drunkenness of clients, pricing mechanisms and familiarity with clients pose barriers to condom use. Yet within all these constraints women are not powerless and instead find ways to exercise agency and gain personal protection and economic advantage. In the newly emerging China, both structural hierarchies of work and individual agency inform condom use by female sex workers. Future HIV intervention programmes need to take these factors into account in order to meet the needs of different groups of women sex workers.

  17. Television station acceptance of AIDS prevention PSAs and condom advertisements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abernethy, A M; Wicks, J L

    1998-01-01

    AIDS is a fatal, though preventable disease with more than 56,000 new cases reported in 1996 alone. Condom advertisements and AIDS public service announcements (AIDS PSAs) can help prevent the spread of AIDS, but these AIDS PSAs often contain controversial subject matter and are thus rejected for broadcast by television stations. It is for this reason why a large-scale national mail survey was conducted. The survey, which examined the impact of personal ethical considerations of television station management on AIDS acceptance decisions in the US, was based on five hypothetical questions. It used questionnaires mailed to television station managers. Responses were received from 364 stations, yielding a 40.63% response rate. Significant results were found related to the impact of personal ethical concerns of television managers on AIDS acceptance decision. Most stations were unlikely to accept condom or safe sex advertisements but were more likely to accept generic AIDS messages. These findings pose a dilemma for public health officials, which include the high cost of television advertisements and the difficulty in choosing a creative execution type. The most effective approach would be to appeal to sales managers to run the advertisements since they are important for the community and serve the public interest.

  18. The awareness and use of the female condom among women at low and high risk for

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    Mine Esin Ocaktan

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine thelevels of awareness on female condom use in Ankaraamong women having low and high risk for sexually transmittedinfections.Materials and methods: This descriptive study was performedbetween 1 March 2007 and 1 May 2007. High riskgroup for sexually transmitted infections were sex workersthat presented to the Hospital of Venereal Disease(n=186, and the low-risk group was women that appliedto a family planning outpatient clinic (n=190. Totally, 376women completed a questionnaire administered face-toface.Obtained data were analyzed statistically.Results: The mean age was 40.04±9.33 years, the meanduration of work was 12.32±7.36 year, 42.5% of womenhad sexually transmitted infections any time of life, meannumber of intercourses was 12.30±6.66 per day; 59.8%currently used oral contraceptive, 30.6% male condom,5.5% tube ligation, 61.3% of women were familiar aboutfemale condom, only eight women (4.3% used in highrisk groups. The mean of age of low-risk women was32.23±8.18 year, 5.8 of women worked out of home,50.5% of women were graduated primary school, 2.1%of women had sexually transmitted infections any timein life, currently used contraceptives were 29.2% malecondom, 28.7% withdrawal, 25.3% intra uterine devices,18.9% of women were familiar about female condom. Inall, 69.4% of the high-risk group and 30.5% of the low riskgroups’ women reported that they would use the femalecondom if counseling concerning its use were provided.Conclusion: Female condom awareness was very lowamong the studied women. However, if they receivecounseling, a half of women can use female condoms.

  19. Lubricant Use Among Men Who Have Sex With Men Reporting Anal Intercourse in Bangkok, Thailand: Impact of HIV Status and Implications for Prevention.

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    Thienkrua, Warunee; Todd, Catherine S; Chaikummao, Supaporn; Sukwicha, Wichuda; Yafant, Somsak; Tippanont, Narongritt; Varangrat, Anchalee; Khlaimanee, Pechpailin; Sirivongrangson, Pachara; Holtz, Timothy H

    2016-01-01

    This analysis measures prevalence and correlates of consistent lubricant use among a cohort of Thai men who have sex with men (MSM). Lubricant use was queried at the 12-month follow-up visit. Consistent lubricant use was evaluated with logistic regression. Consistent lubricant use was reported by 77.0% of men and was associated with consistent condom use with casual partners, while binge drinking, payment for sex, and inconsistent condom use with casual, and steady, partners were negatively associated. Though consistent lubricant use is common among this Thai MSM cohort, further promotion is needed with MSM engaging in risky sexual practices.

  20. Condom negotiation, HIV testing, and HIV risks among women from alcohol serving venues in Cape Town, South Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eileen V Pitpitan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Women in South Africa are at particularly high-risk for HIV infection and are dependent on their male partners' use of condoms for sexual risk reduction. However, many women are afraid to discuss condoms with male partners, placing them at higher risk of HIV infection. PURPOSE: To examine the association between fear of condom negotiation with HIV testing and transmission risk behaviors, including alcohol use and sexual risks among South African women. METHOD: Women (N = 1333 residing in a primarily Xhosa-speaking African township in Cape Town and attending informal alcohol-serving venues (shebeens completed anonymous surveys. Logistic regression was used to test the hypothesis that fear of condom negotiation would be associated with increased risk for HIV. RESULTS: Compared to women who did not fear condom negotiation, those who did were significantly less likely to have been tested for HIV, were more likely to have experienced relationship abuse, and to report more alcohol use and more unprotected sex. CONCLUSIONS: For women in South Africa, fear of condom negotiation is related to higher risk of HIV. HIV prevention efforts, including targeted HIV counseling and testing, must directly address gender issues.

  1. Use of birth control pills, condoms, and withdrawal among U.S. high school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everett, S A; Warren, C W; Santelli, J S; Kann, L; Collins, J L; Kolbe, L J

    2000-08-01

    To examine the use of contraception at last sexual intercourse among currently sexually active adolescents. We analyzed data from national school-based Youth Risk Behavior Surveys (YRBS) conducted in 1991, 1993, 1995, and 1997. The YRBS is a self-administered, anonymous survey which uses a national probability sample of U.S. students in public and private schools from grades 9 through 12. From 1991 to 1997, condom use significantly increased (from 46% to 57%), birth control pill use decreased (from 21% to 17%), and use of withdrawal significantly decreased (from 18% to 13%). In 1997, although more students were using condoms, 13% reported using withdrawal and 15% reported using no method to prevent pregnancy at last sexual intercourse. In 1997, condom use among females was significantly lower in the 9th grade than in the 12th grade (p birth control pill use was higher (p birth control pill use by their partner increased (p <.001). Inadequate contraceptive use among sexually active adolescents continues to be a major public health problem in the United States. For young people who will not remain sexually abstinent, families, health care providers, schools, and other influential societal institutions should promote the correct and continued use of condoms as essential protection against sexually transmitted diseases and human immunodeficiency virus infection.

  2. Inhibition conflict and alcohol expectancy as moderators of alcohol's relationship to condom use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dermen, K H; Cooper, M L

    2000-05-01

    Inhibition conflict theory predicts that alcohol will decrease condom use only among individuals who are highly conflicted about using a condom, whereas expectancy theory predicts such an effect only among individuals who hold strong beliefs about alcohol's effects on sexual risk taking. In Study 1, the first of these two theories was tested using a newly developed measure of conflict. Data from 308 college students who reported on the first time they had sexual intercourse with their most recent partner (FMRP) supported the utility of this measure and showed that quantity of alcohol consumed was negatively associated with condom use only among high-conflict individuals. In Study 2, 17- to 25-year-old respondents reported on their first sexual intercourse, FMRP, and last intercourse (ns = 465, 1136, and 984, respectively). In a simultaneous test of both inhibition conflict theory and expectancy theory, amount of alcohol consumed was found to be negatively associated with condom use at first intercourse among individuals high in both conflict and expectancy, at FMRP among high-expectancy individuals, and at last intercourse among high-conflict individuals. These results lend partial support to both theories of alcohol's effects and suggest that an integration of these two perspectives will ultimately be required if researchers are to model adequately alcohol's effects on human social behavior.

  3. Teens choose better birth control methods. But condom use is not improved.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-02-01

    A September 1991-July 1992 study in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, sought to determine the factors involved in the choice of the contraceptive implant Norplant or oral contraceptives (OCs) in 98 postpartum teenagers. The reasons cited for the choice of Norplant were as follows: previous difficulty in remembering to take OCs (71%), side effects of OCs (38%), fear of pregnancy (57%), ease of use (48%), and encouragement by others (34%). The OC was chosen out of fear of insertion and/or needles (55%), concern about irregular bleeding (24%), concern about other side effects (15%), and fear that the rods would be visible (9%). In addition to unsuccessful OC experiences, the Norplant teens had a higher number of pregnancies and births and were slightly older than the OC group. No other differences were found between the groups. The investigators were "shocked" at the high percentage who chose Norplant. The teens tolerated the side effects as well as adults, and a year after the study ended, 95% were still using Norplant as compared to 33% continuing use of OCs. Medical follow-up and condom use were similar in each group, but only 17% of the Norplant group and 29% of the OC group used condoms consistently. Researchers speculate that condom use (which protects against STDS) may be limited when another type of contraceptive is used against pregnancy. Another theory is that condom use is influenced by the nature of one's relationship with her sexual partner.

  4. The theory of reasoned action and cooperative behaviour: it takes two to use a condom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashima, Y; Gallois, C; McCamish, M

    1993-09-01

    The applicability of the Theories of Reasoned Action and Planned Behaviour to the cooperative behaviour of condom use were examined. Seventy-one male and 78 female students, all sexually active unmarried heterosexuals aged 17 to 21 years, gave information about their intentions for the next sexual encounter, as well as their attitude, subjective norm, expectancy-value attitude and subjective norm (including normative beliefs for their sexual partner), and their past behaviour with respect to condom use. After their next sexual encounter, they completed a questionnaire on their actual condom use. Results indicated that when behavioural conditions including the availability of a condom and an agreement with the partner to use it were satisfied, intention interacted with past behaviour to predict actual behaviour. These results imply that intentions which are consistent with past behaviour are stable enough to be carried out in the face of the interpersonal dynamics of a sexual encounter. Further, normative belief for the sexual partner had a direct influence on attitudes, subjective norm and intention. Neither the Theory of Reasoned Action nor the Theory of Planned Behaviour can fully explain these results, which point to the need for further theoretical inquiry into the dynamics of cooperative behaviour.

  5. Factors associated with condom use: economic security and positive prevention among people living with HIV/AIDS in the Caribbean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, C F; Simon, Y; Edwards, J; Simeon, D T

    2010-11-01

    In the Caribbean region, an estimated 1.1% of the population aged 15-49 is living with HIV. We aimed to measure factors associated with condom use, the primary form of positive prevention in the Caribbean, among people living with HIV (PLHIV) in its major agency advocating on behalf of PLHIV (the Caribbean Regional Network of People Living with HIV/AIDS, or CRN +). Condom use at last sex was selected for analysis from a broad-ranging cross-sectional survey (n=394) among PLHIV who were members of or received services from CRN+ in Antigua and Barbuda, Grenada, Trinidad and Tobago. PLHIV from CRN+ traced potential participants, administered informed consent procedures and carried out structured interviews. Fifty-four percent of respondents reported using a condom the last time they had sex. Condom use was positively associated with partner being HIV negative, disclosure of HIV status, alcohol use, economic security, education level and being employed. Multivariate logistic regression found independent associations between condom use and economic security (p=0.031; odds ratio (OR) for "enough" income 5.06; 95% CI 1.47-17.39), partner being HIV negative (p=0.036; OR 2.85; 95% CI 1.28-6.33) and being married (p=0.043; OR 2.86; 95% CI 1.03-7.91). Seventy-three percent of respondents reported inadequate family income, 26% reported an HIV-negative partner and 9% were married. Condom use appears to be motivated by protection of HIV-negative partners and spouses. Low socioeconomic status is associated with the overall percentage using condoms. Restriction to members of CRN+ limits generalisability of the findings. Nevertheless, the findings support the view that programmes for the socioeconomic empowerment of PLHIV are needed to slow the Caribbean HIV epidemic. Expectations for protection of different types of partners should be further explored in order to develop culturally appropriate interventions with couples.

  6. Self-care management strategies used by Black women who self-report consistent adherence to antihypertensive medication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abel WM

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Willie M Abel,1 Jessica S Joyner,2 Judith B Cornelius,1 Danice B Greer3 1School of Nursing, The University of North Carolina at Charlotte, Charlotte, NC, USA; 2Internal Medicine, Novant Health First Charlotte Physicians, Matthews, NC, USA; 3School of Nursing, The University of Texas at Tyler, Tyler, TX, USA Background: Black women in the USA have the highest prevalence rate of hypertension (HTN contributing to a higher risk of organ damage and death. Research has focused primarily on poorly controlled HTN, negative belief systems, and nonadherence factors that hinder blood pressure control. No known research studies underscore predominantly Black women who report consistent adherence to their antihypertensive medication-taking. The purpose of this study was to describe self-care management strategies used by Black women who self-report consistent adherence to their antihypertensive medication and to determine the existence of further participation in lifestyle modifications, such as eating a healthy diet and increasing physical activity.Methods: Using a qualitative descriptive design, four focus groups with a total of 20 Black women aged 25–71 years were audio-taped. Transcripts were analyzed using qualitative content analysis. Participants were included in the study if they scored perfect adherence on the medication subscale of the Hill–Bone Compliance to High Blood Pressure Therapy Scale.Results: Medication adherence was predicated on three themes: HTN experience, involvement with treatment regimen, and a strong motivated mentality. Black women would benefit from treatment approaches that are sensitive to 1 diverse emotional responses, knowledge levels, and life experiences; 2 two-way communication and trusting, collaborative relationships with active involvement in the treatment regimen; 3 lifestyle modifications that focus on health benefits and individual preferences; and 4 spiritual/religious influences on adherence.Conclusion: The use

  7. Lights, Camera, Condoms! Assessing College Men's Attitudes toward Condom Use in Pornography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, Shane W.; Rosenberg, Harold

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Investigate male college students' attitudes toward actors' use of condoms in pornography. Participants: Two hundred thirteen undergraduate males attending a large, state-supported midwestern university in the fall semester, 2012. Methods: Using a Web-based procedure, participants completed questionnaires assessing their pornography…

  8. Lights, Camera, Condoms! Assessing College Men's Attitudes toward Condom Use in Pornography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, Shane W.; Rosenberg, Harold

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Investigate male college students' attitudes toward actors' use of condoms in pornography. Participants: Two hundred thirteen undergraduate males attending a large, state-supported midwestern university in the fall semester, 2012. Methods: Using a Web-based procedure, participants completed questionnaires assessing their pornography…

  9. Burst testing of condoms. I. Basic features of the force-deformation curve of latex-rubber condoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, T W; Andrady, A L

    1992-01-01

    Inflation of a rubber condom involves biaxial deformation of the material which can be modeled by the use of an appropriate strain-energy function. Force versus deformation data for uniaxial extension of strips of condoms were used to determine the parameters for Ogden's form of a strain-energy function. These parameters were then used to fit experimentally obtained burst test data to a stress-strain equation formulated for inflation of condoms in a burst test. Experimental data on inflation of condoms agree well with theoretical curves verifying the applicability of the biaxial stress-strain equation to the particular strain-energy function on which it is based.

  10. Condom Under-Use Fuels AIDS Epidemic

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Alan; Mozes; 卞卿芬

    2001-01-01

    generation gap是我们所熟悉的词组,意思是“代沟”。本文出现了一个新词组:condom gap。condom者,安全套也,何谓condom gap?细读本文,你就会明白: The investigators estimate that at least 15 billion too-few condoms are usedglobally each year——the number that would fill the lethal(致命的)gap betweenthe 6 to 9 billion condoms being used annually and the estimated need of almost 24billion. 这段话比较罗嗦,说明白点,就是,每年全世界需要使用240亿只安全套,而现在的实际使用数仅为60.90亿只。这里就存在一个condom gap,这个gap是150亿只左右。 在我国,这个condom gap好像并不那么严重。君不见,2月14日是情人节。据报载,源自西方的情人节受到越来越多的中国年轻人的喜爱。商家也抓住难得的机会。或借机促销,或就此开展公关活动。武汉市的30多家花店里,只要你买一束玫瑰,可以免费获得一个英国国际名牌安全套-“杰士邦”。这个藏在鲜花里的神秘礼物,悄悄地为情人们送上一份特别的祝福。在北京,国家计生委下属的中华妇幼联合北京艾伦斯保健品公司更准备了千朵玫瑰和安全套,在繁华的王府井大街向来来往往的情侣们派发,倡导“安全愉快地欢度情人节”。主办者希望以这种温情的方式宣传预防

  11. Interface Consistency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Staunstrup, Jørgen

    1998-01-01

    This paper proposes that Interface Consistency is an important issue for the development of modular designs. Byproviding a precise specification of component interfaces it becomes possible to check that separately developedcomponents use a common interface in a coherent matter thus avoiding a very...... significant source of design errors. Awide range of interface specifications are possible, the simplest form is a syntactical check of parameter types.However, today it is possible to do more sophisticated forms involving semantic checks....

  12. [Condom use among heterosexuals: a comparison of the theory of planned behavior, the health belief model and protection motivation theory].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakker, A B; Buunk, B P; Siero, F W

    1993-10-01

    In the Netherlands, the theory of planned behavior (Ajzen, 1991), the health belief model (Janz and Becker, 1984), and the protection-motivation theory (Rogers, 1983) were compared for predicting condom use intentions because of AIDS. The 641 respondents were given two questionnaires: one for themselves and another one for a friend, partner, or acquaintance. 514 (80%) of them returned completed forms. 60% of these (307) persons were encouraged to answer and return another questionnaire, thus the final sample consisted of 821 responses. 711 individuals (481 women aged 15-91 years and 230 men aged 15-85 years) admitted having had heterosexual intercourse. 75% had had more than one sex partner in the previous 5 years. 45% had had sex at least once with someone other than their regular partner. Multivariance analysis of variance of promiscuity and condom use revealed that men exhibited more risky sex practices than women (p .001), had more sex partners in the previous 5 years than women (p .01), had more single sexual encounters with other persons than the regular sex partner than women (p .001), and they used condoms less often than women (p .01). 119 respondents had experienced sexually transmitted diseases and 165 had taken HIV tests. The difference between men and women also showed up in terms of their ideas, perceptions, and feelings about condom use when the three theoretical models were considered (p .001). The variables used in the theory of planned behavior explained the variance in intended condom use for 36% of women and 43% of men. The health belief model explained intended condom use only for 15% of women and 32% of men, while the cost-benefit analysis explained it for 9% of women and 18% of men. The protection-motivation theory explained intended condom use variance for 32% of women and 41% of men, but not all variables were included in the model. Fear from AIDS was correlated with inquisitive behavior and with seriousness (both p .001).

  13. Correlates of delayed sexual intercourse and condom use among adolescents in Uganda: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rijsdijk Liesbeth E

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Comprehensive sex education, including the promotion of consistent condom use, is still an important intervention strategy in tackling unplanned pregnancies, HIV/AIDS and sexually transmitted infections (STIs among Ugandan adolescents. This study examines predictors of the intention to use a condom and the intention to delay sexual intercourse among secondary school students (aged 12–20 in Uganda. Methods A school-based sample was drawn from 48 secondary schools throughout Uganda. Participants (N = 1978 completed a survey in English measuring beliefs regarding pregnancy, STIs and HIV and AIDS, attitudes, social norms and self-efficacy towards condom use and abstinence/delay, intention to use a condom and intention to delay sexual intercourse. As secondary sexual abstinence is one of the recommended ways for preventing HIV, STIs and unplanned pregnancies among the sexually experienced, participants with and without previous sexual experience were compared. Results For adolescents without sexual experience (virgins, self-efficacy, perceived social norms and attitude towards condom use predicted the intention to use condoms. Among those with sexual experience (non-virgins, only perceived social norm was a significant predictor. The intention to delay sexual intercourse was, however, predicted similarly for both groups, with attitudes, perceived social norm and self-efficacy being significant predictors. Conclusions This study has established relevant predictors of intentions of safe sex among young Ugandans and has shown that the intention to use condoms is motivated by different factors depending on previous sexual experience. A segmented approach to intervention development and implementation is thus recommended.

  14. Awareness of HIV Status, Prevention Knowledge and Condom Use among People Living with HIV in Mozambique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dokubo, E. Kainne; Shiraishi, Ray W.; Young, Peter W.; Neal, Joyce J.; Aberle-Grasse, John; Honwana, Nely; Mbofana, Francisco

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine factors associated with HIV status unawareness and assess HIV prevention knowledge and condom use among people living with HIV/AIDS (PLHIV) in Mozambique. Design Cross-sectional household-based nationally representative AIDS Indicator Survey. Methods Analyses focused on HIV-infected adults and were weighted for the complex sampling design. We identified PLHIV who had never been tested for HIV or received their test results prior to this survey. Logistic regression was used to assess factors associated with HIV status unawareness. Results Of persons with positive HIV test results (N = 1182), 61% (95% confidence interval [CI] 57–65%) were unaware of their serostatus. Men had twice the odds of being unaware of their serostatus compared with women [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 2.05, CI 1.40–2.98]. PLHIV in the poorest wealth quintile were most likely to be unaware of their serostatus (aOR 3.15, CI 1.09–9.12) compared to those in the middle wealth quintile. Most PLHIV (83%, CI 79–87%) reported not using a condom during their last sexual intercourse, and PLHIV who reported not using a condom during their last sexual intercourse were more likely to be unaware of their serostatus (aOR 2.32, CI 1.57–3.43) than those who used a condom. Conclusions Knowledge of HIV-positive status is associated with more frequent condom use in Mozambique. However, most HIV-infected persons are unaware of their serostatus, with men and persons in the poorest wealth quintile being more likely to be unaware. These findings support calls for expanded HIV testing, especially among groups less likely to be aware of their HIV status and key populations at higher risk for infection. PMID:25222010

  15. [Contraception and protection against STDs. CERPOD measures use of the Protector condom in Mali].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konate, M K

    1993-08-01

    In April 1993, a technical assistance contract to measure general condom use, particularly use of the brand name Protector, which has been marketed in Mali since March 1992, was made between the Center of Studies and Research on Population for Development (CERPOD) and the Popular Pharmacy of Mali. In June-July 1991, the SOMARC project and the Malian Institute for Applied Research in Development conducted a baseline survey to determine the condom use rate in Mali before Protector was introduced on the Malian market, so the social marketing project for contraception could be evaluated. It examined knowledge, use, and achievable target level and determined the characteristics of users of the Protector condom. It revealed that more than 90% of both men and women believed birth spacing was a good idea. Men approved of birth spacing for cost-saving reasons, while women approved birth spacing because it allowed mothers time to recuperate between births. Another earlier study in 1987 in Bamako found that 78% of the women already favored birth spacing. 90% of the men in the main cities in Mali knew about condoms. 63% of these men had used them in the past, mainly to prevent sexually transmitted diseases. 30% used them consistently. One hoped that this number was going to grow, since 80% of the men said that they would use condoms in the future. The evaluation of the 1991 social marketing campaign will end in August 1993 and will measure whether it was successful or not. In November 1992, CERPOD followed the framework of a recent baseline survey for an IEC (information, education, and communication) family planning program, operated jointly by the Malian Association for the Protection and Promotion of the Family and Population Communication Services, to measure the effect of the brand name Protector. CERPOD's survey results will be compared with those of the 1993 survey.

  16. Solid consistency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordin, Lorenzo; Creminelli, Paolo; Mirbabayi, Mehrdad; Noreña, Jorge

    2017-03-01

    We argue that isotropic scalar fluctuations in solid inflation are adiabatic in the super-horizon limit. During the solid phase this adiabatic mode has peculiar features: constant energy-density slices and comoving slices do not coincide, and their curvatures, parameterized respectively by ζ and Script R, both evolve in time. The existence of this adiabatic mode implies that Maldacena's squeezed limit consistency relation holds after angular average over the long mode. The correlation functions of a long-wavelength spherical scalar mode with several short scalar or tensor modes is fixed by the scaling behavior of the correlators of short modes, independently of the solid inflation action or dynamics of reheating.

  17. Perception and Attitudes of Christian Youths towards Condom Use ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nekky Umera

    towards condom use and knowledge of HIV/AIDs prevention (p<0.05). The paper concludes ... Many African countries have recognised the relevance of condoms in the crusade against STDs ... other sexually transmitted infections, its use or non-use is largely influenced ..... contraception and disease prevention. Research ...

  18. The role of attitudes and self-efficacy in predicting condom use and purchase intentions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabler, Joanna; Kropp, Fredric; Silvera, David H; Lavack, Anne M

    2004-01-01

    This study examines the condom purchasing and use habits of 256 college students in Norway and English-speaking Canada, and develops a structural equation model to explain condom purchase and use. In the model, intention to purchase condoms is influenced by self-efficacy in condom purchasing, as well as by intention to use condoms. Intention to use condoms is influenced by having a positive attitude toward condom usage and by self-efficacy in persuading a partner to use condoms. The implications for health promotion and social marketing campaigns are discussed.

  19. Use of a condom to control massive postpartum hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhter, Sayeba; Begum, Mosammat Rashida; Kabir, Zakia; Rashid, Maliha; Laila, Tarafder Runa; Zabeen, Fahmida

    2003-09-11

    To evaluate the efficacy of a condom as a tamponade for intrauterine pressure to stop massive postpartum hemorrhage (PPH). This prospective study was done in the Obstetrics and Gynecology Department of Dhaka Medical College and Hospital, Bangladesh, between July 2001 and December 2002. During the study period, 152 cases of PPH were identified; 109 were managed medically; 20 were managed using the B-Lynch procedure, and 23 were managed using the condom catheter. Patients were selected for intervention with the condom catheter when PPH that occurred as a result of atonicity or morbid adhesion (accreta) could not be controlled by uterotonics or a surgical procedure. In patients who were in shock due to massive hemorrhage, a condom catheter was introduced immediately without prior medical management. With aseptic precautions, a sterile rubber catheter fitted with a condom was introduced into the uterus. The condom was inflated with 250-500 mL normal saline, according to need. The condom catheter was kept for 24-48 hours, depending upon the initial intensity of blood loss, and gradually deflated when bleeding ceased. (1) Ability of condom catheter to stop bleeding; (2) time required to stop bleeding after the tamponade was applied; (3) subsequent morbidity in terms of severe infection, despite use of prophylactic antibiotics. In all 23 cases in which the condom catheter was used, bleeding stopped within 15 minutes. No patient needed further intervention. No patient went into irreversible shock. There was no intrauterine infection as documented by clinical signs and symptoms and culture and sensitivity of high vaginal swab. The hydrostatic condom catheter can control PPH quickly and effectively. It is simple to use, inexpensive, and safe. In developing countries where PPH remains a primary cause of maternal mortality, any healthcare provider involved in delivery may use this procedure for controlling massive PPH to save the lives of patients.

  20. Socio-demographic, Marital, and Psychosocial Factors Associated with Condom Use Negotiation Self-Efficacy Among Mozambican Women at Risk for HIV Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrão, Ana Luísa; McIntyre, Teresa M

    2017-08-22

    In Mozambique, women are the most affected by HIV/AIDS. Self-efficacy is one of the main predictors of effective use of a condom. Therefore, it is essential to identify the factors that influence condom-use negotiation self-efficacy in vulnerable women. The aim of this paper is to identify socio-demographic, marital, and psychosocial factors associated with condom-use negotiation self-efficacy among Mozambican women at risk for HIV infection. Participants were women (173) who were patients at the Gynecology Department of the Central Hospital of Beira, Mozambique, and at risk for HIV infection. Women completed measures of condom-use negotiation self-efficacy, HIV prevention knowledge, and perceived barriers against safer sex. The results showed that demographic and marital variables are associated with condom-use negotiation self-efficacy, namely, those having more than 9 years of education, who are younger and not living with a partner, and who talk about AIDS with partners report higher condom-use negotiation self-efficacy. Regarding psychosocial factors, higher HIV prevention knowledge and fewer perceived barriers to safer sex predict higher condom-use negotiation self-efficacy. These results can contribute to sexual health promotion and HIV/AIDS prevention in Mozambican women because they identify at-risk groups and marital and psychosocial malleable factors that can be targeted in AIDS prevention among at-risk Mozambican women.

  1. Social marketing of condoms in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thapa, S; Prasad, C V; Rao, P H; Severy, L J; Rao, S R

    1994-01-01

    Contraceptive social marketing is a way of supplying contraceptives to consumers who cannot afford to buy them at full market price, yet are not reached by the free public distribution program. The process involves supplying a subsidized product through existing commercial distribution networks, using the mass media and other retail marketing techniques to commercially advertise the products. India was the first country to introduce this concept to its family planning program. India's social marketing program is also the largest in the world. Over the past 25 years, total condom sales in India have expanded under the program from less than 10 million per year to more than one billion. The authors present an overview of India's social marketing initiative, describe the firms participating in the program, and summarize the lessons learned from the social marketing experience. Problems and prospects, and experiences and implications are discussed.

  2. Multiple sexual partners and condom use among 10 - 19 year-olds in four districts in Tanzania: What do we learn?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kweka Khadija

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although some studies in Tanzania have addressed the question of sexuality and STIs among adolescents, mostly those aged 15 - 19 years, evidence on how multiple sexual partners influence condom use among 10 - 19 year-olds is limited. This study attempts to bridge this gap by testing a hypothesis that sexual relationships with multiple partners in the age group 10 - 19 years spurs condom use during sex in four districts in Tanzania. Methods Secondary analysis was performed using data from the Adolescents Module of the cross-sectional household survey on Maternal, Newborn and Child Health (MNCH that was done in Kigoma, Kilombero, Rufiji and Ulanga districts, Tanzania in 2008. A total of 612 adolescents resulting from a random sample of 1200 households participated in this study. Pearson Chi-Square was used as a test of association between multiple sexual partners and condom use. Multivariate logistic regression model was fitted to the data to assess the effect of multiple sexual partners on condom use, having adjusted for potential confounding variables. STATA (10 statistical software was used to carry out this process at 5% two-sided significance level. Results Of the 612 adolescents interviewed, 23.4% reported being sexually active and 42.0% of these reported having had multiple (> 1 sexual partners in the last 12 months. The overall prevalence of condom use among them was 39.2%. The proportion using a condom at the last sexual intercourse was higher among those who knew that they can get a condom if they want than those who did not. No evidence of association was found between multiple sexual partners and condom use (OR = 0.77, 95% CI = 0.35 - 1.67, P = 0.504. With younger adolescents (10 - 14 years being a reference, condom use was associated with age group (15 - 19: OR = 3.69, 95% CI = 1.21 - 11.25, P = 0.022 and district of residence (Kigoma: OR = 7.45, 95% CI = 1.79 - 31.06, P = 0.006; Kilombero: OR = 8.89, 95% CI = 2

  3. A randomized controlled trial of a culturally congruent intervention to increase condom use and HIV testing among heterosexually active immigrant Latino men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Scott D.; McCoy, Thomas P.; Vissman, Aaron T.; DiClemente, Ralph J.; Duck, Stacy; Hergenrather, Kenneth C.; Foley, Kristie Long; Alonzo, Jorge; Bloom, Fred R.; Eng, Eugenia

    2012-01-01

    This randomized controlled trial tested the efficacy of an HIV prevention intervention to increase condom use and HIV testing among Spanish-speaking, heterosexually active immigrant Latino men. A community-based participatory research partnership developed the intervention and selected the study design. Following baseline data collection, 142 immigrant Latino men were randomized to the HIV prevention intervention or the cancer education intervention. Three-month follow-up data were collected from 139 participants, for a 98% retention rate. Mean age of participants was 31.6 years and 60% reported being from Mexico. Adjusting for baseline behaviors, relative to their peers in the cancer education comparison, participants in the HIV prevention intervention were more likely to report consistent condom use and receiving an HIV test. Community-based interventions for immigrant Latino men that are built on state of the art prevention science and developed in partnership with community members can greatly enhance preventive behaviors and may reduce HIV infection. PMID:21301948

  4. Women’s Condom Use Assertiveness and Sexual Risk-Taking: Effects of Alcohol Intoxication and Adult Victimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, Jeanette; George, William H.; Morrison, Diane M.; Zawacki, Tina; Davis, Kelly Cue; Hessler, Danielle M.

    2008-01-01

    This experiment examined relationships among adulthood victimization, sexual assertiveness, alcohol intoxication, and sexual risk-taking in female social drinkers (N = 161). Women completed measures of sexual assault and intimate partner violence history and sexual assertiveness before random assignment to 1 of 4 beverage conditions: control, placebo, low dose (.04%), or high dose (.08%). After drinking, women read a second-person story involving a sexual encounter with a new partner. As protagonist of the story, each woman rated her likelihood of condom insistence and unprotected sex. Victimization history and self-reported sexual assertiveness were negatively related. The less sexually assertive a woman was, the less she intended to insist on condom use, regardless of intoxication. By reducing the perceived health consequences of unprotected sex, intoxication indirectly decreased condom insistence and increased unprotected sex. Findings extend previous work by elucidating possible mechanisms of the relationship between alcohol and unprotected sex – perceived health consequences and situational condom insistence – and support the value of sexual assertiveness training to enhance condom insistence, especially since the latter relationship was robust to intoxication. PMID:18556139

  5. Condom use and prevalence of syphilis and HIV among female sex workers in Andhra Pradesh, India – following a large-scale HIV prevention intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachakulla Hari Kumar

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Avahan, the India AIDS initiative began HIV prevention interventions in 2003 in Andhra Pradesh (AP among high-risk groups including female sex workers (FSWs, to help contain the HIV epidemic. This manuscript describes an assessment of this intervention using the published Avahan evaluation framework and assesses the coverage, outcomes and changes in STI and HIV prevalence among FSWs. Methodology Multiple data sources were utilized including Avahan routine program monitoring data, two rounds of cross-sectional survey data (in 2006 and 2009 and STI clinical quality monitoring assessments. Bi-variate and multivariate analyses, Wald Chi-square tests and multivariate logistic regressions were used to measure changes in behavioural and biological outcomes over time and their association. Results Avahan scaled up in conjunction with the Government program to operate in all districts in AP by March 2009. By March 2009, 80% of the FSWs were being contacted monthly and 21% were coming to STI services monthly. Survey data confirmed an increase in peer educator contacts with the mean number increasing from 2.9 in 2006 to 5.3 in 2009. By 2008 free and Avahan-supported socially marketed condoms were adequate to cover the estimated number of commercial sex acts, at 45 condoms/FSW/month. Consistent condom use was reported to increase with regular (63.6% to 83.4%; AOR=2.98; p Conclusions The absence of control groups is a limitation of this study and does not allow attribution of changes in outcomes and declines in HIV and STI to the Avahan program. However, the large scale implementation, high coverage, intermediate outcomes and association of these outcomes to the Avahan program provide plausible evidence that the declines were likely associated with Avahan. Declining HIV prevalence among the general population in Andhra Pradesh points towards a combined impact of Avahan and government interventions.

  6. Condom use prevents genital ulcers in women working as prostitutes. Influence of human immunodeficiency virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, D W; Ngugi, E N; Ronald, A R; Simonsen, J N; Braddick, M; Bosire, M; Kimata, J; Kamala, J; Ndinya-Achola, J O; Waiyaki, P G

    1991-01-01

    Control of genital ulcer disease (GUD) is a proposed intervention to slow the dissemination of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Programs for the control of sexually transmitted diseases (STD) should focus on groups of high-frequency transmitters, such as prostitutes and their clientele. This study illustrates the interaction between the prevalence of chancroid, use of barrier prophylaxis against STDs, and HIV infection in a population of female prostitutes in Nairobi. Four hundred and twenty three women were evaluated. Despite the increased use of condoms, the prevalence of genital ulcers remained constant between 1986-87 and 1987-88. Genital ulcer disease was simultaneously associated with HIV infection (adjusted odds ratio: 3.7, P less than .01) whereas it was independently and inversely associated with more consistent condom use (P less than .01). The authors conclude that genital ulcer disease can be controlled in these populations but concurrent HIV infection increases the difficulty of this intervention.

  7. Reliability and the ACTFL Oral Proficiency Interview: Reporting Indices of Interrater Consistency and Agreement for 19 Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surface, Eric A.; Dierdorff, Erich C.

    2003-01-01

    The reliability of the ACTFL Oral Proficiency Interview (OPI) has not been reported since ACTFL revised its speaking proficiency guidelines in 1999. Reliability data for assessments should be reported periodically to provide users with enough information to evaluate the psychometric characteristics of the assessment. This study provided the most…

  8. Prepositioned Stocks: Additional Information and a Consistent Definition Would Make DOD’s Annual Report More Useful

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    reporting requirement.3 In our prior reports, we identified a number of long - term and ongoing challenges to DOD’s prepositioned stocks related to strategic...prepositioned stocks and the extent to which these shortfalls contribute to operational risk . View GAO-15-570. For more information, contact Cary Russell...shortfalls, Page 5 GAO-15-570 Prepositioned Stocks risks , and mitigation efforts. We also compared DOD’s definitions of prepositioning and

  9. Application of the transtheoretical model to identify aspects influencing condom use among Korean college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Young Mi; Yeun, Eun Ja; Kim, Hee Young; Youn, Mi Sun; Cho, Ju Yeon; Lee, Hee Joo

    2008-12-01

    Increasing condom use requires an understanding of the influencing factors. Previous research has used psychosocial theories such as the social cognitive theory and health belief to explain AIDS risk factors and condom use. However, it is still difficult to effectively predict the multidimensional factors associated with condom use. The present study utilizes the transtheoretical model to investigate condom use among college students by examining stages of change for condom use and measuring decisional balance and self-efficacy for each stage. The aim was to identify the variables affecting condom use so as to provide scientific data that would aid the development of effective strategies for increasing condom use.

  10. Factors influencing condom use among Nigerian undergraduates: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Factors influencing condom use among Nigerian undergraduates: A mixed method study. ... PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH ... group discussions) and quantitative (cross-sectional survey) methods were utilised for this study.

  11. quality analysis of male latex condoms available in private and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Esem

    physical parameter requirements, packaging and labeling standards are similar. ... penis during sexual intercourse for the purpose of preventing conception or ... condoms, 'Hot' and 'Evolution', failed the freedom from holes test when test was ...

  12. The Use Condom campaign and its implications for graphic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Use Condom campaign and its implications for graphic communication in ... to assess the roles/activities of the media team in the media production process ... to producing effective graphic messages that facilitate the rapid adoption and ...

  13. Knowledge and Attitude to Female Condom Use among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    media campaigns have been undertaken worldwide, [2,. 5, 6] and ... cess, continuous supply, free distribution and social marketing of condom are to be reinforced with special emphasis on ..... [9 , 10] The role of media and health workers was ...

  14. Patterns and Correlates of Condom Use among Unmarried Male ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJRH Managing Editor

    Reducing HIV/STDs in Nigeria will be difficult if research on condom use among youths .... prevention strategy against the spread of STDs and. HIV. ... countries. Sexual abstinence has been identified as the best method of HIV prevention.

  15. Does the Theory of Planned Behaviour Explain Condom Use Behaviour Among Men Who have Sex with Men? A Meta-analytic Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew, Benjamin J; Mullan, Barbara A; de Wit, John B F; Monds, Lauren A; Todd, Jemma; Kothe, Emily J

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this meta-analysis was to explore whether the constructs in the theory of planned behaviour (TPB; i.e., attitude, subjective norm, perceived behavioural control, intention) explain condom use behaviour among men who have sex with men (MSM). Electronic databases were searched for studies that measured TPB variables and MSM condom use. Correlations were meta-analysed using a random effects model and path analyses. Moderation analyses were conducted for the time frame of the behavioural measure used (retrospective versus prospective). Attitude, subjective norm and perceived behavioural control accounted for 24.0 % of the variance in condom use intention and were all significant correlates. Intention and PBC accounted for 12.4 % of the variance in condom use behaviour. However, after taking intention into account, PBC was no longer significantly associated with condom use. The strength of construct relationships did not differ between retrospective and prospective behavioural assessments. The medium to large effect sizes of the relationships between the constructs in the TPB, which are consistent with previous meta-analyses with different behaviours or target groups, suggest that the TPB is also a useful model for explaining condom use behaviour among MSM. However, the research in this area is rather small, and greater clarity over moderating factors can only be achieved when the literature expands.

  16. Behavioral Interventions Improve Condom Use and HIV Testing Uptake Among Female Sex Workers in China: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Eric P F; Tung, Keith; Tucker, Joseph D; Muessig, Kathryn E; Su, Shu; Zhang, Xiaohu; Jing, Jun; Zhang, Lei

    2015-08-01

    Condomless commercial sex work is a common mode of HIV transmission in China. This study systematically reviews the impacts of behavioral interventions on condom use and HIV testing uptake among female sex workers (FSW) in China. Chinese and English language peer-reviewed articles published between January 2000 and December 2013 were searched in five electronic databases. Odds ratios (OR) were calculated by comparing the levels of improvements in condom use and HIV testing uptake by various intervention strategies. Study quality was assessed for included studies. This review followed the PRISMA guidelines and was registered in PROSPERO. One hundred and twenty-eight studies met inclusion criteria. Meta-analyses indicated that FSW in the post-intervention period were 2.3-5.0 times more likely to use condoms with male clients in their last sexual act and 2.3-3.4 times more likely to use condoms consistently in the last month than in the pre-intervention period. In particular, multiple session intervention were more effective in improving condom use among FSW with male clients (OR=5.6, [4.0-7.8]) than a single session intervention (OR=3.3, [2.8-3.8]). Behavioral interventions also improved past-12-month HIV testing uptake 4.6-fold (95% CI, 2.9-7.4). Comprehensive intervention programs were more effective (OR=8.1, [4.0-16.7]) in improving HIV testing uptake compared with health education only programs (OR=2.7, [1.6-4.5]). Longer intervention duration (>12 months) did not increase effectiveness in improving condom use or HIV testing rate among Chinese FSWs. Behavioral interventions are effective in improving condom use and HIV testing uptake among Chinese FSW. This review highlights both the potentials and limitations of condom promotion interventions targeting female sex workers.

  17. Promoting female condoms in the sex industry in 4 towns of Southern China: context matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Li; Liao, Susu; Weeks, Margaret R; Wang, Yanhong; Jiang, Jingmei; Zhang, Qingning; Zhou, Yuejiao; He, Bin; Li, Jianghong; Dunn, Jennifer

    2013-03-01

    The female condom (FC) is an effective tool for dual protection, but it remains underused. Individual and contextual reasons need to be explored. The aim of this study was to compare individual and contextual characteristics of FC multitime users, 1-time users, and nonusers among women in the sex industry of 4 study sites in China. A standardized 1-year FC intervention along with male condoms was implemented through outreach to sex establishments. Three serial cross-sectional surveys were conducted at baseline and after each of two 6-month intervention phases. A total of 445, 437, and 290 eligible women were interviewed at 3 cross-sectional surveys, respectively. At the first and second postintervention surveys, 83.3% and 81.7% of women reported knowing about FC, and 28.8% and 36.6% had used FC at least once. Women who used FC multiple times reported less unprotected sex than nonusers in the last 30 days (3.0% vs. 17.2% at first and 3.2% vs. 16.8% at second postintervention survey, P 4.0) and working in boarding houses (adjusted odds ratio, 3.4) were associated with FC use. Adding FC into male-condom-only intervention may reduce unprotected sex among women in sex establishments in rural and small urban areas of China. Adoption of FC may be related not only to intervention exposure but also to contextual factors associated with study site and type of sex establishments.

  18. Sociocultural and Behavioral Contexts of Condom Use in Heterosexual Married Couples in India: Challenges to the HIV Prevention Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Gauri

    2004-01-01

    This article examines sociocultural expectations of sexual behavior and the reasons why not using condoms may be logical to married heterosexual couples in India. Married women who report monogamous sexual relationships with their husbands are a high-risk group for HIV infection in India. Based on the public health model and a population-based…

  19. Impact of Beliefs about HIV Treatment and Peer Condom Norms on Risky Sexual Behavior among Gay and Bisexual Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, John L.; Bakeman, Roger

    2006-01-01

    The association between perceptions about condom use among one's peers, beliefs about new HIV treatments, and HIV sexual risk behavior was examined in a large urban sample ( N = 454) of gay and bisexual men in the Southeast. Results partially confirmed the hypothesis that men who endorsed new HIV treatment beliefs would report lower norms for…

  20. Between '0' and '1': safer sex and condom use among young gay men in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, Tien Ee Dominic; Fung, Tsz Hin

    2016-01-01

    Young men who have sex with men are becoming the most at-risk subgroup for HIV incidence in Hong Kong. To understand how young gay men in Hong Kong interpret and implement safer sex and condom use, focus-group discussions and individual in-depth interviews were held. The 74 participants were nearly all ethnic Chinese gay men aged between 18 and 25 years. Findings indicate that the challenge for health intervention lies in young gay men's inconsistent condom use despite their high level of HIV-related knowledge. Participants described using condoms, testing for HIV and abstaining from anal sex as measures undertaken to prevent HIV infection. However, sociocultural norms and expectations pertaining to '0' (docile, bottom) and '1' (assertive, top) roles and trust between partners complicate the consistent implementation of risk-reduction measures. Influenced by heteronormative and romantic beliefs, sexual behaviours such as condomless anal sex and internal ejaculation hold symbolic meanings - exclusivity, commitment, intimacy, possession - for young gay men in Hong Kong, which override health concerns. These findings support more empowerment-driven HIV programming for young gay men.

  1. Power Relation and Condom Use in Commercial Sex Behaviors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Objective To explore whether condom use is influenced by power relation in commercial sex behaviors. Methods Variables were designed to measure the power relation in commercial sex behaviors based on the theory of gender and power relation and data were collected from male sexually transmitted diseases (STD) patients and female commercial sex workers (FSWs) working at recreation centers or being detained in a women education center to identify the relationship between condom use and power relation in male and female respondents using bivariate and multiple regression analysis. Results A significant relationship was identified between power relation and female condom use, the higher the score of power relations, the higher frequency the condom use, but no similar result was found in males. Females got a higher score of power relation than males. Conclusions Power relation is one of the factors that influence condom use, which should be considered when relevant theories are used to study the rate of condom use. It is worthwhile exploring the relationship between safe sex and power relation in spouses and regular sex partners when interventions are adopted to prevent HIV/AIDS spreading from high risk groups to the general population.

  2. Peer support groups boost use of female condom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-09-01

    Preliminary research findings from Brazil and Kenya indicate that, when women are provided with female condoms and peer group support, traditional obstacles to safe sex practices can be overcome. In these countries, as well as many others, women face cultural barriers to negotiating condom use with male partners. The study, conducted by the Women's Health Initiative of Family Health International's AIDS Control and Prevention Project, involved 106 Kenyan and 103 Brazilian women. A female focus group was held at the beginning of the study, followed by two peer support group meetings, with another focus group at the end of the study. Group support was an essential element in the acceptance process. Women who were afraid or unsuccessful with initial use were encouraged by other group members to try different, non-threatening approaches to the negotiation of female condom use and given suggestions for overcoming difficulties with insertion and lubrication. Some of these strategies included laying the female condom on the bed so the male partner raises the subject of its use and telling the partner the doctor had recommended the method to avoid the negative side effects associated with the pill. When female condom use is presented as a form of pregnancy prevention, the association of condoms with infidelity is overcome.

  3. Truth or Consequences: The Intertemporal Consistency of Adolescent Self-report on the Youth Risk Behavior Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Rosenbaum, Janet E.

    2009-01-01

    Surveys are the primary information source about adolescents’ health risk behaviors, but adolescents may not report their behaviors accurately. Survey data are used for formulating adolescent health policy, and inaccurate data can cause mistakes in policy creation and evaluation. The author used test-retest data from the Youth Risk Behavior Survey (United States, 2000) to compare adolescents’ responses to 72 questions about their risk behaviors at a 2-week interval. Each question was evaluate...

  4. [Sensitisation about condom use in Gabon (1999): evaluation of the impact of a comic book].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milleliri, Jean-Marie; Krentel, Alison; Rey, Jean-Loup

    2003-01-01

    The authors report the evaluation of the impact of a comic book about condom use distributed to Gabonese high school students in Libreville and Lambarene in 1999. This evaluation was conducted through a self-administered questionnaire completed by 954 students in 11 high schools immediately before distribution of a comic book about condoms and by 771 students 15-30 days afterwards. The anonymous questionnaire contained multiple-choice and open questions about knowledge, attitudes and practices. During the second survey (same schools and same classes), the questions tested knowledge about AIDS and about the stories in the book. The student populations who responded to the two questionnaires were homogeneous for sex, age, school class, and province of residence. Knowledge about the modes of HIV/AIDS contamination improved substantially between the two questionnaires, with knowledge about the mother-child transmission pathway increasing from 47% to 75% of responders. At the same time, and without any significant difference by sex, class or province, individual adhesion to the role of the condom as a means of prevention against AIDS progressed from 64% to 95%. The students questioned wanted AIDS prevention information to be better integrated into their curriculum and, in particular, they wanted educational activities in this area in their school, either by their teachers or in special information areas. Thus, the 48-page comic book by young Gabonese artists was perceived as a good method of condom education for the young (75%) and as an excellent method for inducing awareness about it among them (89%). The book's contents had been absorbed, and the students found that the stories and the message were well matched. Moreover, the extension of the readership beyond the initial distribution at the first evaluation (7.5 readers reported per copy) showed that the messages in the book spread well beyond the student group.

  5. The impact of gender norms on condom use among HIV-positive adults in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fladseth, Kristin; Gafos, Mitzy; Newell, Marie Louise; McGrath, Nuala

    2015-01-01

    Critical to preventing the spread of HIV is promoting condom use among HIV-positive individuals. Previous studies suggest that gender norms (social and cultural constructions of the ways that women and men are expected to behave) may be an important determinant of condom use. However, the relationship has not been evaluated among HIV-positive women and men in South Africa. We examined gender norms and condom use at last sex among 550 partnerships reported by 530 sexually-active HIV-positive women (372) and men (158) who had sought care, but not yet initiated antiretroviral therapy in a high HIV-prevalence rural setting in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa between January 2009 and March 2011. Participants enrolled in the cohort study completed a baseline questionnaire that detailed their socio-demographic characteristics, socio-economic circumstances, religion, HIV testing history and disclosure of HIV status, stigma, social capital, gender norms and self-efficacy. Gender norms did not statistically differ between women and men (p = 0.18). Overall, condoms were used at last sex in 58% of partnerships. Although participants disclosed their HIV status in 66% of the partnerships, 60% did not have knowledge of their partner's HIV status. In multivariable logistic regression, run separately for each sex, women younger than 26 years with more equitable gender norms were significantly more likely to have used a condom at last sex than those of the same age group with inequitable gender norms (OR = 8.88, 95% CI 2.95-26.75); the association between condom use and gender norms among women aged 26+ years and men of all ages was not statistically significant. Strategies to address gender inequity should be integrated into positive prevention interventions, particularly for younger women, and supported by efforts at a societal level to decrease gender inequality.

  6. The impact of gender norms on condom use among HIV-positive adults in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristin Fladseth

    Full Text Available Critical to preventing the spread of HIV is promoting condom use among HIV-positive individuals. Previous studies suggest that gender norms (social and cultural constructions of the ways that women and men are expected to behave may be an important determinant of condom use. However, the relationship has not been evaluated among HIV-positive women and men in South Africa. We examined gender norms and condom use at last sex among 550 partnerships reported by 530 sexually-active HIV-positive women (372 and men (158 who had sought care, but not yet initiated antiretroviral therapy in a high HIV-prevalence rural setting in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa between January 2009 and March 2011. Participants enrolled in the cohort study completed a baseline questionnaire that detailed their socio-demographic characteristics, socio-economic circumstances, religion, HIV testing history and disclosure of HIV status, stigma, social capital, gender norms and self-efficacy. Gender norms did not statistically differ between women and men (p = 0.18. Overall, condoms were used at last sex in 58% of partnerships. Although participants disclosed their HIV status in 66% of the partnerships, 60% did not have knowledge of their partner's HIV status. In multivariable logistic regression, run separately for each sex, women younger than 26 years with more equitable gender norms were significantly more likely to have used a condom at last sex than those of the same age group with inequitable gender norms (OR = 8.88, 95% CI 2.95-26.75; the association between condom use and gender norms among women aged 26+ years and men of all ages was not statistically significant. Strategies to address gender inequity should be integrated into positive prevention interventions, particularly for younger women, and supported by efforts at a societal level to decrease gender inequality.

  7. Making sense of condoms: social representations in young people’s HIV-related narratives from six African countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winskell, Kate; Obyerodhyambo, Oby; Stephenson, Rob

    2011-01-01

    Condoms are an essential component of comprehensive efforts to control the HIV epidemic, both for those who know their status and for those who do not. Although young people account for almost half of all new HIV infections, reported condom use among them remains low in many sub-Saharan African countries. In order to inform education and communication efforts to increase condom use, we examined social representations of condoms among young people aged 10–24 in six African countries/regions with diverse HIV prevalence rates: Swaziland, Namibia, Kenya, South-East Nigeria, Burkina Faso, and Senegal. We used a unique data source, namely 11,354 creative ideas contributed from these countries to a continent-wide scriptwriting contest, held from 1st February to 15th April 2005, on the theme of HIV/AIDS. We stratified each country sample by the sex, age (10–14, 15–19, 20–24), and urban/rural location of the author and randomly selected up to 10 narratives for each of the 12 resulting strata, netting a total sample of 586 texts for the six countries. We analyzed the narratives qualitatively using thematic data analysis and narrative-based methodologies. Differences were observed across settings in the prominence accorded to condoms, the assessment of their effectiveness, and certain barriers to and facilitators of their use. Moralization emerged as a key impediment to positive representations of condoms, while humour was an appealing means to normalize them. The social representations in the narratives identify communication needs in and across settings and provide youth-focused ideas and perspectives to inform future intervention efforts. PMID:21388731

  8. A multiple primary carcinoma consisting of leukoplakia and SCC: a case report with p53 mutation analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Nur Mohammad Monsur; Tada, Mitsuhiro; Shindoh, Masanobu; Hamada, Jun-Ichi; Kashiwazaki, Haruhiko; Shimo, Tsuyoshi; Ashikaga, Yuichi; Yamazaki, Yutaka; Sasaki, Akira; Moriuchi, Tetsuya; Inoue, Nobuo

    2010-11-01

    Patients with an oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) often develop multiple malignant lesions. This report examined whether individual tumours developed in a patient show the same genetic alteration, such as p53 mutations. This case study describes three SCCs and three leukoplakias which developed simultaneously in a single 67-year-old Japanese man. A p53 mutation was detected in two of the three SCCs and one of the three leukoplakias. One SCC had a missense mutation at codon 285 (GAG>AAG, Glu>Lys) and the other a nonsense mutation at codon 336, and the leukoplakia had a missense mutation at codon 273 (CGT>CAT, Arg>His). This case showed that individual oral tumours may have different genetic changes even when they develop in a single patient. Therefore, this report provided strong evidence that in cases of multiple tumours it is necessary to design tailor-made therapies for each individual tumour rather than a single standardised therapy for all multiple tumours.

  9. Prevalence of use of condom at their first sexual intercourse among adolescents at the City of Santa Marta, Colombia: agender difference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Augusto Ceballos Ospino

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available The use of condoms is very important for the prevention of sexually transmissible infections and unwanted pregnancies. The prevalence of condom use for their first sexual intercourse was unknown among students from the City of Santa Marta, Colombia. Objective: To determine the prevalence of condom use at their first sexual relationship among adolescent students at the City of Santa Marta. Method: A survey about sexual behavior was applied. Two hundred twenty three subjects, 13 to 17 years of age reported sexual intercourse, 46 girls and 177 boys. Multivariate analysis was done with gender stratification. Results: The prevalence of condom use at their first sexual intercourse was 38.6% (95%CI 35.3-41.9; not difference for male gender was found (PR 0.75, 95%CI 0.47-1.20. Among male, being older at time of their first sexual relationship (OR 0.57, 95%CI 0.42-0.75 and studying at private schoosl (OR 0.34, 95%CI 0.16-0.71 was associated with the use of condom at their first sexual intercourse. But, for girls no variable was related to the use of condom at their first sexual intercourse. Conclusions: About of one out of three students used condom at their first sexual intercourse. For boys, being older at time of their first relationship and studying at private school was a protective factor; instead for girls all investigated variables were not related among them. Further investigations are needed in this subject, due to the impact of the use of condoms among adolescents as it has implications in public health.

  10. Structural determinants of inconsistent condom use with clients among migrant sex workers: findings of longitudinal research in an urban canadian setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sou, Julie; Shannon, Kate; Li, Jane; Nguyen, Paul; Strathdee, Steffanie A; Shoveller, Jean; Goldenberg, Shira M

    2015-06-01

    Migrant women in sex work experience unique risks and protective factors related to their sexual health. Given the dearth of knowledge in high-income countries, we explored factors associated with inconsistent condom use by clients among migrant female sex workers over time in Vancouver, BC. Questionnaire and HIV/sexually transmitted infection testing data from a longitudinal cohort, An Evaluation of Sex Workers Health Access, were collected from 2010 to 2013. Logistic regression using generalized estimating equations was used to model correlates of inconsistent condom use by clients among international migrant sex workers over a 3-year study period. Of 685 participants, analyses were restricted to 182 (27%) international migrants who primarily originated from China. In multivariate generalized estimating equations analyses, difficulty accessing condoms (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 3.76; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.13-12.47) independently correlated with increased odds of inconsistent condom use by clients. Servicing clients in indoor sex work establishments (e.g., massage parlors) (AOR, 0.34; 95% CI, 0.15-0.77), and high school attainment (AOR, 0.22; 95% CI, 0.09-0.50) had independent protective effects on the odds of inconsistent condom use by clients. Findings of this longitudinal study highlight the persistent challenges faced by migrant sex workers in terms of accessing and using condoms. Migrant sex workers who experienced difficulty in accessing condoms were more than 3 times as likely to report inconsistent condom use by clients. Laws, policies, and programs promoting access to safer, decriminalized indoor work environments remain urgently needed to promote health, safety, and human rights for migrant workers in the sex industry.

  11. Use of birth control pills and condoms among 17-19-year-old adolescents in Norway: contraceptive versus protective behaviour?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traeen, B; Lewin, B; Sundet, J M

    1992-01-01

    This article addresses the relationship between sexual risk behaviour and contraceptive behaviour, and considers whether adolescents who use condoms are practising birth control or STD protective behaviour. The material comprised a representative sample of 3000 Norwegians aged 17-19 years. Data were collected by anonymous self-administered questionnaires. The response-rate was 63%. At the first sexual intercourse 51% of the adolescents used condoms and 7% birth control pills. At the most recent intercourse 31% used condoms and 38% the pill. Use of the pill was widespread among adolescents with high coital frequency and few coital partners. Use of condoms was not particularly widespread among adolescents who reported a relatively large number of coital partners. Irrespective of the number of years they had been coitally active there was no significant difference between those who intended to use condoms at the next sexual intercourse and those who did not as regards their beliefs about condoms as protection against STDs, HIV and unintended pregnancies. The results from this study indicate that the majority of adolescents who use contraception do this for protection against unintended pregnancy and not for protection against STDs. The preference for the pill may make teenagers less prepared to practise STD protective behaviour in specific situations.

  12. Promoting condoms in Brazil to men who have sex with men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darden, Craig

    2006-11-01

    DKT International is a non-profit social marketing enterprise whose mission is to provide safe, affordable options for family planning and STI/HIV prevention. In Brazil, DKT sells male and female condoms to mostly lower-income couples nationwide. This paper is about the introduction of a ribbed, lubricated, latex condom called Affair to the Brazilian market in 2000. Sales were initially very low, but based on reports that Affair was well liked by some men who have sex with men, we took the opportunity to give Affair that positioning. We worked with our advertising agency, a local research company and Dignidade, a Brazilian NGO working for the rights of men who have sex with men. Two new products--a baggy condom called Affair Sensation and a complimentary lubricating gel called Affair Personal Lubricant--with new packaging and a promotional campaign were launched in February 2006. The billboard advertisement generated controversy in São Paulo, where the Advertising Council required it to be taken down due to complaints. However, the controversy helped promotion and at the same time generated public debate on sexuality and human rights. Our overall experience has been positive, sales are up and we have received messages of support for the products and their promotion from consumers.

  13. Condom use and associated factors among men who have sex with men in Togo, West Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakai, Tchaa Abalo; Ekouevi, Didier Koumavi; Tchounga, Boris Kévin; Balestre, Eric; Afanvi, Kossivi Agbélénko; Goilibe, Kariyiare Benjamin; Kassankogno, Yao; Pitche, Vincent Palokinam

    2016-01-01

    Introduction In 2011, the prevalence of HIV among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Togo was estimated at 19.6% compared to 3.4% in the general population. This study aimed to describe condom use and associated factors among MSM in Togo. Methods In 2011, a cross-sectional survey was conducted using the snowball sampling method among MSM in Togo. This study enrolled MSM aged 18 years and above who reported having sexual contact with other men within the last 30 days. A standardized survey form was used for data collection, and multivariate analyses were performed. Results A total of 724 MSM were included in this study. The median age was 25 years [22-28], 90.3% had at least a secondary school level. The sexual practices during the last sexual encounter with another man included: insertive anal sex (62.2%), receptive anal sex (56.6%), oral sex (33.8%) and oral-anal sex (8.6%). A condom was used during the last insertive and receptive anal encounters in 78.4% and 81.2% of the time, respectively. In multivariate analysis, condom use was positively associated with previous participation in HIV/STD prevention activities (aOR=1.72; 95% CI=[1.09-2.71]), with the consideration of the last sexual partner as a casual one (aOR=1.87; 95% CI=[1.24-2.82]) and with having at least a secondary school level (aOR=2.40; 95% CI=[1.22-4.69]). Conclusion One out of five MSM did not use a condom during the last anal encounter with another man. HIV prevention programs in Africa should develop specific interventions targeting MSM to reduce the incidence of HIV in this hidden population. PMID:27279945

  14. Large-sized condoms challenge theory that "one size fits all".

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-04-01

    Mentor Corporation and Mayer Laboratories are 2 US condom manufacturers which recently have added large-sized condoms to their product lines in response to complaints from consumers that condoms are too small. Mentor's latex condom, "Magnum," measures 20-25% larger than the average condom. Mayer's "Maxx" condom is 2.3 inches at its widest part at the tip and 8.27 inches long, including the reservoir tip. Dr. Katherine Forrest, consultant to Mayer, suggests that one is less likely to have problems with condoms falling off than one might think. If a condom does not roll all the way down, the extra unrolled latex at the bottom of the condom provides additional support. Thus, even if the condom is a little too wide at the top, the condom will stay on the penis because of the extra support and tightness at the base of the penis. Both Maxx and Magnum are manufactured in Japan. Neither has nonoxynol-9 spermicide, but both Mentor and Mayer plan to add the spermicide to the condoms later this year. The retail cost of the Maxx condom from Mayer is $7.99 for 12; Mentor's Magnum condom costs $7.19 for 12.

  15. How Consistent are Publicly Reported Cytotoxicity Data? Large-Scale Statistical Analysis of the Concordance of Public Independent Cytotoxicity Measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortés-Ciriano, Isidro; Bender, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    .70), whereas the lowest for L1210-methotrexate (σE =1.68). We found that annotation errors are responsible for the high discordance observed for some pairs of measurements, pointing out the importance of data curation when automatically extracting cytotoxicity data from public databases. Likewise, these results highlight the importance of estimating compound cytotoxicity with assays providing complementary biological information (i.e., metabolic, clonogenic and assays based on cell membrane integrity), especially when the mechanism of action of test compounds is unknown. From this analysis, guidelines can be created on the reliability of cytotoxicity data from public databases, which could ultimately prove valuable for modeling purposes, and to guide reporting of data in the literature.

  16. Young adults knowledge regarding Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs and condom use as a means of protection against STD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ifanti E.

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Ιntroduction: Sexually Transmitted Diseases prevention is a substantial component of sexual health education Aim : It is to investigate young adults’ knowledge on sexual health issue and STD prevention. Material and method: Α questionnaire with closed –type questions was used. 85 young volunteers adults attending a private gym center in a provincial town were enrolled in the study. Results: The research showed that fifty-nine persons were women (69.4% and 26 persons were men (30.6%. 55.2% reported they were in a permanent relation or were married. One out of five reported no condom use or use it in less than half times.39% did not know that B and C hepatitis belong to STD, while 93% knew that AIDS is an STD. Men more frequently had sexual intercourse without condom, experience sexual partners changing and “one night stands”. Age was found negatively related to condom use frequency. Conclusion: a considerable percentage of young adults do not use condom during sexual intercourse, while men exhibit less safe sexual behavior in comparison with women. A discrepancy is noted between level of knowledge about STD and sexual behavior of young adults. This fact poses a question about success of the existing STD prevention programs.

  17. HIV prevalence, AIDS knowledge, and condom use among female sex workers in Santiago, Chile Prevalencia del VIH, conocimientos sobre el SIDA, y uso del condón en trabajadoras sexuales de Santiago, Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime E. Barrientos

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes HIV seroprevalence, knowledge of HIV transmission, and condom use among female sex workers (FSW attending five specialized sexually transmitted disease (STD clinics in Santiago, Chile. A short questionnaire with socio-demographic, AIDS knowledge, and condom-use variables was administered to 626 FSW. HIV seroprevalence was estimated with a blood test sent to the Chilean Public Health Institute. ELISA was used to confirm HIV in suspected cases. HIV prevalence was 0%. FSW showed adequate overall knowledge of HIV, even better than reported for the Chilean general population on some items. Condom use with clients was high ("always" = 93.4%, although regular use with steady partners was low ("always" = 9.9%. The zero HIV seroprevalence and consistent condom use with clients confirms the positive impact of intervention strategies for FSW, increasing both correct knowledge of AIDS and condom use with clients and helping decrease these women's HIV/AIDS vulnerability.Este artículo examina la prevalencia del VIH, los conocimientos respecto a su infección y, además, describe el uso del condón en mujeres que ejercen el comercio sexual en Santiago de Chile y que son atendidas en cinco centros especializados de enfermedades de transmisión sexual. Se aplicó una encuesta que indagaba sobre las características sociodemográficas, el conocimiento sobre el VIH/SIDA y el uso del condón a 626 mujeres. La prevalencia del VIH fue evaluada mediante un examen de ELISA. La prevalencia del VIH fue 0. El conocimiento del VIH fue bueno e, incluso, mejor que en población general, en algunos indicadores. El uso del condón con los clientes fue alto, aunque su uso regular con las parejas estables fue bajo. La prevalencia cero del VIH y el uso consistente de condones con los clientes confirma el impacto positivo que han tenido las estrategias de intervención implementadas para estos grupos, incrementando el conocimiento adecuado sobre el SIDA y el

  18. Using the Bristol Stool Scale and Parental Report of Stool Consistency as Part of the Rome III Criteria for Functional Constipation in Infants and Toddlers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koppen, Ilan J N; Velasco-Benitez, Carlos A; Benninga, Marc A; Di Lorenzo, Carlo; Saps, Miguel

    2016-10-01

    To evaluate among parents of infants and toddlers the agreement between parental report and the Bristol Stool Scale (BSS) in assessing stool consistency and the effect of both methods on determining the prevalence of functional constipation (FC) according to the Rome III criteria. Parents of children ≤48 months of age who were seen for a well-child visit completed a questionnaire about their child's bowel habits during the previous month. Cohen kappa coefficient (κ) was used to measure intrarater agreement between parental report of stool consistency ("hard," "normal," "soft/mucous/liquid") and the BSS (types 1-2, hard; types 3-5, normal; types 6-7, loose/liquid). The prevalence of FC was assessed based on the questionnaire according to the Rome III criteria, comparing both methods of stool consistency assessment. Parents of 1095 children (median age, 15 months; range, 1-48) were included. Only fair agreement existed between the 2 methods of stool consistency assessment (κ = 0.335; P Rome III criteria, using parental report the prevalence of FC was 20.5% and using the BSS the prevalence was 20.9% (P = .87). The agreement between these 2 methods for assessing the prevalence of FC was excellent (κ = 0.95; P < .001). Only fair agreement exists between the BSS and parental report of stool consistency among parents of infants and toddlers. Different methods of stool consistency assessment did not result in a difference in the prevalence of FC. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Efficacy of the simultaneous use of condoms and spermicides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kestelman, P; Trussell, J

    1991-01-01

    The topic of this paper is the demonstration of the combined effectiveness of condom and spermicide use. It is reasoned that 2 methods, which separately provide only moderate efficacy, act together independently and the probability of both failing is the product of the 2 probabilities of failure. Spermicides have a typical user failure rate of 21% and condoms 12%; combined, the 1st year probability of failure among typical users is 2.5%. Under perfect use, where there is correct use for every act of intercourse, the assumption of independence is very likely, and efficacy would be a high as steroidal implants. In addition to highly efficacious protection from pregnancy, there is protection form HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STD). Spermicides referred to are rubber compatible, not oil based, and conform to the IPPF Agreed Test for Total Spermicidal Power. Condoms are defined as good quality which resist breakage and conform to the International Condom Standard, 1990. It is also advised that, in the event of condom breakage without spermicide, genitalia be washed immediately with soap and water to minimize risk. Also, proper douching that directs liquid sideways, not toward the cervix, should further reduce risk, It is underscored that contraceptive efficacy is not an effectiveness rate, but a failure rate. Effectiveness is the proportionate reduction in the risk of conception per cycle or infection per coitus caused by use of a method. The per cycle probability of conception is fecundability. The model described for combined use and STD use; it is based on the assumption that 1) the probability of conception and effectiveness and thus the per cycle probability of failure for the method is constant over time, and 2) there are 13 cycles per year. What is ignored is that failure rates decline among typical users with duration of use, so that life table procedures are not necessary. The annual probability of failure during perfect use of condoms and

  20. Condom-related beliefs among Turkish university students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serap Bulduk

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Young people are at a high risk of contracting HIV/AIDS (Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome and Sexually Transmitted Infections (STI. However, their rate of condom use is low. The purpose of the study is to investigate health beliefs affecting condom use among Turkish university students. A cross-sectional survey was conducted from June to September of 2007. Two hundred and fifty-four (254 university students were interviewed using a questionnaire. A logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with condom use. Sixteen (16 percent of the females and 67 percent of the males used condoms during their last sexual intercourse. Failure to use a condom was related to a perceived reduction in sexual satisfaction [OR = 5.46 (1.69 – 17.60] and financial limitations [OR = 2.76 (1.46 – 5.20]. These data will be useful in designing and improving HIV/STD prevention programs in Turkey.

  1. Social marketing of condoms: selling protection and changing behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, S

    1991-06-01

    Social marketing of condoms in Zaire began in 1987 and sales rose to 8 million in 1990, a notable change from the previous situation where about half a million condoms were distributed by government health clinics only. Social marketing is the use of for-profit sales and marketing techniques for public health problem.s When the Zaire National AIDS Committee initiated social marketing of condoms, with the assistance of Population Services International, they had the experience of successful Asian programs of the 1970s, and the political sanction resulting from the AIDS threat to back them up. Efforts were made to find just the right product name, "Prudence," logo, package, color and slogan by consumer research. Prudence implies responsible behavior, capturing both the AIDS and STD prevention and the family planning markets. Consumers like the package and associate it with quality, since most condoms sold before in Zaire had no special packaging. Distribution outlets include 7000 retail shops, groceries, pharmacies, hotel, social clubs, 300 bars and even Congo River barges which sex workers frequent. The price was set close to that of a pack of gum for 3, or that of a bottle of beer for a dozen. Promotion is limited by a government ban of advertising in mass media, so point of purchase materials, special offers and promotional items are being used. Prudence condoms are now being marketed in Cameroon and Burundi.

  2. What really works? An exploratory study of condom negotiation strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Amy G; Mak, Amy; Lindsay, Patricia D; Russell, Stephen T

    2004-04-01

    Verbal-direct strategies are assumed to be the most effective strategies in negotiating condom use. Both cultural and gender differences in communication styles suggest that individuals may negotiate condoms in ways that are not exclusively verbal and direct. This study examined the use of other forms of condom negotiations by developing an exploratory scale that distinguished strategies on how verbal and direct they were (i.e., verbal-direct, verbal-indirect, nonverbal-direct, nonverbal-indirect). The study compared the use of negotiation strategies among Asian and White American students at a northern California university. Results indicated that although direct strategies (verbal and nonverbal) were more frequently used, condom users also employed indirect strategies (verbal and nonverbal) to negotiate condom use. Moreover, Asians used verbal-indirect strategies more than Whites. Women used nonverbal-indirect strategies more than men. HIV preventions seeking to be culturally sensitive to Asians and women may benefit from incorporating these strategies into their interventions.

  3. Technical considerations in the use of external condom catheter systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    deHoll, J D; Williams, L A; Steers, W D; Rodeheaver, G T; Clark, M M; Edlich, R F

    1992-01-01

    Since the advent of rehabilitation engineering new advances have been made that have revolutionized condom catheter drainage systems (CCDS). An innovative CCDS has been designed that ensures unobstructed urine flow. Its condom catheter has several unique design features. It has a double row of convolutions near the catheter tip that prevent kinking and twisting so that the pathway remains open. The condom catheter features a unique inner flap that fits snugly on the glans to prevent backflow of urine on the shaft. This condom catheter is connected to a vented leg bag that eliminates the development of a partial vacuum in the connecting tube. This vacuum can create siphoning, which in turn interferes with urine flow into the leg bag. In addition, a new rechargeable battery-operated clipper has been developed that makes nick-free hair removal from the genitals exceptionally easy. This atraumatic hair removal eliminates the pubic hair that becomes trapped under the condom catheter. The clinical impact of these new advances in CCDS requires further investigation.

  4. Attitudes toward condom education amongst educators for Deaf and hard-of-hearing adolescents in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumaya Mall

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Disabled adolescents are at a critical time in their psychosocial and sexual development.Aim: This study explores the attitudes of educators working in schools for Deaf and hard-of-hearing pupils in South Africa toward condom education for their pupils.Methods: We conducted a combination of individual in-depth and joint interviews with a total of 27 participants. The sample comprised educators, school psychologists, school nurses and teaching assistants.Results: Results showed that educators were aware of the HIV risk for their pupils and reported the risk of sexual abuse or premature sexual activity as being risk factors for HIV infection. None of the schools had a written condom education policy. Whilst some schools were integrating condom education in existing school curricula, others faced moral or religious dilemmas in doing so. There were differences in attitudes, both amongst schools and amongst educators in the same schools.Conclusions: Given the context of a burgeoning HIV epidemic, it is vital to address adequate condom education in schools.

  5. Attitudes toward condom education amongst educators for Deaf and hard-of-hearing adolescents in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumaya Mall

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Disabled adolescents are at a critical time in their psychosocial and sexual development.Aim: This study explores the attitudes of educators working in schools for Deaf and hard-of-hearing pupils in South Africa toward condom education for their pupils.Methods: We conducted a combination of individual in-depth and joint interviews with a total of 27 participants. The sample comprised educators, school psychologists, school nurses and teaching assistants.Results: Results showed that educators were aware of the HIV risk for their pupils and reported the risk of sexual abuse or premature sexual activity as being risk factors for HIV infection. None of the schools had a written condom education policy. Whilst some schools were integrating condom education in existing school curricula, others faced moral or religious dilemmas in doing so. There were differences in attitudes, both amongst schools and amongst educators in the same schools.Conclusions: Given the context of a burgeoning HIV epidemic, it is vital to address adequate condom education in schools.

  6. Preparatory behaviours and condom use during receptive and insertive anal sex among male-to-female transgenders (Waria in Jakarta, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciptasari Prabawanti

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The male-to-female transgender (waria is part of a key population at higher risk for HIV. This study aims to test whether psychosocial determinants as defined by the theory of planned behaviour (TPB can explain behaviours related to condom use among waria. Three preparatory behaviours (getting, carrying, and offering a condom and two condom use behaviours (during receptive and insertive anal sex were assessed. Methods: The study involved 209 waria, recruited from five districts in Jakarta and interviewed by using structured questionnaires. Specific measures were developed to study attitudes, subjective norms and perceived behavioural control (PBC in order to predict intentions and behaviours. Results: The explained variance between intentions with regard to three preparatory behaviours and two condom uses ranged between 30 and 57%, and the variance between the actual preparatory behaviours of three preparatory and two condom uses ranged between 21 and 42%. In our study, as with several previous studies of the TPB on HIV protection behaviours, the TPB variables differed in their predictive power. With regard to intention, attitude and PBC were consistently significant predictors; attitude was the strongest predictor of intention for all three preparatory behaviours, and PBC was the strongest predictor of intention for condom use, both during receptive and insertive anal sex. TPB variables were also significantly related to the second parameter of future behaviour: actual (past behaviour. TPB variables were differentially related to the five behaviours. Attitude was predictive in three behaviours, PBC in three behaviours and subjective norms in two behaviours. Conclusions: Our results have implications for the development of interventions to target preparatory behaviours and condom use behaviours. Five behaviours and three psychological factors as defined in the TPB are to be targeted.

  7. Attitudes Towards PrEP and Anticipated Condom Use Among Concordant HIV-Negative and HIV-Discordant Male Couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoff, Colleen C; Chakravarty, Deepalika; Bircher, Anja E; Campbell, Chadwick K; Grisham, Kirk; Neilands, Torsten B; Wilson, Patrick A; Dworkin, Shari

    2015-07-01

    Since the July 2012 approval by the FDA of emtricitabine/ tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (Truvada) for use as pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) against HIV, its feasibility and acceptability has been under study. HIV-discordant couples are likely targets for PrEP but little is known about how this new prevention tool impacts relationships. We examined, among gay male couples, the acceptability of individual and partner use of PrEP and intentions to use condoms with primary and outside partners in the context of PrEP use. Data are from two independent samples of couples recruited in the San Francisco bay area and New York City-a qualitative one (N=48 couples) between March and November, 2011, and a quantitative one (N=171 couples) between June, 2012 and May, 2013. Data were categorized by couple HIV status and general linear models; chi-square tests of independence were used to examine condom-use intentions with primary and outside partners, by sexual risk profile, and race. Almost half of the HIV-negative couples felt PrEP was a good HIV prevention strategy for themselves and their partner. Over half reported that they would not change their current condom use if they or their partner were taking PrEP. However, approximately 30% of HIV-negative couples reported that they would stop using condoms or use them less with primary and outside partners if they were on PrEP or if their partner was on PrEP. A large percentage of couples view PrEP positively. However, to ensure safety for both partners, future programing must consider those who intend not to use condoms while on PrEP.

  8. [Prevention of HIV transmission: application of the theory of reasoned action to the prediction of condom use].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz-loving, R; Rivera Aragon, S

    1995-01-01

    1203 sexually active workers in six government agencies in Mexico City participated in a study of the applicability of the theory of reasoned action to prediction of condom use for AIDS prevention. The theory of reasoned action is one of a series of models of attitudes that have had consistent success in predicting various types of intentions and behaviors, especially in the area of sexual and contraceptive behavior. The theory specifies that the intention of executing a particular behavior is determined as the function of attitude toward the behavior and a social factor termed "subjective norm", referring to the perception of social pressure supporting or opposing a particular behavior. The 1203 subjects, who ranged from low to high educational and socioeconomic status, completed self-administered questionnaires concerning their beliefs, attitudes, and intentions regarding condom use, motivation to comply with the subjective norm, and actual condom use. Various scales were constructed to measure the different components of the theory. Hierarchical regression analysis was carried out separately for men and women and for condom use with regular or occasional partners. The model explained over 20% of condom use behavior. The total explained variance was similar in all groups, but the components of the model determining the variance were different. Personal beliefs and attitudes were more important in reference to occasional sexual partners, but the subjective norm and motivation to comply with the reference group were more important with regular sexual partners. The results demonstrate the need for interventions to be adapted to gender groups and in reference to regular or occasional partners.

  9. Women's Autonomy and Attitudes toward Condom Use: A Multicountry Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Bonita B; Small, Eusebius; Mengo, Cecilia; Ude, Paula

    2017-02-17

    Autonomy gives women the ability to negotiate safe sex and make decisions on their health. This study explores the gender stratification framework to understand the intertwined nature of HIV and women's autonomy using the nationally representative Demographic Health Survey. It examines women's autonomy and attitudes toward condom use for prevention of HIV/AIDS in four culturally diverse countries. Findings from the logistic regression indicate that labor force participation, individual autonomy, and decision making significantly increased the odds of always using a condom during sex in all countries. Promoting prevention policies highlighting women's autonomy may contribute in reducing the spread of HIV infection.

  10. A new measurement of an indirect measure of condom use and its ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-09-13

    Sep 13, 2017 ... questionnaires of condom use barriers, social desirability, and .... have little impact or statistically non-significant effects on ..... Organizational Behavior and ... tic assessment of condom use measurement in evaluation of HIV ...

  11. Barrier Methods of Birth Control: Spermicide, Condom, Sponge, Diaphragm, and Cervical Cap

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Birth Control: Spermicide, Condom, Sponge, Diaphragm, and Cervical Cap Home For Patients Search FAQs Barrier Methods of ... Birth Control: Spermicide, Condom, Sponge, Diaphragm, and Cervical Cap Contraception What are barrier methods of birth control? ...

  12. Barrier Methods of Birth Control: Spermicide, Condom, Sponge, Diaphragm, and Cervical Cap

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Barrier Methods of Birth Control: Spermicide, Condom, Sponge, Diaphragm, and Cervical Cap Home ... FAQ022, May 2016 PDF Format Barrier Methods of Birth Control: Spermicide, Condom, Sponge, Diaphragm, and Cervical Cap Contraception ...

  13. RPP-PRT-58489, Revision 1, One Systems Consistent Safety Analysis Methodologies Report. 24590-WTP-RPT-MGT-15-014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, Mukesh [URS Professional Solutions LLC, Aiken, SC (United States); Niemi, Belinda [Washington River Protection Solutions, LLC, Richland, WA (United States); Paik, Ingle [Washington River Protection Solutions, LLC, Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-09-02

    In 2012, One System Nuclear Safety performed a comparison of the safety bases for the Tank Farms Operations Contractor (TOC) and Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) (RPP-RPT-53222 / 24590-WTP-RPT-MGT-12-018, “One System Report of Comparative Evaluation of Safety Bases for Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant Project and Tank Operations Contract”), and identified 25 recommendations that required further evaluation for consensus disposition. This report documents ten NSSC approved consistent methodologies and guides and the results of the additional evaluation process using a new set of evaluation criteria developed for the evaluation of the new methodologies.

  14. Factors Associated With Self-Efficacy for Condom Use and Sexual Negotiation Among South African Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayles, Jennifer N.; Pettifor, Audrey; Wong, Mitchell D.; MacPhail, Catherine; Lee, Sung-Jae; Hendriksen, Ellen; Rees, Helen V.; Coates, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Objectives To use logistic regression modeling to identify factors associated with high self-efficacy for sexual negotiation and condom use in a sample of South African youth. Methods The Reproductive Health and HIV Research Unit (RHRU) National Youth Survey examined a nationally representative sample of 7409 sexually active South African youth aged 15 to 24 years. We used logistic regression modeling in this sample to identify factors associated with the main outcome of high self-efficacy. Results Among female respondents (n = 3890), factors associated with high self-efficacy in the adjusted model were knowing how to avoid HIV (odds ratio [OR] = 2.30, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.05 to 5.00), having spoken with someone other than a parent or guardian about HIV/AIDS (OR = 1.46, 95% CI: 1.01 to 2.10), and having life goals (OR = 1.28, 95% CI: 1.10 to 1.48). Not using condoms during their first sexual encounter (OR = 0.61, 95% CI: 0.50 to 0.76), a history of unwanted sex (OR = 0.66, 95% CI: 0.51 to 0.86), and believing that condom use implies distrust in one’s partner (OR = 0.57, 95% CI: 0.51 to 0.86) were factors associated with low self-efficacy among female respondents. Male respondents (n = 3519) with high self-efficacy were more likely to take HIV seriously (OR = 4.03, 95% CI: 1.55 to 10.52), to believe they are not at risk for HIV (OR = 1.38, 95% CI: 1.12 to 1.70), to report that getting condoms is easy (OR = 1.85, 95% CI: 1.23 to 2.77), and to have life goals (OR = 1.30, 95% CI: 1.10 to 1.54). Not using condoms during their first sexual experience (OR = 0.51, 95% CI: 0.39 to 0.67), a history of having unwanted sex (OR = 0.47, 95% CI: 0.34 to 0.64), believing condom use is a sign of not trusting one’s partner (OR = 0.63, 95% CI: 0.46 to 0.87), and refusing to be friends with HIV-infected persons (OR = 0.52, 95% CI: 0.32 to 0.85) were factors associated with low self-efficacy among male respondents in the fully adjusted model. Conclusions We used the

  15. Future Performance Trend Indicators: A Current Value Approach to Human Resources Accounting. Report II: Internal Consistencies and Relationships to Performance in Organization VI. Technical Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pecorella, Patricia A.; Bowers, David G.

    Conventional accounting systems provide no indication as to what conditions and events lead to reported outcomes, since they traditionally do not include measurements of the human organization and its relationship to events at the outcome stage. Human resources accounting is used to measure these additional types of data. This research is…

  16. Self-efficacy and intent to use condoms among entering college freshmen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joffe, A; Radius, S M

    1993-06-01

    We examined self-efficacy theory's ability to explain adolescents' intent to use condoms. In this study, 673 males and 404 females (mean age, 17.8 years) about to begin college, completed health surveys measuring self-efficacy regarding condom use. Perceived self-efficacy differed by gender and sexual experience. Regression analysis demonstrated that frequency of past condom use, perceived ability to talk with new partner about condoms and to enjoy sex using condoms explained 16% of sexually active males' intent to use condoms (p < 0.05). For sexually active females, explanators included frequency of past use and perceived ability to enjoy sex with condoms (R2 = 29.8%, p < 0.05). For never sexually active males, perceived ability to convince partner to use condoms and to buy condoms explained 16.1% of intent (p < 0.05); among never sexually active females, only perceived ability to convince partner to use condoms was significant (R2 = 6.2%, p < 0.05). Efforts to increase condom use should enhance perceptions of ability to negotiate aspects of condom use.

  17. Influencing a Partner to Use a Condom: A College Student Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeBro, Sherrine Chapman; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Examines the strategies college students use to convince new sexual partners to use a condom. Research of 393 students reveals that, to encourage condom use, men mostly employed seduction, whereas females withheld sex. To avoid using condoms, men were more likely than women to employ seduction, reward, and information. (GLR)

  18. Delayed application of condoms with safer and unsafe sex: factors associated with HIV risk in a community sample of gay and bisexual men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allman, Dan; Xu, Kunyong; Myers, Ted; Aguinaldo, Jeffrey; Calzavara, Liviana; Maxwell, John; Burchell, Ann; Remis, Robert S

    2009-06-01

    While condom use remains one of the most effective measures to prevent the sexual transmission of HIV, decreasing attention appears to be given to its importance and techniques of effective use relative to potential biomedical technologies. This paper focuses on delayed condom application (DCA), one practice which has been implicated in HIV transmission among gay and bisexual men. It examines the prevalence of the practice within a gay community and explores factors associated with condom use among those who practice only safer sex and those who report at least some unprotected anal sex. Data were taken from an anonymous, cross-sectional study of a self-identified sample of gay and bisexual men (N=5080). Among 2614 men who responded to relevant questions, multivariate polytomous logistic regressions were used to identify variables associated with DCA. Nearly, half of the men reported delayed condom application for insertive anal intercourse in the previous 12 months. While the majority of this group also reported episodes of unprotected anal sex, more than 25% of those who reported delayed application only reported safer sexual practices. Most socio-demographic variables found to be associated with unsafe sex in other studies were not associated with DCA. Negative condom use experiences such as tearing, splitting and slippage were associated with delayed application among the two groups. DCA, which may be considered by men as an effective harm reduction strategy requires attention. Interventions to address this behavior need to consider the physical issues of condom use along with the complex array of social, structural, psychological, and interpersonal issues.

  19. The female condom: The international denial of a strong potential

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, A.J.T.P.; Jansen, W.H.M.; Driel, F.T.M. van

    2010-01-01

    The female condom has received surprisingly little serious attention since its introduction in 1984. Given the numbers of women with HIV globally, international support for women's reproductive and sexual health and rights and the empowerment of women, and, not least, due to the demand expressed by

  20. The female condom: The international denial of a strong potential

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, A.J.T.P.; Jansen, W.H.M.; Driel, F.T.M. van

    2010-01-01

    The female condom has received surprisingly little serious attention since its introduction in 1984. Given the numbers of women with HIV globally, international support for women's reproductive and sexual health and rights and the empowerment of women, and, not least, due to the demand expressed by

  1. Sexual behaviour and condom use among university students in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Onja Holisoa Rahamefy, Michèle Rivard, Madeleine Ravaoarinoro, Lala Ranaivoharisoa, Andriamiliharison Jean Rasamindrakotroka, Richard Morisset

    2008-03-26

    Mar 26, 2008 ... relationships (75.6%), the perception that condoms were useful only during ovulation periods (8.7%), and the .... secondly that age, gender and marital status were associated ... divorced and widowed students were classified as single, and .... family and free from parental behavioural prohibitions, might.

  2. How to sell a condom? The impact of demand creation tools on male and female condom sales in resource limited settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terris-Prestholt, Fern; Windmeijer, Frank

    2016-07-01

    Despite condoms being cheap and effective in preventing HIV, there remains an 8billion shortfall in condom use in risky sex-acts. Social marketing organisations apply private sector marketing approaches to sell public health products. This paper investigates the impact of marketing tools, including promotion and pricing, on demand for male and female condoms in 52 countries between 1997 and 2009. A static model differentiates drivers of demand between products, while a dynamic panel data estimator estimates their short- and long-run impacts. Products are not equally affected: female condoms are not affected by advertising, but highly affected by interpersonal communication and HIV prevalence. Price and promotion have significant short- and long-run effects, with female condoms far more sensitive to price than male condoms. The design of optimal distribution strategies for new and existing HIV prevention technologies must consider both product and target population characteristics.

  3. Effects of a Health Behavior Change Model-Based HIV/STI Prevention Intervention on Condom Use among Heterosexual Couples: A Randomized Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, S. Marie; Kraft, Joan Marie; West, Stephen G.; Taylor, Aaron B.; Pappas-DeLuca, Katina A.; Beckman, Linda J.

    2009-01-01

    This study examines an intervention for heterosexual couples to prevent human immunodeficiency virus/sexually transmitted infections. It also evaluates the effect of the intervention, which is based on current models of health behavior change, on intermediate outcomes (individual and relationship factors) and consistency of condom use. Eligible…

  4. Condom use and HIV testing among men who have sex with men in Jordan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulsalam Alkaiyat

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: To identify sociocultural determinants of self-reported condom use and HIV testing and examine variables related to accessibility, motivation and obstacles among men who have sex with men (MSM in Jordan. Design: Cross-sectional study among MSM who were identified through services of a local non-governmental organization (NGO. Methods: Respondents were studied with a semi-structured interview based on the Explanatory Model Interview Catalogue (EMIC framework. The vignette-based EMIC interview considered locally relevant HIV/AIDS-related knowledge, risk perception and perceived causes, as well as awareness of services and sources of support. Results: Of the 97 respondents, 27% reported that they used a condom at last intercourse; 38% had been tested at least once for HIV. Positive determinants of condom use were higher education level, acknowledging MSM as a high-risk group, seeking advice from a medical doctor and the perceived causes “sex with prostitutes” and “sex with animals.” Awareness of available treatment was a positive determinant of HIV testing. Blood transfusion as a perceived cause and asking advice from friends were negative determinants. Conclusions: Jordanian MSM seem to be aware of the risk of HIV infection and effective prevention methods, and they are willing to be tested for HIV. Our findings addressed the importance of the sexual meaning of HIV/AIDS on the control of HIV/AIDS among MSM. More effective engagement of NGOs and MSM in the prevention and control of HIV/AIDS is needed, enlisting the support of medical doctors and community health workers. Peer education should be strategically strengthened. Political commitment is needed to mitigate social stigma.

  5. The Mediating Role of Partner Communication Frequency on Condom Use Among African-American Adolescent Females Participating in an HIV Prevention Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sales, Jessica M.; Lang, Delia L.; DiClemente, Ralph J.; Latham, Teaniese P; Wingood, Gina M.; Hardin, James W.; Rose, Eve S.

    2011-01-01

    Objective Although effective HIV prevention interventions have been developed for adolescents, few interventions have explored whether components of the intervention are responsible for the observed changes in behaviors post-intervention. This study examined the mediating role of partner communication frequency on African-American adolescent females’ condom use post-participation in a demonstrated efficacious HIV risk-reduction intervention. Main Outcome Measures Percent condom use in the past 60 days and consistent condom use in the past 6o days across the 12-month follow-up period. Design As part of a randomized controlled trial of African-American adolescent females (N=715), 15-21 years, seeking sexual health services, completed a computerized interview at baseline (prior to intervention) and again 6- and 12-month follow-up post-intervention participation. The interview assessed adolescents’ sexual behavior and partner communication skills, among other variables, at each time point. Using generalized estimating equation (GEE) techniques, both logistic and linear regression models were employed to test mediation over the 12-month follow-up period. Additional tests were conducted to assess the significance of the mediated models. Results Mediation analyses observed that partner communication frequency was a significant partial mediator of both proportion condom-protected sex acts (p =.001) and consistent condom use (p = .001). Conclusion Partner communication frequency, an integral component of this HIV intervention, significantly increased as a function of participating in the intervention partially explaining the change in condom use observed 12-months post-intervention. Understanding what intervention components are associated with behavior change is important for future intervention development. PMID:21843001

  6. Using the Theory of Planned Behavior to investigate condom use behaviors among female injecting drug users who are also sex workers in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Jing; Lau, Joseph T F; Chen, Xi; Liu, Chuliang; Liu, Jun; Chen, Hongyao; Wang, Renfan; Lei, Zhangquan; Li, Zhenglin

    2009-08-01

    Female injecting drug users who are sex workers (IDUFSWs) is a strategic "bridge population" for HIV transmission. Goals of the study were to investigate condom use behaviors during commercial sex among IDUFSWs using the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB), and to investigate moderating effects that modify the strength of associations between the TPB-related variables and inconsistent condom use during commercial sex. A total of 281 non-institutionalized IDUFSWs were recruited using snowball sampling method. Anonymous face-to-face interviews were administered by trained doctors. The results showed that the prevalence of inconsistent condom use during commercial sex in the last six months was 64%. After adjusting for some significant background variables (e.g. main venue of sex work), all associations between the five TPB-related variables and the studied condom use variable were statistically significant (Odds Ratio (OR) = 0.43-0.68, pBehavioral Control Scale and the Behavioral Intention Scale were selected by the second step (OR = 0.67 - 0.72, pBehavioral Intention Scale) and duration of sex work and duration of drug use were also reported. The results highlighted the potential of using the TPB to better understand condom use behaviors in IDUFSWs in China. Theory-based research and intervention work should be developed in China in the future.

  7. Determinants of female and male condom use among immigrant women of Central American descent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salabarría-Peña, Yamir; Lee, Jerry W; Montgomery, Susanna B; Hopp, Helen W; Muralles, Arnulfo A

    2003-06-01

    This study was designed to determine factors that influence female and male condom use among Central American women, applying the theory of planned behavior. A cross-sectional design was employed and a sample of 175 Central American women, 18-50 years old, was recruited from a community-based clinic in Los Angeles County. Participants in this study were interviewed face-to-face. Attitude, subjective norm, and perceived behavioral control explained 41% and 45% of the variation in the intention to use male and female condoms, respectively. Respondents' friends and mothers influenced their subjective norms. Beliefs regarding sexual sensation and sexually transmitted infection/pregnancy prevention affected respondents' attitudes toward condoms. Trust issues were also a major factor affecting attitudes toward female condoms. Condom use and sex negotiation skills predicted control over condoms. Results of this study can be used to design HIV/AIDS prevention programs that help women feel control over condom use and their sexual behavior.

  8. Safer sex or pleasurable sex? Rethinking condom use in the AIDS era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Sharful Islam; Hudson-Rodd, Nancy; Saggers, Sherry; Bhuiyan, Mahbubul Islam; Bhuiya, Abbas

    2004-01-01

    Condom use in Bangladesh is low despite nationwide family planning initiatives and HIV interventions. Fifty men aged between 18 and 55 years from diverse socio-demographic backgrounds and five key informants were interviewed in a qualitative male sexuality study. Refusal to use condoms is not only a personal choice, but pertains to relationships. The meanings of reduced bodily pleasure associated with condom use are socially constructed. Men's emotions and trust expressed through understanding of direct penile-vaginal contact and ejaculation inside the vagina as 'pure' and 'natural' sex oppose condom use. Sexual prowess in the form of prolonged intercourse without condoms, as depicted in Western pornography, was perceived as a 'real man's' sexual skill. Men sought to preserve a 'good man's' image by avoiding condoms, which symbolised promiscuous men in AIDS educational messages. Social dimensions of masculine sexuality, pleasure, eroticism and the emotional aspect of men's lives have to be addressed for effective condom promotion.

  9. High consistency forming process for paper making. Part 1. A research, development, and demonstration program plan for the US Papermaking Industry. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-04-01

    The subject of research, development, and demonstration (RD and D) of energy conserving technologies applicable to papermaking operations downstream of the pulping process is addressed. An RD and D Program Plan is presented based on a survey of leading representatives of the papermaking industry, equipment manufacturers, consulting engineering firms, the American Paper Institute, and the Technical Association of the Pulp and Paper Industry. For perspective, the program plan is presented against the general background of the industry's current issues and concerns. The second part of the paper, Phase I, final report, deals with papermaking test facilities. The case for a centralized test facility is discussed. The results of a survey of existing pilot paper machines are presented. The energy saving potential of high consistency forming is considered and related to existing evidence. Simple theoretical models for the press nip action and the drying process are developed to predict where high consistency forming will reduce energy consumption. A special dynamic former has been designed, fabricated, and commissioned to allow development of a laboratory high consistency headbox. The design and construction of a low speed headbox has been completed and the complete system operated. Special equipment and techniques for the measurement of the water and air permeability of sheet samples have been developed and are described.

  10. A qualitative exploration of barriers to condom use among female sex workers in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Jie

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Sex workers in China continue to engage in unprotected sex acts that put them at risk for contracting HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus and other STIs (Sexually Transmitted Infections. The purpose of this study was to explore women's work history, the context of sex work, condom use, HIV testing services, and potential barriers to condom use in a sample of FSWs (female sex workers in Guangzhou, China. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In-depth, semi-structured, face-to-face interviews were conducted with 24 FSWs in Guangzhou, China. Informants were recruited using a purposive sampling technique. Qualitative data were coded and analyzed using NVivo 8.0. The majority of respondents were internal economic migrants who had entered the sex industry in pursuit of greater financial reward. Most women in the study were married or had steady boyfriends, and were young, with secondary education and limited knowledge about HIV and STIs. Most were not satisfied with their current living conditions and expressed a desire to leave the sex industry. Women reported that they were more likely to use condoms during sex acts with commercial partners than with non-commercial partners. The potential stigma of being seen as a sex worker prevented many from accessing HIV testing. Three key factors put these FSWs at risk for HIV and STIs: unreasonable trust toward clients, stereotypes and assumptions about customers, and financial incentives. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These findings suggest that social and economic factors play an important role in shaping sexual decision-making among female sex workers in Guangzhou. We argue that greater insight into and attention to these factors could enhance the success of HIV prevention efforts.

  11. Effects of condom social marketing on condom use in developing countries: a systematic review and meta-analysis, 1990-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweat, Michael D; Denison, Julie; Kennedy, Caitlin; Tedrow, Virginia; O'Reilly, Kevin

    2012-08-01

    To examine the relationship between condom social marketing programmes and condom use. Standard systematic review and meta-analysis methods were followed. The review included studies of interventions in which condoms were sold, in which a local brand name(s) was developed for condoms, and in which condoms were marketed through a promotional campaign to increase sales. A definition of intervention was developed and standard inclusion criteria were followed in selecting studies. Data were extracted from each eligible study, and a meta-analysis of the results was carried out. Six studies with a combined sample size of 23,048 met the inclusion criteria. One was conducted in India and five in sub-Saharan Africa. All studies were cross-sectional or serial cross-sectional. Three studies had a comparison group, although all lacked equivalence in sociodemographic characteristics across study arms. All studies randomly selected participants for assessments, although none randomly assigned participants to intervention arms. The random-effects pooled odds ratio for condom use was 2.01 (95% confidence interval, CI: 1.42-2.84) for the most recent sexual encounter and 2.10 (95% CI: 1.51-2.91) for a composite of all condom use outcomes. Tests for heterogeneity yielded significant results for both meta-analyses. The evidence base for the effect of condom social marketing on condom use is small because few rigorous studies have been conducted. Meta-analyses showed a positive and statistically significant effect on increasing condom use, and all individual studies showed positive trends. The cumulative effect of condom social marketing over multiple years could be substantial. We strongly encourage more evaluations of these programmes with study designs of high rigour.

  12. Chinese Culture, Homosexuality Stigma, Social Support and Condom Use: A Path Analytic Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hongjie; Feng, Tiejian; Ha, Toan; Liu, Hui; Cai, Yumao; Liu, Xiaoli; Li, Jian

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE: The objective of this study was to examine the interrelationships among individualism, collectivism, homosexuality-related stigma, social support, and condom use among Chinese homosexual men. METHODS: A cross-sectional study using the respondent-driven sampling approach was conducted among 351 participants in Shenzhen, China. Path analytic modeling was used to analyze the interrelationships. RESULTS: The results of path analytic modeling document the following statistically significant associations with regard to homosexuality: (1) higher levels of vertical collectivism were associated with higher levels of public stigma [β (standardized coefficient) = 0.12] and self stigma (β = 0.12); (2) higher levels of vertical individualism were associated with higher levels self stigma (β = 0.18); (3) higher levels of horizontal individualism were associated with higher levels of public stigma (β = 0.12); (4) higher levels of self stigma were associated with higher levels of social support from sexual partners (β = 0.12); and (5) lower levels of public stigma were associated with consistent condom use (β = -0.19). CONCLUSIONS: The findings enhance our understanding of how individualist and collectivist cultures influence the development of homosexuality-related stigma, which in turn may affect individuals' decisions to engage in HIV-protective practices and seek social support. Accordingly, the development of HIV interventions for homosexual men in China should take the characteristics of Chinese culture into consideration.

  13. Analysis of high-resolution HapMap of DTNBP1 (Dysbindin) suggests no consistency between reported common variant associations and schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutsuddi, Mousumi; Morris, Derek W; Waggoner, Skye G; Daly, Mark J; Scolnick, Edward M; Sklar, Pamela

    2006-11-01

    DTNBP1 was first identified as a putative schizophrenia-susceptibility gene in Irish pedigrees, with a report of association to common genetic variation. Several replication studies have reported confirmation of an association to DTNBP1 in independent European samples; however, reported risk alleles and haplotypes appear to differ between studies, and comparison among studies has been confounded because different marker sets were employed by each group. To facilitate evaluation of existing evidence of association and further work, we supplemented the extensive genotype data, available through the International HapMap Project (HapMap), about DTNBP1 by specifically typing all associated single-nucleotide polymorphisms reported in each of the studies of the Centre d'Etude du Polymorphisme Humain (CEPH)-derived HapMap sample (CEU). Using this high-density reference map, we compared the putative disease-associated haplotype from each study and found that the association studies are inconsistent with regard to the identity of the disease-associated haplotype at DTNBP1. Specifically, all five "replication" studies define a positively associated haplotype that is different from the association originally reported. We further demonstrate that, in all six studies, the European-derived populations studied have haplotype patterns and frequencies that are consistent with HapMap CEU samples (and each other). Thus, it is unlikely that population differences are creating the inconsistency of the association studies. Evidence of association is, at present, equivocal and unsatisfactory. The new dense map of the region may be valuable in more-comprehensive follow-up studies.

  14. Condom use still unacceptable to many in Singapore regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-10-21

    At a 3-day meeting sponsored by the Association of Southeast Asia Nations (ASEAN), Thailand, Malaysia, Viet Nam, the Philippines, Indonesia, Singapore, and Brunei pledged to implement a series of high-profile projects to combat the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) epidemic. Although details of the projects were not revealed, they focus on education, information sharing, and improved surveillance. Voluntary groups, the private sector, community organizations, and government departments will be enlisted in the AIDS prevention effort. Participants noted that earlier concerns that condom promotion would encourage premarital and extramarital sex have proved unfounded. A survey conducted in Thailand indicated that AIDS education programs have increased condom use with prostitutes to 60%. Almost 3000 new cases of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) occur each day in South and Southeast Asia.

  15. Predicting Condom Use Attitudes, Norms, and Control Beliefs in Hispanic Problem Behavior Youth: The Effects of Family Functioning and Parent-Adolescent Communication about Sex on Condom Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malcolm, Shandey; Huang, Shi; Cordova, David; Freitas, Derek; Arzon, Margaret; Jimenez, Giselle Leon; Pantin, Hilda; Prado, Guillermo

    2013-01-01

    Hispanic problem behavior youth are at an increased risk of engaging in HIV risk behaviors, including low condom use. However, relatively little research has examined factors that affect condom use in this population. Although research indicates that family processes, such as higher levels of family functioning and open parent-adolescent…

  16. Internal consistency, test-retest reliability and measurement error of the self-report version of the social skills rating system in a sample of Australian adolescents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharmila Vaz

    Full Text Available The social skills rating system (SSRS is used to assess social skills and competence in children and adolescents. While its characteristics based on United States samples (US are published, corresponding Australian figures are unavailable. Using a 4-week retest design, we examined the internal consistency, retest reliability and measurement error (ME of the SSRS secondary student form (SSF in a sample of Year 7 students (N = 187, from five randomly selected public schools in Perth, western Australia. Internal consistency (IC of the total scale and most subscale scores (except empathy on the frequency rating scale was adequate to permit independent use. On the importance rating scale, most IC estimates for girls fell below the benchmark. Test-retest estimates of the total scale and subscales were insufficient to permit reliable use. ME of the total scale score (frequency rating for boys was equivalent to the US estimate, while that for girls was lower than the US error. ME of the total scale score (importance rating was larger than the error using the frequency rating scale. The study finding supports the idea of using multiple informants (e.g. teacher and parent reports, not just student as recommended in the manual. Future research needs to substantiate the clinical meaningfulness of the MEs calculated in this study by corroborating them against the respective Minimum Clinically Important Difference (MCID.

  17. Teaching condom use skills: practice is superior to observation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calsyn, Donald A; Hatch-Maillette, Mary A; Doyle, Suzanne R; Cousins, Sarah; Chen, TeChieh; Godinez, Melinda

    2010-10-01

    Men exposed to a condom skills practice exercise were hypothesized to perform better on condom skills measures than those exposed only to a demonstration or to no intervention. As part of a larger National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) Clinical Trials Network HIV Prevention protocol, men in substance abuse treatment were administered male and female condom use skills measures (MCUS, FCUS) at preintervention, 2 weeks, 3 months, and 6 months postintervention. The MCUS and FCUS scores were compared for 3 intervention exposure groups (demonstration only [DO, n = 149], demonstration plus practice [D+P; n = 112], attended no sessions [NS, n = 139]) across the 4 assessment time points using a mixed effects linear regression model. There is a statistically significant intervention group-by-time effect (P < .0001) for both the MCUS and FCUS. Post hoc, pairwise linear trends across time indicated that for both the MCUS and the FCUS, the D+P group is significantly superior to the DO group and the NS group.

  18. Impact of community-based interventions on condom use in the Tłįchǫ region of Northwest Territories, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edwards Karen E

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since 2005, the Tłįchǫ Community Services Agency (TCSA in Canada's Northwest Territories (NT has addressed rising rates of sexually transmitted infections (STI. In 2009, STI rates in the NT were ten times higher than the national rate and Tłįchǫ regional rates were nearly four times that of the NT – 91 cases per 1000 people. We describe a social audit process that assessed the impact of an evidence-based community-led intervention. Methods A baseline survey of sexual health knowledge, attitudes and behaviours in 2006/07 provided evidence for a Community Action Research Team (CART to develop and to put in place culturally appropriate interventions in the Tłįchǫ region. A follow-up study in 2010 sought to assess the impact of CART activities on condom use and underlying conscious knowledge, attitudes, subjective norms, intention to change, sense of agency and discussions related to condom use and STI risks. We report the contrasts using Odds Ratios (OR and 95% confidence intervals (CI. Results One in every three follow-up respondents (315/808 participated in at least one CART activity. Participation in highly ranked interventions was associated with increased condom use during the last sexual encounter (OR 1.45, 95%CI 1.07-1.98. Those exposed to three or more activities were more likely to talk openly about condoms (OR 2.08, 95%CI 1.41-3.28, but were also less likely to be monogamous (OR 0.49, 95%CI 0.29-0.90. Conclusions The measurable impact on condom use indicates a strong beginning for the Tłįchǫ community intervention programmes. The interventions also seem to generate increased discussion, often a precursor to action. The Tłįchǫ can use the evidence to improve and refocus their programming, increase knowledge and continue to improve safe condom use practices.

  19. University of accession to the use of condoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Nagib Boery

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The AIDS pandemic has emerged as a serious disease, synonymous of programmed death, prevalent among people belonging to the called "risk group", like the homosexual men and intravenous drug users. Over the years, the profile of those infected has gone through major epidemiological transition, characterized by internalization, juvenização, pauperization, heterosexuality, feminization and blackening. This new hillside led to understanding the incorporation of the term, risk behavior, that was recently replaced by the concept of vulnerability as it incorporates cultural, social, economic and programmatic dimensions, among others. Considering the relevant morbidity and mortality due of the infection, their prevention and control are highlighted in the scope of public health. In this context, we have the use of condoms in all sexual relations, as a fundamental strategy to contain the spread of Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs in general. Were objectives of the study: check the university adherence to the use of condoms; compare if there are differences between the adherence to condom use among university enrolled in nursing course from I to IV semesters and students of V to VII semester; identify factors that facilitate and / or make hard the adherence of the university to the use of condoms. The research, has a exploratory character and qualitative nature and was based on the principles of social representations theory. Were informants of the study 20 students of nursing from a public university, located in Bahia. Data were collected through interviews guided by a semi – structured script. The analysis was done using the technique of thematic content analysis. Considering the results, were demonstrated the vulnerability of academics due to non-adherence to condom use in all sexual relations. The fact deserves attention as all highlighted the importance of using the method in the prevention of STIs and / or unplanned pregnancy. Is important

  20. Condom use in sexual exchange relationships among young single adults in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ankomah, A

    1998-08-01

    This article discusses some personal and situational factors which hinder the use of condoms among young single adults ages 18 to 25 years engaged in sexual exchange relationships in a Ghanaian town. Based on focus group discussions and in-depth interviews, this article highlights some key impediments often not adequately discussed in the discourse on condom use but considered vital in any attempt to increase condom use and ultimately reduce HIV transmission. The includes the dilemma facing women who want to use condoms for HIV prevention in premarital sexual exchange relationships (quite different from prostitution) contracted with material gain in mind. Women may face the risk of losing material benefits from sexual exchange relationships if the man is unwilling to use condoms. It is recommended that HIV health educators must increase the involvement of young single adults in exploring these and situational impediments and together design interventions to improve condom use.

  1. Condom use with various types of sex partners by money boys in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shusen; Chen, Lin; Li, Li; Zhao, Jin; Cai, Wende; Rou, Keming; Wu, Zunyou; Detels, Roger

    2012-04-01

    Money boys (MBs) who typically sell sex to males have not yet been extensively studied in China. In this 2009 study, 28 venue-based MBs were interviewed. We analyzed their condom use behaviors with various partners, including male and female clients, male and female casual partners, other MBs and female sex workers, and boyfriends and girlfriends. All participants were aware of the need for using condoms; however, usage with different partner types varied. The longer a relationship with a partner, the less frequent was condom use. A major reason for not using condoms was that they or their partners did not like the loss of sensation due to condom use. Other factors included sexual orientation, age, duration in commercial sex, concerns about HIV/AIDS, attractiveness of partners, and support of "mommies" (brothel supervisors). Both individual- and venue-level interventions are needed to promote condom use, and mommies need to be included in intervention strategies.

  2. Sex, condoms, gender roles, and HIV transmission knowledge among adolescents in León, Nicaragua: implications for HIV prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manji, A; Peña, R; Dubrow, R

    2007-09-01

    There are few peer-reviewed studies of HIV/AIDS-related knowledge, attitudes, beliefs and practices among adolescents in Central America. A population-based cross-sectional survey was conducted among 246 adolescents in León, Nicaragua, where there is reason for concern about a rise in HIV infections. In many respects, León adolescents were typical of those in other Latin American countries, with a mixture of correct and incorrect knowledge about transmission of HIV and sexually transmitted infections, a higher proportion of males than females reporting having had sex or using condoms, and inconsistent condom use. While some sexual attitudes conformed to the ideology of machismo, others did not, providing an opening for prevention interventions. Some dimensions of HIV/AIDS stigma were high, and most adolescents disapproved of same-sex sexual behaviour. Intervention against homosexuality-related stigma is particularly urgent because a concentrated HIV epidemic may be emerging in Nicaragua among men who have sex with men. Personal religious beliefs did not appear to pose a barrier to condom use. In a multivariate model, being out of school was a significant correlate of having had sex and of insufficient HIV/AIDS-related knowledge. Accordingly, HIV prevention interventions must reach adolescents both in and out of school. A multi-component approach to prevention is needed, including programmes based in schools, communities, the mass media and health facilities.

  3. Knowledge of AIDS and condom as a preventive measure against AIDS among married males and factors influencing it in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, M M; Kabir, M; Shahidullah, M

    2007-01-01

    The acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is now a global scourge of mankind. Nevertheless, Bangladesh is categorized as a low HIV prevalence country, from an epidemiological point of view, the HIV epidemic in Bangladesh is evolving rapidly. The majority of the studies on HIV/AIDS and condom use were carried out among the risk segment of people in the country. This study aimed to investigate the knowledge of AIDS and use of condoms among general population for prevention of HIV/AIDS in Bangladesh. Both quantitative and qualitative study designs were adopted in this study. Cross-sectional data were collected from rural and urban areas. Married males aged 20 years and above constituted the study population. Data on 524 male respondents were analyzed using SPSS software version 11.5. For qualitative data, selective in-depth interview was done using unstructured guidelines. Analysis indicated that 26 of the respondents had no knowledge about AIDS. More than one-fifth 23 had poor, 26 had well and 25 had excellent knowledge on AIDS. Only 29 reportedly mentioned that condom might be a preventive measure against AIDS. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that urban residents with access to electronic and printed media, better socioeconomic condition and service holders appeared to be significantly associated with knowledge of condom as a preventive measure for AIDS pcondom as a preventive measure against AIDS. Useful and fruitful media campaigns to educate the people regarding the health consequences of STDs including HIV/AIDS and integrated approach is strongly suggested for disseminating knowledge and awareness to control the spread of HIV/AIDS among people in Bangladesh.

  4. The effect of marriage and HIV risks on condom use acceptability in rural Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anglewicz, Philip; Clark, Shelley

    2013-11-01

    A large and increasing proportion of HIV transmissions in sub-Saharan Africa occur within marriage. Condom use within marriage could, therefore, be an important prevention strategy, but there is considerable debate about whether married couples would be willing to use condoms. This paper contributes to this debate by identifying key factors that affect the acceptability of condom use within marriage and actual condom use among men and women in rural Malawi, using three waves of longitudinal data from 2004, 2006 and 2008. Specifically, we focused on the effect of (1) entry into first marriage, (2) respondent's HIV status, HIV perceptions, and risk behaviors, and (3) spouse's HIV characteristics on condom use acceptability within marriage and actual condom use with a spouse or steady partner. Using fixed-effects regression, we found that getting married coincides with a pronounced attitudinal shift regarding the acceptability of condom use within marriage that cannot be explained by differences in fertility status or selection into marriage. In addition, we found that, for women, perceived HIV status of the respondent and spouse generally had greater influence than actual HIV status on the acceptability of condom use within marriage and actual condom use with a spouse or steady partner, even after HIV status is known; while actual HIV status and HIV risk behaviors are generally more important among men. Although condom use within marriage remained low, these findings suggest that attitudes about and use of condoms are susceptible to change and that both marital status and perceptions of risk are important influences on condom use.

  5. On the road again: concurrency and condom use among Uganda truck drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costenbader, Elizabeth C; Lancaster, Kathryn; Bufumbo, Leonard; Akol, Angela; Guest, Greg

    2015-01-01

    Long-distance truck drivers have been shown to be a critical population in the spread of HIV in Africa. In 2009, surveys with 385 Ugandan long-distance truck drivers measured concurrency point prevalence with two methods; it ranged from 37.4% (calendar-method) to 50.1% (direct question). The majority (84%) of relationships reported were long-term resulting in a long duration of overlap (average of 58 months) across concurrent partnerships. Only 7% of these men reported using any condoms with their spouses during the past month. Among all non-spousal relationships, duration of relationship was the factor most strongly associated with engaging in unprotected sex in the past month in a multivariable analyses controlling for partner and relationship characteristics. Innovative intervention programs for these men and their partners are needed that address the realities of truck drivers' lifestyles.

  6. HIV prevention and marriage: peer group effects on condom use acceptability in rural Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordero Coma, Julia

    2014-09-01

    The twofold function of condom use - contraception and sexually transmitted disease protection - should be taken into account when understanding attitudes towards this practice. Emphasis on the interpretation of condom use as a protective practice conflicts with the norms of fidelity and trust, which regulate marriage. The alternative interpretation of condom use as a contraceptive method may be less problematic. This paper analyzes the extent to which the attitude of married men and women towards condom use with their spouses, and their actual use of condoms within marriage, are affected by their expectations about the dominant attitudes and behaviors in their peer group. I expect that a social consensus on understanding condom use as an HIV-preventive behavior will not make this practice more acceptable within marriage, while social acceptance of modern contraception and, more specifically, of the use of condoms for contraceptive purposes will. Two waves of a longitudinal survey from 1996 to 1999 in rural Kenya are analyzed using fixed-effects regression. Social support for each function of condom use is measured with indicators of the proportion of individuals in the peer group that use condoms for a particular purpose or have a positive attitude towards each of the uses, according to the respondent. The results support the hypothesis for men, but are inconclusive for women.

  7. Effects of In-country and Cross-Border Mobility on Condom Use Among Transgender Women (hijras) in Bangladesh: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rana, A K M Masud; Reza, Md Masud; Alam, Md Shah; Khatun, Mahmuda; Khan, Sharful Islam; Azim, Tasnim

    2016-10-01

    In Bangladesh transgender women (hijras) are thought to be highly mobile that may be an impediment to condom use. This cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the extent of mobility of hijras, in-country and cross-border, and whether mobility affects condom use in anal intercourse. Hijras ≥15 years of age, receiving services from the Global Fund supported HIV prevention program were enrolled. A behavioral questionnaire was administered and blood was tested for antibodies to HIV and syphilis. Of 889 hijras sampled, 41.3 % never traveled, 26.4 % traveled in-country and 32.3 % crossed the border in the last year. HIV and active syphilis was at 0.8 and 1.8 % respectively. Among hijras who crossed the border condom use was less likely in last anal intercourse (AOR 0.68; 95 % CI 0.48-0.96), and consistently with new (AOR 0.59; 95 % CI 0.34-1.01) and regular clients (AOR 0.45; 95 % CI 0.27-0.76) in the last week. This study concludes that in Bangladesh hijras are highly mobile and cross-border mobility negatively affects condom use.

  8. Determinants of condom use by men in extramarital relationships in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ankomah A

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Augustine Ankomah,1 Samson B Adebayo,2,3 Jennifer Anyanti,3 Olaronke Ladipo,3,† Bright Ekweremadu31Department of Population, Family and Reproductive Health, School of Public Health, University of Ghana, Accra, Ghana; 2Directorate of Planning, Research and Statistics, National Agency for the Control of Food and Drugs Administration and Control, Abuja, Nigeria; 3Society for Family Health, Abuja, Nigeria†Olaronke Ladipo passed away on 30/10/2012Background: Extramarital sex is a high-risk behavior in terms of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV transmission, yet condom use in extramarital relationships is an understudied area in Africa, and Nigeria in particular, where such liaisons are not uncommon. This study highlights key determinants of condom use among men who engage in extramarital sex in Nigeria.Methods: Results are based on a subsample of 642 married men from a combined dataset from three waves of the National HIV/AIDS and Reproductive Health Survey (NARHS, a set of multiround nationally representative surveys. Logistic regression was employed to explore possible determinants of condom use in extramarital sex. The motivation, opportunity, and ability model was applied in selecting the determinants.Results: HIV risk-reduction knowledge was found not to be associated with condom use. At the full logistic regression model, being of the Yoruba tribe, having no misconception about HIV transmission, ability to discuss condom use, and ability to wear condoms were the key variables significantly associated with condom use in extramarital sex.Conclusion: Implementing HIV risk-reduction behavior change requires more than knowledge. Behavioral skills in condom use are critical. Intervention efforts should move away from knowledge about risk to concentrate on improving skills on how to discuss condom use and wear condoms correctly.Keywords: married men, extramarital sex, condom use, motivation, opportunity, Nigeria

  9. Development of a scale for attitude toward condom use for migrant workers in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talukdar, Arunansu; Bal, Runa; Sanyal, Debasis; Roy, Krishnendu; Talukdar, Payel Sengupta

    2008-02-01

    The propaganda for the use of condoms remains one of the mainstay for prevention of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission. In spite of the proven efficacy of condom, some moral, social and psychological obstacles are still prevalent, hindering the use of condoms. The study tried to construct a short condom-attitude scale for use among the migrant workers, a major bridge population in India. The study was conducted among the male migrant workers who were 18-49 years old, sexually active and had heard about condoms and were engaged in nonformal jobs. We recruited 234 and 280 candidates for Phase 1 and Phase 2 respectively. Ten items from the original 40-item Brown's ATC (attitude towards condom) scale were selected in Phase 1. After analysis of Phase 1 results, using principal component analysis six items were found appropriate for measuring attitude towards condom use. These six items were then administered in another group in Phase 2. Utilizing Pearson's correlations, scale items were examined in terms of their mean response scores and the correlation matrix between items. Cornbach's alpha and construct validity were also assessed for the entire sample. Study subjects were categorized as condom users and nonusers. The scale structure was explored by analyzing response scores with respect to the items, using principal component analysis followed by varimax rotation analysis. Principal component analysis revealed that the first factor accounted for 71% of the variance, with eigenvalue greater than one. Eigenvalues of the second factor was less than one. Application of screen test suggests only one factor was dominant. Mean score of six items among condom users was 20.45 and that among nonusers was 16.67, which was statistically significant (Pattitude-toward-condom-use scale, targeted for most vulnerable people in India, can be included in any rapid survey for assessing the existing beliefs and attitudes toward condoms and also for evaluating efficacy of an

  10. Social marketing: making condoms available to communities. An interview with Duncan Earle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-05-01

    This document presents an interview in which AIDSCAP private-sector officer Duncan Earle discusses how condom social marketing contributes to AIDS prevention efforts. Condom social marketing uses commercial marketing techniques to promote condom use by making them more accessible and affordable. Thus, condoms are sold where people can purchase them without embarrassment (often by street hawkers) or where they may be needed in impulsive situations (in bars, hotels, and nightclubs). Social marketing relies on such marketing techniques as identifying wholesalers, assisting wholesalers with sales, creating point-of-purchase advertising, and developing attractive packaging. Prices are based on rough formulas derived from per capita gross national product and the prices people are willing to pay for such products as matches, cigarettes, candy, and aspirin. Quality is assured if the condoms are obtained through the US Agency for International Development's procurement system. Samples of condoms obtained from other sources are submitted for quality testing. The success of social marketing programs can be determined by examining sales and resupply. Cost effectiveness is determined by the cost of delivering 100 condoms (1 couple-year of protection). While social marketing would be more cost effective without expenditures on advertising, it would be less effective overall. Some barriers that must be overcome to market condoms include laws outlawing the sale or advertising of condoms, duties and customs' surcharges on imported condoms (which, in some cases, increase the cost 33%), and religious objections to contraception. As well as selling condoms, social marketing programs educate people about AIDS using any kind of media available.

  11. Correlates of intention to use the female condom among women taking methadone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    el-Bassel, N; Krishnan, S P; Witte, S; Schilling, R F; Catan, V; Pollin, S

    1998-01-01

    The correlates of high-risk women's intentions to use the female condom were investigated in a descriptive study involving 148 sexually active women from 3 US methadone clinics. 51% of women were Latina and 38% were African-American; the mean age was 39 years. Male condoms, douching, sterilization, and withdrawal were the most frequently used contraceptive methods in the 90 days preceding the study. 56% had heard of the female condom, but only 6% had used it. Of the 139 women who had never used the female condom, 32% indicated they intended to use it in the future. Such intention was significantly, positively correlated with age under 39 years, African-American ethnicity, and the belief the female condom offers users a sense of personal control over their sexuality. Those who intended to use the female condom were more likely to have previously used male condoms, believe their partners would be supportive of the device, think female condom use could be erotic and fun, feel confident in their ability to negotiate safer sex, and to welcome an additional option for practicing safer sex. They were also less likely than their counterparts, who did not intend to use a female condom, to believe use of this method would imply they had a sexually transmitted disease or were too eager to have sex. Compared with women who did not intend to use the female condom, those who did were more likely to discuss the device with at least 1 member of their social network. These findings confirm the necessity of considering gender relations and social networks in the design of female condom promotion strategies.

  12. Social Cohesion Among Sex Workers and Client Condom Refusal in a Canadian Setting: Implications for Structural and Community-Led Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argento, Elena; Duff, Putu; Bingham, Brittany; Chapman, Jules; Nguyen, Paul; Strathdee, Steffanie A; Shannon, Kate

    2016-06-01

    Community empowerment can be a powerful determinant of HIV risk among sex workers (SWs). This study modeled the impact of social cohesion on client condom refusal among SWs in Vancouver. Longitudinal data were drawn from a prospective cohort of SWs (2010-2013). Lippman and colleagues' Social Cohesion Scale measured SWs' connectedness (i.e., perception of mutual aid, trust, support). Multivariable logistic regression examined the independent effect of social cohesion on client condom refusal. Of 654 SWs, 22 % reported baseline client condom refusal and 34 % over 3 years. The baseline median social cohesion score was 24 (IQR 20-29, range 4-45). In the final confounding model, for every one-point increase in the social cohesion score, average odds of condom refusal decreased by 3 % (AOR 0.97; 95 % CI 0.95-0.99). Community empowerment can have a direct protective effect on HIV risk. These findings highlight the need for a legal framework that enables collectivization and SW-led efforts in the HIV response.

  13. Is pornography consumption associated with condom use and intoxication during hookups?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braithwaite, Scott R; Givens, Anneli; Brown, Jacob; Fincham, Frank

    2015-01-01

    In order to examine whether pornography consumption is associated with risky sexual behaviour among emerging adults, we examined two large samples of those who reported hooking up in the past 12 months (combined n =  1216). Pornography use was associated with a higher likelihood of having a penetrative hookup; a higher incidence of intoxication during hookups for men (but a lower incidence of intoxication during hookups for women); increasing levels of intoxication during hookups for men but decreasing levels of intoxication for women; and a higher likelihood of being in the riskiest category of having a penetrative hookup, without a condom, while intoxicated. For each of these outcomes, our point estimates for Study 2 fell within the 95% confidence intervals from Study 1. Controlling for trait self-control, binge drinking frequency, broader problematic patterns of alcohol use, openness to experience, and attitudes toward casual sex did not change the pattern of results. Implications for interventions to reduce sexual risk are discussed.

  14. Impact of an intervention on HIV, sexually transmitted diseases, and condom use among sex workers in Bombay, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhave, G; Lindan, C P; Hudes, E S; Desai, S; Wagle, U; Tripathi, S P; Mandel, J S

    1995-07-01

    The objective was to develop and test an HIV intervention targeting sex workers and madams in the brothels of Bombay. In a controlled intervention trial, with measurements before and after the intervention, 334 sex workers and 20 madams were recruited from an intervention site, and 207 and 17, respectively, from a similar control site, both in red-light areas of Bombay. All sex workers were tested for antibodies to HIV and syphilis, and for hepatitis B surface antigen. Information on sexual practices, condom use, and knowledge of HIV was collected by questionnaires. All subjects in the intervention group underwent a 6-month program of educational videos, small group discussions and pictorial educational materials; free condoms were also distributed. The blood tests and the questionnaire were readministered to all subjects at both sites immediately after the intervention. Both groups were followed for approximately 1 year. The baseline prevalence of HIV antibodies was 47% in the intervention group and 41% in the control group (p = 0.17). The incidence densities for HIV and sexually transmitted diseases were significantly different in the 2 groups (all p 0.005): 0.05 and 0.16 per person-year of follow-up for HIV, 0.08 and 0.22 per person-year for antibodies to syphilis, and 0.04 and 0.12 per person-year for hepatitis B surface antigen in the intervention and control women, respectively. Following the intervention, there was a significant increase in knowledge of modes of HIV transmission in the intervention group (n = 334) compared to the control group (n = 190) (60% vs. 99% compared to 56% vs. 26%, p 0.001). In addition, women reported increased levels of condom use and some (41%) said they were willing to refuse clients who would not use them. However, both the sex workers and 100% of the madams were concerned about losing business if condom use was insisted upon. Intervention programs of longer duration that target madams and clients and make condoms easily

  15. Behavioral interventions to promote condom use among women living with HIV: a systematic review update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tonantzin Ribeiro Gonçalves

    Full Text Available Abstract: Behavioral interventions have been essential components of HIV prevention approaches, especially those aimed to promote safe sexual practices. We conducted a comprehensive literature search without language restrictions between 1980 and July 2014 to identify randomized controlled trials or controlled studies investigating behavioral interventions which: included women living with HIV; focused on condom use promotion; presented/analyzed outcomes by gender; used a 3-month follow-up or more; and considered at least one HIV-related behavioral or biological outcome. Eight studies comprising a total of 1,355 women living with HIV were included in the meta-analyses, and 13 studies were qualitatively described. When compared to standard care or minimal support intervention, behavioral interventions did not demonstrate an effect on increasing consistent condom use at the 3-month follow-up (RR = 0.92; 95%CI: 0.73, 1.16; p = 0.48, 6-month follow-up (RR = 1.13; 95%CI: 0.96, 1.34; p = 0.15, and 12-month follow-up (RR = 0.91; 95%CI: 0.77, 1.08; p = 0.30. Behavioral interventions also failed to reach positive effect in reduction of unprotected sexual intercourse at 6-months (MD = -1.80; 95%CI: -4.21, 0.62; p = 0.14 and 12-months follow-up (MD = -1.39; 95%CI: -2.29, 0.21; p = 0.09. These findings should be interpreted with caution since they are based on a few small trials. New researches are needed to assess the potential gains from a combination of interventions that promote safe sexual behavior with a harm reduction and gender approach, particularly in developing countries where HIV infection rates remain high.

  16. Gender and its impact on condom use among HIV male serodiscordant couples%男性HIV单阳家庭社会性别相关因素对安全套使用情况的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾吉; 辛倩倩; 吕繁

    2013-01-01

    持使用率有所提高.%Objective To study the gender-based factors which influence the condom use among the HIV serodiscordant couples in selected regions of China.Methods Based on the analysis of the existing case reporting database and convenient sampling in the cross-sectional study,a total of 481 female HIV-negative spouses completed an interviewer-administered questionnaire regarding demographic characters,the knowledge,behaviors and the gender-based factors in five sites of four provinces Sichuan(Zhaojue),Yunnan (Dali),Henan (Weishi) and Guangxi (Lingshan and Luzhai),during June-September 2011.x2 analysis and logistic regression were used to study the gender-based factors influencing condom use among the participants.Results Among the 481 female HIV-negative spouses,the average age was (35.1 ± 6.7)years,and the proportion of Han and Yi nationality were high,43.5% (209/481) and 41.8% (201/481),respectively.The awareness of knowledge related to HIV spousal transmission was high(≥79.6%).A total of 86.9% (418/481) used condom more frequently after informed the status of HIV infection of their spouses,and the condom use consistency was 56.6% (272/481).A total of 57.6% (277/481) reported low sexual relationship power; 34.5% (166/481) experienced forced sex in the past 1 year.And the proportion of condom use self-efficacy from 0 to 3 scores were 12.7% (61/481),23.9% (115/481),8.7% (42/481) and 54.7% (263/481),respectively (median =3).Han and other nationality were significantly more likely to use condom consistently than Yi,with odds ratio (95% CI) of 0.01 (0.00-0.03) and 0.01 (0.00-0.04),and the female spouses with higher condom use self-efficacy used condom more consistently than the lower ones,with odds ratio(95% CI) of 0.20 (0.11-0.34).Conclusion The female spouses with higher condom use self-efficacy were more likely to use condom consistently after excluding the confounding effect of nationality.

  17. Structural impediments to condom access in a High HIV/STI-risk area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizkalla, Christine; Bauman, Laurie J; Avner, Jeffrey R

    2010-01-01

    As embarrassment is a known obstacle to condom acquisition, selling condoms from physically inaccessible places that require personnel assistance constitutes a barrier to access. This study investigates the extent of this barrier in the Bronx, a high HIV/STI prevalence county of New York. 75 of 320 listed Bronx pharmacies were sampled via computer randomization. Investigators coded condom placement and physical accessibility within these pharmacies and 140 surrounding stores. 91% of sites sold condoms. In 82%, condoms could not be accessed without assistance. Condoms were physically inaccessible in venues most encountered in the community: grocery stores versus pharmacies (OR=15; 95% CI, 5-48), independent versus chain pharmacies (OR=32; 95% CI, 6-235). They were physically inaccessible more in the lowest SES/highest HIV prevalence areas versus the highest SES/lowest HIV prevalence areas (OR = 4.3, 95% CI, 1.1-17). Findings can inform efforts to increase accessibility of condoms, distribute condoms in alternative settings, and prompt similar investigations in other high-risk communities.

  18. Accentuate the negative : Social images in the prediction and promotion of condom use

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blanton, H; VandenEijnden, RJJM; Buunk, BP; Gibbons, FX; Gerrard, M; Bakker, AB

    2001-01-01

    Based on the negativity bias in person perception, we argue that behavioral decisions related to condom use are influenced by the social images that an individual has of people who do not use condoms, but that they are not influenced by the social images that an individual has of people who do use c

  19. One Size Fits All? Promoting Condom Use for Sexually Transmitted Infection Prevention among Heterosexual Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Visser, Richard

    2005-01-01

    The aims of this exploratory qualitative study were to increase our understanding of heterosexual young adults knowledge and beliefs about sexually transmitted infections (STIs) other than HIV, to explore their beliefs about the factors that influence condom use for STI prevention, and to explore their ideas about how best to promote condom use…

  20. Structural Impediments to Condom Access in a High HIV/STI-Risk Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Rizkalla

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available As embarrassment is a known obstacle to condom acquisition, selling condoms from physically inaccessible places that require personnel assistance constitutes a barrier to access. This study investigates the extent of this barrier in the Bronx, a high HIV/STI prevalence county of New York. 75 of 320 listed Bronx pharmacies were sampled via computer randomization. Investigators coded condom placement and physical accessibility within these pharmacies and 140 surrounding stores. 91% of sites sold condoms. In 82%, condoms could not be accessed without assistance. Condoms were physically inaccessible in venues most encountered in the community: grocery stores versus pharmacies (OR=15; 95% CI, 5–48, independent versus chain pharmacies (OR=32; 95% CI, 6–235. They were physically inaccessible more in the lowest SES/highest HIV prevalence areas versus the highest SES/lowest HIV prevalence areas (OR = 4.3, 95% CI, 1.1–17. Findings can inform efforts to increase accessibility of condoms, distribute condoms in alternative settings, and prompt similar investigations in other high-risk communities.

  1. Resisting the "Condom Every Time for Anal Sex" Health Education Message

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Jeffery; Neville, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Ensuring men who have sex with men (MSM) adopt and maintain condom use for anal sex is a challenging health education goal. In order to inform the development of social marketing practices to encourage safe-sex practices, the views of MSM about a key HIV health education message ("using a condom every time for anal sex") were…

  2. A Condom Distribution Program for Adolescents: The Findings of a Feasibility Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Charles B.; Cogswell, Betty E.

    This paper describes a family planning service for adolescent males in an inner-city area. The program utilized the distribution of free condoms through local commercial outlets (barber shops, grocery stores, pool hall, restaurant). The proprietors agreed to distribute condoms in the target area which included approximately 3,000 males aged 12-26…

  3. Condom and Other Contraceptive Use among a Random Sample of Female Adolescents: A Snapshot in Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimley, Diane M.; Lee, Patricia A.

    1997-01-01

    Examines the sexual practices of 235 females aged 15 to 19 years and their readiness to use specific contraceptive methods. Results indicate that, despite the availability of newer contraceptive methods, most sexually active adolescents were least resistant to using condoms, perceiving the male condom as an acceptable preventative both for…

  4. Are Written Instructions Enough? Efficacy of Male Condom Packaging Leaflets among College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindemann, Dana F.; Harbke, Colin R.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate whether or not written condom use instructions successfully inform correct condom use skills. Design: Between-subjects, two-group design. Setting: Public university located in rural Midwestern region of the United States. Method: Participants were randomly assigned to either a control condition (read physical exercise…

  5. The Condom Works in All Situations? Paradoxical Messages in Mainstream Sex Education in Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolander, Eva

    2015-01-01

    The condom plays a vital part in safe sex, the ideal outcome of mainstream Swedish sex education. As researchers have pointed out, however, the condom is not a neutral object; rather, it plays a part in shaping, in different ways, both sexual practices and the idea of what sex is. This paper focuses on sex education television programmes produced…

  6. HIV/AIDS knowledge and condom use among Somali and Sudanese immigrants in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lazarus, Jeff; Himedan, Himedan Mohammed; Østergaard, Lise Rosendal;

    2006-01-01

    This study explores the knowledge, attitudes and practices among Somali and Sudanese immigrants in Denmark with regard to HIV/AIDS and condom use.......This study explores the knowledge, attitudes and practices among Somali and Sudanese immigrants in Denmark with regard to HIV/AIDS and condom use....

  7. Alcohol use, perceptions of the effects of alcohol use, and condom use in urban minority youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, K; Norris, A E

    1998-03-01

    This study examined the relations between alcohol use, perceived effects of alcohol use, and condom use in three different types of sexual partners in African American and Hispanic youth. Data were drawn from a household probability sample of minority youth (N = 1435) living in Detroit. Relationships were examined among three types of sexual partners: "married/lived with" partners, "knew well" partners, and "casual" partners. The effects of alcohol on condom use and perceived effects of alcohol on condom use were investigated using multiple regression with controls for demographic variables and sexual history. The quantity of alcohol consumed with partners was negatively related to condom use in all types of partners. The quantity of alcohol use was also negatively related to the perceived effect of alcohol use on condom use only with "knew well" partners.

  8. The reach and effect of radio communication campaigns on condom use in Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meekers, Dominique; Van Rossem, Ronan; Silva, Martha; Koleros, Andrew

    2007-06-01

    This study uses data from the 2004 Malawi Demographic and Health Survey to assess the reach of selected radio programs about family planning and health in Malawi and their effect on condom use and discussion of family planning. The results show that such radio programs in Malawi reach a broad audience: eight of the 12 programs were heard by at least half of the respondents, although women were less effectively reached than men. For both women and men, the radio programs were found to have a significant impact on family planning discussion with one's partner. The programs' effect on condom use was limited, however. A positive association was found with ever use of condoms, but no association was found with condom use at last intercourse. This limited impact suggests that such radio communication campaigns need to be informed by research identifying the specific constraints to current condom use in Malawi.

  9. Knowledge, attitude and practice of condom use by women of an impoverished urban area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smalyanna Sgren da Costa Andrade

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE Assessing the adequacy of knowledge, attitude and practice of women regarding male and female condoms as STI/HIV preventive measures. METHOD An evaluative Knowledge, Attitude and Practice (KAP household survey with a quantitative approach, involving 300 women. Data collection took place between June and August 2013, in an informal urban settlement within the municipality of João Pessoa, Paraiba, Northeast Brazil. RESULTS Regarding the male condom, most women showed inadequate knowledge and practice, and an adequate attitude. Regarding the female condom, knowledge, attitude and practice variables were unsatisfactory. Significant associations between knowledge/religious orientation and attitude/education regarding the male condom were observed. CONCLUSION A multidisciplinary team should be committed to the development of educational practices as care promotion tools in order to improve adherence of condom use.

  10. From awareness to adoption: the effect of AIDS education and condom social marketing on condom use in Tanzania (1993-1996).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eloundou-Enyegue, Parfait M; Meekers, Dominique; Calvès, Anne Emmanuèle

    2005-05-01

    This paper uses retrospective event-history data covering a four-year period to examine the timing of exposure to HIV/AIDS education and social marketing condom promotion campaigns, relative to the timing of changes in sexual risk behaviour in Tanzania. Analysis of the event-history data shows that the process of exposure to AIDS education messages and exposure to brand advertising for Salama brand condoms was very different. While exposure to AIDS education was early and gradual, exposure to Salama brand condoms started later, but was much more rapid. After one year of advertising, over half of the target population had been reached by the Salama advertising campaign, mostly through newspapers, radio and television. During the study period, condom use increased from 15% at the beginning of 1993 to 42% at the end of 1996. Increases in condom use were driven both by men who became sexually active, and by men who were not yet protected, or not fully protected. The results further show that it is uncommon for men who adopted condom use to return to more risky behaviour, which suggests that behaviour change in the study population is permanent.

  11. Chip Multithreaded Consistency Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zu-Song Li; Dan-Dan Huan; Wei-Wu Hu; Zhi-Min Tang

    2008-01-01

    Multithreaded technique is the developing trend of high performance processor. Memory consistency model is essential to the correctness, performance and complexity of multithreaded processor. The chip multithreaded consistency model adapting to multithreaded processor is proposed in this paper. The restriction imposed on memory event ordering by chip multithreaded consistency is presented and formalized. With the idea of critical cycle built by Wei-Wu Hu, we prove that the proposed chip multithreaded consistency model satisfies the criterion of correct execution of sequential consistency model. Chip multithreaded consistency model provides a way of achieving high performance compared with sequential consistency model and ensures the compatibility of software that the execution result in multithreaded processor is the same as the execution result in uniprocessor. The implementation strategy of chip multithreaded consistency model in Godson-2 SMT processor is also proposed. Godson-2 SMT processor supports chip multithreaded consistency model correctly by exception scheme based on the sequential memory access queue of each thread.

  12. Condom social marketing in sub-Saharan Africa and the Total Market Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Steven; Jafa, Krishna; Longfield, Kim; Vielot, Nadja; Buszin, Justin; Ngamkitpaiboon, Lek; Kays, Megan

    2012-03-01

    Social marketing interventions are important in developing nations. Both increasing use and shifting users from receiving subsidised condoms need to be pursued using a Total Market Approach (TMA). This paper reviews the performance of social marketing through a cross-country comparison of condom use, equity and market share, plus a case study illustrating how TMA can be applied. Demographic and Health Survey data (1998-2007) provide condom use trends, concentration indices and sources of supply by gender for 11 African countries. Service delivery information and market research provide market share data for the same period. For the case study, two-yearly surveys (2001-09) are the source of condom trends, and retail audit data (2007-09) provide sustainability data. Among women, condom use with a non-marital, non-cohabiting partner increased significantly in 7 of 11 countries. For men, 5 of 11 countries showed an increase in condom use. Equity improved for men in five countries and was achieved in two; for women, equity improved in three. Most obtained condoms from shops and pharmacies; social marketing was the dominant source of supply. Data from Kenya were informative for TMA, showing improvements in condom use over time, but sustainability results were mixed and equity was not measured. Overall market value and number of brands increased; however, subsidies increased over time. Condom social marketing interventions have advanced and achieved the goals of improving use and making condoms available in the private sector. It is time to manage interventions and influence markets to improve equity and sustainability.

  13. Dimensions of poverty and inconsistent condom use among youth in urban Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidoff-Gore, Alena; Luke, Nancy; Wawire, Salome

    2011-10-01

    To date, research on the link between poverty and unsafe sexual behaviors has utilized limited measures of socioeconomic status and has overlooked key dimensions of poverty at the individual level. This study explored how various dimensions of socioeconomic status are associated with inconsistent condom use and how these associations vary by gender. We analyzed unique life history survey data from 261 young men and women in Kisumu, Kenya, and conducted analyses based on 959 person-months in which respondents had been sexually active in nonmarital relationships. Dependent variables were inconsistent condom use (not always using a condom) and never use of condoms. Condoms were used inconsistently in 57% of months and were never used in 31%. Corroborating existing literature, lower household wealth and lower educational attainment were associated with inconsistent condom use. Lower individual economic status (lower earned income, food insufficiency, and larger material transfers from partners) were also important determinants of inconsistent condom use. There were no significant differences in these associations by gender, with the exception of food insufficiency, which increased the risk of inconsistent condom use for young women but not for young men. None of these individual measures of socioeconomic status were associated with never use of a condom. The findings suggest that both household- and individual-level measures of socioeconomic status are important correlates of condom use and that individual economic resources play a crucial role in negotiations over the highest level of usage. The results highlight the importance of poverty in shaping sexual behavior, and, in particular, that increasing individual access to resources beyond the household, including ensuring access to food and providing educational and work opportunities, could prove to be effective strategies for decreasing the risk of HIV among youth.

  14. Uso del condón entre adolescentes mexicanos para la prevención de las infecciones de transmisión sexual Condom use among Mexican adolescents to prevent sexually transmitted infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Gayet

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Investigar el comportamiento sexual actual y el uso de condón en la primera relación sexual de adolescentes de 12 a 19 años de edad, la variación en distintos contextos y la influencia de factores sobre el uso del condón en esa primera relación. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Se utiliza la Encuesta Nacional de Salud 2000, y se consideran adolescentes a jovenes de 12 a 19 años de edad, de ambos sexos (n=16 285. Se presenta en primer lugar un análisis descriptivo básico y luego una regresión logística multivariada para determinar la influencia de cuatro tipos de factores (demográficos, socioeconómicos, culturales y cognitivos sobre el uso de condón en el debut sexual. RESULTADOS: Se reporta mayor actividad sexual y un mayor uso de condón entre los hombres y en áreas urbanas. El perfil del adolescente que usó condón en la primera relación es ser adolescente que inicia la vida sexual a una mayor edad, de residencia urbana, que no habla lengua indígena, altamente escolarizado, o de sexo masculino. CONCLUSIONES: Deben diseñarse nuevas políticas de prevención de infecciones de transmisión sexual para cerrar la brecha entre conocimiento y práctica, y dirigidas a los adolescentes que inician su vida sexual más temprano, a los que hablan lengua indígena, a los que viven en áreas rurales, a los menos escolarizados y a las mujeres.OBJECTIVE: To investigate the current sexual behavior and condom use during the first sexual intercourse among adolescents, as well as variations and factors influencing condom use at first sexual intercourse. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The data source for this study was Mexico's National Health Survey 2000. Study subjects were male and female adolescents aged 12 to 19 years (n=16,258. Statistical analysis consisted of descriptive statistics and multivariate logistic regression, to assess the association of four types of factors (demographic, socioeconomic, cultural, and cognitive with condom use during the

  15. Discordant lymphoma consisting of mediastinal large B-cell lymphoma and nodular sclerosis Hodgkin lymphoma in the right supraclavicular lymph nodes: a case report

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zhang, Chun; Yi, Yuanxue; Chen, Chunyan; Wang, Jianrong; Liu, Zhu

    2015-01-01

    .... Here, we report a case of discordant lymphoma in a 34-year-old female patient that involved mediastinal large B-cell lymphoma and nodular sclerosis Hodgkin lymphoma in the right supraclavicular lymph nodes...

  16. Consistent model driven architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niepostyn, Stanisław J.

    2015-09-01

    The goal of the MDA is to produce software systems from abstract models in a way where human interaction is restricted to a minimum. These abstract models are based on the UML language. However, the semantics of UML models is defined in a natural language. Subsequently the verification of consistency of these diagrams is needed in order to identify errors in requirements at the early stage of the development process. The verification of consistency is difficult due to a semi-formal nature of UML diagrams. We propose automatic verification of consistency of the series of UML diagrams originating from abstract models implemented with our consistency rules. This Consistent Model Driven Architecture approach enables us to generate automatically complete workflow applications from consistent and complete models developed from abstract models (e.g. Business Context Diagram). Therefore, our method can be used to check practicability (feasibility) of software architecture models.

  17. Determining a Consistent Set of Accounting and Financial Reporting Standards: A Research Note Based on the IASB-FASB Conceptual Framework Revision Project

    OpenAIRE

    Le Manh, Anne; Ramond, Olivier

    2011-01-01

    Following the debate surrounding the Conceptual Framework revision jointly undertaken by the IASB and the FASB in May 2008, this paper identifies and discusses three major concerns about the way accounting and financial reporting standards should be determined for listed companies evolving in a global context, namely: (1) What is the role and purpose of a Conceptual Framework?; (2) For whom and for which needs are accounting and financial reporting standards made?; and (3) What information se...

  18. Wanted: new condom suppliers for USAID (foreign companies need not apply).

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    The US Agency for International Development (USAID) could have expanded its family planning service budget by 10% had it purchased condoms from foreign manufacturers. In 1991, USAID purchased more than 633 million condoms at 5.3 cents/condom, or $7.63/gross. The United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) and the International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF), however, buy condoms from Korean manufacturers at an approximate cost of 1.7 cents/condom, or $2.50/gross. Had USAID followed suit, more than $22 million would have been saved to be better spent on expanding family planning and AIDS prevention programs in developing countries. The Australian company Ansell supplies 90% of USAID's condoms from its Alabama offices. Alabama Senator Howell Heflin and Ansell representatives have effectively lobbied to make sure that USAID adheres to a policy of buying only American-made products. While the Federal Procurement Act strongly encourages USAID to favor American products, federal law does not bar purchases of products manufactured overseas. USAID also pays considerably more for IUDs than other international agencies. UNFPA and IPPF agree with critics who say that USAID has a responsibility to purchase condoms from less expensive overseas suppliers. In so doing, USAID would maximize the use of American tax dollars while expanding the agency's mission in developing countries. The perceived need to protect a few dozen jobs in Alabama pales next to the potential of sparing hundreds of thousands of lives in Africa.

  19. Influence of the parent-adolescent relationship on condom use among South Korean male college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Eun Seok; Kim, Kevin H; Doswell, Willa M

    2007-12-01

    This study examined the mediating role of condom self-efficacy between the parent-adolescent relationship and the intention to use condoms with a submodel based on the Theory of Planned Behavior. Male students aged 18-25 years (n = 176) were recruited from a university in Seoul, South Korea, using a flyer and self-referral in 2004. A sample of 170 male students was retained for the final data analyses as six subjects had incomplete data on more than one instrument. Condom self-efficacy completely mediated the prediction of intention to use condoms by the quality of the mother-son relationship. However, condom self-efficacy did not mediate the relationship between the quality of the father-son relationship and the intention to use condoms. Only an indirect effect between the quality of the father-son relationship and the intention to use condoms existed. The suggested sex education programs should develop culture-specific, theory-based, and family-based interventions in order to reduce risky sexual behavior among South Korean adolescents.

  20. Obstacles to condom use among secondary school students in Maputo city, Mozambique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manuel, Sandra

    2005-05-01

    This study explores how urban youth in Mozambique perceive their sexual behaviour and identifies the factors that hinder them from having safer sex in the context of HIV/AIDS, with special emphasis on the condom use. Data was collected form high school students in Maputo, Mozambique. Using a combination of focus group discussions, interviews and informal conversations, it was possible to identify that one major obstacle to the use of condoms was young people's belief that they did not have to use condoms in steady relationships built on love and trust. Trust and love provide a sense of immunity to infection. Such a perception is reinforced, it is argued, by previous HIV/AIDS campaigns in Mozambique that have advocated the use of condoms only with 'occasional sexual partners'. Students' understandings of pleasure, lack of accurate information, lack of sex education at home and at school, and gender inequalities further contribute to making condom use a difficult issue. There should be a change in focus in condom campaigns. Efforts should also be made to encourage young people to 'emotionally invest' in their health by using condoms.

  1. Cross-sectional study on AIDS knowledge and condom use in rural areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huang Na; Cheng Yi-min; Li Ying; Guo Xin; Wu Jun-qing; Ru Xiao-mei

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To understand AIDS knowledge and condom use in rural areas, and to analyze the influencing factors of condom use. Methods: This is a cross-sectional study using the cluster-sampling method. 4,800 subjects, randomly selected from six counties in China, were questioned using an anonymous survey. Results: 36% of the subjects knew that tooth extraction could transmit AIDS. 38.4% of the subjects knew that the use of public razors could transmit AIDS. 27.1% of the subjects had used a condom in the last year. The influencing factors of condom use were: sex (OR=1.325), age (OR=1.419), AIDS counseling (OR=2.181), educational level (OR=0.622), location of registered permanent residence (OR=0.732), AIDS knowledge score (OR=0.736), and resident of high AIDS prevalent province (OR=0.354). Conclusion: AIDS knowledge in rural areas is still lacking. The rate of condom use was very low. The main influencing factors of low condom use were being female, elderly, and no AIDS counseling. Higher educational level, registered permanent resident in town, high AIDS knowledge score, and resident of high AIDS prevalent provinces were the propitious factors for condom use.

  2. The Biological Safety of Condom Material Can Be Determined Using an In Vitro Cell Culture System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Motsoane

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Latex products have long been recognized as a cause of latex protein allergy. The increased usage of latex gloves, with the consequent increased occurrence of latex allergies appears to have escalated with increasing awareness of the transmission of HIV–AIDS and other infections. The use of condoms as a means to prevent the transmission of STD's (sexually transmitted diseases and HIV–AIDS has been widely promoted. Although extensive testing is done to evaluate the physical quality of condoms, no information is available regarding the biological safety of condoms. This study was undertaken to determine the effects of short‐term exposure to physiological levels of condom surface material on cell viability (MTT assay and cell growth (crystal violet assay. A direct contact cell culture testing method (FDA test method F813‐83 used to evaluate the cytotoxic potential of medical materials and devices was used. The modified test method was found to be a sensitive test system for the evaluation of the biological safety of condoms. This study reveals the importance of evaluating the biological safety of all condoms that are commercially available, because of the potential health risk that may be associated with prolonged use of certain types of condoms.

  3. Integration of five health behaviour models: common strengths and unique contributions to understanding condom use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Allecia E; Aiken, Leona S

    2011-11-01

    The purpose of this research was to select from the health belief model (HBM), theories of reasoned action (TRA) and planned behaviour (TPB), information-motivation-behavioural skills model (IMB) and social cognitive theory (SCT) the strongest longitudinal predictors of women's condom use and to combine these constructs into a single integrated model of condom use. The integrated model was evaluated for prediction of condom use among young women who had steady versus casual partners. At Time 1, all constructs of the five models and condom use were assessed in an initial and a replication sample (n = 193, n = 161). Condom use reassessed 8 weeks later (Time 2) served as the main outcome. Information from IMB, perceived susceptibility, benefits, and barriers from HBM, self-efficacy and self-evaluative expectancies from SCT, and partner norm and attitudes from TPB served as indirect or direct predictors of condom use. All paths replicated across samples. Direct predictors of behaviour varied with relationship status: self-efficacy significantly predicted condom use for women with casual partners, while attitude and partner norm predicted for those with steady partners. Integrated psychosocial models, rich in constructs and relationships drawn from multiple theories of behaviour, may provide a more complete characterisation of health protective behaviour.

  4. Community Condom Outlet. The Magical Man to Prevent HIV/AIDS in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Nasir Uddin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Bangladesh is believed to be a low HIV prevalent country although the potentiality of spreading HIV remains high because of several contributing factors. There is many sex –workers active with highest sexual contacts and partner exchange but low condom use by both sex workers and their clients expedite the prevalence significantly. There is a sizable population of men who have sex with men and hijra –those who usually do not use condom and consequently high rates of sexually transmitted infections (STIs prevailed in them. Stigma and discrimination against most at risk populations (MARPs is the biggest hurdle to bring them under prevention services against HIV/AIDS in Bangladesh. Therefore Bangladesh is vulnerable to HIV/STI. Condom outlet is a gypsy platform in where most at risk peoples are getting free access to condom at their will. The paper attempts to identify the underlying role of community condom outlet for the prevention of HIV/STI in Bangladesh. Condom outlets are working as an inseparable volunteer under outreach service of HIV/STI prevention project through diversified role as monitor of peer educators, knowledge store of HIV/STI, conflict solver, shelter of peer, outreach worker as well as project staff to fight against HIV/AIDS in Bangladesh. The theoretical approach and literature review of this study provides an understanding of community condom outlet. The researchers try to answer the questions of who the community condom outlets are, what their lifestyle in preventing HIV / STI and how condom outlet are working with community for preventing HIV and STI.

  5. No consistent bimetric gravity?

    CERN Document Server

    Deser, S; Waldron, A

    2013-01-01

    We discuss the prospects for a consistent, nonlinear, partially massless (PM), gauge symmetry of bimetric gravity (BMG). Just as for single metric massive gravity, ultimate consistency of both BMG and the putative PM BMG theory relies crucially on this gauge symmetry. We argue, however, that it does not exist.

  6. HIV vulnerability and condom use among migrant women factory workers in Puebla, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendall, Tamil; Pelcastre, Blanca Estela

    2010-06-01

    International migration is associated with increased HIV vulnerability, but little is known about the vulnerability of internal migrants. This qualitative study explored perceptions of HIV and condom use among Mexican migrant female factory workers. Migration and male sexual infidelity contributed to increased HIV vulnerability and unprotected sex was ubiquitous. The dominant cultural discourse that dichotomizes "good" (monogamous) and "bad" (sexually stigmatized) women, and male partner's resistance, were barriers to condom use. Women's positive attitudes toward the dual protection (pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections) offered by condoms and sexual agency expressed by refusing unwanted sexual contact are resources for HIV prevention.

  7. Effects of alcohol, expectancies, and partner type on condom use in college males: event-level analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaBrie, Joseph; Earleywine, Mitch; Schiffman, Jason; Pedersen, Eric; Marriot, Charles

    2005-08-01

    Sexually active heterosexual college males (N = 93) provided data on over 1,500 sexual encounters. Alcohol consumption, expectancies about alcohol's impact on condom use, and partner type each contributed to use of a condom. Partner type covaried with alcohol consumption and condom use. The men consumed significantly more alcohol with new partners, followed by casual partners, and then by regular partners. In contrast, they were more likely to use condoms with new partners than with casual or regular partners. Drinking alcohol decreased condom use, but only with casual partners. Expectancies about alcohol's disinhibiting sexual effects decreased condom use as well. These data suggest that alcohol consumption does decrease condom use, particularly with casual partners and when drinkers believe alcohol alters sexual disinhibition. Improving knowledge about HIV and other STD transmission in casual partners and challenging expectancies about alcohol as a sexual disinhibitor could help decrease the spread of HIV and other STDs.

  8. Uso inconsistente del condón entre trabajadoras sexuales en Ecuador: resultados de una encuesta de comportamientos Inconsistent condom use among sexual workers in Ecuador: results from a behavior survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Pablo Gutiérrez

    2006-04-01

    el uso consistente del condón en esta población.OBJECTIVE: Whilst existing data suggests that the HIV epidemic in Ecuador is concentrated amongst men who have sex with men (MSM, there is very little available information on the situation of key populations, i.e. those most at risk of HIV infection and/or transmitting the infection. In particular, there is very little known about sex workers (SWs, their rate of condom use and other behaviors and characteristics with respect to the risk of acquiring sexually transmitted infections (STIs. This study presents findings from a survey carried out with SWs in eight cities in Ecuador. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Using a cross-sectional design, a questionnaire focusing on behaviours, attitudes and socio-economic and demographic characteristics was administered to SWs in eight cities in Ecuador. These eight cities together account for the majority of the population in the country, and they were also identified as the locations with high reported levels of HIV. RESULTS: Information from a total of 2867 SWs was obtained, the majority were captured in their workplaces. Most of SWs interviewed carry out their activities in closed settings dedicated to sex work (i.e. not in the street. The average age of respondents was 28 (95%CI 27-29, and around half of them live with a male partner (married or not. The rate of condom use with the last client was 88% (82% consistently with the last three, whilst with regular partners it was 6%. A high index of life-skills, high socio-economic status and having an official document that allows them to work, were positively associated with condom use with clients (PR [CI 95%] 1.40 [1.40-1.40], 1.37 [1.36-1.37], y 7.26 [6.87-7.46], respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Whilst condom use with clients amongst Ecuadorian SWs is high, this diminishes if one analyzes consistent condom use and is notably low with respect to regular partners. Condom use appears to be related to variables that can be linked to

  9. Prizes for consistency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hiscock, S.

    1986-07-01

    The importance of consistency in coal quality has become of increasing significance recently, with the current trend towards using coal from a range of sources. A significant development has been the swing in responsibilities for coal quality. The increasing demand for consistency in quality has led to a re-examination of where in the trade and transport chain the quality should be assessed and where further upgrading of inspection and preparation facilities are required. Changes are in progress throughout the whole coal transport chain which will improve consistency of delivered coal quality. These include installation of beneficiation plant at coal mines, export terminals, and on the premises of end users. It is suggested that one of the keys to success for the coal industry will be the ability to provide coal of a consistent quality.

  10. Sexual health knowledge, sexual relationships and condom use among male trekking guides in Nepal: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simkhada, Padam; van Teijlingen, Edwin R; Regmi, Pramod R; Bhatta, Prakash

    2010-01-01

    People in Nepal generally hold fairly traditional views about sex and sexual health, whilst Western tourists often have a more liberal approach towards sex and relationships. There is evidence that significant sexual interaction occurs between male trekking guides and female travellers and/or local female sex workers in Nepal. This qualitative study explored trekking guides' sexual health knowledge, sexual relationships and condom use with female trekkers and local female sex workers. A total of 21 in-depth interviews were conducted with male trekking guides. Most reported having had sexual relationships with female trekkers and local female sex workers. Explanations for intercourse with female trekkers included: financial support; getting future trekkers through word-of-mouth advertising from the women they have had sex with; and opportunities for emigration. Interestingly, sexual intercourse is reported as more likely to be initiated by female trekkers than by guides, and more so by older women. In contrast, the main reasons for having sex with local female sex workers included: romantic love or sexual excitement and novelty. Awareness regarding sexual health was high among guides, but several factors discouraged the regular use of condoms. Further research with female tourists would help understand the motivations and reasons for their sexual behaviour.

  11. Consistent sets contradict

    CERN Document Server

    Kent, A

    1996-01-01

    In the consistent histories formulation of quantum theory, the probabilistic predictions and retrodictions made from observed data depend on the choice of a consistent set. We show that this freedom allows the formalism to retrodict several contradictory propositions which correspond to orthogonal commuting projections and which all have probability one. We also show that the formalism makes contradictory probability one predictions when applied to generalised time-symmetric quantum mechanics.

  12. [Development of assistive technology for the visually impaired: use of the male condom].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Giselly Oseni Laurentino; Wanderley, Luana Duarte; Rebouças, Cristiana Brasil de Almeida; Oliveira, Paula Marciana Pinheiro de; Pagliuca, Lorita Marlena Freitag

    2013-10-01

    The objectives were to develop and evaluate an assistive technology for the use of the male condom by visually impaired men. It was a technology development study with the participation of seven subjects. Three workshops were performed between April and May of 2010; they were all filmed and the statements of the participants were transcribed and analyzed by content. Three categories were established: Sexuality of the visually impaired; Utilization of the text, For avoiding STDs, condoms we will use, divided in two subcategories, Concept discussion and Text evaluation; and Construction of a simple penile prosthesis. The knowledge transmitted related to STD, the utilization of the condom on the penile prosthesis made by the subjects themselves, and the interaction during the workshops were effective factors for the study. In the context of sexual health, the necessity of developing works involving the visually impaired was noted, addressing sexually transmitted diseases and focusing on the use of the condom by this population.

  13. Choice or no choice? The need for better branded public sector condoms in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Ashmore

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Condoms are one of the cornerstones to any response to the HIV epidemic. However, targetedmarketing strategies that make condoms more attractive to people at high risk of infection areoften overlooked. The South African National Department of Health has recently purchasedmore attractive condoms to distribute in higher-education settings free of charge, targeting atriskyouth including young women. The authors applaud this move but note the importance ofexpanding better branded condoms to young people elsewhere – for example, via youth clinicsand in high schools. Exploratory, routine data from Médecins Sans Frontières in Khayelitshaare presented, showing the popularity of alternatives to the government’s ‘Choice’ brand.

  14. Factors associated with condom use in women from an urban area in southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariângela Freitas da Silveira

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the prevalence of factors associated with condom use during last sexual intercourse in 15-49-year-old women in a probabilistic sample from the urban area of Pelotas, southern Brazil. A questionnaire administered by an interviewer, investigating socioeconomic characteristics and habits, and another (self-administered questionnaire on sexual behavior-related variables were used. Poisson regression, following a hierarchical model, was used for data analysis. 1,543 women were included, and losses and refusals amounted to 3.5%. Prevalence of condom use in last sexual intercourse was 28.0%. Condom use was positively associated with younger age, greater schooling, non-white color, single marital status, and greater number of sex partners in the previous three months. This suggests that the group most vulnerable to STDs/AIDS due to lack of condom use is white, adult women, in stable unions, with fewer sexual partners.

  15. Non-condom use behaviour of adolescents in South Africa – an ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Non-condom use behaviour of adolescents in South Africa – an integrative model of ... to Theory of Planned Behaviour are made and contextual factors are added. ... aspects such as attitude, but also social norms, perceived control behaviour ...

  16. Development of assistive technology for the visually impaired: use of the male condom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giselly Oseni Laurentino Barbosa

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The objectives were to develop and evaluate an assistive technology for the use of the male condom by visually impaired men. It was a technology development study with the participation of seven subjects. Three workshops were performed between April and May of 2010; they were all filmed and the statements of the participants were transcribed and analyzed by content. Three categories were established: Sexuality of the visually impaired; Utilization of the text, For avoiding STDs, condoms we will use, divided in two subcategories, Concept discussion and Text evaluation; and Construction of a simple penile prosthesis. The knowledge transmitted related to STD, the utilization of the condom on the penile prosthesis made by the subjects themselves, and the interaction during the workshops were effective factors for the study. In the context of sexual health, the necessity of developing works involving the visually impaired was noted, addressing sexually transmitted diseases and focusing on the use of the condom by this population.

  17. Between tradition and change: condom use with primary sexual partners among Mexican migrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caballero-Hoyos, Ramiro; Torres-Lopez, Teresa; Pineda-Lucatero, Alicia; Navarro-Nuñez, Carlos; Fosados, Raquel; Valente, Thomas W

    2008-07-01

    The frequency of male Mexico-US migration has been associated with increased HIV risk for sexual partners awaiting their return in Mexico. This study examined the association between sexual partner characteristics and condom use among a sample of 354 male migrants from two Mexican municipalities. Migrants were interviewed about their past year's sex practices. Results indicated that migrants were more likely to use condoms with their non-spousal partners, partners with less education than the migrant, and partners with higher employment status. Condom use was greater among younger migrants and residents of the more densely populated municipality. Findings suggest the coexistence of a traditional cultural orientation that does not support condom use and another one that does provided the sex partner is formally employed. Prevention programs must strengthen the structural conditions fostering greater equality between the sexes and adapt their approaches for different population density, age and partner types.

  18. Factors associated with condom use in women from an urban area in southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silveira, Mariângela Freitas; dos Santos, Iná Silva; Béria, Jorge Umberto; Horta, Bernardo Lessa; Tomasi, Elaine; Victora, Cesar Gomes

    2005-01-01

    This study investigated the prevalence of factors associated with condom use during last sexual intercourse in 15-49-year-old women in a probabilistic sample from the urban area of Pelotas, southern Brazil. A questionnaire administered by an interviewer, investigating socioeconomic characteristics and habits, and another (self-administered) questionnaire on sexual behavior-related variables were used. Poisson regression, following a hierarchical model, was used for data analysis. 1,543 women were included, and losses and refusals amounted to 3.5%. Prevalence of condom use in last sexual intercourse was 28.0%. Condom use was positively associated with younger age, greater schooling, non-white color, single marital status, and greater number of sex partners in the previous three months. This suggests that the group most vulnerable to STDs/AIDS due to lack of condom use is white, adult women, in stable unions, with fewer sexual partners.

  19. Condom negotiations among female sex workers in the Philippines: environmental influences.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lianne A Urada

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Social and structural influences of condom negotiation among female sex workers (FSWs remain understudied. This study assesses environmental and individual factors associated with condom negotiation among FSWs at high risk for acquiring HIV in a large urban setting of Metro Manila, Philippines. METHODS: Female bar/spa workers (N = 498, aged 18 and over, underwent interview-led surveys examining their sexual health practices in the context of their risk environments. Data were collected from April 2009-January 2010 from 54 venues. Multiple logistic regressions were conducted to assess socio-behavioral factors (e.g., age, education, length of time employed as an entertainer, and alcohol/drug use and socio-structural factors (e.g., venue-level peer/manager support, condom rule/availability, and sex trafficking associated with condom negotiation, adjusting for individuals nested within venues. RESULTS: Of 142 FSWs who traded sex in the previous 6 months (included in the analysis, 24% did not typically negotiate condom use with venue patrons. Factors in the physical environment--trafficked/coerced into work (AOR = 12.92, 95% CI = 3.34-49.90, economic environment--sex without a condom to make more money (AOR = 1.52, 95% CI 1.01-2.30, policy environment--sex without a condom because none was available (AOR = 2.58, 95% CI = 1.49-4.48, and individual risk--substance use (AOR = 2.36, 95% CI = 1.28-4.35 were independently associated with FSWs' lack of condom negotiation with venue patrons. CONCLUSIONS: Factors in the physical, economic, and policy environments, over individual (excepting substance use and social level factors, were significantly associated with these FSWs' condom negotiations in the Philippines. Drawing upon Rhodes' risk environment framework, these results highlight the need for policies that support safer sex negotiations among sex workers in the context of their risk environments

  20. Development of a scale for attitude toward condom use for migrant workers in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talukdar Arunansu

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Background : The propaganda for the use of condoms remains one of the mainstay for prevention of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV transmission. In spite of the proven efficacy of condom, some moral, social and psychological obstacles are still prevalent, hindering the use of condoms. Aims : The study tried to construct a short condom-attitude scale for use among the migrant workers, a major bridge population in India. Settings and Design : The study was conducted among the male migrant workers who were 18-49 years old, sexually active and had heard about condoms and were engaged in nonformal jobs. We recruited 234 and 280 candidates for Phase 1 and Phase 2 respectively. Materials and Methods : Ten items from the original 40-item Brown′s ATC (attitude towards condom scale were selected in Phase 1. After analysis of Phase 1 results, using principal component analysis six items were found appropriate for measuring attitude towards condom use. These six items were then administered in another group in Phase 2. Utilizing Pearson′s correlations, scale items were examined in terms of their mean response scores and the correlation matrix between items. Cornbach′s alpha and construct validity were also assessed for the entire sample. Results : Study subjects were categorized as condom users and nonusers. The scale structure was explored by analyzing response scores with respect to the items, using principal component analysis followed by varimax rotation analysis. Principal component analysis revealed that the first factor accounted for 71% of the variance, with eigenvalue greater than one. Eigenvalues of the second factor was less than one. Application of screen test suggests only one factor was dominant. Mean score of six items among condom users was 20.45 and that among nonusers was 16.67, which was statistically significant ( P < 0.01. Cornbach′s alpha coefficient was 0.92. Conclusion : This tailor-made attitude-toward-condom-use scale

  1. Discordant lymphoma consisting of mediastinal large B-cell lymphoma and nodular sclerosis Hodgkin lymphoma in the right supraclavicular lymph nodes: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chun; Yi, Yuanxue; Chen, Chunyan; Wang, Jianrong; Liu, Zhu

    2015-12-29

    Discordant lymphoma is defined by the simultaneous presence of two or more distinct types of lymphomas at different anatomic sites. With fewer than 20 studies reporting cases of discordant lymphoma to date, the incidence of this condition is believed to be very low. Here, we report a case of discordant lymphoma in a 34-year-old female patient that involved mediastinal large B-cell lymphoma and nodular sclerosis Hodgkin lymphoma in the right supraclavicular lymph nodes. The patient presented with a mass in the mediastinum and enlargement of the right supraclavicular lymph nodes, but no obvious signs of lymphoma. Histological examination revealed that the encapsulated mediastinal mass contained medium- or large-size tumor cells with lightly stained cytoplasm and round vesicular nuclei as well as a high percentage of mitotic cells; strongly positive immunohistochemical staining for PAX5, CD20, and CD79a also was observed. Examination of biopsied right supraclavicular lymph node tissues revealed separation by collagen fibers, extensive inflammatory cell infiltration, and large-size tumor cells, such as Reed-Sternberg cells. These tissues stained strongly positive for PAX5 and CD30, weakly positive for CD15, and negative for Epstein-Barr viral RNA. We also found monoclonal gene rearrangement in the immunoglobulin heavy chain gene in the mediastinal large B-cell lymphoma, but no monoclonal gene rearrangement in the nodular sclerosis Hodgkin lymphoma. These findings suggested that these two lymphomas were not of a common clonal origin. The patient was treated by surgical excision of the mediastinal mass followed by radio-chemotherapy, and no metastasis or recurrence occurred during a follow-up period of 32 months. A review of previously reported cases indicated that the clinical manifestations and pathological features of discordant lymphoma are diverse due to variation in the types of lymphomas involved. Physicians must have an awareness of discordant lymphoma to avoid

  2. Condom use, risk perception, and HIV knowledge: a comparison across sexes in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lammers J

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Judith Lammers,1 Sweder JG van Wijnbergen,2 Daan Willebrands3 1Academic Medical Center, 2Faculty of Economics and Business, University of Amsterdam, 3Atradius Credit Insurance, Amsterdam, The Netherlands Background: This paper analyzes how different types of Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV knowledge influences condom use across the sexes. Methods: The empirical work was based on a household survey conducted among 1979 households of a representative group of stallholders in Lagos, Nigeria in 2008. Condom use during last sexual intercourse was analyzed using a multivariate model corrected for clustering effects. The data included questions on socioeconomic characteristics, knowledge of the existence of HIV, HIV prevention, HIV stigma, intended pregnancy, and risk perceptions of engaging in unprotected sex. Results: A large HIV knowledge gap between males and females was observed. Across the sexes, different types of knowledge are important in condom use. Low-risk perceptions of engaging in unprotected sex and not knowing that condoms prevent HIV infection appear to be the best predictors for risky sexual behavior among men. For females, stigma leads to lower condom use. Obviously, lack of knowledge on where condoms are available (9.4% and 29.1% of male and female respondents, respectively reduced condom use in both males and females. Conclusion: The results call for programmatic approaches to differentiate between males and females in the focus of HIV prevention campaigns. Moreover, the high predictive power of high-risk perceptions of engaging in unprotected sex (while correcting for other HIV knowledge indicators calls for further exploration on how to influence these risk perceptions in HIV prevention programs. Keywords: Africa, condom, males, females, HIV/AIDS, knowledge, prevention, risk perception

  3. Determinants of risky sexual behavior among women in Ukraine: condom use at first sexual intercourse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barska, Julia

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Sexually transmitted infections (STI create a great hazard to public health. STIs occur mostly as a result of different types of risky sexual behavior, such as early sexual debut, unprotected sexual intercourses, alcohol use during sex, multiple partnership etc. Condoms are known to provide the best protection against negative consequences of risky sexual behavior. In this study we aimed to determine factors associated with condom use at first sexual intercourses by women in Ukraine.METHODS: Secondary analysis of data of the 2007 Ukraine Demographic and Health Survey was conducted. Responses of 883 sexually experienced women aged 15–24 were included in the analysis. Associations between condom use at first sex and independent variables were assessed using multivariate binary logistic regression.RESULTS: Light (less than 3,5 drinks per week and heavy (3,5 drinks per week or more drinkers were more likely to use condoms at first sexual intercourse compared to abstainers or occasional drinkers (OR 1,83 (CI 1,32-2,53 and 2,21 (CI 1,43-3,42, respectively. Besides that, women from households with above average income had 1,65 (CI 1,17-2,33 higher odds to use condoms at sexual debut in comparison to women from households with lower income. Women who read printed media at least once a week had twice (CI 1,36-2,94 as high odds of using condoms at first intercourse as women who read newspapers or magazines rare. Non-Western region of residence and sexual partner of about the same age were positively associated with condom use as well.CONCLUSIONS: Wealthy young adults from industrially developed regions are active users of condoms during sexual debut, which is to be accounted for in determining target groups for social policy in Ukraine.

  4. Examining the Relationships Between Religiosity, Spirituality, Internalized Homonegativity, and Condom Use Among African American Men Who Have Sex With Men in the Deep South.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smallwood, Stacy W; Spencer, S Melinda; Ingram, Lucy Annang; Thrasher, Jim F; Thompson-Robinson, Melva V

    2017-03-01

    The Sexual Health in Faith Traditions Study evaluated the relationships between religiosity, spirituality, internalized homonegativity, and sexual risk behaviors among a sample of African American men who have sex with men living in the Deep South. Participants were recruited primarily from Black Gay Pride celebrations to complete a self-administered, paper-and-pencil survey. Structural equation modeling was used to determine relationships between key constructs and condom use for insertive ( n = 285) and receptive ( n = 263) anal intercourse in the past 3 months. Almost half of respondents reported using condoms "every time" when engaging in insertive (48.3%) or receptive (45.1%) anal intercourse. Religiosity and spirituality were differentially associated with dimensions of internalized homonegativity. While no significant direct relationships were reported between either religiosity or spirituality and condom use, dimensions of internalized homonegativity mediated significant indirect relationships. Findings suggest that religiosity and spirituality influence African American men who have sex with men's internalized homonegativity and, subsequently, engagement in safer sex behaviors.

  5. Preference for dry sex, condom use and risk of STI among HIV-negative black women in the Western Cape province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Ruiter

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The practice of dry sex is reportedly common among young black women in South Africa. The aim of this study was to explore the relationship of women’s preference for dry sex with condom use and the prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis (CT, Neisseria gonorrhoea (NG and Trichomonas vaginalis (TV infections. Between January 2006 and December 2007, 446 women completed a behavioural survey in isiXhosa which assessed demographic information, sexual behaviours, condom use behaviour and other potential correlates. In total, 159 (36.72% women indicated preferring dry sex. A multivariate logistic regression model indicated that participants who preferred dry sex were more likely to report past STI episodes and to have a partner who also preferred dry sex. The findings indicate that dry sex behaviour was not directly associated with condom use and STI (CT, NG, and TV prevalence but may have been associated with relationships in which sexual preferences of the male partner were dominant.

  6. Risk Factors of Condom Use among Clients of Commercial Sex Workers in Saunas and Beauty Parlors in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yan(张岩); WU Zunyou(吴尊友); LIU Wei(刘伟)

    2002-01-01

    Objectives: To describe and analyze risk factors associatedwith disuse of condoms during commercial sexual intercourseamong clients attending sauna and massage centers.Methods: Selected female sex workers from saunas andbeauty parlors were trained as interviewers. They surveyedclients during provision of sexual services. Informationcollected included customers' demographics, knowledge ofSTDs, rationale for and history of condom use. Risk factorsfor condom usage were assessed though logistical modeling.Results: A total of 50 clients were interviewed. The rates ofcondom usage for last sexual intercourse with commercial andnon-commercial partners were 57% and 53% for clients ofsauna centers and 30% and 40% for clients of beauty parlors,respectively. The choice to use a condom was influenced byclients 60.8% of the time, sex workers 30.4%, and otherfactors 8.8 %. The choice against using a condom was decidedupon by clients 69.7% of the time, sex workers 9.1%, andother factors 21.2%. Multivariate analysis showed thateducational level and perception of risk of infection werefactors for condom use. Clients with a high school educationhad a higher condom use rate than those with a middle schooleducation or less. Furthermore, clients who perceived risk ofdisease used condoms more frequently than those who did not.Conclusions: Clients played a significant role in decidingwhether or not to use a condom during commercial sex. Lackof perception of risk is a major factor for not using condoms.A program for promotion of prophylactics targeting bothcommercial sex workers and their clients is recommended.

  7. Using the Internet and social media to promote condom use in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purdy, Christopher H

    2011-05-01

    Condoms are an important contraceptive method in Turkey, used by one in three couples using modern methods. However, withdrawal remains the most common form of contraception, resulting in many unwanted pregnancies. To address this issue and increase condom use in Turkey, DKT International, a social marketing enterprise, leveraged the high use of the Internet and social networking to help build Fiesta, a premium condom brand, and promote sales and condom use. By utilising a wide range of digital platforms--a new website, Facebook page, Google Adwords, an e-newsletter, viral marketing, banner ads and involving bloggers--Fiesta achieved strong recognition among the target audience of sexually active young people, though far more men than women. Retail audits, Internet analysis and sales performance suggest that using the Internet was instrumental in establishing Fiesta. Sales reached 4.3 million condoms (of which 8% were sold online) in the first 18 months. In contrast, Kiss, a far more inexpensive DKT condom, launched at the same time but with no digital campaign, sold 2.6 million. With the growing availability and use of the Internet and social media globally, family planning organizations should consider incorporating these technologies into their educational, outreach and marketing programmes.

  8. Determinant of behavioural change for condom use among out- of- school youths in Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Katikiro

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This exploratory qualitative study aimed to identify perceived benefits, barriers and motivational factors impacting condom use for out-of-school youth ages 15-24 years. The study was carried out in Kinondoni Municipality of Tanzania between April and May 2010. A semi-structured guide was used in 8 in-depth interviews and two focus group discussions (FGDs among 30 respondents chosen through convenient sampling. The Health belief Model (HBM served as the conceptual framework for the study. Findings indicate that psychosocial and utilization problems were identified as main barriers to condom use. Additionally, lack of negotiation skills for safer sex was perceived as a serious impediment to condom use, particularly among women. An effective behavior-change programme for HIV prevention, which address psychosocial and utilization related barriers to condom use is needed. A well-designed strategy would improve condom use by putting emphasis on skills for correct condom use and negotiation for safer sex, particularly for women

  9. Intervention to increase condom use and HIV testing among men who have sex with men in China: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zhaohui; Wang, Min; Fu, Lijun; Fang, Yirong; Hao, Jiahu; Tao, Fangbiao; Tu, Chunyu

    2013-03-01

    Behavioral interventions have been shown to both promote and change many health-related behaviors and issues. This meta-analysis was performed to assess whether behavioral interventions have the potential to increase condom use and HIV testing uptake among men who have sex with men (MSM) in China. PubMed, Elsevier Science Direct, Chinese Biomedical Literature Database (CBM), China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), and Wanfang (Chinese) were searched to June 2011 to identify relevant articles. Data of eligible citations were extracted by two reviewers. Sixteen studies were identified. Aggregated findings indicated that interventions were associated with a significant increase in condom use between MSM and male sex partners in the last anal sex act (RR=1.17, 95% CI=1.05-1.29) and consistent condom use between MSM and male sex partners in the past 6 months (RR=1.36, 95% CI=1.15-1.60) and HIV testing (RR=2.22, 95% CI=1.72-2.88). However, no significant increase was detected in condom use over the course of the intervention among MSM engaging in sex with women. In the subgroup analyses, the positive effects were not detected in some subgroups such as anal sex with casual partners and intervention interval less than or equal to 6 months. The sensitivity analysis showed that these estimates were unchanged after removal of the study that had the biggest sample or the studies that had the most rigorous study design. This meta-analysis can inform future intervention design and implementation in terms of sample size, target populations, settings, goals for process measures, and intervention interval.

  10. Network Consistent Data Association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Anirban; Das, Abir; Roy-Chowdhury, Amit K

    2016-09-01

    Existing data association techniques mostly focus on matching pairs of data-point sets and then repeating this process along space-time to achieve long term correspondences. However, in many problems such as person re-identification, a set of data-points may be observed at multiple spatio-temporal locations and/or by multiple agents in a network and simply combining the local pairwise association results between sets of data-points often leads to inconsistencies over the global space-time horizons. In this paper, we propose a Novel Network Consistent Data Association (NCDA) framework formulated as an optimization problem that not only maintains consistency in association results across the network, but also improves the pairwise data association accuracies. The proposed NCDA can be solved as a binary integer program leading to a globally optimal solution and is capable of handling the challenging data-association scenario where the number of data-points varies across different sets of instances in the network. We also present an online implementation of NCDA method that can dynamically associate new observations to already observed data-points in an iterative fashion, while maintaining network consistency. We have tested both the batch and the online NCDA in two application areas-person re-identification and spatio-temporal cell tracking and observed consistent and highly accurate data association results in all the cases.

  11. A total market approach for condoms in Myanmar: the need for the private, public and socially marketed sectors to work together for a sustainable condom market for HIV prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Htat, Han Win; Longfield, Kim; Mundy, Gary; Win, Zaw; Montagu, Dominic

    2015-03-01

    Concerns about appropriate pricing strategies and the high market share of subsidized condoms prompted Population Services International (PSI)/Myanmar to adopt a total market approach (TMA). This article presents data on the size and composition of the Myanmar condom market, identifies inefficiencies and recommends methods for better targeting public subsidy. Data on condom need and condom use came from PSI/Myanmar's (PSI/M's) behavioural surveys; data for key populations' socioeconomic status profiles came from the same surveys and the National Tuberculosis Prevalence Survey. Data on market share, volumes, value and number of condoms were from PSI/M's quarterly retail audits and Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS). Between 2008 and 2010, the universal need for condoms decreased from 112.9 to 98.2 million while condom use increased from 32 to 46%. Free and socially marketed condoms dominated the market (94%) in 2009-11 with an increase in the proportion of free condoms over time. The retail price of socially marketed condoms was artificially low at 44 kyats ($0.05 USD) in 2011 while the price for commercial condoms was 119-399 kyats ($0.15-$0.49 USD). Equity analyses demonstrated an equal distribution of female sex workers across national wealth quintiles, but 54% of men who have sex with men and 55% of male clients were in the highest two quintiles. Donor subsidies for condoms increased over time; from $434,000 USD in 2009 to $577,000 USD in 2011. The market for male condoms was stagnant in Myanmar due to: limited demand for condoms among key populations, the dominance of free and socially marketed condoms on the market and a neglected commercial sector. Subsidies for socially marketed and free condoms have prevented the growth of the private sector, an unintended consequence. A TMA is needed to grow and sustain the condom market in Myanmar, which requires close co-ordination between the public, socially marketed and commercial sectors. Published

  12. A total market approach for condoms in Myanmar: the need for the private, public and socially marketed sectors to work together for a sustainable condom market for HIV prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longfield, Kim; Mundy, Gary; Win, Zaw; Montagu, Dominic

    2015-01-01

    Background Concerns about appropriate pricing strategies and the high market share of subsidized condoms prompted Population Services International (PSI)/Myanmar to adopt a total market approach (TMA). This article presents data on the size and composition of the Myanmar condom market, identifies inefficiencies and recommends methods for better targeting public subsidy. Methodology Data on condom need and condom use came from PSI/Myanmar’s (PSI/M’s) behavioural surveys; data for key populations’ socioeconomic status profiles came from the same surveys and the National Tuberculosis Prevalence Survey. Data on market share, volumes, value and number of condoms were from PSI/M’s quarterly retail audits and Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS). Results Between 2008 and 2010, the universal need for condoms decreased from 112.9 to 98.2 million while condom use increased from 32 to 46%. Free and socially marketed condoms dominated the market (94%) in 2009–11 with an increase in the proportion of free condoms over time. The retail price of socially marketed condoms was artificially low at 44 kyats ($0.05 USD) in 2011 while the price for commercial condoms was 119–399 kyats ($0.15–$0.49 USD). Equity analyses demonstrated an equal distribution of female sex workers across national wealth quintiles, but 54% of men who have sex with men and 55% of male clients were in the highest two quintiles. Donor subsidies for condoms increased over time; from $434 000 USD in 2009 to $577 000 USD in 2011. Conclusion The market for male condoms was stagnant in Myanmar due to: limited demand for condoms among key populations, the dominance of free and socially marketed condoms on the market and a neglected commercial sector. Subsidies for socially marketed and free condoms have prevented the growth of the private sector, an unintended consequence. A TMA is needed to grow and sustain the condom market in Myanmar, which requires close co-ordination between the

  13. Color It Real: A Program to Increase Condom Use and Reduce Substance Abuse and Perceived Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zellner, Tiffany; Trotter, Jennie; Lenoir, Shelia; Walston, Kelvin; Men-Na'a, L'dia; Henry-Akintobi, Tabia; Miller, Assia

    2015-12-22

    Few interventions have targeted perceived stress as a co-occurring construct central to substance use and subsequent HIV/AIDS risk reduction among African American urban young adults. The Color It Real Program was a seven session, weekly administered age-specific and culturally-tailored intervention designed to provide substance abuse and HIV education and reduce perceived stress among African Americans ages 18 to 24 in Atlanta, GA. Effectiveness was assessed through a quasi-experimental study design that consisted of intervention (n = 122) and comparison (n = 70) groups completing a pre- and post-intervention survey. A series of Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) tests were used to assess pre- to post-intervention changes between study groups. For intervention participants, perceived stress levels were significantly reduced by the end of the intervention (t(70) = 2.38, p = 0.020), condom use at last sexual encounter significantly increased (F = 4.43, p = 0.0360), intervention participants were significantly less likely to drink five or more alcoholic drinks in one sitting (F = 5.10, p = 0.0245), and to use clean needles when injecting the drug (F = 36.99, p = 0.0001). This study is among the first of its kind to incorporate stress management as an integral approach to HIV/SA prevention. The program has implications for the design of other community-based, holistic approaches to addressing substance use and risky behaviors for young adults.

  14. Color It Real: A Program to Increase Condom Use and Reduce Substance Abuse and Perceived Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiffany Zellner

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Few interventions have targeted perceived stress as a co-occurring construct central to substance use and subsequent HIV/AIDS risk reduction among African American urban young adults. The Color It Real Program was a seven session, weekly administered age-specific and culturally-tailored intervention designed to provide substance abuse and HIV education and reduce perceived stress among African Americans ages 18 to 24 in Atlanta, GA. Effectiveness was assessed through a quasi-experimental study design that consisted of intervention (n = 122 and comparison (n = 70 groups completing a pre- and post-intervention survey. A series of Analysis of Variance (ANOVA tests were used to assess pre- to post-intervention changes between study groups. For intervention participants, perceived stress levels were significantly reduced by the end of the intervention (t(70 = 2.38, p = 0.020, condom use at last sexual encounter significantly increased (F = 4.43, p = 0.0360, intervention participants were significantly less likely to drink five or more alcoholic drinks in one sitting (F = 5.10, p = 0.0245, and to use clean needles when injecting the drug (F = 36.99, p = 0.0001. This study is among the first of its kind to incorporate stress management as an integral approach to HIV/SA prevention. The program has implications for the design of other community-based, holistic approaches to addressing substance use and risky behaviors for young adults.

  15. Multilevel social influences on female condom use and adoption among women in the urban United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weeks, Margaret R; Hilario, Helena; Li, Jianghong; Coman, Emil; Abbott, Maryann; Sylla, Laurie; Corbett, Michelle; Dickson-Gomez, Julia

    2010-05-01

    Heterosexually transmitted HIV remains of critical concern in the United States and around the world, especially among vulnerable and disadvantaged women, complicated by socioeconomic circumstances, gender power, addiction, and experiences of abuse, among other conditions. Effective woman-initiated HIV prevention options, such as the female condom (FC), are needed that women can use in different sexual relationship contexts. We conducted a behavioral and attitudinal survey with 461 primarily African American and Latina (especially Puerto Rican) women in Hartford, Connecticut, to measure factors on the individual, partner relationship, peer, and community levels influencing their initial and continued use of FC (using the prototype FC1) for disease prevention. We used multivariate analyses and structural equation modeling to assess effects of multiple level factors on FC use and unprotected sex with primary, casual, and paying partners. Initial, recent, and continued FC use was associated with factors on the individual level (education, marital status, drug use, child abuse experiences, HIV status), partner level (number of sex partners, paying sex partner, relationship power), and peer level (more or influential peers saying positive things about FC). Community level factors of availability and support were consistently poor across all sectors, which limited overall FC use. Patterns differed between African American and Latina women in stages and contexts of FC use and unprotected sex. FC can make a valuable contribution to reducing heterosexually transmitted HIV among women in many circumstances. The greatest barrier to increased FC use is the lack of a supportive community environment for its promotion and use.

  16. A Magnetic Consistency Relation

    CERN Document Server

    Jain, Rajeev Kumar

    2012-01-01

    If cosmic magnetic fields are indeed produced during inflation, they are likely to be correlated with the scalar metric perturbations that are responsible for the Cosmic Microwave Background anisotropies and Large Scale Structure. Within an archetypical model of inflationary magnetogenesis, we show that there exists a new simple consistency relation for the non-Gaussian cross correlation function of the scalar metric perturbation with two powers of the magnetic field in the squeezed limit where the momentum of the metric perturbation vanishes. We emphasize that such a consistency relation turns out to be extremely useful to test some recent calculations in the literature. Apart from primordial non-Gaussianity induced by the curvature perturbations, such a cross correlation might provide a new observational probe of inflation and can in principle reveal the primordial nature of cosmic magnetic fields.

  17. Consistency in Distributed Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Kemme, Bettina; Ramalingam, Ganesan; Schiper, André; Shapiro, Marc; Vaswani, Kapil

    2013-01-01

    International audience; In distributed systems, there exists a fundamental trade-off between data consistency, availability, and the ability to tolerate failures. This trade-off has significant implications on the design of the entire distributed computing infrastructure such as storage systems, compilers and runtimes, application development frameworks and programming languages. Unfortunately, it also has significant, and poorly understood, implications for the designers and developers of en...

  18. Geometrically Consistent Mesh Modification

    KAUST Repository

    Bonito, A.

    2010-01-01

    A new paradigm of adaptivity is to execute refinement, coarsening, and smoothing of meshes on manifolds with incomplete information about their geometry and yet preserve position and curvature accuracy. We refer to this collectively as geometrically consistent (GC) mesh modification. We discuss the concept of discrete GC, show the failure of naive approaches, and propose and analyze a simple algorithm that is GC and accuracy preserving. © 2010 Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics.

  19. Consistent wind Facilitates Vection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masaki Ogawa

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available We examined whether a consistent haptic cue suggesting forward self-motion facilitated vection. We used a fan with no blades (Dyson, AM01 providing a wind of constant strength and direction (wind speed was 6.37 m/s to the subjects' faces with the visual stimuli visible through the fan. We used an optic flow of expansion or contraction created by positioning 16,000 dots at random inside a simulated cube (length 20 m, and moving the observer's viewpoint to simulate forward or backward self-motion of 16 m/s. we tested three conditions for fan operation, which were normal operation, normal operation with the fan reversed (ie, no wind, and no operation (no wind and no sound. Vection was facilitated by the wind (shorter latency, longer duration and larger magnitude values with the expansion stimuli. The fan noise did not facilitate vection. The wind neither facilitated nor inhibited vection with the contraction stimuli, perhaps because a headwind is not consistent with backward self-motion. We speculate that the consistency between multi modalities is a key factor in facilitating vection.

  20. High speed cinematography of the initial break-point of latex condoms during the air burst test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stube, R; Voeller, B; Davidhazy, A

    1990-06-01

    High speed cinematography of latex condoms inflated to burst under standard (ISO) conditions reveals that rupture of the condom typically is initiated at a small focal point on the shank of the condom and then rapidly propagates throughout the condom's surface, often ending with partial or full severance of the condom at its point of attachment to the air burst instrument. This sequence of events is the reverse of that sometimes hypothesized to occur, where initiation of burst was considered to begin at the attachment point and to constitute a testing method artifact. This hypothesis of breakage at the attachment point, if true, would diminish the value of the air burst test as a standard for assessing manufacturing quality control as well as for condom strength measurements and comparisons.

  1. Structure and agency in long-distance truck drivers' lived experiences of condom use for HIV prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sastry, Shaunak

    2016-01-01

    Condom promotion has emerged as a mainstay of targeted HIV prevention interventions in India, with its emphasis on individual behaviour change and personal responsibility. However, such approaches often do not account for marginalised populations' structural vulnerability to HIV, arising from social, economic and political factors in the lived environment. In this paper, I use a critical health communication framework to analyse how structure and agency interact in influencing condom use among long-distance truck drivers in India. Drawing on an abductive discourse analysis of condom-use discourses among truckers and peer educators in two Indian cities, findings reveal that while truckers understand the biomedical logic of condoms as barriers, they also express anxiety about condom breakage and experience structural barriers to condom use. The paper concludes by calling for greater attention to structural vulnerabilities in future HIV prevention efforts with truck drivers.

  2. Female condom skill and attitude: results from a NIDA Clinical Trials Network gender-specific HIV risk reduction study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Aimee N C; Tross, Susan; Hu, Mei-Chen; Pavlicova, Martina; Kenney, Jennifer; Nunes, Edward V

    2011-08-01

    The female condom is effective in reducing unprotected sexual acts; however, it remains underutilized in the United States. This study examined whether a five-session HIV prevention intervention (Safer Sex Skills Building [SSB]), including presentation, discussion, and practice with female condoms, improved female condom skills and attitude among women in outpatient substance abuse treatment. Mixed-effects modeling was used to test the effect of SSB on skills and attitude over 3- and 6-month posttreatment among 515 randomized women. SSB was significantly associated with increases in skills and attitude, and the female condom demonstration session was primarily responsible for skills improvement. Attitude was a partial mediator of the intervention effect in reducing unprotected sex. Findings emphasize the utility of integrating female condom messages targeting proximal behavioral outcomes into HIV prevention. The study supports the use of female condom skill instruction via brief, hands-on exercises, as well as further research to enhance attitudinal change to reduce sexual risk.

  3. Factors Associated with Use of Latex Condom-Compatible Lubricants by Men Who Have Sex with Men in India: Implications for HIV Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramanathan, Shreena; Chakrapani, Venkatesan; Ramakrishnan, Lakshmi; Goswami, Prabuddhagopal; Yadav, Diwakar; George, Bitra; Sen, Shrabanti; Rachakulla, Harikumar; Subramanian, Thilakavathi; Paranjape, Ramesh S

    2013-01-01

    We examined the prevalence and type of rectal lubricants use and factors associated with exclusive use of latex-condom compatible lubricants (water-based lubricants) among men who have sex with men (MSM) using data from a large-scale cross-sectional survey conducted in 2009/10 in three Indian states. Using time-location cluster sampling, 3880 MSM were recruited from cruising sites. We used multiple logistic regression to assess the association between type of lubricants used and sociodemographic and programmatic indicators. Among those who reported using lubricants (64%) more than half (53%) exclusively used water-based lubricants, less than one-tenth used exclusively oil-based lubricants, and nearly 40% used both water-based and oil-based lubricants. Factors associated with exclusive use of water-based lubricants were exposure to HIV prevention interventions (AOR: 6.18, 95% CI 4.82 to 7.92) and kothi-identified MSM-feminine/anal-receptive (AOR: 2.56, 95% CI 2.12 to 3.10). Targeted HIV interventions among MSM need to promote and distribute latex condom-compatible lubricants for use during anal sex-irrespective of their presumed or stated sexual role in anal sex, and educate them not to use oil-based lubricants with condoms.

  4. Factors Associated with Use of Latex Condom-Compatible Lubricants by Men Who Have Sex with Men in India: Implications for HIV Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shreena Ramanathan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We examined the prevalence and type of rectal lubricants use and factors associated with exclusive use of latex-condom compatible lubricants (water-based lubricants among men who have sex with men (MSM using data from a large-scale cross-sectional survey conducted in 2009/10 in three Indian states. Using time-location cluster sampling, 3880 MSM were recruited from cruising sites. We used multiple logistic regression to assess the association between type of lubricants used and sociodemographic and programmatic indicators. Among those who reported using lubricants (64% more than half (53% exclusively used water-based lubricants, less than one-tenth used exclusively oil-based lubricants, and nearly 40% used both water-based and oil-based lubricants. Factors associated with exclusive use of water-based lubricants were exposure to HIV prevention interventions (AOR: 6.18, 95% CI 4.82 to 7.92 and kothi-identified MSM—feminine/anal-receptive (AOR: 2.56, 95% CI 2.12 to 3.10. Targeted HIV interventions among MSM need to promote and distribute latex condom-compatible lubricants for use during anal sex—irrespective of their presumed or stated sexual role in anal sex, and educate them not to use oil-based lubricants with condoms.

  5. Infanticide and moral consistency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahan, Jeff

    2013-05-01

    The aim of this essay is to show that there are no easy options for those who are disturbed by the suggestion that infanticide may on occasion be morally permissible. The belief that infanticide is always wrong is doubtfully compatible with a range of widely shared moral beliefs that underlie various commonly accepted practices. Any set of beliefs about the morality of abortion, infanticide and the killing of animals that is internally consistent and even minimally credible will therefore unavoidably contain some beliefs that are counterintuitive.

  6. The Rucio Consistency Service

    CERN Document Server

    Serfon, Cedric; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    One of the biggest challenge with Large scale data management system is to ensure the consistency between the global file catalog and what is physically on all storage elements. To tackle this issue, the Rucio software which is used by the ATLAS Distributed Data Management system has been extended to automatically handle lost or unregistered files (aka Dark Data). This system automatically detects these inconsistencies and take actions like recovery or deletion of unneeded files in a central manner. In this talk, we will present this system, explain the internals and give some results.

  7. POWER for reproductive health: results from a social marketing campaign promoting female and male condoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bull, Sheana S; Posner, Samuel F; Ortiz, Charlene; Beaty, Brenda; Benton, Kathryn; Lin, Lillian; Pals, Sherri L; Evans, Tom

    2008-07-01

    To evaluate effects of a 6-month social marketing campaign on awareness of, attitudes toward and use of female as well as male condoms for 15-25 year-old-women. Using a time-space sampling methodology, we conducted a cross-sectional survey of 3407 women at pre-campaign in 12 western U.S. neighborhoods on female and male condom awareness, attitudes, and use. Six of the 12 study neighborhoods were randomly selected to receive the POWER social marketing campaign designed to impact condom knowledge, attitudes, and use. The campaign was followed with another cross-sectional survey of 3,003 women in all 12 study neighborhoods on condom knowledge, attitudes, use and awareness of POWER materials. We compared pre-and post-campaign surveys to determine the efficacy of POWER and conducted post hoc analyses on post-campaign data to determine if exposure to POWER was related to higher levels of positive condom attitudes and norms and condom use. We found no differences between neighborhoods with and without the POWER campaign with regard to our primary outcomes. To diagnose reasons for this null effect, we examined outcomes post hoc examining the influence of POWER exposure. Post hoc analyses show some evidence that exposure to POWER was associated with condom use. In the context of the nested trial, this raises concerns that post test only evaluations are limited. Establishing the efficacy of a social marketing campaign is challenging. This group randomized trial showed a null effect. Social marketing campaigns may need to have more media channels and saturation before they can show behavioral effects. Using a nested design with randomization at the community level and probability sampling introduces rigor not commonly seen in evaluations of social marketing campaigns.

  8. When is holography consistent?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McInnes, Brett, E-mail: matmcinn@nus.edu.sg [National University of Singapore (Singapore); Ong, Yen Chin, E-mail: yenchin.ong@nordita.org [Nordita, KTH Royal Institute of Technology and Stockholm University, Roslagstullsbacken 23, SE-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2015-09-15

    Holographic duality relates two radically different kinds of theory: one with gravity, one without. The very existence of such an equivalence imposes strong consistency conditions which are, in the nature of the case, hard to satisfy. Recently a particularly deep condition of this kind, relating the minimum of a probe brane action to a gravitational bulk action (in a Euclidean formulation), has been recognized; and the question arises as to the circumstances under which it, and its Lorentzian counterpart, is satisfied. We discuss the fact that there are physically interesting situations in which one or both versions might, in principle, not be satisfied. These arise in two distinct circumstances: first, when the bulk is not an Einstein manifold and, second, in the presence of angular momentum. Focusing on the application of holography to the quark–gluon plasma (of the various forms arising in the early Universe and in heavy-ion collisions), we find that these potential violations never actually occur. This suggests that the consistency condition is a “law of physics” expressing a particular aspect of holography.

  9. Consistent quantum measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Robert B.

    2015-11-01

    In response to recent criticisms by Okon and Sudarsky, various aspects of the consistent histories (CH) resolution of the quantum measurement problem(s) are discussed using a simple Stern-Gerlach device, and compared with the alternative approaches to the measurement problem provided by spontaneous localization (GRW), Bohmian mechanics, many worlds, and standard (textbook) quantum mechanics. Among these CH is unique in solving the second measurement problem: inferring from the measurement outcome a property of the measured system at a time before the measurement took place, as is done routinely by experimental physicists. The main respect in which CH differs from other quantum interpretations is in allowing multiple stochastic descriptions of a given measurement situation, from which one (or more) can be selected on the basis of its utility. This requires abandoning a principle (termed unicity), central to classical physics, that at any instant of time there is only a single correct description of the world.

  10. U.S.-developed "female condom" may reach market by end of 1988.".

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-08-01

    A female condom, similar in nature to a device tested in England, had gained US Food and Drug Administration approval and may be available on the market in the US by late 1988. The US device was developed by a Wyoming physician, AVK Reddy, as an outgrowth of his research on penile prostheses. This "female condom" is a disposable latex device designed to fit loosely inside the vagina and cover the perineum. Reddy's product differs from those under testing in Great Britain and the US (femshield and the WPC-333) in that it uses standard seamless latex. The latter devices are made of polyurethane and have a single seam. Because the female condom does not fit closely against the penis, it can be made much thicker than male condoms without a consequent loss of sensitivity. This increased thickness reduces the incidence of rips and tears. The female condom can be inserted well in advance of sexual intercourse and is considered to provide maximum protection against sexually transmitted diseases such as acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).

  11. Predictors of Condom Use Among Iranian Women at Risk of HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotfi, Razieh; Ramezani Tehrani, Fahimeh; Salehifar, Delara; Dworkin, Shari L

    2016-02-01

    Sexual transmission of HIV/AIDS is increasing in Iran and is the main route of infection among women. In order to foster the development of future HIV prevention interventions for women, researchers need to understand the factors that influence sexual risk reduction behaviors in this group. The aim of this study was to explore the predictors of condom use among women at risk of HIV and develop a model of condom use in a sample of women at risk of HIV. We cross-sectionally examined predictors of condom use among 200 women at risk of HIV. Women were recruited from drop-in centers and voluntary counseling and testing centers in Tehran. Condom use among women at risk of HIV was examined using path analysis, and fit indices showed a good fit for the model. Condom use self-efficacy, social support, and less stereotypic gender roles influenced sexually protective behaviors of women at risk of HIV. Our results can provide a basis for future gender-specific intervention programs among women at risk of HIV. Researchers, practitioners, and organizations that play a central role in protecting the health of this population can make use of these results for the benefit of sexual and reproductive health programs.

  12. BELIEFS LINKED TO THE USAGE OF MALE CONDOM IN SEXUALLY ACTIVE SPANISH TEENAGERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARÍA LAMEIRAS FERNÁNDEZ

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to assess the level of use of male condom and to identify the main beliefs about condomuse in a sample of 315 teenagers (55,6 % boys and 44,6% girls belonging to secondary schools, with an average ageof 18,27, which represent 23,8 % of the total sample (N= 1323. The results show that 48,1% of the sexuallyactive students use condoms systematically, boys use them more often than girls. The condom use for boys arerelated interference with the sexual pleasure and for girls are related with have sex without taking any risk. In theboys the best predictors of the use are linked to a less sexual activity frequency, owing to considerations about adouble contraceptive and preventive function of the condom, to the feeling of safety when using it, and to feel noembarrasment when buying them. In the girls the best predicgtors of the condom use are little use of the pill, theless frequent «coitus interruptus», and the safety feeling associated to the thought that the romantic atmosphere is notbroken make up.

  13. Management of postpartum hemorrhage with intrauterine balloon tamponade using a condom catheter in an Egyptian setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandeel, Mohamed; Sanad, Zakaria; Ellakwa, Hamed; El Halaby, Alaa; Rezk, Mohamed; Saif, Ibrahim

    2016-12-01

    To evaluate uterine balloon tamponade using a condom catheter for the management of early postpartum hemorrhage (PPH). In a prospective observational study at Menoufia University Hospital, Shebin Elkom, Egypt, women with early PPH were enrolled between May 2011 and September 2012. Uterine balloon tamponade with a condom catheter was applied in women who were unresponsive to uterotonics and bimanual compression; patients with successful catheter placement were included in analyses. The primary outcome was successful control (reduction or cessation) of bleeding. A condom catheter was successfully placed for 50 of the 151 women enrolled. The overall success rate of the procedure was 96% (48/50). The condom catheter was successful in all 28 cases of atonic PPH after vaginal or cesarean delivery. It successfully controlled PPH due placental site bleeding in 20 (91%) of 22 patients with placenta previa and a well-contracted uterus. Condom balloon catheter was found to effectively control PPH. The procedure is simple, inexpensive, and safe, and can preserve reproductive capacity, as well as saving the life of the mother. ClinicalTrials.gov:NCT02672891. Copyright © 2016 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Fruity, fun and safe: creating a youth condom brand in Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purdy, Christopher H

    2006-11-01

    DKT Indonesia, a social marketing enterprise, undertook research among young people in Indonesia to develop a strategy to heighten understanding of safer sex and increase the availability and use of condoms among sexually active youth. The centerpiece of this campaign was the launch in 2003 of Fiesta condoms, with a range of flavours, colours, shapes and pricing aimed to appeal to young people. Working with key commercial and NGO partners, distribution has focused on places where young people often congregate and shop. The campaign relies heavily on the media, including TV commercials, radio talk shows, print media and mobile text messaging. DKT has also partnered with MTV, the Staying Alive campaign and other NGO and private sector partners to educate young people on a range of reproductive and sexual health issues. Based on retail audits and focus group discussions, the Fiesta brand has been a success. In three years, it has gained a 10% share of the condom market and helped to increase overall condom sales by 22%. Young people identify Fiesta as "their" brand and have started to use Fiesta condoms in significant numbers.

  15. When Is Holography Consistent?

    CERN Document Server

    McInnes, Brett

    2015-01-01

    Holographic duality relates two radically different kinds of theory: one with gravity, one without. The very existence of such an equivalence imposes strong consistency conditions which are, in the nature of the case, hard to satisfy. Recently a particularly deep condition of this kind, relating the minimum of a probe brane action to a gravitational bulk action (in a Euclidean formulation), has been recognised; and the question arises as to the circumstances under which it, and its Lorentzian counterpart, are satisfied. We discuss the fact that there are physically interesting situations in which one or both versions might, in principle, \\emph{not} be satisfied. These arise in two distinct circumstances: first, when the bulk is not an Einstein manifold, and, second, in the presence of angular momentum. Focusing on the application of holography to the quark-gluon plasma (of the various forms arising in the early Universe and in heavy-ion collisions), we find that these potential violations never actually occur...

  16. Uso del condón en hombres con parejas no estables en la Ciudad de México Condom use among men with non-stable partners in Mexico City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamín Nieto-Andrade

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Analizar la asociación de variables sociodemográficas en la utilización del condón durante prácticas sexuales vaginales con parejas no estables. Material y métodos. Los datos provienen de una encuesta probabilística sobre comportamiento sexual aplicada en 1992-1993 a una muestra de hogares en la Ciudad de México y su área conurbada. De 8 068 hombres de 15 a 60 años de edad que proporcionaron información, se seleccionaron 1 535 cuya última relación sexual -con penetración vaginal- había sido con una pareja no estable. Primero se realizó un análisis por componentes principales, para agrupar aquellas variables con dimensiones subyacentes comunes y, a partir de ellos y de algunas variables individuales, se efectuó una regresión logística. Resultados. Las variables que midieron conocimientos sobre el SIDA y sus mecanismos de transmisión y prevención, no tuvieron una relación estadísticamente significativa (pObjective. To analyze the association between sociodemographic variables and condom use during vaginal sexual relationships with non-stable partners. Material and methods. Data were taken from a household probability survey on sexual behavior in 1992-1993 in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area. Of the completed survey were obtained 8 068 men of 15 to 60 years of age. 1 535 were selected because they reported that their last sexual relationship with vaginal intercourse had been with a non-stable partner. Principal component analyses were conducted to groups of variables with common underlying structures, these components and other variables were included in a logistic regressions. Condom use during last intercourse was the dependent variable. Results. Feeling that sex with condoms or sex without penetration could be pleasurable, a high ranking in a scale on self-efficacy for condom use, compulsion for using a condom because of being afraid of contracting HIV/AIDS were positively associated with using a condom in the

  17. Reducing violence and increasing condom use in the intimate partnerships of female sex workers: study protocol for Samvedana Plus, a cluster randomised controlled trial in Karnataka state, south India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beattie, Tara S; Isac, Shajy; Bhattacharjee, Parinita; Javalkar, Prakash; Davey, Calum; Raghavendra, T; Nair, Sapna; Ramanaik, Satyanarayana; Kavitha, D L; Blanchard, James F; Watts, Charlotte; Collumbien, Martine; Moses, Stephen; Heise, Lori

    2016-07-29

    Female sex workers (FSWs) are at increased risk of HIV and STIs compared to women in the general population, and frequently experience violence in their working and domestic lives from a variety of perpetrators, which can enhance this risk. While progress has been made in addressing violence by police and clients, little work has been done to understand and prevent violence by intimate partners (IPs) among FSW populations. Samvedana Plus is a multi-level intervention programme that works with FSWs, their IPs, the sex worker community, and the general population, and aims to reduce violence and increase consistent condom use within these 'intimate' relationships. The programme involves shifting norms around the acceptability of beating as a form of discipline, challenging gender roles that give men authority over women, and working with men and women to encourage new relationship models based on gender equity and respect. The programme will aim to cover 800 FSWs and their IPs living in 47 villages in Bagalkot district, northern Karnataka. The study is designed to assess two primary outcomes: the proportion of FSWs who report: (i) physical or sexual partner violence; and (ii) consistent condom use in their intimate relationship, within the past 6 months. The evaluation will employ a cluster-randomised controlled trial design, with 50 % of the village clusters (n = 24) randomly selected to receive the intervention for the first 24 months and the remaining 50 % (n = 23) receiving the intervention thereafter. Statisticians will be blinded to treatment arm allocation. The evaluation will use an adjusted, cluster-level intention to treat analysis, comparing outcomes in intervention and control villages at midline (12 months) and endline (24 months). The evaluation design will involve quantitative and qualitative assessments with (i) all FSWs who report an IP (ii) IPs; and process/ implementation monitoring. Baseline data collection was completed in April

  18. Acceptance and use of the female condom among women with incomplete abortion in rural Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasch, Vibeke; Yambesi, Fortunata; Kipingili, Rose

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This study describes the outcome of a postabortion care intervention aimed at introducing the female condom as a means of preventing women from having unwanted pregnancies and sexually transmitted infections (STIs)/HIV. METHODS: Postabortion contraceptive counseling and services were...... intended to use it again. CONCLUSION: Postabortion care programs provide an excellent entry point for introducing the female condom as a contraceptive method for the prevention of both repeat unwanted pregnancies and STI/HIV infection....... offered to 548 women admitted to the Kagera Regional Hospital for incomplete abortion. The counseling included information about STI/HIV and the use male or female condom. In total, 521 (95%) women accepted contraception. RESULTS: Contraceptive use was assessed 3 months after abortion among 475 (91...

  19. Condoms and condiments: compatibility and safety of personal lubricants and their use in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geibel, Scott

    2013-07-09

    Previous research on the use of personal lubricants for sexual intercourse is limited and has primarily focused on condom compatibility and breakage, with only recent limited assessment of lubricant safety and possible epidemiologic implications. This article discusses the global evidence of lubricant compatibility with latex condoms and biological safety of lubricants, as well as documentation of lubricant use and current guidelines for HIV prevention programming in Africa. Data on lubricant compatibility with condoms are less available than commonly realized, and many lubricant products may not have been thoroughly tested for safety due to flexible regulatory environments. Recent laboratory and study findings from microbicides research also suggest that some water-based lubricants may have safety issues. Some African populations are using several types of lubricants, especially oil-based petroleum jellies, and receive little evidence-based guidance. More research is needed from the medical community to guide prevention programming.

  20. AIDS education, condom demand, and the sexual activity of American youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremblay, Carol Horton; Ling, Davina C

    2005-08-01

    This paper examines the effects of AIDS education at school and at home on the sexual behavior of American youth. Multinomial logit equations of the probabilities of abstinence, sexual intercourse with a condom, and intercourse without a condom are estimated using data from the Youth Risk Behavior Supplement of the 1992 National Health Interview Survey. We find no significant effects of AIDS education on the probability of abstinence, but we do find that AIDS education significantly raises the likelihood of condom-protected relative to unprotected intercourse. These results indicate that risk-altering and risk-revealing AIDS education dominate any utility-altering effects favoring intercourse over abstinence. We also find that young women are influenced by AIDS education to a greater extent than young men. Overall, our results suggest that educating young people about AIDS does not promote sex and encourages safer sex, reducing the likelihood of HIV transmission and lowering the subsequent social costs.

  1. Prevention is still the best medicine. Condom social marketing campaign changes attitudes and actions in Guinea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, L L

    1993-09-01

    In Guinea, jingles promoting Prudence condoms are heard on radio and television in 4 different national languages 5 times a day. This has produced an attitudinal change through an intense national media campaign orchestrated by the USAID-financed Social Marketing of Contraceptives Project carried out by Population Services International (PSI), which provides family planning information, products and services through public and private outlets for 500,000 sexually active couples. PSI's paid media campaign has sponsored call-in talk shows on women and AIDS and religion and AIDS at the rural radio station in Labe. Billboards placed in key locations remind people that using condoms helps prevent AIDS. PSI organized a team of 10 Prudence condom marketing agents in March 1992 to establish 400 nontraditional retail and 50 traditional retail and wholesale outlets for condoms. Outlets include pharmacies, restaurants, hotels, grocery stores, and nightclubs. The distributors sell the condoms at a profit. In the first 6 months, PSI distributed 2.3 million condoms. Young women want to space their children and limit the number of children, said the chief midwife for the Guinean Association for Family Well Being clinic in Conakry. Guinea's population growth rate is 2.8%, which will result in a doubling of the population in 25 years. In May 1992, Guinea's government ratified a national population policy supporting family planning. One of the primary goals is to increase contraceptive use to 25% of all couples. PSI works with the Ministry of Health and the Guinean Association for Family Well Being to integrate family planning and sexually transmitted disease prevention activities into 32 primary health care centers in Guinea's Forest Region. To combat the spread of HIV infection, PSI provides technical assistance to the National AIDS Committee to carry out AIDS information activities throughout the country, targeting the military, police, truck drivers, and students.

  2. Use of Condom Tamponade to Manage Massive Obstetric Hemorrhage at a Tertiary Center in Rajasthan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasabe, Rakesh; Gupta, Kumud; Rathode, Pallavi

    2016-10-01

    Conventionally postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) has been defined as blood loss of more than 500 ml following vaginal delivery and 1000 ml following a cesarean section [Pritchard et al. in Am J Obstet Gynecol 84(10):1271-1282, (1962)]. Another definition labels PPH as any blood loss which causes a 10 % drop in hematocrit [Combs et al. in Obstet Gynecol 77:69-76, (1991)] or which threatens the hemodynamic stability of the patient and necessitates blood transfusion [Prendiville et al. in Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2:CD000007, (2000)]. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of condom tamponade in the management of massive obstetric hemorrhage. To evaluate the efficacy of a condom as a tamponade for intrauterine pressure to stop massive PPH. This prospective study was done in the Obstetrics and Gynecology Department of NIMS Medical College and Hospital, Jaipur, between December 2013 and February 2015. With aseptic precautions, a sterile rubber catheter fitted with a condom was introduced into the uterus. The condom was inflated with 250-500 ml normal saline according to need. Vaginal bleeding was observed, and further inflation was stopped when bleeding ceased. In all but 2 (94.44 %) the cases, postpartum bleeding was stopped within 10 min of creation of tamponade. On an average, 350 ml of normal saline was required to create adequate tamponade to stop the bleeding. Use of condom tamponade can effectively help in reducing both maternal morbidity and mortality associated with PPH. Our study encourages use of condom tamponade which is efficient, cost-effective, easily available and requires lesser skills as compared to the traditional surgical procedures.

  3. Sexual behavior and condom use among seasonal Dalit migrant laborers to India from Far West, Nepal: a qualitative study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiran Bam

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Around 41% of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV cases in Nepal occur in seasonal migrant laborers. Dalit migrant laborers represent the largest proportion of reported HIV cases in the Far Western Region (Sudur Pashchimanchal, or Far West, Nepal. The study's objectives were to assess sexual behavior, condom use status and HIV risk perception among Dalit migrant laborers to India from Far West Region, Nepal. METHODS: The study was conducted among Dalit male migrant laborers aged 15 years and above who had migrated for at least six months of the last two years to India. For the sampling the village development committees (VDCs from Achham, Doti and Kanchanpur districts of Nepal were purposively selected. The data were collected in March and April 2011 via ten in-depth interviews and four focus group discussions and analyzed using content analysis. RESULTS: Poor socio-economic status, caste-related discrimination, and lack of employment opportunities push large groups of young Dalits to migrate to India for employment, where they engage in sex with female sex workers (FSWs. The participants described unmarried status, peer influence, alcohol use, low-priced sex with FSWs and unwillingness to use condoms as common factors of their migration experience. Lack of awareness on HIV/AIDS was common among study participants. Awareness of HIV/AIDS and faithful, monogamous partnerships are reported as factors influencing safer sexual behavior. CONCLUSIONS: Dalits are an especially vulnerable population among migrant laborers and may be over-represented in new HIV infections in Nepal. Comprehensive surveying and health promotion programs targeted to this population are urgently needed and potent methods of stopping HIV spread.

  4. Lifesavers : Attitudes towards the use of condoms among youth in Zambia between 1995 and 2003

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Any knowledge that can help us influence more people to use condoms saves lives and plays a key role in arresting the HIV pandemic. My motivation for writing this thesis was to determine whether a change in attitude towards the use of condoms among youths in Zambia had occurred between 1995 and 2003. Evidence from surveys suggests that there has been a positive change in sexual behavior. During the eight year period, data from the same population show a marked increase in the use ...

  5. The relevance of cultural factors in predicting condom-use intentions among immigrants from the Netherlands Antilles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocken, Pl; van Dorst, Ag; Schaalma, H

    2006-04-01

    A study into the relevance of cultural factors in predicting condom-use intentions among Antillean migrants in the Netherlands is described in this article. The association between the intention to use condoms with a new sexual partner and a perceived taboo on discussing sex, beliefs about sex education and machismo beliefs on gender and power relationships is addressed. The study was conducted among 346 Dutch Antilleans from a random sample of an Antillean population aged 15-50 years. The response rate was 37.8%. The results showed that condom-use intentions were primarily determined by perceived subjective norms, the perceived taboo on discussing sex, machismo attitudes, gender, age and educational background. Moreover, the respondent's opinion regarding machismo was an effect modificator for the association between condom-use intentions and subjective social norm. It is concluded that, in predicting condom-use intentions, factors specific to the culture of a population contribute significantly to the determinants drawn from the general social-cognition models. It is recommended that future research should use measurement instruments that are adapted to culture-specific beliefs, and should explore the influence of cultural factors on actual condom use. Moreover, interventions promoting condom use among migrant populations should target the cultural correlates of condom use.

  6. The relevance of cultural factors in predicting condom-use intentions among immigrants from the Netherlands Antilles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kocken, P.L.; Dorst, A.G. van; Schaalma, H.

    2006-01-01

    A study into the relevance of cultural factors in predicting condom-use intentions among Antillean migrants in the Netherlands is described in this article. The association between the intention to use condoms with a new sexual partner and a perceived taboo on discussing sex, beliefs about sex educa

  7. The Relevance of Cultural Factors in Predicting Condom-Use Intentions among Immigrants from the Netherlands Antilles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocken, P. L.; van Dorst, A. G.; Schaalma, H.

    2006-01-01

    A study into the relevance of cultural factors in predicting condom-use intentions among Antillean migrants in the Netherlands is described in this article. The association between the intention to use condoms with a new sexual partner and a perceived taboo on discussing sex, beliefs about sex education and machismo beliefs on gender and power…

  8. The relevance of cultural factors in predicting condom-use intentions among immigrants from the Netherlands Antilles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kocken, P.L.; Dorst, A.G. van; Schaalma, H.

    2006-01-01

    A study into the relevance of cultural factors in predicting condom-use intentions among Antillean migrants in the Netherlands is described in this article. The association between the intention to use condoms with a new sexual partner and a perceived taboo on discussing sex, beliefs about sex

  9. The relevance of cultural factors in predicting condom-use intentions among immigrants from the Netherlands Antilles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kocken, P.L.; Dorst, A.G. van; Schaalma, H.

    2006-01-01

    A study into the relevance of cultural factors in predicting condom-use intentions among Antillean migrants in the Netherlands is described in this article. The association between the intention to use condoms with a new sexual partner and a perceived taboo on discussing sex, beliefs about sex educa

  10. The Relevance of Cultural Factors in Predicting Condom-Use Intentions among Immigrants from the Netherlands Antilles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocken, P. L.; van Dorst, A. G.; Schaalma, H.

    2006-01-01

    A study into the relevance of cultural factors in predicting condom-use intentions among Antillean migrants in the Netherlands is described in this article. The association between the intention to use condoms with a new sexual partner and a perceived taboo on discussing sex, beliefs about sex education and machismo beliefs on gender and power…

  11. Cross-cultural adaptation of the short-form condom attitude scale: validity assessment in a sub-sample of rural-to-urban migrant workers in Bangladesh

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Roy, Tapash; Anderson, Claire; Evans, Catrin; Rahman, Mohammad Shafiqur; Rahman, Mosiur

    2013-01-01

    The reliable and valid measurement of attitudes towards condom use are essential to assist efforts to design population specific interventions aimed at promoting positive attitude towards, and increased use of condoms...

  12. Self-determination and gender–power relations as predictors of condom use self-efficacy among South African women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feziwe Mpondo

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This article identifies correlates of condom use self-efficacy using concepts from self-determination theory and gender–power measures. A cross-section of Xhosa-speaking women (n = 238 from Eastern Cape, South Africa, was used to conduct bivariate correlations and multivariate linear regression analyses. Gender equality beliefs and HIV knowledge were positively associated with condom use self-efficacy generally and in risky situations. Condom use self-efficacy generally was also positively associated with power balance attitudes, negative beliefs about intimate partner violence, and positive growth perspective, while the association with hopeless personal perspective was negative. Surprisingly, lack of social support was positively associated with condom use self-efficacy in risky situations. The predictors of condom use self-efficacy identified in this study that may serve as change objectives for future sexual health promotion interventions.

  13. Safer sex negotiation and its association with condom use among clients of female sex workers in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamal, S M Mostafa; Hassan, Che Hashim; Salikon, Roslan Hj

    2015-03-01

    This study examines safer sex negotiation and its association with condom use among clients of female sex workers (FSWs) in Bangladesh. Data were collected from 484 FSWs living in Dhaka city following a convenient sampling procedure. Overall, 47% of the clients were suggested to use condom during last sexual intercourse and 21% did so. Both bivariate and multivariable binary logistic regression analyses yielded significantly increased risk of negotiation for safer sex with clients among FSWs with higher education. The power bargaining significantly (P < .001) increased the risk of condom use by 2.15 times (95% confidence interval = 1.28-3.59). The odds of condom use were significantly higher among the FSWs with higher education, unmarried, hotel-based, and among those with higher level of HIV/AIDS-related knowledge. The Bangladeshi FSWs have little control over their profession. HIV prevention programs should aim to encourage FSWs through information, education, and communication program to insist on condom use among clients.

  14. You Did What? Using the AIDS/Condoms Advertising Controversy in the Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace-Whitaker, Virginia

    Convinced that students in a college advertising class could profit from a discussion about AIDS and condom advertising and hoping to design a related creative problem that would incorporate effective advertising principles, an instructor planned a class project that revolved around public service advertising and the AIDS issue. The students…

  15. Condom use and hip hop culture: the case of urban young men in New York City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Laboy, Miguel A; Castellanos, Daniel H; Haliburton, Chanel S; del Aguila, Ernesto Vasquez; Weinstein, Hannah J; Parker, Richard G

    2008-06-01

    We explored how young men's perceptions of and participation in hip hop culture--urban social and artistic expressions, such as clothing style, breakdancing, graffiti, and rap music--and how contextual factors of the hip hop scene may be associated with their condom use, condom-use self-efficacy, and sense of community. We conducted a cross-sectional survey of 95 African American and Latino men aged 15 to 25 years as part of a 4-year ethnographic study in New York City. Differences in young men's perceptions of and levels of affiliation with hip hop culture were not statistically associated with differences in their sense of community or condom-use self-efficacy. Frequency of participation in the hip hop nightclub scene was the strongest factor negatively associated with condom use. Popular discourses on young men's health risks often blame youths' cultures such as the hip hop culture for increased risk practices but do not critically examine how risk emerges in urban young men's lives and what aspects of youths' culture can be protective. Further research needs to focus on contextual factors of risk such as the role of hip hop nightlife on increased HIV risk.

  16. Development and Psychometric Properties of a Condom Use and Its Cognitive Determinants Questionnaire (CUCDQ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arezoo Toopchian

    2017-01-01

    CONCLUSION: CUCDQ may be helpful for family health care providers and family planning decision makers in precise assessing the behavioural, psychological, and educational factors related to condom use. This scale may be useful in a various range of studies including family planning or STIs prevention studies in different communities. Future research is recommended to assess the different dimensions of the tool in different communities.

  17. The Influence of Predisposing, Enabling and Need Factors on Condom Use in Ivory Coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngamini Ngui, Andre

    2010-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to identify key determinants of condom use in Ivory Coast. Data stem from Ivory Coast Demographic Health Survey (DHS) conducted by ORC Macro in 2005 among a representative sample of 9,686 persons aged 15 - 49. Following the behavioral model, we use logistic regression to assess the effect of predisposing,…

  18. Likelihood of Condom Use When Sexually Transmitted Diseases Are Suspected: Results from a Clinic Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosby, Richard A.; Milhausen, Robin R.; Graham, Cynthia A.; Yarber, William L.; Sanders, Stephanie A.; Charnigo, Richard; Shrier, Lydia A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine the event-level associations between perceived risk of sexually transmitted disease (STD) acquisition/transmission and condom use during penile-vaginal intercourse (PVI) among STD clinic attendees. Method: A convenience sample (N = 622) completed daily electronic assessments. Two questions were proxies of perceived risk:…

  19. Condom Carnival: Feasibility of a Novel Group Intervention for Decreasing Sexual Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Mollie B.; Okwumabua, Theresa M.; Thurston, Idia B.

    2017-01-01

    Young people who engage in unprotected sex are at risk of negative consequences. The current study explored pre-post assessment data from 124, mostly Black, young people (M age = 19.6, SD = 2.8) attending an educational and vocational training programme who participated in the Condom Carnival, a novel, brief, interactive, peer-led, culturally…

  20. boy/girl friend and virginity values, and stigma related to condom ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GB

    The objective of this study was to assess the value given to virginity, boy/ girl friend, and stigma related to condom ... University using both qualitative and quantitative techniques. ..... Table 1 Comparison of the mean scores of virginity value among the different groups of Jimma University students .... Tradition in many parts of.

  1. Relationship Factors and Condom Use Among Women with a History of Intimate Partner Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrane Minton, Heather A; Mittal, Mona; Elder, Heather; Carey, Michael P

    2016-01-01

    Women who experience intimate partner violence (IPV) are at increased risk for HIV infection. To further the understanding of the dyadic factors that impact condom use among women, we investigated the impact of three relationship factors (i.e., power, fear, and dependence) on the association between HIV-related information, motivation, and behavioral skills [constructs from the information-motivation-behavioral skills (IMB) model] and condom use among abused women. Data from 133 urban, low-income women recruited from several community-based agencies (e.g., domestic violence agencies, women's health organizations, hospitals, Department of Health and Human Services, and Family Court) showed that these women experienced high levels of IPV and that relationship power, fear of abuse, and partner dependence were all associated with condom use. Multivariable models revealed that fear of abuse and partner dependence moderated the association between IMB constructs and condom use but relationship power did not. Results highlight the critical need to incorporate strategies to address relationship factors in HIV prevention programs with abused women.

  2. A qualitative exploration of barriers to condom use among female sex workers in China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wu, J.; Zhou, X.; Lu, C.; Moyer, E.; Wang, H.; Hong, L.; Deng, X.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Sex workers in China continue to engage in unprotected sex acts that put them at risk for contracting HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) and other STIs (Sexually Transmitted Infections). The purpose of this study was to explore women’s work history, the context of sex work, condom use, H

  3. Determinants of Condom Use Intentions and Behavior among Turkish Youth: A Theoretically Based Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozakinci, Gozde; Weinman, John A.

    2006-01-01

    The assumptions of two social cognition models, the Theory of Planned Behavior (Ajzen, 1991) and the Health Belief Model (Rosenstock, 1974) are examined in 2 samples of Turkish university students: sexually active and sexually inactive. For sexually inactive participants, perceived benefits of condom use and self-efficacy beliefs regarding condom…

  4. Silencing women's sexuality: Global AIDS policies and the case of the female condom

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, A.J.T.P.; Driel, F.T.M. van; Jansen, W.H.M.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: The female condom is the only evidence-based AIDS prevention technology that has been designed for the female body; yet, most women do not have access to it. This is remarkable since women constitute the majority of all HIV-positive people living in sub-Saharan Africa, and gender inequ

  5. Implementation Intentions for Buying, Carrying, Discussing and Using Condoms: The Role of the Quality of Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vet, Emely; Gebhardt, Winifred Anne; Sinnige, Judith; Van Puffelen, Anne; Van Lettow, Britt; de Wit, John B. F.

    2011-01-01

    Forming implementation intentions (i.e. action plans that specify when, where and how a person will act) could be effective in promoting condom use on a large scale. However, the technique implies that people are able to form high quality implementation plans that are likely to induce behaviour change. Young single females, aged 16-30 years old,…

  6. Condom use in prevention of Human Papillomavirus infections and cervical neoplasia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lam, Janni Uyen Hoa; Rebolj, Matejka; Dugué, Pierre-Antoine;

    2014-01-01

    Based on cross-sectional studies, the data on protection from Human Papillomavirus (HPV) infections related to using male condoms appear inconsistent. Longitudinal studies are more informative for this purpose. We undertook a systematic review of longitudinal studies on the effectiveness of male ...

  7. Masculinity and Condom Use among Mexican Teenagers: The Escuela Nacional Prepartoria No. 1's Case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Vazquez, Genaro

    2000-01-01

    Interviewed adolescents and observed sex education classes to investigate condom use and masculinity among Mexican high school students. Adolescents were very concerned about sex education programming because of widespread information about AIDS, fears of pregnancy, and initiation into sexuality. Contraception decision making was highly determined…

  8. Silencing women's sexuality: global AIDS policies and the case of the female condom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anny JTP Peters

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The female condom is the only evidence-based AIDS prevention technology that has been designed for the female body; yet, most women do not have access to it. This is remarkable since women constitute the majority of all HIV-positive people living in sub-Saharan Africa, and gender inequality is seen as a driving force of the AIDS epidemic. In this study, we analyze how major actors in the AIDS prevention field frame the AIDS problem, in particular the female condom in comparison to other prevention technologies, in their discourse and policy formulations. Our aim is to gain insight into the discursive power mechanisms that underlie the thinking about AIDS prevention and women's sexual agency. Methods: We analyze the AIDS policies of 16 agencies that constitute the most influential actors in the global response to AIDS. Our study unravels the discursive power of these global AIDS policy actors, when promoting and making choices between AIDS prevention technologies. We conducted both a quantitative and qualitative analysis of how the global AIDS epidemic is being addressed by them, in framing the AIDS problem, labelling of different categories of people for targeting AIDS prevention programmes and in gender marking of AIDS prevention technologies. Results: We found that global AIDS policy actors frame the AIDS problem predominantly in the context of gender and reproductive health, rather than that of sexuality and sexual rights. Men's sexual agency is treated differently from women's sexual agency. An example of such differentiation and of gender marking is shown by contrasting the framing and labelling of male circumcision as an intervention aimed at the prevention of HIV with that of the female condom. Conclusions: The gender-stereotyped global AIDS policy discourse negates women's agency in sexuality and their sexual rights. This could be an important factor in limiting the scale-up of female condom programmes and hampering

  9. [Knowledge of condom among adolescents: a population-based study in the semiarid region of Northeast Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Juliana Mano; Cesar, Juraci A

    2013-11-01

    This study aimed to determine the prevalence of lack of knowledge on condoms and to identify associated factors among teenagers in two municipalities (counties) in Piauí State, Brazil, in mid-2008. Standardized home interviews were conducted by trained interviewers with all the teenagers (13-19 years of age). The study investigated demographic and socioeconomic characteristics and knowledge on contraception and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). The outcome variable was lack of knowledge on male condoms. The multivariate analysis used Poisson regression with robust variance. Of the 2,241 adolescents, 18.8% claimed ignorance of male condoms. Among individuals with at least 9 years of schooling, only 4% lacked knowledge on condoms. Meanwhile, among individuals who lacked knowledge on STDs, 74% lacked knowledge on condoms. In the adjusted analysis, female gender, younger age, low schooling, not having a girlfriend, and lack of knowledge on oral contraception and STDs increased the likelihood of lack of knowledge on condoms. The data showed the urgent need for awareness-raising interventions on condom use among adolescents in these municipalities.

  10. Attitude towards New Packaging to Reduce Condom-carrying Embarrassment among Thai Youth, A Cross-sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apinut Wongkietkachorn

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV incidence has been increasing in Thai youth, mostly from unsafe sex. Embarrassment with carrying condom was one of the main reasons. This study aims to evaluate attitude towards condom use, sexual behavior and the new condom packaging that merges with daily life products in Thai youth. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among volunteers aged 15-24. New packaging were demonstrated and the volunteers were provided with questionnaires to complete in privacy booth and submit anonymously. Results: Of 680 participants with mean age of 19.7±2.7 years and 59.9% females, half of them thought condom should be carried and used. However, the same group did not actually do. Two-thirds of participants were interested and would use the packaging, citing these reasons charming, convenience, and disguise of condom. Females preferred the packaging significantly more than males. Conclusion: Disguising condom packaging, as phone charm and key ring, might be another safe and practical way to encourage youth to carry condoms around.

  11. Association between perceived social norm and condom use among people living with HIV/AIDS in Guangzhou, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Qian; Wu, Yan; Hong, Yan Alicia; Yang, Cui; Cai, Weiping; Zhu, Yajing; Guo, Zihan; Guo, Yan

    2017-01-01

    The number of